Science.gov

Sample records for above-threshold ionization spectra

  1. Rings in above-threshold ionization: A quasiclassical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lewenstein, M.; Kulander, K.C.; Schafer, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    A generalized strong-field approximation is formulated to describe atoms interacting with intense laser fields. We apply it to determine angular distributions of electrons in above-threshold ionization (ATI). The theory treats the effects of an electron rescattering from its parent ion core in a systematic perturbation series. Probability amplitudes for ionization are interpreted in terms of quasiclassical electron trajectories. We demonstrate that contributions from the direct tunneling processes in the absence of rescattering are not sufficient to describe the observed ATI spectra. We show that the high-energy portion of the spectrum, including recently discovered rings (i.e., complex features in the angularmore » distributions of outgoing electrons) are due to rescattering processes. We compare our quasiclassical results with exact numerical solutions.« less

  2. Probing electron delays in above-threshold ionization

    DOE PAGES

    Zipp, Lucas J.; Natan, Adi; Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2014-11-21

    Recent experiments have revealed attosecond delays in the emission of electrons from atoms ionized by extreme UV light, offering a glimpse into the ultrafast nature of light-induced electron dynamics. In this work, we extend these measurements to the strong-field above-threshold ionization (ATI) regime, by measuring delays in the photoemission of electrons from argon in the presence of an intense laser field. We probe the ATI process with a weak coherent reference, at half the laser frequency. The interfering ionization signal reveals the relative spectral phase of adjacent ATI channels, with an equivalent resolution of a few attoseconds. These relative delaysmore » depend on the strong field, and approach zero at higher intensity. Our phase measurements of ATI electrons show how strong fields alter ionization dynamics in atoms.« less

  3. Suppression in high-order above-threshold ionization: destructive interference from quantum orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xuan Yang; Quan, Wei; Yu, Shao Gang; Huang, Yi Yi; Liu, Xiao Jun

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally study the above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of noble gas argon in an intense laser field and focus on a novel suppression structure in the high-order ATI (HATI) spectra. It is found that, when a well-documented resonancelike enhancement feature appears in the HATI spectra, a significant suppression structure is followed in a higher energy region of the spectra. The observation is well reproduced by a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. In terms of quantum-orbit theory, the observed suppression structure can be ascribed to the destructive interference from longer quantum orbits. Furthermore, an intrinsic relation between the ionization suppression and the ionization enhancement in the HATI spectra is well established.

  4. Above-Threshold Ionization by an Elliptically Polarized Field: Quantum Tunneling Interferences and Classical Dodging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, G. G.; Zacher, F.; Walther, H.; Lohr, A.; Becker, W.; Kleber, M.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of above-threshold ionization electron spectra in an elliptically polarized field as a function of the ellipticity are presented. In the rescattering regime, electron yields quickly drop with increasing ellipticity. The yields of lower-energy electrons rise again when circular polarization is approached. A classical explanation for these effects is provided. Additional local maxima in the yields of lower-energy electrons can be interpreted as being due to interferences of electron trajectories that tunnel out at different times within one cycle of the field.

  5. Interference substructure of above-threshold ionization peaks in the stabilization regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Koudai; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2008-09-01

    The photoelectron spectra produced in the photodetachment of H- (treated in the single-active-electron approximation) by strong high-frequency laser pulses with adequately chosen laser parameters in the stabilization regime are theoretically studied for elliptic polarization over an extended parameter range. An oscillating substructure in the above-threshold ionization peaks is observed, which confirms similar findings in the one-dimensional (1D) [K. Toyota , Phys. Rev. A 76, 043418 (2007)] and 3D calculations for linear polarization [O. I. Tolstikhin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 032712 (2008)]. The mechanism is an interference between the photoelectron wave packets created in the rising and falling parts of the pulse which is specific to the stabilization regime. We thus conclude that this interference substructure is robust for any polarization and over a wide range of the laser parameters, and hence should be observable experimentally.

  6. Polarization effects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hui-Peng; Xu, Song-Po; Wang, Yan-Lan; Yu, Shao-Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Yun; Hao, Xiao-Lei; Lai, Xuan-Yang; Pfeifer, Thomas; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhi-Zhan

    2018-05-01

    Using a semiclassical approach, we theoretically study the above-threshold ionization of magnesium by intense, mid-infrared laser pulses. The formation of low-energy structures in the photoelectron spectrum is found to be enhanced by comparing with a calculation based on the single-active electron approximation. By performing electron trajectory and recollision-time distribution analysis, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to the laser-induced ionic core polarization effects on the recolliding electrons. We also show that the polarization effects should be experimentally detectable. Our finding provides new insight into ultrafast control of strong-field photoionization and imaging of polar molecules.

  7. Molecular orbital imaging via above-threshold ionization with circularly polarized pulses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Qingbin; Hong, Weiyi; Lu, Peixiang; Xu, Zhizhan

    2011-07-18

    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) for aligned or orientated linear molecules by circularly polarized laser pulsed is investigated. It is found that the all-round structural information of the molecular orbital is extracted with only one shot by the circularly polarized probe pulse rather than with multi-shot detections in a linearly polarized case. The obtained photoelectron momentum spectrum directly depicts the symmetry and electron distribution of the occupied molecular orbital, which results from the strong sensitivity of the ionization probability to these structural features. Our investigation indicates that the circularly polarized probe scheme would present a simple method to study the angle-dependent ionization and image the occupied electronic orbital.

  8. Two-color above-threshold and two-photon sequential double ionization beyond the dipole approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.; Gryzlova, E. V.; Kuzmina, E. I.; Chetverkina, A. S.; Strakhova, S. I.

    2015-04-01

    Two nonlinear atomic photoprocesses are theoretically considered with the emphasis on the photoelectron angular distributions and their modifications due to violation of the dipole approximation: sequential two-photon double ionization and two-color above threshold ionization. These reactions are now accessible with X-ray free electron lasers. Both processes are exemplified by the ionization of krypton: from the 4p shell in the sequential two-photon double ionization and from the 2s shell in the two-color above-threshold ionization, which are compared to the Ar(3p) and Ne(1s) ionization, respectively. Noticeable nondipole effects are predicted.

  9. Scaling of the low-energy structure in above-threshold ionization in the tunneling regime: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Han, S S; Liu, X; Cheng, Y; Xu, Z Z; Fan, J; Chen, J; Chen, S G; Becker, W; Blaga, C I; DiChiara, A D; Sistrunk, E; Agostini, P; DiMauro, L F

    2013-01-04

    A calculation of the second-order (rescattering) term in the S-matrix expansion of above-threshold ionization is presented for the case when the binding potential is the unscreened Coulomb potential. Technical problems related to the divergence of the Coulomb scattering amplitude are avoided in the theory by considering the depletion of the atomic ground state due to the applied laser field, which is well defined and does not require the introduction of a screening constant. We focus on the low-energy structure, which was observed in recent experiments with a midinfrared wavelength laser field. Both the spectra and, in particular, the observed scaling versus the Keldysh parameter and the ponderomotive energy are reproduced. The theory provides evidence that the origin of the structure lies in the long-range Coulomb interaction.

  10. Phase- and intensity-resolved measurements of above threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kübel, M.; Arbeiter, M.; Burger, C.; Kling, Nora G.; Pischke, T.; Moshammer, R.; Fennel, T.; Kling, M. F.; Bergues, B.

    2018-07-01

    We investigate the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and intensity dependence of the longitudinal momentum distribution of photoelectrons resulting from above threshold ionization of argon by few-cycle laser pulses. The intensity of the pulses with a center wavelength of 750 nm is varied in a range between 0.7 × 1014 and 5.5× {10}14 {{W}} {cm}}-2. Our measurements reveal a prominent maximum in the CEP-dependent asymmetry at photoelectron energies of 2 U P (U P being the ponderomotive potential), that is persistent over the entire intensity range. Further local maxima are observed around 0.3 and 0.8 U P. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical results obtained by solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We show that for few-cycle pulses, the amplitude of the CEP-dependent asymmetry provides a reliable measure for the peak intensity on target. Moreover, the measured asymmetry amplitude exhibits an intensity-dependent interference structure at low photoelectron energy, which could be used to benchmark model potentials for complex atoms.

  11. Above-threshold ionization in multicenter molecules: The role of the initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Noslen; Chacón, Alexis; Pisanty, Emilio; Ortmann, Lisa; Landsman, Alexandra S.; Picón, Antonio; Biegert, Jens; Lewenstein, Maciej; Ciappina, Marcelo F.

    2018-03-01

    A possible route to extract electronic and nuclear dynamics from molecular targets with attosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolution is to employ recolliding electrons as "probes." The recollision process in molecules is, however, very challenging to treat using ab initio approaches. Even for the simplest diatomic systems, such as H2, today's computational capabilities are not enough to give a complete description of the electron and nuclear dynamics initiated by a strong laser field. As a consequence, approximate qualitative descriptions are called to play an important role. In this paper we extend the work presented in Suárez et al. [N. Suárez, A. Chacón, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Biegert, M. Lewenstein, and M. F. Ciappina, High-order-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular systems, Phys. Rev. A 95, 033415 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.033415] to three-center molecular targets. Additionally, we incorporate a more accurate description of the molecular ground state, employing information extracted from quantum chemistry software packages. This step forward allows us to include, in a detailed way, both the molecular symmetries and nodes present in the high-occupied molecular orbital. We are able, on the one hand, to keep our formulation as analytical as in the case of diatomics and, on the other hand, to still give a complete description of the underlying physics behind the above-threshold ionization process. The application of our approach to complex multicenter—with more than three centers—targets appears to be straightforward.

  12. Application of the dressed-bound-state molecular strong-field approximation to above-threshold ionization of heteronuclear molecules: NO vs. CO.

    PubMed

    Busuladžić, M; Hasović, E; Becker, W; Milošević, D B

    2012-10-07

    We theoretically investigate high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) of heteronuclear diatomic molecules applying the molecular strong-field approximation which includes dressing of the molecular bound state. We consider HATI of nitrogen monoxide molecules, which are characterized by the π symmetry of their highest occupied molecular orbital. We show that the HATI spectra of NO exhibit characteristic interference structures. We analyze the differences and similarities of the HATI spectra of NO molecules and the spectra of CO (σ symmetry) and O(2) (π(g) symmetry) molecules. The symmetry properties of the molecular HATI spectra governed by linearly and elliptically polarized fields are considered in detail. The yields of high-energy electrons, contributing to the plateau region of the photoelectron spectra, strongly depend on the employed ellipticity.

  13. High-order above-threshold ionization beyond the electric dipole approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecke, Simon; Lein, Manfred

    2018-05-01

    Photoelectron momentum distributions from strong-field ionization are calculated by numerical solution of the one-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a model atom including effects beyond the electric dipole approximation. We focus on the high-energy electrons from rescattering and analyze their momentum component along the field propagation direction. We show that the boundary of the calculated momentum distribution is deformed in accordance with the classical three-step model including the beyond-dipole Lorentz force. In addition, the momentum distribution exhibits an asymmetry in the signal strengths of electrons emitted in the forward/backward directions. Taken together, the two non-dipole effects give rise to a considerable average forward momentum component of the order of 0.1 a.u. for realistic laser parameters.

  14. Correlated electron-nuclear dynamics in above-threshold multiphoton ionization of asymmetric molecule.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Li, Min; Zhou, Yueming; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-02-20

    The partition of the photon energy into the subsystems of molecules determines many photon-induced chemical and physical dynamics in laser-molecule interactions. The electron-nuclear energy sharing from multiphoton ionization of molecules has been used to uncover the correlated dynamics of the electron and fragments. However, most previous studies focus on symmetric molecules. Here we study the electron-nuclear energy sharing in strong-field photoionization of HeH 2+ by solving the one-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). Compared with symmetric molecules, the joint electron-nuclear energy spectrum (JES) of HeH 2+ reveals an anomalous energy shift at certain nuclear energies, while it disappears at higher and lower nuclear energies. Through tracing the time evolution of the wavepacket of bound states, we identify that this energy shift originates from the joint effect of the Stark shift, associated with the permanent dipole, and the Autler-Townes effect due to the coupling of the 2pσ and 2sσ states in strong fields. The energy shift in the JES appears at certain nuclear distances only when both Stark effect and Autler-Townes effect play important roles. We further demonstrate that the electron-nuclei energy sharing can be controlled by varying laser intensity for asymmetric molecules, providing alternative approaches to manipulate photochemical reactions for more complex molecules.

  15. Above-threshold ionization of noble gases in elliptically polarized fields: Effects of atomic polarization on photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, YanLan; Yu, ShaoGang; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2017-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the atomic polarization effect on photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in above-threshold ionization of noble gases with elliptically polarized laser fields at wavelength of 800 nm, ellipticity of 0.25, and intensity of 1.5 ×1014W/cm2 . Simulations based on a semiclassical model that includes both the ionic Coulomb potential and the atomic polarization effect show surprisingly little difference between PADs for Ar, Kr, and Xe, which is in good agreement with recent experimental observations. Our calculations reveal that the atomic polarization effect increases the distance of the tunnel exit point of the photoelectron to the parent ion and weakens the strength of the interaction between the parent ion and the photoelectron on its subsequent classical propagation. As a result, the forward-scattering electrons which contribute to the main lobes in PADs are substantially suppressed. Our results indicate that the insensitivity of PADs for Ar, Kr, and Xe may be closely related to the influence of the atomic polarization effect on the photoelectron dynamics in the strong laser field.

  16. Angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of a molecule: sensitive tool for molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Busuladzić, M; Gazibegović-Busuladzić, A; Milosević, D B; Becker, W

    2008-05-23

    The strong-field approximation for ionization of diatomic molecules by an intense laser field is generalized to include rescattering of the ionized electron off the various centers of its molecular parent ion. The resulting spectrum and its interference structure strongly depend on the symmetry of the ground state molecular orbital. For N2, if the laser polarization is perpendicular to the molecular axis, we observe a distinct minimum in the emission spectrum, which survives focal averaging and allows determination of, e.g., the internuclear separation. In contrast, for O2, rescattering is absent in the same situation.

  17. High-order above-threshold dissociation of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peifen; Wang, Junping; Li, Hui; Lin, Kang; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hanxiao; Zeng, Heping; He, Feng; Wu, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Electrons bound to atoms or molecules can simultaneously absorb multiple photons via the above-threshold ionization featured with discrete peaks in the photoelectron spectrum on account of the quantized nature of the light energy. Analogously, the above-threshold dissociation of molecules has been proposed to address the multiple-photon energy deposition in the nuclei of molecules. In this case, nuclear energy spectra consisting of photon-energy spaced peaks exceeding the binding energy of the molecular bond are predicted. Although the observation of such phenomena is difficult, this scenario is nevertheless logical and is based on the fundamental laws. Here, we report conclusive experimental observation of high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2 in strong laser fields where the tunneling-ionized electron transfers the absorbed multiphoton energy, which is above the ionization threshold to the nuclei via the field-driven inelastic rescattering. Our results provide an unambiguous evidence that the electron and nuclei of a molecule as a whole absorb multiple photons, and thus above-threshold ionization and above-threshold dissociation must appear simultaneously, which is the cornerstone of the nowadays strong-field molecular physics.

  18. High-order above-threshold dissociation of molecules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peifen; Wang, Junping; Li, Hui; Lin, Kang; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hanxiao; Zeng, Heping; He, Feng; Wu, Jian

    2018-02-27

    Electrons bound to atoms or molecules can simultaneously absorb multiple photons via the above-threshold ionization featured with discrete peaks in the photoelectron spectrum on account of the quantized nature of the light energy. Analogously, the above-threshold dissociation of molecules has been proposed to address the multiple-photon energy deposition in the nuclei of molecules. In this case, nuclear energy spectra consisting of photon-energy spaced peaks exceeding the binding energy of the molecular bond are predicted. Although the observation of such phenomena is difficult, this scenario is nevertheless logical and is based on the fundamental laws. Here, we report conclusive experimental observation of high-order above-threshold dissociation of H 2 in strong laser fields where the tunneling-ionized electron transfers the absorbed multiphoton energy, which is above the ionization threshold to the nuclei via the field-driven inelastic rescattering. Our results provide an unambiguous evidence that the electron and nuclei of a molecule as a whole absorb multiple photons, and thus above-threshold ionization and above-threshold dissociation must appear simultaneously, which is the cornerstone of the nowadays strong-field molecular physics. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Long-range Coulomb effect in above-threshold ionization of Ne subject to few-cycle and multicycle laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, SongPo; Quan, Wei; Chen, YongJu; Xiao, ZhiLei; Wang, YanLan; Kang, HuiPeng; Hua, LinQiang; Gong, Cheng; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Hao, XiaoLei; Hu, ShiLin; Chen, Jing

    2017-06-01

    The long-range Coulomb effect (LRCE) is demonstrated experimentally and theoretically by investigating the pulse duration dependence of low-energy structure (LES) in above-threshold ionization of Ne. It is found experimentally that at 800 nm the LES shows itself as a double-hump structure (DHS) in momentum distribution of singly charged ion for Ne, and moreover, this structure is more prominent for multicycle laser fields than for few-cycle cases. This result can be reproduced and explained qualitatively with a semiclassical model and attributed to the paramount role of LRCE. That is to say, after the laser field vanishes, the electrons decelerate while flying away from the core by the long-range tail of Coulomb potential, which eventually makes DHS less notable.

  20. Bond-rearrangement and ionization mechanisms in the photo-double-ionization of simple hydrocarbons (C 2H 4, C 2H 3F, and 1,1-C 2H 2F 2) near and above threshold

    DOE PAGES

    Gaire, B.; Gatton, A. S.; Wiegandt, F.; ...

    2016-09-14

    We have investigated bond-rearrangement driven by photo-double-ionization (PDI) near and above the double ionization threshold in a sequence of carbon-carbon double bonded hydrocarbon molecules: ethylene, fluoroethylene, and 1,1-difluoroethylene. We employ the kinematically complete cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) method to resolve all photo-double-ionization events leading to two-ionic fragments. We observe changes in the branching ratios of different dissociative ionization channels depending on the presence of none, one, or two fluorine atoms. The role of the fluorine atom in the bond-rearrangement channels is intriguing as evident by the re-ordering of the threshold energies of the PDI in the fluorinatedmore » molecules. These effects offer a compelling argument that the electronegativity of the fluorine (or the polarity of the molecule) strongly influences the potential energy surfaces of the molcules and drives bond-rearrangement during the dissociation process. The energy sharing and the relative angle between the 3D-momentum vectors of the two electrons provide clear evidence of direct and indirect PDI processes.« less

  1. Electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of negative ions.

    PubMed

    Gazibegović-Busuladzić, A; Milosević, D B; Becker, W; Bergues, B; Hultgren, H; Kiyan, I Yu

    2010-03-12

    We present experimental and theoretical results on photodetachment of Br(-) and F(-) in a strong infrared laser field. The observed photoelectron spectra of Br(-) exhibit a high-energy plateau along the laser polarization direction, which is identified as being due to the rescattering effect. The shape and the extension of the plateau is found to be influenced by the depletion of negative ions during the interaction with the laser pulse. Our findings represent the first observation of electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of an atomic system with a short-range potential.

  2. High-order above-threshold photoemission from nanotips controlled with two-color laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffert, Lennart; Paschen, Timo; Hommelhoff, Peter; Fennel, Thomas

    2018-07-01

    We investigate the process of phase-controlled high-order above-threshold photoemission from metallic nanotips under bichromatic laser fields. Experimental photoelectron spectra resulting from two-color excitation with a moderately intense near-infrared fundamental field (1560 nm) and its weak second harmonic show a strong sensitivity on the relative phase and clear indications for a plateau-like structure that is attributed to elastic backscattering. To explore the relevant control mechanisms, characteristic features, and particular signatures from the near-field inhomogeneity, we performed systematic quantum simulations employing a one-dimensional nanotip model. Besides rich phase-dependent structures in the simulated above-threshold ionization photoelectron spectra we find ponderomotive shifts as well as substantial modifications of the rescattering cutoff as function of the decay length of the near-field. To explore the quantum or classical nature of the observed features and to discriminate the two-color effects stemming from electron propagation and from the ionization rate we compare the quantum results to classical trajectory simulations. We show that signatures from direct electrons as well as the modulations in the plateau region mainly stem from control of the ionization probability, while the modulation in the cutoff region can only be explained by the impact of the two-color field on the electron trajectory. Despite the complexity of the phase-dependent features that render two-color strong-field photoemission from nanotips intriguing for sub-cycle strong-field control, our findings support that the recollision features in the cutoff region provide a robust and reliable method to calibrate the relative two-color phase.

  3. HF Accelerated Electron Fluxes, Spectra, and Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert C.; Jensen, Joseph B.

    2015-10-01

    Wave particle interactions, an essential aspect of laboratory, terrestrial, and astrophysical plasmas, have been studied for decades by transmitting high power HF radio waves into Earth's weakly ionized space plasma, to use it as a laboratory without walls. Application to HF electron acceleration remains an active area of research (Gurevich in Usp Fizicheskikh Nauk 177(11):1145-1177, 2007) today. HF electron acceleration studies began when plasma line observations proved (Carlson et al. in J Atmos Terr Phys 44:1089-1100, 1982) that high power HF radio wave-excited processes accelerated electrons not to ~eV, but instead to -100 times thermal energy (10 s of eV), as a consequence of inelastic collision effects on electron transport. Gurevich et al (J Atmos Terr Phys 47:1057-1070, 1985) quantified the theory of this transport effect. Merging experiment with theory in plasma physics and aeronomy, enabled prediction (Carlson in Adv Space Res 13:1015-1024, 1993) of creating artificial ionospheres once ~GW HF effective radiated power could be achieved. Eventual confirmation of this prediction (Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 36:L18107, 2009; Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 37:L02106, 2010; Blagoveshchenskaya et al. in Ann Geophys 27:131-145, 2009) sparked renewed interest in optical inversion to estimate electron spectra in terrestrial (Hysell et al. in J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:2038-2045, 2014) and planetary (Simon et al. in Ann Geophys 29:187-195, 2011) atmospheres. Here we present our unpublished optical data, which combined with our modeling, lead to conclusions that should meaningfully improve future estimates of the spectrum of HF accelerated electron fluxes. Photometric imaging data can significantly improve detection of emissions near ionization threshold, and confirm depth of penetration of accelerated electrons many km below the excitation altitude. Comparing observed to modeled emission altitude shows future experiments need electron density profiles

  4. Two-Color Coherent Control of Femtosecond Above-Threshold Photoemission from a Tungsten Nanotip.

    PubMed

    Förster, Michael; Paschen, Timo; Krüger, Michael; Lemell, Christoph; Wachter, Georg; Libisch, Florian; Madlener, Thomas; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2016-11-18

    We demonstrate coherent control of multiphoton and above-threshold photoemission from a single solid-state nanoemitter driven by a fundamental and a weak second harmonic laser pulse. Depending on the relative phase of the two pulses, electron emission is modulated with a contrast of the oscillating current signal of up to 94%. Electron spectra reveal that all observed photon orders are affected simultaneously and similarly. We confirm that photoemission takes place within 10 fs. Accompanying simulations indicate that the current modulation with its large contrast results from two interfering quantum pathways leading to electron emission.

  5. Degradation spectra and ionization yields of electrons in gases

    SciTech Connect

    Inokuti, M.; Douthat, D.A.; Rau, A.R.P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the microscopic theory of electron degradation in gases by Platzman, Fano, and co-workers is outlined. The theory consists of (1) the cataloging of all major inelastic-collision cross sections for electrons (including secondary-electron energy distribution in a single ionizing collision) and (2) the evaluation of cumulative consequences of individual electron collisions for the electrons themselves as well as for target molecules. For assessing the data consistency and reliability and extrapolating the data to the unexplored ranges of variables (such as electron energy), a series of plots devised by Platzman are very powerful. Electron degradation spectra were obtained through numericalmore » solution of the Spencer--Fano equation for all electron energies down to the first ionization thresholds for a few examples such as He and Ne. The systematics of the solutions resulted in the recognition of approximate scaling properties of the degradation spectra for different initial electron energies and pointed to new methods of more efficient treatment. Systematics of the ionization yields and their energy dependence on the initial electron energy were also recognized. Finally, the Spencer--Fano equation for the degradation spectra and the Fowler equation for the ionization and other yields are tightly linked with each other by a set of variational principles. (52 references, 7 figures) (DLC)« less

  6. How to Compute Electron Ionization Mass Spectra from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christoph Alexander; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-06-02

    The prediction of electron ionization (EI) mass spectra (MS) from first principles has been a major challenge for quantum chemistry (QC). The unimolecular reaction space grows rapidly with increasing molecular size. On the one hand, statistical models like Eyring's quasi-equilibrium theory and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory have provided valuable insight, and some predictions and quantitative results can be obtained from such calculations. On the other hand, molecular dynamics-based methods are able to explore automatically the energetically available regions of phase space and thus yield reaction paths in an unbiased way. We describe in this feature article the status of both methodologies in relation to mass spectrometry for small to medium sized molecules. We further present results obtained with the QCEIMS program developed in our laboratory. Our method, which incorporates stochastic and dynamic elements, has been a significant step toward the reliable routine calculation of EI mass spectra.

  7. Above-threshold scattering about a Feshbach resonance for ultracold atoms in an optical collider.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Milena S J; Thomas, Ryan; Tiesinga, Eite; Deb, Amita B; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2017-09-06

    Ultracold atomic gases have realized numerous paradigms of condensed matter physics, where control over interactions has crucially been afforded by tunable Feshbach resonances. So far, the characterization of these Feshbach resonances has almost exclusively relied on experiments in the threshold regime near zero energy. Here, we use a laser-based collider to probe a narrow magnetic Feshbach resonance of rubidium above threshold. By measuring the overall atomic loss from colliding clouds as a function of magnetic field, we track the energy-dependent resonance position. At higher energy, our collider scheme broadens the loss feature, making the identification of the narrow resonance challenging. However, we observe that the collisions give rise to shifts in the center-of-mass positions of outgoing clouds. The shifts cross zero at the resonance and this allows us to accurately determine its location well above threshold. Our inferred resonance positions are in excellent agreement with theory.Studies on energy-dependent scattering of ultracold atoms were previously carried out near zero collision energies. Here, the authors observe a magnetic Feshbach resonance in ultracold Rb collisions for above-threshold energies and their method can also be used to detect higher partial wave resonances.

  8. The laser desorption/laser ionization mass spectra of some anti-inflammatory drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milnes, John; Rogers, Kevin; Jones, Sian; Gormally, John

    1994-03-01

    The IR laser desorption/ultraviolet laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectra are reported for the anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin, acemetacin, ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, diflunisal and mefenamic acid. It is found that the six compounds can be readily ionized by two photon absorption at a fixed wavelength of 266 nm. Mass spectra have been obtained under conditions of high ionizing irradiance and the observed fragmentation behaviour is discussed.

  9. Reproducing impact ionization mass spectra of E and F ring ice grains at different impact speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klenner, F.; Reviol, R.; Postberg, F.

    2017-09-01

    As impact speeds of E and F ring ice grains impinging onto the target of impact ionization mass spectrometers in space can vary greatly, the resulting cationic or anionic mass spectra can have very different appearances. The mass spectra can be accurately reproduced with an analog experimental setup IR-FL-MALDI-ToF-MS (Infrared Free Liquid Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry). We compare mass spectra of E and F ring ice grains taken by the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard Cassini recorded at different impact speeds with our analog spectra and prove the capability of the analog experiment.

  10. New Measurements of Doubly Ionized Iron Group Spectra by High Resolution Fourier Transform and Grating Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smillie, D. G.; Pickering, J. C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R. J.; Smith, Peter L.; Nave, G.

    2006-01-01

    We report new measurements of doubly ionized iron group element spectra, important in the analysis of B-type (hot) stars whose spectra they dominate. These measurements include Co III and Cr III taken with the Imperial College VUV Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer and measurements of Co III taken with the normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at NIST, below 135 nm. We report new Fe III grating spectra measurements to complement our FT spectra. Work towards transition wavelengths, energy levels and branching ratios (which, combined with lifetimes, produce oscillator strengths) for these ions is underway.

  11. Theoretical infrared spectra of some model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Effect of ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Frees, D. J.; Miller, M. D.; Talbi, D.; Pauzat, F.; Ellinger, Y.

    1993-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of ionized PAHs as possible carriers of the UIR bands, we realized a computational exploration on selected PAHs of small dimension in order to identify which changes ionization would induce on their IR spectra. In this study we performed ab initio calculations of the spectra of neutral and positively ionized naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene. The results are significantly important. The frequencies in the cations are slightly shifted with respect to the neutral species, but no general conclusion can be reached from the three molecules considered. By contrast, the relative intensities of most vibrations are strongly affected by ionization, leading to a much better agreement between the calculated CH/CC vibration intensity ratios and those deduced from observations.

  12. Anomalous ionization seen in the spectra of B supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinelli, J. P.; Abbott, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    An IUE survey of B supergiants has been conducted to study the persistence with spectral type of the ultraviolet resonance lines of N V, C IV and Si IV. N V is seen as late as B2.5Ia, C IV until B6Ia and Si IV throughout the range from B1.5 to B9. This is in fairly good agreement with the Auger ionization model of Cassinelli and Olson (1979). The terminal velocities are derived for the 20 stars in the sample and it is found that the ratio v(T)/v(esc) decreases monotonically with spectral type from the value of 3.0 that it has in the O spectral range to the value 1.0 at B9Ia.

  13. Ionization balance for iron XXV, XXIV and XXIII derived from solar flare X-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, E.; Dodero, M. A.; Gabriel, A. H.; Tanaka, K.; Dubau, J.

    1987-06-01

    An analysis has been carried out using over 300 spectra of solar flares from both the XRP instrument on SMM and the SOX instrument on Hinotori. The helium-like iron and associated dielectronic satellite spectra were used in order to derive a revised ionization balance for Fe XXIV/Fe XXV. This is found to lie between the theoretical curves based upon ECIP ionization rates, and those using Lotz formalism, with a tendency to be closer to the former. An extension of the analysis to include Fe XXIII is subject to a somewhat larger uncertainty in the interpretation. However it indicates a similar effect for this ion. Using all three ions, a revised ionization balance for iron is presented.

  14. Quantum dynamics of Kerr optical frequency combs below and above threshold: Spontaneous four-wave mixing, entanglement, and squeezed states of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chembo, Yanne K.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamical behavior of Kerr optical frequency combs is very well understood today from the perspective of the semiclassical approximation. These combs are obtained by pumping an ultrahigh-Q whispering-gallery mode resonator with a continuous-wave laser. The long-lifetime photons are trapped within the toruslike eigenmodes of the resonator, where they interact nonlinearly via the Kerr effect. In this article, we use quantum Langevin equations to provide a theoretical understanding of the nonclassical behavior of these combs when pumped below and above threshold. In the configuration where the system is under threshold, the pump field is the unique oscillating mode inside the resonator, and it triggers the phenomenon of spontaneous four-wave mixing, where two photons from the pump are symmetrically up- and down-converted in the Fourier domain. This phenomenon, also referred to as parametric fluorescence, can only be understood and analyzed from a fully quantum perspective as a consequence of the coupling between the field of the central (pumped) mode and the vacuum fluctuations of the various side modes. We analytically calculate the power spectra of the spontaneous emission noise, and we show that these spectra can be either single- or double-peaked depending on the value of the laser frequency, chromatic dispersion, pump power, and spectral distance between the central mode and the side mode of interest. We also calculate as well the overall spontaneous noise power per side mode and propose simplified analytical expressions for some particular cases. In the configuration where the system is pumped above threshold, we investigate the phenomena of quantum correlations and multimode squeezed states of light that can occur in the Kerr frequency combs originating from stimulated four-wave mixing. We show that for all stationary spatiotemporal patterns, the side modes that are symmetrical relative to the pumped mode in the frequency domain display quantum correlations

  15. Impact of Coulomb potential on peak structures arising in momentum and low-energy photoelectron spectra produced in strong-field ionization of laser-irradiated atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyak, P. E.; Usachenko, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The phenomenon of pronounced peak structure(s) of longitudinal momentum distributions as well as a spike-like structure of low-energy spectra of photoelectrons emitted from laser-irradiated Ar and Ne atoms in a single ionization process is theoretically studied in the tunneling and multiphoton regimes of ionization. The problem is addressed assuming only the direct above-threshold ionization (ATI) as a physical mechanism underlying the phenomenon under consideration (viz. solely contributing to observed photoelectron momentum distributions (PMD)) and using the Coulomb-Volkov (CV) ansatz within the frame of conventional strong-field approximation (SFA) applied in the length-gauge formulation. The developed CV-SFA approach also incorporates the density functional theory essentially exploited for numerical composition of initial (laser-free) atomic state(s) constructed from atomic orbitals of Gaussian type. Our presented CV-SFA based (and laser focal-volume averaged) calculation results proved to be well reproducing both the pronounced double-peak and/or ATI-like multi-peak structure(s) experimentally observed in longitudinal PMD under conditions of tunneling and/or multiphoton regime, respectively. In addition, our CV-SFA results presented for tunneling regime also suggest and remarkably reproduce a pronounced structure observed in relevant experiments as a ‘spike-like’ enhanced maximum arising in low-energy region (around the value of about 1 eV) of photoelectron spectra. The latter consistency allows to identify and interpret these results as the so-called low-energy structure (LES) since the phenomenon proved to appear as the most prominent if the influence of Coulomb potential on photoelectron continuum states is maximally taken into account under calculations (viz. if the parameter Z in CV’s functions is put equal to 1). Moreover, the calculated LES proved to correspond (viz., established as closely related) to the mentioned double-peak structure arising

  16. Ionization potential depression and optical spectra in a Debye plasma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chengliang; Röpke, Gerd; Reinholz, Heidi; Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich

    2017-11-01

    We show how optical spectra in dense plasmas are determined by the shift of energy levels as well as the broadening owing to collisions with the plasma particles. In lowest approximation, the interaction with the plasma particles is described by the RPA dielectric function, leading to the Debye shift of the continuum edge. The bound states remain nearly un-shifted, their broadening is calculated in Born approximation. The role of ionization potential depression as well as the Inglis-Teller effect are shown. The model calculations have to be improved going beyond the lowest (RPA) approximation when applying to WDM spectra.

  17. Electronic and ionization spectra of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene, FOX-7.

    PubMed

    Borges, Itamar

    2014-03-01

    Singlet, triplet and ionized states of the energetic molecule 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene, known as FOX-7 or DADNE, were investigated using the symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration interaction (SAC-CI) ab initio wave function. The 20 computed singlet transitions, with 2 exceptions, were bright. The most intense singlet transitions were of the n₀→π type-typical of molecules having nitro groups. Fast intersystem crossing (ISC) from the 1¹A, 2¹A and 8¹A bright singlet transitions is possible. Other feasible ISC processes are discussed. The computed singlet and ionization spectra have similar features when compared to nitramide and N,N-dimethylnitramine molecules, which have only a nitro group. The ionization energies of the first 20 states have differences in comparison with Koopmans' energy values that can reach 3 eV. Moreover, the character of the first ionized states, dominated by single ionizations, is not the same when compared with the character resulting from application of Koopmans' theorem.

  18. Computational Prediction of Electron Ionization Mass Spectra to Assist in GC/MS Compound Identification.

    PubMed

    Allen, Felicity; Pon, Allison; Greiner, Russ; Wishart, David

    2016-08-02

    We describe a tool, competitive fragmentation modeling for electron ionization (CFM-EI) that, given a chemical structure (e.g., in SMILES or InChI format), computationally predicts an electron ionization mass spectrum (EI-MS) (i.e., the type of mass spectrum commonly generated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry). The predicted spectra produced by this tool can be used for putative compound identification, complementing measured spectra in reference databases by expanding the range of compounds able to be considered when availability of measured spectra is limited. The tool extends CFM-ESI, a recently developed method for computational prediction of electrospray tandem mass spectra (ESI-MS/MS), but unlike CFM-ESI, CFM-EI can handle odd-electron ions and isotopes and incorporates an artificial neural network. Tests on EI-MS data from the NIST database demonstrate that CFM-EI is able to model fragmentation likelihoods in low-resolution EI-MS data, producing predicted spectra whose dot product scores are significantly better than full enumeration "bar-code" spectra. CFM-EI also outperformed previously reported results for MetFrag, MOLGEN-MS, and Mass Frontier on one compound identification task. It also outperformed MetFrag in a range of other compound identification tasks involving a much larger data set, containing both derivatized and nonderivatized compounds. While replicate EI-MS measurements of chemical standards are still a more accurate point of comparison, CFM-EI's predictions provide a much-needed alternative when no reference standard is available for measurement. CFM-EI is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/cfm-id/ for download and http://cfmid.wishartlab.com as a web service.

  19. Above threshold spectral dependence of linewidth enhancement factor, optical duration and linear chirp of quantum dot lasers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimyung; Delfyett, Peter J

    2009-12-07

    The spectral dependence of the linewidth enhancement factor above threshold is experimentally observed from a quantum dot Fabry-Pérot semiconductor laser. The linewidth enhancement factor is found to be reduced when the quantum dot laser operates approximately 10 nm offset to either side of the gain peak. It becomes significantly reduced on the anti-Stokes side as compared to the Stokes side. It is also found that the temporal duration of the optical pulses generated from quantum dot mode-locked lasers is shorter when the laser operates away from the gain peak. In addition, less linear chirp is impressed on the pulse train generated from the anti-Stokes side whereas the pulses generated from the gain peak and Stokes side possess a large linear chirp. These experimental results imply that enhanced performance characteristics of quantum dot lasers can be achieved by operating on the anti-Stokes side, approximately 10 nm away from the gain peak.

  20. Exploiting Sub-threshold and above-threshold characteristics in a silver-enhanced gold nanoparticle based biochip.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Alocilja, Evangelyn; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2009-01-01

    Silver-enhanced labeling is a technique used in immunochromatographic assays for improving the sensitivity of pathogen detection. In this paper, we employ the silver enhancement approach for constructing a biomolecular transistor that uses a high-density interdigitated electrode to detect rabbit IgG. We show that the response of the biomolecular transistor comprises of: (a) a sub-threshold region where the conductance change is an exponential function of the enhancement time and; (b) an above-threshold region where the conductance change is a linear function with respect to the enhancement time. By exploiting both these regions of operation, it is shown that the silver enhancing time is a reliable indicator of the IgG concentration. The method provides a relatively straightforward alternative to biomolecular signal amplification techniques. The measured results using a biochip prototype fabricated in silicon show that 240 pg/mL rabbit IgG can be detected at the silver enhancing time of 42 min. Also, the biomolecular transistor is compatible with silicon based processing making it ideal for designing integrated CMOS biosensors.

  1. Non-equilibrium ionization by a periodic electron beam. I. Synthetic coronal spectra and implications for interpretation of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifčáková, E.; Dudík, J.; Mackovjak, Š.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Coronal heating is currently thought to proceed via the mechanism of nanoflares, small-scale and possibly recurring heating events that release magnetic energy. Aims: We investigate the effects of a periodic high-energy electron beam on the synthetic spectra of coronal Fe ions. Methods: Initially, the coronal plasma is assumed to be Maxwellian with a temperature of 1 MK. The high-energy beam, described by a κ-distribution, is then switched on every period P for the duration of P/ 2. The periods are on the order of several tens of seconds, similar to exposure times or cadences of space-borne spectrometers. Ionization, recombination, and excitation rates for the respective distributions are used to calculate the resulting non-equilibrium ionization state of Fe and the instantaneous and period-averaged synthetic spectra. Results: Under the presence of the periodic electron beam, the plasma is out of ionization equilibrium at all times. The resulting spectra averaged over one period are almost always multithermal if interpreted in terms of ionization equilibrium for either a Maxwellian or a κ-distribution. Exceptions occur, however; the EM-loci curves appear to have a nearly isothermal crossing-point for some values of κs. The instantaneous spectra show fast changes in intensities of some lines, especially those formed outside of the peak of the respective EM(T) distributions if the ionization equilibrium is assumed. Movies 1-5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Few-Times Ionized Tungsten for Divertor Plasma Diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Clementson, Joel; Lennartsson, Thomas; Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2015-09-09

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from few-times ionized tungsten atoms has been experimentally studied at the Livermore electron beam ion trap facility. The ions were produced and confined during low-energy operations of the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap. By varying the electron-beam energy from around 30–300 eV, tungsten ions in charge states expected to be abundant in tokamak divertor plasmas were excited, and the resulting EUV emission was studied using a survey spectrometer covering 120–320 Å. It is found that the emission strongly depends on the excitation energy; below 150 eV, it is relatively simple, consisting of strong isolated linesmore » from a few charge states, whereas at higher energies, it becomes very complex. For divertor plasmas with tungsten impurity ions, this emission should prove useful for diagnostics of tungsten flux rates and charge balance, as well as for radiative cooling of the divertor volume. Several lines in the 194–223 Å interval belonging to the spectra of five- and seven-times ionized tungsten (Tm-like W VI and Ho-like W VIII) were also measured using a high-resolution spectrometer.« less

  3. Matrix effect in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectra of derivatized oligomeric polyols.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Roman S; Polovkov, Nikolai Yu; Zhilyaev, Dmitry I; Zaikin, Vladimir G

    2013-01-30

    Herein we describe a strong matrix effect observed in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectra of silylated glycerol alkoxylates and manifested in the loss of the silyl groups in the presence of carboxyl-containing matrices. Commercially available glycerol alkoxylates containing three end OH groups as well as three matrices - 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 3-indoleacrylic acid (IAA) and 1,8,9-anthracenetriol (dithranol) - were chosen for the investigation. N,O-Bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane, acetic anhydride and a formylation mixture (formic acid/acetyl chloride) were used for derivatization. Initial oligomers and derivatized products were analyzed by MALDI-ToF-mass spectrometry (MS) on an Autoflex II instrument, equipped with a nitrogen laser (λ 337 nm), in positive ion reflectron mode. Only [M + Na](+) ions were observed for underivatized polymers and for completely derivatized polymers in the presence of DHB and dithranol, respectively. In the case of IAA the mass spectra revealed sets of peaks for underivatized, and for partially and completely derivatized oligomers. No similar 'matrix effect' was observed in the case of acylated glycerol alkoxylates (acyl = formyl, acetyl): only peaks for completely derivatized oligomers were obtained in all matrices: DHB, IAA and dithranol. Using 1,9-nonandiol, we showed that the 'matrix effect' was due to trans-silylation of carboxyl-containing matrices (DHB and IAA) during co-crystallization of silylated oligomers and matrices. The obtained results show that matrix molecules can participate as reactive species in MALDI-ToF-MS experiments. The matrix should be carefully chosen when a derivatization approach is applied because the analysis of spectra of the completely derivatized products is particularly desirable in the quantitative determination of functional end-groups. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Distributions of extreme bursts above thresholds in a fractional Lévy toy model of natural complexity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Nicholas; Chapman, Sandra; Rosenberg, Sam; Credgington, Dan; Sanchez, Raul

    2010-05-01

    In 2 far-sighted contributions in the 1960s Mandelbrot showed the ubiquity of both non-Gaussian fluctuations and long-ranged temporal memory (the "Noah" and "Joseph" effects, respectively) in the natural and man-made worlds. Much subsequent work in complexity science has contributed to the physical underpinning of these effects, particularly in cases where complex interactions in a system cause a driven or random perturbation to be nonlinearly amplified in amplitude and/or spread out over a wide range of frequencies. In addition the modelling of catastrophes has begun to incorporate the insights which these approaches have offered into the likelihood of extreme and long-lived fluctuations. I will briefly survey how the application of the above ideas in the earth system has been a key focus and motivation of research into natural complexity at BAS [e.g. Watkins & Freeman, Science, 2008; Edwards et al, Nature, 2007]. I will then discuss in detail a standard toy model (linear fractional stable motion, LFSM) which combines the Noah and Joseph effects in a controllable way and explain how it differs from the widely used continuous time random walk. I will describe how LFSM is being used to explore the interplay of the above two effects in the distribution of bursts above thresholds. I will describe ongoing work to improve the accuracy of maximum likelihood-based estimation of burst size and waiting time distributions for LFSM first reported in [Watkins et al, PRE, 2009]; and will also touch on similar work for multifractal models [Watkins et al, PRL comment, 2009].

  5. Non-equilibrium ionization by a periodic electron beam. II. Synthetic Si IV and O IV transition region spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifčáková, Elena; Dudík, Jaroslav

    2018-03-01

    Context. Transition region (TR) spectra typically show the Si IV 1402.8 Å line to be enhanced by a factor of 5 or more compared to the neighboring O IV 1401.2 Å, contrary to predictions of ionization equilibrium models and the Maxwellian distribution of particle energies. Non-equilibrium effects in TR spectra are therefore expected. Aims: To investigate the combination of non-equilibrium ionization and high-energy particles, we apply the model of the periodic electron beam, represented by a κ-distribution that recurs at periods of several seconds, to plasma at chromospheric temperatures of 104 K. This simple model can approximate a burst of energy release involving accelerated particles. Methods: Instantaneous time-dependent charge states of silicon and oxygen were calculated and used to synthesize the instantaneous and period-averaged spectra of Si IV and O IV. Results: The electron beam drives the plasma out of equilibrium. At electron densities of Ne = 1010 cm-3, the plasma is out of ionization equilibrium at all times in all cases we considered, while for a higher density of Ne = 1011 cm-3, ionization equilibrium can be reached toward the end of each period, depending on the conditions. In turn, the character of the period-averaged synthetic spectra also depends on the properties of the beam. While the case of κ = 2 results in spectra with strong or even dominant O IV, higher values of κ can approximate a range of observed TR spectra. Spectra similar to typically observed spectra, with the Si IV 1402.8 Å line about a factor 5 higher than O IV 1401.2 Å, are obtained for κ = 3. An even higher value of κ = 5 results in spectra that are exclusively dominated by Si IV, with negligible O IV emission. This is a possible interpretation of the TR spectra of UV (Ellerman) bursts, although an interpretation that requires a density that is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than for equilibrium estimates. Movies associated to Fig. A.1 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  6. Spectra of High-Ionization Seyfert 1 Galaxies: Implications for the Narrow-Line Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, David; Cohen, Ross D.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    observational study produce line width correlations only if the width is defined by a parameter that is more sensitive to extended profile wings than is the FWHM. Our sample of six objects is in effect augmented by incorporating the larger sample (16 objects) of Veilleux into some of our discussion. This paper focuses on new interpretations of NLR emission-line spectra and line profiles that stem directly from the observations. Paper 2 focuses on modeling and complements this paper by illustrating explicitly the effects that spatial variations in electron density, ionization parameter, and column density have on model profiles. By comparing model profiles with the observed profiles presented here, as well as with those presented by Veilleux, Paper 2 yields insight into how the electron density, ionization parameter, and column density likely vary throughout the NLR.

  7. Imprints of the Molecular Electronic Structure in the Photoelectron Spectra of Strong-Field Ionized Asymmetric Triatomic Model Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Matthias; Yue, Lun; Gräfe, Stefanie

    2018-06-01

    We examine the circular dichroism in the angular distribution of photoelectrons of triatomic model systems ionized by strong-field ionization. Following our recent work on this effect [Paul, Yue, and Gräfe, J. Mod. Opt. 64, 1104 (2017), 10.1080/09500340.2017.1299883], we demonstrate how the symmetry and electronic structure of the system is imprinted into the photoelectron momentum distribution. We use classical trajectories to reveal the origin of the threefolded pattern in the photoelectron momentum distribution, and show how an asymmetric nuclear configuration of the triatomic system effects the photoelectron spectra.

  8. Contribution of the pre-ionized H2 and the ionized H2+ subsystems to the HHG Spectra of H2 in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iravani, Hossein; Sabzyan, Hassan; Vafaee, Mohsen; Buzari, Behnaz

    2018-04-01

    Contributions of the pre-ionized H2 (PI-H2) and ionized {{{H}}}2+ subsystems of the two-electron H2 system to its high-order harmonic generation in eight-cycle sin2-like ultrafast intense laser pulses are calculated and analyzed based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the one-dimensional two-electronic H2 system with fixed nuclei. The laser pulses have λ = 390 and 532 nm wavelengths and I = 1 × 1014, 5 × 1014, 1 × 1015 and 5 × 1015 W cm‑2 intensities. It is found that at the two lower intensities, the PI-H2 subsystem dominantly produces the HHG spectra. However, at the two higher intensities, both PI-H2 and ionized {{{H}}}2+ subsystems contribute comparably to the HHG spectra. In the {{{H}}}2+ subsystem, the symmetry of the populations of {{{H}}}2+(I) and {{{H}}}2+(II) regions (left and right regions of {{{H}}}2+ subsystem) is broken by increasing the laser intensity. Complex patterns and even harmonics also appear at these two higher intensities. For instance, at 1 × 1015 W cm‑2 intensity and λ = 532 nm wavelength, the even harmonics are appeared near cutoff region. Interestingly, at 5 × 1015 W cm‑2 intensity and λ = 390 nm wavelength, the even harmonics replaced by the odd harmonics with red shift. At λ = 390 and 532 nm wavelengths and I = 1 × 1015 intensity, the two-electron cutoffs corresponding to nonsequential double-recombination with maximum return kinetic energy of 4.70Up are detected. The HHG spectra of the whole H2 system obtained with and without nuclear dynamics treated classically are approximately similar. However, at 1 × 1015 W cm‑2 intensity and λ = 532 nm wavelength, if we take into account nuclear dynamics, the even harmonics which are appeared near cutoff region, replaced by the odd harmonics with blue shift.

  9. Ionization of Local Interstellar Gas Based on STIS and FUSE spectra of Nearby Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, Seth; Linsky, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The ultraviolet contains many resonance line transitions that are sensitive to a range of ionization stages of ions present in the local interstellar medium (LISM). We couple observations of high resolution ultraviolet spectrographs, STIS and GHRS on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) in order to make a comprehensive survey of the ionization structure of the local interstellar medium. In particular, we focus on the sight line toward G191-B2B, a nearby (69 pc) white dwarf. We present interstellar detections of highly ionized elements (e.g., SiIII, CIII, CIV, etc) and compare them directly to neutral or singly ionized LISM detections (e.g., SiII, CII, etc). The extensive observations of G191-B2B provides an opportunity for a broad study of ionization stages of several elements, while a survey of several sight lines provides a comprehensive look at the ionization structure of the LISM. We acknowledge support for this project through NASA FUSE Grant NNX06AD33G.

  10. Sequential and direct ionic excitation in the strong-field ionization of 1-butene molecules.

    PubMed

    Schell, Felix; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E; Schulz, Claus Peter; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Vrakking, Marc J J; Stolow, Albert; Mikosch, Jochen

    2018-05-18

    We study the Strong-Field Ionization (SFI) of the hydrocarbon 1-butene as a function of wavelength using photoion-photoelectron covariance and coincidence spectroscopy. We observe a striking transition in the fragment-associated photoelectron spectra: from a single Above Threshold Ionization (ATI) progression for photon energies less than the cation D0-D1 gap to two ATI progressions for a photon energy greater than this gap. For the first case, electronically excited cations are created by SFI populating the ground cationic state D0, followed by sequential post-ionization excitation. For the second case, direct sub-cycle SFI to the D1 excited cation state contributes significantly. Our experiments access ionization dynamics in a regime where strong-field and resonance-enhanced processes can interplay.

  11. A detailed analysis of the high-resolution X-ray spectra of NGC 3516: variability of the ionized absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta, E. M.; Krongold, Y.; Jimenez-Bailon, E.

    2014-09-20

    The 1.5 Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516 presents a strong time variability in X-rays. We re-analyzed the nine observations performed in 2006 October by XMM-Newton and Chandra in the 0.3 to 10 keV energy band. An acceptable model was found for the XMM-Newton data fitting the EPIC-PN and RGS spectra simultaneously; later, this model was successfully applied to the contemporary Chandra high-resolution data. The model consists of a continuum emission component (power law + blackbody) absorbed by four ionized components (warm absorbers), and 10 narrow emission lines. Three absorbing components are warm, producing features only in the soft X-ray band. Themore » fourth ionization component produces Fe XXV and Fe XXVI in the hard-energy band. We study the time response of the absorbing components to the well-detected changes in the X-ray luminosity of this source and find that the two components with the lower ionization state show clear opacity changes consistent with gas close to photoionization equilibrium. These changes are supported by the models and by differences in the spectral features among the nine observations. On the other hand, the two components with higher ionization state do not seem to respond to continuum variations. The response time of the ionized absorbers allows us to constrain their electron density and location. We find that one component (with intermediate ionization) must be located within the obscuring torus at a distance 2.7 × 10{sup 17} cm from the central engine. This outflowing component likely originated in the accretion disk. The three remaining components are at distances larger than 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} cm. Two of the absorbing components in the soft X-rays have similar outflow velocities and locations. These components may be in pressure equilibrium, forming a multi-phase medium, if the gas has metallicity larger than the solar one (≳ 5 Z {sub ☉}). We also search for variations in the covering factor of the ionized absorbers (although

  12. Experimental study of the p+{sup 6}Li{yields}{eta}+{sup 7}Be reaction 11.3 MeV above threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Budzanowski, A.; Kliczewski, S.; Siudak, R.

    2010-10-15

    The cross section for the reaction p+{sup 6}Li{yields}{eta}+{sup 7}Be was measured at an excess energy of 11.28 MeV above threshold by detecting the recoiling {sup 7}Be nuclei. A dedicated set of focal plane detectors was built for the magnetic spectrograph Big Karl and was used for identification and four-momentum measurement of {sup 7}Be. A differential cross section of nb/(d{sigma}/d{Omega})=[0.69{+-}0.20(stat.){+-}0.20(syst.)] sr for the ground state plus 1/2{sup -} was measured. The result is compared to model calculations.

  13. Relative Abundances and Energy Spectra of C, N, and 0 as Measured by the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazely, A. R.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, E. J.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Case, G.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Ellison, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present results on the spectra and the relative abundances of C, N, and 0 nuclei in the cosmic radiation as measured from the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Balloon Experiment (ATIC) . The ATIC detector has completed two successful balloon flights from McMurdo, Antarctica lasting a total of more than 35 days. ATIC is designed as a multiple, long duration balloon flight, investigation of the cosmic ray spectra from below 50 GeV to near 100 TeV total energy, using a fully active Bismuth Germanate calorimeter. It is equipped with a large area mosaic of silicon detector pixels capable of charge identification from H to Fe. As a redundancy check for the charge identification and a particle tracking system, three projective layers of x-y scintillator hodoscopes were employed, above, in the middle and below a 0.75 nuclear interaction length graphite target.

  14. Automatic Preocessing of Impact Ionization Mass Spectra Obtained by Cassini CDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since Cassini's arrival at Saturn in 2004, the Comic Dust Analyzer (CDA) has recorded nearly 200,000 mass spectra of dust particles. A majority of this data has been collected in Saturn's diffuse E ring where sodium salts embedded in water ice particles indicate that many particles are in fact frozen droplets from Enceladus' subsurface ocean that have been expelled from cracks in the icy crust. So far only a small fraction of the obtained spectra have been processed because the steps in processing the spectra require human manipulation. We developed an automatic processing pipeline for CDA mass spectra which will consistently analyze this data. The preprocessing steps are to de-noise the spectra, determine and remove the baseline, calculate the correct stretch parameter, and finally to identify elements and compounds in the spectra. With the E ring constantly evolving due to embedded active moons, this data will provide valuable information about the source of the E ring, the subsurface of Saturn's ice moon Enceladus, as well as about the dynamics of the ring itself.

  15. [Ionization energies and infrared spectra studies of histidine using density functional theory].

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiong; Wang, Guo-Ying; Liu, Gang; Ou, Jia-Ming; Wang, Rui-Li

    2010-05-01

    Histidines provide axial ligands to the primary electron donors in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) and play an important role in the protein environments of these donors. In this paper the authors present a systematic study of ionization energies and vibrational properties of histidine using hybrid density functional theory (DFT). All calculations were undertaken by using B3LYP method in combination with four basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-31G(df, p), 6-31+G(d) and 6-311+G(2d, 2p) with the aim to investigate how the basis sets influence the calculation results. To investigate solvent effects and gain a detailed understanding of marker bands of histidine, the ionization energies of histidine and the vibrational frequencies of histidine which are unlabeled and 13C, 15N, and 2H labeled in the gas phase, CCl4, protein environment, THF and water solution, which span a wide range of dielectric constant, were also calculated. Our results showed that: (1) The main geometry parameters of histidine were impacted by basis sets and mediums, and C2-N3 and N3-C4 bond of imidazole ring of histidine side chain display the maximum bond lengths in the gas phase; (2) single point energies and frequencies calculated were decreased while ionization energies increased with the increasing level of basis sets and diffuse function applied in the same solvent; (3) with the same computational method, the higher the dielectric constant of the solvent used, the lower the ionization energy and vibrational frequency and the higher the intensity obtained. In addition, calculated ionization energy in the gas phase and marker bands of histidine as well as frequency shift upon 13C and 15N labeling at the computationally more expensive 6-311+G(2d, 2p) level are in good agreement with experimental observations available in literatures. All calculations indicated that the results calculated by using higher level basis set with diffuse function were more accurate and closer to the experimental value. In

  16. The Higgs portal above threshold

    DOE PAGES

    Craig, Nathaniel; Lou, Hou Keong; McCullough, Matthew; ...

    2016-02-18

    The discovery of the Higgs boson opens the door to new physics interacting via the Higgs Portal, including motivated scenarios relating to baryogenesis, dark matter, and electroweak naturalness. In this study, we systematically explore the collider signatures of singlet scalars produced via the Higgs Portal at the 14TeV LHC and a prospective 100TeV hadron collider. We focus on the challenging regime where the scalars are too heavy to be produced in the decays of an on-shell Higgs boson, and instead are produced primarily via an o ff-shell Higgs. Assuming these scalars escape the detector, promising channels include missing energy inmore » association with vector boson fusion, monojets, and top pairs. In addition, we forecast the sensitivity of searches in these channels at √s = 14 & 100 TeV and compare collider reach to the motivated parameter space of singlet-assisted electroweak baryogenesis, Higgs Portal dark matter, and neutral naturalness.« less

  17. Ion/molecule reactions to chemically deconvolute the electrospray ionization mass spectra of synthetic polymers.

    PubMed

    Lennon, John D; Cole, Scott P; Glish, Gary L

    2006-12-15

    A new approach has been developed to analyze synthetic polymers via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Ion/molecule reactions, a unique feature of trapping instruments such as quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers, can be used to chemically deconvolute the molecular mass distribution of polymers from the charge-state distribution generated by electrospray ionization. The reaction involves stripping charge from multiply charged oligomers to reduce the number of charge states. This reduces or eliminates the overlapping of oligomers from adjacent charge states. 15-Crown-5 was used to strip alkali cations (Na+) from several narrow polydisperse poly(ethylene glycol) standards. The charge-state distribution of each oligomer is reduced to primarily one charge state. Individual oligomers can be resolved, and the average molecular mass and polydispersities can be calculated for the polymers examined here. In most cases, the measured number-average molecular mass values are within 10% of the manufacturers' reported values obtained by gel permeation chromatography. The polydispersity was typically underestimated compared to values reported by the suppliers. Mn values were obtained with 0.5% RSD and are independent, over several orders of magnitude, of the polymer and cation concentration. The distributions that were obtained fit quite well to the Gaussian distribution indicating no high- or low-mass discriminations.

  18. Effect of relativity on the ionization spectra of the xenon fluorides XeFn (n=2, 4, 6).

    PubMed

    Pernpointner, Markus; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2005-06-01

    Noble gas compounds exhibit special chemical bonding situations and have been investigated by various spectroscopic and theoretical techniques. In this work we calculate the ionization spectra of the xenon fluorides (XeF2,XeF4, and XeF6) in the valence and subvalence (down to Xe 4d) areas by application of the recently developed Dirac-Hartree-Fock one-particle propagator technique. In this technique, the relativistic (four-component) and electron correlation effects are computed simultaneously. The xenon compounds show considerable spin-orbit splitting strongly influencing the photoelectron spectrum not reproducible in prior calculations. Comparison to one-component methods is made and the occurring satellite structures are interpreted. The satellite structures can be attributed either to the breakdown of the one-particle picture or to a reflection of intra-atomic and interatomic Auger decay processes within the molecule.

  19. X-ray Reflected Spectra from Accretion Disk Models. III. A Complete Grid of Ionized Reflection Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.; Dauser, T.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; McClintock, J. E.; Wilms, J.; Ekmann, W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new and complete library of synthetic spectra for modeling the component of emission that is reflected from an illuminated accretion disk. The spectra were computed using an updated version of our code xillver that incorporates new routines and a richer atomic data base. We offer in the form of a table model an extensive grid of reflection models that cover a wide range of parameters. Each individual model is characterized by the photon index Gamma of the illuminating radiation, the ionization parameter zeta at the surface of the disk (i.e., the ratio of the X-ray flux to the gas density), and the iron abundance A(sub Fe) relative to the solar value. The ranges of the parameters covered are: 1.2 <= Gamma <= 3.4, 1 <= zeta <= 104, and 0.5 <= A(sub Fe) <= 10. These ranges capture the physical conditions typically inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei, and also stellar-mass black holes in the hard state. This library is intended for use when the thermal disk flux is faint compared to the incident power-law flux. The models are expected to provide an accurate description of the Fe K emission line, which is the crucial spectral feature used to measure black hole spin. A total of 720 reflection spectra are provided in a single FITS file suitable for the analysis of X-ray observations via the atable model in xspec. Detailed comparisons with previous reflection models illustrate the improvements incorporated in this version of xillver.

  20. X-RAY REFLECTED SPECTRA FROM ACCRETION DISK MODELS. III. A COMPLETE GRID OF IONIZED REFLECTION CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.; McClintock, J. E.; Dauser, T.

    2013-05-10

    We present a new and complete library of synthetic spectra for modeling the component of emission that is reflected from an illuminated accretion disk. The spectra were computed using an updated version of our code XILLVER that incorporates new routines and a richer atomic database. We offer in the form of a table model an extensive grid of reflection models that cover a wide range of parameters. Each individual model is characterized by the photon index {Gamma} of the illuminating radiation, the ionization parameter {xi} at the surface of the disk (i.e., the ratio of the X-ray flux to themore » gas density), and the iron abundance A{sub Fe} relative to the solar value. The ranges of the parameters covered are 1.2 {<=} {Gamma} {<=} 3.4, 1 {<=} {xi} {<=} 10{sup 4}, and 0.5 {<=} A{sub Fe} {<=} 10. These ranges capture the physical conditions typically inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei, and also stellar-mass black holes in the hard state. This library is intended for use when the thermal disk flux is faint compared to the incident power-law flux. The models are expected to provide an accurate description of the Fe K emission line, which is the crucial spectral feature used to measure black hole spin. A total of 720 reflection spectra are provided in a single FITS file (http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu/{approx}javier/xillver/) suitable for the analysis of X-ray observations via the atable model in XSPEC. Detailed comparisons with previous reflection models illustrate the improvements incorporated in this version of XILLVER.« less

  1. Compound annotation in liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics: robust adduct ion determination as a prerequisite to structure prediction in electrospray ionization mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Carsten; Méret, Michaël; Schmitt, Clemens A; Lisec, Jan

    2017-08-15

    A bottleneck in metabolic profiling of complex biological extracts is confident, non-supervised annotation of ideally all contained, chemically highly diverse small molecules. Recent computational strategies combining sum formula prediction with in silico fragmentation achieve confident de novo annotation, once the correct neutral mass of a compound is known. Current software solutions for automated adduct ion assignment, however, are either publicly unavailable or have been validated against only few experimental electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra. We here present findMAIN (find Main Adduct IoN), a new heuristic approach for interpreting ESI mass spectra. findMAIN scores MS 1 spectra based on explained intensity, mass accuracy and isotope charge agreement of adducts and related ionization products and annotates peaks of the (de)protonated molecule and adduct ions. The approach was validated against 1141 ESI positive mode spectra of chemically diverse standard compounds acquired on different high-resolution mass spectrometric instruments (Orbitrap and time-of-flight). Robustness against impure spectra was evaluated. Correct adduct ion assignment was achieved for up to 83% of the spectra. Performance was independent of compound class and mass spectrometric platform. The algorithm proved highly tolerant against spectral contamination as demonstrated exemplarily for co-eluting compounds as well as systematically by pairwise mixing of spectra. When used in conjunction with MS-FINDER, a state-of-the-art sum formula tool, correct sum formulas were obtained for 77% of spectra. It outperformed both 'brute force' approaches and current state-of-the-art annotation packages tested as potential alternatives. Limitations of the heuristic pertained to poorly ionizing compounds and cationic compounds forming [M] + ions. A new, validated approach for interpreting ESI mass spectra is presented, filling a gap in the nontargeted metabolomics workflow. It is freely available

  2. Numerical models for the diffuse ionized gas in galaxies. I. Synthetic spectra of thermally excited gas with turbulent magnetic reconnection as energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Lieb, S.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Lesch, H.; Hultzsch, P. J. N.; Birk, G. T.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to verify whether turbulent magnetic reconnection can provide the additional energy input required to explain the up to now only poorly understood ionization mechanism of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in galaxies and its observed emission line spectra. Methods: We use a detailed non-LTE radiative transfer code that does not make use of the usual restrictive gaseous nebula approximations to compute synthetic spectra for gas at low densities. Excitation of the gas is via an additional heating term in the energy balance as well as by photoionization. Numerical values for this heating term are derived from three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic two-fluid plasma-neutral-gas simulations to compute energy dissipation rates for the DIG under typical conditions. Results: Our simulations show that magnetic reconnection can liberate enough energy to by itself fully or partially ionize the gas. However, synthetic spectra from purely thermally excited gas are incompatible with the observed spectra; a photoionization source must additionally be present to establish the correct (observed) ionization balance in the gas.

  3. AUTOMATED DECONVOLUTION OF COMPOSITE MASS SPECTRA OBTAINED WITH AN OPEN-AIR IONIZATIONS SOURCE BASED ON EXACT MASSES AND RELATIVE ISOTIPIC ABUNDANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals dispersed by accidental, deliberate, or weather-related events must be rapidly identified to assess health risks. Mass spectra from high levels of analytes obtained using rapid, open-air ionization by a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART®) ion source often contain

  4. A Test of Thick-Target Nonuniform Ionization as an Explanation for Breaks in Solar Flare Hard X-Ray Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, gordon; Dennis Brian R.; Tolbert, Anne K.; Schwartz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Solar nonthermal hard X-ray (HXR) flare spectra often cannot be fitted by a single power law, but rather require a downward break in the photon spectrum. A possible explanation for this spectral break is nonuniform ionization in the emission region. We have developed a computer code to calculate the photon spectrum from electrons with a power-law distribution injected into a thick-target in which the ionization decreases linearly from 100% to zero. We use the bremsstrahlung cross-section from Haug (1997), which closely approximates the full relativistic Bethe-Heitler cross-section, and compare photon spectra computed from this model with those obtained by Kontar, Brown and McArthur (2002), who used a step-function ionization model and the Kramers approximation to the cross-section. We find that for HXR spectra from a target with nonuniform ionization, the difference (Delta-gamma) between the power-law indexes above and below the break has an upper limit between approx.0.2 and 0.7 that depends on the power-law index delta of the injected electron distribution. A broken power-law spectrum with a. higher value of Delta-gamma cannot result from nonuniform ionization alone. The model is applied to spectra obtained around the peak times of 20 flares observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI from 2002 to 2004 to determine whether thick-target nonuniform ionization can explain the measured spectral breaks. A Monte Carlo method is used to determine the uncertainties of the best-fit parameters, especially on Delta-gamma. We find that 15 of the 20 flare spectra require a downward spectral break and that at least 6 of these could not be explained by nonuniform ionization alone because they had values of Delta-gamma with less than a 2.5% probability of being consistent with the computed upper limits from the model. The remaining 9 flare spectra, based on this criterion, are consistent with the nonuniform ionization model.

  5. New Measurement of Singly Ionized Selenium Spectra by High Resolution Fourier Transform and Grating Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hala, Noman; Nave, G.; Kramida, A.; Ahmad, T.; Nahar, S.; Pradhan, A.

    2015-05-01

    We report new measurements of singly ionised selenium, an element of the iron group detected in nearly twice as many planetary nebulae as any other trans-iron element. We use the NIST 2 m UV/Vis/IR and FT700 UV/Vis Fourier transform spectrometers over the wavelength range of 2000 Å-2.5 μm, supplemented in the lower wavelength region 300-2400 Å with grating spectra taken on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph. The analysis of Se II is being extended, covering the wide spectral region from UV to IR. From our investigation, we found serious inconsistency and incompleteness in the previously published results, where several levels were reported without any designation. The analysis is being revised and extended with the help of semiempirical quasi-relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations, starting with the 4s24p3- [4s24p2(4d +5d +5s +6s) +4s4p4] transition array. Out of fifty-two previously reported levels, we rejected thirteen and found several new level values. With the new measurements, we expect to observe transitions between 4s24p2(4d +5s) and 4s24p2(5p +4f), lying in the visible and IR region. A complete interpretation of the level system of both parities will be assisted by least squares fitted parametric calculations. In all, we have already classified about 450 observed lines involving 89 energy levels.

  6. Biases in Metallicity Measurements from Global Galaxy Spectra: The Effects of Flux Weighting and Diffuse Ionized Gas Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Ryan L.; Shapley, Alice E.; Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin

    2017-12-01

    Galaxy metallicity scaling relations provide a powerful tool for understanding galaxy evolution, but obtaining unbiased global galaxy gas-phase oxygen abundances requires proper treatment of the various line-emitting sources within spectroscopic apertures. We present a model framework that treats galaxies as ensembles of H II and diffuse ionized gas (DIG) regions of varying metallicities. These models are based upon empirical relations between line ratios and electron temperature for H II regions, and DIG strong-line ratio relations from SDSS-IV MaNGA IFU data. Flux-weighting effects and DIG contamination can significantly affect properties inferred from global galaxy spectra, biasing metallicity estimates by more than 0.3 dex in some cases. We use observationally motivated inputs to construct a model matched to typical local star-forming galaxies, and quantify the biases in strong-line ratios, electron temperatures, and direct-method metallicities as inferred from global galaxy spectra relative to the median values of the H II region distributions in each galaxy. We also provide a generalized set of models that can be applied to individual galaxies or galaxy samples in atypical regions of parameter space. We use these models to correct for the effects of flux-weighting and DIG contamination in the local direct-method mass-metallicity and fundamental metallicity relations, and in the mass-metallicity relation based on strong-line metallicities. Future photoionization models of galaxy line emission need to include DIG emission and represent galaxies as ensembles of emitting regions with varying metallicity, instead of as single H II regions with effective properties, in order to obtain unbiased estimates of key underlying physical properties.

  7. Statistical analysis of fragmentation patterns of electron ionization mass spectra of enolized-trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragkaki, A. G.; Angelis, Y. S.; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A.; Koupparis, M.; Georgakopoulos, C.

    2009-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are included in the List of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as substances abused to enhance athletic performance. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role in doping control analyses identifying AAS as their enolized-trimethylsilyl (TMS)-derivatives using the electron ionization (EI) mode. This paper explores the suitability of complementary GC-MS mass spectra and statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA and partial least squares-discriminant analysis, PLS-DA) to differentiate AAS as a function of their structural and conformational features expressed by their fragment ions. The results obtained showed that the application of PCA yielded a classification among the AAS molecules which became more apparent after applying PLS-DA to the dataset. The application of PLS-DA yielded a clear separation among the AAS molecules which were, thus, classified as: 1-ene-3-keto, 3-hydroxyl with saturated A-ring, 1-ene-3-hydroxyl, 4-ene-3-keto, 1,4-diene-3-keto and 3-keto with saturated A-ring anabolic steroids. The study of this paper also presents structurally diagnostic fragment ions and dissociation routes providing evidence for the presence of unknown AAS or chemically modified molecules known as designer steroids.

  8. Increasing the applicability of density functional theory. V. X-ray absorption spectra with ionization potential corrected exchange and correlation potentials.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prakash; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2016-07-21

    Core excitation energies are computed with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) using the ionization energy corrected exchange and correlation potential QTP(0,0). QTP(0,0) provides C, N, and O K-edge spectra to about an electron volt. A mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.77 and a maximum error of 2.6 eV is observed for QTP(0,0) for many small molecules. TD-DFT based on QTP (0,0) is then used to describe the core-excitation spectra of the 22 amino acids. TD-DFT with conventional functionals greatly underestimates core excitation energies, largely due to the significant error in the Kohn-Sham occupied eigenvalues. To the contrary, the ionization energy corrected potential, QTP(0,0), provides excellent approximations (MAE of 0.53 eV) for core ionization energies as eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equations. As a consequence, core excitation energies are accurately described with QTP(0,0), as are the core ionization energies important in X-ray photoionization spectra or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

  9. Ar 3p photoelectron sideband spectra in two-color XUV + NIR laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minemoto, Shinichirou; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Kazma; Komatsubara, Wataru; Majima, Takuya; Mizuno, Tomoya; Owada, Shigeki; Sakai, Hirofumi; Togashi, Tadashi; Yoshida, Shintaro; Yabashi, Makina; Yagishita, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We performed photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond XUV pulses from a free-electron laser and femtosecond near-infrared pulses from a synchronized laser, and succeeded in measuring Ar 3p photoelectron sideband spectra due to the two-color above-threshold ionization. In our calculations of the first-order time-dependent perturbation theoretical model based on the strong field approximation, the photoelectron sideband spectra and their angular distributions are well reproduced by considering the timing jitter between the XUV and the NIR pulses, showing that the timing jitter in our experiments was distributed over the width of {1.0}+0.4-0.2 ps. The present approach can be used as a method to evaluate the timing jitter inevitable in FEL experiments.

  10. Formation and reactions of negative ions relevant to chemical ionization mass spectrometry. I. Cl mass spectra of organic compounds produced by F− reactions

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, T. O.; Chang, C.; Cheng, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic study of the negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectra produced by the reaction of F− with a wide variety of organic compounds has been accomplished. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with a modified high pressure ion source was employed for these experiments. The F− reagent ion was generated from CF3H or NF3, typically at an ion source pressure of 100 μm. In pure NF3, F− is the major ion formed and constitutes more than 90% of the total ion intensity. While F− is also the major primary ion formed in pure CF3H, it undergoes rapid ion-molecule reactions at elevated source pressures, yielding (HF)nF− (n = 1−3) ions, which makes CF3H less suitable as a chemical ionization reagent gas. Among the organic compounds investigated were carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, phenols, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene, ethers, amines and hydrocarbons. An intense (M − 1)− ion was observed in the F− chemical ionization mass spectra of carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and phenols. Alcohols yield only (M + F)− ions upon reaction with F−. A weaker (M + F)− ion was also detected in the F− chemical ionization spectra of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones and nitriles. The F− chemical ionization mass spectra of esters, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene and ethers are characterized primarily by the ions, RCOO−, X−, CN−, NO2−, and OR−, respectively. In addition, esters show a very weak (M − 1)− ion (except formates). In the F− chemical ionization spectra of some aliphatic alkanes and o-xylene, a very weak (M + F)− ion was observed. Amines and aliphatic alkenes exhibit only insignificant fragment ions under similar conditions, while aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene and toluene are not reactive at all with the F− ion. The mechanisms of the various reactions mentioned are discussed, and several experimental complications are noted. In still other studies, the effects of varying several

  11. Trajectory calculations of two-dimensional Penning ionization electron spectra of N 2 in collision with metastable He* 2 3S atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Koichi; Yamazaki, Masakazu; Kishimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Tetsuji; Takeshita, Kouichi

    2000-12-01

    Ionization cross-sections of N 2 in collision with He* 2 3S as functions of the collision energy and the ejected electron kinetic energy (two-dimensional Penning ionization electron spectra, 2D-PIES) have been evaluated by trajectory calculations based on quantum chemical potential surfaces of both entrance and exit channels as well as on the transition widths for producing X, A, and B states of N 2+. The present approach using a Li atom for He * and an overlap approximation for Γ has given theoretical 2D-PIES in good agreement with the observation and a promise for its application to the study of dynamics in collisional ionization involving highly anisotropic target systems.

  12. Effects of ultrashort laser pulses on angular distributions of photoionization spectra.

    PubMed

    Ooi, C H Raymond; Ho, W L; Bandrauk, A D

    2017-07-27

    We study the photoelectron spectra by intense laser pulses with arbitrary time dependence and phase within the Keldysh framework. An efficient semianalytical approach using analytical transition matrix elements for hydrogenic atoms in any initial state enables efficient and accurate computation of the photoionization probability at any observation point without saddle point approximation, providing comprehensive three dimensional photoelectron angular distribution for linear and elliptical polarizations, that reveal the intricate features and provide insights on the photoionization characteristics such as angular dispersions, shift and splitting of photoelectron peaks from the tunneling or above threshold ionization(ATI) regime to non-adiabatic(intermediate) and multiphoton ionization(MPI) regimes. This facilitates the study of the effects of various laser pulse parameters on the photoelectron spectra and their angular distributions. The photoelectron peaks occur at multiples of 2ħω for linear polarization while  odd-ordered peaks are suppressed in the direction perpendicular to the electric field. Short pulses create splitting and angular dispersion where the peaks are strongly correlated to the angles. For MPI and elliptical polarization with shorter pulses the peaks split into doublets and the first peak vanishes. The carrier envelope phase(CEP) significantly affects the ATI spectra while the Stark effect shifts the spectra of intermediate regime to higher energies due to interference.

  13. Ionizing spectra of stars that lose their envelope through interaction with a binary companion: role of metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götberg, Y.; de Mink, S. E.; Groh, J. H.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding ionizing fluxes of stellar populations is crucial for various astrophysical problems including the epoch of reionization. Short-lived massive stars are generally considered as the main stellar sources. We examine the potential role of less massive stars that lose their envelope through interaction with a binary companion. Here, we focus on the role of metallicity (Z). For this purpose we used the evolutionary code MESA and created tailored atmosphere models with the radiative transfer code CMFGEN. We show that typical progenitors, with initial masses of 12 M⊙, produce hot and compact stars ( 4 M⊙, 60-80 kK, 1 R⊙). These stripped stars copiously produce ionizing photons, emitting 60-85% and 30-60% of their energy as HI and HeI ionizing radiation, for Z = 0.0001-0.02, respectively. Their output is comparable to what massive stars emit during their Wolf-Rayet phase, if we account for their longer lifetimes and the favorable slope of the initial mass function. Their relative importance for reionization may be further favored since they emit their photons with a time delay ( 20 Myr after birth in our fiducial model). This allows time for the dispersal of the birth clouds, allowing the ionizing photons to escape into the intergalactic medium. At low Z, we find that Roche stripping fails to fully remove the H-rich envelope, because of the reduced opacity in the subsurface layers. This is in sharp contrast with the assumption of complete stripping that is made in rapid population synthesis simulations, which are widely used to simulate the binary progenitors of supernovae and gravitational waves. Finally, we discuss the urgency to increase the observed sample of stripped stars to test these models and we discuss how our predictions can help to design efficient observational campaigns.

  14. Strong-field ionization of linear molecules by a bicircular laser field: Symmetry considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazibegović-Busuladžić, A.; Busuladžić, M.; Hasović, E.; Becker, W.; Milošević, D. B.

    2018-04-01

    Using the improved molecular strong-field approximation, we investigate (high-order) above-threshold ionization [(H)ATI] of various linear polyatomic molecules by a two-color laser field of frequencies r ω and s ω (with integer numbers r and s ) having coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized components (a so-called bicircular field). Reflection and rotational symmetries for molecules aligned in the laser-field polarization plane, analyzed for diatomic homonuclear molecules in Phys. Rev. A 95, 033411 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.033411, are now considered for diatomic heteronuclear molecules and symmetric and asymmetric linear triatomic molecules. There are additional rotational symmetries for (H)ATI spectra of symmetric linear molecules compared to (H)ATI spectra of the asymmetric ones. It is shown that these symmetries manifest themselves differently for r +s odd and r +s even. For example, HATI spectra for symmetric molecules with r +s even obey inversion symmetry. For ATI spectra of linear molecules, reflection symmetry appears only for certain molecular orientation angles ±90∘-j r 180∘/(r +s ) (j integer). For symmetric linear molecules, reflection symmetry appears also for the angles -j r 180∘/(r +s ) . For perpendicular orientation of molecules with respect to the laser-field polarization plane, the HATI spectra are very similar to those of the atomic targets, i.e., both spectra are characterized by the same type of the (r +s )-fold symmetry.

  15. The VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey: Nature, ISM properties, and ionizing spectra of CIII]λ1909 emitters at z = 2-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Schaerer, D.; Le Fèvre, O.; Amorín, R.; Talia, M.; Lemaux, B. C.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Vanzella, E.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Grazian, A.; Guaita, L.; Hathi, N. P.; Pentericci, L.; Zucca, E.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Ultraviolet (UV) emission-line spectra are used to spectroscopically confirm high-z galaxies and increasingly also to determine their physical properties. Aims: We construct photoionization models to interpret the observed UV spectra of distant galaxies in terms of the dominant radiation field and the physical condition of the interstellar medium (ISM). These models are applied to new spectroscopic observations from the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). Methods: We construct a large grid of photoionization models, which use several incident radiation fields (stellar populations, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), mix of stars and AGNs, blackbodies, and others), and cover a wide range of metallicities and ionization parameters. From these models we derive new spectral UV line diagnostics using equivalent widths (EWs) of [CIII]λ1909 doublet, CIVλ1549 doublet and the line ratios of [CIII], CIV, and He IIλ1640 recombination lines. We apply these diagnostics to a sample of 450 [CIII]-emitting galaxies at redshifts z = 2-4 previously identified in VUDS. Results: We demonstrate that our photoionization models successfully reproduce observations of nearby and high-redshift sources with known radiation field and/or metallicity. For star-forming galaxies our models predict that [CIII] EW peaks at sub-solar metallicities, whereas CIV EW peaks at even lower metallicity. Using the UV diagnostics, we show that the average star-forming galaxy (EW([CIII]) 2 Å) based on the composite of the 450 UV-selected galaxies' spectra The inferred metallicity and ionization parameter is typically Z = 0.3-0.5 Z⊙ and logU = -2.7 to - 3, in agreement with earlier works at similar redshifts. The models also indicate an average age of 50-200 Myr since the beginning of the current star-formation, and an ionizing photon production rate, ξion, of logξion/erg-1 Hz = 25.3-25.4. Among the sources with EW([CIII]) >= 10 Å, approximately 30% are likely dominated by AGNs. The metallicity derived

  16. Oil spill source identification by principal component analysis of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Corilo, Yuri E; Podgorski, David C; McKenna, Amy M; Lemkau, Karin L; Reddy, Christopher M; Marshall, Alan G; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2013-10-01

    One fundamental challenge with either acute or chronic oil spills is to identify the source, especially in highly polluted areas, near natural oil seeps, when the source contains more than one petroleum product or when extensive weathering has occurred. Here we focus on heavy fuel oil that spilled (~200,000 L) from two suspected fuel tanks that were ruptured on the motor vessel (M/V) Cosco Busan when it struck the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in November 2007. We highlight the utility of principal component analysis (PCA) of elemental composition data obtained by high resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry to correctly identify the source of environmental contamination caused by the unintended release of heavy fuel oil (HFO). Using ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, we uniquely assigned thousands of elemental compositions of heteroatom-containing species in neat samples from both tanks and then applied principal component analysis. The components were based on double bond equivalents for constituents of elemental composition, CcHhN1S1. To determine if the fidelity of our source identification was affected by weathering, field samples were collected at various intervals up to two years after the spill. We are able to identify a suite of polar petroleum markers that are environmentally persistent, enabling us to confidently identify that only one tank was the source of the spilled oil: in fact, a single principal component could account for 98% of the variance. Although identification is unaffected by the presence of higher polarity, petrogenic oxidation (weathering) products, future studies may require removal of such species by anion exchange chromatography prior to mass spectral analysis due to their preferential ionization by ESI.

  17. Intramolecular interactions of L-phenylalanine: Valence ionization spectra and orbital momentum distributions of its fragment molecules.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Aravindhan; Wang, Feng; Falzon, Chantal

    2011-02-01

    Intramolecular interactions between fragments of L-phenylalanine, i.e., phenyl and alaninyl, have been investigated using dual space analysis (DSA) quantum mechanically. Valence space photoelectron spectra (PES), orbital energy topology and correlation diagram, as well as orbital momentum distributions (MDs) of L-phenylalanine, benzene and L-alanine are studied using density functional theory methods. While fully resolved experimental PES of L-phenylalanine is not yet available, our simulated PES reproduces major features of the experimental measurement. For benzene, the simulated orbital MDs for 1e(1g) and 1a(2u) orbitals also agree well with those measured using electron momentum spectra. Our theoretical models are then applied to reveal intramolecular interactions of the species on an orbital base, using DSA. Valence orbitals of L-phenylalanine can be essentially deduced into contributions from its fragments such as phenyl and alaninyl as well as their interactions. The fragment orbitals inherit properties of their parent species in energy and shape (ie., MDs). Phenylalanine orbitals show strong bonding in the energy range of 14-20 eV, rather than outside of this region. This study presents a competent orbital based fragments-in-molecules picture in the valence space, which supports the fragment molecular orbital picture and building block principle in valence space. The optimized structures of the molecules are represented using the recently developed interactive 3D-PDF technique. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mass spectrometry of analytical derivatives. 2. "Ortho" and "Para" effects in electron ionization mass spectra of derivatives of hydroxy, mercapto and amino benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Todua, Nino G; Mikaia, Anzor I

    2016-01-01

    Derivatives requiring either anhydrous or aqueous reaction conditions were prepared for robust and reliable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) characterization of hydroxyl, mercapto, and amino benzoic acids Methylation and trialkylsilytation are employed for blocking the acidic function. Alkyl, trimethylsilyl, acetyl, perfluoroacyl and alkoxycarbonyl derivatization groups are introduced to hydroxyl, mercapto and amino functions. The electron ionization induced fragmentation characteristics of corresponding derivatives are explained by comparing the MS 1 spectra of unlabeled compounds to their 2 H and 13 C labeled analogs, and analysis of collision-induced dissociation data from MS 2 spectra. Competing fragmentation alternatives are identified and specific decomposition processes are detailed that characterize (a) ortho isomers due to interaction or vicinal functional substituents and (b) para isomers prone to forming para quinoid type structures. Skeletal and hydrogen rearrangements typical for methyl benzoates and the blocking groups are considered when discussing diagnostically important ions. Characteristic ions produced as a result of rearrangements in ortho isomers are classified, and skeletal rearrangements required to produce para quinoid type ions specific for para isomers are noted. Key ions for structure elucidation and differentiation of isomers for derivatives of substituted benzoic acids by GC/MS are suggested.

  19. Zero kinetic energy spectroscopy: mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectra of chromium sandwich complexes with alkylbenzenes, (η(6)-RPh)(2)Cr (R = Me, Et, i-Pr, t-Bu).

    PubMed

    Ketkov, Sergey Y; Selzle, Heinrich L; Cloke, F Geoffrey N; Markin, Gennady V; Shevelev, Yury A; Domrachev, Georgy A; Schlag, Edward W

    2010-10-28

    For over 25 years zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy has yielded a rich foundation of high-resolution results of molecular ions. This was based on the discovery in the late 60's of long-lived ion states throughout the ionization continuum of molecular ions. Here, an example is chosen from another fundamental system pioneered at this university. The mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectra of jet-cooled chromium bisarene complexes (η(6)-RPh)(2)Cr (R = Me (1), Et (2), i-Pr (3), and t-Bu (4)) have been measured and interpreted on the basis of DFT calculations. The MATI spectra of complexes 1 and 2 appear to reveal features arising from ionizations of the isomers formed by the rotation of one arene ring relative to the other. The 1 and 2 MATI spectra show two intense peaks corresponding to the 0(0)(0) ionizations with inverse intensity ratios. As indicated by the DFT calculations, the intensity ratio change on going from 1 to 2 results from different isomers contributing to each MATI peak. The ionization energies corresponding to the 0(0)(0) peaks are 42746 ± 5 and 42809 ± 5 cm(-1) for compound 1 and 42379 ± 5 and 42463 ± 5 cm(-1) for complex 2. The 1 and 2 spectra show also the weaker features representing transitions to the vibrationally excited cationic levels, the signals of individual rotamers being detected and assigned on the basis of calculated vibrational frequencies. The MATI spectra of compounds 3 and 4 reveal only one strong peak because of close ionization potentials of the isomers contributing to the MATI signal. The 3 and 4 ionization energies are 42104 ± 5 and 41917 ± 5 cm(-1), respectively. The precise values of ionization energies obtained from the MATI spectra reveal a nonlinear dependence of the IE on the number of Me groups in the alkyl substituents of (η(6)-RPh)(2)Cr. This can be explained by an increase in the molecular zero point energies on methylation of the substituents.

  20. Ab initio investigation of structure, stability, thermal behavior, bonding, and infrared spectra of ionized water cluster (H2O)6+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Hu, Cui-E.; Tang, Mei; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2016-10-01

    The low-lying isomers of cationic water cluster (H2O)6+ have been globally explored by using particle swarm optimization algorithm in conjunction with quantum chemical calculations. Compared with previous results, our searching method covers a wide range of structural isomers of (H2O)6+ and therefore turns out to be more effective. With these local minima, geometry optimization and vibrational analysis are performed for the most interesting clusters at second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2)/aug-cc-pVDZ level, and their energies are further refined at MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ and coupled-cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations/aug-cc-pVDZ level. The interaction energies using the complete basis set limits at MP2 level are also reported. The relationships between their structure arrangement and their energies are discussed. Based on the results of thermal simulation, structural change from a four-numbered ring to a tree-like structure occurs at T ≈ 45 K, and the relative population of six lowest-free-energy isomers is found to exceed 4% at some point within the studied temperature range. Studies reveal that, among these six isomers, two new-found isomers constitute 10% of isomer population at 180 K, and the experimental spectra can be better explained with inclusions of the two isomers. The molecular orbitals for six representative cationic water clusters are also studied. Through topological and reduced density gradient analysis, we investigated the structural characteristics and the bonding strengths of these water cluster radical cations.

  1. SDSS IV MaNGA: Deep observations of extra-planar, diffuse ionized gas around late-type galaxies from stacked IFU spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Kauffmann, G.; D'Souza, R.; Bizyaev, D.; Law, D.; Haffner, L.; Bahé, Y.; Andrews, B.; Bershady, M.; Brownstein, J.; Bundy, K.; Cherinka, B.; Diamond-Stanic, A.; Drory, N.; Riffel, R. A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Thomas, D.; Wake, D.; Yan, R.; Zhang, K.

    2017-03-01

    We have conducted a study of extra-planar diffuse ionized gas using the first year data from the MaNGA IFU survey. We have stacked spectra from 49 edge-on, late-type galaxies as a function of distance from the midplane of the galaxy. With this technique we can detect the bright emission lines Hα, Hβ, [O II]λλ3726, 3729, [O III]λ5007, [N II]λλ6549, 6584, and [S II]λλ6717, 6731 out to about 4 kpc above the midplane. With 16 galaxies we can extend this analysis out to about 9 kpc, I.e. a distance of 2Re, vertically from the midplane. In the halo, the surface brightnesses of the [O II] and Hα emission lines are comparable, unlike in the disk where Hα dominates. When we split the sample by specific star-formation rate, concentration index, and stellar mass, each subsample's emission line surface brightness profiles and ratios differ, indicating that extra-planar gas properties can vary. The emission line surface brightnesses of the gas around high specific star-formation rate galaxies are higher at all distances, and the line ratios are closer to ratios characteristic of H II regions compared with low specific star-formation rate galaxies. The less concentrated and lower stellar mass samples exhibit line ratios that are more like H II regions at larger distances than their more concentrated and higher stellar mass counterparts. The largest difference between different subsamples occurs when the galaxies are split by stellar mass. We additionally infer that gas far from the midplane in more massive galaxies has the highest temperatures and steepest radial temperature gradients based on their [N II]/Hα and [O II]/Hα ratios between the disk and the halo. SDSS IV.

  2. Comparison of the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra of pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrrole: Building toward an understanding of the electronic structure and photochemistry of porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    Beames, Joseph M.; Nix, Michael G. D.; Hudson, Andrew J.

    The photophysical properties of porphyrins have relevance for their use as light-activated drugs in cancer treatment and sensitizers in solid-state solar cells. However, the appearance of their UV-visible spectra is usually explained inadequately by qualitative molecular-orbital theories. We intend to gain a better insight into the intense absorption bands, and excited-state dynamics, that make porphyrins appropriate for both of these applications by gradually building toward an understanding of the macrocyclic structure, starting with studies of smaller pyrrolic subunits. We have recorded the (1+1) and (2+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrrole between 25 600 cm{sup -1} (390more » nm) and 48 500 cm{sup -1} (206 nm). We did not observe a (1+1) REMPI signal through the optically bright {sup 1}B{sub 2} ({pi}{pi}*) and {sup 1}A{sub 1} ({pi}{pi}*) states in pyrrole due to ultrafast deactivation via conical intersections with the dissociative {sup 1}A{sub 2} ({pi}{sigma}*) and {sup 1}B{sub 1} ({pi}{sigma}{sup *}) states. However, we did observe (2+1) REMPI through Rydberg states with a dominant feature at 27 432 cm{sup -1} (two-photon energy, 54 864 cm{sup -1}) assigned to a 3d(leftarrow){pi} transition. In contrast, 2,5-dimethylpyrrole has a broad and structured (1+1) REMPI spectrum between 36 000 and 42 500 cm{sup -1} as a result of vibronic transitions to the {sup 1}B{sub 2} ({pi}{pi}*) state, and it does not show the 3d(leftarrow){pi} Rydberg transition via (2+1) REMPI. We have complemented the experimental studies by a theoretical treatment of the excited states of both molecules using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and accounted for the contrasting features in the spectra. TD-DFT modeled the photochemical activity of both the optically dark {sup 1}{pi}{sigma}* states (dissociative) and optically bright {sup 1}{pi}{pi}* states well, predicting the barrierless deactivation of the {sup 1}B

  3. Effects of Growth Medium on Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption–Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectra: a Case Study of Acetic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wieme, Anneleen D.; Spitaels, Freek; Aerts, Maarten; De Bruyne, Katrien; Van Landschoot, Anita

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the growth medium used on the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra generated and its consequences for species and strain level differentiation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were determined by using a set of 25 strains. The strains were grown on five different culture media that yielded a total of more than 600 mass spectra, including technical and biological replicates. The results demonstrate that the culture medium can have a profound effect on the mass spectra of AAB as observed in the presence and varying signal intensities of peak classes, in particular when culture media do not sustain optimal growth. The observed growth medium effects do not disturb species level differentiation but strongly affect the potential for strain level differentiation. The data prove that a well-constructed and robust MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification database should comprise mass spectra of multiple reference strains per species grown on different culture media to facilitate species and strain level differentiation. PMID:24362425

  4. Photoelectron circular dichroism in the multiphoton ionization by short laser pulses. II. Three- and four-photon ionization of fenchone and camphor.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne D; Artemyev, Anton N; Demekhin, Philipp V

    2018-06-07

    Angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of fenchone and camphor by short intense laser pulses is computed by the time-dependent single center method. Thereby, the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the three-photon resonance enhanced ionization and four-photon above-threshold ionization of these molecules is investigated in detail. The computational results are in satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data, measured for randomly oriented fenchone and camphor molecules at different wavelengths of the exciting pulses. We predict a significant enhancement of the multiphoton PECD for uniaxially oriented fenchone and camphor.

  5. Photoelectron circular dichroism in the multiphoton ionization by short laser pulses. II. Three- and four-photon ionization of fenchone and camphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Anne D.; Artemyev, Anton N.; Demekhin, Philipp V.

    2018-06-01

    Angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of fenchone and camphor by short intense laser pulses is computed by the time-dependent single center method. Thereby, the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the three-photon resonance enhanced ionization and four-photon above-threshold ionization of these molecules is investigated in detail. The computational results are in satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data, measured for randomly oriented fenchone and camphor molecules at different wavelengths of the exciting pulses. We predict a significant enhancement of the multiphoton PECD for uniaxially oriented fenchone and camphor.

  6. A New Method for Studying the Atom: Optical spectra for multiply ionized atoms are produced by means of nuclear-physics techniques.

    PubMed

    Bashkin, S

    1965-05-21

    The new spectroscopy is in its infancy, and many fascinating aspects are yet to be studied. The properties of thin films may be studied by means of the excitation they induce in a given kind of beam. The production of ions with but a single electron offers a means of carefully mapping the nuclear charge distribution without the complications introduced by the normal complement of electrons. The study of high-purity, multiply ionized particles should make for better temperature determinations in hot plasmas. Possibly the data on lifetimes and modes of decay of excited energy levels may assist in the quantitative assignment of element abundances in the stars. One can even attempt to use the glowing beams as sources for absorption spectroscopy. The method seems to permit study of every stage of excitation for every stage of ionization for every element in the periodic table. Practical problems may interfere with so complete a study, but a major extension of our knowledge of atomic structure seems to be at hand.

  7. Mass spectrometry of analytical derivatives. 2. “Ortho” and “Para” effects in electron ionization mass spectra of derivatives of hydroxy, mercapto and amino benzoic acids1

    PubMed Central

    Todua, Nino G.; Mikaia, Anzor I.

    2016-01-01

    Derivatives requiring either anhydrous or aqueous reaction conditions were prepared for robust and reliable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) characterization of hydroxyl, mercapto, and amino benzoic acids Methylation and trialkylsilytation are employed for blocking the acidic function. Alkyl, trimethylsilyl, acetyl, perfluoroacyl and alkoxycarbonyl derivatization groups are introduced to hydroxyl, mercapto and amino functions. The electron ionization induced fragmentation characteristics of corresponding derivatives are explained by comparing the MS1 spectra of unlabeled compounds to their 2H and 13C labeled analogs, and analysis of collision-induced dissociation data from MS2 spectra. Competing fragmentation alternatives are identified and specific decomposition processes are detailed that characterize (a) ortho isomers due to interaction or vicinal functional substituents and (b) para isomers prone to forming para quinoid type structures. Skeletal and hydrogen rearrangements typical for methyl benzoates and the blocking groups are considered when discussing diagnostically important ions. Characteristic ions produced as a result of rearrangements in ortho isomers are classified, and skeletal rearrangements required to produce para quinoid type ions specific for para isomers are noted. Key ions for structure elucidation and differentiation of isomers for derivatives of substituted benzoic acids by GC/MS are suggested. PMID:27891187

  8. Consistent Iron Abundances Derived from Neutral and Singly Ionized Iron Lines in Ultraviolet and Optical Spectra of Six Warm Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Cowan, John J.; Boesgaard, Ann Merchant

    2018-06-01

    Neutral Fe lines in metal-poor stars yield conflicting abundances depending on whether and how deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) are considered. We have collected new high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ultraviolet (UV) spectra of three warm dwarf stars with [Fe/H] ≈ ‑2.9 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We locate archival UV spectra for three other warm dwarfs with [Fe/H] ≈ ‑3.3, ‑2.2, and ‑1.6, supplemented with optical spectra for all six stars. We calculate stellar parameters using methods that are largely independent of the spectra, adopting broadband photometry, color–temperature relations, Gaia parallaxes, and assumed masses. We use the LTE line analysis code MOOG to derive Fe abundances from hundreds of Fe I and Fe II lines with wavelengths from 2290 to 6430 Å. The [Fe/H] ratios derived separately from Fe I and Fe II lines agree in all six stars, with [Fe II/H]–[Fe I/H] ranging from +0.00 ± 0.07 to ‑0.12 ± 0.09 dex, when strong lines and Fe I lines with lower excitation potential <1.2 eV are excluded. This constrains the extent of any deviations from LTE that may occur within this parameter range. While our result confirms non-LTE calculations for some warm, metal-poor dwarfs, it may not be generalizable to more metal-poor dwarfs, where deviations from LTE are predicted to be larger. We also investigate trends of systematically lower abundances derived from Fe I lines in the Balmer continuum region (≈3100–3700 Å), and we conclude that no proposed explanation for this effect can fully account for the observations presently available. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-14232. Some data presented in

  9. Delineation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra using hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Pedrina Gonçalves; Mosel, Frank; Koehling, Hedda Luise; Mueller, Karl Dieter; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunist multidrug-resistant pathogen that causes a wide range of nosocomial infections. Various cystic fibrosis (CF) centres have reported an increasing prevalence of S. maltophilia colonization/infection among patients with this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess specific fingerprints of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients (n = 71) by investigating fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) through gas chromatography (GC) and highly abundant proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and to compare them with isolates obtained from intensive care unit (ICU) patients (n = 20) and the environment (n = 11). Principal component analysis (PCA) of GC-FAME patterns did not reveal a clustering corresponding to distinct CF, ICU or environmental types. Based on the peak area index, it was observed that S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients produced significantly higher amounts of fatty acids in comparison with ICU patients and the environmental isolates. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the MALDI-TOF MS peak profiles of S. maltophilia revealed the presence of five large clusters, suggesting a high phenotypic diversity. Although HCA of MALDI-TOF mass spectra did not result in distinct clusters predominantly composed of CF isolates, PCA revealed the presence of a distinct cluster composed of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients. Our data suggest that S. maltophilia colonizing CF patients tend to modify not only their fatty acid patterns but also their protein patterns as a response to adaptation in the unfavourable environment of the CF lung. © 2014 The Authors.

  10. Cold Multiphoton Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Peter; Cooke, William; Tracy, Eugene

    2008-05-01

    We present evidence of a cold multiphoton MALDI process occurring at a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (RTIL)/metal interface. Our RTIL, 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, remains a stable liquid at room temperatures, even at pressures lower than 10-9 torr. We focus the 2^nd harmonic of a pulsed (2ns pulse length) Nd:YAG laser onto a gold grid coated with RTIL to generate a cold (narrow velocity spread) ion source with temporal resolution comparable to current MALDI ion sources. Unlike conventional MALDI, we believe multiphoton MALDI does not rely on collisional ionization within the ejection plume, and thus produces large signals at laser intensities just above threshold. Removing the collisional ionization process allow us to eject material from smaller regions of a sample, enhancing the suitability of multiphoton MALDI as an ion imaging technique.

  11. Central 300 PC of the Galaxy Probed by the Infrared Spectra of H_3^+ and Co: I. Predominance of Warm and Diffuse Gas and High H_2 Ionization Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Takeshi; Geballe, Thomas R.; Goto, Miwa; Usuda, Tomonori; Indriolo, Nick

    2016-06-01

    A low-resolution 2.0-2.5 μm survey of ˜500 very red point-like objects in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of our Galaxy, initiated in 2008, has revealed many new bright objects with featureless spectra that are suitable for high resolution absorption spectroscopy of H_3^+ and CO. We now have altogether 48 objects mostly close to the Galactic plane located from 142 pc to the west of Sgr A* to 120 pc east allowing us to probe dense and diffuse gas by H_3^+ and dense gas by CO. Our observations demonstrate that the warm (˜250 K) and diffuse (≤100 cm-3) gas with a large column length (≥30 pc) initially observed toward the brightest star in the CMZ, GCS3-2 of the Quintuplet Cluster, exists throughout the CMZ with the surface filling factor of ˜ 100% dominating the region. The column densities of CO in the CMZ are found to be much less than those in the three foreground spiral arms except in the directions of Sgr B and Sgr E complexes and indicate that the volume filling factor of dense clouds of 10% previously estimated is a gross overestimate for the front half of the CMZ. Nevertheless the predominance of the newly found diffuse molecular gas makes the term "Central Molecular Zone" even more appropriate. The ultra-hot X-rays emitting plasma which some thought to dominate the region must be non existent except near the stars and SNRs. Recently the H_2 fraction f(H_2) in diffuse gas of the CMZ has been reported to be ˜0.6. If we use this value, the cosmic ray H_2 ionization rate ζ of a few times 10-15 s-1 reported earlier^b on the assumption of f(H_2)=1 needs to be increased by a factor of ˜3 since the value is approximately inversely proportional to f(H_2)^2. Geballe, T. R., Oka, T., Lambridges, E., Yeh, S. C. C., Schlegelmilch, B., Goto, M., Westrick, C. W., WI07 at the 70th ISMS, Urbana, IL, USA,2015 Oka, T., Geballe, T. R., Goto, M., Usuda, T., McCall, B. J. 2005, ApJ, 632, 882 Le Petit, F., Ruaud, M., Bron, E., Godard, B., Roueff, E., Languignon, D., Le

  12. FSFE: Fake Spectra Flux Extractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Simeon

    2017-10-01

    The fake spectra flux extractor generates simulated quasar absorption spectra from a particle or adaptive mesh-based hydrodynamic simulation. It is implemented as a python module. It can produce both hydrogen and metal line spectra, if the simulation includes metals. The cloudy table for metal ionization fractions is included. Unlike earlier spectral generation codes, it produces absorption from each particle close to the sight-line individually, rather than first producing an average density in each spectral pixel, thus substantially preserving more of the small-scale velocity structure of the gas. The code supports both Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO.

  13. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... diuretics Thrombocytosis (high platelet count) Tumors Vitamin A excess Vitamin D excess Lower-than-normal levels may be due to: Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Osteomalacia Pancreatitis Renal failure Rickets Vitamin D deficiency Alternative Names Free calcium; Ionized calcium ...

  14. X-ray spectra of supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szymkowiak, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray spectra were obtained from fields in three supernova remnants with the solid state spectrometer of the HEAO 2 satellite. These spectra, which contain lines from K-shell transitions of several abundant elements with atomic numbers between 10 and 22, were compared with various models, including some of spectra that would be produced by adiabatic phase remnants when the time-dependence of the ionization is considered.

  15. Inequality spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-03-01

    Inequality indices are widely applied in economics and in the social sciences as quantitative measures of the socioeconomic inequality of human societies. The application of inequality indices extends to size-distributions at large, where these indices can be used as general gauges of statistical heterogeneity. Moreover, as inequality indices are plentiful, arrays of such indices facilitate high-detail quantification of statistical heterogeneity. In this paper we elevate from arrays of inequality indices to inequality spectra: continuums of inequality indices that are parameterized by a single control parameter. We present a general methodology of constructing Lorenz-based inequality spectra, apply the general methodology to establish four sets of inequality spectra, investigate the properties of these sets, and show how these sets generalize known inequality gauges such as: the Gini index, the extended Gini index, the Rényi index, and hill curves.

  16. IONIZATION CHAMBER

    DOEpatents

    Redman, W.C.; Shonka, F.R.

    1958-02-18

    This patent describes a novel ionization chamber which is well suited to measuring the radioactivity of the various portions of a wire as the wire is moved at a uniform speed, in order to produce the neutron flux traverse pattern of a reactor in which the wire was previously exposed to neutron radiation. The ionization chamber of the present invention is characterized by the construction wherein the wire is passed through a tubular, straight electrode and radiation shielding material is disposed along the wire except at an intermediate, narrow area where the second electrode of the chamber is located.

  17. Ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, C. A.; Grigoryev, Y. G.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation encountered in space are considered. Biological experiments conducted in space and some experiences of astronauts during space flight are described. The effects of various levels of radiation exposure and the determination of permissible dosages are discussed.

  18. NIST Databases on Atomic Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, J.; Wiese, W. L.; Martin, W. C.; Musgrove, A.; Fuhr, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    The NIST atomic and molecular spectroscopic databases now available on the World Wide Web through the NIST Physics Laboratory homepage include Atomic Spectra Database, Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms, Spectrum of Platinum Lamp for Ultraviolet Spectrograph Calibration, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Transition Probabilities, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Spectral Line Broadening, and Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database. The Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) [1] offers evaluated data on energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities for atoms and atomic ions. Data are given for some 950 spectra and 70,000 energy levels. About 91,000 spectral lines are included, with transition probabilities for about half of these. Additional data resulting from our ongoing critical compilations will be included in successive new versions of ASD. We plan to include, for example, our recently published data for some 16,000 transitions covering most ions of the iron-group elements, as well as Cu, Kr, and Mo [2]. Our compilations benefit greatly from experimental and theoretical atomic-data research being carried out in the NIST Atomic Physics Division. A new compilation covering spectra of the rare gases in all stages of ionization, for example, revealed a need for improved data in the infrared. We have thus measured these needed data with our high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer [3]. An upcoming new database will give wavelengths and intensities for the stronger lines of all neutral and singly-ionized atoms, along with energy levels and transition probabilities for the persistent lines [4]. A critical compilation of the transition probabilities of Ba I and Ba II [5] has been completed and several other compilations of atomic transition probabilities are nearing completion. These include data for all spectra of Na, Mg, Al, and Si [6]. Newly compiled data for selected ions of Ne, Mg, Si and S, will form the basis for a new

  19. Quantum interference in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Hao, XiaoLei; Wang, YanLan; Chen, YongJu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Xiao, ZhiLei; Sun, RenPing; Lai, XuanYang; Hu, ShiLin; Liu, MingQing; Shu, Zheng; Wang, XiaoDong; Li, WeiDong; Becker, Wilhelm; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Quantum interference plays an important role in various intense-laser-driven atomic phenomena, e.g., above-threshold ionization and high-order-harmonic generation, and provides a useful tool in ultrafast imaging of atomic and molecular structure and dynamics. However, it has eluded observation in nonsequential double ionization (NSDI), which serves as an ideal prototype to study electron-electron correlation. Thus far, NSDI usually could be well understood from a semiclassical perspective, where all quantum aspects have been ignored after the first electron has tunneled. Here we perform coincidence measurements for NSDI of xenon subject to laser pulses at 2400 nm. It is found that the intensity dependence of the asymmetry parameter between the yields in the second and fourth quadrants and those in the first and third quadrants of the electron-momentum-correlation distributions exhibits a peculiar fast oscillatory structure, which is beyond the scope of the semiclassical picture. Our theoretical analysis indicates that this oscillation can be attributed to interference between the contributions of different excited states in the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization channel. Our work demonstrates the significant role of quantum interference in NSDI and may create an additional pathway towards manipulation and imaging of the ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics in intense laser fields.

  20. Ratios of double to single ionization of He and Ne by strong 400-nm laser pulses using the quantitative rescattering theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhangjin; Li, Xiaojin; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Lin, C. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the ratio between double and single ionization of He and Ne by intense laser pulses at wavelengths of 390 and 400 nm, respectively. The yields of doubly charged ions due to nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) are obtained by employing the quantitative rescattering (QRS) model. In this model, the NSDI ionization probability is expressed as a product of the returning electron wave packet (RWP) and the total scattering cross sections for laser-free electron impact excitation and electron impact ionization of the parent ion. According to the QRS theory, the same RWP is also responsible for the emission of high-energy above-threshold ionization photoelectrons. To obtain absolute double-ionization yields, the RWP is generated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) within a one-electron model. The same TDSE results can also be taken to obtain single-ionization yields. By using the TDSE results to calibrate single ionization and the RWP obtained from the strong-field approximation, we further simplify the calculation such that the nonuniform laser intensity distribution in the focused laser beam can be accounted for. In addition, laser-free electron impact excitation and ionization cross sections are calculated using the state-of-the-art many-electron R -matrix theory. The simulation results for double-to-single-ionization ratios are found to compare well with experimental data and support the validity of the nonsequential double-ionization mechanism for the covered intensity region.

  1. Analysis of Human Proteome Organization Plasma Proteome Project (HUPO PPP) reference specimens using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry: multi-institution correlation of spectra and identification of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Alex J; Stemmer, Paul M; Zhang, Zhen; Adam, Bao-Ling; Morgan, William T; Caffrey, Rebecca E; Podust, Vladimir N; Patel, Manisha; Lim, Lih-Yin; Shipulina, Natalia V; Chan, Daniel W; Semmes, O John; Leung, Hon-Chiu Eastwood

    2005-08-01

    We report on a multicenter analysis of HUPO reference specimens using SELDI-TOF MS. Eight sites submitted data obtained from serum and plasma reference specimen analysis. Spectra from five sites passed preliminary quality assurance tests and were subjected to further analysis. Intralaboratory CVs varied from 15 to 43%. A correlation coefficient matrix generated using data from these five sites demonstrated high level of correlation, with values >0.7 on 37 of 42 spectra. More than 50 peaks were differentially present among the various sample types, as observed on three chip surfaces. Additionally, peaks at approximately 9200 and approximately 15,950 m/z were present only in select reference specimens. Chromatographic fractionation using anion-exchange, membrane cutoff, and reverse phase chromatography, was employed for protein purification of the approximately 9200 m/z peak. It was identified as the haptoglobin alpha subunit after peptide mass fingerprinting and high-resolution MS/MS analysis. The differential expression of this protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis. These pilot studies demonstrate the potential of the SELDI platform for reproducible and consistent analysis of serum/plasma across multiple sites and also for targeted biomarker discovery and protein identification. This approach could be exploited for population-based studies in all phases of the HUPO PPP.

  2. Theory of dissociative tunneling ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensmark, Jens; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the dissociative tunneling ionization process. Analytic expressions for the nuclear kinetic energy distribution of the ionization rates are derived. A particularly simple expression for the spectrum is found by using the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation in conjunction with the reflection principle. These spectra are compared to exact non-BO ab initio spectra obtained through model calculations with a quantum mechanical treatment of both the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. In the regime where the BO approximation is applicable, imaging of the BO nuclear wave function is demonstrated to be possible through reverse use of the reflection principle, when accounting appropriately for the electronic ionization rate. A qualitative difference between the exact and BO wave functions in the asymptotic region of large electronic distances is shown. Additionally, the behavior of the wave function across the turning line is seen to be reminiscent of light refraction. For weak fields, where the BO approximation does not apply, the weak-field asymptotic theory describes the spectrum accurately.

  3. The investigation of time dependent flame structure by ionization probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventura, J. M. P.; Suzuki, T.; Yule, A. J.; Ralph, S.; Chigier, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    Ionization probes were used to measure mean ionization current and frequency spectra, auto-correlations and cross-correlations in jet flames with variation in the initial Reynolds numbers and equivalence ratios. Special attention was paid to the transitional region between the burner exit plane and the plane of onset of turbulence.

  4. Weakly ionized cosmic gas: Ionization and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, M.; Mendis, D. A.; Chow, V. W.

    1994-01-01

    Since collective plasma behavior may determine important transport processes (e.g., plasma diffusion across a magnetic field) in certain cosmic environments, it is important to delineate the parameter space in which weakly ionized cosmic gases may be characterized as plasmas. In this short note, we do so. First, we use values for the ionization fraction given in the literature, wherein the ionization is generally assumed to be due primarily to ionization by cosmic rays. We also discuss an additional mechanism for ionization in such environments, namely, the photoelectric emission of electrons from cosmic dust grains in an interstellar Far Ultra Violet (FUV) radiation field. Simple estimates suggest that under certain conditions this mechanism may dominate cosmic ray ionization, and possibly also the photoionization of metal atoms by the interstellar FUV field, and thereby lead to an enhanced ionization level.

  5. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  6. Resonant ionization spectroscopy of autoionizing Rydberg states in cobalt and redetermination of its ionization potential

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan; Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.

    We obtained multi-step resonance ionization spectroscopy of cobalt using a hot-cavity laser ion source and three Ti:Sapphire lasers. Furthermore, the photoionization spectra revealed members of five new autoionizing Rydberg series that originate from three different lower levels of 3d 74s5s h 4F 9/2, 3d 74s4d f 4G 11/2, and 3d 74s4d f 4H 13/2 and converge to the first four excited states of singly ionized Co. Our analyses of the Rydberg series yield 63564.689 0.036 cm -1 as the first ionization potential of Co, which is an order of magnitude more accurate than the previous estimation. Using a three-step resonancemore » ionization scheme that employs an autoinizing Rydberg state in the last transition, we obtained an overall ionization efficiency of about 18% for Co.« less

  7. Resonant ionization spectroscopy of autoionizing Rydberg states in cobalt and redetermination of its ionization potential

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yuan; Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; ...

    2017-03-20

    We obtained multi-step resonance ionization spectroscopy of cobalt using a hot-cavity laser ion source and three Ti:Sapphire lasers. Furthermore, the photoionization spectra revealed members of five new autoionizing Rydberg series that originate from three different lower levels of 3d 74s5s h 4F 9/2, 3d 74s4d f 4G 11/2, and 3d 74s4d f 4H 13/2 and converge to the first four excited states of singly ionized Co. Our analyses of the Rydberg series yield 63564.689 0.036 cm -1 as the first ionization potential of Co, which is an order of magnitude more accurate than the previous estimation. Using a three-step resonancemore » ionization scheme that employs an autoinizing Rydberg state in the last transition, we obtained an overall ionization efficiency of about 18% for Co.« less

  8. Comparing Ultraviolet Spectra Against Calculations: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Ruth C.

    2003-01-01

    The five-year goal of this effort is to calculate high fidelity mid-UV spectra for individual stars and stellar systems for a wide range of ages, abundances, and abundance ratios. In this first year, the emphasis was placed on revising the list of atomic line parameters used to calculate mid-UV spectra. First, new identifications of atomic lines and measurements of their transition probabilities were obtained for lines of the first and second ionization stages of iron-peak elements. Second, observed mid-UV and optical spectra for standard stars were re-analyzed and compared to new calculations, to refine the determination of transition probabilities and to estimate the identity of lines still missing from the laboratory lists. As evidenced by the figures, a dramatic improvement has resulted in the reproduction of the spectra of standard stars by the calculations.

  9. Wavelengths, Transition Probabilities, and Energy Levels for the Spectra of Strontium Ions (Sr II through Sr XXXVIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansonetti, J. E.

    2012-03-01

    Energy levels, with designations and uncertainties, have been compiled for the spectra of strontium (Z=38) ions from singly ionized to hydrogen-like. Wavelengths with classifications, intensities, and transition probabilities are also tabulated. In addition, ground states and ionization energies are listed. For many ionization stages experimental data are available; however for those for which only theoretical calculations or fitted values exist, these are reported. There are a few ionization stages for which only a calculated ionization potential is available.

  10. Ionizing Energy Depositions After Fast Neutron Interactions in Silicon

    DOE PAGES

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pospisil, Stanislav; Caicedo, Ivan; ...

    2016-06-01

    In our study we present the ionizing energy depositions in a 300 μm thick silicon layer after fast neutron impact. With the Time-of-Flight (ToF) technique, the ionizing energy deposition spectra of recoil silicons and secondary charged particles were assigned to (quasi-)monoenergetic neutron energies in the range from 180 keV to hundreds of MeV. We also show and interpret representative measured energy spectra. By separating the ionizing energy losses of the recoil silicon from energy depositions by products of nuclear reactions, the competition of ionizing (IEL) and non-ionizing energy losses (NIEL) of a recoil silicon within the silicon lattice was investigated.more » Furthermore, the data give supplementary information to the results of a previous measurement and are compared with different theoretical predictions.« less

  11. Ionizing Energy Depositions After Fast Neutron Interactions in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pospisil, Stanislav; Caicedo, Ivan

    In our study we present the ionizing energy depositions in a 300 μm thick silicon layer after fast neutron impact. With the Time-of-Flight (ToF) technique, the ionizing energy deposition spectra of recoil silicons and secondary charged particles were assigned to (quasi-)monoenergetic neutron energies in the range from 180 keV to hundreds of MeV. We also show and interpret representative measured energy spectra. By separating the ionizing energy losses of the recoil silicon from energy depositions by products of nuclear reactions, the competition of ionizing (IEL) and non-ionizing energy losses (NIEL) of a recoil silicon within the silicon lattice was investigated.more » Furthermore, the data give supplementary information to the results of a previous measurement and are compared with different theoretical predictions.« less

  12. Electron impact ionization of the gas-phase sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, Irina; Markush, Pavlo; Zavilopulo, Anatoly; Shpenik, Otto

    2015-03-01

    Ionization and dissociative ionization of the sorbitol molecule by electron impact have been studied using two different experimental methods. In the mass range of m/ z = 10-190, the mass spectra of sorbitol were recorded at the ionizing electron energies of 70 and 30 eV. The ion yield curves for the fragment ions have been analyzed and the appearance energies of these ions have been determined. The relative total ionization cross section of the sorbitol molecule was measured using monoenergetic electron beam. Possible fragmentation pathways for the sorbitol molecule were proposed.

  13. Elemental Spectra from the First ATIC Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, H. S.; Adams, J. H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K. E.; Changv, J.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Guzik, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of Z = l to 26 cosmic rays over the energy range from approx. 10(exp 11) to approx. 10(exp 14) eV. The instrument consists of a silicon matrix charge detector, plastic scintillator strip hodoscopes interleaved with graphite interaction targets, and a fully active Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter. ATIC had two successful Long Duration Balloon flights launched from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2000 and 2002. In this paper, spectra of various elements measured during the first 16 day flight are presented.

  14. Ultrasound ionization of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-I; Wang, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Nelson G; Wu, Chung-Yi; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2010-09-15

    To date, mass spectrometric analysis of biomolecules has been primarily performed with either matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) or electrospray ionization (ESI). In this work, ultrasound produced by a simple piezoelectric device is shown as an alternative method for soft ionization of biomolecules. Precursor ions of proteins, saccharides and fatty acids showed little fragmentation. Cavitation is considered as a primary mechanism for the ionization of biomolecules. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ionization Energies of Lanthanides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Peter F.; Smith, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how data are used to analyze the pattern of ionization energies of the lanthanide elements. Different observed pathways of ionization between different ground states are discussed, and the effects of pairing, exchange, and orbital interactions on ionization energies of the lanthanides are evaluated. When all the above…

  16. Rocket measurements of mesospheric ionization irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, R. B.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Langmuir probe technique for measurement of electron concentration in the mesosphere is capable of excellent altitude resolution, of order 1 m. Measurements from nine daytime rocket flights carrying an electron density fine structure experiment frequently show small scale ionization structures in the altitude region 70 to 90 km. The irregularities are believed to be the result of turbulent advection of ions and electrons. The fine structure experiment flown by the University of Illinois is described and methods of analyzing the collected data is presented. Theories of homogeneous, isotropic turbulence are reviewed. Power spectra of the measured irregularities are calculated and compared to spectra predicted by turbulence theories.

  17. Ionizing laser propagation and spectral phase determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelberger, D. E.; Nakamura, K.; Lehe, R.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Benedetti, C.; Mao, H.-S.; Daniels, J.; Dale, N.; Swanson, K. K.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2017-03-01

    Ionization-induced blueshifting is investigated through INF&RNO simulations and experimental studies at the Berkeley Laboratory Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Center. The effects of spectral phase and optical compression are explored. An in-situ method for verifying the spectral phase of an intense laser pulse at focus is presented, based on the effects of optical compression on the morphology of the blueshifted laser spectra.

  18. Analytical instruments, ionization sources, and ionization methods

    DOEpatents

    Atkinson, David A.; Mottishaw, Paul

    2006-04-11

    Methods and apparatus for simultaneous vaporization and ionization of a sample in a spectrometer prior to introducing the sample into the drift tube of the analyzer are disclosed. The apparatus includes a vaporization/ionization source having an electrically conductive conduit configured to receive sample particulate which is conveyed to a discharge end of the conduit. Positioned proximate to the discharge end of the conduit is an electrically conductive reference device. The conduit and the reference device act as electrodes and have an electrical potential maintained between them sufficient to cause a corona effect, which will cause at least partial simultaneous ionization and vaporization of the sample particulate. The electrical potential can be maintained to establish a continuous corona, or can be held slightly below the breakdown potential such that arrival of particulate at the point of proximity of the electrodes disrupts the potential, causing arcing and the corona effect. The electrical potential can also be varied to cause periodic arcing between the electrodes such that particulate passing through the arc is simultaneously vaporized and ionized. The invention further includes a spectrometer containing the source. The invention is particularly useful for ion mobility spectrometers and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers.

  19. Ultrafast above-threshold dynamics of the radical anion of a prototypical quinone electron-acceptor.

    PubMed

    Horke, Daniel A; Li, Quansong; Blancafort, Lluís; Verlet, Jan R R

    2013-08-01

    Quinones feature prominently as electron acceptors in nature. Their electron-transfer reactions are often highly exergonic, for which Marcus theory predicts reduced electron-transfer rates because of a free-energy barrier that occurs in the inverted region. However, the electron-transfer kinetics that involve quinones can appear barrierless. Here, we consider the intrinsic properties of the para-benzoquinone radical anion, which serves as the prototypical electron-transfer reaction product involving a quinone-based acceptor. Using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, we show that excitation at 400 and 480 nm yields excited states that are unbound with respect to electron loss. These excited states are shown to decay on a sub-40 fs timescale through a series of conical intersections with lower-lying excited states, ultimately to form the ground anionic state and avoid autodetachment. From an isolated electron-acceptor perspective, this ultrafast stabilization mechanism accounts for the ability of para-benzoquinone to capture and retain electrons.

  20. THE SPITZER ATLAS OF STELLAR SPECTRA (SASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ardila, David R.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Makowiecki, Wojciech

    2010-12-15

    We present the Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra, which includes 159 stellar spectra (5-32 {mu}m; R {approx} 100) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. This Atlas gathers representative spectra of a broad section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, intended to serve as a general stellar spectral reference in the mid-infrared. It includes stars from all luminosity classes, as well as Wolf-Rayet (WR) objects. Furthermore, it includes some objects of intrinsic interest, such as blue stragglers and certain pulsating variables. All of the spectra have been uniformly reduced, and all are available online. For dwarfs and giants, themore » spectra of early-type objects are relatively featureless, characterized by the presence of hydrogen lines in A spectral types. Besides these, the most noticeable photospheric features correspond to water vapor and silicon monoxide in late-type objects and methane and ammonia features at the latest spectral types. Most supergiant spectra in the Atlas present evidence of circumstellar gas and/or dust. The sample includes five M supergiant spectra, which show strong dust excesses and in some cases polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features. Sequences of WR stars present the well-known pattern of lines of He I and He II, as well as forbidden lines of ionized metals. The characteristic flat-top shape of the [Ne III] line is evident even at these low spectral resolutions. Several Luminous Blue Variables and other transition stars are present in the Atlas and show very diverse spectra, dominated by circumstellar gas and dust features. We show that the [8]-[24] Spitzer colors (IRAC and MIPS) are poor predictors of spectral type for most luminosity classes.« less

  1. The Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra (SASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, David R.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Makowiecki, Wojciech; Stauffer, John; Song, Inseok; Rho, Jeonghee; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie

    2010-12-01

    We present the Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra, which includes 159 stellar spectra (5-32 μm R ~ 100) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. This Atlas gathers representative spectra of a broad section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, intended to serve as a general stellar spectral reference in the mid-infrared. It includes stars from all luminosity classes, as well as Wolf-Rayet (WR) objects. Furthermore, it includes some objects of intrinsic interest, such as blue stragglers and certain pulsating variables. All of the spectra have been uniformly reduced, and all are available online. For dwarfs and giants, the spectra of early-type objects are relatively featureless, characterized by the presence of hydrogen lines in A spectral types. Besides these, the most noticeable photospheric features correspond to water vapor and silicon monoxide in late-type objects and methane and ammonia features at the latest spectral types. Most supergiant spectra in the Atlas present evidence of circumstellar gas and/or dust. The sample includes five M supergiant spectra, which show strong dust excesses and in some cases polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features. Sequences of WR stars present the well-known pattern of lines of He I and He II, as well as forbidden lines of ionized metals. The characteristic flat-top shape of the [Ne III] line is evident even at these low spectral resolutions. Several Luminous Blue Variables and other transition stars are present in the Atlas and show very diverse spectra, dominated by circumstellar gas and dust features. We show that the [8]-[24] Spitzer colors (IRAC and MIPS) are poor predictors of spectral type for most luminosity classes.

  2. The Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra (SASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, D. R.; van Dyk, S. D., Makowiecki, W.; Stauffer, J.; Song, I.; Ro, J.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2011-11-01

    We present the Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra (SASS), which includes 159 stellar spectra (5 to 32 micron; R about 100) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. This Atlas gathers representative spectra of a broad section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, intended to serve as a general stellar spectral reference in the mid-infrared. It includes stars from all luminosity classes, as well as Wolf-Rayet (WR) objects. Furthermore, it includes some objects of intrinsic interest, like blue stragglers and certain pulsating variables. All the spectra have been uniformly reduced, and all are available online. For dwarfs and giants, the spectra of early-type objects are relatively featureless, dominated by Hydrogen lines around A spectral types. Besides these, the most noticeable photospheric features correspond to water vapor and silicon monoxide in late-type objects and methane and ammonia features at the latest spectral types. Most supergiant spectra in the Atlas present evidence of circumstellar gas. The sample includes five M supergiant spectra, which show strong dust excesses and in some cases PAH features. Sequences of WR stars present the well-known pattern of lines of He I and He II, as well as forbidden lines of ionized metals. The characteristic flat-top shape of the [Ne III] line is evident even at these low spectral resolutions. Several Luminous Blue Variables and other transition stars are present in the Atlas and show very diverse spectra, dominated by circumstellar gas and dust features. We show that the [8]-[24] Spitzer colors (IRAC and MIPS) are poor predictors of spectral type for most luminosity classes.

  3. Interpretation of comet spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpigny, C.

    1976-01-01

    The spectra of comets are discussed by considering successively a number of molecules that have been studied recently: CN, CH, C2, C3, OH, CH(+). The first two of this list, CN and CH, have been analyzed in greatest detail. A classification of the spectra of cometary heads is introduced.

  4. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  5. Ionization pattern obtained in electrospray ionization or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interfaces for authorized antidepressants in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Iulia; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Vlǎdescu, Marian; Truţǎ, Elena; Sultan, Carmen; Viscol, Oana; Horhotǎ, Luminiţa; Radu, Simona

    2016-12-01

    Antidepressants were found in 1950. In the 1990s there was a new generation of antidepressants. They act on the level of certain neurotransmitters extrasinpatic by its growth. After their mode of action antidepressants may be: SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors); (Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors); SARIs (Serotonin Antagonist Reuptake Inhibitors); NRIs (Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors); NDRIs (Norepinephrine-Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors) NDRAs (Norepinephrine-Dopamine Releasing Agents); TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressants); TeCAs (Tetracyclic Antidepressants); MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors); agonist receptor 5-HT1A (5- hydroxytryptamine); antagonist receptor 5-HT2; SSREs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Enhancers) and Sigma agonist receptor. To determine the presence of antidepressants in biological products, it has been used a system HPLC-MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry) Varian 12001. The system is equipped with APCI (Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization) or ESI (ElectroSpray Ionization) interface. To find antidepressants in unknown samples is necessary to recognize them after mass spectrum. Because the mass spectrum it is dependent on obtaining private parameters work of HPLC-MS system, and control interfaces, the mass spectra library was filled with the mass spectra of all approved antidepressants in Romania. The paper shows the mass spectra obtained in the HPLCMS system.

  6. ON-LINE ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS AEROSOLS BY LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION. (R823980)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work the effects of water on the laser desorption ionization mass spectra of single aerosol particles are explored. Aqueous aerosols are produced by passing dry particles through a humid environment so that they undergo deliquescent growth. Laser desorption ionization is ...

  7. Lily Pad Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The color image on the lower left from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the 'Lily Pad' bounce-mark area at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was acquired on the 3rd sol, or martian day, of Opportunity's mission (Jan.26, 2004). The upper left image is a monochrome (single filter) image from the rover's panoramic camera, showing regions from which spectra were extracted from the 'Lily Pad' area. As noted by the line graph on the right, the green spectra is from the undisturbed surface and the red spectra is from the airbag bounce mark.

  8. Towards a full reference library of MS(n) spectra. Testing of a library containing 3126 MS2 spectra of 1743 compounds.

    PubMed

    Milman, Boris L

    2005-01-01

    A library consisting of 3766 MS(n) spectra of 1743 compounds, including 3126 MS2 spectra acquired mainly using ion trap (IT) and triple-quadrupole (QqQ) instruments, was composed of numerous collections/sources. Ionization techniques were mainly electrospray ionization and also atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and chemical ionization. The library was tested for the performance in identification of unknowns, and in this context this work is believed to be the largest of all known tests of product-ion mass spectral libraries. The MS2 spectra of the same compounds from different collections were in turn divided into spectra of 'unknown' and reference compounds. For each particular compound, library searches were performed resulting in selection by taking into account the best matches for each spectral collection/source. Within each collection/source, replicate MS2 spectra differed in the collision energy used. Overall, there were up to 950 search results giving the best match factors and their ranks in corresponding hit lists. In general, the correct answers were obtained as the 1st rank in up to 60% of the search results when retrieved with (on average) 2.2 'unknown' and 6.2 reference replicates per compound. With two or more replicates of both 'unknown' and reference spectra (the average numbers of replicates were 4.0 and 7.8, respectively), the fraction of correct answers in the 1st rank increased to 77%. This value is close to the performance of established electron ionization mass spectra libraries (up to 79%) found by other workers. The hypothesis that MS2 spectra better match reference spectra acquired using the same type of tandem mass spectrometer (IT or QqQ) was neither strongly proved nor rejected here. The present work shows that MS2 spectral libraries containing sufficiently numerous different entries for each compound are sufficiently efficient for identification of unknowns and suitable for use with different tandem mass spectrometers. 2005 John

  9. Collisional Ionization Equilibrium for Optically Thin Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryans, P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Savin, D. W.; Badnell, N. R.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Laming, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Reliably interpreting spectra from electron-ionized cosmic plasmas requires accurate ionization balance calculations for the plasma in question. However, much of the atomic data needed for these calculations have not been generated using modern theoretical methods and their reliability are often highly suspect. We have utilized state-of-the-art calculations of dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for the hydrogenic through Na-like ions of all elements from He to Zn. We have also utilized state-of-the-art radiative recombination (RR) rate coefficient calculations for the bare through Na-like ions of all elements from H to Zn. Using our data and the recommended electron impact ionization data of Mazzotta et al. (1998), we have calculated improved collisional ionization equilibrium calculations. We compare our calculated fractional ionic abundances using these data with those presented by Mazzotta et al. (1998) for all elements from H to Ni, and with the fractional abundances derived from the modern DR and RR calculations of Gu (2003a,b, 2004) for Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni.

  10. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  11. Directed Field Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoric, Vincent C.; Kang, Xinyue; Liu, Zhimin Cheryl; Rowley, Zoe A.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2017-04-01

    Selective field ionization is an important experimental technique used to study the state distribution of Rydberg atoms. This is achieved by applying a steadily increasing electric field, which successively ionizes more tightly bound states. An atom prepared in an energy eigenstate encounters many avoided Stark level crossings on the way to ionization. As it traverses these avoided crossings, its amplitude is split among multiple different states, spreading out the time resolved electron ionization signal. By perturbing the electric field ramp, we can change how the atoms traverse the avoided crossings, and thus alter the shape of the ionization signal. We have used a genetic algorithm to evolve these perturbations in real time in order to arrive at a target ionization signal shape. This process is robust to large fluctuations in experimental conditions. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1607335 and No. 1607377 and used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number OCI-1053575.

  12. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The "magic" that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers.

  13. Electron ionization and dissociation of aliphatic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, P.; Shchukin, P.; Kočíšek, J.; Matejčík, Š.

    2012-09-01

    We present experimental and theoretical study of electron ionization and dissociative ionization to the gas phase amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine. A crossed electron/molecular beams technique equipped with quadrupole mass analyzer has been applied to measure mass spectra and ion efficiency curves for formation of particular ions. From experimental data the ionization energies of the molecules and the appearance energies of the fragment ions were determined. Ab initio calculations (Density Functional Theory and G3MP2 methods) were performed in order to calculate the fragmentation paths and interpret the experimental data. The experimental ionization energies of parent molecules [P]+ 8.91 ± 0.05, 8.85 ± 0.05, and 8.79 ± 0.05 eV and G3MP2 ionization energies (adiabatic) of 8.89, 8.88, and 8.81 eV were determined for valine, leucine, and isoleucine, respectively, as well as the experimental and theoretical threshold energies for dissociative ionization channels. The comparison of experimental data with calculations resulted in identification of the ions as well as the neutral fragments formed in the dissociative reactions. Around 15 mass/charge ratio fragments were identified from the mass spectra by comparison of experimental appearance energies with calculated reaction enthalpies for particular dissociative reactions.

  14. Ionization and dissociation of molecular ion beams by intense ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Itzhak, Itzik

    2007-06-01

    Laser-induced dissociation and ionization of a diatomic molecular-ion beam were simultaneously measured using coincidence 3D momentum imaging, with direct separation of the two processes even where the fragment kinetic energy is the same for both processes. We mainly focus on the fundamental H2^+ molecule in 7-135 fs laser pulses having 10^13-10^15 W/cm^2 peak intensity. At high intensities the kinetic energy release (KER) distribution following ionization of H2^+ was measured to be broad and structureless. Its centroid shifts toward higher energies as the laser intensity is increased indicating that ionization shifts to smaller internuclear distances. In contrast, a surprising structure is observed near the ionization threshold, which we call above threshold Coulomb explosion (ATCE) [1]. The angular distributions of the two H^+ fragments are strongly peaked along the laser polarization, and the angular distribution is described well by [cos^2θ]^n, where n is the number of photons predicted by our ATCE model [1]. Our data indicates that n varies with the laser wavelength as predicted by the model. The KER and angular distributions of H2^+ dissociation change dramatically with decreasing pulse width over the 7-135 fs range in contrast to the reported trend for longer pulses. Others contributing to this work: A.M. Sayler, P.Q. Wang, J. McKenna, B. Gaire, Nora G. Johnson, E. Parke, K.D. Carnes, and B.D. Esry. Thank are due to Professor Zenghu Chang for providing the intense laser beams and Dr. Charles Fehrenbach for his help with the ion beams. [1] B.D. Esry, A.M. Sayler, P.Q. Wang, K.D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013003 (2006).

  15. Ionization Waves of Arbitrary Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D.; Franke, P.; Katz, J.; Palastro, J. P.; Begishev, I. A.; Boni, R.; Bromage, J.; Milder, A. L.; Shaw, J. L.; Froula, D. H.

    2018-06-01

    Flying focus is a technique that uses a chirped laser beam focused by a highly chromatic lens to produce an extended focal region within which the peak laser intensity can propagate at any velocity. When that intensity is high enough to ionize a background gas, an ionization wave will track the intensity isosurface corresponding to the ionization threshold. We report on the demonstration of such ionization waves of arbitrary velocity. Subluminal and superluminal ionization fronts were produced that propagated both forward and backward relative to the ionizing laser. All backward and all superluminal cases mitigated the issue of ionization-induced refraction that typically inhibits the formation of long, contiguous plasma channels.

  16. Fuel cell with ionization membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A fuel cell is disclosed comprising an ionization membrane having at least one area through which gas is passed, and which ionizes the gas passing therethrough, and a cathode for receiving the ions generated by the ionization membrane. The ionization membrane may include one or more openings in the membrane with electrodes that are located closer than a mean free path of molecules within the gas to be ionized. Methods of manufacture are also provided.

  17. Ionization cross section, pressure shift and isotope shift measurements of osmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Yoshikazu; Mukai, Momo; Watanabe, Yutaka; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Ahmed, Murad; Kakiguchi, Yutaka; Kimura, Sota; Miyatake, Hiroari; Schury, Peter; Wada, Michiharu; Jeong, Sun-Chan

    2017-11-01

    In-gas-cell laser resonance ionization spectroscopy of neutral osmium atoms was performed with the use of a two-color two-step laser resonance ionization technique. Saturation curves for the ionization scheme were measured, and the ionization cross section was experimentally determined by solving the rate equations for the ground, intermediate and ionization continuum populations. The pressure shift and pressure broadening in the resonance spectra of the excitation transition were measured. The electronic factor {F}247 for the transition {λ }1=247.7583 nm to the intermediate state was deduced from the measured isotope shifts of stable {}{188,189,{190,192}}Os isotopes. The efficient ionization scheme, pressure shift, nuclear isotope shift and {F}247 are expected to be useful for applications of laser ion sources to unstable nuclei and for nuclear spectroscopy based on laser ionization techniques.

  18. Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. M.; Boezio, M.; Bravar, U.; Bruno, A.; Christian, E. R.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Stochaj, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report updated event-integrated spectra from several SEP events measured with PAMELA. The measurements were made from 2006 to 2014 in the energy range starting at 80 MeV and extending well above the neutron monitor threshold. The PAMELA instrument is in a high inclination, low Earth orbit and has access to SEPs when at high latitudes. Spectra have been assembled from these high-latitude measurements. The field of view of PAMELA is small and during the high-latitude passes it scans a wide range of asymptotic directions as the spacecraft orbits. Correcting for data gaps, solid angle effects and improved background corrections, we have compiled event-integrated intensity spectra for twenty-eight SEP events. Where statistics permit, the spectra exhibit power law shapes in energy with a high-energy exponential roll over. The events analyzed include two genuine ground level enhancements (GLE). In those cases the roll-over energy lies above the neutron monitor threshold ( 1 GV) while the others are lower. We see no qualitative difference between the spectra of GLE vs. non-GLE events, i.e., all roll over in an exponential fashion with rapidly decreasing intensity at high energies.

  19. Atmospheric Ionization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Thomas; Mayes, Riley

    2015-04-01

    The measurement of atmospheric ionization is a largely unexplored science that potentially holds the key to better understanding many different geophysical phenomena through this new and valuable source of data. Through the LaACES program, which is funded by NASA through the Louisiana Space Consortium, students at Loyola University New Orleans have pursued the goal of measuring high altitude ionization for nearly three years, and were the first to successfully collect ionization data at altitudes over 30,000 feet using a scientific weather balloon flown from the NASA Columbia Scientific Ballooning Facility in Palestine, TX. In order to measure atmospheric ionization, the science team uses a lightweight and highly customized sensor known as a Gerdien condenser. Among other branches of science the data is already being used for, such as the study of aerosol pollution levels in the atmosphere, the data may also be useful in meteorology and seismology. Ionization data might provide another variable with which to predict weather or seismic activity more accurately and further in advance. Thomas Slack and Riley Mayes have served as project managers for the experiment, and have extensive knowledge of the experiment from the ground up. LaSPACE Louisiana Space Consortium.

  20. Highly informative multiclass profiling of lipids by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - Low resolution (quadrupole) mass spectrometry by using electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interfaces.

    PubMed

    Beccaria, Marco; Inferrera, Veronica; Rigano, Francesca; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Purcaro, Giorgia; Pawliszyn, Janusz; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-08-04

    A simple, fast, and versatile method, using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system coupled with a low resolution (single quadrupole) mass spectrometer was optimized to perform multiclass lipid profiling of human plasma. Particular attention was made to develop a method suitable for both electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interfaces (sequentially in positive- and negative-ion mode), without any modification of the chromatographic conditions (mobile phase, flow-rate, gradient, etc.). Emphasis was given to the extrapolation of the structural information based on the fragmentation pattern obtained using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface, under each different ionization condition, highlighting the complementary information obtained using the electrospray ionization interface, of support for related molecule ions identification. Furthermore, mass spectra of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol obtained using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface are reported and discussed for the first time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relativistic runaway ionization fronts.

    PubMed

    Luque, A

    2014-01-31

    We investigate the first example of self-consistent impact ionization fronts propagating at relativistic speeds and involving interacting, high-energy electrons. These fronts, which we name relativistic runaway ionization fronts, show remarkable features such as a bulk speed within less than one percent of the speed of light and the stochastic selection of high-energy electrons for further acceleration, which leads to a power-law distribution of particle energies. A simplified model explains this selection in terms of the overrun of Coulomb-scattered electrons. Appearing as the electromagnetic interaction between electrons saturates the exponential growth of a relativistic runaway electron avalanche, relativistic runaway ionization fronts may occur in conjunction with terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and thus explain recent observations of long, power-law tails in the terrestrial gamma-ray flash energy spectrum.

  2. Analysis of solvent dyes in refined petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Solvent dyes are used to color refined petroleum products to enable differentiation between gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. Analysis for these dyes in the hydrocarbon product is difficult due to their very low concentrations in such a complex matrix. Flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry in both negative and positive mode was used to optimize ionization of ten typical solvent dyes. Samples of hydrocarbon product were analyzed under similar conditions. Positive electrospray ionization produced very complex spectra, which were not suitably specific for targeting only the dyes. Negative electrospray ionization produced simple spectra because aliphatic and aromatic moieties were not ionized. This enabled screening for a target dye in samples of hydrocarbon product from a spill.

  3. Impact ionization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The impact ionization phenomenon which was observed on certain spacecraft was studied. The phenomenon occurs when a neutral atom, molecule, or ion strikes a surface with sufficient kinetic energy that either the incident neutral or atoms on the surface are ionized, with subsequent escape of ions and/or electrons. The released ions and electrons can interfere with measurements on the spacecraft by confusing interpretation of the data. On the other hand, there is the possibility that the effect could be developed into a diagnostic tool for investigating neutral atmospheric species or for studying physical processes on spacecraft surfaces.

  4. Near infrared spectra of the Orion bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, A.; Testi, L.; Natta, A.; Walmsley, C. M.

    1998-02-01

    We have used the LONGSP spectrometer on the 1.5-m TIRGO telescope to obtain long slit spectra in the J, H, and K wavelength bands towards two positions along the Orion bar. These data have been supplemented with images made using the ARNICA camera mounted on TIRGO as well as with an ESO NTT observation carried out by Dr A. Moorwood. We detect a variety of transitions of hydrogen, helium, OI, FeII, FeIII, and H_2. From our molecular hydrogen data, we conclude that densities are moderate (3-6x 10(4) cm(-3) ) in the layer responsible for the molecular hydrogen emission and give no evidence for the presence of dense neutral clumps. We also find that the molecular hydrogen bar is likely to be tilted by ~ 10 degrees relative to the line of sight. We discuss the relative merits of several models of the structure of the bar and conclude that it may be split into two structures separated by 0.2-0.3 parsec along the line of sight. It also seems likely to us that in both structures, density increases along a line perpendicular to the ionization front which penetrates into the neutral gas. We have used the 1.317mum OI line to estimate the FUV radiation field incident at the ionization front and find values of 1-3x 10(4) greater than the average interstellar field. From [FeII] line measurements, we conclude that the electron density in the ionized layer associated with the ionization front is of order 10(4) \\percc. Finally, our analysis of the helium and hydrogen recombination lines implies essential coincidence of the helium and hydrogen Stromgren spheres.

  5. Quantum Spectra and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, Julio Cesar

    1992-01-01

    This work focuses on time-dependent quantum theory and methods for the study of the spectra and dynamics of atomic and molecular systems. Specifically, we have addressed the following two problems: (i) Development of a time-dependent spectral method for the construction of spectra of simple quantum systems--This includes the calculation of eigenenergies, the construction of bound and continuum eigenfunctions, and the calculation of photo cross-sections. Computational applications include the quadrupole photoabsorption spectra and dissociation cross-sections of molecular hydrogen from various vibrational states in its ground electronic potential -energy curve. This method is seen to provide an advantageous alternative, both from the computational and conceptual point of view, to existing standard methods. (ii) Explicit time-dependent formulation of photoabsorption processes --Analytical solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are constructed and employed for the calculation of probability densities, momentum distributions, fluxes, transition rates, expectation values and correlation functions. These quantities are seen to establish the link between the dynamics and the calculated, or measured, spectra and cross-sections, and to clarify the dynamical nature of the excitation, transition and ejection processes. Numerical calculations on atomic and molecular hydrogen corroborate and complement the previous results, allowing the identification of different regimes during the photoabsorption process.

  6. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  7. Ultraviolet absorption by highly ionized atoms in the Orion Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, J.; Savage, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer was used to obtain high-resolution, far-UV spectra of theta 1 A, theta 1 C, theta 1 D, and theta 2 A Orionis. The interstellar absorption lines in these spectra are discussed with an emphasis on the high-ionization lines of C IV and Si IV. Theta 2 A Ori has interstellar C IV and Si IV absorption of moderate strength at the velocity found for normal H II region ions. Theta 1 C Ori has very strong interstellar C IV and Si IV absorption at velocities blueshifted by about 25 km/s from that found for the normal H II region ions. The possible origin of the high-ionization lines by three processes is considered: X-ray ionization, collisional ionization, and UV photoionization. It is concluded that the C IV and Si IV ions toward theta 2 A and theta 1 C Ori are likely produced by UV photoionization of surrounding nebular gas. In the case of theta 1 C Ori, the velocity shift of the high-ionization lines may be produced through the acceleration of high-density globules in the core of the nebula by the stellar wind of theta 1 C Ori.

  8. Ionizing radiation and life.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  9. Alkali ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Hrizo, John; Bauerle, James E.; Witkowski, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    A calibration filament containing a sodium-bearing compound is included in combination with the sensing filament and ion collector plate of a sodium ionization detector to permit periodic generation of sodium atoms for the in-situ calibration of the detector.

  10. Future directions for LDEF ionizing radiation modeling and assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Data from the ionizing radiation dosimetry aboard LDEF provide a unique opportunity for assessing the accuracy of current space radiation models and in identifying needed improvements for future mission applications. Details are given of the LDEF data available for radiation model evaluations. The status is given of model comparisons with LDEF data, along with future directions of planned modeling efforts and data comparison assessments. The methodology is outlined which is related to modeling being used to help insure that the LDEF ionizing radiation results can be used to address ionizing radiation issues for future missions. In general, the LDEF radiation modeling has emphasized quick-look predictions using simplified methods to make comparisons with absorbed dose measurements and induced radioactivity measurements of emissions. Modeling and LDEF data comparisons related to linear energy transfer spectra are of importance for several reasons which are outlined. The planned modeling and LDEF data comparisons for LET spectra is discussed, including components of the LET spectra due to different environment sources, contribution from different production mechanisms, and spectra in plastic detectors vs silicon.

  11. Ionization of Interstellar Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1996-09-01

    Interstellar hydrogen can penetrate through the heliopause, enter the heliosphere, and may become ionized by photoionization and by charge exchange with solar wind protons. A fluid model is introduced to study the flow of interstellar hydrogen in the heliosphere. The flow is governed by moment equations obtained from integration of the Boltzmann equation over the velocity space. Under the assumption that the flow is steady axisymmetric and the pressure is isotropic, we develop a method of solution for this fluid model. This model and the method of solution can be used to study the flow of neutral hydrogen with various forms of ionization rate β and boundary conditions for the flow on the upwind side. We study the solution of a special case in which the ionization rate β is inversely proportional to R2 and the interstellar hydrogen flow is uniform at infinity on the upwind side. We solve the moment equations directly for the normalized density NH/NN∞, bulk velocity VH/VN∞, and temperature TH/TN∞ of interstellar hydrogen as functions of r/λ and z/λ, where λ is the ionization scale length. The solution is compared with the kinetic theory solution of Lallement et al. The fluid solution is much less time-consuming than the kinetic theory solutions. Since the ionization rate for production of pickup protons is directly proportional to the local density of neutral hydrogen, the high-resolution solution of interstellar neutral hydrogen obtained here will be used to study the global distribution of pickup protons.

  12. Resonant two-photon ionization and mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy of p-vinylaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeng, Sheng Yuan; Dong, Changwu; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2012-10-01

    We report the vibronic and cation spectra of p-vinylaniline, which are recorded by using the resonant two-photon ionization and the mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopic techniques. The band origin of the S1 ← S0 electronic transition appears at 31,490 ± 2 cm-1 and the adiabatic ionization energy is determined to be 59,203 ± 5 cm-1. Due to the nature of the substituent, the amino and vinyl groups lead to lower electronic excitation and ionization energies by a few thousand wave numbers. Most of the observed active modes result from the in-plane ring deformation and substituent-sensitive vibrations of this molecule in the electronically excited S1 and cationic ground D0 states. By comparing the frequencies of the observed active vibrations, one may conclude that the molecular geometry and the vibrational coordinates of these modes of the p-vinylaniline cation in the D0 state resemble those of the neutral species in the S1 state.

  13. Laser Pulse Width Dependence and Ionization Mechanism of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sheng-Ping; Lu, I.-Chung; Tsai, Shang-Ting; Chen, Jien-Lian; Lee, Yuan Tseh; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2017-10-01

    Ultraviolet laser pulses at 355 nm with variable pulse widths in the region from 170 ps to 1.5 ns were used to investigate the ionization mechanism of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), and sinapinic acid (SA). The mass spectra of desorbed ions and the intensity and velocity distribution of desorbed neutrals were measured simultaneously for each laser shot. These quantities were found to be independent of the laser pulse width. A comparison of the experimental measurements and numerical simulations according to the multiphoton ionization, coupled photophysical and chemical dynamics (CPCD), and thermally induced proton transfer models showed that the predictions of thermally induced proton transfer model were in agreement with the experimental data, but those of the multiphoton ionization model were not. Moreover, the predictions of the CPCD model based on singlet-singlet energy pooling were inconsistent with the experimental data of CHCA and SA, but were consistent with the experimental data of DHB only when some parameters used in the model were adjusted to extreme values. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Parmeterization of spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornish, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Following reception and analog to digital conversion (A/D) conversion, atmospheric radar backscatter echoes need to be processed so as to obtain desired information about atmospheric processes and to eliminate or minimize contaminating contributions from other sources. Various signal processing techniques have been implemented at mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar facilities to estimate parameters of interest from received spectra. Such estimation techniques need to be both accurate and sufficiently efficient to be within the capabilities of the particular data-processing system. The various techniques used to parameterize the spectra of received signals are reviewed herein. Noise estimation, electromagnetic interference, data smoothing, correlation, and the Doppler effect are among the specific points addressed.

  15. Comments on ionization cooling channels

    DOE PAGES

    Neuffer, David

    2017-09-25

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the linear ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this study, we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  16. Comments on ionization cooling channels

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the linear ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this study, we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  17. [Spectra and thermal analysis of the arc in activating flux plasma arc welding].

    PubMed

    Chai, Guo-Ming; Zhu, Yi-Feng

    2010-04-01

    In activating flux plasma arc welding the welding arc was analyzed by spectra analysis technique, and the welding arc temperature field was measured by the infrared sensing and computer image technique. The distribution models of welding arc heat flow density of activating flux PAW welding were developed. The composition of welding arc affected by activated flux was studied, and the welding arc temperature field was studied. The results show that the spectral lines of argon atom and ionized argon atom of primary ionization are the main spectra lines of the conventional plasma welding arc. The spectra lines of weld metal are inappreciable in the spectra lines of the conventional plasma welding arc. The gas particle is the main in the conventional plasma welding arc. The conventional plasma welding arc is gas welding arc. The spectra lines of argon atom and ionized argon atom of primary ionization are intensified in the activating flux plasma welding arc, and the spectra lines of Ti, Cr and Fe elements are found in the activating flux plasma welding arc. The welding arc temperature distribution in activating flux plasma arc welding is compact, the outline of the welding arc temperature field is narrow, the range of the welding arc temperature distribution is concentrated, the welding arc radial temperature gradient is large, and the welding arc radial temperature gradient shows normal Gauss distribution.

  18. Multispectral processing without spectra.

    PubMed

    Drew, Mark S; Finlayson, Graham D

    2003-07-01

    It is often the case that multiplications of whole spectra, component by component, must be carried out,for example when light reflects from or is transmitted through materials. This leads to particularly taxing calculations, especially in spectrally based ray tracing or radiosity in graphics, making a full-spectrum method prohibitively expensive. Nevertheless, using full spectra is attractive because of the many important phenomena that can be modeled only by using all the physics at hand. We apply to the task of spectral multiplication a method previously used in modeling RGB-based light propagation. We show that we can often multiply spectra without carrying out spectral multiplication. In previous work [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1553 (1994)] we developed a method called spectral sharpening, which took camera RGBs to a special sharp basis that was designed to render illuminant change simple to model. Specifically, in the new basis, one can effectively model illuminant change by using a diagonal matrix rather than the 3 x 3 linear transform that results from a three-component finite-dimensional model [G. Healey and D. Slater, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3003 (1994)]. We apply this idea of sharpening to the set of principal components vectors derived from a representative set of spectra that might reasonably be encountered in a given application. With respect to the sharp spectral basis, we show that spectral multiplications can be modeled as the multiplication of the basis coefficients. These new product coefficients applied to the sharp basis serve to accurately reconstruct the spectral product. Although the method is quite general, we show how to use spectral modeling by taking advantage of metameric surfaces, ones that match under one light but not another, for tasks such as volume rendering. The use of metamers allows a user to pick out or merge different volume structures in real time simply by changing the lighting.

  19. Multispectral processing without spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Mark S.; Finlayson, Graham D.

    2003-07-01

    It is often the case that multiplications of whole spectra, component by component, must be carried out, for example when light reflects from or is transmitted through materials. This leads to particularly taxing calculations, especially in spectrally based ray tracing or radiosity in graphics, making a full-spectrum method prohibitively expensive. Nevertheless, using full spectra is attractive because of the many important phenomena that can be modeled only by using all the physics at hand. We apply to the task of spectral multiplication a method previously used in modeling RGB-based light propagation. We show that we can often multiply spectra without carrying out spectral multiplication. In previous work J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11 , 1553 (1994) we developed a method called spectral sharpening, which took camera RGBs to a special sharp basis that was designed to render illuminant change simple to model. Specifically, in the new basis, one can effectively model illuminant change by using a diagonal matrix rather than the 33 linear transform that results from a three-component finite-dimensional model G. Healey and D. Slater, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11 , 3003 (1994). We apply this idea of sharpening to the set of principal components vectors derived from a representative set of spectra that might reasonably be encountered in a given application. With respect to the sharp spectral basis, we show that spectral multiplications can be modeled as the multiplication of the basis coefficients. These new product coefficients applied to the sharp basis serve to accurately reconstruct the spectral product. Although the method is quite general, we show how to use spectral modeling by taking advantage of metameric surfaces, ones that match under one light but not another, for tasks such as volume rendering. The use of metamers allows a user to pick out or merge different volume structures in real time simply by changing the lighting. 2003 Optical Society of America

  20. Martian neutron leakage spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1988-06-01

    A high-energy nucleon-meson transport code is used to calculate energy spectra of Martian leakage neutrons. Four calculations are used to simulate a uniform surface layer containing various amounts of water, different burial depths of a 50 percent water layer underneath a 1 percent water layer, changing atmospheric pressure, and a thick carbon dioxide ice sheet overlying a "dirty" water ice sheet. Calculated spectra at energies less than about 1000 eV were fitted by a superposition of thermal and epithermal functions having four free parameters, two of which (thermal and epithermal amplitudes) were found to vary systematically and to specify uniquely the configuration in each of the series. Parameter variations depend on the composition of the assumed surface layers through the average atomic mass and the macroscopic scattering and absorption cross sections. It is concluded that measurements of leakage neutron spectra should allow determination of the hydrogen content of surface layers buried to depths up to about 100 g/sq. cm and determination of the thickness of a polar dry ice cap up to a thickness of about 250 g/sq. cm.

  1. Estimating Spectra from Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmbach, J. Bryce; Connolly, Andrew J.

    2017-12-01

    Measuring the physical properties of galaxies such as redshift frequently requires the use of spectral energy distributions (SEDs). SED template sets are, however, often small in number and cover limited portions of photometric color space. Here we present a new method to estimate SEDs as a function of color from a small training set of template SEDs. We first cover the mathematical background behind the technique before demonstrating our ability to reconstruct spectra based upon colors and then compare our results to other common interpolation and extrapolation methods. When the photometric filters and spectra overlap, we show that the error in the estimated spectra is reduced by more than 65% compared to the more commonly used techniques. We also show an expansion of the method to wavelengths beyond the range of the photometric filters. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our technique by generating 50 additional SED templates from an original set of 10 and by applying the new set to photometric redshift estimation. We are able to reduce the photometric redshifts standard deviation by at least 22.0% and the outlier rejected bias by over 86.2% compared to original set for z ≤ 3.

  2. Multi-photon ionization of atoms in intense short-wavelength radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The unprecedented characteristics of XUV and X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) have stimulated numerous investigations focusing on the detailed understanding of fundamental photon-matter interactions in atoms and molecules. In particular, the high intensities (up to 106 W/cm2) giving rise to non-linear phenomena in the short wavelength regime. The basic phenomenology involves the production of highly charged ions via electron emission to which both sequential and direct multi-photon absorption processes contribute. The detailed investigation of the role and relative weight of these processes under different conditions (wavelength, pulse duration, intensity) is the key element for a comprehensive understanding of the ionization dynamics. Here the results of recent investigations are presented, performed at the FELs in Hamburg (FLASH) and Trieste (FERMI) on atomic systems with electronic structures of increasing complexity (Ar, Ne and Xe). Mainly, electron spectroscopy is used to obtain quantitative information about the relevance of various multi-photon ionization processes. For the case of Ar, a variety of processes including above threshold ionization (ATI) from 3p and 3s valence shells, direct 2p two-photon ionization and resonant 2p-4p two-photon excitations were observed and their role was quantitatively determined comparing the experimental ionization yields to ab-initio calculations of the cross sections for the multi-photon processes. Using Ar as a benchmark to prove the reliability of the combined experimental and theoretical approach, the more complex and intriguing case of Xe was studied. Especially, the analysis of the two-photon ATI from the Xe 4d shell reveals new insight into the character of the 4d giant resonance, which was unresolved in the linear one-photon regime. Finally, the influence of intense XUV radiation to the relaxation dynamics of the Ne 2s-3p resonance was investigated by angle-resolved electron spectroscopy, especially be observing

  3. Ionization Processes in the Atmosphere of Titan (Research Note). III. Ionization by High-Z Nuclei Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gronoff, G.; Mertens, C.; Lilensten, J.; Desorgher, L.; Fluckiger, E.; Velinov, P.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed the importance of particle precipitation in the atmosphere of Titan thanks to in-situ measurements. These ionizing particles (electrons, protons, and cosmic rays) have a strong impact on the chemistry, hence must be modeled. Aims. We revisit our computation of ionization in the atmosphere of Titan by cosmic rays. The high-energy high-mass ions are taken into account to improve the precision of the calculation of the ion production profile. Methods. The Badhwahr and O Neill model for cosmic ray spectrum was adapted for the Titan model. We used the TransTitan model coupled with the Planetocosmics model to compute the ion production by cosmic rays. We compared the results with the NAIRAS/HZETRN ionization model used for the first time for a body that differs from the Earth. Results. The cosmic ray ionization is computed for five groups of cosmic rays, depending on their charge and mass: protons, alpha, Z = 8 (oxygen), Z = 14 (silicon), and Z = 26 (iron) nucleus. Protons and alpha particles ionize mainly at 65 km altitude, while the higher mass nucleons ionize at higher altitudes. Nevertheless, the ionization at higher altitude is insufficient to obscure the impact of Saturn s magnetosphere protons at a 500 km altitude. The ionization rate at the peak (altitude: 65 km, for all the different conditions) lies between 30 and 40/cu cm/s. Conclusions. These new computations show for the first time the importance of high Z cosmic rays on the ionization of the Titan atmosphere. The updated full ionization profile shape does not differ significantly from that found in our previous calculations (Paper I: Gronoff et al. 2009, 506, 955) but undergoes a strong increase in intensity below an altitude of 400 km, especially between 200 and 400 km altitude where alpha and heavier particles (in the cosmic ray spectrum) are responsible for 40% of the ionization. The comparison of several models of ionization and cosmic ray spectra (in

  4. Electrospray Post-Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Electrosurgical Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Sabine; Schäfer, Karl-Christian; Balog, Júlia; Dénes, Júlia; Majoros, Tamás; Albrecht, Katalin; Tóth, Miklós; Spengler, Bernhard; Takáts, Zoltán

    2011-11-01

    The feasibility of electrospray (ES) ionization of aerosols generated by electrosurgical disintegration methods was investigated. Although electrosurgery itself was demonstrated to produce gaseous ions, post-ionization methods were implemented to enhance the ion yield, especially in those cases when the ion current produced by the applied electrosurgical method is not sufficient for MS analysis. Post-ionization was implemented by mounting an ES emitter onto a Venturi pump, which is used for ion transfer. The effect of various parameters including geometry, high voltage setting, flow parameters, and solvent composition was investigated in detail. Experimental setups were optimized accordingly. ES post-ionization was found to yield spectra similar to those obtained by the REIMS technique, featuring predominantly lipid-type species. Signal enhancement was 20- to 50-fold compared with electrosurgical disintegration in positive mode, while no improvement was observed in negative mode. ES post-ionization was also demonstrated to allow the detection of non-lipid type species in the electrosurgical aerosol, including drug molecules. Since the tissue specificity of the MS data was preserved in the ES post-ionization setup, feasibility of tissue identification was demonstrated using different electrosurgical methods.

  5. On ionizing shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniel, A.; Igra, O.; Ben-Dor, G.; Mond, M.

    The flow field in the ionizing relaxation zone developed behind a normal shock wave in an electrically neutral, homogeneous, two temperature mixture of thermally ideal gases (molecules, atoms, ions, electrons) was numerically solved. The heat transfer between the electron gas and the other components was taken into account while all the other transport phenomena (molecular, turbulent and radiative) were neglected in the relaxation zone, since it is dominated by inelastic collisions. The threshold cross sections measured by Specht (1981), for excitation of argon by electron collisions, were used. The calculated results show good agreement with the results of the shock tube experiments presented by Glass and Liu (1978), especially in the electron avalanche region. A critical examination was made of the common assumptions regarding the average energy with which electrons are produced by atom-atom collisions and the relative effectiveness of atom-atom collisions (versus electron-atom collisions) in ionizing excited argon.

  6. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

    2014-06-13

    Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

  7. Ionization Waves of Arbitrary Velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, D.; Franke, P.; Katz, J.

    The flying focus is a technique in which a chirped laser beam is focused by a chromatic lens to produce an extended focal spot within which laser intensity can propagate at any velocity. If the intensity is above the ionization threshold of a background gas, an ionization wave will track the ionization threshold intensity isosurface as it propagates. We report on the demonstration of such ionization waves of arbitrary velocity. Subluminal and superluminal ionization fronts were produced, both forward- and backward-propagating relative to the ionizing laser. In conclusion, all backward and all superluminal cases mitigated the issue of ionization-induced refractionmore » that typically challenges the formation of long, contiguous plasma channels.« less

  8. Ionization Waves of Arbitrary Velocity

    DOE PAGES

    Turnbull, D.; Franke, P.; Katz, J.; ...

    2018-05-31

    The flying focus is a technique in which a chirped laser beam is focused by a chromatic lens to produce an extended focal spot within which laser intensity can propagate at any velocity. If the intensity is above the ionization threshold of a background gas, an ionization wave will track the ionization threshold intensity isosurface as it propagates. We report on the demonstration of such ionization waves of arbitrary velocity. Subluminal and superluminal ionization fronts were produced, both forward- and backward-propagating relative to the ionizing laser. In conclusion, all backward and all superluminal cases mitigated the issue of ionization-induced refractionmore » that typically challenges the formation of long, contiguous plasma channels.« less

  9. Future directions for LDEF ionizing radiation modeling and assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    A calculational program utilizing data from radiation dosimetry measurements aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite to reduce the uncertainties in current models defining the ionizing radiation environment is in progress. Most of the effort to date has been on using LDEF radiation dose measurements to evaluate models defining the geomagnetically trapped radiation, which has provided results applicable to radiation design assessments being performed for Space Station Freedom. Plans for future data comparisons, model evaluations, and assessments using additional LDEF data sets (LET spectra, induced radioactivity, and particle spectra) are discussed.

  10. Capillary atmospheric pressure electron capture ionization (cAPECI): a highly efficient ionization method for nitroaromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Derpmann, Valerie; Mueller, David; Bejan, Iustinian; Sonderfeld, Hannah; Wilberscheid, Sonja; Koppmann, Ralf; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    We report on a novel method for atmospheric pressure ionization of compounds with elevated electron affinity (e.g., nitroaromatic compounds) or gas phase acidity (e.g., phenols), respectively. The method is based on the generation of thermal electrons by the photo-electric effect, followed by electron capture of oxygen when air is the gas matrix yielding O2(-) or of the analyte directly with nitrogen as matrix. Charge transfer or proton abstraction by O2(-) leads to the ionization of the analytes. The interaction of UV-light with metals is a clean method for the generation of thermal electrons at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, only negative ions are generated and neutral radical formation is minimized, in contrast to discharge- or dopant assisted methods. Ionization takes place inside the transfer capillary of the mass spectrometer leading to comparably short transfer times of ions to the high vacuum region of the mass spectrometer. This strongly reduces ion transformation processes, resulting in mass spectra that more closely relate to the neutral analyte distribution. cAPECI is thus a soft and selective ionization method with detection limits in the pptV range. In comparison to standard ionization methods (e.g., PTR), cAPECI is superior with respect to both selectivity and achievable detection limits. cAPECI demonstrates to be a promising ionization method for applications in relevant fields as, for example, explosives detection and atmospheric chemistry.

  11. Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Sagisaka, A.

    1996-02-01

    Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields were studied with a fundamental beam ({omega}) and its harmonics (2{omega},3{omega}), which were generated by a 100-fs Ti:sapphire laser. Ion yields of atoms and molecules were successfully controlled by means of a change in the relative phase between {omega} and 3{omega} pulses. Two-color interference was clearly observed in photoelectron spectra and harmonic spectra. In the {omega}{endash}2{omega} field even-order harmonics were observed in which the intensity was almost equal to that of the odd harmonics because of an asymmetric optical field. These results were compared with the quasi-static model for ionization and withmore » the quantum theory for harmonic generation. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}« less

  12. Revised energy levels of singly ionized lanthanum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güzelçimen, Feyza; Tonka, Mehdi; Uddin, Zaheer; Bhatti, Naveed Anjum; Windholz, Laurentius; Kröger, Sophie; Başar, Gönül

    2018-05-01

    Based on the experimental wavenumbers of 344 spectral lines from calibrated Fourier transform (FT) spectra as well as wavenumbers of 81 lines from the wavelength tables from literature, the energy of 115 fine structure levels of singly ionized lanthanum has been revised by weighted global fits. The classifications of the lines are provided by numerous previous investigations of lanthanum by different spectroscopic methods and authors. For the high accurate determination of the center of gravity wavenumbers from the experimental spectrum, the hyperfine constants of the involved levels have been taken into account, if possible. For the 94 levels with known hyperfine constants the accuracy of energy values is better than 0.01 cm-1. For 34 levels the magnetic dipole hyperfine constants A have been determined from FT spectra as part of this work. For four of these 34 levels even electric quadrupole hyperfine constants B could be estimated. For levels, which have experimentally unknown hyperfine constants and which are connected only by lines not found in the FT spectra but taken from literature, the uncertainties of energy values are about a factor of 10 higher. A list of all revised level energies together with a compilation of hyperfine structure data is given as well as a list of all lines used.

  13. A simple way to model nebulae with distributed ionizing stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamet, L.; Morisset, C.

    2008-04-01

    Aims: This work is a follow-up of a recent article by Ercolano et al. that shows that, in some cases, the spatial dispersion of the ionizing stars in a given nebula may significantly affect its emission spectrum. The authors found that the dispersion of the ionizing stars is accompanied by a decrease in the ionization parameter, which at least partly explains the variations in the nebular spectrum. However, they did not research how other effects associated to the dispersion of the stars may contribute to those variations. Furthermore, they made use of a unique and simplified set of stellar populations. The scope of the present article is to assess whether the variation in the ionization parameter is the dominant effect in the dependence of the nebular spectrum on the distribution of its ionizing stars. We examined this possibility for various regimes of metallicity and age. We also investigated a way to model the distribution of the ionizing sources so as to bypass expensive calculations. Methods: We wrote a code able to generate random stellar populations and to compute the emission spectra of their associated nebulae through the widespread photoionization code cloudy. This code can process two kinds of spatial distributions of the stars: one where all the stars are concentrated at one point, and one where their separation is such that their Strömgren spheres do not overlap. Results: We found that, in most regimes of stellar population ages and gas metallicities, the dependence of the ionization parameter on the distribution of the stars is the dominant factor in the variation of the main nebular diagnostics with this distribution. We derived a method to mimic those effects with a single calculation that makes use of the common assumptions of a central source and a spherical nebula, in the case of constant density objects. This represents a computation time saving by a factor of at least several dozen in the case of H ii regions ionized by massive clusters.

  14. Nonsequential double ionization with mid-infrared laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying -Bin; Wang, Xu; Yu, Ben -Hai

    Using a full-dimensional Monte Carlo classical ensemble method, we present a theoretical study of atomic nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) with mid-infrared laser fields, and compare with results from near-infrared laser fields. Unlike single-electron strong-field processes, double ionization shows complex and unexpected interplays between the returning electron and its parent ion core. As a result of these interplays, NSDI for mid-IR fields is dominated by second-returning electron trajectories, instead of first-returning trajectories for near-IR fields. Here, some complex NSDI channels commonly happen with near-IR fields, such as the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization (RESI) channel, are virtually shut down by mid-IR fields. Besides, the finalmore » energies of the two electrons can be extremely unequal, leading to novel e-e momentum correlation spectra that can be measured experimentally.« less

  15. Nonsequential double ionization with mid-infrared laser fields

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ying -Bin; Wang, Xu; Yu, Ben -Hai; ...

    2016-11-18

    Using a full-dimensional Monte Carlo classical ensemble method, we present a theoretical study of atomic nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) with mid-infrared laser fields, and compare with results from near-infrared laser fields. Unlike single-electron strong-field processes, double ionization shows complex and unexpected interplays between the returning electron and its parent ion core. As a result of these interplays, NSDI for mid-IR fields is dominated by second-returning electron trajectories, instead of first-returning trajectories for near-IR fields. Here, some complex NSDI channels commonly happen with near-IR fields, such as the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization (RESI) channel, are virtually shut down by mid-IR fields. Besides, the finalmore » energies of the two electrons can be extremely unequal, leading to novel e-e momentum correlation spectra that can be measured experimentally.« less

  16. Control spectra for Quito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Roberto; Rivas-Medina, Alicia; Caiza, Pablo; Quizanga, Diego

    2017-03-01

    The Metropolitan District of Quito is located on or very close to segments of reverse blind faults, Puengasí, Ilumbisí-La Bota, Carcelen-El Inca, Bellavista-Catequilla and Tangahuilla, making it one of the most seismically dangerous cities in the world. The city is divided into five areas: south, south-central, central, north-central and north. For each of the urban areas, elastic response spectra are presented in this paper, which are determined by utilizing some of the new models of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) NGA-West2 program. These spectra are calculated considering the maximum magnitude that could be generated by the rupture of each fault segment, and taking into account the soil type that exists at different points of the city according to the Norma Ecuatoriana de la Construcción (2015). Subsequently, the recurrence period of earthquakes of high magnitude in each fault segment is determined from the physical parameters of the fault segments (size of the fault plane and slip rate) and the pattern of recurrence of type Gutenberg-Richter earthquakes with double truncation magnitude (Mmin and Mmax) is used.

  17. Fragmentation pathways of tungsten hexacarbonyl clusters upon electron ionization.

    PubMed

    Neustetter, M; Jabbour Al Maalouf, E; Limão-Vieira, P; Denifl, S

    2016-08-07

    Electron ionization of neat tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO)6) clusters has been investigated in a crossed electron-molecular beam experiment coupled with a mass spectrometer system. The molecule is used for nanofabrication processes through electron beam induced deposition and ion beam induced deposition techniques. Positive ion mass spectra of W(CO)6 clusters formed by electron ionization at 70 eV contain the ion series of the type W(CO)n (+) (0 ≤ n ≤ 6) and W2(CO)n (+) (0 ≤ n ≤ 12). In addition, a series of peaks are observed and have been assigned to WC(CO)n (+) (0 ≤ n ≤ 3) and W2C(CO)n (+) (0 ≤ n ≤ 10). A distinct change of relative fragment ion intensity can be observed for clusters compared to the single molecule. The characteristic fragmentation pattern obtained in the mass spectra can be explained by a sequential decay of the ionized organometallic, which is also supported by the study of the clusters when embedded in helium nanodroplets. In addition, appearance energies for the dissociative ionization channels for singly charged ions have been estimated from experimental ion efficiency curves.

  18. Fragmentation pathways of tungsten hexacarbonyl clusters upon electron ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Neustetter, M.; Jabbour Al Maalouf, E.; Denifl, S., E-mail: Stephan.Denifl@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt

    2016-08-07

    Electron ionization of neat tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO){sub 6}) clusters has been investigated in a crossed electron-molecular beam experiment coupled with a mass spectrometer system. The molecule is used for nanofabrication processes through electron beam induced deposition and ion beam induced deposition techniques. Positive ion mass spectra of W(CO){sub 6} clusters formed by electron ionization at 70 eV contain the ion series of the type W(CO){sub n}{sup +} (0 ≤ n ≤ 6) and W{sub 2}(CO){sub n}{sup +} (0 ≤ n ≤ 12). In addition, a series of peaks are observed and have been assigned to WC(CO){sub n}{sup +} (0 ≤more » n ≤ 3) and W{sub 2}C(CO){sub n}{sup +} (0 ≤ n ≤ 10). A distinct change of relative fragment ion intensity can be observed for clusters compared to the single molecule. The characteristic fragmentation pattern obtained in the mass spectra can be explained by a sequential decay of the ionized organometallic, which is also supported by the study of the clusters when embedded in helium nanodroplets. In addition, appearance energies for the dissociative ionization channels for singly charged ions have been estimated from experimental ion efficiency curves.« less

  19. Manganese oxide nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Shu; Kitajima, Kenji; Katayanagi, Hikaru; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Ichiyanagi, Yuko

    2009-06-01

    We prepared and characterized manganese oxide magnetic nanoparticles (d =5.6 nm) and developed nanoparticle-assited laser desorption/ionization (nano-PALDI) mass spectrometry. The nanoparticles had MnO2 and Mn2O3 cores conjugated with hydroxyl and amino groups, and showed paramagnetism at room temperature. The nanoparticles worked as an ionization assisting reagent in mass spectroscopy. The mass spectra showed no background in the low m/z. The nanoparticles could ionize samples of peptide, drug and proteins (approx. 5000 Da) without using matrix, i.e., 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 4-hydroxy-α-cinnamic acid (CHCA) and liquid matrix, as conventional ionization assisting reagents. Post source decay spectra by nano-PALDI mass spectrometry will yield information of the chemical structure of analytes.

  20. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL-matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  1. A Combined Desorption Ionization by Charge Exchange (DICE) and Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI) Source for Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chang-Ching; Bolgar, Mark S.; Miller, Scott A.; Attygalle, Athula B.

    2011-01-01

    A source that couples the desorption ionization by charge exchange (DICE) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) techniques together was demonstrated to broaden the range of compounds that can be analyzed in a single mass spectrometric experiment under ambient conditions. A tee union was used to mix the spray reagents into a partially immiscible blend before this mixture was passed through a conventional electrospray (ES) probe capillary. Using this technique, compounds that are ionized more efficiently by the DICE method and those that are ionized better with the DESI procedure could be analyzed simultaneously. For example, hydroquinone, which is not detected when subjected to DESI-MS in the positive-ion generation mode, or the sodium adduct of guaifenesin, which is not detected when examined by DICE-MS, could both be detected in one experiment when the two techniques were combined. The combined technique was able to generate the molecular ion, proton and metal adduct from the same compound. When coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer, the combined source enabled the generation of product ion spectra from the molecular ion and the [M + H]+ or [M + metal]+ ions of the same compound without the need to physically change the source from DICE to DESI. The ability to record CID spectra of both the molecular ion and adduct ions in a single mass spectrometric experiment adds a new dimension to the array of mass spectrometric methods available for structural studies.

  2. Interstellar dehydrogenated PAH anions: vibrational spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter; Gour, Nand Kishor

    2018-03-01

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules exist in diverse forms depending on the local physical environment. Formation of ionized PAHs (anions and cations) is favourable in the extreme conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). Besides in their pure form, PAHs are also likely to exist in substituted forms; for example, PAHs with functional groups, dehydrogenated PAHs etc. A dehydrogenated PAH molecule might subsequently form fullerenes in the ISM as a result of ongoing chemical processes. This work presents a density functional theory (DFT) calculation on dehydrogenated PAH anions to explore the infrared emission spectra of these molecules and discuss any possible contribution towards observed IR features in the ISM. The results suggest that dehydrogenated PAH anions might be significantly contributing to the 3.3 μm region. Spectroscopic features unique to dehydrogenated PAH anions are highlighted that may be used for their possible identification in the ISM. A comparison has also been made to see the size effect on spectra of these PAHs.

  3. Laser separation of lithium isotopes by double resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of Li/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Balz, J.G.; Bernheim, R.A.; Gold, L.P.

    1987-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization spectra of /sup 7/Li/sub 2/, /sup 6/Li/sub 2/, and /sup 7/Li/sup 6/Li vapors have been measured in the 570--650 nm region using a single, low resolution, multimode cw dye laser. A number of wavelengths provide selective multiphoton ionization of one isotopic species demonstrating the possibility of efficient laser-driven isotopic separation in lithium in this wavelength region.

  4. Timing Recollision in Nonsequential Double Ionization by Intense Elliptically Polarized Laser Pulses.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Henrichs, K; Kunitski, M; Wang, Y; Hao, X; Fehre, K; Czasch, A; Eckart, S; Schmidt, L Ph H; Schöffler, M; Jahnke, T; Liu, X; Dörner, R

    2018-06-01

    We examine correlated electron and doubly charged ion momentum spectra from strong field double ionization of neon employing intense elliptically polarized laser pulses. An ellipticity-dependent asymmetry of correlated electron and ion momentum distributions has been observed. Using a 3D semiclassical model, we demonstrate that our observations reflect the subcycle dynamics of the recollision process. Our Letter reveals a general physical picture for recollision impact double ionization with elliptical polarization and demonstrates the possibility of ultrafast control of the recollision dynamics.

  5. Timing Recollision in Nonsequential Double Ionization by Intense Elliptically Polarized Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.; Henrichs, K.; Kunitski, M.; Wang, Y.; Hao, X.; Fehre, K.; Czasch, A.; Eckart, S.; Schmidt, L. Ph. H.; Schöffler, M.; Jahnke, T.; Liu, X.; Dörner, R.

    2018-06-01

    We examine correlated electron and doubly charged ion momentum spectra from strong field double ionization of neon employing intense elliptically polarized laser pulses. An ellipticity-dependent asymmetry of correlated electron and ion momentum distributions has been observed. Using a 3D semiclassical model, we demonstrate that our observations reflect the subcycle dynamics of the recollision process. Our Letter reveals a general physical picture for recollision impact double ionization with elliptical polarization and demonstrates the possibility of ultrafast control of the recollision dynamics.

  6. Heating the warm ionized medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. J.; Cox, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    If photoelectric heating by grains within the diffuse ionized component of the interstellar medium is 10 exp -25 ergs/s per H atom, the average value within diffuse H I regions, then grain heating equals or exceeds photoionization heating of the ionized gas. This supplemental heat source would obviate the need for energetic ionizing photons to balance the observed forbidden-line cooling and could be responsible in part for enhanced intensities of some of the forbidden lines.

  7. Ionized Absorbers in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of this program, we observed three AGN:PKS2251 + 113, PG0043 = 039 and PLH909. Two objects show signatures of absorbtion in their UV spectra. Based on our earlier modeling of X-ray warm absorbents, we expected to observe X-ray observation in these objects. The third, PLH909, is known to have soft excess in EINSTEIN data. Attachment: "Exploratory ASCA observation of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects".

  8. Partially Ionized Plasmas in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, José Luis; Alexeev, Igor; Collados, Manuel; Downes, Turlough; Pfaff, Robert F.; Gilbert, Holly; Khodachenko, Maxim; Khomenko, Elena; Shaikhislamov, Ildar F.; Soler, Roberto; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz

    2018-03-01

    Partially ionized plasmas are found across the Universe in many different astrophysical environments. They constitute an essential ingredient of the solar atmosphere, molecular clouds, planetary ionospheres and protoplanetary disks, among other environments, and display a richness of physical effects which are not present in fully ionized plasmas. This review provides an overview of the physics of partially ionized plasmas, including recent advances in different astrophysical areas in which partial ionization plays a fundamental role. We outline outstanding observational and theoretical questions and discuss possible directions for future progress.

  9. Photoelectron spectra of carbonyls. Propellenes and propellanones

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, D.; Bloomfield, J.J.; Newkome, G.R.

    1976-09-23

    The HeI photoelectron spectra (UPS) of a number of unsaturated (4.4.2)propellanes and (4.4.2)propellane-dione derivatives are presented. The interpretation of the UPS data is based on through-space and through-bond interaction models and on CNDO/s computations. An analysis of the photoelectron spectra of (4.4.2)propella-3,8-diene-11,12-dione (1), (4.4.2)propell-3-ene-11,12-dione (2), (4.4.2)propellane-11,12-dione (3), (4.4.2)propella-3,8-dien-11-one (4), and (4.4.2) propella-3,8-diene (5) involves the assignment of n/sub +/, n/sub -/, ..pi../sub +/, ..pi../sub -/, and sigma/sub square/ (i.e., cyclobutane sigma) ionization events. The analysis of the data for 5, (4.4.2)propella-3,8,11-triene (6), (4.4.2)propella-3,11-diene (7), and (4.4.2)propell-11-ene (8) leads to the conclusion that the photoelectron spectrum of 6 should be reassigned.more » The /sup 1/GAMMA/sub n..pi..*/ reverse arrow /sup 1/GAMMA/sub 1/ absorption spectra of 1,2, and 3 have been investigated as a function of temperature. The low energy of this transition in 1 is attributed to a high degree of CO/CO coplanarity, the high energy of this transition in 3 is attributed to CO/CO noncoplanarity, and the isomerism evident in 2 is attributed to multiple minima of the potential energy along the CO/CO dihedral angle coordinate of the ground state.« less

  10. Normal Auger spectra of iodine in gas phase alkali iodide molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhengfa; Caló, Antonio; Kukk, Edwin; Aksela, Helena; Aksela, Seppo

    2005-06-01

    Molecular normal Auger electron spectra following the iodine 4d ionization in gas-phase alkali iodides were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The Auger electron spectra for LiI, NaI and KI were recorded using electron impact, and for RbI by using photo-excitation. These Auger spectra were analyzed in detail and compared to the referenced normal Auger spectra of HI [L. Karlsson, S. Svensson, P. Baltzer, M. Carlsson-Göthe, M.P. Keane, A. Naves de Brito, N. Correia, B. Wannberg, J. Phys. B 22 (1989) 3001]. An energy shift toward higher kinetic energy and a narrowing in linewidth are observed in the Auger spectra series revealing the effect of the changing environment from covalently bonded HI to ionic alkali iodide compounds. The experimental results are also compared with the theoretical ab initio calculations and with the Auger spectra of I -, computed with the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) method.

  11. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Kim, K. C.; Seo, E. S.; Sina, R.; Wang, J. Z.; Wu, J.; Case, G.; Ellison, S. B.; Gould, R.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment is designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of Z = 1 to 28 cosmic rays over the energy range of approximately 10 GeV - 100 TeV. ATIC is comprised of an eight-layer, 18 radiation length deep Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter, downstream of a 0.75 nuclear interaction length graphite target and an approximately 1 sq m finely segmented silicon charge detector. Interleaved with the graphite layers are three scintillator strip hodoscopes for pre-triggering and tracking. ATIC flew for the first time on a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) launched from McMurdo, Antarctica in January 2001. During its 16-day flight ATIC collected more than 30 million science events, along with housekeeping, calibration, and rate data. This presentation will describe the ATIC data processing, including calibration and efficiency corrections, and show results from analysis of this dataset. The next launch is planned for December 2002.

  12. Spatially resolved density and ionization measurements of shocked foams using x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2016-09-22

    We present experiments at the Trident laser facility demonstrating the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to simultaneously measure density, ionization state populations, and electron temperature in shocked foams. An imaging x-ray spectrometer was used to obtain spatially-resolved measurements of Ti K-more » $$\\alpha$$ emission. Density profiles were measured from K-$$\\alpha$$ intensity. Ti ionization state distributions and electron temperatures were inferred by fitting K-$$\\alpha$$ spectra to spectra from CRETIN simulations. This study shows that XRF provides a powerful tool to complement other diagnostics to make equation of state measurements of shocked materials containing a suitable tracer element.« less

  13. Spatially resolved density and ionization measurements of shocked foams using x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2016-09-28

    We present experiments at the Trident laser facility demonstrating the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to simultaneously measure density, ionization state populations, and electron temperature in shocked foams. An imaging x-ray spectrometer obtained spatially resolved measurements of Ti K-α emission. Density profiles were measured from K-α intensity. Ti ionization state distributions and electron temperatures were inferred by fitting K-α spectra to spectra from CRETIN simulations. This work shows that XRF provides a powerful tool to complement other diagnostics to make equation of state measurements of shocked materials containing a suitable tracer element.

  14. Fast Ionized X-ray Absorbers in AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, K.; Tombesi, F.; Kazanas, D.; Shrader, C.; Behar, E.; Contopoulos, I.

    2015-07-01

    We present a study of X-ray ionization of MHD accretion-disk wind models in an effort to explain the highly-ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) identified as X-ray absorbers recently detected in various sub-classes of Seyfert AGNs. Our primary focus is to show that magnetically-driven outflows are physically plausible candidates to account for the AGN X-ray spectroscopic observations. We calculate its X-ray ionization and the ensuing X-ray absorption line spectra in comparison with an XXM-Newton/EPIC spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert AGN, PG 1211+143. We find, through identifying the detected features with Fe Kα transitions, that the absorber has a characteristic ionization parameter of log(xi[erg cm/s]) = 5-6 and a hydrogen-equivalent column density on the order of 1e23 cm-2, outflowing at a sub-relativistic velocity of v/c = 0.1-0.2. The best-fit model favors its radial location at R = 200 Rs (Rs is the Schwarzschild radius), with a disk inner truncation radius at Rt = 30Rs. The overall K-shell feature in data is suggested to be dominated by Fe XXV with very little contribution from Fe XXVI and weakly-ionized iron, which is in a good agreement with a series of earlier analysis of the UFOs in various AGNs including PG 1211+143.

  15. Fragmentation pathways and structural characterization of organophosphorus compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention by electron ionization and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Esmaeil; Saeidian, Hamid; Amozadeh, Ali; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Babri, Mehran

    2016-12-30

    For unambiguous identification of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)-related chemicals in environmental samples, the availability of mass spectra, interpretation skills and rapid microsynthesis of suspected chemicals are essential requirements. For the first time, the electron ionization single quadrupole and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectra of a series of O-alkyl N-[bis(dimethylamino)methylidene]-P-methylphosphonamidates (Scheme 1, cpd 4) were studied for CWC verification purposes. O-Alkyl N-[bis(dimethylamino)methylidene]-P-methylphosphonamidates were prepared through a microsynthetic method and were analyzed using electron ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with gas and liquid chromatography, respectively, as MS-inlet systems. General EI and ESI fragmentation pathways were proposed and discussed, and collision-induced dissociation studies of the protonated derivatives of these compounds were performed to confirm proposed fragment ion structures by analyzing mass spectra of deuterated analogs. Mass spectrometric studies revealed some interesting fragmentation pathways during the ionization process, such as McLafferty rearrangement, hydrogen rearrangement and a previously unknown intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The EI and ESI fragmentation routes of the synthesized compounds 4 were investigated with the aim of detecting and identifying CWC-related chemicals during on-site inspection and/or off-site analysis and toxic chemical destruction monitoring. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization studies of non-polar isomeric hydrocarbons using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different ionization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsdorf, H.; Nazarov, E. G.; Eiceman, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    The ionization pathways were determined for sets of isomeric non-polar hydrocarbons (structural isomers, cis/trans isomers) using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different techniques of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization to assess the influence of structural features on ion formation. Depending on the structural features, different ions were observed using mass spectrometry. Unsaturated hydrocarbons formed mostly [M - 1]+ and [(M - 1)2H]+ ions while mainly [M - 3]+ and [(M - 3)H2O]+ ions were found for saturated cis/trans isomers using photoionization and 63Ni ionization. These ionization methods and corona discharge ionization were used for ion mobility measurements of these compounds. Different ions were detected for compounds with different structural features. 63Ni ionization and photoionization provide comparable ions for every set of isomers. The product ions formed can be clearly attributed to the structures identified. However, differences in relative abundance of product ions were found. Although corona discharge ionization permits the most sensitive detection of non-polar hydrocarbons, the spectra detected are complex and differ from those obtained with 63Ni ionization and photoionization. c. 2002 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.

  17. [Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (comparative risk estimations)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2012-01-01

    The population has widely used mobile communication for already more than 15 years. It is important to note that the use of mobile communication has sharply changed the conditions of daily exposure of the population to EME We expose our brain daily for the first time in the entire civilization. The mobile phone is an open and uncontrollable source of electromagnetic radiation. The comparative risk estimation for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation was carried out taking into account the real conditions of influence. Comparison of risks for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation leads us to a conclusion that EMF RF exposure in conditions of wide use of mobile communication is potentially more harmful than ionizing radiation influence.

  18. Oxidative Ionization Under Certain Negative-Ion Mass Spectrometric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Isra; Pavlov, Julius; Errabelli, Ramu; Attygalle, Athula B.

    2017-02-01

    1,4-Hydroquinone and several other phenolic compounds generate (M - 2) -• radical-anions, rather than deprotonated molecules, under certain negative-ion mass spectrometric conditions. In fact, spectra generated under helium-plasma ionization (HePI) conditions from 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone (by electron capture) were practically indistinguishable. Because this process involves a net loss of H• and H+, it can be termed oxidative ionization. The superoxide radical-anion (O2 -•), known to be present in many atmospheric-pressure plasma ion sources operated in the negative mode, plays a critical role in the oxidative ionization process. The presence of a small peak at m/z 142 in the spectrum of 1,4-hydroquinone, but not in that of 1,4-benzoquinone, indicated that the initial step in the oxidative ionization process is the formation of an O2 -• adduct. On the other hand, under bona fide electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions, 1,4-hydroquinone generates predominantly an (M - 1) - ion. It is known that at sufficiently high capillary voltages, corona discharges begin to occur even in an ESI source. At lower ESI capillary voltages, deprotonation predominates; as the capillary voltage is raised, the abundance of O2 -• present in the plasma increases, and the source in turn increasingly behaves as a composite ESI/APCI source. While maintaining post-ionization ion activation to a minimum (to prevent fragmentation), and monitoring the relative intensities of the m/z 109 (due to deprotonation) and 108 (oxidative ionization) peaks recorded from 1,4-hydroquinone, a semiquantitative estimation of the APCI contribution to the overall ion-generation process can be obtained.

  19. Characteristics of light reflected from a dense ionization wave with a tunable velocity.

    PubMed

    Zhidkov, A; Esirkepov, T; Fujii, T; Nemoto, K; Koga, J; Bulanov, S V

    2009-11-20

    An optically dense ionization wave (IW) produced by two femtosecond (approximately 10/30 fs) laser pulses focused cylindrically and crossing each other may become an efficient coherent x-ray converter in accordance with the Semenova-Lampe theory. The resulting velocity of a quasiplane IW in the vicinity of pulse intersection changes with the angle between the pulses from the group velocity of ionizing pulses to infinity allowing a tuning of the wavelength of x rays and their bunching. The x-ray spectra after scattering of a lower frequency and long coherent light pulse change from the monochromatic to high order harmoniclike with the duration of the ionizing pulses.

  20. Sequencing BPS spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; ...

    2016-03-02

    In this article, we provide both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explainmore » from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (re fined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identi fication of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N = 2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. In conclusion, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.« less

  1. Sequencing BPS spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar

    In this article, we provide both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explainmore » from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (re fined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identi fication of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N = 2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. In conclusion, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.« less

  2. Ionized cluster beam deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Ionized Cluster Beam (ICB) deposition, a new technique originated by Takagi of Kyoto University in Japan, offers a number of unique capabilities for thin film metallization as well as for deposition of active semiconductor materials. ICB allows average energy per deposited atom to be controlled and involves impact kinetics which result in high diffusion energies of atoms on the growth surface. To a greater degree than in other techniques, ICB involves quantitative process parameters which can be utilized to strongly control the characteristics of films being deposited. In the ICB deposition process, material to be deposited is vaporized into a vacuum chamber from a confinement crucible at high temperature. Crucible nozzle configuration and operating temperature are such that emerging vapor undergoes supercondensation following adiabatic expansion through the nozzle.

  3. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  4. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  5. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1988-11-15

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

  6. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber.

  7. Interaction with the Lower Ionosphere of Electromagnetic Pulses from Lightning: Heating, Attachment, Ionization, and Optical Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-25

    using Opal et al. [1971] data on the secondary electron spectra and the ionization potential approximation used by Richards and Torr [1990]. The...N£ most easily detectable in the natural aurora [ Vallance Jones, 1974]. 4? 44 OPTICAL EMISSIONS To study optical emissions from the D region...here) are considered to be weak based on observed auroral spectra [ Vallance Jones, 1974; p. 90]. The intensity of t’-th line is given by [Chamberlain

  8. Far-ultraviolet absorption spectra of quasars: How to find missing hot gas and metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verner, D. A.; Tytler, David; Barthel, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    We show that some high-redshift QSO absorption systems that reveal only the H I Lyman series lines at wavelengths visible from the ground maybe a new class of ultra-high-ionization metal line systems, with metal lines in the far-UV region which is now being explored with satellites. At high temperatures or in intense radiation fields metal systems will not show the usual C IV absorption, and O VI will become the most prominent metal absorber. At still higher ionization, O IV also becomes weak and the strongest metal lines are from Ne VIII, Mg X and Si XII, which have doublets in the rangs 500-800 A. Hence very high ionization metal systems will not show metal lines in existing spectra. Recent X-ray observations show that galaxy halos contain hot gas, so we predict that far-UV spectra of QSOs will also show this gas.

  9. Fluorescence Spectra of Highlighter Inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer J.; King, Damon

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra excited by laser pointers have been the subject of several papers in TPT. These papers all describe a fluorescence phenomenon in which the reflected laser light undergoes a change in color: this color change results from the combination of some partially reflected laser light and additional colors generated by fluorescent emission. Here we examine the fluorescence spectra of highlighter inks using green and violet laser pointers. We use an RSpec Explorer spectrometer to obtain spectra and compare the emission spectra of blue, green, yellow, orange, pink, and purple highlighters. The website Compound Interest details the chemical composition of highlighter inks; in addition, the site discusses how some base dye colors can be combined to produce the variety commercially available colors. Spectra obtained in this study were qualitatively consistent with the Compound Interest site. We discuss similarities and differences between various highlighter colors and conclude with the relevance of such studies to physics students.

  10. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  11. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, John K.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  12. How big, and how long-lasting, will an extreme burst above threshold be ? Lessons from self-organised criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, N. W.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2011-12-01

    The idea that there might not be a typical scale for energy release in some space physics systems is a relatively new one [see e.g. mini-review of early work in Freeman and Watkins, Science, 2002; & Aschwanden, Self Organized Criticality (SOC) in Astrophysics, Springer, 2011]. In part it resulted from the widespread approximate fractality seen elsewhere in nature. SOC was introduced by Bak et al [PRL, 1987] as a physical explanation of such widespread space-time fractality. SOC inspired the introduction into magnetospheric physics of "burst" diagnostics by Takalo [1993] & Consolini [1996]. These quantified events in a time series by "size" (integrated area above a fixed threshold) and "duration", and revealed a long tailed population of events across a broad range of sizes, subsequently also seen in solar wind drivers like Akasofu's epsilon function [Freeman et al, PRE & GRL, 2000]. Spatiotemporal bursts have an interest beyond SOC, however. Estimating the probability of a burst of a given size and duration bears directly on the problem of correlated extreme events, or "bunched black swans" [e.g. Watkins et al, EGU, 2011 presentation at the URL below]. With a view both to space physics and this wider context we here consider an interesting development of the burst idea made by Uritsky et al [GRL, 2001]. These authors adapted the spatiotemporal spreading exponent [e.g. Marro & Dickman, Nonequilibrium phase transitions in lattice models, 1999], calculating a superposed epoch average of surviving activity in bursts after their first excursion above a threshold. In a 1D time series, the 1-minute AL auroral index (averaged over 5 minutes), they found scaling behaviour up to ~ 2 hours. We investigate the relationships between exponents found by this method and other, more widely known exponents governing a fractal (or multifractal) time series such as the self-similarity exponent H and long-range dependence exponent d. We conclude by discussing the applications of these techniques to problems such as the forecasting the probability of a single short-lived large burst versus that of a long correlated sequence of more moderate exceedences above a threshold.

  13. Evolution of TUNEL-labeling in the rat lens after in vivo exposure to just above threshold dose UVB.

    PubMed

    Kronschläger, Martin; Yu, Zhaohua; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Meyer, Linda M; Hallböök, Finn; Söderberg, Per G

    2013-08-01

    To quantitatively analyse the evolution of TUNEL-labeling, after in vivo exposure to UVB. Altogether, 16 Sprague Dawley rats were unilaterally exposed in vivo for 15 min to close to threshold dose, 5 kJ/m(2), of ultraviolet radiation in the 300 nm wavelength region. Animals were sacrificed in groups of 4 at 1, 5, 24 and 120 h after exposure. For each animal, both eye globes were removed and frozen. The frozen eye was cryo-sectioned in 10 µm thick midsagittal sections. From each globe, three midsagittal sections with at least five sections interval in between were mounted on a microscope slide. Sections were TUNEL-labeled and counter stained with DAPI. For quantification of apoptosis, a fluorescence microscope was used. In sections with a continuous epithelial cell surface, the number of lens epithelial cell nuclei and the number of TUNEL-positive epithelial cell nuclei was counted. The total number of TUNEL-positive epithelial cell nuclei for all three sections of one lens in relation to the total number of epithelial cell nuclei for all three sections of the same lens was compared between exposed and contralateral not exposed lens for each animal. The relative difference of the fraction of TUNEL-positive nuclei between exposed and contralateral not exposed lens increased gradually, peaked in the time interval 5-120 h after exposure, and then declined. Close to threshold dose of UVB induces TUNEL-labeling that peaks in the time window 5-120 h after exposure to UVB.

  14. Photoionization and electron-impact ionization of Ar5+

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Lu, M.; Esteves, D.

    2007-02-27

    Absolute cross sections for photoionization andelectron-impact Photionization of Ar5+ have been measuredusing twodifferent interacting-beams setups. The spectra consist of measurementsof the yield of products dueto single ionization as a function ofelectron or photon energy. In addition, absolute photoionization andelectron-impact ionization cross sections were measured to normalize themeasured Ar6+ product-ion yield spectra. In the energy range from 90 to111 eV, both electron-impact ionization and photoionization of Ar5+aredominated by indirect 3s subshell excitation-autoionization. In theenergy range from 270 to 285 eV, resonances due to 2p-3dexcitation-autoionization are prominent in the photoionization spectrum.In the range from 225 to 335 eV, an enhancement due tomore » 2p-nl (n>2>excitations are evident in the electron-impactionization cross section.The electron and photon impact data show some features due to excitationof the same intermediate autoionizing states.« less

  15. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  16. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  17. Optical ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

    1994-03-29

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

  18. Optical ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

  19. Microwave reflectometer ionization sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seals, Joseph; Fordham, Jeffrey A.; Pauley, Robert G.; Simonutti, Mario D.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) Instrument for use on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft is described. The instrument contract was terminated, due to cancellation of the AFE program, subsequent to testing of an engineering development model. The MRIS, a four-frequency reflectometer, was designed for the detection and location of critical electron density levels in spacecraft reentry plasmas. The instrument would sample the relative magnitude and phase of reflected signals at discrete frequency steps across 4 GHz bandwidths centered at four frequencies: 20, 44, 95, and 140 GHz. The sampled data would be stored for later processing to calculate the distance from the spacecraft surface to the critical electron densities versus time. Four stepped PM CW transmitter receivers were located behind the thermal protection system of the spacecraft with horn antennas radiating and receiving through an insulating tile. Techniques were developed to deal with interference, including multiple reflections and resonance effects, resulting from the antenna configuration and operating environment.

  20. H+, O2+, O3+ and high resolution PIXE spectra of Yb2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, P. C.; Reis, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    The number of X-ray spectrometry systems having energy resolution of the order of 10 eV, or less, has increasing recently, included already energy dispersive systems (EDS). Access to previous unseen spectra details and enhanced information including speciation, becomes more common and available. Analysis of high resolution EDS PIXE spectra is, nevertheless a complex task due to the need to carefully account for contributions from minor and satellite transitions. In this work, a pure Yb2O3 sample was irradiated at the HRHE-PIXE setup of C2TN, and simultaneous CdTe and X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) spectra were collected. The L-shell spectrum of Yb emitted during irradiations using H+ , O2+ and O3+ ions in the energy range from 1.0 to 6.5 MeV was studied. Measured L X-ray spectra were analysed taking into account the effects of the multiple ionization in the L and M shells. All spectra were analysed using the DT2 code, which allows to include in the fitting model diagram lines as well as multi-ionization satellites and any other contributions. In this communication we present the results and discuss details and problems related to the transition energies, intensity, line width data, and multiple ionization satellites.

  1. ATIC Experiment: Elemental Spectra from the Flight in 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, H. S.; Adams, J. H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K. E.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Guzik, T. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) had successful Long Duration Balloon flights from McMurdo, Antarctica in both 2000 and 2002. The instrument consists of a silicon matrix charge detector, a 0.75 nuclear interaction length graphite target, 3 scintillator strip hodoscopes, and an 18 radiation length thick BGO calorimeter to measure the cosmic ray composition and energy spectra from approximately 30 GeV to near 100 TeV. In this paper, we present preliminary results from the first flight, which was a test flight that lasted for 16 days, starting on 12/28/00.

  2. Comparison of Internal Energy Distributions of Ions Created by Electrospray Ionization and Laser Ablation-Liquid Vortex Capture-Electrospray Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, John F.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2015-06-27

    Recently a number of techniques have combined laser ablation with liquid capture for mass spectrometry spot sampling and imaging applications. The newly developed non-contact liquid-vortex capture probe has been used to efficiently collect 355 nm UV laser ablated material in a continuous flow solvent stream in which the captured material dissolves and then undergoes electrospray ionization. This sampling and ionization approach has produced what appear to be classic electrospray ionization spectra; however, the softness of this sampling/ionization process versus simple electrospray ionization has not been definitely determined. A series of benzlypyridinium salts, known as thermometer ions, were used to comparemore » internal energy distributions between electrospray ionization and the UV laser ablation liquid-vortex capture probe electrospray combination. Measured internal energy distributions were identical between the two techniques, even with differences in laser fluence (0.7-3.1 J cm-2) and when using UV-absorbing or non-UV-absorbing sample substrates. This data indicates ions formed directly by UV laser ablation, if any, are likely an extremely small constituent of the total ion signal observed. Instead, neutral molecules, clusters or particulates ejected from the surface during laser ablation, subsequently captured and dissolved in the flowing solvent stream then electrosprayed are the predominant source of ion signal observed. The electrospray ionization process used controls the softness of the technique.« less

  3. THE FRACTIONAL IONIZATION OF THE WARM NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Edward B., E-mail: ebj@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-02-10

    When the neutral interstellar medium is exposed to extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation, the argon atoms in it are far more susceptible to being ionized than the hydrogen atoms. We make use of this fact to determine the level of ionization in the nearby warm neutral medium. By analyzing Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer observations of ultraviolet spectra of 44 hot subdwarf stars a few hundred parsecs away from the Sun, we can compare column densities of Ar I to those of O I, where the relative ionization of oxygen can be used as a proxy for that of hydrogen. The measuredmore » deficiency [Ar I/O I]=-0.427{+-}0.11 dex below the expectation for a fully neutral medium implies that the electron density n(e) Almost-Equal-To 0.04 cm{sup -3} if n(H) = 0.5 cm{sup -3}. This amount of ionization is considerably larger than what we expect from primary photoionizations resulting from cosmic rays, the diffuse X-ray background, and X-ray emitting sources within the medium, along with the additional ionizations caused by energetic secondary photoelectrons, Auger electrons, and photons from helium recombinations. We favor an explanation that bursts of radiation created by previous, nearby supernova remnants that have faded by now may have elevated the ionization, and the gas has not yet recombined to a quiescent level. A different alternative is that the low-energy portion of the soft X-ray background is poorly shielded by the H I because it is frothy and has internal pockets of very hot, X-ray emitting gases.« less

  4. IDENTIFYING IONIZED REGIONS IN NOISY REDSHIFTED 21 cm DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, Matthew; Lidz, Adam, E-mail: mattma@sas.upenn.edu

    One of the most promising approaches for studying reionization is to use the redshifted 21 cm line. Early generations of redshifted 21 cm surveys will not, however, have the sensitivity to make detailed maps of the reionization process, and will instead focus on statistical measurements. Here, we show that it may nonetheless be possible to directly identify ionized regions in upcoming data sets by applying suitable filters to the noisy data. The locations of prominent minima in the filtered data correspond well with the positions of ionized regions. In particular, we corrupt semi-numeric simulations of the redshifted 21 cm signalmore » during reionization with thermal noise at the level expected for a 500 antenna tile version of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and mimic the degrading effects of foreground cleaning. Using a matched filter technique, we find that the MWA should be able to directly identify ionized regions despite the large thermal noise. In a plausible fiducial model in which {approx}20% of the volume of the universe is neutral at z {approx} 7, we find that a 500-tile MWA may directly identify as many as {approx}150 ionized regions in a 6 MHz portion of its survey volume and roughly determine the size of each of these regions. This may, in turn, allow interesting multi-wavelength follow-up observations, comparing galaxy properties inside and outside of ionized regions. We discuss how the optimal configuration of radio antenna tiles for detecting ionized regions with a matched filter technique differs from the optimal design for measuring power spectra. These considerations have potentially important implications for the design of future redshifted 21 cm surveys.« less

  5. LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION OF SINGLE ULTRAFINE MULTICOMPONENT AEROSOLS. (R823980)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laser desorption/ionization characteristics of single
    ultrafine multicomponent aerosols have been investigated.
    The results confirm earlier findings that (a) the negative
    ion spectra are dominated by free electrons and (b) the ion
    yield-to-mass ratio is higher for ...

  6. An Atlas of Far-ultraviolet Spectra of the Zeta Aurigae Binary 31 Cygni with Line Identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen Bauer, Wendy; Bennett, Philip D.

    2014-04-01

    The ζ Aurigae system 31 Cygni (K4 Ib + B4 V) was observed by the FUSE satellite during total eclipse and at three phases during chromospheric eclipse. We present the coadded, calibrated spectra and atlases with line identifications. During total eclipse, emission from high ionization states (e.g., Fe III and Cr III) shows asymmetric profiles redshifted from the systemic velocity, while emission from lower ionization states (e.g., Fe II and O I) appears more symmetric and is centered closer to the systemic velocity. Absorption from neutral and singly ionized elements is detected during chromospheric eclipse. Late in chromospheric eclipse, absorption from the K star wind is detected at a terminal velocity of ~80 km s-1. These atlases will be useful for interpreting the far-UV spectra of other ζ Aur systems, as the observed FUSE spectra of 32 Cyg, KQ Pup, and VV Cep during chromospheric eclipse resemble that of 31 Cyg.

  7. Calculation of multiphoton ionization processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, T. N.; Poe, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    We propose an accurate and efficient procedure in the calculation of multiphoton ionization processes. In addition to the calculational advantage, this procedure also enables us to study the relative contributions of the resonant and nonresonant intermediate states.

  8. Deconvolution of Energy Spectra in the ATIC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batkov, K. E.; Panov, A. D.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazley, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunasigha, R. M.; hide

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon-borne experiment is designed to perform cosmic- ray elemental spectra measurements from below 100 GeV up to tens TeV for nuclei from hydrogen to iron. The instrument is composed of a silicon matrix detector followed by a carbon target, interleaved with scintillator tracking layers, and a segmented BGO calorimeter composed of 320 individual crystals totalling 18 radiation lengths, used to determine the particle energy. The technique for deconvolution of the energy spectra measured in the thin calorimeter is based on detailed simulations of the response of the ATIC instrument to different cosmic ray nuclei over a wide energy range. The method of deconvolution is described and energy spectrum of carbon obtained by this technique is presented.

  9. Resonance ionization for analytical spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, George S.; Payne, Marvin G.; Wagner, Edward B.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the sensitive and selective analysis of an atomic or molecular component of a gas. According to this method, the desired neutral component is ionized by one or more resonance photon absorptions, and the resultant ions are measured in a sensitive counter. Numerous energy pathways are described for accomplishing the ionization including the use of one or two tunable pulsed dye lasers.

  10. Polarizabilities of highly ionized atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastner, S. O.; Wolf, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    An extrapolation method based on a screening approximation, applied to available initial values of polarizability for low stages of ionization, is used to obtain dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities for more highly ionized members of many isoelectronic sequences. It is suggested that the derived screening constants x sub L and limiting ratios F sub L may have significant physical meaning, especially the latter which may have an interpretation in terms of hydrogenic polarizabilities.

  11. Ionization oscillations in Hall accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barral, S.; Peradzyński, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of low-frequency oscillations in Hall accelerators is investigated theoretically. It is shown that relaxation oscillations arise from a competition between avalanche ionization and the advective transport of the working gas. The model derived recovers the slow progression and fast recession of the ionization front. Analytical approximations of the shape of current pulses and of the oscillation frequency are provided for the case of large amplitude oscillations.

  12. Valence ionized states of iron pentacarbonyl and eta5-cyclopentadienyl cobalt dicarbonyl studied by symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculation and collision-energy resolved Penning ionization electron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ryoichi; Ehara, Masahiro; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Naoki; Ohno, Koichi

    2010-02-28

    Valence ionized states of iron pentacarbonyl Fe(CO)(5) and eta(5)-cyclopentadienyl cobalt dicarbonyl Co(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(2) have been studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, two-dimensional Penning ionization electron spectroscopy (2D-PIES), and symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculations. Theory provided reliable assignments for the complex ionization spectra of these molecules, which have metal-carbonyl bonds. Theoretical ionization energies agreed well with experimental observations and the calculated wave functions could explain the relative intensities of PIES spectra. The collision-energy dependence of partial ionization cross sections (CEDPICS) was obtained by 2D-PIES. To interpret these CEDPICS, the interaction potentials between the molecules and a Li atom were examined in several coordinates by calculations. The relation between the slope of the CEDPICS and the electronic structure of the ionized states, such as molecular symmetry and the spatial distribution of ionizing orbitals, was analyzed. In Fe(CO)(5), an attractive interaction was obtained for the equatorial CO, while the interaction for the axial CO direction was repulsive. For Co(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(2), the interaction potential in the direction of both Co-C-O and Co-Cp ring was attractive. These anisotropic interactions and ionizing orbital distributions consistently explain the relative slopes of the CEDPICS.

  13. Gas chromatography/chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis of anabolic steroids: ionization and collision-induced dissociation behavior.

    PubMed

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-02-28

    The detection of new anabolic steroid metabolites and new designer steroids is a challenging task in doping analysis. Switching from electron ionization gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS) to chemical ionization (CI) has proven to be an efficient way to increase the sensitivity of GC/MS/MS analyses and facilitate the detection of anabolic steroids. CI also extends the possibilities of GC/MS/MS analyses as the molecular ion is retained in its protonated form due to the softer ionization. In EI it can be difficult to find previously unknown but expected metabolites due to the low abundance or absence of the molecular ion and the extensive (and to a large extent unpredictable) fragmentation. The main aim of this work was to study the CI and collision-induced dissociation (CID) behavior of a large number of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as their trimethylsilyl derivatives in order to determine correlations between structures and CID fragmentation. Clarification of these correlations is needed for the elucidation of structures of unknown steroids and new metabolites. The ionization and CID behavior of 65 AAS have been studied using GC/CI-MS/MS with ammonia as the reagent gas. Glucuronidated AAS reference standards were first hydrolyzed to obtain their free forms. Afterwards, all the standards were derivatized to their trimethylsilyl forms. Full scan and product ion scan analyses were used to examine the ionization and CID behavior. Full scan and product ion scan analyses revealed clear correlations between AAS structure and the obtained mass spectra. These correlations were confirmed by analysis of multiple hydroxylated, methylated, chlorinated and deuterated analogs. AAS have been divided into three groups according to their ionization behavior and into seven groups according to their CID behavior. Correlations between fragmentation and structure were revealed and fragmentation pathways were postulated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley

  14. Influence of Dust Loading on Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Gronoff, Guillaume; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the radiation environment at the surface of Mars is the primary goal of the Radiation Assessment Detector on the NASA Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. One of the conditions that Curiosity will likely encounter is a dust storm. The objective of this paper is to compute the cosmic ray ionization in different conditions, including dust storms, as these various conditions are likely to be encountered by Curiosity at some point. In the present work, the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety model, recently modified for Mars, was used along with the Badhwar & O'Neill 2010 galactic cosmic ray model. In addition to galactic cosmic rays, five different solar energetic particle event spectra were considered. For all input radiation environments, radiation dose throughout the atmosphere and at the surface was investigated as a function of atmospheric dust loading. It is demonstrated that for galactic cosmic rays, the ionization depends strongly on the atmosphere profile. Moreover, it is shown that solar energetic particle events strongly increase the ionization throughout the atmosphere, including ground level, and can account for the radio blackout conditions observed by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft. These results demonstrate that the cosmic rays' influence on the Martian surface chemistry is strongly dependent on solar and atmospheric conditions that should be taken into account for future studies.

  15. The Formation and Physical Origin of Highly Ionized Cooling Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoloi, Rongmon; Wagner, Alexander Y.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Norman, Colin A.

    2017-10-01

    We present a simple model that explains the origin of warm, diffuse gas seen primarily as highly ionized absorption-line systems in the spectra of background sources. We predict the observed column densities of several highly ionized transitions such as O VI, O vii, Ne viii, N v, and Mg x, and we present a unified comparison of the model predictions with absorption lines seen in the Milky Way disk, Milky Way halo, starburst galaxies, the circumgalactic medium, and the intergalactic medium at low and high redshifts. We show that diffuse gas seen in such diverse environments can be simultaneously explained by a simple model of radiatively cooling gas. We show that most such absorption-line systems are consistent with being collisionally ionized, and we estimate the maximum-likelihood temperature of the gas in each observation. This model satisfactorily explains why O VI is regularly observed around star-forming low-z L* galaxies, and why N v is rarely seen around the same galaxies. We further present some consequences of this model in quantifying the dynamics of the cooling gas around galaxies and predict the shock velocities associated with such flows. A unique strength of this model is that while it has only one free (but physically well-constrained) parameter, it nevertheless successfully reproduces the available data on O VI absorbers in the interstellar, circumgalactic, intragroup, and intergalactic media, as well as the available data on other absorption lines from highly ionized species.

  16. Ionization rate from the electron precipitation during August 2011 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Huang, C. Y.; Su, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We apply a parameterization by Fang et al. [2010] (Fang2010) to the complex energy spectra measured by DMSP F16 satellites to calculate the ionization rate from electron precipitation during a moderate storm on August 6th, 2011. The DMSP electron flux measurements show that there is clear enhancement of electron fluxes in the polar cap. The mean energy in the polar cap is mostly above 100 eV, while the mean energy of auroral zone is above 1 keV. F16 also captures a strong Poynting flux enhancement in the polar cap. The electron impact ionization rates using thermospheric densities and temperatures from NRLMSISE-00, TIE-GCM and GITM show clear enhancement at F-region altitudes in the polar cap region due to the low-energy electrons precipitated. Using the default empirical formulations of electron impact ionization in GCMs, TIE-GCM and GITM do not capture the F-region ionization shown in the results of Fang2010 parameterization. Fang, X, C. E. Randall, D. Lummerzheim, W. Wang, G. Lu, S. C. Solomon, and R. A. Frahm (2010), Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L22106, doi:10.1029/2010GL045406.

  17. Ballistic Deficits for Ionization Chamber Pulses in Pulse Shaping Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G. Anil; Sharma, S. L.; Choudhury, R. K.

    2007-04-01

    In order to understand the dependence of the ballistic deficit on the shape of rising portion of the voltage pulse at the input of a pulse shaping amplifier, we have estimated the ballistic deficits for the pulses from a two-electrode parallel plate ionization chamber as well as for the pulses from a gridded parallel plate ionization chamber. These estimations have been made using numerical integration method when the pulses are processed through the CR-RCn (n=1-6) shaping network as well as when the pulses are processed through the complex shaping network of the ORTEC Model 472 spectroscopic amplifier. Further, we have made simulations to see the effect of ballistic deficit on the pulse-height spectra under different conditions. We have also carried out measurements of the ballistic deficits for the pulses from a two-electrode parallel plate ionization chamber as well as for the pulses from a gridded parallel plate ionization chamber when these pulses are processed through the ORTEC 572 linear amplifier having a simple CR-RC shaping network. The reasonable matching of the simulated ballistic deficits with the experimental ballistic deficits for the CR-RC shaping network clearly establishes the validity of the simulation technique

  18. The Formation and Physical Origin of Highly Ionized Cooling Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bordoloi, Rongmon; Wagner, Alexander Y.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    We present a simple model that explains the origin of warm, diffuse gas seen primarily as highly ionized absorption-line systems in the spectra of background sources. We predict the observed column densities of several highly ionized transitions such as O vi, O vii, Ne viii, N v, and Mg x, and we present a unified comparison of the model predictions with absorption lines seen in the Milky Way disk, Milky Way halo, starburst galaxies, the circumgalactic medium, and the intergalactic medium at low and high redshifts. We show that diffuse gas seen in such diverse environments can be simultaneously explainedmore » by a simple model of radiatively cooling gas. We show that most such absorption-line systems are consistent with being collisionally ionized, and we estimate the maximum-likelihood temperature of the gas in each observation. This model satisfactorily explains why O vi is regularly observed around star-forming low- z L* galaxies, and why N v is rarely seen around the same galaxies. We further present some consequences of this model in quantifying the dynamics of the cooling gas around galaxies and predict the shock velocities associated with such flows. A unique strength of this model is that while it has only one free (but physically well-constrained) parameter, it nevertheless successfully reproduces the available data on O vi absorbers in the interstellar, circumgalactic, intragroup, and intergalactic media, as well as the available data on other absorption lines from highly ionized species.« less

  19. Generation of monoenergetic ion beams via ionization dynamics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen; Kim, I. Jong; Yu, Jinqing; Choi, Il Woo; Ma, Wenjun; Yan, Xueqing; Nam, Chang Hee

    2017-05-01

    The research on ion acceleration driven by high intensity laser pulse has attracted significant interests in recent decades due to the developments of laser technology. The intensive study of energetic ion bunches is particularly stimulated by wide applications in nuclear fusion, medical treatment, warm dense matter production and high energy density physics. However, to implement such compact accelerators, challenges are still existing in terms of beam quality and stability, especially in applications that require higher energy and narrow bandwidth spectra ion beams. We report on the acceleration of quasi-mono-energetic ion beams via ionization dynamics in the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a solid target. Using ionization dynamics model in 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we found that high charge state contamination ions can only be ionized in the central spot area where the intensity of sheath field surpasses their ionization threshold. These ions automatically form a microstructure target with a width of few micron scale, which is conducive to generate mono-energetic beams. In the experiment of ultraintense (< 10^21 W/cm^2) laser pulses irradiating ultrathin targets each attracted with a contamination layer of nm-thickness, high quality < 100 MeV mono-energetic ion bunches are generated. The peak energy of the self-generated micro-structured target ions with respect to different contamination layer thickness is also examined This is relatively newfound respect, which is confirmed by the consistence between experiment data and the simulation results.

  20. Ionization correction factors for H II regions in blue compact dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holovatyi, V. V.; Melekh, B. Ya.

    2002-08-01

    Energy distributions in the spectra of the ionizing nuclei of H II regions beyond λ <= 91.2 nm were calculated. A grid of photoionization models of 270 H II regions was constructed. The free parameters of the model grid are the hydrogen density nH in the nebular gas, filling factor, energy Lc-spectrum of ionizing nuclei, and metallicity. The chemical composition from the studies of Izotov et al. were used for model grid initialization. The integral linear spectra calculated for the photoionization models were used to determine the concentration ne, temperatures Te of electrons, and ionic concentrations n(A+i)/n(H+) by the nebular gas diagnostic method. The averaged relative ionic abundances n(A+i)/n(H+) thus calculated were used to determine new expressions for ionization correction factors which we recommend for the determination of abundances in the H II regions of blue compact dwarf galaxies.

  1. Amonia gas: an improved reagent for chemical ionization mass spectrometry of bile acid methyl ester acetates

    SciTech Connect

    DeMark, B.R.; Klein, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    The ammonia chemical ionization mass spectra of 28 methyl ester acetate derivatives of bile acids and related compounds have been determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Advantages of ammonia ionization over the previously studied isobutane ionization include a 130 to 270% enhancement in the sensitivity of base peak monitoring, and direct determination of molecular weight from the base peak (M + NH/sub 4//sup +/) in the mass spectrum of any of the derivatives. Minor ions in the ammonia spectra also allow selective detection of 3-keto compounds and can indicate unsaturation or double bond conjugation in the molecule. The significance of thesemore » studies for the detection and quantitation of bile acids is discussed. 2 tables.« less

  2. Measurements of ionization states in warm dense aluminum with betatron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, M. Z.; Chen, Z.; Fourmaux, S.; Saraf, A.; Kerr, S.; Otani, K.; Masoud, R.; Kieffer, J.-C.; Tsui, Y.; Ng, A.; Fedosejevs, R.

    2017-05-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the ionization states of warm dense aluminum via K-shell absorption spectroscopy are demonstrated using betatron radiation generated from laser wakefield acceleration as a probe. The warm dense aluminum is generated by irradiating a free-standing nanofoil with a femtosecond optical laser pulse and was heated to an electron temperature of ˜20 -25 eV at a close-to-solid mass density. Absorption dips in the transmitted x-ray spectrum due to the Al4 + and Al5 + ions are clearly seen during the experiments. The measured absorption spectra are compared to simulations with various ionization potential depression models, including the commonly used Stewart-Pyatt model and an alternative modified Ecker-Kröll model. The observed absorption spectra are in approximate agreement with these models, though indicating a slightly higher state of ionization and closer agreement for simulations with the modified Ecker-Kröll model.

  3. Moiré patterns in doubly differential electron-momentum distributions in atomic ionization by mid-infrared lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dran, Martín; Arbó, Diego G.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the doubly differential electron momentum distribution in above-threshold ionization of atomic hydrogen by a linearly polarized mid-infrared laser pulse. We reproduce side rings in the momentum distribution with forward-backward symmetry previously observed by Lemell et al. [Phys. Rev. A 87, 013421 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.013421], whose origin, as far as we know, has not been explained so far. By developing a Fourier theory of moiré patterns, we demonstrate that such structures stem from the interplay between intra- and intercycle interference patterns which work as two separate grids in the two-dimensional momentum domain. We use a three-dimensional (3D) description based on the saddle-point approximation (SPA) to unravel the nature of these structures. When the periods of the two grids (intra- and intercycle) are similar, principal moiré patterns arise symmetrically as concentric rings in the forward and backward directions at high electron kinetic energy. Higher order moiré patterns are observed and characterized when the period of one grid is multiple of the other. We find a scale law for the position (in momentum space) of the center of the moiré rings in the tunneling regime. We verify the SPA predictions by comparison with time-dependent distorted-wave strong-field approximation calculations and the solutions of the full 3D time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  4. Multifractal spectra in shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.

  5. Driving Turbulence and Triggering Star Formation by Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Burkert, Andreas; Heitsch, Fabian

    2009-03-01

    We present high-resolution simulations on the impact of ionizing radiation of massive O stars on the surrounding turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). The simulations are performed with the newly developed software iVINE which combines ionization with smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and gravitational forces. We show that radiation from hot stars penetrates the ISM, efficiently heats cold low-density gas and amplifies overdensities seeded by the initial turbulence. The formation of observed pillar-like structures in star-forming regions (e.g. in M16) can be explained by this scenario. At the tip of the pillars gravitational collapse can be induced, eventually leading to the formation of low-mass stars. Detailed analysis of the evolution of the turbulence spectra shows that UV radiation of O stars indeed provides an excellent mechanism to sustain and even drive turbulence in the parental molecular cloud.

  6. Theoretical studies of photoexcitation and ionization in H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diercksen, G. H. F.; Kraemer, W. P.; Rescigno, T. N.; Bender, C. F.; Mckoy, B. V.; Langhoff, S. R.; Langhoff, P. W.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical studies using Franck-Condon and static-exchange approximations are reported for the complete dipole excitation and ionization spectrum in H2O, where (1) large Cartesian Gaussian basis sets are used to represent the required discrete and continuum electronic eigenfunctions at the ground state equilibrium geometry, and (2) previously devised moment-theory techniques are employed in constructing the continuum oscillator-strength densities from the calculated spectra. Comparisons are made of the calculated excitation and ionization profiles with recent experimental photoabsorption studies and corresponding spectral assignments, electron impact-excitation cross sections, and dipole and synchrotron-radiation studies of partial-channel photoionization cross sections. The calculated partial-channel cross sections are found to be atomic-like, and dominated by 2p-kd components. It is suggested that the latter transition couples with the underlying 1b(1)-kb(1) channel, accounting for a prominent feature in recent synchrotron-radiation measurements.

  7. Ultraviolet absorption by highly ionized halo gas near the Galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, B. D.; Massa, D.

    1985-01-01

    Initial results are presented for a program to survey highly ionized gas in the Milky Way disk and halo. High-resolution IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) far-UV spectra were obtained for 12 stars at galactocentric distances less than 6 kpc. The stars are 0.7-2.2 kpc away from the plane. Most of the spectra contain exceedingly strong and broad interstellar absorption lines of weakly and highly ionized atoms. In addition to the normally strong lines of Si IV and C IV, strong interstellar NV lines have been detected in the spectra of eight stars. The detection of NV absorption (amounting to more than 10 times the predicted NV) provides an important new constraint on models for the origin of Galactic halo gas. A Galactic fountain operating in the presence of known UV and EUV radiation might explain the observations.

  8. Strong-field ionization of H{sub 2} from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths: Photoelectron energy and angular identifications

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbois, Timo; Helm, Hanspeter

    2011-11-15

    Strong-field ionization of molecular hydrogen is studied at wavelengths ranging from 300 to 800 nm using pulses of 100-fs duration. We find that over this wide wavelength range, from nominally 4-photon to 11-photon ionization, resonance features dominate the ionization probability at intensities below 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Photoelectron momentum maps recorded by an imaging spectrometer are analyzed to identify the wavelength-dependent ionization pathways in single ionization of molecular hydrogen. A number of models, some empirical, which are appropriate for a quantitative interpretation of the spectra and the ionization yield are introduced. A near-absolute comparison of measured ionization yields at 398more » nm is made with the predictions based on a numerical solution [Y. V. Vanne and A. Saenz, Phys. Rev. A 79, 023421 (2009)] of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for two correlated electrons.« less

  9. Monte Carlo Simulations of Electron Energy-Loss Spectra with the Addition of Fine Structure from Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    PubMed

    Attarian Shandiz, Mohammad; Guinel, Maxime J-F; Ahmadi, Majid; Gauvin, Raynald

    2016-02-01

    A new approach is presented to introduce the fine structure of core-loss excitations into the electron energy-loss spectra of ionization edges by Monte Carlo simulations based on an optical oscillator model. The optical oscillator strength is refined using the calculated electron energy-loss near-edge structure by density functional theory calculations. This approach can predict the effects of multiple scattering and thickness on the fine structure of ionization edges. In addition, effects of the fitting range for background removal and the integration range under the ionization edge on signal-to-noise ratio are investigated.

  10. Derivation of ionization balance for calcium XVIII/XIX using XRP solar X-ray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, E.; Gabriel, A. H.; Doyle, J. G.; Dubau, J.; Faucher, P.; Jordan, C.; Veck, N.

    1984-04-01

    Spectra of calcium from solar flares are used in an attempt to derive an ionization balance for Ca XVIII/Ca XIX. The isothermal assumption inherent in this derivation is shown not to introduce errors, by modelling a number of hypothetical nonisothermal plasmas. The unresolved blend of calcium and argon lines prevents a definitive determination of the results, owing to uncertainties in the ratio of abundances of these elements. The resulting ionization balance curves are presented as a function of the solar argon/calcium abundance ratio. The theoretical ionization balance of Doyle and Raymond is consistent with the data. To within the expected accuracy of the atomic theories, there is no reason to assume that the flare plasma is other than close to steady-state ionization balance.

  11. Double ionization of neon in elliptically polarized femtosecond laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, HuiPeng; Henrichs, Kevin; Wang, YanLan; Hao, XiaoLei; Eckart, Sebastian; Kunitski, Maksim; Schöffler, Markus; Jahnke, Till; Liu, XiaoJun; Dörner, Reinhard

    2018-06-01

    We present a joint experimental and theoretical investigation of the correlated electron momentum spectra from strong-field double ionization of neon induced by elliptically polarized laser pulses. A significant asymmetry of the electron momentum distributions along the major polarization axis is reported. This asymmetry depends sensitively on the laser ellipticity. Using a three-dimensional semiclassical model, we attribute this asymmetry pattern to the ellipticity-dependent probability distributions of recollision time. Our work demonstrates that, by simply varying the ellipticity, the correlated electron emission can be two-dimensionally controlled and the recolliding electron trajectories can be steered on a subcycle time scale.

  12. Down syndrome and ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Verger, P

    1997-12-01

    This review examines the epidemiologic and experimental studies into the possible role ionizing radiation might play in Down Syndrome (trisomy 21). It is prompted by a report of a temporal cluster of cases of this chromosomal disorder observed in West Berlin exactly 9 mo after the radioactive cloud from Chernobyl passed. In approximately 90% of cases, Down Syndrome is due to the nondisjunction of chromosome 21, most often in the oocyte, which may be exposed to ionizing radiation during two separate periods: before the completion of the first meiosis or around the time of ovulation. Most epidemiologic studies into trisomies and exposure to ionizing radiation examine only the first period; the Chernobyl cluster is related to the second. Analysis of these epidemiologic results indicates that the possibility that ionizing radiation might be a risk factor in Down Syndrome cannot be excluded. The experimental results, although sometimes contradictory, demonstrate that irradiation may induce nondisjunction in oogenesis and spermatogenesis; they cannot, however, be easily extrapolated to humans. The weaknesses of epidemiologic studies into the risk factors for Down Syndrome at birth (especially the failure to take into account the trisomy cases leading to spontaneous abortion) are discussed. We envisage the utility and feasibility of new studies, in particular among women exposed to prolonged or repeated artificially-produced ionizing radiation.

  13. Ultraviolet spectra of extreme nearby star-forming regions - approaching a local reference sample for JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senchyna, Peter; Stark, Daniel P.; Vidal-García, Alba; Chevallard, Jacopo; Charlot, Stéphane; Mainali, Ramesh; Jones, Tucker; Wofford, Aida; Feltre, Anna; Gutkin, Julia

    2017-12-01

    Nearby dwarf galaxies provide a unique laboratory in which to test stellar population models below Z⊙/2. Such tests are particularly important for interpreting the surprising high-ionization ultraviolet (UV) line emission detected at z > 6 in recent years. We present HST/COS UV spectra of 10 nearby metal-poor star-forming galaxies selected to show He II emission in SDSS optical spectra. The targets span nearly a dex in gas-phase oxygen abundance (7.8 < 12 + log O/H < 8.5) and present uniformly large specific star formation rates (sSFR ∼102 Gyr-1). The UV spectra confirm that metal-poor stellar populations can power extreme nebular emission in high-ionization UV lines, reaching C III] equivalent widths comparable to those seen in systems at z ∼ 6-7. Our data reveal a marked transition in UV spectral properties with decreasing metallicity, with systems below 12 + log O/H ≲ 8.0 (Z/Z⊙ ≲ 1/5) presenting minimal stellar wind features and prominent nebular emission in He II and C IV. This is consistent with nearly an order of magnitude increase in ionizing photon production beyond the He+-ionizing edge relative to H-ionizing flux as metallicity decreases below a fifth solar, well in excess of standard stellar population synthesis predictions. Our results suggest that often-neglected sources of energetic radiation such as stripped binary products and very massive O-stars produce a sharper change in the ionizing spectrum with decreasing metallicity than expected. Consequently, nebular emission in C IV and He II powered by these stars may provide useful metallicity constraints in the reionization era.

  14. The composite load spectra project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, J. F.; Ho, H.; Kurth, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Probabilistic methods and generic load models capable of simulating the load spectra that are induced in space propulsion system components are being developed. Four engine component types (the transfer ducts, the turbine blades, the liquid oxygen posts and the turbopump oxidizer discharge duct) were selected as representative hardware examples. The composite load spectra that simulate the probabilistic loads for these components are typically used as the input loads for a probabilistic structural analysis. The knowledge-based system approach used for the composite load spectra project provides an ideal environment for incremental development. The intelligent database paradigm employed in developing the expert system provides a smooth coupling between the numerical processing and the symbolic (information) processing. Large volumes of engine load information and engineering data are stored in database format and managed by a database management system. Numerical procedures for probabilistic load simulation and database management functions are controlled by rule modules. Rules were hard-wired as decision trees into rule modules to perform process control tasks. There are modules to retrieve load information and models. There are modules to select loads and models to carry out quick load calculations or make an input file for full duty-cycle time dependent load simulation. The composite load spectra load expert system implemented today is capable of performing intelligent rocket engine load spectra simulation. Further development of the expert system will provide tutorial capability for users to learn from it.

  15. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  16. The SPES surface ionization source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzolaro, M.; D'Agostini, F.; Monetti, A.; Andrighetto, A.

    2017-09-01

    Ion sources and target systems play a crucial role in isotope separation on line facilities, determining the main characteristics of the radioactive ion beams available for experiments. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced by the 238U fissions are delivered to the 1+ ion source by means of a tubular transfer line. Here they can be ionized and subsequently accelerated toward the experimental areas. In this work, the characterization of the surface ionization source currently adopted for the SPES facility is presented, taking as a reference ionization efficiency and transversal emittance measurements. The effects of long term operation at high temperature are also illustrated and discussed.

  17. Ionization energies of aqueous nucleic acids: photoelectron spectroscopy of pyrimidine nucleosides and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Petr; Winter, Bernd; Faubel, Manfred; Bradforth, Stephen E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2009-05-13

    Vertical ionization energies of the nucleosides cytidine and deoxythymidine in water, the lowest ones amounting in both cases to 8.3 eV, are obtained from photoelectron spectroscopy measurements in aqueous microjets. Ab initio calculations employing a nonequilibrium polarizable continuum model quantitatively reproduce the experimental spectra and provide molecular interpretation of the individual peaks of the photoelectron spectrum, showing also that lowest ionization originates from the base. Comparison of calculated vertical ionization potentials of pyrimidine bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides in water and in the gas phase underlines the dramatic effect of bulk hydration on the electronic structure. In the gas phase, the presence of sugar and, in particular, of phosphate has a strong effect on the energetics of ionization of the base. Upon bulk hydration, the ionization potential of the base in contrast becomes rather insensitive to the presence of the sugar and phosphate, which indicates a remarkable screening ability of the aqueous solvent. Accurate aqueous-phase vertical ionization potentials provide a significant improvement to the corrected gas-phase values used in the literature and represent important information in assessing the threshold energies for photooxidation and oxidation free energies of solvent-exposed DNA components. Likewise, such energetic data should allow improved assessment of delocalization and charge-hopping mechanisms in DNA ionized by radiation.

  18. Spectroscopy of the UO+2 cation and the delayed ionization of UO2.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Jeremy M; Han, Jiande; Heaven, Michael C

    2008-02-28

    Vibronically resolved spectra for the UO+2 cation have been recorded using the pulsed field ionization zero electron kinetic energy (PFI-ZEKE) technique. For the ground state, long progressions in both the bending and symmetric stretch vibrations were observed. Bend and stretch progressions of the first electronically excited state were also observed, and the origin was found at an energy of 2678 cm(-1) above the ground state zero-point level. This observation is consistent with a recent theoretical prediction [Infante et al., J. Chem. Phys. 127, 124308 (2007)]. The ionization energy for UO2, derived from the PFI-ZEKE spectrum, namely, 6.127(1) eV, is in excellent agreement with the value obtained from an earlier photoionization efficiency measurement. Delayed ionization of UO2 in the gas phase has been reported previously [Han et al., J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5155 (2004)]. Here, we extend the characterization of the delayed ionization process by performing a quantitative study of the ionization rate as a function of the energy above the ionization threshold. The ionization rate was found to be 5 x 10(6) s(-1) at threshold, and increased linearly with increasing energy in the range investigated (0-1200 cm(-1)).

  19. Extending a Tandem Mass Spectral Library to Include MS2 Spectra of Fragment Ions Produced In-Source and MSn Spectra.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Neta, Pedatsur; Stein, Stephen E

    2017-11-01

    Tandem mass spectral library searching is finding increased use as an effective means of determining chemical identity in mass spectrometry-based omics studies. We previously reported on constructing a tandem mass spectral library that includes spectra for multiple precursor ions for each analyte. Here we report our method for expanding this library to include MS 2 spectra of fragment ions generated during the ionization process (in-source fragment ions) as well as MS 3 and MS 4 spectra. These can assist the chemical identification process. A simple density-based clustering algorithm was used to cluster all significant precursor ions from MS 1 scans for an analyte acquired during an infusion experiment. The MS 2 spectra associated with these precursor ions were grouped into the same precursor clusters. Subsequently, a new top-down hierarchical divisive clustering algorithm was developed for clustering the spectra from fragmentation of ions in each precursor cluster, including the MS 2 spectra of the original precursors and of the in-source fragments as well as the MS n spectra. This algorithm starts with all the spectra of one precursor in one cluster and then separates them into sub-clusters of similar spectra based on the fragment patterns. Herein, we describe the algorithms and spectral evaluation methods for extending the library. The new library features were demonstrated by searching the high resolution spectra of E. coli extracts against the extended library, allowing identification of compounds and their in-source fragment ions in a manner that was not possible before. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. The structure of BPS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Pietro

    In this thesis we develop and apply novel techniques for analyzing BPS spectra of supersymmetric quantum field theories of class S. By a combination of wall-crossing, spectral networks and quiver methods we explore the BPS spectra of higher rank four-dimensional N = 2 super Yang-Mills, uncovering surprising new phenomena. Focusing on the SU(3) case, we prove the existence of wild BPS spectra in field theory, featuring BPS states of higher spin whose degeneracies grow exponentially with the energy. The occurrence of wild BPS states is surprising because it appears to be in tension with physical expectations on the behavior of the entropy as a function of the energy scale. The solution to this puzzle comes from realizing that the size of wild BPS states grows rapidly with their mass, and carefully analyzing the volume-dependence of the entropy of BPS states. We also find some interesting structures underlying wild BPS spectra, such as a Regge-like relation between the maximal spin of a BPS multiplet and the square of its mass, and the existence of a universal asymptotic distribution of spin-j irreps within a multiplet of given charge. We also extend the spectral networks construction by introducing a refinement in the topological classification of 2d-4d BPS states, and identifying their spin with a topological invariant known as the "writhe of soliton paths". A careful analysis of the 2d-4d wall-crossing behavior of this refined data reveals that it is described by motivic Kontsevich-Soibelman transformations, controlled by the Protected Spin Character, a protected deformation of the BPS index encoding the spin of BPS states. Our construction opens the way for the systematic study of refined BPS spectra in class S theories. We apply it to several examples, including ones featuring wild BPS spectra, where we find an interesting relation between spectral networks and certain functional equations. For class S theories of A 1 type, we derive an alternative technique for

  1. AVIRIS spectra of California wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Michael F.; Ustin, Susan L.; Klemas, Vytautas

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data gathered by the AVIRIS from wetlands in the Suisun Bay area of California on 13 October 1987 were analyzed. Spectra representing stands of numerous vegetation types (including Sesuvium verrucosum, Scirpus acutus and Scirpus californicus, Xanthium strumarium, Cynadon dactylon, and Distichlis spicata) and soil were isolated. Despite some defects in the data, it was possible to detect vegetation features such as differences in the location of the chlorophyll red absorption maximum. Also, differences in cover type spectra were evident in other spectral regions. It was not possible to determine if the observed features represent noise, variability in canopy architecture, or chemical constituents of leaves.

  2. Semiconductor detector with smoothly tunable effective thickness for the study of ionization loss by moderately relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchagin, A. V.; Shul'ga, N. F.; Trofymenko, S. V.; Nazhmudinov, R. M.; Kubankin, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of measurement of electrons ionization loss in Si layer of smoothly tunable thickness is shown in the proof-of-principle experiment. The Si surface-barrier detector with the depleted layer thickness controlled by the value of high voltage power supply has been used. Ionization loss spectra for electrons emitted by radioactive source 207Bi are presented and discussed. Experimental results for the most probable ionization loss in the Landau spectral peak are compared with theoretical calculations. The possibility of research of evolution of electromagnetic field of ultra-relativistic particles traversing media interface with the use of detectors with smoothly tunable thickness is proposed.

  3. Mass spectrometric behavior of anabolic androgenic steroids using gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. Part I: ionization.

    PubMed

    Raro, M; Portolés, T; Sancho, J V; Pitarch, E; Hernández, F; Marcos, J; Ventura, R; Gómez, C; Segura, J; Pozo, O J

    2014-06-01

    The detection of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is one of the most important topics in doping control analysis. Gas chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry (GC-MS(/MS)) with electron ionization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry have been traditionally applied for this purpose. However, both approaches still have important limitations, and, therefore, detection of all AAS is currently afforded by the combination of these strategies. Alternative ionization techniques can minimize these drawbacks and help in the implementation of a single method for the detection of AAS. In the present work, a new atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source commercialized for gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer has been tested to evaluate the ionization of 60 model AAS. Underivatized and trimethylsylil (TMS)-derivatized compounds have been investigated. The use of GC-APCI-MS allowed for the ionization of all AAS assayed irrespective of their structure. The presence of water in the source as modifier promoted the formation of protonated molecules ([M+H](+)), becoming the base peak of the spectrum for the majority of studied compounds. Under these conditions, [M+H](+), [M+H-H2O](+) and [M+H-2·H2O](+) for underivatized AAS and [M+H](+), [M+H-TMSOH](+) and [M+H-2·TMSOH](+) for TMS-derivatized AAS were observed as main ions in the spectra. The formed ions preserve the intact steroid skeleton, and, therefore, they might be used as specific precursors in MS/MS-based methods. Additionally, a relationship between the relative abundance of these ions and the AAS structure has been established. This relationship might be useful in the structural elucidation of unknown metabolites. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. On the intermolecular Coulombic decay of singly and doubly ionized states of water dimer.

    PubMed

    Stoychev, Spas D; Kuleff, Alexander I; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2010-10-21

    A semiquantitative study of the intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) of singly and doubly ionized water dimer has been carried out with the help of ab initio computed ionization spectra and potential energy curves (PECs). These PECs are particular cuts through the (H(2)O)(2), (H(2)O)(2) (+), and (H(2)O)(2) (++) hypersurfaces along the distance between the two oxygen atoms. A comparison with the recently published experimental data for the ICD in singly ionized water dimers [T. Jahnke, H. Sann, T. Havermeier et al., Nat. Phys. 6, 139 (2010)] and in large water clusters [M. Mucke, M. Braune, S. Barth et al., Nat. Phys. 6, 143 (2010)] shows that such a simplified description in which the internal degrees of freedom of the water molecules are frozen gives surprisingly useful results. Other possible decay channels of the singly ionized water dimer are also investigated and the influence of the H-atom participating in the hydrogen bond on the spectra of the proton-donor and proton-acceptor molecules in the dimer is discussed. Importantly, the decay processes of one-site dicationic states of water dimer are discussed and an estimate of the ICD-electron spectra is made. More than 33% of the dications produced by Auger decay are found to undergo ICD. The qualitative results show that the ICD following Auger decay in water is also expected to be an additional source of low-energy electrons proven to be extremely important for causing damages to living tissues.

  5. Shakeoff Ionization near the Coulomb Barrier Energy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, T

    2017-11-17

    We measure the projectile K x-ray spectra as a function of the beam energies around the Coulomb barrier in different collision systems. The energy is scanned in small steps around the barrier aiming to explore the nuclear effects on the elastically scattered projectile ions. The variation of the projectile x-ray energy with the ion-beam energies exhibits an unusual increase in between the interaction barrier and fusion barrier energies. This additional contribution to the projectile ionization can be attributed to the shakeoff of outer-shell electrons of the projectile ions due to the sudden nuclear recoil (∼10^{-21}  sec) caused by the attractive nuclear potential, which gets switched on near the interaction barrier energy. In the sudden approximation limit, the theoretical shakeoff probability calculation due to the nuclear recoil explains the observed data well. In addition to its fundamental interest, such processes can play a significant role in dark matter detection through the possible mechanism of x-ray emissions, where the weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering can lead to the nuclear-recoil-induced inner-shell vacancy creations. Furthermore, the present work may provide new prospects for atomic physics research at barrier energies as well as provide a novel technique to perform barrier distribution studies for two-body systems.

  6. Shakeoff Ionization near the Coulomb Barrier Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, T.

    2017-11-01

    We measure the projectile K x-ray spectra as a function of the beam energies around the Coulomb barrier in different collision systems. The energy is scanned in small steps around the barrier aiming to explore the nuclear effects on the elastically scattered projectile ions. The variation of the projectile x-ray energy with the ion-beam energies exhibits an unusual increase in between the interaction barrier and fusion barrier energies. This additional contribution to the projectile ionization can be attributed to the shakeoff of outer-shell electrons of the projectile ions due to the sudden nuclear recoil (˜10-21 sec ) caused by the attractive nuclear potential, which gets switched on near the interaction barrier energy. In the sudden approximation limit, the theoretical shakeoff probability calculation due to the nuclear recoil explains the observed data well. In addition to its fundamental interest, such processes can play a significant role in dark matter detection through the possible mechanism of x-ray emissions, where the weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering can lead to the nuclear-recoil-induced inner-shell vacancy creations. Furthermore, the present work may provide new prospects for atomic physics research at barrier energies as well as provide a novel technique to perform barrier distribution studies for two-body systems.

  7. Fluorescence Spectra of Highlighter Inks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birriel, Jennifer J.; King, Damon

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra excited by laser pointers have been the subject of several papers in "TPT". These papers all describe a fluorescence phenomenon in which the reflected laser light undergoes a change in color: this color change results from the combination of some partially reflected laser light and additional colors generated by…

  8. Discrimination of petroleum fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Stelmaszewski, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents studies of the total spectra (fluorescence-excitation matrix) of petroleum with regard to the utilization of fluorescence for determining petroleum pollutants. Thorough testing of one group, comprising almost forty lubricating oils in the form of their hexane solutions, points out their discrimination.

  9. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  10. Electroencephalographic responses to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    GARCIA, J; BUCHWALD, N A; BACH-Y-RITA, G; FEDER, B H; KOELLING, R A

    1963-04-19

    Electroencephalographic recordings made from chronically implanted cortical electrodes indicate that ionizing radiation has an immediate effect upon brain wave patterns. X-rays delivered at the rate of 0.2 roentgen per second produce an arousal effect resembling that which occurs as a result of stimulation through peripheral receptor systems.

  11. Ionization Potentials for Isoelectronic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agmon, Noam

    1988-01-01

    Presents a quantitative treatment of ionization potentials of isoelectronic atoms. By looking at the single-electron view of calculating the total energy of an atom, trends in the screening and effective quantum number parameters are examined. Approaches the question of determining electron affinities. (CW)

  12. Silver nanostructures in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Sekuła, Justyna; Nizioł, Joanna; Rode, Wojciech; Ruman, Tomasz

    2015-09-21

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully applied as a matrix replacement for the laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToF-MS). Nanoparticles, producing spectra with highly reduced chemical background in the low m/z region, are perfectly suited for low-molecular weight compound analysis and imaging. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can efficiently absorb ultraviolet laser radiation, transfer energy to the analyte and promote analyte desorption, but also constitute a source of silver ions suitable for analyte cationisation. This review provides an overview of the literature on silver nanomaterials as non-conventional desorption and ionization promoters in LDI-MS and mass spectrometry imaging.

  13. An evaluation of ionizing radiation emitted by high power microwave generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, C. David; Bolch, W. Emmett

    1992-02-01

    Ionizing radiation emitted by electron-beam driven high power microwave (HPM) generators were measured in the near and far-field using lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's). Simplified photon energy spectra were determined by measuring radiation transmission, at electron beam energies of 300 to 650 keV, through various thicknesses of steel and lead attenuators. These data were used to calculate the effective energy of the x-rays produced by interactions between the electrons and the walls or other structures of the HPM generators. Operators were polled to determine locations of burn marks or other visible damage to locate potential ionizing radiation source regions.

  14. Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Permanent Magnet Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Vilkov, Andrey N.; Gamage, Chaminda M.; Misharin, Alexander S.; Doroshenko, Vladimir M.; Tolmachev, Dmitry A.; Tarasova, Irina A.; Kharybin, Oleg N.; Novoselov, Konstantin P.; Gorshkov, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    A new Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometer based on a permanent magnet with an atmospheric pressure ionization source was designed and constructed. A mass resolving power (full-width-at-half-maximum) of up to 80,000 in the electron ionization mode and 25,000 in the electrospray mode was obtained. Also, a mass measurement accuracy at low-ppm level has been demonstrated for peptide mixtures in a mass range of up to 1,200 m/z in the isotopically resolved mass spectra. PMID:17587594

  15. Fine Substituent Effects in Sandwich Complexes: A Threshold Ionization Study of Monosubstituted Chromium Bisarene Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ketkov, Sergey Yu; Markin, Gennady V; Tzeng, Sheng Y; Tzeng, Wen B

    2016-03-24

    Mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectra of jet-cooled [(η(6) -PhMe)(η(6) -PhH)Cr] and [(η(6) -Ph2 )(η(6) -PhH)Cr] reveal with unprecedented accuracy the effects of methyl and phenyl groups on the electronic structure of bis(η(6) -benzene)chromium. These "pure" substituent effects allow quantitative experimental determination of the ionization energy changes caused by the mutual substituent influence in bisarene systems. Two types of such influence have been revealed for the first time in bis(η(6) -toluene)chromium. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. FHILs in Seyferts and Liners in the optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, R. J. C.; Rodriguez, A. M.; Portilla, J. G.

    2014-10-01

    We present the main results from a selection of optical spectra of Seyfert and LINER galaxies taken from the 9^{th} release of the SDSS with detectable emission of forbidden high ionization lines (FHILs), better known as coronal lines. A catalog of 345 Seyfert 1 (Sy1) and Seyfert 2 (Sy2) galaxies with FHILs emission is presented. By analyzing their spectra and utilizing data from the literature we found the following results: (1) The flux ratios between FHILs suggests anisotropy of emission between Sy1 and Sy2 galaxies, which agrees with the results found by Nagao et al. (2002) and Portilla (2012). Sy1 seems to emit more FHILs than Sy2. (2) This anisotropy suggests the idea that an important, but not the majority, of the emission of FHILs comes from the inner part of the obscuring torus. (3) We present diagnostic diagrams between FHILs lines which indicate clear correlations between the flux ratios. (4) It is observed that the ratio of Ne V/Fe VII is of the order of 3 to 10, while the ratios between iron lines (i.e., Fe VII, Fe X, Fe XI) are roughly around the unity. (5) At least in the optical spectra, the present study continues to support the general idea that LINERs are not energetic enough to present FHILs. A complete version of this study including the catalog with the objects of study, and diagnosis diagrams using only this kind of lines can be found in Vera & Portilla (in prep).

  17. Desorption corona beam ionization source for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Sun, Wenjian; Zhang, Junsheng; Yang, Xiaohui; Lin, Tao; Ding, Li

    2010-04-01

    A novel Desorption Corona Beam Ionization (DCBI) source for direct analysis of samples from surface in mass spectrometry is reported. The DCBI source can work under ambient conditions without time-consuming sample pretreatments. The source shares some common features with another ionization source - Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART), developed earlier. For example, helium was used as the discharge gas (although only corona discharge is involved in the present source), and heating of the discharge gas is required for sample desorption. However, the difference between the two sources is substantial. In the present source, a visible thin corona beam extending out around 1 cm can be formed by using a hollow needle/ring electrode structure. This feature would greatly facilitate localizing sampling areas and performing imaging/profiling experiments. The DCBI source is also capable of performing progressive temperature scans between room temperature and 450 degrees C in order to sequentially desorb samples from the surface and, therefore, to achieve a rough separation of the individual components in a complex mixture, resulting in less congestion in the mass spectrum acquired. Mass spectra for a broad range of compounds (pesticides, veterinary additives, OTC drugs, explosive materials) have been acquired using the DCBI source. For most of the compounds tested, the heater temperature required for efficient desorption is at least 150 degrees C. The molecular weight of the sample that can be desorbed/ionized is normally below 600 dalton even at the highest heater temperature, which is mainly limited by the volatility of the sample.

  18. Fast ionized X-ray absorbers in AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, K.; Tombesi, F.; Kazanas, D.; Shrader, C.; Behar, E.; Contopoulos, I.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the physics of the X-ray ionized absorbers often identified as warm absorbers (WAs) and ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in Seyfert AGNs from spectroscopic studies in the context of magnetically-driven accretion-disk wind scenario. Launched and accelerated by the action of a global magnetic field anchored to an underlying accretion disk around a black hole, outflowing plasma is irradiated and ionized by an AGN radiation field characterized by its spectral energy density (SED). By numerically solving the Grad-Shafranov equation in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework, the physical property of the magnetized disk-wind is determined by a wind parameter set, which is then incorporated into radiative transfer calculations with xstar photoionization code under heating-cooling equilibrium state to compute the absorber's properties such as column density N_H, line-of-sight (LoS) velocity v, ionization parameter ξ, among others. Assuming that the wind density scales as n ∝ r-1, we calculate theoretical absorption measure distribution (AMD) for various ions seen in AGNs as well as line spectra especially for the Fe Kα absorption feature by focusing on a bright quasar PG 1211+143 as a case study and show the model's plausibility. In this note we demonstrate that the proposed MHD-driven disk-wind scenario is not only consistent with the observed X-ray data, but also help better constrain the underlying nature of the AGN environment in a close proximity to a central engine.

  19. Microplume model of spatial-yield spectra. [applying to electron gas degradation in molecular nitrogen gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. E. S.; Singhal, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    An analytic representation for the spatial (radial and longitudinal) yield spectra is developed in terms of a model containing three simple 'microplumes'. The model is applied to electron energy degradation in molecular nitrogen gas for 0.1 to 5 keV incident electrons. From the nature of the cross section input to this model it is expected that the scaled spatial yield spectra for other gases will be quite similar. The model indicates that each excitation, ionization, etc. plume should have its individual spatial and energy dependence. Extensions and aeronomical and radiological applications of the model are discussed.

  20. Double-frequency microwave ionization of Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, G. A.; Dietrick, K. M.; Gallagher, T. F.

    1990-11-01

    We report the ionization of Na atoms by the simultaneous application of microwave fields of two different frequencies. We conclude that the salient features of double-frequency ionization can be readily understood. Both the hydrogenlike ||m||=2 states and the nonhydrogenic ||m||=0 and 1 states ionize when the sum of the field amplitudes, the peak field, reaches the field required for ionization by a single microwave frequency, E=1/9n4 and E=1/3n5, respectively.

  1. Clinical Application of Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Hua; Hsieh, Hua-Yi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Ambient ionization allows mass spectrometry analysis directly on the sample surface under atmospheric pressure with almost zero sample pretreatment. Since the development of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) in 2004, many other ambient ionization techniques were developed. Due to their simplicity and low operation cost, rapid and on-site clinical mass spectrometry analysis becomes real. In this review, we will highlight some of the most widely used ambient ionization mass spectrometry approaches and their applications in clinical study. PMID:28337399

  2. Electron and fluorescence spectra of a water molecule irradiated by an x-ray free-electron laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Julia M.; Inhester, Ludger; Son, Sang-Kil; Fink, Reinhold F.; Santra, Robin

    2018-05-01

    With the highly intense x-ray light generated by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), molecular samples can be ionized many times in a single pulse. Here we report on a computational study of molecular spectroscopy at the high x-ray intensity provided by XFELs. Calculated photoelectron, Auger electron, and x-ray fluorescence spectra are presented for a single water molecule that reaches many electronic hole configurations through repeated ionization steps. The rich details shown in the spectra depend on the x-ray pulse parameters in a nonintuitive way. We discuss how the observed trends can be explained by the competition of microscopic electronic transition processes. A detailed comparison between spectra calculated within the independent-atom model and within the molecular-orbital framework highlights the chemical sensitivity of the spectral lines of multiple-hole configurations. Our results demonstrate how x-ray multiphoton ionization-related effects such as charge-rearrangement-enhanced x-ray ionization of molecules and frustrated absorption manifest themselves in the electron and fluorescence spectra.

  3. Electronic and vibrational spectra of matrix isolated anthracene radical cations - Experimental and theoretical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szczepanski, Jan; Vala, Martin; Talbi, Dahbia; Parisel, Olivier; Ellinger, Yves

    1993-01-01

    The IR vibrational and visible/UV electronic absorption spectra of the anthracene cation, An(+), were studied experimentally, in argon matrices at 12 K, as well as theoretically, using ab initio calculations for the vibrational modes and enhanced semiempirical methods with configuration interaction for the electronic spectra. It was found that both approaches predicted well the observed photoelectron spectrum. The theoretical IR intensities showed some remarkable differences between neutral and ionized species (for example, the CH in-plane bending modes and CC in-plane stretching vibrations were predicted to increase by several orders of magnitude upon ionization). Likewise, estimated experimental IR intensities showed a significant increase in the cation band intensities over the neutrals. The implication of these findings for the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations are responsible for the unidentified IR emission bands from interstellar space is discussed.

  4. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor... § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related activities involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Standards for...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor... § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related activities involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Standards for...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor... § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related activities involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Standards for...

  7. Roles of Tunneling, Multiphoton Ionization, and Cascade Ionization for Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Aqueous Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    observed in the wavelength dependence of femtosecond breakdown would indicate a significant role of multiphoton ionization compared to tunneling ...relevant for femtosecond breakdown, and tunnel ionization featuring no Ith() dependence becomes ever more with decreasing pulse duration. However, it...c) Figure 4.22 Wavelength dependence of ionization probabilities by a) avalanche, b) multiphoton, and c) tunneling ionization. 1

  8. New Fe i Level Energies and Line Identifications from Stellar Spectra. II. Initial Results from New Ultraviolet Spectra of Metal-poor Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Ruth C.; Kurucz, Robert L.; Ayres, Thomas R., E-mail: peterson@ucolick.org

    2017-04-01

    The Fe i spectrum is critical to many areas of astrophysics, yet many of the high-lying levels remain uncharacterized. To remedy this deficiency, Peterson and Kurucz identified Fe i lines in archival ultraviolet and optical spectra of metal-poor stars, whose warm temperatures favor moderate Fe i excitation. Sixty-five new levels were recovered, with 1500 detectable lines, including several bound levels in the ionization continuum of Fe i. Here, we extend the previous work by identifying 59 additional levels, with 1400 detectable lines, by incorporating new high-resolution UV spectra of warm metal-poor stars recently obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope Imagingmore » Spectrograph. We provide gf values for these transitions, both computed as well as adjusted to fit the stellar spectra. We also expand our spectral calculations to the infrared, confirming three levels by matching high-quality spectra of the Sun and two cool stars in the H -band. The predicted gf values suggest that an additional 3700 Fe i lines should be detectable in existing solar infrared spectra. Extending the empirical line identification work to the infrared would help confirm additional Fe i levels, as would new high-resolution UV spectra of metal-poor turnoff stars below 1900 Å.« less

  9. New Fe I Level Energies and Line Identifications from Stellar Spectra. II. Initial Results from New Ultraviolet Spectra of Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth C.; Kurucz, Robert L.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    2017-04-01

    The Fe I spectrum is critical to many areas of astrophysics, yet many of the high-lying levels remain uncharacterized. To remedy this deficiency, Peterson & Kurucz identified Fe I lines in archival ultraviolet and optical spectra of metal-poor stars, whose warm temperatures favor moderate Fe I excitation. Sixty-five new levels were recovered, with 1500 detectable lines, including several bound levels in the ionization continuum of Fe I. Here, we extend the previous work by identifying 59 additional levels, with 1400 detectable lines, by incorporating new high-resolution UV spectra of warm metal-poor stars recently obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We provide gf values for these transitions, both computed as well as adjusted to fit the stellar spectra. We also expand our spectral calculations to the infrared, confirming three levels by matching high-quality spectra of the Sun and two cool stars in the H-band. The predicted gf values suggest that an additional 3700 Fe I lines should be detectable in existing solar infrared spectra. Extending the empirical line identification work to the infrared would help confirm additional Fe I levels, as would new high-resolution UV spectra of metal-poor turnoff stars below 1900 Å.

  10. Electron-Impact Ionization and Dissociative Ionization of Biomolecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Chaban, Galina M.; Dateo, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    It is well recognized that secondary electrons play an important role in radiation damage to humans. Particularly important is the damage of DNA by electrons, potentially leading to mutagenesis. Molecular-level study of electron interaction with DNA provides information on the damage pathways and dominant mechanisms. Our study of electron-impact ionization of DNA fragments uses the improved binary-encounter dipole model and covers DNA bases, sugar phosphate backbone, and nucleotides. An additivity principle is observed. For example, the sum of the ionization cross sections of the separate deoxyribose and phosphate fragments is in close agreement with the C3(sup prime)- and C5 (sup prime)-deoxyribose-phospate cross sections, differing by less than 5%. Investigation of tandem double lesion initiated by electron-impact dissociative ionization of guanine, followed by proton reaction with the cytosine in the Watson-Crick pair, is currently being studied to see if tandem double lesion can be initiated by electron impact. Up to now only OH-induced tandem double lesion has been studied.

  11. Identification of four rotamers of m-methoxystyrene by resonant two-photon ionization and mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanqi; Tzeng, Sheng Yuan; Shivatare, Vidya; Takahashi, Kaito; Zhang, Bing; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2015-03-01

    We report the vibronic and cation spectra of four rotamers of m-methoxystyrene, recorded by using the two-color resonant two-photon ionization and mass-analyzed threshold ionization techniques. The excitation energies of the S1← S0 electronic transition are found to be 32 767, 32 907, 33 222, and 33 281 cm-1, and the corresponding adiabatic ionization energies are 65 391, 64 977, 65 114, and 64 525 cm-1 for these isomeric species. Most of the observed active vibrations in the electronically excited S1 and cationic ground D0 states involve in-plane ring deformation and substituent-sensitive bending motions. It is found that the relative orientation of the methoxyl with respect to the vinyl group does not influence the vibrational frequencies of the ring-substituent bending modes. The two dimensional potential energy surface calculations support our experimental finding that the isomerization is restricted in the S1 and D0 states.

  12. Precise Wavelengths and Energy Levels for the Spectra of Cr I, Mn I, and Mn III, and Branching Fractions for the Spectra of Fe II and Cr II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Gillian

    I propose to measure wavelengths and energy levels for the spectra of Cr I, Mn I, and Mn III covering the wavelength range 80 nm to 5500 nm, and oscillator strengths for Fe II and Cr II in the region 120 nm to 2500 nm. I shall also produce intensity calibrated atlases and linelists of the iron-neon and chromium-neon hollow cathode lamps that can be compared with astrophysical spectra. The spectra will be obtained from archival data from spectrometers at NIST and Kitt Peak National Observatory and additional experimental observations as necessary from Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectrometers at NIST. The wavelength uncertainty of the strong lines will be better than 1 part in 10^7. The radiometric calibration of the spectra will be improved in order to reduce the uncertainty of measured oscillator strengths in the near UV region and extend the wavelength range of these measurements down to 120 nm. These will complement and support the measurements of lifetimes and branching fractions by J. E. Lawler in the near UV region. An intensive effort by NIST and Imperial College London that was partly funded by previous NASA awards has resulted in comprehensive analyses of the spectra of Fe II, Cr II and Cu II, with similar analyses of Mn II, Ni II, and Sc II underway. The species included in this proposal will complete the analysis of the first two ionization stages of the elements titanium through nickel using the same techniques, and add the spectrum of Mn III - one of the most important doubly-ionized elements. The elements Cr I and Mn I give large numbers of spectral lines in spectra of cool stars and important absorption lines in the interstellar medium. The spectrum of Mn III is important in chemically peculiar stars and can often only be studied in the UV region. Analyses of many stellar spectra depend on comprehensive analyses of iron-group elements and are hampered by incomplete spectroscopic data. As a result of many decades of work by the group at the

  13. Eigenvectors of optimal color spectra.

    PubMed

    Flinkman, Mika; Laamanen, Hannu; Tuomela, Jukka; Vahimaa, Pasi; Hauta-Kasari, Markku

    2013-09-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and weighted PCA were applied to spectra of optimal colors belonging to the outer surface of the object-color solid or to so-called MacAdam limits. The correlation matrix formed from this data is a circulant matrix whose biggest eigenvalue is simple and the corresponding eigenvector is constant. All other eigenvalues are double, and the eigenvectors can be expressed with trigonometric functions. Found trigonometric functions can be used as a general basis to reconstruct all possible smooth reflectance spectra. When the spectral data are weighted with an appropriate weight function, the essential part of the color information is compressed to the first three components and the shapes of the first three eigenvectors correspond to one achromatic response function and to two chromatic response functions, the latter corresponding approximately to Munsell opponent-hue directions 9YR-9B and 2BG-2R.

  14. ACCELERATED FITTING OF STELLAR SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-07-20

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating amore » sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.« less

  15. Variable spectra of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1988-01-01

    The analysis of EXOSAT spectra of active galaxies are presented. The objects examined for X-ray spectral variability were MR 2251-178 and 3C 120. The results of these investigations are described, as well as additional results on X-ray spectral variability related to EXOSAT observations of active galaxies. Additionally, the dipping X-ray source 4U1624-49 was also investigated.

  16. A study of tungsten spectra using large helical device and compact electron beam ion trap in NIFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, S.; Dong, C. F.; Goto, M.; Kato, D.; Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H. A.; Hasuo, M.; Koike, F.; Nakamura, N.; Oishi, T.; Sasaki, A.; Wang, E. H.

    2013-07-01

    Tungsten spectra have been observed from Large Helical Device (LHD) and Compact electron Beam Ion Trap (CoBIT) in wavelength ranges of visible to EUV. The EUV spectra with unresolved transition array (UTA), e.g., 6g-4f, 5g-4f, 5f-4d and 5p-4d transitions for W+24-+33, measured from LHD plasmas are compared with those measured from CoBIT with monoenergetic electron beam (≤2keV). The tungsten spectra from LHD are well analyzed based on the knowledge from CoBIT tungsten spectra. The C-R model code has been developed to explain the UTA spectra in details. Radial profiles of EUV spectra from highly ionized tungsten ions have been measured and analyzed by impurity transport simulation code with ADPAK atomic database code to examine the ionization balance determined by ionization and recombination rate coefficients. As the first trial, analysis of the tungsten density in LHD plasmas is attempted from radial profile of Zn-like WXLV (W44+) 4p-4s transition at 60.9Å based on the emission rate coefficient calculated with HULLAC code. As a result, a total tungsten ion density of 3.5×1010cm-3 at the plasma center is reasonably obtained. In order to observe the spectra from tungsten ions in lower-ionized charge stages, which can give useful information on the tungsten influx in fusion plasmas, the ablation cloud of the impurity pellet is directly measured with visible spectroscopy. A lot of spectra from neutral and singly ionized tungsten are observed and some of them are identified. A magnetic forbidden line from highly ionized tungsten ions has been examined and Cd-like WXXVII (W26+) at 3893.7Å is identified as the ground-term fine-structure transition of 4f23H5-3H4. The possibility of α particle diagnostic in D-T burning plasmas using the magnetic forbidden line is discussed.

  17. A study of tungsten spectra using large helical device and compact electron beam ion trap in NIFS

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Murakami, I.

    2013-07-11

    Tungsten spectra have been observed from Large Helical Device (LHD) and Compact electron Beam Ion Trap (CoBIT) in wavelength ranges of visible to EUV. The EUV spectra with unresolved transition array (UTA), e.g., 6g-4f, 5g-4f, 5f-4d and 5p-4d transitions for W{sup +24-+33}, measured from LHD plasmas are compared with those measured from CoBIT with monoenergetic electron beam ({<=}2keV). The tungsten spectra from LHD are well analyzed based on the knowledge from CoBIT tungsten spectra. The C-R model code has been developed to explain the UTA spectra in details. Radial profiles of EUV spectra from highly ionized tungsten ions have beenmore » measured and analyzed by impurity transport simulation code with ADPAK atomic database code to examine the ionization balance determined by ionization and recombination rate coefficients. As the first trial, analysis of the tungsten density in LHD plasmas is attempted from radial profile of Zn-like WXLV (W{sup 44+}) 4p-4s transition at 60.9A based on the emission rate coefficient calculated with HULLAC code. As a result, a total tungsten ion density of 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} at the plasma center is reasonably obtained. In order to observe the spectra from tungsten ions in lower-ionized charge stages, which can give useful information on the tungsten influx in fusion plasmas, the ablation cloud of the impurity pellet is directly measured with visible spectroscopy. A lot of spectra from neutral and singly ionized tungsten are observed and some of them are identified. A magnetic forbidden line from highly ionized tungsten ions has been examined and Cd-like WXXVII (W{sup 26+}) at 3893.7A is identified as the ground-term fine-structure transition of 4f{sup 23}H{sub 5}-{sup 3}H{sub 4}. The possibility of {alpha} particle diagnostic in D-T burning plasmas using the magnetic forbidden line is discussed.« less

  18. Differentiation of isomeric 2-aryldimethyltetrahydro-5-quinolinones by electron ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ch Dinesh; Chary, V Naresh; Dinesh, A; Reddy, P S; Srinivas, K; Gayatri, G; Sastry, G N; Prabhakar, S

    2011-10-15

    A series of isomeric 2-aryl-6,6-dimethyltetrahydro-5-quinolinones (set I) and 2-aryl-7,7-dimethyltetrahydro-5-quinolinones (set II) were studied under positive ion electron ionization (EI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) techniques. Under EI conditions, the molecular ions were found to be less stable in set I isomers, and they resulted in abundant fragment ions, i.e., [M-CH(3)](+), [M-CO](+.), [M-HCO](+), [M-(CH(3),CO)](+), and [M-(CH(3),CH(2)O)](+), when compared with set II isomers. In addition, the set I isomers showed specific fragment ions corresponding to [M-OH](+) and [M-OCH(3)](+). The retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) product ion was always higher in set II isomers. The ESI mass spectra produced [M + H](+) ions, and their decomposition showed favorable loss of CH(3) radical, CH(4) and C(2)H(6) molecules in set I isomers. The set II isomers, however, showed predominant RDA product ions, and specific loss of H(2)O. The selectivity in EI and ESI was attributed to the instability of set I isomers by the presence of a gem-dimethyl group at the α-position, and it was supported by the data from model compounds without a gem-dimethyl group. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations successfully corroborated the fragmentation pathways for diagnostic ions. This study revealed the effect of a gem-dimethyl group located at the α-position to the carbonyl having aromatic/unsaturated carbon on the other side of the carbonyl group. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis: radiation studies in Neurospora predictive for results in mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, H. H.; DeMarini, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    Ionizing radiation was the first mutagen discovered and was used to develop the first mutagenicity assay. In the ensuing 70+ years, ionizing radiation became a fundamental tool in understanding mutagenesis and is still a subject of intensive research. Frederick de Serres et al. developed and used the Neurospora crassa ad-3 system initially to explore the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation. Using this system, de Serres et al. demonstrated the dependence of the frequency and spectra of mutations induced by ionizing radiation on the dose, dose rate, radiation quality, repair capabilities of the cells, and the target gene employed. This work in Neurospora predicted the subsequent observations of the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Modeled originally on the mouse specific-locus system developed by William L. Russell, the N. crassa ad-3 system developed by de Serres has itself served as a model for interpreting the results in subsequent systems in mammalian cells. This review describes the primary findings on the nature of ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis in the N. crassa ad-3 system and the parallel observations made years later in mammalian cells.

  20. Fe(+) chemical ionization of peptides.

    PubMed

    Speir, J P; Gorman, G S; Amster, I J

    1993-02-01

    Laser-desorbed peptide neutral molecules were allowed to react with Fe(+) in a Fourier transform mass spectrometer, using the technique of laser desorption/chemical ionization. The Fe(+) ions are formed by laser ablation of a steel target, as well as by dissociative charge-exchange ionization of ferrocene with Ne(+). Prior to reaction with laser-desorbed peptide molecules, Fe(+) ions undergo 20-100 thermalizin collisions with xenon to reduce the population of excited-state metal ion species. The Fe(+) ions that have not experienced thermalizing collisions undergo charge exchange with peptide molecules. Iron ions that undergo thermalizing collisions before they are allowed to react with peptides are found to undergo charge exchange and to form adduct species [M + Fe(+)] and fragment ions that result from the loss of small, stable molecules, such as H2O, CO, and CO2, from the metal ion-peptide complex.

  1. Characteristics of soft x-ray spectra from ultra-fast micro-capillary discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Avaria, Gonzalo; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Tomasel, Fernando; Grisham, Michael; Dawson, Quincy; Rocca, Jorge; NSF CenterExtreme Ultraviolet Science; Technology Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The efficient generation of high aspect ratio (e.g. 300:1) plasma columns ionized to very high degrees of ionization (e.g. Ni-like Xenon) by an ultrafast current pulses of moderate amplitude in micro-capillary channels is of interest for fundamental plasma studies and for applications such as the generation of discharge-pumped soft x-ray lasers. Spectra and simulations for plasmas generated in 500 um alumina capillary discharges driven by 35-40 kA current pulses with 4 ns rise time were obtained in Xenon and Neon discharges. The first shows the presence of lines corresponding to ionization stages up to Fe-like Xe. The latter show that Al impurities from the walls and Si (from injected SiH4) are ionized to the H-like and He-like stages. He-like spectra containing the resonance line significantly broaden by opacity, the intercombination line, and Li-like satellites are analyzed and modeled. For Xenon discharges, the spectral lines from the Ni-like transitions the 3d94d(3/2, 3/2)J=0 to the 3d94p(5/2, 3/2)J=1 and to 3d94p(3/2, 1/2)J=1 are observed at gas pressures up to 2.0 Torr. Work supported by NSF Award PHY-1004295.

  2. Proximity effects in the electron impact mass spectra of 2-substituted benzazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantler, Thomas; Perrin, Victoria L.; Donkor, Rachel E.; Cawthorne, Richard S.; Bowen, Richard D.

    2004-08-01

    The 70 eV electron impact mass spectra of a wide range of 2-substituted benzazoles are reported and discussed. Particular attention is paid to the mechanistic significance and analytical utility of [M-H]+ and [M-X]+ signals in the spectra of benzazoles in which the 2-substituent contains a terminal aryl group with one or more substituents, X. Loss of H[radical sign] or X[radical sign] occurs preferentially from an ortho-position from ionized 2-benzylbenzimidazoles, 2-phenethylbenzimidazoles, 2-styrylbenzimidazoles, 2-styrylbenzoxazoles and 2-styrylbenzothiazoles. In the three styrylbenzazole series, the [M-H]+ and/or [M-X]+ signals dominate the spectra. This unusually facile loss of H[radical sign] or X[radical sign] may be attributed to a proximity effect, in which cyclization of the ionized molecule is followed by elimination of an ortho-substituent to give an exceptionally stable polycyclic ion. Formation of a new five- or six-membered ring by the proximity effect occurs rapidly; cyclization to a seven-membered ring takes place rather less readily; but formation of a ring with only four atoms or more than seven atoms is not observed to a significant extent. The proximity effect competes effectively with loss of a methyl radical by simple cleavage of an ethyl, isopropyl and even a t-butyl group in the pendant aromatic ring of ionized 2-(4-alkylstyryl)benzazoles.

  3. Synthetic IRIS spectra of the solar transition region: Effect of high-energy tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifčáková, E.; Vocks, C.; Dudík, J.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: The solar transition region satisfies the conditions for presence of non-Maxwellian electron energy distributions with high-energy tails at energies corresponding to the ionization potentials of many ions emitting in the extreme-ultraviolet and ultraviolet portions of the spectrum. Methods: We calculate the synthetic Si iv, O iv, and S iv spectra in the far ultraviolet channel of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Ionization, recombination, and excitation rates are obtained by integration of the cross-sections or their approximations over the model electron distributions considering particle propagation from the hotter corona. Results: The ionization rates are significantly affected by the presence of high-energy tails. This leads to the peaks of the relative abundance of individual ions to be broadened with pronounced low-temperature shoulders. As a result, the contribution functions of individual lines observable by IRIS also exhibit low-temperature shoulders, or their peaks are shifted to temperatures an order of magnitude lower than for the Maxwellian distribution. The integrated emergent spectra can show enhancements of Si iv compared to O iv by more than a factor of two. Conclusions: The high-energy particles can have significant impact on the emergent spectra and their presence needs to be considered even in situations without strong local acceleration.

  4. Remote control of the dissociative ionization of H2 based on electron-H2 + entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Ping; He, Feng

    2018-04-01

    The single ionization of H2 in strong laser fields creates the correlated electron-H2 + pair. Based on such a correlation, we conceive a strategy to control the energy spectra of the freed electron or dissociative fragments by simulating the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Two attosecond pulses in a train produce the replica of electron-H2 + pairs, which are to be steered by a time-delayed phase-stabilized (mid)infrared laser pulse. By controlling the behavior of the freed electron, the dissociation of H2 + can be controlled even though there is no direct laser-H2 + coupling. On the other hand, the photoelectron energy spectra can be manipulated via laser-H2 + coupling. This study demonstrates the entanglement of molecular quantum wave packets, and affords a route to remotely control molecular dissociative ionization.

  5. Factors that affect molecular weight distribution of Suwannee river fulvic acid as determined by electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Leenheer, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of methylation, molar response, multiple charging, solvents, and positive and negative ionization on molecular weight distributions of aquatic fulvic acid were investigated by electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. After preliminary analysis by positive and negative modes, samples and mixtures of standards were derivatized by methylation to minimize ionization sites and reanalyzed.Positive ionization was less effective and produced more complex spectra than negative ionization. Ionization in methanol/water produced greater response than in acetonitrile/water. Molar response varied widely for the selected free acid standards when analyzed individually and in a mixture, but after methylation this range decreased. After methylation, the number average molecular weight of the Suwannee River fulvic acid remained the same while the weight average molecular weight decreased. These differences are probably indicative of disaggregation of large aggregated ions during methylation. Since the weight average molecular weight decreased, it is likely that aggregate formation in the fulvic acid was present prior to derivatization, rather than multiple charging in the mass spectra. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors that affect molecular weight distribution of Suwannee river fulvic acid as determined by electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, Colleen E.; Leenheer, Jerry A.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of methylation, molar response, multiple charging, solvents, and positive and negative ionization on molecular weight distributions of aquatic fulvic acid were investigated by electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. After preliminary analysis by positive and negative modes, samples and mixtures of standards were derivatized by methylation to minimize ionization sites and reanalyzed.Positive ionization was less effective and produced more complex spectra than negative ionization. Ionization in methanol/water produced greater response than in acetonitrile/water. Molar response varied widely for the selected free acid standards when analyzed individually and in a mixture, but after methylation this range decreased. After methylation, the number average molecular weight of the Suwannee River fulvic acid remained the same while the weight average molecular weight decreased. These differences are probably indicative of disaggregation of large aggregated ions during methylation. Since the weight average molecular weight decreased, it is likely that aggregate formation in the fulvic acid was present prior to derivatization, rather than multiple charging in the mass spectra.

  7. On Measuring Cosmic Ray Energy Spectra with the Rapidity Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, J.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    An important goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays up to 10(exp 16) eV. This goal cannot be achieved with an ionization calorimeter because the required instrument is too massive for space flight. An alternate method will be presented. This method is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11) -10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a conceptual design for a new instrument (KLEM) will be presented. Due to its light weight, this instrument can have a large aperture enabling the direct measurement of cosmic rays to 1016 eV.

  8. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    2000-01-01

    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  9. THE ORIGIN AND OPTICAL DEPTH OF IONIZING RADIATION IN THE 'GREEN PEA' GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    Although Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation from star-forming galaxies likely drove the reionization of the universe, observations of star-forming galaxies at low redshift generally indicate low LyC escape fractions. However, the extreme [O III]/[O II] ratios of the z = 0.1-0.3 Green Pea galaxies may be due to high escape fractions of ionizing radiation. To analyze the LyC optical depths and ionizing sources of these rare, compact starbursts, we compare nebular photoionization and stellar population models with observed emission lines in the Peas' Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. We focus on the six most extreme Green Peas, the galaxies with themore » highest [O III]/[O II] ratios and the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation. The Balmer line equivalent widths and He I {lambda}3819 emission in the extreme Peas support young ages of 3-5 Myr, and He II {lambda}4686 emission in five extreme Peas signals the presence of hard ionizing sources. Ionization by active galactic nuclei or high-mass X-ray binaries is inconsistent with the Peas' line ratios and ages. Although stacked spectra reveal no Wolf-Rayet (WR) features, we tentatively detect WR features in the SDSS spectra of three extreme Peas. Based on the Peas' ages and line ratios, we find that WR stars, chemically homogeneous O stars, or shocks could produce the observed He II emission. If hot stars are responsible, then the Peas' optical depths are ambiguous. However, accounting for emission from shocks lowers the inferred optical depth and suggests that the Peas may be optically thin. The Peas' ages likely optimize the escape of LyC radiation; they are old enough for supernovae and stellar winds to reshape the interstellar medium, but young enough to possess large numbers of UV-luminous O or WR stars.« less

  10. Highly ionized physical vapor deposition plasma source working at very low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranak, V.; Herrendorf, A.-P.; Drache, S.; Cada, M.; Hubicka, Z.; Tichy, M.; Hippler, R.

    2012-04-01

    Highly ionized discharge for physical vapor deposition at very low pressure is presented in the paper. The discharge is generated by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) which assists with ignition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge. The magnetron gun (with Ti target) was built into the single-turn coil RF electrode of the ECWR facility. ECWR assistance provides pre-ionization effect which allows significant reduction of pressure during HiPIMS operation down to p = 0.05 Pa; this is nearly more than an order of magnitude lower than at typical pressure ranges of HiPIMS discharges. We can confirm that nearly all sputtered particles are ionized (only Ti+ and Ti++ peaks are observed in the mass scan spectra). This corresponds well with high plasma density ne ˜ 1018 m-3, measured during the HiPIMS pulse.

  11. Observations of extended and counterrotating disks of ionized gas in S0 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Jullien-Dettmar, Marlies; Barteldrees, Andreas

    1990-01-01

    While many E/S0 galaxies have been found to show emission line spectra in their nuclear regions, the question of the presence and nature of extended disks of ionized gas in these galaxies has been addressed only in recent years. Typically the ionized gas is detected in the inner region on a scale of approx. 1 kpc (e.g., Phillips et al. 1986, Caldwell 1984). Here researchers present evidence that the disks of ionized gas of at least some S0 galaxies are much more extended than previously believed. In addition, with the detection of the counterrotation of gas and stars in NGC 7007 they strengthen the basis for arguments that the source of gas in S0 galaxies is external

  12. DUO: Spectra of diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Stolyarov, Andrey V.

    2016-05-01

    Duo computes rotational, rovibrational and rovibronic spectra of diatomic molecules. The software, written in Fortran 2003, solves the Schrödinger equation for the motion of the nuclei for the simple case of uncoupled, isolated electronic states and also for the general case of an arbitrary number and type of couplings between electronic states. Possible couplings include spin-orbit, angular momenta, spin-rotational and spin-spin. Introducing the relevant couplings using so-called Born-Oppenheimer breakdown curves can correct non-adiabatic effects.

  13. Identified hadron spectra from PHOBOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Gábor I.; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons and protons, as well as antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity from d+Au collisions at \\sqrt{sNN} = 200 GeV have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The transverse momentum range of particle identification was extended to beyond 3 GeV/c using the TOF detector and a new trigger system. The pseudorapidity dependence of the nuclear modification factor for charged hadrons in d+Au collisions is presented.

  14. Identified hadron spectra from PHOBOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Gábor I.; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyslouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons and protons, as well as antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity from d+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = 200\\,{\\rm GeV} have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The transverse momentum range of particle identification was extended to beyond 3 GeV/c using the TOF detector and a new trigger system. The pseudorapidity dependence of the nuclear modification factor for charged hadrons in d+Au collisions is presented.

  15. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  16. Reflection spectra of solids of planetary interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, G. T.; Carm, O.

    1973-01-01

    This paper reproduces the spectra of solids which might be found on the surfaces of planetary bodies or as solid condensates in the upper planetary atmosphere. Among these are spectra of various iron compounds of interest in the study of the clouds of Venus. Other spectra (some at low temperature) are included for various sulfides relevant to the planet Jupiter. Meteorite and coal spectra are also included to illustrate dark carbon compounds.

  17. Ionization of pyridine: Interplay of orbital relaxation and electron correlation.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, A B; Holland, D M P; Powis, I; Menzies, R C; Potts, A W; Karlsson, L; Gromov, E V; Badsyuk, I L; Schirmer, J

    2017-06-28

    The valence shell ionization spectrum of pyridine was studied using the third-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction approximation scheme for the one-particle Green's function and the outer-valence Green's function method. The results were used to interpret angle resolved photoelectron spectra recorded with synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range of 17-120 eV. The lowest four states of the pyridine radical cation, namely, 2 A 2 (1a 2 -1 ), 2 A 1 (7a 1 -1 ), 2 B 1 (2b 1 -1 ), and 2 B 2 (5b 2 -1 ), were studied in detail using various high-level electronic structure calculation methods. The vertical ionization energies were established using the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster approach with single, double, and triple excitations (EOM-IP-CCSDT) and the complete basis set extrapolation technique. Further interpretation of the electronic structure results was accomplished using Dyson orbitals, electron density difference plots, and a second-order perturbation theory treatment for the relaxation energy. Strong orbital relaxation and electron correlation effects were shown to accompany ionization of the 7a 1 orbital, which formally represents the nonbonding σ-type nitrogen lone-pair (nσ) orbital. The theoretical work establishes the important roles of the π-system (π-π* excitations) in the screening of the nσ-hole and of the relaxation of the molecular orbitals in the formation of the 7a 1 (nσ) -1 state. Equilibrium geometric parameters were computed using the MP2 (second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory) and CCSD methods, and the harmonic vibrational frequencies were obtained at the MP2 level of theory for the lowest three cation states. The results were used to estimate the adiabatic 0-0 ionization energies, which were then compared to the available experimental and theoretical data. Photoelectron anisotropy parameters and photoionization partial cross sections, derived from the experimental spectra, were compared to predictions obtained

  18. Emission spectra of photoionized plasmas induced by intense EUV pulses: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Ismail; Bartnik, Andrzej; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Wachulak, Przemysław; Jarocki, Roman; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2017-03-01

    Experimental measurements and numerical modeling of emission spectra in photoionized plasma in the ultraviolet and visible light (UV/Vis) range for noble gases have been investigated. The photoionized plasmas were created using laser-produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The source was based on a gas puff target; irradiated with 10ns/10J/10Hz Nd:YAG laser. The EUV radiation pulses were collected and focused using grazing incidence multifoil EUV collector. The laser pulses were focused on a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Irradiation of gases resulted in a formation of low temperature photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the UV/Vis spectral range. Atomic photoionized plasmas produced this way consisted of atomic and ionic with various ionization states. The most dominated observed spectral lines originated from radiative transitions in singly charged ions. To assist in a theoretical interpretation of the measured spectra, an atomic code based on Cowan's programs and a collisional-radiative PrismSPECT code have been used to calculate the theoretical spectra. A comparison of the calculated spectral lines with experimentally obtained results is presented. Electron temperature in plasma is estimated using the Boltzmann plot method, by an assumption that a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition in the plasma is validated in the first few ionization states. A brief discussion for the measured and computed spectra is given.

  19. Kinematic Study of Ionized and Molecular Gases in Ultracompact HII Region in Monoceros R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Lacy, John H.; Jaffe, Daniel Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Monoceros R2 (Mon R2) is an UltraCompact HII region (UCHII) surrounded by several PhotoDissociation Regions (PDRs). It is an excellent example to investigate the chemistry and physics of early stage of massive star formation due to its proximity (830pc) and brightness. Previous studies suggest that the wind from the star holds the ionized gas up against the dense molecular core and the higher pressure at the head drives the ionized gas along the shell. In order for the model to work, there should be evidence for dense molecular gas along the shell walls, irradiated by the UCHII region and perhaps entrained into the flow along the walls.We obtained the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) spectra of Mon R2 to study the kinematic patterns in the areas where ionized and molecular gases interact. The position-velocity maps from the high resolution (R~45,000) H- and K-band (1.4-2.5μm) IGRINS spectra demonstrate that the ionized gases (Brackett and Pfund series, He and Fe emission lines; Δv ≈ 40km/s) flow along the walls of the surrounding clouds. This is consistent with the model by Zhu et al. (2008). In the PV maps of the H2 emission lines there is no obvious motion (Δv ≈ 10km/s) of the molecular hydrogen right at the ionization boundary. This implies that the molecular gas is not taking part in the flow as the ionized gas is moving along the cavity walls.This work used the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) that was developed under a collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) with the financial support of the US National Science Foundation (NSF; grant AST-1229522), of the University of Texas at Austin, and of the Korean GMTProject of KASI.

  20. Tandem mass spectrometry characteristics of polyester anions and cations formed by electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Arnould, Mark A; Buehner, Rita W; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Vargas, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Electrospray ionization of polyesters composed of isophthalic acid and neopentyl glycol produces carboxylate anions in negative mode and mainly sodium ion adducts in positive mode. A tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) study of these ions in a quadrupole ion trap shows that the collisionally activated dissociation pathways of the anions are simpler than those of the corresponding cations. Charge-remote fragmentations predominate in both cases, but the spectra obtained in negative mode are devoid of the complicating cation exchange observed in positive mode. MS/MS of the Na(+) adducts gives rise to a greater number of fragments but not necessarily more structural information. In either positive or negative mode, polyester oligomers with different end groups fragment by similar mechanisms. The observed fragments are consistent with rearrangements initiated by the end groups. Single-stage ESI mass spectra also are more complex in positive mode because of extensive H/Na substitutions; this is also true for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectra. Hence, formation and analysis of anions might be the method of choice for determining block length, end group structure and copolymer sequence, provided the polyester contains at least one carboxylic acid end group that is ionizable to anions.

  1. Multiscale climate emulator of multimodal wave spectra: MUSCLE-spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, Ana; Hegermiller, Christie A.; Antolinez, Jose A. A.; Camus, Paula; Vitousek, Sean; Ruggiero, Peter; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Tomás, Antonio; Mendez, Fernando J.

    2017-02-01

    Characterization of multimodal directional wave spectra is important for many offshore and coastal applications, such as marine forecasting, coastal hazard assessment, and design of offshore wave energy farms and coastal structures. However, the multivariate and multiscale nature of wave climate variability makes this complex problem tractable using computationally expensive numerical models. So far, the skill of statistical-downscaling model-based parametric (unimodal) wave conditions is limited in large ocean basins such as the Pacific. The recent availability of long-term directional spectral data from buoys and wave hindcast models allows for development of stochastic models that include multimodal sea-state parameters. This work introduces a statistical downscaling framework based on weather types to predict multimodal wave spectra (e.g., significant wave height, mean wave period, and mean wave direction from different storm systems, including sea and swells) from large-scale atmospheric pressure fields. For each weather type, variables of interest are modeled using the categorical distribution for the sea-state type, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution for wave height and wave period, a multivariate Gaussian copula for the interdependence between variables, and a Markov chain model for the chronology of daily weather types. We apply the model to the southern California coast, where local seas and swells from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres contribute to the multimodal wave spectrum. This work allows attribution of particular extreme multimodal wave events to specific atmospheric conditions, expanding knowledge of time-dependent, climate-driven offshore and coastal sea-state conditions that have a significant influence on local nearshore processes, coastal morphology, and flood hazards.

  2. Multiscale Climate Emulator of Multimodal Wave Spectra: MUSCLE-spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, A.; Hegermiller, C.; Alvarez Antolinez, J. A.; Camus, P.; Vitousek, S.; Ruggiero, P.; Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.; Tomas, A.; Mendez, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of multimodal directional wave spectra is important for many offshore and coastal applications, such as marine forecasting, coastal hazard assessment, and design of offshore wave energy farms and coastal structures. However, the multivariate and multiscale nature of wave climate variability makes this problem complex yet tractable using computationally-expensive numerical models. So far, the skill of statistical-downscaling models based parametric (unimodal) wave conditions is limited in large ocean basins such as the Pacific. The recent availability of long-term directional spectral data from buoys and wave hindcast models allows for development of stochastic models that include multimodal sea-state parameters. This work introduces a statistical-downscaling framework based on weather types to predict multimodal wave spectra (e.g., significant wave height, mean wave period, and mean wave direction from different storm systems, including sea and swells) from large-scale atmospheric pressure fields. For each weather type, variables of interest are modeled using the categorical distribution for the sea-state type, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution for wave height and wave period, a multivariate Gaussian copula for the interdependence between variables, and a Markov chain model for the chronology of daily weather types. We apply the model to the Southern California coast, where local seas and swells from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres contribute to the multimodal wave spectrum. This work allows attribution of particular extreme multimodal wave events to specific atmospheric conditions, expanding knowledge of time-dependent, climate-driven offshore and coastal sea-state conditions that have a significant influence on local nearshore processes, coastal morphology, and flood hazards.

  3. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Rouzée, A.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.; Vrakking, M. J. J.

    2011-11-01

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO2 molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  4. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  5. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  6. Heralded ions via ionization coincidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, A. J.; Speirs, R. W.; Wissenberg, S. H.; Tielen, R. P. M.; Sparkes, B. M.; Scholten, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a method for the deterministic production of single ions by exploiting the correlation between an electron and associated ion following ionization. Coincident detection and feedback in combination with Coulomb-driven particle selection allows for high-fidelity heralding of ions at a high repetition rate. Extension of the scheme beyond time-correlated feedback to position- and momentum-correlated feedback will provide a general and powerful means to optimize the ion beam brightness for the development of next-generation focused ion beam technologies.

  7. Modification and benchmarking of MCNP for low-energy tungsten spectra.

    PubMed

    Mercier, J R; Kopp, D T; McDavid, W D; Dove, S B; Lancaster, J L; Tucker, D M

    2000-12-01

    The MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport code was modified for diagnostic medical physics applications. In particular, the modified code was thoroughly benchmarked for the production of polychromatic tungsten x-ray spectra in the 30-150 kV range. Validating the modified code for coupled electron-photon transport with benchmark spectra was supplemented with independent electron-only and photon-only transport benchmarks. Major revisions to the code included the proper treatment of characteristic K x-ray production and scoring, new impact ionization cross sections, and new bremsstrahlung cross sections. Minor revisions included updated photon cross sections, electron-electron bremsstrahlung production, and K x-ray yield. The modified MCNP code is benchmarked to electron backscatter factors, x-ray spectra production, and primary and scatter photon transport.

  8. Nonsequential double ionization channels control of Ar with few-cycle elliptically polarized laser pulse by carrier-envelope-phase.

    PubMed

    Ben, Shuai; Wang, Tian; Xu, Tongtong; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xueshen

    2016-04-04

    The carrier-envelop-phase (CEP) dependence of nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of atomic Ar with few-cycle elliptically polarized laser pulse is investigated using 2D classical ensemble method. We distinguish two particular recollision channels in NSDI, which are recollision-impact ionization (RII) and recollision-induced excitation with subsequent ionization (RESI). We separate the RII and RESI channels according to the delay time between recollision and final double ionization. By tracing the history of the trajectories, we find the electron correlation spectra as well as the competition between the two channels are sensitively dependent on the laser field CEP. Finally, control can be achieved between the two channels by varying the CEP.

  9. An RGB approach to extraordinary spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusche, Sascha; Theilmann, Florian

    2015-09-01

    After Newton had explained a series of ordinary spectra and Goethe had pointed out its complementary counterpart, Nussbaumer discovered a series of extraordinary spectra which are geometrically identical and colourwise analogous to Newton’s and Goethe’s spectra. To understand the geometry and colours of extraordinary spectra, the wavelength composition is explored with filters and spectroscopic setups. Visualized in a dispersion diagram, the wavelength composition is interpreted in terms of additive colour mixing. Finally, all spectra are simulated as the superposition of red, green, and blue images that are shifted apart. This RGB approach makes it easy to understand the complex relationship between wavelengths and colours.

  10. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Glish, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above.

  11. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  12. Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption/Electron Ionization of Amino Acids and Small Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrell, Tiffany M.; Owen, Benjamin C.; Riedeman, James S.; Prentice, Boone M.; Pulliam, Chris J.; Max, Joann; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) allows for desorption of neutral nonvolatile compounds independent of their volatility or thermal stability. Many different ionization methods have been coupled with LIAD. Hence, this setup provides a better control over the types of ions formed than other mass spectrometry evaporation/ionization methods commonly used to characterize biomolecules, such as ESI or MALDI. In this study, the utility of LIAD coupled with electron ionization (EI) was tested for the analysis of common amino acids with no derivatization. The results compared favorably with previously reported EI mass spectra obtained using thermal desorption/EI. Further, LIAD/EI mass spectra collected for hydrochloride salts of two amino acids were found to be similar to those measured for the neutral amino acids with the exception of the appearance of an HCl+● ion. However, the hydrochloride salt of arginine showed a distinctly different LIAD/EI mass spectrum than the previously published literature EI mass spectrum, likely due to its highly basic side chain that makes a specific zwitterionic form particularly favorable. Finally, EI mass spectra were measured for seven small peptides, including di-, tri-, and tetrapeptides. These mass spectra show a variety of ion types. However, an type ions are prevalent. Also, electron-induced dissociation (EID) of protonated peptides has been reported to form primarily an type ions. In addition, the loss of small neutral molecules and side-chain cleavages were observed that are reminiscent of other high-energy fragmentation methods, such as EID. Finally, the isomeric dipeptides LG and IG were found to produce drastically different EI mass spectra, thus allowing differentiation of the leucine and isoleucine amino acids in these dipeptides. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculation of the photoelectron spectra of famous biological active steroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abyar, Fatemeh; Farrokhpour, Hossein

    2014-11-01

    The photoelectron spectra of some famous steroids, important in biology, were calculated in the gas phase. The selected steroids were 5α-androstane-3,11,17-trione, 4-androstane-3,11,17-trione, cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, dexamethasone, estradiol and cholesterol. The calculations were performed employing symmetry-adapted cluster/configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method using the 6-311++G(2df,pd) basis set. The population ratios of conformers of each steroid were calculated and used for simulating the photoelectron spectrum of steroid. It was found that more than one conformer contribute to the photoelectron spectra of some steroids. To confirm the calculated photoelectron spectra, they compared with their corresponding experimental spectra. There were no experimental gas phase Hesbnd I photoelectron spectra for some of the steroids of this work in the literature and their calculated spectra can show a part of intrinsic characteristics of this molecules in the gas phase. The canonical molecular orbitals involved in the ionization of each steroid were calculated at the HF/6-311++g(d,p) level of theory. The spectral bands of each steroid were assigned by natural bonding orbital (NBO) calculations. Knowing the electronic structures of steroids helps us to understand their biological activities and find which sites of steroid become active when a modification is performing under a biological pathway.

  14. Spectra from pair-equilibrium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical model of relativistic nonmagnetized plasma with uniform temperature and electron density distributions is considered, and spectra from plasma in pair equilibrium are studied. A range of dimensionless temperature (T) greater than about 0.2 is considered. The spectra from low pair density plasmas in pair equilibrium vary from un-Comptonized bremsstrahlung spectra at Thomson cross section tau(N) much less than one to Comptonized bremsstrahlung spectra with tau(N) over one. For high pair density plasmas the spectra are flat for T greater than about one, and have broad intensity peaks at energy roughly equal to 3T for T less than one. In the latter region the total luminosity is approximately twice the annihilation luminosity. All spectra are flat in the X-ray region, in contradiction to observed AGN spectra. For dimensionless luminosity greater than about 100, the cooling time becomes shorter than the Thomson time.

  15. NMR Metabolomics in Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.; Xiao, Xiongjie; Hu, Mary Y.

    Ionizing radiation is an invisible threat that cannot be seen, touched or smelled and exist either as particles or waves. Particle radiation can take the form of alpha, beta or neutrons, as well as high energy space particle radiation such as high energy iron, carbon and proton radiation, etc. (1) Non-particle radiation includes gamma- and x-rays. Publically, there is a growing concern about the adverse health effects due to ionizing radiation mainly because of the following facts. (a) The X-ray diagnostic images are taken routinely on patients. Even though the overall dosage from a single X-ray image such as amore » chest X-ray scan or a CT scan, also called X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), is low, repeated usage can cause serious health consequences, in particular with the possibility of developing cancer (2, 3). (b) Human space exploration has gone beyond moon and is planning to send human to the orbit of Mars by the mid-2030s. And a landing on Mars will follow.« less

  16. ELECTRON IONIZATION FREQUENCY IN HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Cottingham, W.B.; Buchsbaum, S.J.

    1963-05-01

    The frequency of ionization by electrons in hydrogen was measured during pulsed microwave breakdown in a waveguide. Optical radiation emanating from the plasma was used to determine the temporal rate of growth of electron density. Values of the ionization frequency are presented as a function of E/sub e//p/sub o/ for 36 < E/sub e//p/sub o/ < 200 v/cm-mm Hg. The measurements constitute an extension of the work of Madan, Gordon, Buchsbaum, and Brown who measured this coefficient up to an E/sub e//p/sub o/ of 40 v/cm-mm Hg by microwave cavity techniques. Comparison is made with previous d-c measurements of Rosemore » and with the theory of Allis and Brown. Good agreement is obtained with the measurements of Rose but not with the theory of Allis and Brown extended to high E/sub e//p/ sub o/, nor with the previous microwave measurements of Madan et al. (auth)« less

  17. Testing Photoionization Calculations Using Chandra X-ray Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, Tim

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of work has been devoted to the accumulation of accurate quantities describing atomic processes for use in analysis of astrophysical spectra. But in many situations of interest the interpretation of a quantity which is observed, such as a line flux, depends on the results of a modeling- or spectrum synthesis code. The results of such a code depends in turn on many atomic rates or cross sections, and the sensitivity of the observable quantity on the various rates and cross sections may be non-linear and if so cannot easily be derived analytically. In such cases the most practical approach to understanding the sensitivity of observables to atomic cross sections is to perform numerical experiments, by calculating models with various rates perturbed by random (but known) factors. In addition, it is useful to compare the results of such experiments with some sample observations, in order to focus attention on the rates which are of the greatest relevance to real observations. In this paper I will present some attempts to carry out this program, focussing on two sample datasets taken with the Chandra HETG. I will discuss the sensitivity of synthetic spectra to atomic data affecting ionization balance, temperature, and line opacity or emissivity, and discuss the implications for the ultimate goal of inferring astrophysical parameters.

  18. The Enceladus Ionizing Radiation Environment: Implications for Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, L. A.; Elphic, R. C.; Davila, A. F.; McKay, C.; Dartnell, L.

    2016-12-01

    Enceladus' subsurface ocean is a possible abode for life, but it is inaccessible with current technology. However, icy particles and vapor are being expelled into space through surface fractures known as Tiger Stripes, forming a large plume centered in the South Polar Terrains. Direct chemical analyses by Cassini have revealed salts and organic compounds in a significant fraction of plume particles, which suggests that the subsurface ocean is the main source of materials in the plume (i.e. frozen ocean spray). While smaller icy particles in the plume reach escape velocity and feed Saturn's E-ring, larger particles fall back on the moon's surface, where they accumulate as icy mantling deposits at practically all latitudes. The organic content of these fall-out materials could be of great astrobiological relevance. Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) that strike both Enceladus' surface and the lofted icy particles produce ionizing radiation in the form of high-energy electrons, protons, gamma rays, neutrons and muons. An additional source of ionizing radiation is the population of energetic charged particles in Saturn's magnetosphere. The effects of ionizing radiation in matter always involve the destruction of chemical bonds and the creation of free radicals. Both affect organic matter, and can damage or destroy biomarkers over time. Using ionizing radiation transport codes, we recreated the radiation environment on the surface of Enceladus, and evaluated its possible effects on organic matter (including biomarkers) in the icy mantling deposits. Here, we present full Monte-Carlo simulations of the nuclear reactions induced by the GCRs hitting Enceladus's surface using a code based on the GEANT-4 toolkit for the transport of particles. To model the GCR primary spectra for Z= 1-26 (protons to iron nuclei) we assumed the CREAME96 model under solar minimum, modified to take into account Enceladus' location. We considered bulk compositions of: i) pure water ice, ii) water ice

  19. Planetary spectra for anisotropic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    Some effects on planetary spectra that would be produced by departures from isotropic scattering are examined. The phase function is the simplest departure to handle analytically and the only phase function, other than the isotropic one, that can be incorporated into a Chandrasekhar first approximation. This approach has the advantage of illustrating effects resulting from anisotropies while retaining the simplicity that yields analytic solutions. The curve of growth is the sine qua non of planetary spectroscopy. The discussion emphasizes the difficulties and importance of ascertaining curves of growth as functions of observing geometry. A plea is made to observers to analyze their empirical curves of growth, whenever it seems feasible, in terms of coefficients of which are the leading terms in radiative-transfer analysis. An algebraic solution to the two sets of anisotropic H functions is developed which gives emergent intensities accurate to 0.3%.

  20. Influence of renormalization shielding on the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr

    2015-04-15

    The renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization of hydrogen atom are investigated in dense partially ionized plasmas. The effective projectile-target interaction Hamiltonian and the semiclassical trajectory method are employed to obtain the transition amplitude as well as the ionization probability as functions of the impact parameter, the collision energy, and the renormalization parameter. It is found that the renormalization shielding effect suppresses the transition amplitude for the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas. It is also found that the renormalization effect suppresses the differential ionization cross section in the peak impact parameter region. In addition, it ismore » found that the influence of renormalization shielding on the ionization cross section decreases with an increase of the relative collision energy. The variations of the renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization cross section are also discussed.« less

  1. Ionized gas at the edge of the central molecular zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.; Velusamy, T.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The edge of the central molecular zone (CMZ) is the location where massive dense molecular clouds with large internal velocity dispersions transition to the surrounding more quiescent and lower CO emissivity region of the Galaxy. Little is known about the ionized gas surrounding the molecular clouds and in the transition region. Aims: We determine the properties of the ionized gas at the edge of the CMZ near Sgr E using observations of N+ and C+. Methods: We observed a small portion of the edge of the CMZ near Sgr E with spectrally resolved [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm fine structure lines at six positions with the GREAT instrument on SOFIA and in [C ii] using Herschel HIFI on-the-fly strip maps. We use the [N ii] spectra along with a radiative transfer model to calculate the electron density of the gas and the [C ii] maps to illuminate the morphology of the ionized gas and model the column density of CO-dark H2. Results: We detect two [C ii] and [N ii] velocity components, one along the line of sight to a CO molecular cloud at - 207 km s-1 associated with Sgr E and the other at -174 km s-1 outside the edge of another CO cloud. From the [N ii] emission we find that the average electron density is in the range of ~5 to 21 cm-3 for these features. This electron density is much higher than that of the disk's warm ionized medium, but is consistent with densities determined for bright diffuse H ii nebula. The column density of the CO-dark H2 layer in the -207 km s-1 cloud is ~1-2 × 1021 cm-2 in agreement with theoretical models. The CMZ extends further out in Galactic radius by ~7 to 14 pc in ionized gas than it does in molecular gas traced by CO. Conclusions: The edge of the CMZ likely contains dense hot ionized gas surrounding the neutral molecular material. The high fractional abundance of N+ and high electron density require an intense EUV field with a photon flux of order 106 to 107 photons cm-2 s-1, and/or efficient proton charge exchange with

  2. Derivatization of Dextran for Multiply Charged Ion Formation and Electrospray Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, Jesus B.; Hibbard, Hailey A. J.; Reynolds, Melissa M.

    2017-10-01

    We present the use of a simple, one-pot derivatization to allow the polysaccharide dextran to carry multiple positive charges, shifting its molecular weight distribution to a lower m/ z range. We performed this derivatization because molecular weight measurements of polysaccharides by mass spectrometry are challenging because of their lack of readily ionizable groups. The absence of ionizable groups limits proton abstraction and suppresses proton adduction during the ionization process, producing mass spectra with predominantly singly charged metal adduct ions, thereby limiting the detection of large polysaccharides. To address this challenge, we derivatized dextran T1 (approximately 1 kDa) by attaching ethylenediamine, giving dextran readily ionizable, terminal amine functional groups. The attached ethylenediamine groups facilitated proton adduction during the ionization process in positive ion mode. Using the low molecular weight dextran T1, we tracked the number of ethylenediamine attachments by measuring the mass shift from underivatized to derivatized dextran T1. Using electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we observed derivatized dextran chains ranging from two to nine glucose residues with between one and four attachments/charges. Our success in shifting derivatized dextran T1 toward the low m/ z range suggests potential for this derivatization as a viable route for analysis of high molecular weight polysaccharides using electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. The different origins of high- and low-ionization broad emission lines revealed by gravitational microlensing in the Einstein cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braibant, L.; Hutsemékers, D.; Sluse, D.; Anguita, T.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the kinematics and ionization structure of the broad emission line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO2237+0305 (the Einstein cross) using differential microlensing in the high- and low-ionization broad emission lines. We combine visible and near-infrared spectra of the four images of the lensed quasar and detect a large-amplitude microlensing effect distorting the high-ionization CIV and low-ionization Hα line profiles in image A. While microlensing only magnifies the red wing of the Balmer line, it symmetrically magnifies the wings of the CIV emission line. Given that the same microlensing pattern magnifies both the high- and low-ionization broad emission line regions, these dissimilar distortions of the line profiles suggest that the high- and low-ionization regions are governed by different kinematics. Since this quasar is likely viewed at intermediate inclination, we argue that the differential magnification of the blue and red wings of Hα favors a flattened, virialized, low-ionization region whereas the symmetric microlensing effect measured in CIV can be reproduced by an emission line formed in a polar wind, without the need of fine-tuned caustic configurations. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT, Paranal, Chile; Proposals 076.B-0197 and 076.B-0607 (PI: Courbin).

  4. The ionizing radiation environment of LDEF prerecovery predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, John W., Jr.; Derrickson, James H.; Parnell, T. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Harmon, A.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Heinrich, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was exposed to several sources of ionizing radiation while in orbit. The principal ones were trapped belt protons and electrons, galactic cosmic rays, and albedo particles (protons and neutrons) from the atmosphere. Large solar flares in 1989 may have caused a small contribution. Prior to the recovery of the spacecraft, a number of calculations and estimates were made to predict the radiation exposure of the spacecraft and experiments. These were made to assess whether measurable radiation effects might exist, and to plan the analysis of the large number of radiation measurements available on the LDEF. Calculations and estimates of total dose, particle fluences, linear energy transfer spectra, and induced radioactivity were made. The principal sources of radiation is described, and the preflight predictions are summarized.

  5. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.

    1998-06-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ( 60Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed

  6. Low-energy electron scattering from atomic hydrogen. I. Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, J.G.; James, K.E. Jr.; Bray, Igor

    2004-02-01

    Absolute doubly differential cross sections for the ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact have been measured at energies ranging from near threshold to intermediate values. The measurements are normalized to the accurate differential cross section for the electron-impact excitation of the H 1 {sup 2}S{yields}2 {sup 2}S+2 {sup 2}P transition. These measurements were made possible through the use of a moveable target source which enables the collection of hydrogen energy loss spectra free of all backgrounds. The measurements cover the incident electron energy range of 14.6-40 eV and scattering angles from 12 deg. to 127 deg., and are inmore » very good agreement with the results of the latest theoretical models--the convergent close-coupling model and the exterior complex scaling model.« less

  7. The Magellan Evolution of Galaxies Spectroscopic and Ultraviolet Reference Atlas (MegaSaura). II. Stacked Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, J. R.; Bayliss, M. B.; Chisholm, J.; Bordoloi, R.; Sharon, K.; Gladders, M. D.; Johnson, T.; Paterno-Mahler, R.; Wuyts, E.; Dahle, H.; Acharyya, A.

    2018-01-01

    We stack the rest-frame ultraviolet spectra of N = 14 highly magnified gravitationally lensed galaxies at redshifts 1.6< z< 3.6. The resulting new composite spans 900< {λ }{rest}< 3000 Å, with a peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 103 per spectral resolution element (∼100 km s‑1). It is the highest S/N, highest spectral resolution composite spectrum of z ∼ 2–3 galaxies yet published. The composite reveals numerous weak nebular emission lines and stellar photospheric absorption lines that can serve as new physical diagnostics, particularly at high redshift with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We report equivalent widths to aid in proposing for and interpreting JWST spectra. We examine the velocity profiles of strong absorption features in the composite, and in a matched composite of z∼ 0 COS/HST galaxy spectra. We find remarkable similarity in the velocity profiles at z∼ 0 and z∼ 2, suggesting that similar physical processes control the outflows across cosmic time. While the maximum outflow velocity depends strongly on ionization potential, the absorption-weighted mean velocity does not. As such, the bulk of the high-ionization absorption traces the low-ionization gas, with an additional blueshifted absorption tail extending to at least ‑2000 km s‑1. We interpret this tail as arising from the stellar wind and photospheres of massive stars. Starburst99 models are able to replicate this high-velocity absorption tail. However, these theoretical models poorly reproduce several of the photospheric absorption features, indicating that improvements are needed to match observational constraints on the massive stellar content of star-forming galaxies at z∼ 2. We publicly release our composite spectra.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals metabolic changes in living cardiomyocytes after low doses of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Gramatyka, Michalina; Skorupa, Agnieszka; Sokół, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that exposure of heart to ionizing radiation increases the risk of cardiotoxicity manifested by heart dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. It was initially believed that the heart is an organ relatively resistant to radiation. Currently, however, it is suspected that even low doses of radiation (< 2 Gy) may have a negative impact on the cardiovascular system. Cardiotoxicity of ionizing radiation is associated with metabolic changes observed in cardiac cells injured by radiation. In this study, we used human cardiomyocytes as a model system, and studied their metabolic response to radiation using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance techniques (HR-MAS NMR). Human cardiomyocytes cultured in vitro were exposed to ionizing radiation and their survival was assessed by clonogenic assay. Changes in apoptosis intensity and cell cycle distribution after the irradiation were measured as well. NMR spectra of cardiomyocytes were acquired using Bruker Avance 400 MHz spectrometer at a spinning rate of 3200 Hz. Survival of cardiomyocytes after NMR experiments was assessed by the Trypan blue exclusion assay. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to small doses of ionizing radiation had no effect on cell proliferation potential and intensity of cell death. However, analysis of metabolic profiles revealed changes in lipids, threonine, glycine, glycerophosphocholine, choline, valine, isoleucine, glutamate, reduced glutathione and taurine metabolism. The results of this study showed that ionizing radiation affects metabolic profiles of cardiomyocytes even at low doses, which potentially have no effect on cell viability.

  9. Pyroelectricity Assisted Infrared-Laser Desorption Ionization (PAI-LDI) for Atmospheric Pressure Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanyan; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Wei, Zhenwei; Gong, Xiaoyun; Yang, Chengdui; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-08-01

    A new atmospheric pressure ionization method termed pyroelectricity-assisted infrared laser desorption ionization (PAI-LDI) was developed in this study. The pyroelectric material served as both sample target plate and enhancing ionization substrate, and an IR laser with wavelength of 1064 nm was employed to realize direct desorption and ionization of the analytes. The mass spectra of various compounds obtained on pyroelectric material were compared with those of other substrates. For the five standard substances tested in this work, LiNbO3 substrate produced the highest ion yield and the signal intensity was about 10 times higher than that when copper was used as substrate. For 1-adamantylamine, as low as 20 pg (132.2 fmol) was successfully detected. The active ingredient in (Compound Paracetamol and 1-Adamantylamine Hydrochloride Capsules), 1-adamantylamine, can be sensitively detected at an amount as low as 150 pg, when the medicine stock solution was diluted with urine. Monosaccharide and oligosaccharides in Allium Cepa L. juice was also successfully identified with PAI-LDI. The method did not require matrix-assisted external high voltage or other extra facility-assisted set-ups for desorption/ionization. This study suggested exciting application prospect of pyroelectric materials in matrix- and electricity-free atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry research.

  10. Spectral Evidence for Ionization in Air-Filled Glow Discharge Tubes: Application to Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. A.; Williams, E. R.; Golka, R. K.; Williams, D. R.

    2001-12-01

    The question of ionization in sprites and the evidence for VLF backscatter from sprites has motivated a quantitative spectral analysis of the various (classical) regions of the glow discharge tube under DC excitation and at air densities appropriate for sprites in the mesosphere. A PR-650 colorimeter (Photo Research, Inc.) has enabled calibrated irradiance measurements for localized zones along the axis of the discharge tube--in the dominantly blue negative glow, in the Faraday dark space and in the red/pink positive column. Consistent with historical nomenclature, nitrogen first and second positive emission is dominant in the positive column (associated with neutral N2), and nitrogen first negative emission, with a prominent peak at 4278 A, is dominant in the blue negative glow (associated with ionized N2+). Whereas nitrogen first and second positive emission are also detected in the negative glow, no spectral evidence for ionization (no 4279, no 3914, no Meinel) is found in the red/pink positive column. This negative result is attributed not to an absence of ionization in the positive column, but rather to a sparse population of N2+ relative to neutral nitrogen in this region, and to the prominent emission in the blue part of the spectrum due to nitrogen second positive. A similar interpretation may be appropriate for the time-integrated spectra from the red body of sprites, also lacking direct evidence for ionization.

  11. Measuring neutron spectra in radiotherapy using the nested neutron spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Maglieri, Robert; Licea, Angel; Evans, Michael; Seuntjens, Jan; Kildea, John

    2015-11-01

    Out-of-field neutron doses resulting from photonuclear interactions in the head of a linear accelerator pose an iatrogenic risk to patients and an occupational risk to personnel during radiotherapy. To quantify neutron production, in-room measurements have traditionally been carried out using Bonner sphere systems (BSS) with activation foils and TLDs. In this work, a recently developed active detector, the nested neutron spectrometer (NNS), was tested in radiotherapy bunkers. The NNS is designed for easy handling and is more practical than the traditional BSS. Operated in current-mode, the problem of pulse pileup due to high dose-rates is overcome by measuring current, similar to an ionization chamber. In a bunker housing a Varian Clinac 21EX, the performance of the NNS was evaluated in terms of reproducibility, linearity, and dose-rate effects. Using a custom maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization algorithm, measured neutron spectra at various locations inside the bunker were then compared to Monte Carlo simulations of an identical setup. In terms of dose, neutron ambient dose equivalents were calculated from the measured spectra and compared to bubble detector neutron dose equivalent measurements. The NNS-measured spectra for neutrons at various locations in a treatment room were found to be consistent with expectations for both relative shape and absolute magnitude. Neutron fluence-rate decreased with distance from the source and the shape of the spectrum changed from a dominant fast neutron peak near the Linac head to a dominant thermal neutron peak in the moderating conditions of the maze. Monte Carlo data and NNS-measured spectra agreed within 30% at all locations except in the maze where the deviation was a maximum of 40%. Neutron ambient dose equivalents calculated from the authors' measured spectra were consistent (one standard deviation) with bubble detector measurements in the treatment room. The NNS may be used to reliably measure the neutron

  12. In situ analysis of soybeans and nuts by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Petroselli, Gabriela; Mandal, Mridul K; Chen, Lee C; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is an ESI-based ionization technique that generates electrospray from the tip of a solid metal needle. In the present work, we describe the PESI mass spectra obtained by in situ measurement of soybeans and several nuts (peanuts, walnuts, cashew nuts, macadamia nuts and almonds) using different solid needles as sampling probes. It was found that PESI-MS is a valuable approach for in situ lipid analysis of these seeds. The phospholipid and triacylglycerol PESI spectra of different nuts and soybean were compared by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA shows significant differences among the data of each family of seeds. Methanolic extracts of nuts and soybean were exposed to air and sunlight for several days. PESI mass spectra were recorded before and after the treatment. Along the aging of the oil (rancidification), the formation of oxidated species with variable number of hydroperoxide groups could be observed in the PESI spectra. The relative intensity of oxidated triacylglycerols signals increased with days of exposition. Monitoring sensitivity of PESI-MS was high. This method provides a fast, simple and sensitive technique for the analysis (detection and characterization) of lipids in seed tissue and degree of oxidation of the oil samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Humidity Effects on Fragmentation in Plasma-Based Ambient Ionization Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsome, G. Asher; Ackerman, Luke K.; Johnson, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Post-plasma ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources are fundamentally dependent on surrounding water vapor to produce protonated analyte ions. There are two reports of humidity effects on ADI spectra. However, it is unclear whether humidity will affect all ADI sources and analytes, and by what mechanism humidity affects spectra. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization and direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectra of various surface-deposited and gas-phase analytes were acquired at ambient temperature and pressure across a range of observed humidity values. A controlled humidity enclosure around the ion source and mass spectrometer inlet was used to create programmed humidity and temperatures. The relative abundance and fragmentation of molecular adduct ions for several compounds consistently varied with changing ambient humidity and also were controlled with the humidity enclosure. For several compounds, increasing humidity decreased protonated molecule and other molecular adduct ion fragmentation in both FAPA and DART spectra. For others, humidity increased fragment ion ratios. The effects of humidity on molecular adduct ion fragmentation were caused by changes in the relative abundances of different reagent protonated water clusters and, thus, a change in the average difference in proton affinity between an analyte and the population of water clusters. Control of humidity in ambient post-plasma ion sources is needed to create spectral stability and reproducibility.

  14. Humidity Effects on Fragmentation in Plasma-Based Ambient Ionization Sources.

    PubMed

    Newsome, G Asher; Ackerman, Luke K; Johnson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Post-plasma ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources are fundamentally dependent on surrounding water vapor to produce protonated analyte ions. There are two reports of humidity effects on ADI spectra. However, it is unclear whether humidity will affect all ADI sources and analytes, and by what mechanism humidity affects spectra. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization and direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectra of various surface-deposited and gas-phase analytes were acquired at ambient temperature and pressure across a range of observed humidity values. A controlled humidity enclosure around the ion source and mass spectrometer inlet was used to create programmed humidity and temperatures. The relative abundance and fragmentation of molecular adduct ions for several compounds consistently varied with changing ambient humidity and also were controlled with the humidity enclosure. For several compounds, increasing humidity decreased protonated molecule and other molecular adduct ion fragmentation in both FAPA and DART spectra. For others, humidity increased fragment ion ratios. The effects of humidity on molecular adduct ion fragmentation were caused by changes in the relative abundances of different reagent protonated water clusters and, thus, a change in the average difference in proton affinity between an analyte and the population of water clusters. Control of humidity in ambient post-plasma ion sources is needed to create spectral stability and reproducibility.

  15. Line Emission and X-ray Line Polarization of Multiply Ionized Mo Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, E. E.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Stafford, A.; Safronova, U. I.; Shrestha, I. K.; Schultz, K. A.; Childers, R.; Cooper, M. C.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Hell, N.; Brown, G. V.

    2016-10-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the line emission from multiply ionized Mo ions produced by two different sets of experiments: at LLNL EBIT and the pulsed power generator Zebra at UNR. Mo line emission and polarization measurements were accomplished at EBIT for the first time. In particular, benchmarking experiments at the LLNL EBIT with Mo ions produced at electron beam energies from 2.75 keV up to 15 keV allowed us to break down these very complicated spectra into spectra with only few ionization stages and to select processes that influence them as well as to measure line polarization. The EBIT data were recorded using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer and a crystal spectrometer with a Ge crystal. X-ray Mo spectra and pinhole images were collected from Z-pinch plasmas produced from various wire loads. Non-LTE modeling, high-precision relativistic atomic and polarization data were used to analyze L-shell Mo spectra. The influence of different plasma processes including electron beams on Mo line radiation is summarized. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Grant DE-NA0002954. Experiments at the NTF/UNR were funded in part by DE-NA0002075. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Ghost peaks observed after AP-MALDI experiment may disclose new ionization mechanism of matrix assisted hypersonic velocity impact ionization

    PubMed Central

    Moskovets, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE Understanding the mechanisms of MALDI promises improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of many established applications in the field of mass spectrometry. This paper reports a serendipitous observation of a significant ion yield in a post-ionization experiment conducted after the sample has been removed from a standard atmospheric pressure (AP)-MALDI source. This post-ionization is interpreted in terms of collisions of microparticles moving with a hypersonic velocity into a solid surface. Calculations show that the thermal energy released during such collisions is close to that absorbed by the top matrix layer in traditional MALDI. The microparticles, containing both the matrix and analytes, could be detached from a film produced inside the inlet capillary during the sample ablation and accelerated by the flow rushing through the capillary. These observations contribute some new perspective to ion formation in both laser and laserless matrix-assisted ionization. METHODS An AP-MALDI ion source hyphenated with a three-stage high-pressure ion funnel system was utilized for peptide mass analysis. After the laser was turned off and MALDI sample was removed, ions were detected during a gradual reduction of the background pressure in the first funnel. The constant-rate pressure reduction led to the reproducible appearance of different singly- and doubly-charged peptide peaks in mass spectra taken a few seconds after the end of the MALDI analysis of a dried-droplet spot. RESULTS The ion yield as well as the mass range of ions observed with a significant delay after a completion of the primary MALDI analysis depended primarily on the background pressure inside the first funnel. The production of ions in this post-ionization step was exclusively observed during the pressure drop. A lower matrix background and significant increase in relative yield of double-protonated ions are reported. CONCLUSIONS The observations were partially consistent with a model of

  17. Insights into quasar UV spectra using unsupervised clustering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammour, A.; Gallagher, S. C.; Daley, M.; Richards, G. T.

    2016-06-01

    Machine learning techniques can provide powerful tools to detect patterns in multidimensional parameter space. We use K-means - a simple yet powerful unsupervised clustering algorithm which picks out structure in unlabelled data - to study a sample of quasar UV spectra from the Quasar Catalog of the 10th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR10) of Paris et al. Detecting patterns in large data sets helps us gain insights into the physical conditions and processes giving rise to the observed properties of quasars. We use K-means to find clusters in the parameter space of the equivalent width (EW), the blue- and red-half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) of the Mg II 2800 Å line, the C IV 1549 Å line, and the C III] 1908 Å blend in samples of broad absorption line (BAL) and non-BAL quasars at redshift 1.6-2.1. Using this method, we successfully recover correlations well-known in the UV regime such as the anti-correlation between the EW and blueshift of the C IV emission line and the shape of the ionizing spectra energy distribution (SED) probed by the strength of He II and the Si III]/C III] ratio. We find this to be particularly evident when the properties of C III] are used to find the clusters, while those of Mg II proved to be less strongly correlated with the properties of the other lines in the spectra such as the width of C IV or the Si III]/C III] ratio. We conclude that unsupervised clustering methods (such as K-means) are powerful methods for finding `natural' binning boundaries in multidimensional data sets and discuss caveats and future work.

  18. Kinematics of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Disk of Andromeda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Alexander; Howley, K.; Guhathakurta, P.; Dorman, C.; SPLASH Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the flattened rotating diffuse ionized gas (DIG) disk of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). For this we use spectra from 25 multislit masks obtained by the SPLASH collaboration using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck-II 10-meter telescope. Each mask contains 200 slits covering the region around M32 (S of the center of M31), the major axis of M31, and the SE minor axis. DIG emission was serendipitously detected in the background sky of these slits. By creating a normalized "sky spectrum” to remove various other sources of emission (such as night sky lines) in the background of these slits, we have examined the rotation of the DIG disk using individual line-of-sight velocity measurements of Hα, [NII] and [SII] emission. his emission is probably the result of newly formed stars ionizing the gas in the disk. The measured IG rotation will be compared to the rotation of M31's stellar disk and HI gas disk, as well as models of an infinitely thin rotating disk, to better understand the relationship between the components of the galactic disk and its differential rotation. We wish to acknowledge the NSF for funding on this project.

  19. Observations of Absorption Lines from Highly Ionized Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, E. B.

    1984-01-01

    In the ultraviolet spectra of hot stars, absorption lines can be seen from highly ionized species in the interstellar medium. Observations of these features which have been very influential in revising the perception of the medium's various physical states, are discussed. The pervasiveness of O 6 absorption lines, coupled with complementary observations of a diffuse background in soft X-rays and EUV radiation, shows that there is an extensive network of low density gas (n approx. fewX 0.001/cucm) existing at coronal temperatures, 5.3 or = log T or = 6.3. Shocks created by supernova explosions or mass loss from early-type stars can propagate freely through space and eventually transfer a large amount of energy to the medium. To create the coronal temperatures, the shocks must have velocities in excess of 150 km/sec; shocks at somewhat lower velocity 9v or = 100 km/sec) can be directly observed in the lines of Si3. Observations of other lines in the ultraviolet, such as Si 4V and C 5, may highlight the widespread presence of energetic uv radiation from very hot, dward stars. More advanced techniques in visible and X-ray astronomical spectroscopy may open up for inspection selected lines from atoms in much higher stages of ionization.

  20. Ionizing radiation exposure of LDEF (pre-recovery estimates)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Heinrich, W.; Parnell, T. A.; Armstrong, T. W.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fishman, G. J.; Frank, A. L.; Watts, J. W. Jr; Wiegel, B.

    1992-01-01

    The long duration exposure facility (LDEF), launched into a 258 nautical mile orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees, remained in space for nearly 6 yr. The 21,500 lb NASA satellite was one of the largest payloads ever deployed by the Space Shuttle. LDEF completed 32,422 orbits and carried 57 major experiments representing more than 200 investigators from 33 private companies, 21 universities and nine countries. The experiments covered a wide range of disciplines including basic science, electronics, optics, materials, structures and power and propulsion. A number of the experiments were specifically designed to measure the radiation environment. These experiments are of specific interest, since the LDEF orbit is essentially the same as that of the Space Station Freedom. Consequently, the radiation measurements on LDEF will play a significant role in the design of radiation shielding of the space station. The contributions of the various authors presented here attempt to predict the major aspects of the radiation exposure received by the various LDEF experiments and therefore should be helpful to investigators who are in the process of analyzing experiments which may have been affected by exposure to ionizing radiation. The paper discusses the various types and sources of ionizing radiation including cosmic rays, trapped particles (both protons and electrons) and secondary particles (including neutrons, spallation products and high-LET recoils), as well as doses and LET spectra as a function of shielding. Projections of the induced radioactivity of LDEF are also discussed.

  1. Low-energy electron-impact ionization of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Schow, E.; Hazlett, K.; Childers, J. G.

    2005-12-15

    Normalized doubly differential cross sections for the electron-impact ionization of helium at low energies are presented. The data are taken at the incident electron energies of 26.3, 28.3, 30.3, 32.5, 34.3, 36.5, and 40.7 eV and for scattering angles of 10 deg. -130 deg. The measurements involve the use of the moveable target method developed at California State University Fullerton to accurately determine the continuum background in the energy-loss spectra. Normalization of experimental data is made on a relative scale to well-established experimental differential cross sections for excitation of the n=2 manifold of helium and then on an absolute scalemore » to the well-established total ionization cross sections of Shah et al. [J. Phys. B 21, 2751 (1988)]. Comparisons are made with available experimental data and the results of the convergent close-coupling theory.« less

  2. Ionized gas clouds near the Sagittarius Arm tangent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Li-Gang; Dong, Jian; Gao, Xu-Yang; Han, Jin-Lin

    2017-04-01

    Radio recombination lines (RRLs) are the best tracers of ionized gas. Simultaneous observations of multi-transitions of RRLs can significantly improve survey sensitivity. We conducted pilot RRL observations near the Sagittarius Arm tangent by using the 65-m Shanghai Tian Ma Radio Telescope (TMRT) equipped with broadband feeds and a digital backend. Six hydrogen RRLs (H96 α - H101α) at C band (6289 MHz-7319 MHz) were observed simultaneously toward a sky area of 2° × 1.2° by using on-the-fly mapping mode. These transitions were then stacked together for detection of ionized gas. Star forming complexes G48.6+0.1 and G49.5-0.3 were detected in the integrated intensity map. We found agreements between our measured centroid velocities and previous results for the 21 known HII regions in the mapped area. For more than 80 cataloged HII region candidates without previous RRL measurements, we obtained new RRL spectra at 30 targeted positions. In addition, we detected 25 new discrete RRL sources with spectral S/N > 5 σ, and they were not listed in the catalogs of previously known HII regions. The distances for 44 out of these 55 new RRL sources were estimated.

  3. Electron Impact K-shell Ionization of Atomic Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Bidhan; Basak, Arun K.; Alfaz Uddin, M.; Patoary, A. A. R.

    2008-05-01

    In spite of considerable progress -both theoretically and experimentally- recently in evaluating accurate K-shell ionization cross sections that play a decisive role for quantitative analyses using (i) electron probe microanalysis, (ii) Auger electron spectroscopy and (iii) electron energy loss spectra, attempts are still continuing to search for a model that can easily generate reliable cross sections for a wide range of energies and for various targets needed for plasma modeling code We report few modifications of the widely used binary encounter approximation (BEA) [1,2] and have tested by evaluating the electron impact K-shell ionization of few neutral targets at various projectile energies. Details will be presented at the meeting. [1] M. Gryziniski, Phys. Rev. A 138, 336 (1965); [2] L. Vriens, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 89, 13, (1966). [3M. A. Uddin , A. K. F. Haque, M. M. Billah, A. K. Basak, K, R, Karim and B. C. Saha, ,Phys. Rev. A 71,032715 (2005); [4] M. A. Uddin, A. K. Basak, and B. C. Saha, Int. J. Quan. Chem 100, 184 (2004).

  4. Fast Ionized X-Ray Absorbers in AGNs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumura, K.; Tombesi, F.; Kazanas, D.; Shrader, C.; Behar, E.; Contopoulos, I.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the physics of the X-ray ionized absorbers often identified as warm absorbers (WAs) and ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in Seyfert AGNs from spectroscopic studies in the context of magnetically-driven accretion-disk wind scenario. Launched and accelerated by the action of a global magnetic field anchored to an underlying accretion disk around a black hole, outflowing plasma is irradiated and ionized by an AGN radiation field characterized by its spectral energy density (SED). By numerically solving the Grad-Shafranov equation in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework, the physical property of the magnetized disk-wind is determined by a wind parameter set, which is then incorporated into radiative transfer calculations with xstar photoionization code under heating-cooling equilibrium state to compute the absorber's properties such as column density N(sub H), line-of-sight (LoS) velocity v, ionization parameter xi, among others. Assuming that the wind density scales as n varies as r(exp. -1), we calculate theoretical absorption measure distribution (AMD) for various ions seen in AGNs as well as line spectra especially for the Fe K alpha absorption feature by focusing on a bright quasar PG 1211+143 as a case study and show the model's plausibility. In this note we demonstrate that the proposed MHD-driven disk-wind scenario is not only consistent with the observed X-ray data, but also help better constrain the underlying nature of the AGN environment in a close proximity to a central engine.

  5. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOEpatents

    Steinkraus, R.F. Jr.

    1994-12-13

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current. 6 figures.

  6. Irreversible Processes in Ionized Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Balescu, R.

    1960-01-01

    The general theory of irreversible processes, developed by Prigogine and Balescu, is applied to the case of long range interactions in ionized gases. A similar diagram technique permits the systematic selection of all the contributions to the evolution of the distribution function, a an order of approximation equivalent to Debye's equilibrium theory. The infinite series which appear in this way can be summed exactly. The resulting evolution equations have a clear physical significance: they describe interactions of "quasi particles," which are electrons or ions "dressed" by their polarization clouds. These clouds are not a permanent feature, as in equilibrium theory,more » but have a nonequilibrium, changing shape, distorted by the motions of the particles. From the mathematical point of view, these equations exhibit a new type of nonlinearity, which is very directly related to the collective nature of the interactions.« less

  7. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOEpatents

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current.

  8. Blind extraction of exoplanetary spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing spectroscopy enabled characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Transmission and emission spectra of tens of transiting exoplanets have been measured with multiple instruments aboard Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes as well as ground-based facilities, revealing the presence of atomic, ionic and molecular species in their atmospheres, and constraining their temperature and pressure profiles.Early analyses were somehow heuristic both in measuring the spectra and in their interpretation, leading to some controversies in the literature.A photometric precision of 0.01% is necessary to detect the atmospheric spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve this precision. Data reduction is necessary to minimize the effect of instrument systematics in order to achieve the target precision. In the past, parametric models have extensively been used by most teams to remove correlated noise with the aid of auxiliary information of the instrument, the so-called optical state vectors (OSVs). Such OSVs can include inter- and intra-pixel position of the star or its spectrum, instrument temperatures and inclinations, and/or other parameters. In some cases, different parameterizations led to discrepant results.We recommend the use of blind non-parametric data detrending techniques to overcome those issues. In particular, we adopt Independent Component Analysis (ICA), i.e. a blind source separation (BSS) technique to disentangle the multiple instrument systematics and astrophysical signals in transit/eclipse light curves. ICA does not require a model for the systematics, and for this reason, it can be applied to any instrument with little changes, if any. ICA-based algorithms have been applied to Spitzer/IRAC and synthetic observations in photometry (Morello et al. 2014, 2015, 2016; Morello 2015) and to Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRS in spectroscopy (Waldmann 2012, 2014, Waldmann et al. 2013

  9. Miniature Oxidizer Ionizer for a Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank

    2006-01-01

    A proposed miniature device for ionizing the oxygen (or other oxidizing gas) in a fuel cell would consist mostly of a membrane ionizer using the same principles as those of the device described in the earlier article, Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster (NPO-21057). The oxidizing gas would be completely ionized upon passage through the holes in the membrane ionizer. The resulting positively charged atoms or molecules of oxidizing gas could then, under the influence of the fringe fields of the ionizer, move toward the fuel-cell cathode that would be part of a membrane/electrode assembly comprising the cathode, a solid-electrolyte membrane, and an anode. The electro-oxidized state of the oxidizer atoms and molecules would enhance transfer of them through the cathode, thereby reducing the partial pressure of the oxidizer gas between the ionizer and the fuel-cell cathode, thereby, in turn, causing further inflow of oxidizer gas through the holes in the membrane ionizer. Optionally the ionizer could be maintained at a positive electric potential with respect to the cathode, in which case the resulting electric field would accelerate the ions toward the cathode.

  10. Forensic applications of ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ifa, Demian R; Jackson, Ayanna U; Paglia, Giuseppe; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-08-01

    This review highlights and critically assesses forensic applications in the developing field of ambient ionization mass spectrometry. Ambient ionization methods permit the ionization of samples outside the mass spectrometer in the ordinary atmosphere, with minimal sample preparation. Several ambient ionization methods have been created since 2004 and they utilize different mechanisms to create ions for mass-spectrometric analysis. Forensic applications of these techniques--to the analysis of toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, illicit drugs and formulations, explosives, foodstuff, inks, fingerprints, and skin--are reviewed. The minimal sample pretreatment needed is illustrated with examples of analysis from complex matrices (e.g., food) on various substrates (e.g., paper). The low limits of detection achieved by most of the ambient ionization methods for compounds of forensic interest readily offer qualitative confirmation of chemical identity; in some cases quantitative data are also available. The forensic applications of ambient ionization methods are a growing research field and there are still many types of applications which remain to be explored, particularly those involving on-site analysis. Aspects of ambient ionization currently undergoing rapid development include molecular imaging and increased detection specificity through simultaneous chemical reaction and ionization by addition of appropriate chemical reagents.

  11. A Versatile Integrated Ambient Ionization Source Platform.

    PubMed

    Ai, Wanpeng; Nie, Honggang; Song, Shiyao; Liu, Xiaoyun; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-04-30

    The pursuit of high-throughput sample analysis from complex matrix demands development of multiple ionization techniques with complementary specialties. A versatile integrated ambient ionization source (iAmIS) platform is proposed in this work, based on the idea of integrating multiple functions, enhancing the efficiency of current ionization techniques, extending the applications, and decreasing the cost of the instrument. The design of the iAmIS platform combines flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source/direct analysis in real time (DART), dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI)/low-temperature plasma (LTP), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and laser desorption (LD) technique. All individual and combined ionization modes can be easily attained by modulating parameters. In particular, the FAPA/DART&DESI mode can realize the detection of polar and nonpolar compounds at the same time with two different ionization mechanisms: proton transfer and charge transfer. The introduction of LD contributes to the mass spectrometry imaging and the surface-assisted laser desorption (SALDI) under ambient condition. Compared with other individual or multi-mode ion source, the iAmIS platform provides the flexibility of choosing different ionization modes, broadens the scope of the analyte detection, and facilitates the analysis of complex samples. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  12. Ultrafast Electron Plasma Index: An Ionization Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-29

    picture in mind, the derivation of the index was a combination of the principle of least action and Fermat’s principle. In the current textbook ...multiphoton ionization. Phys Rev Lett 71: 1994-1997. 27. Ivanov MY, Spanner M, Smirnova O (2005) Anatomy of strong field ionization. J. Mod.Phys 52

  13. Impact Ionization: Beyond the Golden Rule

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    3]. Hence, the use electronic kinetic energy, H. is the phonon bath Hamil- of Monte Carlo methods combined with density matrix tonian, HA, is the...0 o5 () Wace i.a (bN w...,,,ae (W ( Ib) k- Figure 2. (a) Ionization rate in the 1 11 > direction. Figure 3. (a) Equal ionization rate curves in the k

  14. A Versatile Integrated Ambient Ionization Source Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Wanpeng; Nie, Honggang; Song, Shiyao; Liu, Xiaoyun; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-04-01

    The pursuit of high-throughput sample analysis from complex matrix demands development of multiple ionization techniques with complementary specialties. A versatile integrated ambient ionization source (iAmIS) platform is proposed in this work, based on the idea of integrating multiple functions, enhancing the efficiency of current ionization techniques, extending the applications, and decreasing the cost of the instrument. The design of the iAmIS platform combines flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source/direct analysis in real time (DART), dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI)/low-temperature plasma (LTP), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and laser desorption (LD) technique. All individual and combined ionization modes can be easily attained by modulating parameters. In particular, the FAPA/DART&DESI mode can realize the detection of polar and nonpolar compounds at the same time with two different ionization mechanisms: proton transfer and charge transfer. The introduction of LD contributes to the mass spectrometry imaging and the surface-assisted laser desorption (SALDI) under ambient condition. Compared with other individual or multi-mode ion source, the iAmIS platform provides the flexibility of choosing different ionization modes, broadens the scope of the analyte detection, and facilitates the analysis of complex samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Determination of the optical absorption spectra of thin layers from their photoacoustic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychto, Leszek; Maliński, Mirosław; Patryn, Aleksy; Tivanov, Mikhail; Gremenok, Valery

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computations of the optical absorption coefficient spectra from the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra of thin semiconductor samples deposited on the optically transparent and thermally thick substrates. This method was tested on CuIn(Te0.7Se0.3)2 thin films. From the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed with the new formula as also with the numerical iterative method. From these spectra, the value of the energy gap of the thin film material and the type of the optical transitions were determined. From the experimental optical transmission spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed too, and compared with the optical absorption coefficient spectra obtained from photoacoustic spectra.

  16. Bystander Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Little, John B.

    The objectives of this grant renewal are to provide administrative support and travel funds to allow the continued participation of the principal investigator (Dr. John B. Little) as an advisor to research initiated by several research fellows from his laboratory. The actual research will be carried out under the direction of Dr. Hatsumi Nagasawa with the collaboration of Dr. Joel Bedford at the Colorado State University, and by Drs. Edouard Azzam and Sonia de Toledo at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Dr. Little will advise on the planning of experiments and development of experimental protocols, themore » analysis of data, and the preparation of manuscripts for publication. The Specific Aims for several of the planned experiments include: 1) to extend studies of the role of recombinational repair in the bystander effect by examining other genes in this pathway and cell lines deficient in excision repair; 2) to continue studies to determine the nature of the damage signal transmitted to bystander cells including the expression of several connexins in the bystander response, and the extent to which the enhanced oxidative metabolism observed in bystander cells may relate to the nature of the transmitted bystander signal; 3) to utilize a genome-wide approach to examine the genetic basis for the hypersensitivity to ionization we have observed in unaffected parents of patients with hereditary retinoblastoma, as well as from a group of apparently normal individuals that show similar radiosensitivity; 4) to complete studies concerning the induction of high frequencies of cells with massive chromosome damage in clonal derivatives of p53 and p21 knockout mouse cell lines; in particular to examine the role of telomere changes in this phenomenon. Overall, the results of these studies should enhance our understanding of the risk of low-dose exposures to ionizing radiation, including human populations to residential radon as well as occupational

  17. Reflection spectra of solids of planetary interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, G. T.

    1973-01-01

    The spectra of solids are reproduced which might be found on the surfaces of planetary bodies or as solid condensates in the upper planetary atmosphere. Among these are spectra of various iron compounds of interest in the study of the clouds of Venus. Other spectra are included of various sulfides, some at low temperature, relevant to the planet Jupiter. Meteorite and coal abstracts are also included, to illustrate dark carbon compounds.

  18. Experimental optimization of directed field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhimin Cheryl; Gregoric, Vincent C.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2017-04-01

    The state distribution of an ensemble of Rydberg atoms is commonly measured using selective field ionization. The resulting time resolved ionization signal from a single energy eigenstate tends to spread out due to the multiple avoided Stark level crossings atoms must traverse on the way to ionization. The shape of the ionization signal can be modified by adding a perturbation field to the main field ramp. Here, we present experimental results of the manipulation of the ionization signal using a genetic algorithm. We address how both the genetic algorithm and the experimental parameters were adjusted to achieve an optimized result. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1607335 and No. 1607377.

  19. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  20. Energy spectra of quantum rings.

    PubMed

    Fuhrer, A; Lüscher, S; Ihn, T; Heinzel, T; Ensslin, K; Wegscheider, W; Bichler, M

    2001-10-25

    Quantum mechanical experiments in ring geometries have long fascinated physicists. Open rings connected to leads, for example, allow the observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the best examples of quantum mechanical phase coherence. The phase coherence of electrons travelling through a quantum dot embedded in one arm of an open ring has also been demonstrated. The energy spectra of closed rings have only recently been studied by optical spectroscopy. The prediction that they allow persistent current has been explored in various experiments. Here we report magnetotransport experiments on closed rings in the Coulomb blockade regime. Our experiments show that a microscopic understanding of energy levels, so far limited to few-electron quantum dots, can be extended to a many-electron system. A semiclassical interpretation of our results indicates that electron motion in the rings is governed by regular rather than chaotic motion, an unexplored regime in many-electron quantum dots. This opens a way to experiments where even more complex structures can be investigated at a quantum mechanical level.

  1. Near infrared Raman spectra of Rhizoma dioscoreae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenshuo; Chen, Rong; Chen, Guannan; Feng, Sangyuan; Li, Yongzeng; Huang, Zufang; Li, Yongsen

    2008-03-01

    A novel and compact near-infrared (NIR) Raman system is developed using 785-nm diode laser, volume-phase technology holographic system, and NIR intensified charge-coupled device (CCD). Raman spectra and first derivative spectra of Rhizoma Dioscoreae are obtained. Raman spectra of Rhizoma Dioscoreae showed three strong characteristic peaks at 477.4cm -1, 863.9cm -1, and 936.0cm -1. The major ingredients are protein, amino acid, starch, polysaccharides and so on, matched with the known basic biochemical composition of Rhizoma Dioscoreae. In the first derivative spectra of Rhizoma Dioscoreae, distinguishing characteristic peaks appeared at 467.674cm -1, 484.603cm -1, 870.37cm -1, 943.368cm -1. Contrasted with Rhizoma Dioscoreae Raman spectra, in 600cm -1 to 800cm -1, 1000cm -1 to 1400cm -1 regions, changes in Rhizoma Dioscoreae Raman first derivative spectra are represented more clearly than Rhizoma Dioscoreae Raman spectra. So Rhizoma Dioscoreae raman first derivative spectra can be an accurate supplementary analysis method to Rhizoma Dioscoreae Raman spectra.

  2. Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon microcolumn arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Luo, Guanghong; Diao, Jiajie; Chornoguz, Olesya; Reeves, Mark; Vertes, Akos

    2007-04-01

    Due to their optical properties and morphology, thin films formed of nanoparticles are potentially new platforms for soft laser desorption/ionization (SLDI) mass spectrometry. Thin films of gold nanoparticles (with 12±1 nm particle size) were prepared by evaporation-driven vertical colloidal deposition and used to analyze a series of directly deposited polypeptide samples. In this new SLDI method, the required laser fluence for ion detection was equal or less than what was needed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) but the resulting spectra were free of matrix interferences. A silicon microcolumn array-based substrate (a.k.a. black silicon) was developed as a new matrix-free laser desorption ionization surface. When low-resistivity silicon wafers were processed with a 22 ps pulse length 3×ω Nd:YAG laser in air, SF6 or water environment, regularly arranged conical spikes emerged. The radii of the spike tips varied with the processing environment, ranging from approximately 500 nm in water, to ~2 µm in SF6 gas and to ~5 µm in air. Peptide mass spectra directly induced by a nitrogen laser showed the formation of protonated ions of angiotensin I and II, substance P, bradykinin fragment 1-7, synthetic peptide, pro14-arg, and insulin from the processed silicon surfaces but not from the unprocessed areas. Threshold fluences for desorption/ionization were similar to those used in MALDI. Although compared to silicon nanowires the threshold laser pulse energy for ionization is significantly (~10×) higher, the ease of production and robustness of microcolumn arrays offer complementary benefits.

  3. Electronic structure of neutral and singly ionized curium

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, E.F.; Conway, J.G.; Blaise, J.

    1985-02-01

    Extensive observations and analyses of the emission spectra of neutral and singly ionized curium, Cm I and Cm II, have resulted in the determination of 785 Cm I and 598 Cm II energy levels. These levels then combine to classify 9145 of the more than 14,250 lines of /sup 244/Cm observed between 240 and 2650 nm. Most of the levels have Lande g-values from Zeeman effect data and isotope shifts trom measurements of spectra from sources with various enrichments of /sup 244/Cm, /sup 245/Cm, /sup 246/Cm, and /sup 248/Cm. These data allowed many levels to be assigned to specific electronicmore » configurations. The ground configurations of Cm I and Cm II are (Rn) 5f/sup 7/6d7s/sup 2/ and (Rn) 5f/sup 7/7s/sup 2/, respectively. The realtive energies of other electronic configurations of Cm are given and compared with analogous configurations in other actinides and in Gd its lanthanide analogue. 2 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  4. Assessment of electron propagator methods for the simulation of vibrationally-resolved valence and core photoionization spectra

    PubMed Central

    Baiardi, A.; Paoloni, L.; Barone, V.; Zakrzewski, V.G.; Ortiz, J.V.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of photoelectron spectra is usually facilitated by quantum mechanical simulations. Due to the recent improvement of experimental techniques, the resolution of experimental spectra is rapidly increasing, and the inclusion of vibrational effects is usually mandatory to obtain a reliable reproduction of the spectra. With the aim of defining a robust computational protocol, a general time-independent formulation to compute different kinds of vibrationally-resolved electronic spectra has been generalized to support also photoelectron spectroscopy. The electronic structure data underlying the simulation are computed using different electron propagator approaches. In addition to the more standard approaches, a new and robust implementation of the second-order self-energy approximation of the electron propagator based on a transition operator reference (TOEP2) is presented. To validate our implementation, a series of molecules has been used as test cases. The result of the simulations shows that, for ultraviolet photoionization spectra, the more accurate non-diagonal approaches are needed to obtain a reliable reproduction of vertical ionization energies, but diagonal approaches are sufficient for energy gradients and pole strengths. For X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the TOEP2 approach, besides being more efficient, is also the most accurate in the reproduction of both vertical ionization energies and vibrationally-resolved bandshapes. PMID:28521087

  5. Dynamical and Radiative Properties of X-Ray Pulsar Accretion Columns: Phase-averaged Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Brent F.; Wolfram, Kenneth D.; Becker, Peter A.

    2017-02-01

    The availability of the unprecedented spectral resolution provided by modern X-ray observatories is opening up new areas for study involving the coupled formation of the continuum emission and the cyclotron absorption features in accretion-powered X-ray pulsar spectra. Previous research focusing on the dynamics and the associated formation of the observed spectra has largely been confined to the single-fluid model, in which the super-Eddington luminosity inside the column decelerates the flow to rest at the stellar surface, while the dynamical effect of gas pressure is ignored. In a companion paper, we have presented a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic structure of the accretion column obtained using a new self-consistent model that includes the effects of both gas and radiation pressures. In this paper, we explore the formation of the associated X-ray spectra using a rigorous photon transport equation that is consistent with the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic structure of the column. We use the new model to obtain phase-averaged spectra and partially occulted spectra for Her X-1, Cen X-3, and LMC X-4. We also use the new model to constrain the emission geometry, and compare the resulting parameters with those obtained using previously published models. Our model sheds new light on the structure of the column, the relationship between the ionized gas and the photons, the competition between diffusive and advective transport, and the magnitude of the energy-averaged cyclotron scattering cross-section.

  6. Energy Spectra of Abundant Cosmic-ray Nuclei in Sources, According to the ATIC Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Panov, A. D.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Zatsepin, V. I., E-mail: panov@dec1.sinp.msu.ru

    One of the main results of the ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) experiment is a collection of energy spectra of abundant cosmic-ray nuclei: protons, He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe measured in terms of energy per particle in the energy range from 50 GeV to tens of teraelectronvolts. In this paper, the ATIC energy spectra of abundant primary nuclei are back-propagated to the spectra in sources in terms of magnetic rigidity using a leaky-box approximation of three different GALPROP-based diffusion models of propagation that fit the latest B/C data of the AMS-02 experiment. It is shown that themore » results of a comparison of the slopes of the spectra in sources are weakly model dependent; therefore the differences of spectral indices are reliable data. A regular growth of the steepness of spectra in sources in the range of magnetic rigidity of 50–1350 GV is found for a charge range from helium to iron. This conclusion is statistically reliable with significance better than 3.2 standard deviations. The results are discussed and compared to the data of other modern experiments.« less

  7. Laser resonance ionization spectroscopy of antimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Lassen, J.; Ruczkowski, J.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Bricault, P.

    2017-02-01

    The resonant ionization laser ion source is an element selective, efficient and versatile ion source to generate radioactive ion beams at on-line mass separator facilities. For some elements with complex atomic structures and incomplete spectroscopic data, laser spectroscopic investigations are required for ionization scheme development. Laser resonance ionization spectroscopy using Ti:Sa lasers has been performed on antimony (Sb) at TRIUMF's off-line laser ion source test stand. Laser light of 230.217 nm (vacuum wavelength) as the first excitation step and light from a frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 laser (532 nm) as the nonresonant ionization step allowed to search for suitable second excitation steps by continuous wavelength scans from 720 nm to 920 nm across the wavelength tuning range of a grating-tuned Ti:Sa laser. Upon the identification of efficient SES, the third excitation steps for resonance ionization were investigated by laser scans across Rydberg states, the ionization potential and autoionizing states. One Rydberg state and six AI states were found to be well suitable for efficient resonance ionization.

  8. Tunneling Spectra of a Quasifreestanding Graphene Monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-Yu; Bai, Ke-Ke; Zuo, Wei-Jie; Liu, Yi-Wen; Fu, Zhong-Qiu; Wang, Wen-Xiao; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Long-Jing; Qiao, Jia-Bin; He, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Considering the great success of scanning-tunneling-microscopy (STM) studies of graphene in the past ten years, it is quite surprising to notice that there is still a fundamental contradiction in the reported tunneling spectra of the quasifreestanding graphene monolayer. Many groups observed "V -shaped" spectra with linearly vanishing density of states at the Dirac point, whereas others reported spectra with a gap of ±60 meV pinned to the Fermi level in the quasifreestanding graphene monolayer. Here, we systematically study the two contradicting tunneling spectra of the quasifreestanding graphene monolayer on various substrates in the presence of different magnetic fields and demonstrate that both spectra are the "correct" spectra. However, the V -shaped spectrum exhibits only the contribution of the low-energy Dirac fermions, whereas the gapped spectrum is contributed by both the low-energy Dirac fermions and the high-energy nearly free-electron states due to the existence of the inelastic tunneling process. Our results indicate that interaction with substrates plays a vital role in affecting the spectra of graphene. We also show that it is possible to switch the tunneling spectra between the two distinct features at the nanoscale through voltage pulses applied to the STM tip.

  9. Infrared spectroscopy of ionized corannulene in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Alvaro Galué, Héctor; Rice, Corey A; Steill, Jeffrey D; Oomens, Jos

    2011-02-07

    The gas-phase infrared spectra of radical cationic and protonated corannulene were recorded by infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy using the IR free electron laser for infrared experiments. Electrospray ionization was used to generate protonated corannulene and an IRMPD spectrum was recorded in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer monitoring H-loss as a function of IR frequency. The radical cation was produced by 193-nm UV photoionization of the vapor of corannulene in a 3D quadrupole trap and IR irradiation produces H, H(2), and C(2)H(x) losses. Summing the spectral response of the three fragmentation channels yields the IRMPD spectrum of the radical cation. The spectra were analyzed with the aid of quantum-chemical calculations carried out at various levels of theory. The good agreement of theoretical and experimental spectra for protonated corannulene indicates that protonation occurs on one of the peripheral C-atoms, forming an sp(3) hybridized carbon. The spectrum of the radical cation was examined taking into account distortions of the C(5v) geometry induced by the Jahn-Teller effect as a consequence of the degenerate (2)E(1) ground electronic state. As indicated by the calculations, the five equivalent C(s) minima are separated by marginal barriers, giving rise to a dynamically distorted system. Although in general the character of the various computed vibrational bands appears to be in order, only a qualitative match to the experimental spectrum is found. Along with a general redshift of the calculated frequencies, the IR intensities of modes in the 1000-1250 cm(-1) region show the largest discrepancy with the harmonic predictions. In addition to CH "in-plane" bending vibrations, these modes also exhibit substantial deformation of the pentagonal inner ring, which may relate directly to the vibronic interaction in the radical cation.

  10. Status of LDEF ionizing radiation measurements and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    At this symposium significant new data and analyses were reported in cosmic ray research, radiation dosimetry, induced radioactivity, and radiation environment modeling. Measurements of induced radioactivity and absorbed dose are nearly complete, but much analysis and modeling remains. Measurements and analyses of passive nuclear track detectors (PNTD), used to derive the cosmic ray composition and spectra, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, are only a few percent complete, but important results have already emerged. As one might expect at this stage of the research, some of the new information has produced questions rather than answers. Low-energy heavy nuclei detected by two experiments are not compatible with known solar or cosmic components. Various data sets on absorbed dose are not consistent, and a new trapped proton environment model does not match the absorbed dose data. A search for cosmogenic nuclei other than Be-7 on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) surfaces has produced an unexpected result, and some activation data relating to neutrons is not yet understood. Most of these issues will be resolved by the analysis of further experiment data, calibrations, or the application of the large LDEF data set that offers alternate data or analysis techniques bearing on the same problem. The scope of the papers at this symposium defy a compact technical summary. I have attempted to group the new information that I noted into the following groups: induced radioactivity; absorbed dose measurements; LET spectra and heavy ion dosimetry; environment modeling and three dimensional shielding effects; cosmogenic nuclei; and cosmic rays and other heavy ions. The papers generally are expository and have excellent illustrations, and I refer to their figures rather than reproduce them here. The general program and objectives of ionizing radiation measurements and analyses on LDEF has been described previously.

  11. Validity of abundances derived from spaxel spectra of the MaNGA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Zinchenko, I. A.; Nefedyev, Y. A.; Shulga, V. M.; Wei, H.; Berczik, P. P.

    2018-05-01

    We measured the emission lines in the spaxel spectra of Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) galaxies in order to determine the abundance distributions therein. It has been suggested that the strength of the low-ionization lines, R2, N2, and S2, may be increased (relative to Balmer lines) in (some) spaxel spectra of the MaNGA survey due to a contribution of the radiation of the diffuse ionized gas. Consequently, the abundances derived from the spaxel spectra through strong-line methods may suffer from large errors. We examined this expectation by comparing the behaviour of the line intensities and the abundances estimated through different calibrations for slit spectra of H II regions in nearby galaxies, for fibre spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and for spaxel spectra of the MaNGA survey. We found that the S2 strength is increased significantly in the fibre and spaxel spectra. The mean enhancement changes with metallicity and can be as large as a factor of 2. The mean distortion of R2 and N2 is less than a factor of 1.3. This suggests that Kaufmann et al.'s (2003, MNRAS, 346, 1055) demarcation line between active galactic nuclei and H II regions in the Baldwin, Phillips, & Terlevich (BPT, 1981, PASP, 93, 5) diagram is a useful criterion to reject spectra with significantly distorted strengths of the N2 and R2 lines. We find that the three-dimensional R calibration, which uses the N2 and R2 lines, produces reliable abundances in the MaNGA galaxies. The one-dimensional N2 calibration produces either reliable or wrong abundances depending on whether excitation and N/O abundance ratio in the target region (spaxel) are close to or differ from those parameters in the calibrating points located close to the calibration relation. We then determined abundance distributions within the optical radii in the discs of 47 MaNGA galaxies. The optical radii of the galaxies were estimated from the surface brightness profiles constructed based on the

  12. K-line spectra from tungsten heated by an intense pulsed electron beam.

    PubMed

    Pereira, N R; Weber, B V; Apruzese, J P; Mosher, D; Schumer, J W; Seely, J F; Szabo, C I; Boyer, C N; Stephanakis, S J; Hudson, L T

    2010-10-01

    The plasma-filled rod-pinch diode (PFRP) is an intense source of x-rays ideal for radiography of dense objects. In the PRFP megavoltage electrons from a pulsed discharge concentrate at the pointed end of a 1 mm diameter tapered tungsten rod. Ionization of this plasma might increase the energy of tungsten's Kα(1) fluorescence line, at 59.3182 keV, enough for the difference to be observed by a high-resolution Cauchois transmission crystal spectrograph. When the PFRP's intense hard bremsstrahlung is suppressed by the proper shielding, such an instrument gives excellent fluorescence spectra, albeit with as yet insufficient resolution to see any effect of tungsten's ionization. Higher resolution is possible with various straightforward upgrades that are feasible thanks to the radiation's high intensity.

  13. Identification of Microalgae by Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Multiple Nanomatrices.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lung-Hsiang; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Shih, Chi-Yu; Hsiung, Tung-Ming; Chang, Jeng; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Chiu, Tai-Chia; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a simple method to identify microalgae by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using three different substrates: HgSe, HgTe, and HgTeSe nanostructures. The fragmentation/ionization processes of complex molecules in algae varied according to the heat absorption and transfer efficiency of the nanostructured matrices (NMs). Therefore, the mass spectra obtained for microalgae showed different patterns of m/z values for different NMs. The spectra contained both significant and nonsignificant peaks. Constructing a Venn diagram with the significant peaks obtained for algae when using HgSe, HgTe, and HgTeSe NMs in m/z ratio range 100-1000, a unique relationship among the three sets of values was obtained. This unique relationship of sets is different for each species of microalgae. Therefore, by observing the particular relationship of sets, we successfully identified different algae such as Isochrysis galbana, Emiliania huxleyi, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Nannochloris sp., Skeletonema cf. costatum, and Tetraselmis chui. This simple and cost-effective SALDI-MS analysis method coupled with multi-nanomaterials as substrates may be extended to identify other microalgae and microorganisms in real samples. Graphical Abstract Identification of microalgae by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry coupled with three different mercury-based nanosubstrates.

  14. Real-time breath analysis with active capillary plasma ionization-ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bregy, Lukas; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Nudnova, Maryia M; Zenobi, Renato

    2014-06-01

    On-line analysis of exhaled human breath is a growing area in analytical science, for applications such as fast and non-invasive medical diagnosis and monitoring. In this work, we present a novel approach based on ambient ionization of compounds in breath and subsequent real-time mass spectrometric analysis. We introduce a plasma ionization source for this purpose, which has no need for additional gases, is very small, and is easily interfaced with virtually any commercial atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (API-MS) without major modifications. If an API-MS instrument exists in a laboratory, the cost to implement this technology is only around [Formula: see text]500, far less than the investment for a specialized mass spectrometric system designed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis. In this proof-of-principle study we were able to measure mass spectra of exhaled human breath and found these to be comparable to spectra obtained with other electrospray-based methods. We detected over 100 VOCs, including relevant metabolites like fatty acids, with molecular weights extending up to 340 Da. In addition, we were able to monitor the time-dependent evolution of the peaks and show the enhancement of the metabolism after a meal. We conclude that this approach may complement current methods to analyze breath or other types of vapors, offering an affordable option to upgrade any pre-existing API-MS to a real-time breath analyzer.

  15. Measurements of ionization states in warm dense aluminum with betatron radiation

    DOE PAGES

    Mo, M. Z.; Chen, Z.; Fourmaux, S.; ...

    2017-05-19

    Time-resolved measurements of the ionization states of warm dense aluminum via K-shell absorption spectroscopy are demonstrated using betatron radiation generated from laser wakefield acceleration as a probe. The warm dense aluminum is generated by irradiating a free-standing nanofoil with a femtosecond optical laser pulse and was heated to an electron temperature of ~20–25 eV at a close-to-solid mass density. Absorption dips in the transmitted x-ray spectrum due to the Al 4+ and Al 5+ ions are clearly seen during the experiments. The measured absorption spectra are compared to simulations with various ionization potential depression models, including the commonly used Stewart-Pyattmore » model and an alternative modified Ecker-Kröll model. Furthermore, the observed absorption spectra are in approximate agreement with these models, though indicating a slightly higher state of ionization and closer agreement for simulations with the modified Ecker-Kröll model.« less

  16. Measurements of ionization states in warm dense aluminum with betatron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, M. Z.; Chen, Z.; Fourmaux, S.

    Time-resolved measurements of the ionization states of warm dense aluminum via K-shell absorption spectroscopy are demonstrated using betatron radiation generated from laser wakefield acceleration as a probe. The warm dense aluminum is generated by irradiating a free-standing nanofoil with a femtosecond optical laser pulse and was heated to an electron temperature of ~20–25 eV at a close-to-solid mass density. Absorption dips in the transmitted x-ray spectrum due to the Al 4+ and Al 5+ ions are clearly seen during the experiments. The measured absorption spectra are compared to simulations with various ionization potential depression models, including the commonly used Stewart-Pyattmore » model and an alternative modified Ecker-Kröll model. Furthermore, the observed absorption spectra are in approximate agreement with these models, though indicating a slightly higher state of ionization and closer agreement for simulations with the modified Ecker-Kröll model.« less

  17. Characterization of reticulated vitreous carbon foam using a frisch-grid parallel-plate ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Nathaniel S.; Conley, Jerrod C.; Reichenberger, Michael A.; Nelson, Kyle A.; Tiner, Christopher N.; Hinson, Niklas J.; Ugorowski, Philip B.; Fronk, Ryan G.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2018-06-01

    The propagation of electrons through several linear pore densities of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foam was studied using a Frisch-grid parallel-plate ionization chamber pressurized to 1 psig of P-10 proportional gas. The operating voltages of the electrodes contained within the Frisch-grid parallel-plate ionization chamber were defined by measuring counting curves using a collimated 241Am alpha-particle source with and without a Frisch grid. RVC foam samples with linear pore densities of 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 80, and 100 pores per linear inch were separately positioned between the cathode and anode. Pulse-height spectra and count rates from a collimated 241Am alpha-particle source positioned between the cathode and each RVC foam sample were measured and compared to a measurement without an RVC foam sample. The Frisch grid was positioned in between the RVC foam sample and the anode. The measured pulse-height spectra were indiscernible from background and resulted in negligible net count rates for all RVC foam samples. The Frisch grid parallel-plate ionization chamber measurement results indicate that electrons do not traverse the bulk of RVC foam and consequently do not produce a pulse.

  18. Re-ionization and decaying dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodelson, Scott; Jubas, Jay M.

    1991-01-01

    Gunn-Peterson tests suggest that the Universe was reionized after the standard recombination epoch. A systematic treatment is presented of the ionization process by deriving the Boltzmann equations appropriate to this regime. A compact solution for the photon spectrum is found in terms of the ionization ratio. These equations are then solved numerically for the Decaying Dark Matter scenario, wherein neutrinos with mass of order 30 eV radiatively decay producing photons which ionize the intergalactic medium. It was found that the neutrino mass and lifetime are severely constrained by Gunn-Peterson tests, observations of the diffuse photon spectrum in the ultraviolet regime, and the Hubble parameter.

  19. Reactions and mass spectra of complex particles using Aerosol CIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, John D.; Smith, Geoffrey D.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is used both on- and off-line for the analysis of complex laboratory-generated and ambient particles. One of the primary advantages of Aerosol CIMS is the low degree of ion fragmentation, making this technique well suited for investigating the reactivity of complex particles. To demonstrate the usefulness of this "soft" ionization, particles generated from meat cooking were reacted with ozone and the composition was monitored as a function of reaction time. Two distinct kinetic regimes were observed with most of the oleic acid in these particles reacting quickly but with 30% appearing to be trapped in the complex mixture. Additionally, detection limits are measured to be sufficiently low (100-200 ng/m3) to detect some of the more abundant constituents in ambient particles, including sulfate, which is measured in real-time at 1.2 [mu]g/m3. To better characterize complex aerosols from a variety of sources, a novel off-line collection method was also developed in which non-volatile and semi-volatile organics are desorbed from particles and concentrated in a cold U-tube. Desorption from the U-tube followed by analysis with Aerosol CIMS revealed significant amounts of nicotine in cigarette smoke and levoglucosan in oak and pine smoke, suggesting that this may be a useful technique for monitoring particle tracer species. Additionally, secondary organic aerosol formed from the reaction of ozone with R-limonene and volatile organics from orange peel were analyzed off-line showing large molecular weight products (m/z > 300 amu) that may indicate the formation of oligomers. Finally, mass spectra of ambient aerosol collected offline reveal a complex mixture of what appears to be highly processed organics, some of which may contain nitrogen.

  20. Ionizing Radiation and the Ear

    SciTech Connect

    Borsanyi, Steven J.

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the ears of 100 patients were studied in the course of treatment of malignant head and neck tumors by teleradiation using Co 60. Early changes consisted of radiation otitis media and a transient vasculitis of the vessels of the inner ear, resulting in hearing loss, tinnitus, and temporary recruitment. While no permanent changes were detected microscopically shortly after the completion of radiation in the cochlea or labyrinth, late changes sometimes occurred in the temporal bone as a result of an obliterating endarteritis. The late changes were separate entities caused primarily by obliterating endarteritis andmore » alterations in the collagen. Radiation affected the hearing of individuals selectively. When hearing threshold shift did occur, the shift was not great. The 4000 cps frequency showed a greater deficit in hearing capacity during the tests, while the area least affected appeared to be in the region of 2000 cps. The shift in speech reception was not significant and it was correlated with the over-all change in response to pure tones. Discrimination did not appear to be affected. Proper shielding of the ear with lead during radiation, when possible, eliminated most complications. (H.R.D.)« less

  1. Ionized Carbon Atoms in Orion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-12

    The dusty side of the Sword of Orion is illuminated in this striking infrared image from the European Space Agency's Hershel Space Observatory. This immense nebula is the closest large region of star formation, situated about 1,500 light years away in the constellation of Orion. The parts that are easily observed in visible light, known alternatively as the Orion Nebula or Messier 42, correspond to the light blue regions. This is the glow from the warmest dust, illuminated by clusters of hot stars that have only recently been born in this chaotic region. The red spine of material running from corner to corner reveals colder, denser filaments of dust and gas that are scattered throughout the Orion nebula. In visible light this would be a dark, opaque feature, hiding the reservoir of material from which stars have recently formed and will continue to form in the future. Herschel data from the PACS instrument observations, at wavelengths of 100 and 160 microns, is displayed in blue and green, respectively, while SPIRE 250-micron data is shown in red. Within the inset image, the emission from ionized carbon atoms (C+), overlaid in yellow, was isolated and mapped out from spectrographic data obtained by the HIFI instrument. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21073

  2. Advanced spectroscopic analysis of 0.8-1.0-MA Mo x pinches and the influence of plasma electron beams on L-shell spectra of Mo ions.

    PubMed

    Shlyaptseva, A S; Hansen, S B; Kantsyrev, V L; Fedin, D A; Ouart, N; Fournier, K B; Safronova, U I

    2003-02-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the temporal, spatial, and spectroscopic properties of L-shell radiation from 0.8 to 1.0 MA Mo x pinches. Time-resolved measurements of x-ray radiation and both time-gated and time-integrated spectra and pinhole images are presented and analyzed. High-current x pinches are found to have complex spatial and temporal structures. A collisional-radiative kinetic model has been developed and used to interpret L-shell Mo spectra. The model includes the ground state of every ionization stage of Mo and detailed structure for the O-, F-, Ne-, Na-, and Mg-like ionization stages. Hot electron beams generated by current-carrying electrons in the x pinch are modeled by a non-Maxwellian electron distribution function and have significant influence on L-shell spectra. The results of 20 Mo x-pinch shots with wire diameters from 24 to 62 microm have been modeled. Overall, the modeled spectra fit the experimental spectra well and indicate for time-integrated spectra electron densities between 2 x 10(21) and 2 x 10(22) cm(-3), electron temperatures between 700 and 850 eV, and hot electron fractions between 3% and 7%. Time-gated spectra exhibit wide variations in temperature and density of plasma hot spots during the same discharge.

  3. The nuclear region of low luminosity flat radio spectrum sources. II. Emission-line spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, A. C.; Serote Roos, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the spectroscopic study of 19 low luminosity Flat Radio Spectrum (LL FRS) sources selected from Marchã's et al. (\\cite{March96}) 200 mJy sample. In the optical, these objects are mainly dominated by the host galaxy starlight. After correcting the data for this effect, we obtain a new set of spectra clearly displaying weak emission lines; such features carry valuable information concerning the excitation mechanisms at work in the nuclear regions of LL FRS sources. We have used a special routine to model the spectra and assess the intensities and velocities of the emission lines; we have analyzed the results in terms of diagnostic diagrams. Our analysis shows that 79% of the studied objects harbour a Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region (or LINER) whose contribution was swamped by the host galaxy starlight. The remaining objects display a higher ionization spectrum, more typical of Seyferts; due to the poor quality of the spectra, it was not possible to identify any possible large Balmer components. The fact that we observe a LINER-type spectrum in LL FRS sources supports the idea that some of these objects could be undergoing an ADAF phase; in addition, such a low ionization emission-line spectrum is in agreement with the black hole mass values and sub-Eddington accretion rates published for some FRS sources. Based on observations collected at the Multiple Mirror Telescope on Mt. Hopkins. Full Fig. 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  4. On the X-ray spectra of luminous, inhomogeneous accretion flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merloni, A.; Malzac, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Ross, R. R.

    2006-08-01

    We discuss the expected X-ray spectral and variability properties of black hole accretion discs at high luminosity, under the hypothesis that radiation-pressure-dominated discs are subject to violent clumping instabilities and, as a result, have a highly inhomogeneous two-phase structure. After deriving the full accretion disc solutions explicitly in terms of the parameters of the model, we study their radiative properties both with a simple two-zone model, treatable analytically, and with radiative transfer simulations which account simultaneously for energy balance and Comptonization in the hot phase, together with reflection, reprocessing, ionization and thermal balance in the cold phase. We show that, if not only the density, but also the heating rate within these flows is inhomogeneous, then complex reflection-dominated spectra can be obtained for a high enough covering fraction of the cold phase. In general, large reflection components in the observed X-ray spectra should be associated with strong soft excesses, resulting from the combined emission of ionized atomic emission lines. The variability properties of such systems are such that, even when contributing to a large fraction of the hard X-ray spectrum, the reflection component is less variable than the power-law-like emission originating from the hot Comptonizing phase, in agreement with what is observed in many Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies and bright Seyfert 1. Our model falls within the family of those trying to explain the complex X-ray spectra of bright AGN with ionized reflection, but presents an alternative, specific, physically motivated, geometrical set-up for the complex multiphase structure of the inner regions of near-Eddington accretion flows.

  5. Non-traditional applications of laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlpin, Casey R.

    protonated free analyte molecules. Expanded applications of MOLI MS were developed following description of the ionization mechanism. A series of experiments were carried out involving treatment of metal oxide surfaces with reagent molecules to expand MOLI MS and develop enhanced MOLI MS methodologies. It was found that treatment of the metal oxide surface with a small molecule to act as a proton source expanded MOLI MS to analytes which did not form acidic adsorbed species. Proton-source pretreated MOLI MS was then used for the analysis of oils obtained from the fast, anoxic pyrolysis of biomass (py-oil). These samples are complex and produce MOLI mass spectra with many peaks. In this experiment, methods of data reduction including Kendrick mass defects and nominal mass z*-scores, which are commonly used for the study of petroleum fractions, were used to interpret these spectra and identify the major constituencies of py-oils. Through data reduction and collision induced dissociation (CID), homologous series of compounds were rapidly identified. The final chapter involves using metal oxides to catalytically cleave the ester linkage on lipids containing fatty acids in addition to ionization. The cleavage process results in the production of spectra similar to those observed with saponification/methylation. Fatty acid profiles were generated for a variety of micro-organisms to differentiate between bacterial species. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of the phenicol drug family.

    PubMed

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, M Teresa

    2013-11-01

    In this work, the mass spectrometry behaviour of the veterinary drug family of phenicols, including chloramphenicol (CAP) and its related compounds thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF) and FF amine (FFA), was studied. Several atmospheric pressure ionization sources, electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization were compared. In all atmospheric pressure ionization sources, CAP, TAP and FF were ionized in both positive and negative modes; while for the metabolite FFA, only positive ionization was possible. In general, in positive mode, [M + H](+) dominated the mass spectrum for FFA, while the other compounds, CAP, TAP and FF, with lower proton affinity showed intense adducts with species present in the mobile phase. In negative mode, ESI and atmospheric pressure photoionization showed the deprotonated molecule [M-H](-), while atmospheric pressure chemical ionization provided the radical molecular ion by electron capture. All these ions were characterized by tandem mass spectrometry using the combined information obtained by multistage mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry in a quadrupole-Orbitrap instrument. In general, the fragmentation occurred via cyclization and losses or fragmentation of the N-(alkyl)acetamide group, and common fragmentation pathways were established for this family of compounds. A new chemical structure for the product ion at m/z 257 for CAP, on the basis of the MS(3) and MS(4) spectra is proposed. Thermally assisted ESI and selected reaction monitoring are proposed for the determination of these compounds by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, achieving instrumental detection limits down to 0.1 pg. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Matrix Assisted Ionization Vacuum (MAIV), a New Ionization Method for Biological Materials Analysis Using Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Inutan, Ellen D.; Trimpin, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for the mass spectrometric analysis of peptides and proteins had a dramatic impact on biological science. We now report that a wide variety of compounds, including peptides, proteins, and protein complexes, are transported directly from a solid-state small molecule matrix to gas-phase ions when placed into the vacuum of a mass spectrometer without the use of high voltage, a laser, or added heat. This ionization process produces ions having charge states similar to ESI, making the method applicable for high performance mass spectrometers designed for atmospheric pressure ionization. We demonstrate highly sensitive ionization using intermediate pressure MALDI and modified ESI sources. This matrix and vacuum assisted soft ionization method is suitable for the direct surface analysis of biological materials, including tissue, via mass spectrometry. PMID:23242551

  8. Ionization of NO at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. Frederick

    1991-01-01

    Space vehicles flying through the atmosphere at high speed are known to excite a complex set of chemical reactions in the atmospheric gases, ranging from simple vibrational excitation to dissociation, atom exchange, electronic excitation, ionization, and charge exchange. Simple arguments are developed for the temperature dependence of the reactions leading to ionization of NO, including the effect of vibrational electronic thermal nonequilibrium. NO ionization is the most important source of electrons at intermediate temperatures and at higher temperatures provides the trigger electrons that ionize atoms. Based on these arguments, recommendations are made for formulae which fit observed experimental results, and which include a dependence on both a heavy particle temperature and different vibration electron temperatures. In addition, these expressions will presumably provide the most reliable extrapolation of experimental results to much higher temperatures.

  9. Acceptor Ionization Energies in GaN*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Ban Chen, An

    2001-03-01

    The k.p Hamiltonian and a model potential are used to deduce the acceptor ionization energies in GaN from a systematic study of the chemical trend in GaAs, GaP, and InP. The acceptors studied include Be, Mg, Ca, Zn, and Cd on the cation sites and C, Si, and Ge on the anion sites. Our calculated acceptor ionization energies are estimated to be accurate to better than ten percent across the board. The ionization energies of C and Be (152 and 187 meV respectively) in wurtzite GaN are found to be lower than that of Mg (224 meV). The C was found to behave like the hydrogenic acceptor in all systems and it has the smallest ionization energy among all the acceptors studied.

  10. Delayed Ionization in Transition Metal Carbon Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, S. E.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Mass spectrometric studies of several single and binary transition metal carbon cluster systems, produced in a laser vaporization source, reveal several species that undergo delayed ionization. Pulsed extraction and blocking electric fields, in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, allow the study of delayed ionization over a time window after excitation with a pulsed laser. In systems where metallocarbohedrenes (Met-Cars) are produced, the Met-Cars are the dominate delayed species. Delayed ionization of binary metal Met-Cars Ti_xM_yC_12 (M=Zr,Nb,Y; x+y=8) is dependent on the ratio of the two metals. Delayed behavior is investigated over a range of photoionization wavelengths and fluences. In order to determine the degree to which the delayed ionization is thermionic in character, the experimental data have been compared to Klots's model for thermionic emission from small particles.

  11. On ionization and luminescence in flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, E; Goercke, P; BREDT I

    1951-01-01

    An explanation based upon reaction kinetics is presented to account for the deviation of measured ionization levels obtained from reflection experiments from the values computed assuming chemical equilibrium. The heat transfer to the unburned fuel is also considered.

  12. Ionization in MHD-Gas interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.; Diver, D. A.

    2013-09-01

    The study of partially ionized plasmas is important in a number of astrophysical situations and is vital for the study of laboratory plasmas. The interactions between a neutral gas and a plasma define a hybrid medium that has aspects of each, but does not only sustain the pure modes of the individual species. Previously we have shown that momentum coupling between the gas and the magnetized plasma alters the behaviour of both; as an extension of that simulation, we present results for the extension to the coupling in which the relative motion between the species provides enough kinetic energy in the flow to allow a measure of species exchange Alfvén ionization (AI) (also known as critical velocity ionization), allowing the ionization fraction to evolve as the dynamics evolve.

  13. Use of mutation spectra analysis software.

    PubMed

    Rogozin, I; Kondrashov, F; Glazko, G

    2001-02-01

    The study and comparison of mutation(al) spectra is an important problem in molecular biology, because these spectra often reflect on important features of mutations and their fixation. Such features include the interaction of DNA with various mutagens, the function of repair/replication enzymes, and properties of target proteins. It is known that mutability varies significantly along nucleotide sequences, such that mutations often concentrate at certain positions, called "hotspots," in a sequence. In this paper, we discuss in detail two approaches for mutation spectra analysis: the comparison of mutation spectra with a HG-PUBL program, (FTP: sunsite.unc.edu/pub/academic/biology/dna-mutations/hyperg) and hotspot prediction with the CLUSTERM program (www.itba.mi.cnr.it/webmutation; ftp.bionet.nsc.ru/pub/biology/dbms/clusterm.zip). Several other approaches for mutational spectra analysis, such as the analysis of a target protein structure, hotspot context revealing, multiple spectra comparisons, as well as a number of mutation databases are briefly described. Mutation spectra in the lacI gene of E. coli and the human p53 gene are used for illustration of various difficulties of such analysis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Modeling of Plutonium Ionization Probabilities for Use in Nuclear Forensic Analysis by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    masses collide, they form a supercritical mass . Criticality refers to the neutron population within the system. A critical system is one that can...Spectrometry, no. 242, pp. 161–168, 2005. [9] S. Raeder, “Trace analysis of actinides in the environment by means of resonance ionization mass ...first ionization potential of actinide elements by resonance ionization mass spectrometry.” Spectrochimica Acta part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. vol. 52

  15. Separation of detector non-linearity issues and multiple ionization satellites in alpha-particle PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John L.; Ganly, Brianna; Heirwegh, Christopher M.; Maxwell, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple ionization satellites are prominent features in X-ray spectra induced by MeV energy alpha particles. It follows that the accuracy of PIXE analysis using alpha particles can be improved if these features are explicitly incorporated in the peak model description when fitting the spectra with GUPIX or other codes for least-squares fitting PIXE spectra and extracting element concentrations. A method for this incorporation is described and is tested using spectra recorded on Mars by the Curiosity rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. These spectra are induced by both PIXE and X-ray fluorescence, resulting in a spectral energy range from ∼1 to ∼25 keV. This range is valuable in determining the energy-channel calibration, which departs from linearity at low X-ray energies. It makes it possible to separate the effects of the satellites from an instrumental non-linearity component. The quality of least-squares spectrum fits is significantly improved, raising the level of confidence in analytical results from alpha-induced PIXE.

  16. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Huston, Gregg C.

    1992-01-01

    A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

  17. Multiphoton Ionization Mass and Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    tracted information about ion vibrational energy levels. Molecules studted include benzene, toluene, aniline, paradifluorobenzene, nitric oxide ...molecules or subgroups and not to others. Ion specific electrodes play an analogous role in electro - chemistry. The prospect of selectively ionizing a... acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde have been studied at the KrF and ArF laser wavelengths. Their ionization potentials are 10.2 and 9.8 eV, respectively

  18. Field ionizing elements and applications thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A field ionizing element formed of a membrane that houses electrodes therein that are located closer to one another than the mean free path of the gas being ionized. The membrane includes a supporting portion, and a non supporting portion where the ions are formed. The membrane may be used as the front end for a number of different applications including a mass spectrometer, a thruster, an ion mobility element, or an electrochemical device such as a fuel cell.

  19. Electron ionization of SiCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Simon J.; Price, Stephen D.

    2011-02-01

    Relative partial ionization cross sections (PICS) for the formation of fragment ions following electron ionization of SiCl4, in the electron energy range 30-200 eV, have been determined using time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with an ion coincidence technique. By this method, the contributions to the yield of each fragment ion from dissociative single, double, and triple ionization, are distinguished. These yields are quantified in the form of relative precursor-specific PICS, which are reported here for the first time for SiCl4. For the formation of singly charged ionic fragments, the low-energy maxima appearing in the PICS curves are due to contributions from single ionization involving predominantly indirect ionization processes, while contributions to the yields of these ions at higher electron energies are often dominated by dissociative double ionization. Our data, in the reduced form of relative PICS, are shown to be in good agreement with a previous determination of the PICS of SiCl4. Only for the formation of doubly charged fragment ions are the current relative PICS values lower than those measured in a previous study, although both datasets agree within combined error limits. The relative PICS data presented here include the first quantitative measurements of the formation of Cl2+ fragment ions and of the formation of ion pairs via dissociative double ionization. The peaks appearing in the 2D ion coincidence data are analyzed to provide further information concerning the mechanism and energetics of the charge-separating dissociations of SiCl42+. The lowest energy dicationic precursor state, leading to SiCl3+ + Cl+ formation, lies 27.4 ± 0.3 eV above the ground state of SiCl4 and is in close agreement with a calculated value of the adiabatic double ionization energy (27.3 eV).

  20. Electron ionization of SiCl4.

    PubMed

    King, Simon J; Price, Stephen D

    2011-02-21

    Relative partial ionization cross sections (PICS) for the formation of fragment ions following electron ionization of SiCl(4), in the electron energy range 30-200 eV, have been determined using time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with an ion coincidence technique. By this method, the contributions to the yield of each fragment ion from dissociative single, double, and triple ionization, are distinguished. These yields are quantified in the form of relative precursor-specific PICS, which are reported here for the first time for SiCl(4). For the formation of singly charged ionic fragments, the low-energy maxima appearing in the PICS curves are due to contributions from single ionization involving predominantly indirect ionization processes, while contributions to the yields of these ions at higher electron energies are often dominated by dissociative double ionization. Our data, in the reduced form of relative PICS, are shown to be in good agreement with a previous determination of the PICS of SiCl(4). Only for the formation of doubly charged fragment ions are the current relative PICS values lower than those measured in a previous study, although both datasets agree within combined error limits. The relative PICS data presented here include the first quantitative measurements of the formation of Cl(2) (+) fragment ions and of the formation of ion pairs via dissociative double ionization. The peaks appearing in the 2D ion coincidence data are analyzed to provide further information concerning the mechanism and energetics of the charge-separating dissociations of SiCl(4) (2+). The lowest energy dicationic precursor state, leading to SiCl(3) (+) + Cl(+) formation, lies 27.4 ± 0.3 eV above the ground state of SiCl(4) and is in close agreement with a calculated value of the adiabatic double ionization energy (27.3 eV).

  1. Overview spectra and axial distribution of spectral line intensities in a high-current vacuum arc with CuCr electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lisnyak, M.; Pipa, A. V.; Gorchakov, S., E-mail: gorchakov@inp-greifswald.de, E-mail: weltmann@inp-greifswald.de

    2015-09-28

    Spectroscopic investigations of free-burning vacuum arcs in diffuse mode with CuCr electrodes are presented. The experimental conditions of the investigated arc correspond to the typical system for vacuum circuit breakers. Spectra of six species Cu I, Cu II, Cu III, Cr I, Cr II, and Cr III have been analyzed in the wavelength range 350–810 nm. The axial intensity distributions were found to be strongly dependent on the ionization stage of radiating species. Emission distributions of Cr II and Cu II can be distinguished as well as the distributions of Cr III and Cu III. Information on the axial distribution wasmore » used to identify the spectra and for identification of overlapping spectral lines. The overview spectra and some spectral windows recorded with high resolution are presented. Analysis of axial distributions of emitted light, which originates from different ionization states, is presented and discussed.« less

  2. Overview spectra and axial distribution of spectral line intensities in a high-current vacuum arc with CuCr electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisnyak, M.; Pipa, A. V.; Gorchakov, S.; Iseni, S.; Franke, St.; Khapour, A.; Methling, R.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2015-09-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of free-burning vacuum arcs in diffuse mode with CuCr electrodes are presented. The experimental conditions of the investigated arc correspond to the typical system for vacuum circuit breakers. Spectra of six species Cu I, Cu II, Cu III, Cr I, Cr II, and Cr III have been analyzed in the wavelength range 350-810 nm. The axial intensity distributions were found to be strongly dependent on the ionization stage of radiating species. Emission distributions of Cr II and Cu II can be distinguished as well as the distributions of Cr III and Cu III. Information on the axial distribution was used to identify the spectra and for identification of overlapping spectral lines. The overview spectra and some spectral windows recorded with high resolution are presented. Analysis of axial distributions of emitted light, which originates from different ionization states, is presented and discussed.

  3. Statistical properties of Fermi GBM GRBs' spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rácz, István I.; Balázs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Tóth, L. Viktor; Bagoly, Zsolt

    2018-03-01

    Statistical studies of gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra may result in important information on the physics of GRBs. The Fermi GBM catalogue contains GRB parameters (peak energy, spectral indices, and intensity) estimated fitting the gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of the total emission (fluence, flnc), and during the time of the peak flux (pflx). Using contingency tables, we studied the relationship of the models best-fitting pflx and flnc time intervals. Our analysis revealed an ordering of the spectra into a power law - Comptonized - smoothly broken power law - Band series. This result was further supported by a correspondence analysis of the pflx and flnc spectra categorical variables. We performed a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to find a relationship between categorical (spectral) and model independent physical data. LDA resulted in highly significant physical differences among the spectral types, that is more pronounced in the case of the pflx spectra, than for the flnc spectra. We interpreted this difference as caused by the temporal variation of the spectrum during the outburst. This spectral variability is confirmed by the differences in the low-energy spectral index and peak energy, between the pflx and flnc spectra. We found that the synchrotron radiation is significant in GBM spectra. The mean low-energy spectral index is close to the canonical value of α = -2/3 during the peak flux. However, α is ˜ -0.9 for the spectra of the fluences. We interpret this difference as showing that the effect of cooling is important only for the fluence spectra.

  4. Demonstration of self-truncated ionization injection for GeV electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaie, M.; Li, S.; Zeng, M.; Hafz, N. A. M.; Chen, M.; Li, G. Y.; Zhu, Q. J.; Liao, H.; Sokollik, T.; Liu, F.; Ma, Y. Y.; Chen, L.M.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ionization-induced injection mechanism was introduced in 2010 to reduce the laser intensity threshold for controllable electron trapping in laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA). However, usually it generates electron beams with continuous energy spectra. Subsequently, a dual-stage target separating the injection and acceleration processes was regarded as essential to achieve narrow energy-spread electron beams by ionization injection. Recently, we numerically proposed a self-truncation scenario of the ionization injection process based upon overshooting of the laser-focusing in plasma which can reduce the electron injection length down to a few hundred micrometers, leading to accelerated beams with extremely low energy-spread in a single-stage. Here, using 100 TW-class laser pulses we report experimental observations of this injection scenario in centimeter-long plasma leading to the generation of narrow energy-spread GeV electron beams, demonstrating its robustness and scalability. Compared with the self-injection and dual-stage schemes, the self-truncated ionization injection generates higher-quality electron beams at lower intensities and densities, and is therefore promising for practical applications. PMID:26423136

  5. Gauging Metallicity of Diffuse Gas under an Uncertain Ionizing Radiation Field

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Zahedy, Fakhri S.; Johnson, Sean D.

    Gas metallicity is a key quantity used to determine the physical conditions of gaseous clouds in a wide range of astronomical environments, including interstellar and intergalactic space. In particular, considerable effort in circumgalactic medium (CGM) studies focuses on metallicity measurements because gas metallicity serves as a critical discriminator for whether the observed heavy ions in the CGM originate in chemically enriched outflows or in more chemically pristine gas accreted from the intergalactic medium. However, because the gas is ionized, a necessary first step in determining CGM metallicity is to constrain the ionization state of the gas which, in addition tomore » gas density, depends on the ultraviolet background radiation field (UVB). While it is generally acknowledged that both the intensity and spectral slope of the UVB are uncertain, the impact of an uncertain spectral slope has not been properly addressed in the literature. This Letter shows that adopting a different spectral slope can result in an order of magnitude difference in the inferred CGM metallicity. Specifically, a harder UVB spectrum leads to a higher estimated gas metallicity for a given set of observed ionic column densities. Therefore, such systematic uncertainties must be folded into the error budget for metallicity estimates of ionized gas. An initial study shows that empirical diagnostics are available for discriminating between hard and soft ionizing spectra. Applying these diagnostics helps reduce the systematic uncertainties in CGM metallicity estimates.« less

  6. Gauging Metallicity of Diffuse Gas under an Uncertain Ionizing Radiation Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Johnson, Sean D.; Zahedy, Fakhri S.; Rauch, Michael; Mulchaey, John S.

    2017-06-01

    Gas metallicity is a key quantity used to determine the physical conditions of gaseous clouds in a wide range of astronomical environments, including interstellar and intergalactic space. In particular, considerable effort in circumgalactic medium (CGM) studies focuses on metallicity measurements because gas metallicity serves as a critical discriminator for whether the observed heavy ions in the CGM originate in chemically enriched outflows or in more chemically pristine gas accreted from the intergalactic medium. However, because the gas is ionized, a necessary first step in determining CGM metallicity is to constrain the ionization state of the gas which, in addition to gas density, depends on the ultraviolet background radiation field (UVB). While it is generally acknowledged that both the intensity and spectral slope of the UVB are uncertain, the impact of an uncertain spectral slope has not been properly addressed in the literature. This Letter shows that adopting a different spectral slope can result in an order of magnitude difference in the inferred CGM metallicity. Specifically, a harder UVB spectrum leads to a higher estimated gas metallicity for a given set of observed ionic column densities. Therefore, such systematic uncertainties must be folded into the error budget for metallicity estimates of ionized gas. An initial study shows that empirical diagnostics are available for discriminating between hard and soft ionizing spectra. Applying these diagnostics helps reduce the systematic uncertainties in CGM metallicity estimates.

  7. IUEAGN: A database of ultraviolet spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, G.; Edelson, R.; Shull, J. M.; Saken, J.

    1993-01-01

    In 13 years of operation, IUE has gathered approximately 5000 spectra of almost 600 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). In order to undertake AGN studies which require large amounts of data, we are consistently reducing this entire archive and creating a homogeneous, easy-to-use database. First, the spectra are extracted using the Optimal extraction algorithm. Continuum fluxes are then measured across predefined bands, and line fluxes are measured with a multi-component fit. These results, along with source information such as redshifts and positions, are placed in the IUEAGN relational database. Analysis algorithms, statistical tests, and plotting packages run within the structure, and this flexible database can accommodate future data when they are released. This archival approach has already been used to survey line and continuum variability in six bright Seyfert 1s and rapid continuum variability in 14 blazars. Among the results that could only be obtained using a large archival study is evidence that blazars show a positive correlation between degree of variability and apparent luminosity, while Seyfert 1s show an anti-correlation. This suggests that beaming dominates the ultraviolet properties for blazars, while thermal emission from an accretion disk dominates for Seyfert 1s. Our future plans include a survey of line ratios in Seyfert 1s, to be fitted with photoionization models to test the models and determine the range of temperatures, densities and ionization parameters. We will also include data from IRAS, Einstein, EXOSAT, and ground-based telescopes to measure multi-wavelength correlations and broadband spectral energy distributions.

  8. The Pfi-Zeke Spectroscopy Study of HfS+ and the Ionization Energy of HfS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, I. O.; Barker, B. J.; Heaven, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    Spectroscopic data for the ground and low-lying states HfS+ have been obtained using the technique of pulse field ionization - zero electron kinetic energy (PFI-ZEKE) spectroscopy. PFI-ZEKE spectra were recorded for the levels X2Σ+ (v=0-18), 2Δ5/2 (v=0-8) and 2Δ3/2 (v=0-3). Assignments of the electronically excited states of HfS+ are based on CCSD(T) and DFT calculations with SDB-aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. Rotationally resolved spectra were recorded for the X2Σ+ (v=0) state using single rotational line excitation of the intermediate state. The ionization energy for HfS, term energies and molecular constants for the ground and low-lying states of HfS+ will be reported.

  9. Anisotropic spectra of acoustic type turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, E.; P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 53 Leninsky Ave., 119991 Moscow; Krasnoselskikh, V.

    2008-06-15

    The problem of spectra for acoustic type of turbulence generated by shocks being randomly distributed in space is considered. It is shown that for turbulence with a weak anisotropy, such spectra have the same dependence in k-space as the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili spectrum: E(k){approx}k{sup -2}. However, the frequency spectrum has always the falling {approx}{omega}{sup -2}, independent of anisotropy. In the strong anisotropic case the energy distribution relative to wave vectors takes anisotropic dependence, forming in the large-k region spectra of the jet type.

  10. IDEOS: Fitting Infrared Spectra from Dusty Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Vincent; Rupke, D.

    2014-01-01

    We fit models to heavily obscured infrared spectra taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope and prepare them for cataloguing in the Infrared Database of Extragalactic Observables from Spitzer (IDEOS). When completed, IDEOS will contain homogeneously measured mid-infrared spectroscopic observables of more than 4200 galaxies beyond the Local Group. The software we use, QUESTFit, models the spectra using up to three extincted blackbodies (including silicate, water ice, and hydrocarbon absorption) and PAH templates. We present results from a sample of the approximately 200 heavily obscured spectra that will be present in IDEOS.

  11. Systolic Processor Array For Recognition Of Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Peterson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral signatures of materials detected and identified quickly. Spectral Analysis Systolic Processor Array (SPA2) relatively inexpensive and satisfies need to analyze large, complex volume of multispectral data generated by imaging spectrometers to extract desired information: computational performance needed to do this in real time exceeds that of current supercomputers. Locates highly similar segments or contiguous subsegments in two different spectra at time. Compares sampled spectra from instruments with data base of spectral signatures of known materials. Computes and reports scores that express degrees of similarity between sampled and data-base spectra.

  12. Rigidity Spectra of Protons and Helium as Measured in the First Flight of the ATIC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zatsepin, V. I.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Batkov, K. E.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunasingha, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon borne experiment designed to measure cosmic ray composition for elements from hydrogen to iron and their energy spectra from 30 GeV to near 100 TeV. It is comprised of a fully active BGO calorimeter, a carbon interaction target, scintillator hodoscopes, and a silicon matrix that is used as a charge detector in the experiment. ATIC had two successful balloon flights in Antarctica: from 28 Dec 2000 to 13 Jan 2001 (ATIC-1) and from 29 Dec 2002 to 18 Jan 2003 (ATIC-2). Preliminary rigidity spectra of protons and helium nuclei and their ratio are presented for the test flight (ATIC-1). Particular attention is given to problems associated with measuring energy.

  13. Comparison of methods for H*(10) calculation from measured LaBr3(Ce) detector spectra.

    PubMed

    Vargas, A; Cornejo, N; Camp, A

    2018-07-01

    The Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) and the Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT) have evaluated methods based on stripping, conversion coefficients and Maximum Likelihood Estimation using Expectation Maximization (ML-EM) in calculating the H*(10) rates from photon pulse-height spectra acquired with a spectrometric LaBr 3 (Ce)(1.5″ × 1.5″) detector. There is a good agreement between results of the different H*(10) rate calculation methods using the spectra measured at the UPC secondary standard calibration laboratory in Barcelona. From the outdoor study at ESMERALDA station in Madrid, it can be concluded that the analysed methods provide results quite similar to those obtained with the reference RSS ionization chamber. In addition, the spectrometric detectors can also facilitate radionuclide identification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: A Technique to Access the Information beyond the Molecular Weight of the Analyte

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Shibdas; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2012-01-01

    The Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a soft ionization technique extensively used for production of gas phase ions (without fragmentation) of thermally labile large supramolecules. In the present review we have described the development of Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) during the last 25 years in the study of various properties of different types of biological molecules. There have been extensive studies on the mechanism of formation of charged gaseous species by the ESI. Several groups have investigated the origin and implications of the multiple charge states of proteins observed in the ESI-mass spectra of the proteins. The charged analytes produced by ESI can be fragmented by activating them in the gas-phase, and thus tandem mass spectrometry has been developed, which provides very important insights on the structural properties of the molecule. The review will highlight recent developments and emerging directions in this fascinating area of research. PMID:22611397

  15. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: a technique to access the information beyond the molecular weight of the analyte.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shibdas; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2012-01-01

    The Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a soft ionization technique extensively used for production of gas phase ions (without fragmentation) of thermally labile large supramolecules. In the present review we have described the development of Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) during the last 25 years in the study of various properties of different types of biological molecules. There have been extensive studies on the mechanism of formation of charged gaseous species by the ESI. Several groups have investigated the origin and implications of the multiple charge states of proteins observed in the ESI-mass spectra of the proteins. The charged analytes produced by ESI can be fragmented by activating them in the gas-phase, and thus tandem mass spectrometry has been developed, which provides very important insights on the structural properties of the molecule. The review will highlight recent developments and emerging directions in this fascinating area of research.

  16. Methane negative chemical ionization analysis of 1,3-dihydro-5-phenyl-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones.

    PubMed Central

    Garland, W A; Miwa, B J

    1980-01-01

    The methane negative chemical ionization (NCI) mass spectra of the medically important 1,3-dihydro-5-phenyl-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones generally consisted solely of M- and (M-H)- ions. Attempts to find the location of the H lost in the generation of the (M-H)- ion were unsuccessful, although many possibilities were eliminated. A Hammett correlation analysis of the relative sensitivities of a series of 7-substituted benzodiazepines suggested that the initial ionization takes place at the 4,5-imine bond. For certain benzodiazepines, the (M-H)- ion generated by methane NCI was 20 times more intense than the MH+ ion generated by methane positive chemical ionization (PCI). By using NCI, a sensitive and simple GC-MS assay for nordiazepam was developed that can quantitate this important metabolite of many of the clinically used benzodiazepines in the blood and brain of rats. PMID:6775944

  17. Drawing a different picture with pencil lead as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix for fullerene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Nye, Leanne C; Hungerbühler, Hartmut; Drewello, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by reports on the use of pencil lead as a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix, paving the way towards matrix-free matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, the present investigation evaluates its usage with organic fullerene derivatives. Currently, this class of compounds is best analysed using the electron transfer matrix trans-2-[3-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-2-methyl-2-propenylidene] malononitrile (DCTB), which was employed as the standard here. The suitability of pencil lead was additionally compared to direct (i.e. no matrix) laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry. The use of (DCTB) was identified as the by far gentler method, producing spectra with abundant molecular ion signals and much reduced fragmentation. Analytically, pencil lead was found to be ineffective as a matrix, however, appears to be an extremely easy and inexpensive method for producing sodium and potassium adducts.

  18. Rapid differentiation of refined fuels using negative electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Hostettler, F.D.

    2005-01-01

    Negative electrospray ionization/MS enabled rapid, specific, and selective screening for unique polar components at parts per million concentrations in commercial hydrocarbon products without extensive sample preparation, separation, chromatography, or quantitation. Commercial fuel types were analyzed with this method, including kerosene, jet fuel, white gas, charcoal lighter fluid, on-road and off-road diesel fuels, and various grades and brands of gasolines. The different types of fuels produced unique and relatively simple spectra. These analyses were then applied to hydrocarbon samples from a large, long-term fuel spill. Although the alkane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane portions began to biodegrade or weather, the polar components in these samples remained relatively unchanged. The type of fuel involved was readily identified by negative electrospray ionization/MS. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 230th ACS National Meeting (Washington, DC 8/28/2005-9/1/2005).

  19. The Effect of Clustering on Estimations of the UV Ionizing Background from the Proximity Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascarelle, S. M.; Lanzetta, K. M.; Chen, H. W.

    1999-09-01

    There have been several determinations of the ionizing background using the proximity effect observed in the distibution of Lyman-alpha absorption lines in the spectra of QSOs at high redshift. It is usually assumed that the distribution of lines should be the same at very small impact parameters to the QSO as it is at large impact parameters, and any decrease in line density at small impact parameters is due to ionizing radiation from the QSO. However, if these Lyman-alpha absorption lines arise in galaxies (Lanzetta et al. 1995, Chen et al. 1998), then the strength of the proximity effect may have been underestimated in previous work, since galaxies are known to cluster around QSOs. Therefore, the UV background estimations have likely been overestimated by the same factor.

  20. Ionization and excitation in cool giant stars. I - Hydrogen and helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttermoser, Donald G.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1992-01-01

    The influence that non-LTE radiative transfer has on the electron density, ionization equilibrium, and excitation equilibrium in model atmospheres representative of both oxygen-rich and carbon-rich red giant stars is demonstrated. The radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations are solved self-consistently for H, H(-), H2, He I, C I, C II, Na I, Mg I, Mg II, Ca I, and Ca II in a plane-parallel static medium. Calculations are made for both radiative-equilibrium model photospheres alone and model photospheres with attached chromospheric models as determined semiempirically with IUE spectra of g Her (M6 III) and TX Psc (C6, 2). The excitation and ionization results for hydrogen and helium are reported.

  1. Phase-dependent above-barrier ionization of excited-state electrons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weifeng; Song, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhangjin

    2012-05-21

    The carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-dependent above-barrier ionization (ABI) has been investigated in order to probe the bound-state electron dynamics. It is found that when the system is initially prepared in the excited state, the ionization yield asymmetry between left and right sides can occur both in low-energy and high-energy parts of the photoelectron spectra. Moreover, in electron momentum map, a new interference effect along the direction perpendicular to the laser polarization is found. We show that this interference is related to the competition among different excited states. The interference effect is dependent on CEPs of few-cycle probe pulses, which can be used to trace the superposition information and control the electron wave packet of low excited states.

  2. Ionization ratios and elemental abundances in the atmosphere of 68 Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouina, A.; Monier, R.

    2017-12-01

    We have derived the ionization ratios of twelve elements in the atmosphere of the star 68 Tauri (HD 27962) using an ATLAS9 model atmosphere with 72 layers computed for the effective temperature and surface gravity of the star. We then computed a grid of synthetic spectra generated by SYNSPEC49 based on an ATLAS9 model atmosphere in order to model one high resolution spectrum secured by one of us (RM) with the échelle spectrograph SOPHIE at Observatoire de Haute Provence. We could determine the abundances of several elements in their dominant ionization stage, including those defining the Am phenomenon. We thus provide new abundance determinations for 68 Tauri using updated accurate atomic data retrieved from the NIST database which extend previous abundance works.

  3. Calcium ionization balance and argon/calcium abundance in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, E.; Marocchi, D.; Gabriel, A. H.; Doschek, G. A.

    1987-12-01

    An earlier analysis of solar flare calcium spectra from XRP and P78-1 aimed at measuring the calcium ionization balance resulted in an ambiguity due to a line blend between the calcium q line and an Ar XVII line. In the present work the calcium line 'r' is included in the analysis in order to resolve this problem. It is shown that the correct calcium ionization balance is that indicated in the earlier paper as corresponding to an argon/calcium abundance ratio of 0.2. The argon/calcium abundance ratio in the group of solar flares studied is shown to be 0.2 + or - 0.2. It is further argued that while the abundance of heavy elements may be enhanced in energetic flare events, this enhancement is less for argon than for calcium, leading to an argon/calcium ratio smaller than that present in the quiet sun.

  4. Penning ionization electron spectroscopy of CO 2 clusters in collision with metastable rare gas atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Ryo; Tanaka, Hideyasu; Yamakita, Yoshihiro; Misaizu, Fuminori; Ohno, Koichi

    2000-09-01

    Penning ionization electron spectra (PIES) of CO 2 clusters have been observed for the first time. An unusually fast electron band with excess kinetic energies of 1.4-2.9 eV with respect to the monomer band for the ionic X state was observed for CO 2 clusters in collision with He*(2 3S) atoms. While for PIES with Ne*(3 3P), no such unusual band was observed. The unusual band is ascribed to autoionization into stable structures of ionic clusters to which direct ionization processes are almost impossible due to very small Franck-Condon overlaps associated with a very large geometry difference between the ionic and neutral clusters.

  5. A Penning discharge as a dc source for multiply ionized atoms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainer, Kling; Manfred, Kock

    1997-10-01

    We report upon a specially designed Penning discharge which has been further developed from a source published by Finley et al.(Finley, D. S., Bowyer, S., Paresce, F., Malina, R. F.: Appl. Opt. 18) (1979) 649 towards a radiation standard for the XUV.(Heise, C., Hollandt, J., Kling, R., Kock, M., Kuehne, M.: Appl. Opt. 33) (1994) 5111 The discharge stands out for low buffer gas pressure, high electric power input and a strong superimposed magnetic field. That leads to intense sputtering of the cathodes which can be made of nearly any material. The efficient excitation and ionization of the sputtered atoms permit spectroscopy on multiply ionized spezies. W III and Fe III spectra will be given as examples. We also will present kinetic temperatures of the nonthermal plasma showing that the ionic component is decoupled from the cold neutral gas component.

  6. Contribution to the study of turbulence spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, R.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus suitable for turbulence measurement between ranges of 1 to 5000 cps and from 6 to 16,000 cps was developed and is described. Turbulence spectra downstream of the grills were examined with reference to their general characteristics, their LF qualities, and the effects of periodic turbulence. Medium and HF are discussed. Turbulence spectra in the boundary layers are similarly examined, with reference to their fluctuations at right angles to the wall, and to lateral fluctuations. Turbulence spectra in a boundary layer with suction to the wall is discussed. Induced turbulence, and turbulence spectra at high Reynolds numbers. Calculations are presented relating to the effect of filtering on the value of the correlations in time and space.

  7. Synthesis and Spectra of Vanadium Complexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophardt, Charles E.; Stupgia, Sean

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment which illustrates simple synthetic techniques, redox principles in synthesis reactions, interpretation of visible spectra using Orgel diagrams, and the spectrochemical series. The experiment is suitable for the advanced undergraduate inorganic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

  8. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of Doubly Ionized Iron Group Elements for Astrophysical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smillie, D. G.; Pickering, J. C.; Smith, P. L.

    2005-05-01

    Exciting new astrophysical spectra provided by both space-based (such as STIS, Hubble) and ground-based spectrographs (such as HIRES, Keck-1 telescope) are unable to be fully interpreted due to deficiencies in the database of laboratory measured atomic data such as transition wavelengths and oscillator strengths. The transition elements, particularly the Iron (3d) group, are extremely important for stellar astrophysics providing much of the observed stellar opacity, and the doubly ionized species dominate the spectra of hot (B-type) stars [1]. Transition wavelengths with uncertainties of ˜1:107 and oscillator strengths with uncertainties of ˜10% are required to fully interpret the astrophysical spectra. At Imperial College, we use a Penning discharge lamp with our unique Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) [1] capable of measurements from the visible to the VUV (down to 135nm) at high resolution (typical wavenumber uncertainty ˜1:108). These measurements are supplemented by IR FTS spectra and grating spectra (beyond the 135nm limit) taken at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. The spectra are analyzed to provide intensity and wavenumber calibrated linelists. This allows term analysis (calculating energy levels from the measured transition line wavelengths) and branching ratios (which can be combined with level lifetimes to produce oscillator strengths) to be determined. FTS measurements of Fe III in the UV and IR have been completed at Imperial and NIST and grating measurements are planned at NIST to complete the Fe III work. Similarly, Co III and Cr III measurements are currently ongoing at both Imperial and NIST. After completion of the analysis, the data will be disseminated to atomic databases (such as the NIST Atomic Spectra Database and the Vienna Atomic Line Database). This work is supported in part by NASA Grant NAG5-12668, PPARC and the Royal Society of the UK. [1] J. C. Pickering, Vibrational Spectroscopy, 29, 27-43 (2002)

  9. Theoretical vibrational spectra of diformates: Diformate anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrowolski, Jan Cz.; Jamróz, Michał H.; Kazimirski, Jan K.; Bajdor, Krzysztof; Borowiak, Marek A.; Larsson, Ragnar

    1999-05-01

    The IR spectrum of the most stable diformate anion was calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(3df, 3pd), RHF/6-311++G **, and B3PW91/6-311++G ** levels. The internal coordinates were defined for the diformate anion and used in potential energy distribution (PED) analysis. The PED analysis of the theoretical spectra form the basis for elucidation of the future matrix isolation IR spectra.

  10. RER SPECTRA OBTAINED WITH A MULTICRYSTAL SPECTROMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.E.; Champion, W.R.

    1959-11-01

    Relative gamma spectra were obtained twenty feet from the Hadiation Effects Reactor. The measurements were made using a multicry-stal spectrometer. This design incorporates pair and anticompton spectrometers in combination. Two reactor configurations were used; with shield tanks empty- and water filled. The spectra were obtained before the fuel elements were run at high power. Consequently very little of the fission product spectrum is tntermined. (J.R.D.)

  11. Diffuse emission and pathological Seyfert spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1995-01-01

    In this annual ROSAT status report, the diffuse emission and spectra from Seyfert galaxies are examined. Three papers are presented and their contents include the soft x-ray properties and spectra of a binary millisecond pulsar, the PSPC and HRI observations of a Starburst/Seyfert 2 Galaxy, and an analysis of the possibility of x-ray luminous starbursts in the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey.

  12. Spectra library assisted de novo peptide sequencing for HCD and ETD spectra pairs.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Zhang, Kaizhong

    2016-12-23

    De novo peptide sequencing via tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been developed rapidly in recent years. With the use of spectra pairs from the same peptide under different fragmentation modes, performance of de novo sequencing is greatly improved. Currently, with large amount of spectra sequenced everyday, spectra libraries containing tens of thousands of annotated experimental MS/MS spectra become available. These libraries provide information of the spectra properties, thus have the potential to be used with de novo sequencing to improve its performance. In this study, an improved de novo sequencing method assisted with spectra library is proposed. It uses spectra libraries as training datasets and introduces significant scores of the features used in our previous de novo sequencing method for HCD and ETD spectra pairs. Two pairs of HCD and ETD spectral datasets were used to test the performance of the proposed method and our previous method. The results show that this proposed method achieves better sequencing accuracy with higher ranked correct sequences and less computational time. This paper proposed an advanced de novo sequencing method for HCD and ETD spectra pair and used information from spectra libraries and significant improved previous similar methods.

  13. Clusters of DNA induced by ionizing radiation: formation of short DNA fragments. I. Theoretical modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, W. R.; Chatterjee, A.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a general theoretical model for the interaction of ionizing radiation with chromatin. Chromatin is modeled as a 30-nm-diameter solenoidal fiber comprised of 20 turns of nucleosomes, 6 nucleosomes per turn. Charged-particle tracks are modeled by partitioning the energy deposition between primary track core, resulting from glancing collisions with 100 eV or less per event, and delta rays due to knock-on collisions involving energy transfers >100 eV. A Monte Carlo simulation incorporates damages due to the following molecular mechanisms: (1) ionization of water molecules leading to the formation of OH, H, eaq, etc.; (2) OH attack on sugar molecules leading to strand breaks: (3) OH attack on bases; (4) direct ionization of the sugar molecules leading to strand breaks; (5) direct ionization of the bases. Our calculations predict significant clustering of damage both locally, over regions up to 40 bp and over regions extending to several kilobase pairs. A characteristic feature of the regional damage predicted by our model is the production of short fragments of DNA associated with multiple nearby strand breaks. The shapes of the spectra of DNA fragment lengths depend on the symmetries or approximate symmetries of the chromatin structure. Such fragments have subsequently been detected experimentally and are reported in an accompanying paper (B. Rydberg, Radiat, Res. 145, 200-209, 1996) after exposure to both high- and low-LET radiation. The overall measured yields agree well quantitatively with the theoretical predictions. Our theoretical results predict the existence of a strong peak at about 85 bp, which represents the revolution period about the nucleosome. Other peaks at multiples of about 1,000 bp correspond to the periodicity of the particular solenoid model of chromatin used in these calculations. Theoretical results in combination with experimental data on fragmentation spectra may help determine the consensus or average structure of the

  14. Rapid in situ detection of alkaloids in plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Talaty, Nari; Takáts, Zoltán; Cooks, R Graham

    2005-12-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is applied to the in situ detection of alkaloids in the tissue of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). The experiment is carried out by electrospraying micro-droplets of solvent onto native or freshly-cut plant tissue surfaces. No sample preparation is required and the mass spectra are recorded under ambient conditions, in times of a few seconds. The impact of the sprayed droplets on the surface produces gaseous ions from organic compounds originally present in the plant tissue. The effects of operating parameters, including the electrospray high voltage, heated capillary temperature, the solvent infusion rate and the carrier gas pressure on analytical performance are evaluated and optimized. Different types of plant material are analyzed including seeds, stems, leaves, roots and flowers. All the previously reported alkaloids have been detected in C. maculatum, while fifteen out of nineteen known alkaloids for D. stramonium and the principal alkaloids of A. belladonna were also identified. All identifications were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Results obtained show similar mass spectra, number of alkaloids, and signal intensities to those obtained when extraction and separation processes are performed prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Evidence is provided that DESI ionization occurs by both a gas-phase ionization process and by a droplet pick-up mechanism. Quantitative precision of DESI is compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (after sample workup) and the RSD values for the same set of 25 dicotyledonous C. maculatum seeds (one half of each seed analyzed by ESI and the other by DESI) are 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively.

  15. Radiative Rates for Forbidden Transitions in Doubly-Ionized Fe-Peak Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fivet, Vanessa; Quinet, P.; Bautista, M.

    2012-05-01

    Accurate and reliable atomic data for lowly-ionized Fe-peak species (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) are of paramount importance for the analysis of the high resolution astrophysical spectra currently available. The third spectra of several iron group elements have been observed in different galactic sources like Herbig-Haro objects in the Orion Nebula [1] and stars like Eta Carinae [2]. However, forbidden transitions between low-lying metastable levels of doubly-ionized iron-peak ions have been very little investigated so far and radiative rates for those lines remain sparse or inexistent. We are carrying out a systematic study of the electronic structure of doubly-ionized iron-peak elements. The magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition probabilities are computed using the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) code of Cowan [3] and the central Thomas-Fermi-Dirac potential approximation implemented in AUTOSTRUCTURE [4]. This multi-platform approach allows for consistency checks and intercomparison and has proven very successful in the study of the complex Fe-peak species where many different effects contribute [5]. References [1] A. Mesa-Delgado et al., MNRAS 395 (2009) 855 [2] S. Johansson et al., A&A 361 (2000) 977 [3] R.D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra, Berkeley: Univ. California Press (1981) [4] N.R. Badnell, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 (1997) 1 [5] M. Bautista et al., ApJ 718 (2010) L189

  16. Computer simulation of backscattering spectra from paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.; Silva, T. F.

    2017-09-01

    To study the role of lateral non-homogeneity on backscattering analysis of paintings, a simplified model of paint consisting of randomly distributed spherical pigment particles embedded in oil/binder has been developed. Backscattering spectra for lead white pigment particles in linseed oil have been calculated for 3 MeV H+ at a scattering angle of 165° for pigment volume concentrations ranging from 30 vol.% to 70 vol.% using the program STRUCTNRA. For identical pigment volume concentrations the heights and shapes of the backscattering spectra depend on the diameter of the pigment particles: This is a structural ambiguity for identical mean atomic concentrations but different lateral arrangement of materials. Only for very small pigment particles the resulting spectra are close to spectra calculated supposing atomic mixing and assuming identical concentrations of all elements. Generally, a good fit can be achieved when evaluating spectra from structured materials assuming atomic mixing of all elements and laterally homogeneous depth distributions. However, the derived depth profiles are inaccurate by a factor of up to 3. The depth range affected by this structural ambiguity ranges from the surface to a depth of roughly 0.5-1 pigment particle diameters. Accurate quantitative evaluation of backscattering spectra from paintings therefore requires taking the correct microstructure of the paint layer into account.

  17. Identifying Broadband Rotational Spectra with Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Prozument, Kirill

    2017-06-01

    A typical broadband rotational spectrum may contain several thousand observable transitions, spanning many species. Identifying the individual spectra, particularly when the dynamic range reaches 1,000:1 or even 10,000:1, can be challenging. One approach is to apply automated fitting routines. In this approach, combinations of 3 transitions can be created to form a "triple", which allows fitting of the A, B, and C rotational constants in a Watson-type Hamiltonian. On a standard desktop computer, with a target molecule of interest, a typical AUTOFIT routine takes 2-12 hours depending on the spectral density. A new approach is to utilize machine learning to train a computer to recognize the patterns (frequency spacing and relative intensities) inherit in rotational spectra and to identify the individual spectra in a raw broadband rotational spectrum. Here, recurrent neural networks have been trained to identify different types of rotational spectra and classify them accordingly. Furthermore, early results in applying convolutional neural networks for spectral object recognition in broadband rotational spectra appear promising. Perez et al. "Broadband Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy for structure determination: The water heptamer." Chem. Phys. Lett., 2013, 571, 1-15. Seifert et al. "AUTOFIT, an Automated Fitting Tool for Broadband Rotational Spectra, and Applications to 1-Hexanal." J. Mol. Spectrosc., 2015, 312, 13-21. Bishop. "Neural networks for pattern recognition." Oxford university press, 1995.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF NEODYMIUM IN THE APOGEE H -BAND SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon; Chojnowski, Drew

    2016-12-10

    We present the detection of 10 lines of singly ionized neodymium (Nd ii, Z  = 60) in H -band spectra using observations from the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. These lines were detected in a metal-poor ([Fe/H] ∼ −1.5), neutron-capture element-enhanced star recently discovered in the APOGEE sample. Using an optical high-resolution spectrum, we derive a Nd abundance for this star using Nd ii lines with precise, laboratory-derived gf values. This optical abundance is used to derive log( gf ) values for the H -band lines. We use these lines to rederive Nd ii abundances for two more metal-rich, s -process enhancedmore » stars observed by APOGEE and find that these lines yield consistent Nd ii abundances, confirming the Nd enhancement of these stars. We explore the region of parameter space in the APOGEE sample over which these lines can be used to measure Nd ii abundances. We find that Nd abundances can be reliably derived for ∼18% of the red giants observed by APOGEE. This will result in ∼50,000 Milky Way stars with Nd ii abundances following the conclusion of APOGEE-2, allowing for studies of neutron-capture element abundance distributions across the entire Milky Way.« less

  19. Low Ionization Absorbing Gas Kinematics Around Z ~ 1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, C. W.; Steidel, C. C.; Vogt, S. S.

    1996-12-01

    Absorption profiles of the Mg II lambda lambda 2796,2803 doublet arising from gas associated with 48 ``normal'' intermediate redshift (0.4 < z < 1.7) galaxies have been resolved in QSO spectra at 6 km s(-1) resolution using HIRES on Keck I. We have found evidence for pronounced redshift evolution in the subcomponent velocity two--point correlation function, suggestive that the gas surrounding galaxies has settled over a 5--10 Gyr look--back time. Based upon a sub--sample of 15 galaxies at z<1, we found no evidence for correlations between the absorbing gas kinematics and the projected galactocentric distance of the gas, galaxy luminosities, or galaxy rest--frame colors (though trends between galaxy properties and absorption properties are apparent from a larger low resolution absorption line sample). The implication is that low ionization gas surrounding early epoch galaxies was not smoothly distributed either spatially or kinematically out to a galactocentric distance ~ 40 kpc. Directly from the profiles, we have measured the number of separate absorbing ``kinematic subsystems'' associated with each galaxy, and each subsystem's profile velocity width, asymmetry (skew), and integrated column density. The distribution in these subsystem properties with velocity is highly peaked at zero, and does not exhibit a bimodality. The lack of a bimodality is suggestive that the gas kinematics is not dominated by quasi--symmetric infall into galactic potential wells. In view of absorption line studies of local galaxies, it appears that extended regions of low ionization gas surrounding galaxies represent a dynamical and active epoch of ``normal'' galaxy evolution. The reservoirs of gas for these extended ``halos'' were probably residual infalling fragments (from earlier formation processes and on--going dynamical events) whose evolution first included a settling in velocity dispersion and then more recently a decline in number. The build up of thick and/or extended gaseous

  20. SPEXTRA: Optimal extraction code for long-slit spectra in crowded fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisyan, A. N.; Vinokurov, A. S.; Solovieva, Yu. N.; Sholukhova, O. N.; Kostenkov, A. E.; Fabrika, S. N.

    2017-10-01

    We present a code for the optimal extraction of long-slit 2D spectra in crowded stellar fields. Its main advantage and difference from the existing spectrum extraction codes is the presence of a graphical user interface (GUI) and a convenient visualization system of data and extraction parameters. On the whole, the package is designed to study stars in crowded fields of nearby galaxies and star clusters in galaxies. Apart from the spectrum extraction for several stars which are closely located or superimposed, it allows the spectra of objects to be extracted with subtraction of superimposed nebulae of different shapes and different degrees of ionization. The package can also be used to study single stars in the case of a strong background. In the current version, the optimal extraction of 2D spectra with an aperture and the Gaussian function as PSF (point spread function) is proposed. In the future, the package will be supplemented with the possibility to build a PSF based on a Moffat function. We present the details of GUI, illustrate main features of the package, and show results of extraction of the several interesting spectra of objects from different telescopes.

  1. SimBAL: A Spectral Synthesis Approach to Analyzing Broad Absorption Line Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terndrup, Donald M.; Leighly, Karen; Gallagher, Sarah; Richards, Gordon T.

    2017-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line quasars (BALQSOs) show blueshifted absorption lines in their rest-UV spectra, indicating powerful winds emerging from the central engine. These winds are essential part of quasars: they can carry away angular momentum and thus facilitate accretion through a disk, they can distribute chemically-enriched gas through the intergalactic medium, and they may inject kinetic energy to the host galaxy, influencing its evolution. The traditional method of analyzing BALQSO spectra involves measuring myriad absorption lines, computing the inferred ionic column densities in each feature, and comparing with the output of photonionization models. This method is inefficient and does not handle line blending well. We introduce SimBAL, a spectral synthesis fitting method for BALQSOs, which compares synthetic spectra created from photoionization model results with continuum-normalized observed spectra using Bayesian model calibration. We find that we can obtain an excellent fit to the UV to near-IR spectrum of the low-redshift BALQSO SDSS J0850+4451, including lines from diverse ionization states such as PV, CIII*, SIII, Lyalpha, NV, SiIV, CIV, MgII, and HeI*.

  2. Robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming.

    PubMed

    Baran, Richard; Northen, Trent R

    2013-10-15

    Untargeted metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled via electrospray ionization is a powerful tool for the discovery of novel natural products, metabolic capabilities, and biomarkers. However, the elucidation of the identities of uncharacterized metabolites from spectral features remains challenging. A critical step in the metabolite identification workflow is the assignment of redundant spectral features (adducts, fragments, multimers) and calculation of the underlying chemical formula. Inspection of the data by experts using computational tools solving partial problems (e.g., chemical formula calculation for individual ions) can be performed to disambiguate alternative solutions and provide reliable results. However, manual curation is tedious and not readily scalable or standardized. Here we describe an automated procedure for the robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming optimization (RAMSI). Chemical rules among related ions are expressed as linear constraints and both the spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation are performed in a single optimization step. This approach is unbiased in that it does not require predefined sets of neutral losses and positive and negative polarity spectra can be combined in a single optimization. The procedure was evaluated with 30 experimental mass spectra and was found to effectively identify the protonated or deprotonated molecule ([M + H](+) or [M - H](-)) while being robust to the presence of background ions. RAMSI provides a much-needed standardized tool for interpreting ions for subsequent identification in untargeted metabolomics workflows.

  3. Dynamic molecular structure retrieval from low-energy laser-induced electron diffraction spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Dinh-Duy T.; Phan, Ngoc-Loan T.; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang

    2017-12-01

    A recently developed quantitative rescattering theory showed that a laser-free elastic cross section can be separated from laser-induced electron diffraction (LIED) spectra. Based upon this idea, Blaga et al investigated the possibility of reconstructing molecular structure from LIED spectra (2012 Nature 483 7388). In the above study, an independent atoms model (IAM) was used to interpret high-energy electron-molecule collisions induced by a mid-infrared laser. Our research aims to extend the application range of this structural retrieval method to low-energy spectra induced by more common near-infrared laser sources. The IAM is insufficient in this case, so we switch to a more comprehensive model—the multiple scattering (MS) theory. From the original version concerning only neutral targets, we upgrade the model so that it is compatible with electron-ion collisions at low energy. With available LIED experiment data of CO2 and O2, the upgraded MS is shown to be greatly effective as a tool for molecular imaging from spectra induced by a near-infrared laser. The captured image is at about 2 fs after the ionization, shorter than the period 4-6 fs by using the mid-infrared laser in Blaga’s experiment.

  4. UV-Visible Spectra of PAHs and Derivatives Seeded in Supersonic Jet. Astrophysical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salma, Bejaoui; Salama, Farid

    2018-06-01

    Laboratory absorption spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH derivatives measured under astrophysical relevant conditions are crucial to test the PAHs-DIBs hypothesis as well as the PAH model for the IR emission bands. Our dedicated experimental setup on the COsmic SImulation Chamber (COSmIC) provides an excellent platform to study neutral and ionized PAHs under the low temperature and pressure conditions that are representative of interstellar environments [1]. In this work, we study the effect of the substitution of CH bond(s) by a nitrogen atom(s) on the electronic spectra of phenanthrene. The electronic transitions associated with the lower excited states of neutral phenanthrene (C14H10) and phenanthridine (C13H9N) are measured in gas phase in the 315-345 nm region. Molecules are seeded in a supersonic expansion of argon gas and the absorption spectra are measured using the Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. Additional measurements of the absorption spectra of phenanthrene, phenantridine and 1,10-phenanthroline (C12H8N2) isolated in 10 K argon matrices are also performed. The comparison between the CRDS spectra with the absorption of the matrix-isolated molecules highlight the matrix-induced perturbations in band position, profiles and broadening and illustrates the need of gas phase measurements for more accurate comparisons with astronomical spectra.[1] Salama, F., Galazutdinov, G., Krelowski, et al. ApJ 728, 154[FS1] (2011).[2] A. Tielens, ApJ 526 Pt 1265–273 (2008),Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the APRA Program of NASA SMD

  5. Low-sample flow secondary electrospray ionization: improving vapor ionization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Vidal-de-Miguel, G; Macía, M; Pinacho, P; Blanco, J

    2012-10-16

    In secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) systems, gaseous analytes exposed to an elecrospray plume become ionized after charge is transferred from the charging electrosprayed particles to the sample species. Current SESI systems have shown a certain potential. However, their ionization efficiency is limited by space charge repulsion and by the high sample flows required to prevent vapor dilution. As a result, they have a poor conversion ratio of vapor into ions. We have developed and tested a new SESI configuration, termed low-flow SESI, that permits the reduction of the required sample flows. Although the ion to vapor concentration ratio is limited, the ionic flow to sample vapor flow ratio theoretically is not. The new ionizer is coupled to a planar differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and requires only 0.2 lpm of vapor sample flow to produce 3.5 lpm of ionic flow. The achieved ionization efficiency is 1/700 (one ion for every 700 molecules) for TNT and, thus, compared with previous SESI ionizers coupled with atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry (API-MS) (Mesonero, E.; Sillero, J. A.; Hernández, M.; Fernandez de la Mora, J. Philadelphia PA, 2009) has been improved by a large factor of at least 50-100 (our measurements indicate 70). The new ionizer coupled with the planar DMA and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ABSciex API5000) requires only 20 fg (50 million molecules) to produce a discernible signal after mobility and MS(2) analysis.

  6. Simultaneous resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization and electron avalanche ionization in gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, Mikhail N.; Zhang Zhili; Miles, Richard B.

    2008-07-15

    Resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and electron avalanche ionization (EAI) are measured simultaneously in Ar:Xe mixtures at different partial pressures of mixture components. A simple theory for combined REMPI+EAI in gas mixture is developed. It is shown that the REMPI electrons seed the avalanche process, and thus the avalanche process amplifies the REMPI signal. Possible applications are discussed.

  7. Study of Simvastatin Self-Association Using Electrospray-Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrova, E. V.; Lekar, A. V.; Filonova, O. V.; Borisenko, S. N.; Maksimenko, E. V.; Borisenko, N. I.

    2015-07-01

    Self-association of simvastatin, which is widely used to treat coronary heart disease, was investigated using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Formation of simvastatin self-associates in various solvents was demonstrated using mass spectrometry. Solvation effects were shown to play a special role in the formation of the self-associates. Self-associates containing from two to fi ve simvastatin molecules were detected in mass spectra of an aqueous MeOH (20%) solution of simvastatin. The formation of simvastatin self-associates could compete with the complexation of supramolecular structures during the synthesis of new generation drugs.

  8. Revised Energy Spectra for Primary Elements, H - Si, above 50 GeV from the ATIC-2 Science Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, J. P.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunashingha, R. M.; Guzik, T. G.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) long duration balloon experiment had a successful science flight accumulating 18 days of data (12/02 - 1/03) during a single circumnavigation in Antarctica. ATIC measures the energy spectra of elements from H to Fe in primary cosmic rays using a fully active Bismuth Germanate calorimeter preceded by a carbon target, with embedded scintillator hodoscopes, and a silicon matrix charge detector at the top. Preliminary results from ATIC have been reported in previous conferences. The revised results reported here are derived from a new analysis of the data with improved charge resolution, lower background and revised energy calibration. The raw energy deposit spectra are de-convolved into primary energy spectra and extrapolated to the top of the atmosphere. We compare these revised results to previous data and comment upon the astrophysical interpretation of the results.

  9. Rotationally resolved pulsed field ionization photoelectron study of CO[sup +](X[sup 2][Sigma][sup +],v[sup +]=0[endash]42) in the energy range of 13. 98[endash]21. 92 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.; Ng, C.Y.

    1999-11-01

    We have obtained rotationally resolved pulsed field ionization[endash]photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectra of CO in the energy range of 13.98[endash]21.92 eV, covering the ionization transitions CO[sup +](X hthinsp;[sup 2][Sigma][sup +],v[sup +]=0[endash]42,N[sup +])[l arrow]CO(X hthinsp;[sup 1][Sigma][sup +],v[sup [double prime

  10. Low latitude middle atmosphere ionization studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassi, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Low latitude middle atmosphere ionization was studied with data obtained from three blunt conductivity probes and one Gerdien condenser. An investigation was conducted into the effects of various ionization sources in the 40 to 65 Km altitude range. An observed enhancement of positive ion conductivity taking place during the night can be explained by an atmsopheric effect, with cosmic rays being the only source of ionization only if the ion-ion recombination coefficient (alpha sub i) is small(10 to the -7 power cu cm/s) and varies greatly with altitude. More generally accepted values of alpha sub i ( approximately equal to 3x10 to the -7 power cu cm/s) require an additional source of ionization peaking at about 65 Km, and corresponding approximately to the integrated effect of an X-ray flux measured on a rocket flown in conjunction with the ionization measurements. The reasonable assumption of an alpha sub i which does not vary with altitude in the 50-70 Km range implies an even greater value alpha sub i and a more intense and harder X-ray spectrum.

  11. Deep-down ionization of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Lizano, S.; Galli, D.

    2017-12-01

    The possible occurrence of dead zones in protoplanetary discs subject to the magneto-rotational instability highlights the importance of disc ionization. We present a closed-form theory for the deep-down ionization by X-rays at depths below the disc surface dominated by far-ultraviolet radiation. Simple analytic solutions are given for the major ion classes, electrons, atomic ions, molecular ions and negatively charged grains. In addition to the formation of molecular ions by X-ray ionization of H2 and their destruction by dissociative recombination, several key processes that operate in this region are included, e.g. charge exchange of molecular ions and neutral atoms and destruction of ions by grains. Over much of the inner disc, the vertical decrease in ionization with depth into the disc is described by simple power laws, which can easily be included in more detailed modelling of magnetized discs. The new ionization theory is used to illustrate the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects of Ohmic, Hall and Ambipolar diffusion for a magnetic model of a T Tauri star disc using the appropriate Elsasser numbers.

  12. Tunable Ionization Modes of a Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow (FAPA) Ambient Ionization Source.

    PubMed

    Badal, Sunil P; Michalak, Shawn D; Chan, George C-Y; You, Yi; Shelley, Jacob T

    2016-04-05

    Plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization sources are versatile in that they enable direct ionization of gaseous samples as well as desorption/ionization of analytes from liquid and solid samples. However, ionization matrix effects, caused by competitive ionization processes, can worsen sensitivity or even inhibit detection all together. The present study is focused on expanding the analytical capabilities of the flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source by exploring additional types of ionization chemistry. Specifically, it was found that the abundance and type of reagent ions produced by the FAPA source and, thus, the corresponding ionization pathways of analytes, can be altered by changing the source working conditions. High abundance of proton-transfer reagent ions was observed with relatively high gas flow rates and low discharge currents. Conversely, charge-transfer reagent species were most abundant at low gas flows and high discharge currents. A rather nonpolar model analyte, biphenyl, was found to significantly change ionization pathway based on source operating parameters. Different analyte ions (e.g., MH(+) via proton-transfer and M(+.) via charge-transfer) were formed under unique operating parameters demonstrating two different operating regimes. These tunable ionization modes of the FAPA were used to enable or enhance detection of analytes which traditionally exhibit low-sensitivity in plasma-based ADI-MS analyses. In one example, 2,2'-dichloroquaterphenyl was detected under charge-transfer FAPA conditions, which were difficult or impossible to detect with proton-transfer FAPA or direct analysis in real-time (DART). Overall, this unique mode of operation increases the number and range of detectable analytes and has the potential to lessen ionization matrix effects in ADI-MS analyses.

  13. Extreme ultraviolet spectra of multiply charged tungsten ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, Momoe; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-11-01

    We present extreme ultraviolet spectra of multiply charged tungsten ions observed with an electron beam ion trap. The observed spectra are compared with previous experimental results and theoretical spectra obtained with a collisional radiative model.

  14. The CNO Concentration in Cosmic Ray Spectrum as Measured From The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazely, A. R.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Ahn, H.; Ampe, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present preliminary results on the spectra of CNO nuclei in the cosmic radiation as measured in the first flight of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Balloon Experiment (ATIC) which lasted for 16 days, starting in December, 2000 with a launch from McMurdo, Antarctica. ATIC is a multiple, long duration balloon flight, investigation for the study of cosmic ray spectra from below 50 GeV to near 100 TeV total energy, using a fully active Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter. It is equipped with the first large area mosaic of small fully depleted silicon detector pads capable of charge identification in cosmic rays from H to Fe. As a redundancy check for the charge identification and a coarse particle tracking system, three projective layers of x-y scintillator hodoscopes were employed, above, in the center and below a Carbon interaction "target".

  15. Ionized and Neutral Outflows in the QUEST QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2011-10-01

    The role of galactic winds in gas-rich mergers is of crucial importance to understand galaxy and SMBH evolution. In recent months, our group has had three major scientific breakthroughs in this area: {1} The discovery with Herschel of massive molecular {OH-absorbing} outflows in several ULIRGs, including the nearest quasar, Mrk 231. {2} The independent discovery from mm-wave interferometric observations in the same object of a spatially resolved molecular {CO-emitting} wind with estimated mass outflow rate 3x larger than the star formation rate and spatially coincident with blueshifted neutral {Na ID-absorbing} gas in optical long-slit spectra. {3} The unambiguous determination from recent Gemini/IFU observations that the Na ID outflow in this object is wide-angle, thus driven by a QSO wind rather than a jet. This powerful outflow may be the long-sought "smoking gun" of quasar mechanical feedback purported to transform gas-rich mergers. However, our Herschel survey excludes all FIR-faint {UV-bright} "classic" QSOs by necessity. So here we propose a complementary FUV absorption-line survey of all FIR-bright -and- FIR-faint QSOs from the same parent sample. New {19 targets} and archival {11} spectra will be used to study, for the first time, the gaseous environments of QSOs as a function of host properties and age across the merger sequence ULIRG -> QSO. These data will allow us to distinguish between ionized & neutral quasar-driven outflows, starburst-driven winds, and tidal debris around the mergers. They will also be uniquely suited for a shallow but broad study of the warm & warm-hot intergalactic media, complementary to on-going surveys that are deeper but narrower.

  16. Identification of nickel-vacancy defects by combining experimental and ab initio simulated photocurrent spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londero, E.; Bourgeois, E.; Nesladek, M.; Gali, A.

    2018-06-01

    There is a continuous search for solid state spin qubits operating at room temperature with excitation in the infrared communication bandwidth. Recently, we have introduced the photoelectric detection of magnetic resonance (PDMR) to read the electron spin state of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond, a technique which is promising for applications in quantum information technology. By measuring the photoionization spectra on a diamond crystal, we found two ionization thresholds of unknown origin. On the same sample we also observed absorption and photoluminescence signatures that were identified in the literature as Ni-associated defects. We performed ab initio calculations of the photoionization cross section of the nickel split-vacancy complex (NiV) and N-related defects in their relevant charge states and fitted the concentration of these defects to the measured photocurrent spectrum, which led to a surprising match between experimental and calculated spectra. This study enabled us to identify the two unknown ionization thresholds with the two acceptor levels of NiV. Because the excitation of NiV is in the infrared, the photocurrent detected from the paramagnetic NiV color centers is a promising way towards the design of electrically readout qubits.

  17. Fast detection of narcotics by single photon ionization mass spectrometry and laser ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudien, Robert; Schultze, Rainer; Wieser, Jochen

    2010-10-01

    In this contribution two analytical devices for the fast detection of security-relevant substances like narcotics and explosives are presented. One system is based on an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) with single photon ionization (SPI). This soft ionization technique, unlike electron impact ionization (EI), reduces unwanted fragment ions in the mass spectra allowing the clear determination of characteristic (usually molecular) ions. Their enrichment in the ion trap and identification by tandem MS investigations (MS/MS) enables the detection of the target substances in complex matrices at low concentrations without time-consuming sample preparation. For SPI an electron beam pumped excimer light source of own fabrication (E-Lux) is used. The SPI-ITMS system was characterized by the analytical study of different drugs like cannabis, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, and some precursors. Additionally, it was successfully tested on-site in a closed illegal drug laboratory, where low quantities of MDMA could be directly detected in samples from floors, walls and lab equipments. The second analytical system is based on an ion mobility (IM) spectrometer with resonant multiphoton ionization (REMPI). With the frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm), used for ionization, a selective and sensitive detection of aromatic compounds is possible. By application of suited aromatic dopants, in addition, also non-aromatic polar compounds are accessible by ion molecule reactions like proton transfer or complex formation. Selected drug precursors could be successfully detected with this device as well, qualifying it to a lower-priced alternative or useful supplement of the SPI-ITMS system for security analysis.

  18. Evidence for a Hard Ionizing Spectrum from a z = 6.11 Stellar Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainali, Ramesh; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Stark, Daniel P.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Walth, Gregory; Newman, Andrew B.; Miller, Daniel R.

    2017-02-01

    We present the Magellan/FIRE detection of highly ionized C IV λ1550 and O III]λ1666 in a deep infrared spectrum of the z = 6.11 gravitationally lensed low-mass galaxy RXC J2248.7-4431-ID3, which has previously known Lyα. No corresponding emission is detected at the expected location of He II λ1640. The upper limit on He II, paired with detection of O III] and C IV, constrains possible ionization scenarios. Production of C IV and O III] requires ionizing photons of 2.5-3.5 Ryd, but once in that state their multiplet emission is powered by collisional excitation at lower energies (˜0.5 Ryd). As a pure recombination line, He II emission is powered by 4 Ryd ionizing photons. The data therefore require a spectrum with significant power at 3.5 Ryd but a rapid drop toward 4.0 Ryd. This hard spectrum with a steep drop is characteristic of low-metallicity stellar populations, and less consistent with soft AGN excitation, which features more 4 Ryd photons and hence higher He II flux. The conclusions based on ratios of metal line detections to helium non-detection are strengthened if the gas metallicity is low. RXJ2248-ID3 adds to the growing handful of reionization-era galaxies with UV emission line ratios distinct from the general z=2{--}3 population in a way that suggests hard ionizing spectra that do not necessarily originate in AGNs.

  19. Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Severs, Joanne C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an anolyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

  20. Photoelectron circular dichroism in different ionization regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollenhaupt, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) describes an asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) from photoionization of randomly oriented enantiomers with circularly polarized light. Beaulieu et al present a comprehensive set of measured PADs from multiphoton ionization of limonene and fenchone in different ionization regimes (multiphoton and tunneling) and analyze the resulting PECD (Beaulieu et al 2016 New J. Phys. 18 102002). From their observations the authors conclude that the PECD is universal in the sense that the molecular chirality is encoded in the PAD independent of the ionization regime. The analysis is supplemented by a classical model based on electron scattering in a chiral potential. The paper presents beautiful data and is an important step towards a more complete physical picture of PECD. The results and their interpretation stimulate the ongoing vivid debate on the role of resonances in multiphoton PECD.

  1. Nuclear Fission Investigation with Twin Ionization Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynalova, O.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Nazarenko, M.

    2011-11-29

    The purpose of the present paper was to report the recent results, obtained in development of digital pulse processing mathematics for prompt fission neutron (PFN) investigation using twin ionization chamber (TIC) along with fast neutron time-of-flight detector (ND). Due to well known ambiguities in literature (see refs. [4, 6, 9 and 11]), concerning a pulse induction on TIC electrodes by FF ionization, we first presented detailed mathematical analysis of fission fragment (FF) signal formation on TIC anode. The analysis was done using Ramo-Shockley theorem, which gives relation between charged particle motion between TIC electrodes and so called weighting potential. Weightingmore » potential was calculated by direct numerical solution of Laplace equation (neglecting space charge) for the TIC geometry and ionization, caused by FF. Formulae for grid inefficiency (GI) correction and digital pulse processing algorithms for PFN time-of-flight measurements and pulse shape analysis are presented and discussed.« less

  2. Ionization-chamber smoke detector system

    DOEpatents

    Roe, Robert F.

    1976-10-19

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system is designed to reduce false alarms caused by fluctuations in ambient temperature. Means are provided for periodically firing the gas discharge triode and each time recording the triggering voltage required. A computer compares each triggering voltage with its predecessor. The computer is programmed to energize an alarm if the difference between the two compared voltages is a relatively large value indicative of particulates in the measuring chamber and to disregard smaller differences typically resulting from changes in ambient temperature.

  3. The reflection of an ionized shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Fumioki; Corli, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    In a previous paper, we studied the thermodynamic and kinetic theory for an ionized gas, in one space dimension; in this paper, we provide an application of those results to the reflection of a shock wave in an electromagnetic shock tube. Under some reasonable limitations, which fully agree with experimental data, we prove that both the incident and the reflected shock waves satisfy the Lax entropy conditions; this result holds even outside genuinely nonlinear regions, which are present in the model. We show that the temperature increases in a significant way behind the incident shock front but the degree of ionization does not undergo a similar growth. On the contrary, the degree of ionization increases substantially behind the reflected shock front. We explain these phenomena by means of the concavity of the Hugoniot loci. Therefore, our results not only fit perfectly but explain what was remarked in experiments.

  4. Selective ionization of dissolved organic nitrogen by positive ion atmospheric pressure photoionization coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Podgorski, David C; McKenna, Amy M; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G; Cooper, William T

    2012-06-05

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) comprises a heterogeneous family of organic compounds that includes both well-known biomolecules such as urea or amino acids and more complex, less characterized compounds such as humic and fulvic acids. Typically, DON represents only a small fraction of the total dissolved organic carbon pool and therefore presents inherent problems for chemical analysis and characterization. Here, we demonstrate that DON may be selectively ionized by atmospheric pressure photionization (APPI) and characterized at the molecular level by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Unlike electrospray ionization (ESI), APPI ionizes polar and nonpolar compounds, and ionization efficiency is not determined by polarity. APPI is tolerant to salts, due to the thermal treatment inherent to nebulization, and thus avoids salt-adduct formation that can complicate ESI mass spectra. Here, for dissolved organic matter from various aquatic environments, we selectively ionize DON species that are not efficiently ionized by other ionization techniques and demonstrate significant signal-to-noise increase for nitrogen species by use of APPI relative to ESI.

  5. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-08-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  6. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  7. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefitsmore » those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.« less

  8. Differential dpa calculations with SPECTRA-PKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    2018-06-01

    The processing code SPECTRA-PKA produces energy spectra of primary atomic recoil events (or primary knock-on atoms, PKAs) for any material composition exposed to an irradiation spectrum. Such evaluations are vital inputs for simulations aimed at understanding the evolution of damage in irradiated material, which is generated in cascade displacement events initiated by PKAs. These PKA spectra present the full complexity of the input (to SPECTRA-PKA) nuclear data-library evaluations of recoil events. However, the commonly used displacements per atom (dpa) measure, which is an integral measure over all possible recoil events of the displacement damage dose, is still widely used and has many useful applications - as both a comparative and correlative quantity. This paper describes the methodology employed that allows the SPECTRA-PKA code to evaluate dpa rates using the energy-dependent recoil (PKA) cross section data used for the PKA distributions. This avoids the need for integral displacement kerma cross sections and also provides new insight into the relative importance of different reaction channels (and associated different daughter residual and emitted particles) to the total integrated dpa damage dose. Results are presented for Fe, Ni, W, and SS316. Fusion dpa rates are compared to those in fission, highlighting the increased contribution to damage creation in the former from high-energy threshold reactions.

  9. Cleaning HI Spectra Contaminated by GPS RFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvia, Kamin; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NUDET systems aboard GPS satellites utilize radio waves to communicate information regarding surface nuclear events. The system tests appear in spectra as RFI (radio frequency interference) at 1381MHz, which contaminates observations of extragalactic HI (atomic hydrogen) signals at 50-150 Mpc. Test durations last roughly 20-120 seconds and can occur upwards of 30 times during a single night of observing. The disruption essentially renders the corresponding HI spectra useless.We present a method that automatically removes RFI in HI spectra caused by these tests. By capitalizing on the GPS system's short test durations and predictable frequency appearance we are able to devise a method of identifying times containing compromised data records. By reevaluating the remaining data, we are able to recover clean spectra while sacrificing little in terms of sensitivity to extragalactic signals. This method has been tested on 500+ spectra taken by the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT), in which it successfully identified and removed all sources of GPS RFI. It will also be used to eliminate RFI in the upcoming Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS).This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  10. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  11. Simulation of Infrared Spectra of Carbonaceous Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadswell, G.; Duley, W. W.

    1997-02-01

    Random covalent network (RCN) theory is applied to describe the infrared spectroscopic properties of carbonaceous solids with compositions containing a mixture of aromatic, aliphatic, and diamond-like hydrocarbons. Application of this technique to carbonaceous dust is equivalent to the synthesis of solids whose structure and bonding satisfy stoicheometry while minimizing strain energy. The result involves a range of compositions compatible with carbon bonding and the hydrogen concentration incorporated in the network. In general, only a limited range of compositions is available rather than the infinite number of possible compositions expected without the inclusion of these constraints. When compositions have been defined in this way, infrared spectra may be synthesized for comparison with astronomical spectra of interstellar carbonaceous solids. Such spectra contain components corresponding to absorption by CHn groups in which n = 1-3. We find, however, that additional spectral features, not included in our simple chemical model, must be present also in dust. We give plots of such spectra in the 3100-2800 cm-1 (3.2-3.6 μm) region for comparison with infrared spectra of interstellar dust. We have also developed an RCN formalism that incorporates oxygen into the carbon network as OH groups, and we show that this inclusion introduces a strong additional absorption band in the 3300 cm-1 (3.0 μm) region.

  12. Relativistic Ionization with Intense Linearly Polarized Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Douglas Plummer

    The Strong Field Approximation (SFA) method is used to derive relativistic ionization rate expressions for ground state hydrogen-like atoms in the presence of an intense electromagnetic field. The emitted particle, which is initially bound to a hydrogen nucleus, is either an electron described by the Dirac equation, with spin effects fully included, or a spinless "electron" described by the Klein-Gordon equation. The derivations and subsequent calculations for both particles are made assuming a linearly polarized electromagnetic field which is monochromatic and which exhibits neither diffraction nor temporal dependence. From each of the relativistic ionization rate expressions, the corresponding expression in the nonrelativistic limit is derived. The resultant expressions are found to be equivalent to those derived using the SFA with the nonrelativistic formalism. This comparison provides the first check of the validity for the core results of this dissertation. Intensity-dependent ionization rates are then calculated for two ultraviolet frequencies using a numerical implementation of the derived expressions. Calculations of ionization rates and related phenomena demonstrate that there are negligible differences between relativistic and nonrelativistic predictions for low intensities. In addition, the differences in behavior between linearly and circularly polarized ionizing fields and between particles with and without spin are explored. The spin comparisons provide additional confidence in the derivations by showing negligible differences between ionization rates for Dirac and Klein -Gordon particles in strong linearly-polarized fields. Also of interest are the differential transition rates which exhibit dynamic profiles as the intensity is increased. This behavior is interpreted as an indication of more atomic influence for linearly polarized electromagnetic (em) fields than for circularly polarized em fields.

  13. An (e, 2e+ ion) study of electron-impact ionization and fragmentation of tetrafluoromethane at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, Khokon; Ren, Xueguang; Wang, Enliang; Kumar, S. V. K.; Dorn, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    We study ionization and fragmentation of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) molecule induced by electron impact at low energies ( E 0 = 38 and 67 eV). We use a reaction microscope combined with a pulsed photoemission electron beam for our experimental investigation. The momentum vectors of the two outgoing electrons (energies E 1, E 2) and one fragment ion are detected in triple coincidence (e, 2e+ ion). After dissociation, the fragment products observed are CF3 +, CF2 +, CF+, F+ and C+. For CF3 + and CF2 + channels, we measure the ionized orbitals binding energies, the kinetic energy (KE) of the charged fragments and the two-dimensional (2D) correlation map between binding energy (BE) and KE of the fragments. From the BE and KE spectra, we conclude which molecular orbitals contribute to particular fragmentation channels of CF4. We also measure the total ionization cross section for the formation of CF3 + and CF2 + ions as function of projectile energy. We compare our results with earlier experiments and calculations for electron-impact and photoionization. The major contribution to CF3 + formation originates from ionization of the 4t2 orbital while CF2 + is mainly formed after 3t2 orbital ionization. We also observe a weak contribution of the (4a1)-1 state for the channel CF3 +.

  14. Detection of explosives using negative ion mobility spectrometry in air based on dopant-assisted thermal ionization.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Hassan; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud; Farrokhpor, Hossein

    2018-05-26

    The ionization source is an essential component of most explosive detectors based on negative ion mobility spectrometry. Conventional ion sources suffer from such inherent limitations as special safety regulations on radioactive sources or generating interfering ions (for non-radioactive sources) such as corona discharge operating in the air. In this study, a new negative ion source is introduced for ion mobility spectrometry that is based on thermal ionization and operates in the air, applicable to explosives detection. Our system consists of a heating filament powered by an isolated power supply connected to negative high voltage. The ionization is assisted by doping chlorinated compounds in the gas phase using chlorinated hydrocarbons in contact with the heating element to yield Cl - reactant ions. Several chlorinated hydrocarbons are evaluated as the reagent chemicals for providing Cl- reactant ions, of which CCl 4 is identified as the best ionizing reagent. The ion source is evaluated by recording the ion mobility spectra of common explosives, including TNT, RDX, and PETN in the air. A detection limit of 150 pg is obtained for TNT. Compared to other ionization sources, the new source is found to be low-cost, simple, and long-lived, making it suited to portable explosives detection devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation of Metal-Adducted Analyte Ions by Flame-Induced Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Wang, Chin-Hsiung; Shiea, Jentaie

    2016-05-17

    A flame-induced atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) source, consisting of a miniflame, nebulizer, and heated tube, was developed to ionize analytes. The ionization was performed by reacting analytes with a charged species generated in a flame. A stainless steel needle deposited with saturated alkali chloride solution was introduced into the mini oxyacetylene flame to generate alkali ions, which were reacted with analytes (M) generated in a heated nebulizer. The alkali-adducted 18-crown-6 ether ions, including (M + Li)(+), (M + Na)(+), (M + K)(+), (M + Rb)(+), and (M + Cs)(+), were successfully detected on the FAPCI mass spectra when the corresponding alkali chloride solutions were separately introduced to the flame. When an alkali chloride mixture was introduced, all alkali-adducted analyte ions were simultaneously detected. Their intensity order was as follows: (M + Cs)(+) > (M + Rb)(+) > (M + K)(+) > (M + Na)(+) > (M + Li)(+), and this trend agreed with the lattice energies of alkali chlorides. Besides alkali ions, other transition metal ions such as Ni(+), Cu(+), and Ag(+) were generated in a flame for analyte ionization. Other than metal ions, the reactive species generated in the fossil fuel flame could also be used to ionize analytes, which formed protonated analyte ions (M + H)(+) in positive ion mode and deprotonated analyte ions (M - H)(-) in negative ion mode.

  16. Vibrational spectra and structures of neutral Si(m)C(n) clusters (m + n = 6): sequential doping of silicon clusters with carbon atoms.

    PubMed

    Savoca, Marco; Lagutschenkov, Anita; Langer, Judith; Harding, Dan J; Fielicke, André; Dopfer, Otto

    2013-02-14

    Vibrational spectra of mixed silicon carbide clusters Si(m)C(n) with m + n = 6 in the gas phase are obtained by resonant infrared-vacuum-ultraviolet two-color ionization (IR-UV2CI for n ≤ 2) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Si(m)C(n) clusters are produced in a laser vaporization source, in which the silicon plasma reacts with methane. Subsequently, they are irradiated with tunable IR light from an IR free electron laser before they are ionized with UV photons from an F(2) laser. Resonant absorption of one or more IR photons leads to an enhanced ionization efficiency for Si(m)C(n) and provides the size-specific IR spectra. IR spectra measured for Si(6), Si(5)C, and Si(4)C(2) are assigned to their most stable isomers by comparison with calculated linear absorption spectra. The preferred Si(m)C(n) structures with m + n = 6 illustrate the systematic transition from chain-like geometries for bare C(6) to three-dimensional structures for bare Si(6). In contrast to bulk SiC, carbon atom segregation is observed already for the smallest n (n = 2).

  17. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment User Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, A.; Rajaram, D.; MICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a proof-of-principle experiment designed to demonstrate muon ionization cooling for the first time. MICE is currently on Step IV of its data taking programme, where transverse emittance reduction will be demonstrated. The MICE Analysis User Software (MAUS) is the reconstruction, simulation and analysis framework for the MICE experiment. MAUS is used for both offline data analysis and fast online data reconstruction and visualization to serve MICE data taking. This paper provides an introduction to MAUS, describing the central Python and C++ based framework, the data structure and and the code management and testing procedures.

  18. Determination of ionization constants by paper electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Tate, M E

    1981-01-01

    Dimensionless apparent ionization constants of charged low-molecular-weight species may be obtained from paper-electrophoretic data at 20-25 degrees C with buffers (I0.1-0.5) of measured pH (1.5-12.5) containing oxalate ions. Relative mobilities rather than absolute mobilities were measured by using glycerol and m-nitrobenzenesulphonate respectively as standards of zero and unit mobility. Application of the procedure to ionizations of adenine, adenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine, 3'-deoxyadenosine, 3':5'-cyclic AMP, ADP, ADP-glucose-agrocin 84 and ATP is described. PMID:6976169

  19. Hazards to space workers from ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    A compilation of background information and a preliminary assessment of the potential risks to workers from the ionizing radiation encountered in space is provided. The report: (1) summarizes the current knowledge of the space radiation environment to which space workers will be exposed; (2) reviews the biological effects of ionizing radiation considered of major importance to a SPS project; and (3) discusses the health implications of exposure of populations of space workers to the radiations likely to penetrate through the shielding provided by the SPS work stations and habitat shelters of the SPS Reference System.

  20. Ionizing radiation environment for the TOMS mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauriente, M.; Maloy, J. O.; Vampola, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) will fly on several different spacecraft, each having an orbit which is approximately polar and 800-980 km in altitude. A description is given of the computer-based tools used for characterizing the spacecraft interactions with the ionizing radiation environment in orbit and the susceptibility requirements for ionizing radiation compatibility. The peak flux from the model was used to derive the expected radiation-induced noise in the South Atlantic Anomaly for the new TOMS instruments intended to fly on Advanced Earth Observatory System and Earth Probe.