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Sample records for abovechoriz bar triple

  1. Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer

    DOEpatents

    Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

    2013-03-19

    A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

  2. Searching for new scalar bosons via triple-top signature in cg → tS0 → tt t bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohda, Masaya; Modak, Tanmoy; Hou, Wei-Shu

    2018-01-01

    The alignment phenomenon, that the 125 GeV h0 boson so resembles the Standard Model Higgs boson, can be understood in a two Higgs doublet model without discrete symmetry. New Yukawa couplings ρtt and ρtc offer new avenues to discover the extra scalar H0 and pseudoscalar A0. We propose to search for cg → tH0, tA0 followed by H0, A0 → t t bar , t c bar , where same-sign dileptons could be the harbinger, with triple-top, in the signature of three leptons plus three b-jets, as confirmation. Discovery could touch upon the origin of baryon asymmetry of the Universe.

  3. Determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins in water by stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tölgyessy, P; Nagyová, S; Sládkovičová, M

    2017-04-21

    A simple, robust, sensitive and environment friendly method for the determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in water using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupled to thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (TD-GC-QqQ-MS/MS) was developed. SBSE was performed using 100mL of water sample, 20mL of methanol as a modifier, and a commercial sorptive stir bar (with 10mm×0.5mm PDMS layer) during extraction period of 16h. After extraction, the sorptive stir bar was thermally desorbed and online analysed by GC-MS/MS. Method performance was evaluated for MilliQ and surface water spiked samples. For both types of matrices, a linear dynamic range of 0.5-3.0μgL -1 with correlation coefficients >0.999 and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the relative response factors (RRFs) <12% was established. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.06 and 0.08μgL -1 , and the precision (repeatability) of 6.4 and 7.7% (RSDs) were achieved for MilliQ and surface water, respectively. The method also showed good robustness, recovery and accuracy. The obtained performance characteristics indicate that the method is suitable for screening and monitoring and compliance checking with environmental quality standards (EQS, set by the EU) for SCCPs in surface waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermodynamic and related properties of parahydrogen from the triple point to 300 K at pressures to 1000 bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    Compressibility measurements and thermodynamic properties data for parahydrogen were extended to higher temperatures and pressures. Results of an experimental program are presented in the form of new pressure, volume and temperature data in the temperature range 23 to 300 K at pressures up to 800 bar. Also given are tables of thermodynamic properties on isobars to 1000 bar including density, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heats at constant volume and constant pressure, velocity of sound, and surface derivatives. The accuracy of the data is discussed and comparisons are made with previous data.

  5. Thermodynamic and related properties of oxygen from the triple point to 300 K at pressures to 1000 bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an experimental program are presented in the form of PVT data in the temperature range 58 to 300 K at pressures up to 800 bar. Tables of the derived thermodynamic properties on isobars to 1000 bar are given, including density, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heats at constant volume and constant pressure, velocity of sound, and the surface derivatives (delta P/delta T) sub rho and (delta P/delta Rho) sub T. Auxiliary tables in engineering units are also given. The accuracy of the data is discussed and comparisons are made with previous data.

  6. Triple Helix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    and sponsoring FIRST teams at the Junior FIRST Lego League (JFLL) and the FIRST Lego League (FLL) levels in elementary and middle school . As such, the...a Final Technical Report for Year I Grant W911NF-07-1-0663 with the Newport News Public School District for the Menchville High School Robotics Team...August 2008 TRIPL HELIX 0 Menchville High School Newport News, VA 20080829081 w DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER bfro do.A icfr tkw, Def&*ue, Cow

  7. Bar dimensions and bar shapes in estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuven, Jasper; Kleinhans, Maarten; Weisscher, Steven; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries cause fascinating patterns of dynamic channels and shoals. Intertidal sandbars are valuable habitats, whilst channels provide access to harbors. We still lack a full explanation and classification scheme for the shapes and dimensions of bar patterns in natural estuaries, in contrast with bars in rivers. Analytical physics-based models suggest that bar length in estuaries increases with flow velocity, tidal excursion length or estuary width, depending on which model. However, these hypotheses were never validated for lack of data and experiments. We present a large dataset and determine the controls on bar shape and dimensions in estuaries, spanning bar lengths from centimeters (experiments) to 10s of kilometers length. First, we visually identified and classified 190 bars, measured their dimensions (width, length, height) and local braiding index. Data on estuarine geometry and tidal characteristics were obtained from governmental databases and literature on case studies. We found that many complex bars can be seen as simple elongated bars partly cut by mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels. Data analysis shows that bar dimensions scale with estuary dimensions, in particular estuary width. Breaking up the complex bars in simple bars greatly reduced scatter. Analytical bar theory overpredicts bar dimensions by an order of magnitude in case of small estuarine systems. Likewise, braiding index depends on local width-to-depth ratio, as was previously found for river systems. Our results suggest that estuary dimensions determine the order of magnitude of bar dimensions, while tidal characteristics modify this. We will continue to model bars numerically and experimentally. Our dataset on tidal bars enables future studies on the sedimentary architecture of geologically complex tidal deposits and enables studying effects of man-induced perturbations such as dredging and dumping on bar and channel patterns and habitats.

  8. Triple Asteroid System Triples Asteroid Observers Interest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-06

    NASA Deep Space Network, Goldstone radar images show triple asteroid 1994 CC, which consists of a central object approximately 700 meters 2,300 feet in diameter and two smaller moons that orbit the central body. Animation available at the Photojournal

  9. Characterization of triple layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Toribio F.; Cortes, M. Teresa

    2001-07-01

    We reported the characterization of a macroscopic electrochemomechanical actuator like triple layer (3x1 cm) formed by polypyrrole)/double- sided, non-conducting and flexible tape/ polypyrrole that works in liquid electrolytes under electrochemical control. This triple layer has characteristics of artificial muscle. The influence of variables that control the volume change in the polymer as electrolyte concentration, or temperature has been studied. Variations of time, energy and charge under different conditions are described. We have found that the triple layer acts, at the same time, as sensor and actuator. Therefore, physical magnitudes like the electrolyte concentration or the temperature in the cell can be obtained from electrical energy consumed by a muscle. We have evaluated the influence of variables as area of the triple layer or the trailing weight, which don't participate in the electrochemical reaction. We propose an explication to the results, which show a correlation between the trailed mass and the consumed charge required to move a constant angle those masses by the triple layer. When different surface areas of the triple layer has been evaluated we found that the consumed electrical charge is proportional to area (the mass) of the triple layer. The triple layer can make macroscopical movements in short times, their position is absolutely controlled with the electrical charge, and it has capacity to lift masses. These characteristics allow their use in the design of tools. So, we present a macroscopic tool constituted by two triple layers, which allows catch and translate objects in liquid medium (nipper).

  10. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  11. Counting Primitive Pythagorean Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2005-01-01

    A triple (x,y,z) of natural numbers is called a Primitive Pythagorean Triple (PPT) if it satisfies two conditions: (1) x[squared] + y[squared] = z[squared]; and (2) x, y, and z have no common factor other than one. All the PPT's are given by the parametric equations: (1) x = m[squared] - n[squared]; (2) y = 2mn; and (3) z = m[squared] +…

  12. Cold-Worked Inconel(R) 718 Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montano, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Cold working and double aging yield high strength without sacrifice of resistance to corrosion. Report presents data on mechanical properties and stress-corrosion resistance of triple-melted, solution-treated, work-strengthened, direct-double-aged Inconel(R) 718 alloy. Triple melting consists of vacuum induction melting, electro-slag remelting, and vacuum arm remelting. Data indicate advance in processing of large-diameter bars. New process increases yield strength without reducing the elongation, reduction of area, and grain size.

  13. Triple effect absorption cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.; Potnis, S.V.; Tang, J.

    1996-12-31

    Triple effect absorption chillers can achieve 50% COP improvement over double-effect systems. However, to translate this potential into cost-effective hardware, the most promising embodiments must be identified. In this study, 12 generic triple effect cycles and 76 possible hermetic loop arrangements of those 12 generic cycles were identified. The generic triple effect cycles were screened based on their pressure and solubility field requirements, generic COPs, risk involved in the component design, and number of components in a high corrosive environment. This screening identified four promising arrangements: Alkitrate Topping cycle, Pressure Staged Envelope cycle, High Pressure Overlap cycle, and Dual Loopmore » cycle. All of these arrangements have a very high COP ({approximately} 1.8), however the development risk and cost involved is different for each arrangement. Therefore, the selection of a particular arrangement will depend upon the specific situation under consideration.« less

  14. Mass modeling for bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

  15. Overcoming Triple Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Latinos are, after whites, the most segregated student group in the United States, and their segregation is closely tied to poor academic outcomes. Latinos experience a triple segregation: by race/ethnicity, poverty, and language. Racial segregation perpetuates negative stereotypes, reduces the likelihood of a strong teaching staff, and is often…

  16. Nonparametric triple collocation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triple collocation derives variance-covariance relationships between three or more independent measurement sources and an indirectly observed truth variable in the case where the measurement operators are linear-Gaussian. We generalize that theory to arbitrary observation operators by deriving nonpa...

  17. A Triple Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-01

    This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows an elongated depression from three merged craters. The raised rims and ejecta indicate that these are impact craters rather than collapse or volcanic landforms. The pattern made by the ejecta and the craters suggest this was a highly oblique (low angle to the surface) impact, probably coming from the west. There may have been three major pieces flying in close formation to make this triple crater. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21652

  18. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  19. Breaking through the Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did…

  20. The effect of price reduction on salad bar purchases at a corporate cafeteria.

    PubMed

    Kottke, Thomas E; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Katz, Abigail S; Tillema, Juliana O; Flottemesch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a price reduction on salad bar purchases in a corporate cafeteria. We reduced the price of salad bar purchases by 50% during March 2012 and analyzed sales data by month for February through June 2012. We also conducted an anonymous survey. Salad bar sales by weight more than tripled during the price reduction and returned to baseline afterward. Survey respondents reported that the high price of salad relative to other choices is a barrier to purchases. Policies that make the price of salads equal to other choices in cafeterias may significantly increase healthful food consumption.

  1. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  2. Teaching Triple Science: GCSE Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) has contracted with the Learning and Skills Network to support awareness and take-up of Triple Science GCSEs through the Triple Science Support Programme. This publication provides an introduction to teaching and learning approaches for the extension topics within GCSE Chemistry. It…

  3. Density of Primitive Pythagorean Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Duncan A.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the properties of a Primitive Pythagorean Triple (PPT), a computer program was written to generate, print, and count all PPTs greater than or equal to I[subscript x], where I[subscript x] is an arbitrarily chosen integer. The Density of Primitive Pythagorean Triples may be defined as the ratio of the number of PPTs whose hypotenuse is…

  4. Teaching Triple Science: GCSE Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) has contracted with the Learning and Skills Network to support awareness and take-up of Triple Science GCSEs through the Triple Science Support Programme. This publication provides an introduction to teaching and learning approaches for the extension topics within GCSE Biology. It highlights…

  5. TM triple-mode microwave filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, S.-L.; Lin, W.-G.

    1990-12-01

    A novel realization of triple-mode six-pole microwave filters that use only TM modes is presented. The application involves TM triple degeneracies in cylindrical cavities using triple-mode elliptic function filter synthesis. Experimental results are reported.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: triple X syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Triple X syndrome Triple X syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Triple X syndrome , also called trisomy X or 47,XXX, ...

  7. Triple acting radial seal

    DOEpatents

    Ebert, Todd A [West Palm Beach, FL; Carella, John A [Jupiter, FL

    2012-03-13

    A triple acting radial seal used as an interstage seal assembly in a gas turbine engine, where the seal assembly includes an interstage seal support extending from a stationary inner shroud of a vane ring, the interstage seal support includes a larger annular radial inward facing groove in which an outer annular floating seal assembly is secured for radial displacement, and the outer annular floating seal assembly includes a smaller annular radial inward facing groove in which an inner annular floating seal assembly is secured also for radial displacement. A compliant seal is secured to the inner annular floating seal assembly. The outer annular floating seal assembly encapsulates the inner annular floating seal assembly which is made from a very low alpha material in order to reduce thermal stress.

  8. Barred Spiral Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 1300 Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: P. Knezek (WIYN) The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute conducts Hubble science operations. Goddard is responsible for HST project management, including mission and science operations, servicing missions, and all associated development activities. To learn more about the Hubble Space Telescope go here: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/main/index.html

  9. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  10. Triple flames and flame stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadwell, James E.

    1994-01-01

    It is now well established that when turbulent jet flames are lifted, combustion begins, i.e., the flame is stabilized, at an axial station where the fuel and air are partially premixed. One might expect, therefore, that the beginning of the combustion zone would be a triple flame. Such flames have been described; however, other experiments provide data that are difficult to reconcile with the presence of triple flames. In particular, laser images of CH and OH, marking combustion zones, do not exhibit shapes typical of triple flames, and, more significantly, the lifted flame appears to have a propagation speed that is an order of magnitude higher than the laminar flame speed. The speed of triple flames studied thus far exceeds the laminar value by a factor less than two. The objective of the present task is the resolution of the apparent conflict between the experiments and the triple flame characteristics, and the clarification of the mechanisms controlling flame stability. Being investigated are the resolution achieved in the experiments, the flow field in the neighborhood of the stabilization point, propagation speeds of triple flames, laboratory flame unsteadiness, and the importance of flame ignition limits in the calculation of triple flames that resemble lifted flames.

  11. Orbit Alignment in Triple Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2017-08-01

    The statistics of the angle Φ between orbital angular momenta in hierarchical triple systems with known inner visual or astrometric orbits are studied. A correlation between apparent revolution directions proves the partial orbit alignment known from earlier works. The alignment is strong in triples with outer projected separation less than ˜50 au, where the average Φ is about 20^\\circ . In contrast, outer orbits wider than 1000 au are not aligned with the inner orbits. It is established that the orbit alignment decreases with the increasing mass of the primary component. The average eccentricity of inner orbits in well-aligned triples is smaller than in randomly aligned ones. These findings highlight the role of dissipative interactions with gas in defining the orbital architecture of low-mass triple systems. On the other hand, chaotic dynamics apparently played a role in shaping more massive hierarchies. The analysis of projected configurations and triples with known inner and outer orbits indicates that the distribution of Φ is likely bimodal, where 80% of triples have {{Φ }}< 70^\\circ and the remaining ones are randomly aligned.

  12. Barred Ring Galaxy NGC 1291

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-05

    This ultraviolet image left and visual image right from NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer is of the barred ring galaxy NGC 1291. The VIS image is dominated by the inner disk and bar. The UV image is dominated by the low surface brightness outer arms.

  13. Gaseous Structures in Barred Galaxies: Effects of the Bar Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi

    2012-10-01

    Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f bar relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio { R}. We derive expressions as functions of f bar and { R} for the bar strength Qb and the radius r(Qb ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f bar ~ 0.25-0.50 and n <~ 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x 1-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x 2 type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x 2-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Qb , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x 2 type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Qb . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M ⊙ yr-1 for models with Qb <~ 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M ⊙ yr-1 when Qb >~ 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

  14. Evaluation of longitudinal joint tie bar system.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-09-01

    "An adequate longitudinal joint tie bar system is essential in the overall performance of concrete pavement. Excessive : longitudinal joint openings are believed to be caused by either inadequate tie bar size or spacing or improper tie bar : installa...

  15. Russian BAR/EXPERT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-28

    ISS020-E-035016 (27 Aug. 2009) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 20 commander, uses the Russian BAR/EXPERT science payload to take various environmental measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  16. Russian BAR/EXPERT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-28

    ISS020-E-035022 (27 Aug. 2009) --- Russian cosmonaut Roman Romanenko, Expedition 20 flight engineer, uses the Russian BAR/EXPERT science payload to take various environmental measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  17. Russian BAR/EXPERT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-28

    ISS020-E-035017 (27 Aug. 2009) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 20 commander, uses the Russian BAR/EXPERT science payload to take various environmental measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  18. Triple-Crater in Elysium Planitia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-22

    This image from NASA Mars Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows a triple impact crater in Elysium Planitia near Tartarus Montes, which probably formed when a binary-or even triple-asteroid struck the surface.

  19. Triple products of Eisenstein series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Anil

    In this thesis, we construct a Massey triple product on the Deligne cohomology of the modular curve with coefficients in symmetric powers of the standard representation of the modular group. This result is obtained by constructing a Massey triple product on the extension groups in the category of admissible variations of mixed Hodge structure over the modular curve, which induces the desired construction on Deligne cohomology. The result extends Brown's construction of the cup product on Deligne cohomology to a higher cohomological product. Massey triple products on Deligne cohomology have been previously investigated by Deninger, who considered Deligne cohomology with trivial real coefficients. By working over the reals, Deninger was able to compute cohomology exclusively with differential forms. In this work, Deligne cohomology is studied over the rationals, which introduces an obstruction to applying Deninger's results. The obstruction arises from the fact that the integration map from the de Rham complex to the Eilenberg-MacLane complex of the modular group is not an algebra homomorphism. We compute the correction terms of the integration map as regularized iterated integrals of Eisenstein series, and show that these integrals arise in the cup product and Massey triple product on Deligne cohomology.

  20. Solution Patterns Predicting Pythagorean Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezenweani, Ugwunna Louis

    2013-01-01

    Pythagoras Theorem is an old mathematical treatise that has traversed the school curricula from secondary to tertiary levels. The patterns it produced are quite interesting that many researchers have tried to generate a kind of predictive approach to identifying triples. Two attempts, namely Diophantine equation and Brahmagupta trapezium presented…

  1. Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Dowel Bar Evaluation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-09-01

    Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) dowel bars were installed on one new construction project and two dowel bar : retrofit projects to evaluate the performance of this type of dowel bar in comparison to steel dowel bars installed on the same : cont...

  2. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  3. Star formation suppression and bar ages in nearby barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, P. A.; Percival, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    We present new spectroscopic data for 21 barred spiral galaxies, which we use to explore the effect of bars on disc star formation, and to place constraints on the characteristic lifetimes of bar episodes. The analysis centres on regions of heavily suppressed star formation activity, which we term `star formation deserts'. Long-slit optical spectroscopy is used to determine H β absorption strengths in these desert regions, and comparisons with theoretical stellar population models are used to determine the time since the last significant star formation activity, and hence the ages of the bars. We find typical ages of ˜1 Gyr, but with a broad range, much larger than would be expected from measurement errors alone, extending from ˜0.25 to >4 Gyr. Low-level residual star formation, or mixing of stars from outside the `desert' regions, could result in a doubling of these age estimates. The relatively young ages of the underlying populations coupled with the strong limits on the current star formation rule out a gradual exponential decline in activity, and hence support our assumption of an abrupt truncation event.

  4. Triple helix purification and sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Renfeng; Smith, Lloyd M.; Tong, Xinchun E.

    1995-01-01

    Disclosed herein are methods, kits, and equipment for purifying single stranded circular DNA and then using the DNA for DNA sequencing purposes. Templates are provided with an insert having a hybridization region. An elongated oligonucleotide has two regions that are complementary to the insert and the oligo is bound to a magnetic anchor. The oligo hybridizes to the insert on two sides to form a stable triple helix complex. The anchor can then be used to drag the template out of solution using a magnet. The system can purify sequencing templates, and if desired the triple helix complex can be opened up to a double helix so that the oligonucleotide will act as a primer for further DNA synthesis.

  5. The decay of triple systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynova, A. I.; Orlov, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical simulations have been carried out in the general three-body problem with equal masses with zero initial velocities, to investigate the distribution of the decay times T based on a representative sample of initial conditions. The distribution has a power-law character on long time scales, f( T) ∝ T - α , with α = 1.74. Over small times T < 30 T cr ( T cr is the mean crossing time for a component of the triple system), a series of local maxima separated by about 1.0 T cr is observed in the decay-time distribution. These local peaks correspond to zones of decay after one or a few triple encounters. Figures showing the arrangement of these zones in the domain of the initial conditions are presented.

  6. Triple helix purification and sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Smith, L.M.; Tong, X.E.

    1995-03-28

    Disclosed herein are methods, kits, and equipment for purifying single stranded circular DNA and then using the DNA for DNA sequencing purposes. Templates are provided with an insert having a hybridization region. An elongated oligonucleotide has two regions that are complementary to the insert and the oligo is bound to a magnetic anchor. The oligo hybridizes to the insert on two sides to form a stable triple helix complex. The anchor can then be used to drag the template out of solution using a magnet. The system can purify sequencing templates, and if desired the triple helix complex can be opened up to a double helix so that the oligonucleotide will act as a primer for further DNA synthesis. 4 figures.

  7. Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

    1992-01-01

    N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

  8. Positioning bars for large wire harnesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glessner, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    By tying positioning bars to harness, its configuration can be preserved during transport, thus facilitating installation. Harness can also be showed temporarily by placing hanging hooks on end of bar.

  9. Secular Evolution in Barred Galaxies: Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrifield, M.

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes a framework for studying galaxy morphology, particularly bar strength, in a quantitative manner, and presents applications of this approach that reveal observational evidence for secular evolution in bar morphology. The distribution of bar strength in galaxies is quite strongly bimodal, suggesting that barred and unbarred systems are distinct entities, and that any evolution between these two states must occur on a relatively rapid timescale. Bars' strengths appear to be correlated with their pattern speeds, implying that these structures weaken as they start to slow, and disappear entirely before the bars have slowed significantly. There is also tantalizing evidence that bars are rare beyond a redshift of z ~ 0.7, indicating that galaxies have only recently evolved to a point where bars can readily form.

  10. Analytical potential-density pairs for bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, D.; Letelier, P. S.

    2010-11-01

    An identity that relates multipolar solutions of the Einstein equations to Newtonian potentials of bars with linear densities proportional to Legendre polynomials is used to construct analytical potential-density pairs of infinitesimally thin bars with a given linear density profile. By means of a suitable transformation, softened bars that are free of singularities are also obtained. As an application we study the equilibrium points and stability for the motion of test particles in the gravitational field for three models of rotating bars.

  11. Geodynamical simulation of the RRF triple junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Wei, D.; Liu, M.; Shi, Y.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Triple junction is the point at which three plate boundaries meet. Three plates at the triple junction form a complex geological tectonics, which is a natural laboratory to study the interactions of plates. This work studies a special triple junction, the oceanic transform fault intersects the collinear ridges with different-spreading rates, which is free of influence of ridge-transform faults and nearby hotspots. First, we build 3-D numerical model of this triple junction used to calculate the stead-state velocity and temperature fields resulting from advective and conductive heat transfer. We discuss in detail the influence of the velocity and temperature fields of the triple junction from viscosity, spreading rate of the ridge. The two sides of the oceanic transform fault are different sensitivities to the two factors. And, the influence of the velocity mainly occurs within 200km of the triple junction. Then, we modify the model by adding a ridge-transform fault to above model and directly use the velocity structure of the Macquarie triple junction. The simulation results show that the temperature at both sides of the oceanic transform fault decreases gradually from the triple junction, but the temperature difference between the two sides is a constant about 200°. And, there is little effect of upwelling velocity away from the triple junction 100km. The model results are compared with observational data. The heat flux and thermal topography along the oceanic transform fault of this model are consistent with the observed data of the Macquarie triple junction. The earthquakes are strike slip distributed along the oceanic transform fault. Their depths are also consistent with the zone of maximum shear stress. This work can help us to understand the interactions of plates of triple junctions and help us with the foundation for the future study of triple junctions.

  12. 49 CFR 236.705 - Bar, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bar, locking. 236.705 Section 236.705..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.705 Bar, locking. A bar in an interlocking machine to which the locking dogs are attached. ...

  13. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  14. Enabling Narrow(est) IWA Coronagraphy with STIS BAR5 and BAR10 Occulters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn; Gaspar, Andras; Debes, John; Gull, Theodore; Hines, Dean; Apai, Daniel; Rieke, George

    2017-09-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph's (STIS) BAR5 coronagraphic occulter was designed to provide high-contrast, visible-light, imaging in close (> 0.15") angular proximity to bright point-sources. We explored and verified the functionality and utility of the BAR5 occulter. We also investigated, and herein report on, the use of the BAR10 rounded corners as narrow-angle occulters and compare IWA vs. contrast performance for the BAR5, BAR10, and Wedge occulters. With that, we provide recommendations for the most efficacious BAR5 and BAR10 use on-orbit in support of GO science.

  15. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We findmore » that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).« less

  16. Flow through triple helical microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbanshi, Pravat; Ghatak, Animangsu

    2018-02-01

    Flow through helical tubes and channels have been examined in different contexts, for facilitating heat and mass transfer at low Reynolds number flow, for generating plug flow to minimize reactor volume for many reactions. The curvature and torsion of the helices have been shown to engender secondary flow in addition to the primary axial flow, which enhances passive in-plane mixing between different fluid streams. Most of these studies, however, involve a single spiral with circular cross-section, which in essence is symmetric. It is not known, however, how the coupled effect of asymmetry of cross-section and the curvature and torsion of channel would affect the flow profile inside such tubes or channels. In this context, we have presented here the analysis of fluid flow at low Reynolds number inside a novel triple helical channel that consists of three helical flow paths joined along their contour length forming a single channel. We have carried out both microparticle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) and 3D simulation in FLUENT of flow of a Newtonian fluid through such channels. Our analysis shows that whereas in conventional single helices, the secondary flow is characterized by two counter-rotating vortices, in the case of triple helical channels, number of such vortices increases with the helix angle. Such flow profile is expected to enhance possibility of mixing between the liquids, yet diminish the pressure drop.

  17. Guided Search for Triple Conjunctions

    PubMed Central

    Nordfang, Maria; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    A key tenet of Feature Integration Theory and related theories such as Guided Search (GS) is that the binding of basic features requires attention. This would seem to predict that conjunctions of features of objects that have not been attended should not influence search. However, Found (1998) reported that an irrelevant feature (size) improved the efficiency of search for a color × orientation conjunction if it was correlated with the other two features across the display compared to the case where size was not correlated with color and orientation features. We examine this issue with somewhat different stimuli. We use triple conjunctions of color, orientation and shape (e.g. search for a red, vertical, oval-shaped item). This allows us to manipulate the number of features that each distractor shares with the target (Sharing) and it allows us to vary the total number of distractor types (and, thus, the number of groups of identical items; Grouping). We find these triple conjunction searches are generally very efficient – producing very shallow reaction time (RT) × set size slopes, consistent with strong guidance by basic features. Nevertheless, both of these variables, Sharing and Grouping modulate performance. These influences are not predicted by previous accounts of GS. However, both can be accommodated in a GS framework. Alternatively, it is possible, if not necessary, to see these effects as evidence for “preattentive binding” of conjunctions. PMID:25005070

  18. Guided search for triple conjunctions.

    PubMed

    Nordfang, Maria; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2014-08-01

    A key tenet of feature integration theory and of related theories such as guided search (GS) is that the binding of basic features requires attention. This would seem to predict that conjunctions of features of objects that have not been attended should not influence search. However, Found (1998) reported that an irrelevant feature (size) improved the efficiency of search for a Color × Orientation conjunction if it was correlated with the other two features across the display, as compared to the case in which size was not correlated with color and orientation features. We examined this issue with somewhat different stimuli. We used triple conjunctions of color, orientation, and shape (e.g., search for a red, vertical, oval-shaped item). This allowed us to manipulate the number of features that each distractor shared with the target (sharing) and it allowed us to vary the total number of distractor types (and, thus, the number of groups of identical items: grouping). We found that these triple conjunction searches were generally very efficient--producing very shallow Reaction Time × Set Size slopes, consistent with strong guidance by basic features. Nevertheless, both of the variables, sharing and grouping, modulated performance. These influences were not predicted by previous accounts of GS; however, both can be accommodated in a GS framework. Alternatively, it is possible, though not necessary, to see these effects as evidence for "preattentive binding" of conjunctions.

  19. Protein Folding Mechanism of the Dimeric AmphiphysinII/Bin1 N-BAR Domain

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Tobias; Balbach, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The human AmphyphisinII/Bin1 N-BAR domain belongs to the BAR domain superfamily, whose members sense and generate membrane curvatures. The N-BAR domain is a 57 kDa homodimeric protein comprising a six helix bundle. Here we report the protein folding mechanism of this protein as a representative of this protein superfamily. The concentration dependent thermodynamic stability was studied by urea equilibrium transition curves followed by fluorescence and far-UV CD spectroscopy. Kinetic unfolding and refolding experiments, including rapid double and triple mixing techniques, allowed to unravel the complex folding behavior of N-BAR. The equilibrium unfolding transition curve can be described by a two-state process, while the folding kinetics show four refolding phases, an additional burst reaction and two unfolding phases. All fast refolding phases show a rollover in the chevron plot but only one of these phases depends on the protein concentration reporting the dimerization step. Secondary structure formation occurs during the three fast refolding phases. The slowest phase can be assigned to a proline isomerization. All kinetic experiments were also followed by fluorescence anisotropy detection to verify the assignment of the dimerization step to the respective folding phase. Based on these experiments we propose for N-BAR two parallel folding pathways towards the homodimeric native state depending on the proline conformation in the unfolded state. PMID:26368922

  20. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-03-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2015-06-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DD-bar production and their interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yanrui; Oka, Makoto; Takizawa, Makoto

    2011-05-23

    We have explored the bound state problem and the scattering problem of the DD-bar pair in a meson exchange model. When considering their production in the e{sup +}e{sup -} process, we included the DD-bar rescattering effect. Although it is difficult to answer whether the S-wave DD-bar bound state exists or not from the binding energies and the phase shifts, one may get an upper limit of the binding energy from the production of the BB-bar, the bottom analog of DD-bar.

  3. Bar quenching in gas-rich galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoperskov, S.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy surveys have suggested that rapid and sustained decrease in the star-formation rate (SFR), "quenching", in massive disk galaxies is frequently related to the presence of a bar. Optical and near-IR observations reveal that nearly 60% of disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, thus it is important to understand the relationship between bars and star formation in disk galaxies. Recent observational results imply that the Milky Way quenched about 9-10 Gyr ago, at the transition between the cessation of the growth of the kinematically hot, old, metal-poor thick disk and the kinematically colder, younger, and more metal-rich thin disk. Although perhaps coincidental, the quenching episode could also be related to the formation of the bar. Indeed the transfer of energy from the large-scale shear induced by the bar to increasing turbulent energy could stabilize the gaseous disk against wide-spread star formation and quench the galaxy. To explore the relation between bar formation and star formation in gas rich galaxies quantitatively, we simulated gas-rich disk isolated galaxies. Our simulations include prescriptions for star formation, stellar feedback, and for regulating the multi-phase interstellar medium. We find that the action of stellar bar efficiently quenches star formation, reducing the star-formation rate by a factor of ten in less than 1 Gyr. Analytical and self-consistent galaxy simulations with bars suggest that the action of the stellar bar increases the gas random motions within the co-rotation radius of the bar. Indeed, we detect an increase in the gas velocity dispersion up to 20-35 km s-1 at the end of the bar formation phase. The star-formation efficiency decreases rapidly, and in all of our models, the bar quenches the star formation in the galaxy. The star-formation efficiency is much lower in simulated barred compared to unbarred galaxies and more rapid bar formation implies more rapid quenching.

  4. Cristoforetti packing TripleLux-A experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-08

    ISS043E181043 (05/08/2015) --- ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti prepares the TripleLux-A experiment for return on SpaceX’s Dragon cargo craft. TripleLux-A is investigating immune suppression in space as understanding such risks is essential in maintaining the health and performance of crew members during long-duration missions.

  5. Existence Regions of Shock Wave Triple Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Chernyshev, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research is to create the classification for shock wave triple configurations and their existence regions of various types: type 1, type 2, type 3. Analytical solutions for limit Mach numbers and passing shock intensity that define existence region of every type of triple configuration have been acquired. The ratios that conjugate…

  6. Triple Test in Carcinoma Breast

    PubMed Central

    Sameer; Mukherjee, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The commonest clinical presentation in majority of breast pathology is a lump. A definite diagnosis of breast lump is very important for the surgeon to decide on the final course of treatment and also saves the patient from unnecessary physical, emotional and psychological trauma if there is a definite preoperative diagnosis of benign lesion. The present study was done to evaluate the effectiveness and relevance of “TRIPLE TEST”in diagnosis of carcinoma breast in rural labour class population. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective study conducted on patients over 35 years of age having palpable breast lumps presenting in the out patient department of general surgery, ESI Hospital Basaidarapur New Delhi, India. The duration of study was from May 2007 to June 2009 and a total of 100 cases were studied. Each patient was subjected to a detailed history, clinical breast examination ,diagnostic mammography and FNAC. In this study, the results of each modality was divided in three groups: benign, suspicious and malignant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of each test was calculated individually and as combined. Result: Out of 100 patients enrolled in this study, 60 cases were benign and 40 cases were of malignant breast disease. The age of patients with carcinoma breast in the series varied from 35 years to 70 years. The highest incidence of malignancy noted was 30% in 41-50 years age group (4th decade) followed by 27.5% in 51-60 years age group (5th decade). The sensitivity of clinical examination was found to be 75%, specificity was 83.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 75% and diagnostic accuracy of 80%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of mammography was calculated and was found to be 94.9% , 90% , 86% and 92% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of

  7. NIM Realization of the Gallium Triple Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoke, Yan; Ping, Qiu; Yuning, Duan; Yongmei, Qu

    2003-09-01

    In the last three years (1999 to 2001), the gallium triple-point cell has been successfully developed, and much corresponding research has been carried out at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing, China. This paper presents the cell design, apparatus and procedure for realizing the gallium triple point, and presents studies on the different freezing methods. The reproducibility is 0.03 mK, and the expanded uncertainty of realization of the gallium triple point is evaluated to be 0.17 mK (p=0.99, k=2.9). Also, the reproducibility of the gallium triple point was compared with that of the triple point of water.

  8. Jackson Bar Training Structure Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    comparison of the one-dimensional bridge hydraulic routines from: HEC - RAS , HEC -2, and WSPRO. Davis, CA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 4 Jackson Bar Training Structure Study Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Jeremy A. Sharp and...The hydrodynamic model was validated with gage data from the U.S. Geological Survey 02470050 Tombigbee River at Steamplant near Leroy, AL, gage

  9. The bridge technique for pectus bar fixation: a method to make the bar un-rotatable.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Moon, Young Kyu; Lee, Sungsoo

    2015-08-01

    Pectus bar rotation is a major challenge in pectus repair. However, to date, no satisfactory technique to completely eliminate bar displacement has been introduced. Here, we propose a bar fixation technique using a bridge that makes the bar unmovable. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of this bridge technique. A total of 80 patients underwent pectus bar repair of pectus excavatum with the bridge technique from July 2013 to July 2014. The technique involved connecting 2 parallel bars using plate-screws at the ends of the bars. To determine bar position change, the angles between the sternum and pectus bars were measured on postoperative day 5 (POD5) and 4 months (POM4) and compared. The mean patient age was 17.5 years (range, 6-38 years). The mean difference between POD5 and POM4 were 0.23° (P=.602) and 0.35° (P=.338) for the upper and lower bars, respectively. Bar position was virtually unchanged during the follow-up, and there was no bar dislocation or reoperation. A "bridge technique" designed to connect 2 parallel bars using plates and screws was demonstrated as a method to avoid pectus bar displacement. This approach was easy to implement without using sutures or invasive devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BaBar Experiment Public Web Site

    Science.gov Websites

    spotlights BaBar time-reversal measurement. December 14, 2012 PhysicsWorld.com has selected the BaBar time . BaBar Makes First Direct Observation of Time-Reversal Violation August 30, 2012 Fundamental interactions among particles are oblivious to the direction of time (a movie of a rock thrown up and falling back

  11. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification.

    PubMed

    Binkovitz, Lauren E; Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R; Binkovitz, Larry A

    2016-12-01

    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations.

  12. PREDICTIONS FOR $B \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau}$

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubaa, Dris; Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran; Khalil, Shaaban

    2013-12-01

    The observation of B -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ } at present experiments would be a clear sign of new physics. In this paper, we calculate this process in an extended Higgs sector framework where the decay is mediated by the exchange of spin zero particle with flavor changing neutral current couplings. If we identify the scalar with the newly discovered state at LHC with a mass 125 GeV then we find that, after imposing all experimental constraints, the BR(Bs -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) can be as high as 10-6 and BR (Bd -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) can be as high as 10-7. We also calculate this process in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and find the BR(Bs ->τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) is typically of the order 10-8.

  13. Performance simulation of BaBar DIRC bar boxes in TORCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föhl, K.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2017-12-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector based on the DIRC principle. The DIRC bar boxes of the BaBar experiment at SLAC could possibly be reused to form a part of the TORCH detector time-of-flight wall area, proposed to provide positive particle identification of low momentum kaons in the LHCb experiment at CERN. For a potential integration of BaBar bar boxes into TORCH, new imaging readout optics are required. From the several designs of readout optics that have been considered, two are used in this paper to study the effect of BaBar bar optical imperfections on the detector reconstruction performance. The kaon-pion separation powers obtained from analysing simulated photon hit patterns show the performance reduction for a BaBar bar of non-square geometry compared to a perfectly rectangular cross section.

  14. Investigation of dowel bar placement accuracy with a dowel bar inserter

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-05-01

    Dowel bar inserters (DBI) on concrete paving equipment eliminate the need for manually placing dowel bar baskets. Reduced manual labor eventually pays off the initial investment in a DBI and ultimately results in reduced PCCP costs to the roadway own...

  15. Taylor impact of glass bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Natalie; Bourne, Neil; Field, John

    1997-07-01

    Brar and Bless pioneeered the use of plate impact upon bars as a technique for investigating the 1D stress loading of glass. We wish to extend this technique by applying VISAR and embedded stress gauge measurements to a symmetrical version of the test. In this configuration two rods impact one upon the other in a symmetrical version of the Taylor test geometry in which the impact is perfectly rigid in the centre of mass frame. Previous work in the laboratory has characterised the three glass types (float, borosilicate and a high density lead glass). These experiments will identify the 1D stress failure mechanisms from high-speed photography and the stress and particle velocity histories will be interpreted in the light of these results. The differences in response of the three glasses will be highlighted.

  16. Triple Value Simulation Model Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Triple Value Simulation (3VS) is a high-level model that accounts for the complex relationships among economic, social and environmental systems in order to explore scenarios and solutions to improve the health of the Bay.

  17. QCD triple Pomeron coupling from string amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, A.; Navelet, H.; Peschanski, R.

    1998-06-01

    Using the recent solution of the triple Pomeron coupling in the QCD dipole picture as a closed string amplitude with six legs, its analytical form in terms of hypergeometric functions and numerical value are derived.

  18. Triple X Syndrome: Symptoms and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... be more pronounced — possibly including developmental delays and learning disabilities. Treatment for triple X syndrome depends on which ... motor skills, such as sitting up and walking Learning disabilities, such as difficulty with reading (dyslexia), understanding or ...

  19. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  20. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  1. Why Are Some Galaxies Not Barred?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kanak; Elmegreen, Bruce

    2018-05-01

    Although more than two-thirds of star-forming disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, some galaxies remain unbarred, occupying the upper half of the Hubble tuning fork diagram. Numerical simulations almost always produce bars spontaneously, so it remains a challenge to understand how galaxies sometimes prevent bars from forming. Using a set of collisionless simulations, we first reproduce the common result that cold stellar disks surrounding a classical bulge become strongly unstable to non-axisymmetric perturbations, leading to the rapid formation of spiral structure and bars. However, our analyses show that galaxy models with compact classical bulges (whose average density is greater than or comparable to the disk density calculated within bulge half-mass radii) are able to prevent bar formation for at least 4 Gyr even when the stellar disk is maximal and having low Toomre Q. Such bar prevention is the result of several factors such as (a) a small inner Lindblad resonance with a high angular rate, which contaminates an incipient bar with x 2 orbits, and (b) rapid loss of angular momentum accompanied by a rapid heating in the center from initially strong bar and spiral instabilities in a low-Q disk; in other words, a rapid initial rise to a value larger than ∼5 of the ratio of the random energy to the rotational energy in the central region of the galaxy.

  2. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    DOEpatents

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  3. Deciphering the BAR code of membrane modulators.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Ulrich; Kostan, Julius; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2017-07-01

    The BAR domain is the eponymous domain of the "BAR-domain protein superfamily", a large and diverse set of mostly multi-domain proteins that play eminent roles at the membrane cytoskeleton interface. BAR domain homodimers are the functional units that peripherally associate with lipid membranes and are involved in membrane sculpting activities. Differences in their intrinsic curvatures and lipid-binding properties account for a large variety in membrane modulating properties. Membrane activities of BAR domains are further modified and regulated by intramolecular or inter-subunit domains, by intermolecular protein interactions, and by posttranslational modifications. Rather than providing detailed cell biological information on single members of this superfamily, this review focuses on biochemical, biophysical, and structural aspects and on recent findings that paradigmatically promote our understanding of processes driven and modulated by BAR domains.

  4. The efficacy of daily snack replacement with oligofructose-enriched granola bars in overweight and obese adults: a 12-week randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pol, Korrie; de Graaf, Cees; Meyer, Diederick; Mars, Monica

    2018-05-01

    Oligofructose is a prebiotic dietary fibre obtained from chicory root inulin. Oligofructose supplementation may affect satiety, food intake, body weight and/or body composition. The aim was to examine the efficacy of oligofructose-supplemented granola bars on the following weight management outcomes: satiety, energy intake, body weight and body composition in overweight or obese adults. In all, fifty-five adults with overweight or obesity (thirty-six females/nineteen males; age: 41 (sd 12) years; 90·6 (sd 11·8) kg; BMI: 29·4 (sd 2·6) kg/m2) participated in a parallel, triple-blind, placebo-controlled intervention. A total of twenty-nine subjects replaced their snacks twice a day with an equienergetic granola bar supplemented with 8 g of oligofructose (OF-Bar). Subjects in the control group (n 26) replaced their snack with a control granola bar without added oligofructose (Co-Bar). Satiety, 24-h energy intake, body weight and body composition (fat mass and waist circumference) were measured at baseline, weeks 6 and 12. In addition, weekly appetite and gastrointestinal side effects were measured. During the intervention, energy intake, body weight and fat mass remained similar in the Co-Bar and OF-Bar groups (all P>0·05). Both groups lost 0·3 (sd 1·2) kg lean mass (P<0·01) and reduced their waist circumference with -2·2 (sd 3·6) cm (P<0·0001) after 12 weeks. The OF-Bar group reported decreased hunger in later weeks of the intervention (P=0·04), less prospective food consumption (P=0·03) and less thirst (P=0·003). To conclude, replacing daily snacks for 12 weeks with oligofructose-supplemented granola bars does not differentially affect energy intake, body weight and body composition compared with a control bar. However, there was an indication that appetite was lower after oligofructose bar consumption.

  5. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao-Yu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.

    2017-08-01

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle (I), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high I) or as a barlens structure (at low I). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, and barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%-80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass (M * < 1010.5 M ⊙) and high gas mass ratio. In contrast, the buckled bar fraction increases to 80% toward massive and early-type disks (M * > 1010.5 M ⊙), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506-G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.

  6. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhao-Yu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J., E-mail: lizy@shao.ac.cn

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle ( i ), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high i ) or as a barlens structure (at low i ). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, andmore » barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%–80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass ( M {sub *} < 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ⊙}) and high gas mass ratio. In contrast, the buckled bar fraction increases to 80% toward massive and early-type disks ( M {sub *} > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ⊙}), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506−G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.« less

  7. Cam-controlled boring bar

    DOEpatents

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

  8. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are...

  9. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are...

  10. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are...

  11. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are...

  12. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are...

  13. Modified sine bar device measures small angles with high accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thekaekara, M.

    1968-01-01

    Modified sine bar device measures small angles with enough accuracy to calibrate precision optical autocollimators. The sine bar is a massive bar of steel supported by two cylindrical rods at one end and one at the other.

  14. Splash bar for cooling tower fill assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Stackhouse, D.W.; Heidl, S.C.

    1987-11-10

    A crossflow cooling tower fill assembly for allowing liquid to fall down through the fill assembly and for allowing cooling air to flow through the fill assembly transverse to the flow of the liquid in order to cool the liquid is described. The assembly comprises: longitudinal splash bars; and means for supporting the splash bars so that the splash bars are substantially horizontal and parallel to one another and arranged in vertically spaced, substantially horizontal planes. The splash bars in each plane are horizontally spaced from one another to allow the liquid to fall down between the splash bars tomore » the planes of splash bars below. Each splash bar includes a substantially horizontal, longitudinally extending top web member having (1) longitudinally extending, downwardly projecting vertical side web members, both of the side web members having a lower longitudinal edge with a longitudinally extending, inwardly projecting flange, and (2) at least one longitudinally extending, downardly projecting rib web member between the side web members. Each rib web member has a lower longitudinal edge with a longitudinally extending, laterally projecting flange.« less

  15. BAR domain proteins regulate Rho GTPase signaling.

    PubMed

    Aspenström, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    BAR proteins comprise a heterogeneous group of multi-domain proteins with diverse biological functions. The common denominator is the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain that not only confers targeting to lipid bilayers, but also provides scaffolding to mold lipid membranes into concave or convex surfaces. This function of BAR proteins is an important determinant in the dynamic reconstruction of membrane vesicles, as well as of the plasma membrane. Several BAR proteins function as linkers between cytoskeletal regulation and membrane dynamics. These links are provided by direct interactions between BAR proteins and actin-nucleation-promoting factors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family and the Diaphanous-related formins. The Rho GTPases are key factors for orchestration of this intricate interplay. This review describes how BAR proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases, as well as how Rho GTPases regulate the function of BAR proteins. This mutual collaboration is a central factor in the regulation of vital cellular processes, such as cell migration, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis.

  16. A Modern Picture of Barred Galaxy Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Michael; Weinberg, Martin; Katz, Neal

    2018-01-01

    Observations of disk galaxies suggest that bars are responsible for altering global galaxy parameters (e.g. structures, gas fraction, star formation rate). The canonical understanding of the mechanisms underpinning bar-driven secular dynamics in disk galaxies has been largely built upon the analysis of linear theory, despite galactic bars being clearly demonstrated to be nonlinear phenomena in n-body simulations. We present simulations of barred Milky Way-like galaxy models designed to elucidate nonlinear barred galaxy dynamics. We have developed two new methodologies for analyzing n-body simulations that give the best of both powerful analytic linear theory and brute force simulation analysis: orbit family identification and multicomponent torque analysis. The software will be offered publicly to the community for their own simulation analysis.The orbit classifier reveals that the details of kinematic components in galactic disks (e.g. the bar, bulge, thin disk, and thick disk components) are powerful discriminators of evolutionary paradigms (i.e. violent instabilities and secular evolution) as well as the basic parameters of the dark matter halo (mass distribution, angular momentum distribution). Multicomponent torque analysis provides a thorough accounting of the transfer of angular momentum between orbits, global patterns, and distinct components in order to better explain the underlying physics which govern the secular evolution of barred disk galaxies.Using these methodologies, we are able to identify the successes and failures of linear theory and traditional n-body simulations en route to a detailed understanding of the control bars exhibit over secular evolution in galaxies. We present explanations for observed physical and velocity structures in observations of barred galaxies alongside predictions for how structures will vary with dynamical properties from galaxy to galaxy as well as over the lifetime of a galaxy, finding that the transfer of angular

  17. Tidally Induced Bars of Galaxies in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łokas, Ewa L.; Ebrová, Ivana; del Pino, Andrés; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Athanassoula, E.; Semczuk, Marcin; Gajda, Grzegorz; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the formation and evolution of tidally induced bars in disky galaxies in clusters. Our progenitor is a massive, late-type galaxy similar to the Milky Way, composed of an exponential disk and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo. We place the galaxy on four different orbits in a Virgo-like cluster and evolve it for 10 Gyr. As a reference case, we also evolve the same model in isolation. Tidally induced bars form on all orbits soon after the first pericenter passage and survive until the end of the evolution. They appear earlier, are stronger and longer, and have lower pattern speeds for tighter orbits. Only for the tightest orbit are the properties of the bar controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the cluster at pericenter. The mechanism behind the formation of the bars is the angular momentum transfer from the galaxy stellar component to its halo. All of the bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that occur earlier and lead to more pronounced boxy/peanut shapes when the tidal forces are stronger. Using all simulation outputs of galaxies at different evolutionary stages, we construct a toy model of the galaxy population in the cluster and measure the average bar strength and bar fraction as a function of clustercentric radius. Both are found to be mildly decreasing functions of radius. We conclude that tidal forces can trigger bar formation in cluster cores, but not in the outskirts, and thus can cause larger concentrations of barred galaxies toward the cluster center.

  18. What makes the family of barred disc galaxies so rich: damping stellar bars in spinning haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Angela; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2018-05-01

    We model and analyse the secular evolution of stellar bars in spinning dark matter (DM) haloes with the cosmological spin λ ˜ 0-0.09. Using high-resolution stellar and DM numerical simulations, we focus on angular momentum exchange between stellar discs and DM haloes of various axisymmetric shapes - spherical, oblate, and prolate. We find that stellar bars experience a diverse evolution that is guided by the ability of parent haloes to absorb angular momentum, J, lost by the disc through the action of gravitational torques, resonant and non-resonant. We confirm that dynamical bar instability is accelerated via resonant J-transfer to the halo. Our main findings relate to the long-term secular evolution of disc-halo systems: with an increasing λ, bars experience less growth and basically dissolve after they pass through vertical buckling instability. Specifically, with increasing λ, (1) the vertical buckling instability in stellar bars colludes with inability of the inner halo to absorb J - this emerges as the main factor weakening or destroying bars in spinning haloes; (2) bars lose progressively less J, and their pattern speeds level off; (3) bars are smaller, and for λ ≳ 0.06 cease their growth completely following buckling; (4) bars in λ > 0.03 haloes have ratio of corotation-to-bar radii, RCR/Rb > 2, and represent so-called slow bars without offset dust lanes. We provide a quantitative analysis of J-transfer in disc-halo systems, and explain the reasons for absence of growth in fast spinning haloes and its observational corollaries. We conclude that stellar bar evolution is substantially more complex than anticipated, and bars are not as resilient as has been considered so far.

  19. Gauge transformations for twisted spectral triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Giovanni; Martinetti, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    It is extended to twisted spectral triples the fluctuations of the metric as bounded perturbations of the Dirac operator that arises when a spectral triple is exported between Morita equivalent algebras, as well as gauge transformations which are obtained by the action of the unitary endomorphisms of the module implementing the Morita equivalence. It is firstly shown that the twisted-gauged Dirac operators, previously introduced to generate an extra scalar field in the spectral description of the standard model of elementary particles, in fact follow from Morita equivalence between twisted spectral triples. The law of transformation of the gauge potentials turns out to be twisted in a natural way. In contrast with the non-twisted case, twisted fluctuations do not necessarily preserve the self-adjointness of the Dirac operator. For a self-Morita equivalence, conditions are obtained in order to maintain self-adjointness that are solved explicitly for the minimal twist of a Riemannian manifold.

  20. Theory of twisted nonuniformly heated bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shorr, B. F.

    1980-01-01

    Nonlineary distributed stresses in twisted nonuniformly heated bars of arbitrary cross section are calculated taking into account various elasticity parameters. The approximate theory is shown to be sufficiently general and accurate by comparison with experimental data.

  1. Triple valve surgery: a 25-year experience.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mustafa; Ozkan, Murat; Böke, Erkmen

    2004-09-01

    Surgical treatment of rheumatic valvular disease still constitutes a significant number of cardiac operations in developing countries. Despite improvements in myocardial protection and cardiopulmonary bypass techniques, triple valve operations (aortic, mitral and tricuspid valves) are still challenging because of longer duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and higher degree of myocardial decompensation. This study was instituted in order to assess results of triple valve surgery. Between 1977 and 2002, 34 patients underwent triple valve surgery in our clinic by the same surgeon (EB). Eleven patients underwent triple valve replacement (32.4%) and 23 underwent tricuspid valve annuloplasty with aortic and mitral valve replacements (67.6%). There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients who underwent triple valve replacement and aortic and mitral valve replacement with tricuspid valve annuloplasty. There were 4 hospital deaths (11.8%) occurring within 30 days. The duration of follow-up for 30 survivors ranged from 6 to 202 months (mean 97 months). The actuarial survival rates were 85%, 72%, and 48% at 5, 10, and 15 years respectively. Actuarial freedom from reoperation rates at 5, 10, and 15 years was 86.3%, 71.9%, and 51.2%, respectively. Freedom from cerebral thromboembolism and anticoagulation-related hemorrhage rates, expressed in actuarial terms was 75.9% and 62.9% at 5 and 10 years. Major cerebral complications occurred in 10 of the 30 patients. We prefer replacing, if repairing is not possible, the tricuspid valve, with a bileaflet mechanical prosthesis in a patient with valve replacement of the left heart who will be anticoagulated in order to avoid unfavorable properties of bioprosthesis like degeneration and of old generation mechanical prosthesis like thrombosis and poor hemodynamic function. In recent years, results of triple valve surgery either with tricuspid valve conservation or valve replacement in suitable cases have become

  2. $${{\\bar{d}} - {\\bar{u}}}$$ Flavor Asymmetry in the Proton in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Salamu, Y.; Ji, Cheung-Ryong; Melnitchouk, Wally

    2015-09-01

    Themore » $${\\bar d - \\bar u}$$ flavor asymmetry in the proton arising from pion loops is computed using chiral effective field theory. calculation includes both nucleon and Δ intermediate states, and uses both the fully relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. x dependence of $${\\bar d - \\bar u}$$ extracted from the Fermilab E866 Drell–Yan data can be well reproduced in terms of a single transverse momentum cutoff parameter regulating the ultraviolet behavior of the loop integrals. In addition to the distribution at x > 0, corrections to the integrated asymmetry from zero momentum contributions are computed, which arise from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at x = 0. These have not been accounted for in previous analyses, and can make important contributions to the lowest moment of $${\\bar d-\\bar u}$$ .« less

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Bar Edge Labeling in the Perioperative Assessment of Nuss Bar Removal.

    PubMed

    Incerti, Filippo; Bertocchini, Alessia; Ghionzoli, Marco; Messineo, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Nuss bar removal after minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum in patients where bar ends are not palpable, can be a challenging procedure for the surgeon; a blind dissection toward the bar edges may lead to intercostal vessels or deep intercostal muscle injuries. In this article, we describe a fast, repeatable, low-cost technique to detect bar edge and stabilizers. A perioperative scan is performed by means of a portable ultrasonograph a few minutes before the operation. The bar edge stabilizer is detected as a hyperechogenic image with a concentric crescent while the bar edge is detected as a hyperechogenic dashed line with net edges. The scan is performed, and the actual projection on the skin of the metal plaque bulk is then labeled on the patient's chest by an ink marker. We believe that this method may improve morbidity, operative time, and consequently, hospitalization length and costs.

  4. Barring intervention? Lesbian and gay bars as an underutilized venue for tobacco interventions.

    PubMed

    Leibel, Katherine; Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Ranney, Leah M

    2011-07-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities are at high risk for tobacco use. While LGBT communities have historically considered bars to be safe places to socialize and congregate, these spaces are often tobacco-friendly environments and may have potential as sites for much needed intervention. Only a few public health interventions have attempted to work through bars and clubs to decrease tobacco use in the LGBT populations. Evidence from HIV prevention suggests some potential interventions in bars, and the tobacco industry has worked extensively (and successfully) to utilize bars in marketing efforts. Lesbian and gay bars are underutilized in tobacco control, suggesting missed avenues for chronic disease prevention programs. Researchers and communities should continue to recognize the importance of clean indoor air laws covering bars and develop additional strategies for reaching LGBT populations with disparities.

  5. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  6. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  7. Delamination stresses in semicircular laminated composite bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Using anisotropic elasticity theory, delamination stresses in a semicircular laminated composite curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments were calculated, and their radial locations determined. A family of design curves was presented, showing variation of the intensity of delamination stresses and their radial locations with different geometry and different degrees of anisotropy of the curved bar. The effect of anisotropy on the location of peak delamination stress was found to be small.

  8. A triple point in 3-level systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahmad-Achar, E.; Cordero, S.; López-Peña, R.; Castaños, O.

    2014-11-01

    The energy spectrum of a 3-level atomic system in the Ξ-configuration is studied. This configuration presents a triple point independently of the number of atoms, which remains in the thermodynamic limit. This means that in a vicinity of this point any quantum fluctuation will drastically change the composition of the ground state of the system. We study the expectation values of the atomic population of each level, the number of photons, and the probability distribution of photons at the triple point.

  9. A tunable few electron triple quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudreau, L.; Kam, A.; Granger, G.; Studenikin, S. A.; Zawadzki, P.; Sachrajda, A. S.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we report on a tunable few electron lateral triple quantum dot design. The quantum dot potentials are arranged in series. The device is aimed at studies of triple quantum dot properties where knowing the exact number of electrons is important as well as quantum information applications involving electron spin qubits. We demonstrate tuning strategies for achieving required resonant conditions such as quadruple points where all three quantum dots are on resonance. We find that in such a device resonant conditions at specific configurations are accompanied by complex charge transfer behavior.

  10. Effects of the Bar Strength of Gaseous Features in Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, W.; Kim, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Barred galaxies commonly possess gaseous structures such as a pair of dust lanes, a nuclear ring, and nuclear spirals at their centers. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the physical properties of the gaseous structures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. We vary the bar mass fbar relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio. We derive expressions for the bar strength Qb and the radius where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have fbar = 0.25-0.5. Dust lanes approximately follow one of x1-orbits and tend to be more straight under a stronger and more elongated bar. A nuclear ring of a conventional x2 type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x2-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Qb, evidencing that the ring position is not determined by the resonance but by the bar strength. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x2-type and sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out as being tightly-wound and weak, and then due to the nonlinear effect unwind and become stronger until turning into shocks, with an unwinding rate higher for larger Qb. These results suggest that the bar strength is the primary factor that determine the properties of gaseous structures in barred galaxies.

  11. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    PubMed

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk ( Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis ), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  12. Coffee straw can replace Hader bar for bar retained overdentures--a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Guttal, S S; Shetty, U S

    2012-12-01

    Bar attachment system provides retention and support for the overdenture. Retention of a mandibular denture can be achieved by an implant-retained or natural tooth-retained bar and stud attachment in the anterior segment of the mandible. A simple and cost effective treatment for more complex implant overdenture is the concept of conventional tooth-retained overdentures. The authors present a clinical report of a patient treated with a mandibular tooth-borne overdenture with a bar. The bar was fabricated using a coffee straw.

  13. Bar Evolution and Bar Properties from Disc Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson-Smith, Tenley; Simmons, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    Bars in disc galaxies indicate a large collection of stars in a specific configuration of orbits that give the galaxy center a rectangular looking feature. Astronomers have discovered that these bars affect the distribution of matter in galaxies, and are also related to galaxy stellar mass and star formation history. Little is known about the specifics of how bars evolve and drive the evolution of their host galaxies because only a handful of bars have been studied in detail so far. I have examined a sample of 8,221 barred galaxies from the early universe to identify and examine correlations with galaxy properties. The data comes from Galaxy Zoo, an online citizen science project that allows anyone to classify and measure detailed properties of galaxies. I present results including the fraction of galaxies in the sample that have bars, and the variation of galaxy properties with bar length, including galaxy color and stellar mass. I also compare these results to barred galaxies in the local universe. I will discuss the implications of these results in the context of galaxy evolution overall, including the effect of dark matter on bars and galaxy evolution.

  14. Role of Erosion in Shaping Point Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, J.; Meade, R.

    2012-04-01

    A powerful metaphor in fluvial geomorphology has been that depositional features such as point bars (and other floodplain features) constitute the river's historical memory in the form of uniformly thick sedimentary deposits waiting for the geomorphologist to dissect and interpret the past. For the past three decades, along the channel of Powder River (Montana USA) we have documented (with annual cross-sectional surveys and pit trenches) the evolution of the shape of three point bars that were created when an extreme flood in 1978 cut new channels across the necks of two former meander bends and radically shifted the location of a third bend. Subsequent erosion has substantially reshaped, at different time scales, the relic sediment deposits of varying age. At the weekly to monthly time scale (i.e., floods from snowmelt or floods from convective or cyclonic storms), the maximum scour depth was computed (by using a numerical model) at locations spaced 1 m apart across the entire point bar for a couple of the largest floods. The maximum predicted scour is about 0.22 m. At the annual time scale, repeated cross-section topographic surveys (25 during 32 years) indicate that net annual erosion at a single location can be as great as 0.5 m, and that the net erosion is greater than net deposition during 8, 16, and 32% of the years for the three point bars. On average, the median annual net erosion was 21, 36, and 51% of the net deposition. At the decadal time scale, an index of point bar preservation often referred to as completeness was defined for each cross section as the percentage of the initial deposit (older than 10 years) that was still remaining in 2011; computations indicate that 19, 41, and 36% of the initial deposits of sediment were eroded. Initial deposits were not uniform in thickness and often represented thicker pods of sediment connected by thin layers of sediment or even isolated pods at different elevations across the point bar in response to multiple

  15. Homomorphisms in C*-ternary algebras and JB*-triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choonkil; Rassias, Themistocles M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate homomorphisms between C*-ternary algebras and derivations on C*-ternary algebras, and homomorphisms between JB*-triples and derivations on JB*-triples, associated with the following Apollonius type additive functional equation

  16. Examining Primary Healthcare Performance through a Triple Aim Lens.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Bridget L; Brown, Judith Belle; Glazier, Richard H; Hutchison, Brian

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to apply a Triple Aim framework to the measurement and evaluation of primary healthcare (PHC) team performance. Triple Aim components were populated with 10 dimensions derived from survey and health administrative data for 17 Family Health Teams (FHTs) in Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses and rankings of sites examined the relationships among dimensions and among Triple Aim components. Readily available measures to fully populate the Triple Aim framework were lacking in FHTs. Within sites, there was little consistency in performance across the Triple Aim components (health, patient experience and cost). More and better measures are needed that can be readily used to examine the Triple Aim performance in PHC teams. FHTs, in this study, are partially achieving Triple Aim goals; however, there was a lack of consistency in performance. It is essential to collect appropriate measures and attend to performance across all components of the Triple Aim. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.

  17. Examining Primary Healthcare Performance through a Triple Aim Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Bridget L.; Brown, Judith Belle; Glazier, Richard H.; Hutchison, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to apply a Triple Aim framework to the measurement and evaluation of primary healthcare (PHC) team performance. Methods: Triple Aim components were populated with 10 dimensions derived from survey and health administrative data for 17 Family Health Teams (FHTs) in Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses and rankings of sites examined the relationships among dimensions and among Triple Aim components. Results: Readily available measures to fully populate the Triple Aim framework were lacking in FHTs. Within sites, there was little consistency in performance across the Triple Aim components (health, patient experience and cost). Conclusions: More and better measures are needed that can be readily used to examine the Triple Aim performance in PHC teams. FHTs, in this study, are partially achieving Triple Aim goals; however, there was a lack of consistency in performance. It is essential to collect appropriate measures and attend to performance across all components of the Triple Aim. PMID:27027790

  18. Revised Reynolds Stress and Triple Product Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lillard, Randolph P.

    2017-01-01

    Revised versions of Lag methodology Reynolds-stress and triple product models are applied to accepted test cases to assess the improvement, or lack thereof, in the prediction capability of the models. The Bachalo-Johnson bump flow is shown as an example for this abstract submission.

  19. A Biatrial Myxoma with Triple Ripples

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Ramachandra

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac myxoma is a benign tumor, but it is known for its space-occupying effect at the site of origin and frequent systemic embolization. This case report highlights a biatrial myxoma of interatrial septum who presented with significant tricuspid valve regurgitation, atrial fibrillation, and cardioembolic stroke of the left parietal lobe, i.e., a biatrial myxoma with triple ripples. PMID:29629263

  20. A Biatrial Myxoma with Triple Ripples.

    PubMed

    Barik, Ramachandra

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac myxoma is a benign tumor, but it is known for its space-occupying effect at the site of origin and frequent systemic embolization. This case report highlights a biatrial myxoma of interatrial septum who presented with significant tricuspid valve regurgitation, atrial fibrillation, and cardioembolic stroke of the left parietal lobe, i.e., a biatrial myxoma with triple ripples.

  1. Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath

    2004-01-01

    An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

  2. 32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar admission...

  3. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  4. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidéle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and AGN feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas toward the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  5. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidèle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas towards the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  6. Probing triple-Higgs productions via 4 b 2 γ decay channel at a 100 TeV hadron collider

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Yan, Qi-Shu; Zhao, Xiaoran; ...

    2016-01-11

    We report that the quartic self-coupling of the Standard Model Higgs boson can only be measured by observing the triple-Higgs production process, but it is challenging for the LHC Run 2 or International Linear Collider (ILC) at a few TeV because of its extremely small production rate. In this paper, we present a detailed Monte Carlo simulation study of the triple-Higgs production through gluon fusion at a 100 TeV hadron collider and explore the feasibility of observing this production mode. We focus on the decay channel HHH →more » $$b\\bar{b}$$$b\\bar{b}$$γγ, investigating detector effects and optimizing the kinematic cuts to discriminate the signal from the backgrounds. Our study shows that, in order to observe the Standard Model triple-Higgs signal, the integrated luminosity of a 100 TeV hadron collider should be greater than 1.8×10 4 ab ₋1. We also explore the dependence of the cross section upon the trilinear (λ 3) and quartic (λ 4) self-couplings of the Higgs. Ultimately, we find that, through a search in the triple-Higgs production, the parameters λ 3 and λ 4 can be restricted to the ranges [₋1,5] and [₋20,30], respectively. We also examine how new physics can change the production rate of triple-Higgs events. For example, in the singlet extension of the Standard Model, we find that the triple-Higgs production rate can be increased by a factor of O(10).« less

  7. Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy. PMID:22522904

  8. Fixed Point Problems for Linear Transformations on Pythagorean Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, M.-Q.; Tong, J.-C.; Braza, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, an attempt is made to find all linear transformations that map a standard Pythagorean triple (a Pythagorean triple [x y z][superscript T] with y being even) into a standard Pythagorean triple, which have [3 4 5][superscript T] as their fixed point. All such transformations form a monoid S* under matrix product. It is found that S*…

  9. Studying W‧ boson contributions in \\bar{B} \\rightarrow {D}^{(* )}{{\\ell }}^{-}{\\bar{\

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Long; Wei, Bin; Sheng, Jin-Huan; Wang, Ru-Min; Yang, Ya-Dong

    2018-05-01

    Recently, the Belle collaboration reported the first measurement of the τ lepton polarization P τ (D*) in \\bar{B}\\to {D}* {τ }-{\\bar{ν }}τ decay and a new measurement of the rate of the branching ratios R(D*), which are consistent with the Standard Model (SM) predictions. These could be used to constrain the New Physics (NP) beyond the SM. In this paper, we probe \\bar{B}\\to {D}(* ){{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell } (ℓ = e, μ, τ) decays in the model-independent way and in the specific G(221) models with lepton flavour universality. Considering the theoretical uncertainties and the experimental errors at the 95% C.L., we obtain the quite strong bounds on the model-independent parameters {C}{{LL}}{\\prime },{C}{{LR}}{\\prime },{C}{{RR}}{\\prime },{C}{{RL}}{\\prime },{g}V,{g}A,{g}V{\\prime },{g}A{\\prime } and the specific G(221) model parameter rates. We find that the constrained NP couplings have no obvious effects on all (differential) branching ratios and their rates, nevertheless, many NP couplings have very large effects on the lepton spin asymmetries of \\bar{B}\\to {D}(* ){{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell } decays and the forward–backward asymmetries of \\bar{B}\\to {D}* {{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell }. So we expect precision measurements of these observables would be researched by LHCb and Belle-II.

  10. Scroll bar growth on the coastal Trinity River, TX, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, J.; Hassenruck-Gudipati, H. J.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The processes leading to the formation and growth of scroll bars remain relatively mysterious despite how often they are referenced in fluvial literature. Their definition is descriptive; they are characterized as arcuate topographic highs present on the inner banks of channel bends on meandering rivers, landward of point bars. Often, they are used as proxies for previous positions of point bars. This assumption of a one-to-one correspondence between point bars and scroll bars should be reconsidered as 1) planform curvature for scroll bars is consistently smaller than the curvature for adjacent point bars, and 2) deposition on the scroll bar is typically distinct and disconnected from the adjacent point bar deposition. Results from time-lapse airborne lidar data as well as from trenches through five separate scroll bar - point bar pairings on the Trinity River in east TX, USA, will be discussed in relation to formative scroll bar processes and their connection to point bars. On the lidar difference map, scroll bar growth appears as a strip of increased deposition flanked on both the land- and channel-ward sides by areas with no or limited deposition. Trenches perpendicular to these scrolls typically show a base of dune-scale cross stratification interpreted to be associated with a previous position of the point bar. These dune sets are overlain by sets of climbing-ripple cross-strata that form the core of the modern scroll bar and preserve a record of multiple transport directions (away from, towards, and parallel to the channel). Preliminary Trinity River grain-size analyses show that the constructional scrolls are enriched in all grain sizes less than 250 microns in diameter, while point bars are enriched in all grain sizes above this cut off. Scroll bars are hypothesized to be akin to levees along the inner banks of channels-flow expansion caused by the presence of point bars induces deposition of suspended sediment that defines the positions of the scroll bars.

  11. Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.; Booth, Derek B.; Burges, Stephen J.; Montgomery, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial patterns of bed material entrainment by floods were documented at seven gravel bars using arrays of metal washers (bed tags) placed in the streambed. The observed patterns were used to test a general stochastic model that bed material entrainment is a spatially independent, random process where the probability of entrainment is uniform over a gravel bar and a function of the peak dimensionless shear stress τ0* of the flood. The fraction of tags missing from a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect to τ0* with a mean value (50% of the tags entrained) of 0.085 and standard deviation of 0.022 (root‐mean‐square error of 0.09). Variation in partial entrainment for a given τ0* demonstrated the effects of flow conditioning on bed strength, with lower values of partial entrainment after intermediate magnitude floods (0.065 < τ0*< 0.08) than after higher magnitude floods. Although the probability of bed material entrainment was approximately uniform over a gravel bar during individual floods and independent from flood to flood, regions of preferential stability and instability emerged at some bars over the course of a wet season. Deviations from spatially uniform and independent bed material entrainment were most pronounced for reaches with varied flow and in consecutive floods with small to intermediate magnitudes.

  12. Subsurface flow in lowland river gravel bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, E. N.; Dunne, T.

    2017-09-01

    Geomorphic and hydraulic processes, which form gravel bars in large lowland rivers, have distinctive characteristics that control the magnitude and spatial patterns of infiltration and exfiltration between rivers and their immediate subsurface environments. We present a bedform-infiltration relation together with a set of field measurements along two reaches of the San Joaquin River, CA to illustrate the conditions required for infiltration and exfiltration of flow between a stream and its undulating bed, and a numerical model to investigate the factors that affect paths and residence times of flow through barforms at different discharges. It is shown that asymmetry of bar morphology is a first-order control on the extent and location of infiltration, which would otherwise produce equal areas of infiltration and exfiltration under the assumption of sinusoidal bedforms. Hydraulic conductivity varies by orders of magnitude due to fine sediment accumulation and downstream coarsening related to the process of bar evolution. This systematic variability not only controls the magnitude of infiltration, but also the residence time of flow through the bed. The lowest hydraulic conductivity along the reach occurred where the difference between the topographic gradient and the water-surface gradient is at a maximum and thus where infiltration would be greatest into a homogeneous bar, indicating the importance of managing sand supply to maintain the ventilation and flow through salmon spawning riffles. Numerical simulations corroborate our interpretation that infiltration patterns and rates are controlled by distinctive features of bar morphology.

  13. Numerical modeling of the autumnal thermal bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsydenov, Bair O.

    2018-03-01

    The autumnal riverine thermal bar of Kamloops Lake has been simulated using atmospheric data from December 1, 2015, to January 4, 2016. The nonhydrostatic 2.5D mathematical model developed takes into account the diurnal variability of the heat fluxes and wind on the lake surface. The average values for shortwave and longwave radiation and latent and sensible heat fluxes were 19.7 W/m2, - 95.9 W/m2, - 11.8 W/m2, and - 32.0 W/m2 respectively. Analysis of the wind regime data showed prevailing easterly winds and maximum speed of 11 m/s on the 8th and 19th days. Numerical experiments with different boundary conditions at the lake surface were conducted to evaluate effects of variable heat flux and wind stress. The results of modeling demonstrated that the variable heat flux affects the process of thermal bar evolution, especially during the lengthy night cooling. However, the wind had the greatest impact on the behavior of the autumnal thermal bar: The easterly winds contributed to an earlier appearance of the thermal bar, but the strong winds generating the intensive circulations (the velocity of the upper lake flow increased to 6 cm/s) may destroy the thermal bar front.

  14. Numerical simulations of wave propagation in long bars with application to Kolsky bar testing

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Edmundo

    2014-11-01

    Material testing using the Kolsky bar, or split Hopkinson bar, technique has proven instrumental to conduct measurements of material behavior at strain rates in the order of 10 3 s -1. Test design and data reduction, however, remain empirical endeavors based on the experimentalist's experience. Issues such as wave propagation across discontinuities, the effect of the deformation of the bar surfaces in contact with the specimen, the effect of geometric features in tensile specimens (dog-bone shape), wave dispersion in the bars and other particulars are generally treated using simplified models. The work presented here was conducted in Q3 and Q4more » of FY14. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of numerical simulations of Kolsky bar tests, which was done successfully.« less

  15. Interaction of real and virtual p p bar pairs in J / ψ → p p bar γ (ρ , ω) decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milstein, A. I.; Salnikov, S. G.

    2017-10-01

    The p p bar invariant mass spectra of the processes J / ψ → p p bar ω, J / ψ → p p bar ρ, and J / ψ → p p bar γ close to the p p bar threshold are calculated by means of the N N bar optical potential. The potential model for N N bar interaction in the S10 state is proposed. The parameters of the model are obtained by fitting the cross section of N N bar scattering together with the p p bar invariant mass spectra of the J / ψ decays. Good agreement with the available experimental data is achieved. Using our potential and the Green's function approach we also describe the peak in the η‧π+π- invariant mass spectrum in the decay J / ψ → γη‧π+π- in the energy region near the N N bar threshold.

  16. Interaction between a Mg17Al12 precipitate and { 10\\bar 12} < 10\\bar 12 > twin boundary in magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Mathaudhu, S. N.

    Interactions between Mg17Al12 precipitates and { 10\\bar 12} < 10\\bar 1\\bar 1 > twin boundaries (TBs) in magnesium were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The results obtained agree well with experimental observations in which precipitates can be entirely engulfed by { 10\\bar 12} < 10\\bar 1\\bar 1 > twins without being sheared. Structural analysis of the TBs in the atomic scale shows that the TBs are extremely incoherent during twin growth and highly deviate from the { 10\\bar 12} twinning plane as previously observed in a number of experiments. The simulation studies indicate that { 10\\bar 12} < 10\\bar 1\\bar 1 > twinning was accomplished solely by atomic shuffling that converts the parent lattice to the twin lattice without involving twinning dislocations, resulting in zero shear strain at the TBs.

  17. kW-class diode laser bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmaier, S. G.; Erbert, G.; Meissner-Schenk, A. H.; Lommel, M.; Schmidt, B.; Kaul, T.; Karow, M.; Crump, P.

    2017-02-01

    Progress will be presented on ongoing research into the development of ultra-high power and efficiency bars achieving significantly higher output power, conversion efficiency and brightness than currently commercially available. We combine advanced InAlGaAs/GaAs-based epitaxial structures and novel lateral designs, new materials and superior cooling architectures to enable improved performance. Specifically, we present progress in kilowatt-class 10-mm diode laser bars, where recent studies have demonstrated 880 W continuous wave output power from a 10 mm x 4 mm laser diode bar at 850 A of electrical current and 15°C water temperature. This laser achieves < 60% electro-optical efficiency at 880 W CW output power.

  18. Double Planet Meets Triple Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    atmosphere, a large campaign involving more than twenty scientists and engineers from the Paris Observatory and associated institutions [1] was organized to observe the July 20, 2002, event involving an occultation of a star of visual magnitude 11 (i.e., about 100 times fainter than what can be perceived with then unaided eye), referred to as "P126" in McDonald and Elliot's catalogue. In May 2002, preparatory observations showed that star to be double, with the brighter component of the system ( "P126 A" ) being likely to be occulted by Pluto, as seen from South America. However, because of the duplicity, the predictions of exactly where the shadow of Pluto would sweep the ground were uncertain by about 0.1 arcsec in the sky, corresponding to more than 2000 km on the ground. The NACO images ESO PR Photo 21b/02 ESO PR Photo 21b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 469 pix - 47k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 937 pix - 208k] ESO PR Photo 21c/02 ESO PR Photo 21c/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 467 pix - 53k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 933 pix - 232k] Caption : PR Photo 21b/02 shows one of the images obtained with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) adaptive optics (AO) camera mounted on the ESO VLT 8.2-m YEPUN telescope at the Paranal Observatory in connection with a stellar occultation by Pluto on July 20, 2002. The star was found to be triple - the three components (A, B and C), as well as Pluto and its moon, Charon, are indicated in PR Photo 21c/02 for easy orientation. The images are based on data available from the NACO data webpage. See the text for details. In the end, the close approach (an "appulse" in astronomical terminology) of Pluto and P126 A was indeed observed from various sites in South America, with several mobile telescopes and also including major facilities at the ESO La Silla and Paranal Observatories. In particular, unique and very sharp images were obtained with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) adaptive optics (AO) camera mounted on the ESO VLT 8.2-m YEPUN telescope . One of the NACO images is shown in PR

  19. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  20. QCD corrections to decay-lepton polar and azimuthal angular distributions in e+e- --> tt(bar) in the soft-gluon approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindani, Saurabh D.

    2002-04-01

    QCD corrections to order as in the soft-gluon approximation to angular distributions of decay charged leptons in the process e+e- --> t t(bar), followed by semileptonic decay of t or t(bar), are obtained in the e+e- centre-of-mass frame. As compared to distributions in the top rest frame, these have the advantage that they would allow direct comparison with experiment without the need to reconstruct the top rest frame. The results also do not depend on the choice of a spin quantization axis for t or t (bar). Analytic expression for the triple distribution in the polar angle of t and polar and azimuthal angles of the lepton is obtained. Analytic expression is also derived for the distribution in the charged-lepton polar angle. Numerical values are discussed for (s) 1/2 = 400, 800 and 1500 GeV.

  1. Asteroid Systems: Binaries, Triples, and Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J.-L.; Pravec, P.; Taylor, P.; Carry, B.; Jacobson, S.

    In the past decade, the number of known binary near-Earth asteroids has more than quadrupled and the number of known large main-belt asteroids with satellites has doubled. Half a dozen triple asteroids have been discovered, and the previously unrecognized populations of asteroid pairs and small main-belt binaries have been identified. The current observational evidence confirms that small (≲20 km) binaries form by rotational fission and establishes that the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect powers the spin-up process. A unifying paradigm based on rotational fission and post-fission dynamics can explain the formation of small binaries, triples, and pairs. Large (>~20 km) binaries with small satellites are most likely created during large collisions.

  2. Triple Achilles Tendon Rupture: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Amol; Hofer, Deann

    We present a case report with 1-year follow-up data of a 57-year-old male soccer referee who had sustained an acute triple Achilles tendon rupture injury during a game. His triple Achilles tendon rupture consisted of a rupture of the proximal watershed region, a rupture of the main body (mid-watershed area), and an avulsion-type rupture of insertional calcific tendinosis. The patient was treated surgically with primary repair of the tendon, including tenodesis with anchors. Postoperative treatment included non-weightbearing for 4 weeks and protected weightbearing until 10 weeks postoperative, followed by formal physical therapy, which incorporated an "antigravity" treadmill. The patient was able to return to full activity after 26 weeks, including running and refereeing, without limitations. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isotopically enhanced triple-quantum-dot qubit

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Kevin; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Smith, Aaron; Borselli, Matthew G.; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Fong, Bryan H.; Holabird, Kevin S.; Hazard, Thomas M.; Huang, Biqin; Deelman, Peter W.; Milosavljevic, Ivan; Schmitz, Adele E.; Ross, Richard S.; Gyure, Mark F.; Hunter, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Like modern microprocessors today, future processors of quantum information may be implemented using all-electrical control of silicon-based devices. A semiconductor spin qubit may be controlled without the use of magnetic fields by using three electrons in three tunnel-coupled quantum dots. Triple dots have previously been implemented in GaAs, but this material suffers from intrinsic nuclear magnetic noise. Reduction of this noise is possible by fabricating devices using isotopically purified silicon. We demonstrate universal coherent control of a triple-quantum-dot qubit implemented in an isotopically enhanced Si/SiGe heterostructure. Composite pulses are used to implement spin-echo type sequences, and differential charge sensing enables single-shot state readout. These experiments demonstrate sufficient control with sufficiently low noise to enable the long pulse sequences required for exchange-only two-qubit logic and randomized benchmarking. PMID:26601186

  4. Mechanism of triple-color phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Kwok C.

    1998-08-01

    A realistic model has been developed for a barium titanate triple-color phase oscillator based on the mechanism of polarizabililty and quantum mechanics. It helps to explain some of the difficult phenomena of the phase oscillator. As a result, with the clear understanding, we can seek betterment of the oscillator as a photonic switch as well as a one color writing and another color displaying no cross talk advance information exchanger.

  5. Triple collinear emissions in parton showers

    SciTech Connect

    Höche, Stefan; Prestel, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    A framework to include triple collinear splitting functions into parton showers is presented, and the implementation of flavor-changing NLO splitting kernels is discussed as a first application. The correspondence between the Monte-Carlo integration and the analytic computation of NLO DGLAP evolution kernels is made explicit for both timelike and spacelike parton evolution. Numerical simulation results are obtained with two independent implementations of the new algorithm, using the two independent event generation frameworks Pythia and Sherpa.

  6. Mechanisms linking sediment supply and bar morphology: Results from a straight flume with alternate bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braudrick, C. A.; Minear, J. T.; Dietrich, W. E.; Dehart, M.; Sklar, L. S.

    2008-12-01

    One of the largest uncertainties in routing sediment through drainage networks is predicting the degree to which changes in sediment supply are mitigated by changes in sediment storage in bars. We hypothesize that changes in topographic steering link sediment supply and bar morphology. This hypothesis posits that increased sediment supply would enhance topographic steering over the bar, causing the bar to advance laterally into the pool. Contrarily, decreased supply would diminish topographic steering, causing bars to shrink laterally and pools to expand. We examined this hypothesis in a 28-m long, 0.86-m wide flume with a constant discharge of 5.4 l/s and sand with a median grain size of 0.8 mm. The conditions were sufficient to support alternate bars downstream of the upper 8-10 m, and the flume was run for approximately 65 hours at a constant discharge and sediment feed. The equilibrium slope was 0.0033. Once the channel reached equilibrium, the sediment feed was turned off while the discharge was held constant. During the first 25 hours after the feed was stopped, the sediment transport rate at the downstream end of the flume increased from 9.8 to 10.5 kg/hr as sediment was provided by incision at the upstream end of the flume. Because the bed was the only sediment source, sediment supply increased with distance down the flume. Once the feed was shut off, bar response differed between the upstream and downstream portions of the flume. Bars at the downstream end of the flume, where sediment supply increased relative to equilibrium conditions, swelled into the pool. These changes in bar morphology were accompanied by a decrease in surface grain size. Further upstream, where sediment supply was lower, the bars shrunk. These results suggest that there may be a linkage between topographic steering, bar morphology, and sediment supply, but further numerical tests and experimental manipulations are necessary to verify this linkage and to account for the effect of the

  7. My Bar Graph Tells a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

  8. Dowel bar retrofit performance in Wisconsin.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-05-01

    In 1999, WisDOT constructed test sections on I-39 to evaluate the dowel bar retrofit (DBR) rehabilitation technique for faulted concrete pavement slabs. Two years later, mortar deterioration and debonding were noted in the dowel slots. In response to...

  9. Martian Meanders and Scroll-Bars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-01

    This is a portion of an inverted fluvial channel in the region of Aeolis/Zephyria Plana, at the Martian equator. Channels become inverted when the sediments filling them become more resistant to erosion than the surrounding material. Here, the most likely process leading to hardening of the channel material is chemical cementation by precipitation of minerals. Once the surrounding material erodes, the channel is left standing as a ridge. The series of curvilinear lineations are ancient scroll-bars, which are features typical of river meanders (bends) in terrestrial fluvial channels. Scroll-bars are series of ridges that result from the continuous lateral migration of a meander. On Earth, they are more common in mature rivers. The presence of scroll bars suggests that the water flow in this channel may have been sustained for a relatively long time. Measuring characteristics of these scroll-bars and meanders may help to estimate the amount of water that once flowed in this channel, aiding our understanding of the history of water on Mars. The map is projected here at a scale of 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 29.3 centimeters (11.5 inches) per pixel (with 1 x 1 binning); objects on the order of 88 centimeters (29.6 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21551

  10. Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

    After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

  11. A piezo-bar pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, W. H.; Murphy, C. L.; Shanfield, I.

    1967-01-01

    Piezo-bar pressure type probe measures the impact velocity or pressure of a moving debris cloud. It measures pressures up to 200,000 psi and peak pressures may be recorded with a total pulse duration between 5 and 65 musec.

  12. Bridge-indentation precracking of glass bars

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, J.L.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1993-07-01

    Bridge indentation precracking was first reported by Sadahiro et al., and has been used by a number of subsequent investigators. The procedure involves placing a half-penny starter crack, formed by Vickers indentation, at the center of the bottom surface of a rectangular bar specimen. The bar is loaded between pusher and anvil platens. The bridge span S produces tensile bending stress on the bottom surface of the bar, which contains the starter crack. With increasing load, the crack grows stably outward and inward, and at a certain load the crack will propagate unstably (pop-in) to a straight, through-section crack ofmore » length c. The method is very convenient for producing sharp, through-section precracks in ceramic bars without the need for saw cutting or fatigue cycling. However, the effects of bridge geometry and friction on the precracking results will be presented here which point to an important influence of the friction between the specimen and anvil platens.« less

  13. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of $$\\Lambda$$ and $$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$ production in $$p \\bar{p}$$ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2016-02-09

    Here, we studymore » $$\\Lambda$$ and $$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$ production asymmetries in $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$, $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$, and $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\mu^\\pm \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$ events recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $$\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$$ TeV. We find an excess of $$\\Lambda$$'s ($$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$'s) produced in the proton (antiproton) direction. This forward-backward asymmetry is measured as a function of rapidity. We confirm that the $$\\bar{\\Lambda}/\\Lambda$$ production ratio, measured by several experiments with various targets and a wide range of energies, is a universal function of "rapidity loss", i.e., the rapidity difference of the beam proton and the lambda.« less

  14. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of $$\\Lambda$$ and $$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$ production in $$p \\bar{p}$$ collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    Here, we studymore » $$\\Lambda$$ and $$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$ production asymmetries in $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$, $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$, and $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\mu^\\pm \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$ events recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $$\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$$ TeV. We find an excess of $$\\Lambda$$'s ($$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$'s) produced in the proton (antiproton) direction. This forward-backward asymmetry is measured as a function of rapidity. We confirm that the $$\\bar{\\Lambda}/\\Lambda$$ production ratio, measured by several experiments with various targets and a wide range of energies, is a universal function of "rapidity loss", i.e., the rapidity difference of the beam proton and the lambda.« less

  15. Gaseous Vortices in Barred Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Martin N.; Hunter, James H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of examining many two-dimensional, as well as a smaller sample of three-dimensional, models of gas flows in barred spiral galaxies, we have been impressed by the ubiquitous presence fo vortex pairs, oriented roughly perpendicular to their bars, with one vortex on each side. The vortices are obvious only when viewed in the bar frame, and the centers of their velocity fields usually are near Lagrangian points L(sub 4,5). In all models that we have studied, the vortices form on essentially the same time scale as that for the development of gaseous spiral arms, typically two bar rotations. Usually the corotation radius, r(sub c), lies slightly beyond the end of the bar. Depending upon the mass distributions of the various components, gas spirals either into, or out of, the vortices: In the former case, the vortices become regions of high density, whereas the opposite is true if the gas spirals out of a vortex. The models described in this paper have low-density vortices, as do most of the models we have studied. Moreover, usually the vortex centers lie approximately within +/- 15 deg of L(sub 4,5). In the stellar dynamic limit, when pressure and viscous forces are absent, short-period orbits exist, centered on L(sub 4,5). These orbits need not cross and therefore their morphology is that of gas streamlines, that is, vortices. We believe that the gas vortices in our models are hydrodynamic analogues of closed, short-period, libration orbits centered on L(sub 4,5).

  16. Triple dye plus rubbing alcohol versus triple dye alone for umbilical cord care.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Alawia K; Watts, Heidi; Beiler, Jessica; King, Tonya S; Khan, Sana; Carnuccio, Marybeth; Paul, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    Current practices for umbilical cord care vary across centers, but the evidence regarding these practices and their impact on cord separation, complications, and health care use are limited. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of triple dye alone (brilliant green, crystal violet, and proflavine hemisulfate) versus triple dye plus rubbing alcohol (isopropyl alcohol) twice daily on time to umbilical cord separation, complications, and health care use. For the 90 newborns who completed the study, there were no significant differences between treatment groups for time to cord separation, cord-related morbidities, or cord-related urgent care. Based on these study results, there does not appear to be significant benefit to the addition of twice daily applications of rubbing alcohol to neonatal umbilical cords following triple dye treatment after birth.

  17. Numerical modeling of barred spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Elizabeth Mary

    1992-08-01

    A two-component, self-consistent computer code to model spiral galaxies was written and tested and a method of inducing and controlling bar formation is developed. This work presents a departure from former modeling work done at the University of Florida, which depended on the beam scheme, a hydrodynamical code with a number of limitations. In particular, only the gas component could be modeled, no self-gravitational forces were included, and the viscosity inherent to the code could not be controlled easily. These shortcomings are overcome in the new algorithm. Most importantly, an attempt has been made to keep the models self-consistent. No perturbing potentials are imposed or required to excite bar and spiral structure. The code can model both the stellar and the gaseous component of a spiral galaxy. The stellar component feels only gravitational forces, while the gas component feels both gravitational and viscous forces. In addition, a halo force can be imposed for the purpose of stabilizing the disk. The code is a hybrid grid/smooth particle code. The gravitational forces are calculated on a Cartesian grid using a Fast Fourier Transform, while the gas viscous forces are calculated in a smooth particle manner. A mechanism for creating warm, featureless, stable disks is developed by taking moments of the collision less Boltzmann equation. In order to induce and control bar and spiral arm formation, the stabilizing stellar velocity dispersions are reduced in the center of the disk, but maintained in the outer regions. A bar forms naturally in the interior and the rotation of this bar helps maintain spiral structure in the outer gas disk. Realistic-looking spiral features are maintained in the gas component for as long as the models are calculated. A wide variety of bar and spiral structure can be formed by varying the size of the unstable central region, the rate of 'turn on', of the heating and the halo mass. We would like to test the model results by comparing

  18. Thermodynamics of a pure substance at the triple point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, S.; Fernández-Pineda, C.

    2007-12-01

    A thermodynamic study of a pure substance at the triple point is presented. In particular, we show that the mass fractions of the phases coexisting at the triple point obey lever rules in the specific entropy-specific volume diagram, and the relative changes in the mass fractions present in each phase along reversible isochoric and adiabatic processes of a pure substance at the triple point are governed by the relative sizes of the segments of the triple-point line in the pressure-specific volume diagram and in the temperature-specific entropy diagram. Applications to the ordinary triple point of water and to the triple point of Al2SiO5 polymorphs are presented.

  19. Laboratory and Workplace Assessments of Rivet Bucking Bar Vibration Emissions

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Thomas W.; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.

    2016-01-01

    Sheet metal workers operating rivet bucking bars are at risk of developing hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders associated with exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations and forceful exertions required to operate these hand tools. New bucking bar technologies have been introduced in efforts to reduce workplace vibration exposures to these workers. However, the efficacy of these new bucking bar designs has not been well documented. While there are standardized laboratory-based methodologies for assessing the vibration emissions of many types of powered hand tools, no such standard exists for rivet bucking bars. Therefore, this study included the development of a laboratory-based method for assessing bucking bar vibrations which utilizes a simulated riveting task. With this method, this study evaluated three traditional steel bucking bars, three similarly shaped tungsten alloy bars, and three bars featuring spring-dampeners. For comparison the bucking bar vibrations were also assessed during three typical riveting tasks at a large aircraft maintenance facility. The bucking bars were rank-ordered in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted acceleration measured at the hand-tool interface. The results suggest that the developed laboratory method is a reasonable technique for ranking bucking bar vibration emissions; the lab-based riveting simulations produced similar rankings to the workplace rankings. However, the laboratory-based acceleration averages were considerably lower than the workplace measurements. These observations suggest that the laboratory test results are acceptable for comparing and screening bucking bars, but the laboratory measurements should not be directly used for assessing the risk of workplace bucking bar vibration exposures. The newer bucking bar technologies exhibited significantly reduced vibrations compared to the traditional steel bars. The results of this study, together with other information such as rivet quality, productivity, tool

  20. Laboratory and workplace assessments of rivet bucking bar vibration emissions.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Thomas W; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2015-04-01

    Sheet metal workers operating rivet bucking bars are at risk of developing hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders associated with exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations and forceful exertions required to operate these hand tools. New bucking bar technologies have been introduced in efforts to reduce workplace vibration exposures to these workers. However, the efficacy of these new bucking bar designs has not been well documented. While there are standardized laboratory-based methodologies for assessing the vibration emissions of many types of powered hand tools, no such standard exists for rivet bucking bars. Therefore, this study included the development of a laboratory-based method for assessing bucking bar vibrations which utilizes a simulated riveting task. With this method, this study evaluated three traditional steel bucking bars, three similarly shaped tungsten alloy bars, and three bars featuring spring-dampeners. For comparison the bucking bar vibrations were also assessed during three typical riveting tasks at a large aircraft maintenance facility. The bucking bars were rank-ordered in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted acceleration measured at the hand-tool interface. The results suggest that the developed laboratory method is a reasonable technique for ranking bucking bar vibration emissions; the lab-based riveting simulations produced similar rankings to the workplace rankings. However, the laboratory-based acceleration averages were considerably lower than the workplace measurements. These observations suggest that the laboratory test results are acceptable for comparing and screening bucking bars, but the laboratory measurements should not be directly used for assessing the risk of workplace bucking bar vibration exposures. The newer bucking bar technologies exhibited significantly reduced vibrations compared to the traditional steel bars. The results of this study, together with other information such as rivet quality, productivity, tool

  1. Natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds.

    PubMed

    Mitraki, Anna; Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; Van Raaij, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    A distinctive family of beta-structured folds has recently been described for fibrous proteins from viruses. Virus fibers are usually involved in specific host-cell recognition. They are asymmetric homotrimeric proteins consisting of an N-terminal virus-binding tail, a central shaft or stalk domain, and a C-terminal globular receptor-binding domain. Often they are entirely or nearly entirely composed of beta-structure. Apart from their biological relevance and possible gene therapy applications, their shape, stability, and rigidity suggest they may be useful as blueprints for biomechanical design. Folding and unfolding studies suggest their globular C-terminal domain may fold first, followed by a "zipping-up" of the shaft domains. The C-terminal domains appear to be important for registration because peptides corresponding to shaft domains alone aggregate into nonnative fibers and/or amyloid structures. C-terminal domains can be exchanged between different fibers and the resulting chimeric proteins are useful as a way to solve structures of unknown parts of the shaft domains. The following natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds have been discovered by X-ray crystallography: the triple beta-spiral, triple beta-helix, and T4 short tail fiber fold. All have a central longitudinal hydrophobic core and extensive intermonomer polar and nonpolar interactions. Now that a reasonable body of structural and folding knowledge has been assembled about these fibrous proteins, the next challenge and opportunity is to start using this information in medical and industrial applications such as gene therapy and nanotechnology.

  2. Membrane-sculpting BAR domains generate stable lipid microdomains.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2013-09-26

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by "freezing" phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and one...

  4. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and one...

  5. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and one...

  6. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and one...

  7. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and one...

  8. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is legibly...

  9. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is legibly...

  10. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is legibly...

  11. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is legibly...

  12. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label requirements. Biological products must comply with the bar code requirements at § 201.25 of this chapter. However, the bar...

  13. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label requirements. Biological products must comply with the bar code requirements at § 201.25 of this chapter. However, the bar...

  14. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label requirements. Biological products must comply with the bar code requirements at § 201.25 of this chapter. However, the bar...

  15. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. 33 CFR 110.130 - Bar Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar Harbor, Maine. 110.130... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.130 Bar Harbor, Maine. (a) Anchorage grounds. (1) Anchorage “A” is that portion of Frenchman Bay, Bar Harbor, ME enclosed by a rhumb line connecting the following...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  18. Snack bar compositions and their acute glycaemic and satiety effects.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Kelleher, John; Rush, Elaine C

    Maintaining blood glucose within homeostatic limits and eating foods that sup-press hunger and promote satiety have beneficial impacts for health. This study investigated the glycaemic re-sponse and satiety effects of a serving size of a healthier snack bar, branded Nothing Else, that met the required nutrient profiling score criteria for a health claim, in comparison to two top-selling commercial snack bars. In an experimental study, 24 participants aged >=50 years were recruited. On three different days blood glucose concentration was measured twice at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consumption of a serving size of each bar. Satiety effects were self-reported hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and amount could eat ratings on visual analogue scales. The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (iAUC) over two hours for the Nothing Else bar was 30% lower than commercial Bar 2 (p<0.001). At 45 minutes after eating, the Nothing Else bar induced the highest fullness rating and lowest hunger rating among the three snack bars. At two hours, fullness induced by the Nothing Else bar was twice that of Bar 2 (p=0.019), but not different to Bar 1 (p=0.212). The Nothing Else snack bar developed using the nutrient profiling scheme as a guideline, with its high protein and dietary fibre contents, had a lower glycaemic impact and induced a higher subjective satiety than the two commercial snack bars of equal weight.

  19. Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G.; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes. PMID:24055060

  20. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is legibly...

  1. Access to Bathtub Grab Bars: Evidence of a Policy Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkett, Nicholas; Nair, Rama; Murphy, Maureen; Roberge, Ginette; Lockett, Donna

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines access to bathtub grab bars in privately and publicly owned apartment buildings and explores the profile of seniors who have access to bathtub grab bars. Results indicate that bathtub grab bars were significantly more prevalent in apartments that were publicly owned (91.3%) as compared to privately owned (37.8%) (p lesser than…

  2. Dynamic analysis of four bar planar mechanism extended to six-bar planar mechanism with variable topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belleri, Basayya K.; Kerur, Shravankumar B.

    2018-04-01

    A computer-oriented procedure for solving the dynamic force analysis problem for general planar mechanisms is presented. This paper provides position analysis, velocity analysis, acceleration analysis and force analysis of six bar mechanism with variable topology approach. Six bar mechanism is constructed by joining two simple four bar mechanisms. Initially the position, velocity and acceleration analysis of first four bar mechanism are determined by using the input parameters. The outputs (angular displacement, velocity and acceleration of rocker)of first four bar mechanism are used as input parameter for the second four bar mechanism and the position, velocity, acceleration and forces are analyzed. With out-put parameters of second four-bar mechanism the force analysis of first four-bar mechanism is carried out.

  3. Binaries and triples among asteroid pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián

    2015-08-01

    Despite major achievements obtained during the past two decades, our knowledge of the population and properties of small binary and multiple asteroid systems is still far from advanced. There is a numerous indirect evidence for that most small asteroid systems were formed by rotational fission of cohesionless parent asteroids that were spun up to the critical frequency presumably by YORP, but details of the process are lacking. Furthermore, as we proceed with observations of more and more binary and paired asteroids, we reveal new facts that substantially refine and sometimes change our understanding of the asteroid systems. One significant new finding we have recently obtained is that primaries of many asteroid pairs are actually binary or triple systems. The first such case found is (3749) Balam (Vokrouhlický, ApJL 706, L37, 2009). We have found 9 more binary systems among asteroid pairs within our ongoing NEOSource photometric project since October 2012. They are (6369) 1983 UC, (8306) Shoko, (9783) Tensho-kan, (10123) Fideoja, (21436) Chaoyichi, (43008) 1999 UD31, (44620) 1999 RS43, (46829) 1998 OS14 and (80218) 1999 VO123. We will review their characteristics. These paired binaries as we call them are mostly similar to binaries in the general ("background") population (of unpaired asteroids), but there are a few trends. The paired binaries tend to have larger secondaries with D_2/D_1 = 0.3 to 0.5 and they also tend to be wider systems with 8 of the 10 having orbital periods between 30 and 81 hours, than average among binaries in the general population. There may be also a larger fraction of triples; (3749) Balam is a confirmed triple, having a larger close and a smaller distant satellite, and (8306) Shoko and (10123) Fideoja are suspect triples as they show additional rotational lightcurve components with periods of 61 and 38.8 h that differ from the orbital period of 36.2 and 56.5 h, respectively. The unbound secondaries tend to be of the same size or

  4. Triple collinear emissions in parton showers

    DOE PAGES

    Hoche, Stefan; Prestel, Stefan

    2017-10-17

    A framework to include triple collinear splitting functions into parton showers is presented, and the implementation of flavor-changing next-to-leading-order (NLO) splitting kernels is discussed as a first application. The correspondence between the Monte Carlo integration and the analytic computation of NLO DGLAP evolution kernels is made explicit for both timelike and spacelike parton evolution. Finally, numerical simulation results are obtained with two independent implementations of the new algorithm, using the two independent event generation frameworks PYTHIA and SHERPA.

  5. [x, p] = i{h_bar} ?

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jau

    1996-03-01

    Heisenberg`s commutation relation for position x and momentum p, and its validity for relativistic harmonic oscillators are examined, using the techniques of Lie algebra and dual-bosonic representation of x, p and the Hamiltonian H. A modification with [x, p] =i{h_bar}({minus_plus} 1 + H/m{sub 0}c{sup 2}) is proposed for a particle and an antiparticle in a harmonic potential. For a 2 {times} 2 matrix representation for x, p and H operators, the quantized eigenenergy E is given by (E - m{sub 0}c{sup 2})/{h_bar}{omega} = 3/2, 5/2, 7/2, ..., where 1/2 is not allowed.

  6. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    PubMed

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical modeling of the divided bar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, Y.; Keehm, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The divided-bar technique has been used to measure thermal conductivity of rocks and fragments in heat flow studies. Though widely used, divided-bar measurements can have errors, which are not systematically quantified yet. We used an FEM and performed a series of numerical studies to evaluate various errors in divided-bar measurements and to suggest more reliable measurement techniques. A divided-bar measurement should be corrected against lateral heat loss on the sides of rock samples, and the thermal resistance at the contacts between the rock sample and the bar. We first investigated how the amount of these corrections would change by the thickness and thermal conductivity of rock samples through numerical modeling. When we fixed the sample thickness as 10 mm and varied thermal conductivity, errors in the measured thermal conductivity ranges from 2.02% for 1.0 W/m/K to 7.95% for 4.0 W/m/K. While we fixed thermal conductivity as 1.38 W/m/K and varied the sample thickness, we found that the error ranges from 2.03% for the 30 mm-thick sample to 11.43% for the 5 mm-thick sample. After corrections, a variety of error analyses for divided-bar measurements were conducted numerically. Thermal conductivity of two thin standard disks (2 mm in thickness) located at the top and the bottom of the rock sample slightly affects the accuracy of thermal conductivity measurements. When the thermal conductivity of a sample is 3.0 W/m/K and that of two standard disks is 0.2 W/m/K, the relative error in measured thermal conductivity is very small (~0.01%). However, the relative error would reach up to -2.29% for the same sample when thermal conductivity of two disks is 0.5 W/m/K. The accuracy of thermal conductivity measurements strongly depends on thermal conductivity and the thickness of thermal compound that is applied to reduce thermal resistance at contacts between the rock sample and the bar. When the thickness of thermal compound (0.29 W/m/K) is 0.03 mm, we found that the

  8. Riverbank erosion induced by gravel bar accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klösch, Mario; Habersack, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    Riverbank erosion is known to be strongly fluvially controlled and determination of shear stresses at the bank surface and at the bank toe is a crucial point in bank erosion modeling. In many modeling attempts hydraulics are simulated separately in a hydrodynamic-numerical model and the simulated shear stresses are further applied onto the bank surface in a bank erosion model. Hydrodynamics are usually simulated at a constant geometry. However, in some cases bed geometry may vary strongly during the event, changing the conditions for hydrodynamics along the bank. This research seeks to investigate the effect of gravel bar accretion during high discharges on final bank retreat. At a restored section of the Drava River bed widenings have been implemented to counter bed degradation. There, in an initiated side-arm, self-dynamic widening strongly affects bed development and long-term connectivity to the main channel. Understanding the riverbank erosion processes there would help to improve planning of future restoration measures. At one riverbank section in the side-arm large bank retreat was measured repeatedly after several flow events. This section is situated between two groins with a distance of 60 m, which act as lateral boundaries to the self-widening channel. In front of this bank section a gravel bar developed. During low flow condition most discharge of the side-arm flows beside the gravel bar along the bank, but shear stresses are too low for triggering bank erosion. For higher discharges results from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic-numerical model suggested shear stresses there to be generally low during the entire events. At some discharges the modeled flow velocities even showed to be recirculating along the bank. These results didn't explain the observed bank retreat. Based on the modeled shear stresses, bank erosion models would have greatly underestimated the bank retreat induced by the investigated events. Repeated surveys after events applying

  9. Determination of the Latent Heats and Triple Point of Perfluorocyclobutane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, A. G.; Strachan, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    Proposes the use of Perfluorocyclobutane in physical chemistry courses to conduct experiments on latent heat, triple point temperatures and pressures, boiling points, and entropy of vaporization. (SL)

  10. Vectorized data acquisition and fast triple-correlation integrals for Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ridgeway, William K; Millar, David P; Williamson, James R

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is widely used to quantitate reaction rates and concentrations of molecules in vitro and in vivo. We recently reported Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy (F3CS), which correlates three signals together instead of two. F3CS can analyze the stoichiometries of complex mixtures and detect irreversible processes by identifying time-reversal asymmetries. Here we report the computational developments that were required for the realization of F3CS and present the results as the Triple Correlation Toolbox suite of programs. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete data analysis pipeline capable of acquiring, correlating and fitting large data sets. Each segment of the pipeline handles error estimates for accurate error-weighted global fitting. Data acquisition was accelerated with a combination of off-the-shelf counter-timer chips and vectorized operations on 128-bit registers. This allows desktop computers with inexpensive data acquisition cards to acquire hours of multiple-channel data with sub-microsecond time resolution. Off-line correlation integrals were implemented as a two delay time multiple-tau scheme that scales efficiently with multiple processors and provides an unprecedented view of linked dynamics. Global fitting routines are provided to fit FCS and F3CS data to models containing up to ten species. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete package that enables F3CS to be performed on existing microscopes. PMID:23525193

  11. Design and analysis of O-S-C triple band wavelength division demultiplexer using cascaded MMI couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chack, Devendra; Kumar, V.; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Dev Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Compact triple O-S-C band wavelength demultiplexer, which consists of series cascaded multimode interference (MMI) couplers has been carried out in this paper. The MMI coupler has been used to drop the wavelengths of 1510 nm and 1550 nm at bar port while the wavelength 1300 nm into the cross port. Then another MMI coupler has been designed to separate the wavelength 1510 nminto one port and wavelength 1550 nm into another port. The triple wavelength demultiplexer function has been performed by choosing a suitable refractive index of the guiding region and geometrical parameters such as the width and length of MMI coupler. Numerical simulation with finite difference beam propagation method (BPM) has been utilized to design and optimize the operation of the proposed triple wavelength demultiplexer. The simulation results show that insertion losses of wavelength O, S and C, bands are 1.884 dB, 1.452 dB and 2.568 dB, respectively, with isolations for each output waveguide ranging from 10 dB to 28.72 dB. The 3-dB bandwidth of insertion loss for 1300 nm, 1510 nm and 1550 nm are 80 nm, 20 nm and 10 nm, respectively.

  12. Delamination Analysis Of Composite Curved Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1990-01-01

    Classical anisotropic elasticity theory used to construct "multilayer" composite semicircular curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments. Radial location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress calculated and compared with results obtained from anisotropic continuum theory and from finite element method. Multilayer theory gave more accurate predictions of location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress. Currently being applied to predict open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horse-shoe-shaped composite test coupons.

  13. PAH Emission in the Orion Bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse; Sloan, G. C.

    1996-01-01

    The emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in the Orion Bar region is investigated using a combination of narrow-band imaging and long-slit spectroscopy. The goal was to study how the strength of the PAH bands vary with spatial position in this edge-on photo-dissociation region. The specific focus here is how these variations constrain the carrier of the 3.4 micron band.

  14. New Spectroscopy at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzoni, M.A.; /INFN, Rome

    2007-04-18

    The Babar experiment at the SLAC B factory has accumulated a high luminosity that offers the possibility of systematic studies of quarkonium spectroscopy and of investigating rare new phenomena. Recent results in this field are presented. In recent times spectroscopy has become exciting again, after the discovery of new states that are not easily explained by conventional models. States such as the X(3872) and the Y(4260) could be new excited charmonium states, but require precise measurements for positive identification. The BaBar experiment [1] is installed at the asymmetric storage ring PEP-II. 90% of the data accumulated by BaBar are takenmore » at the Y(4S) (10.58 GeV) and 10% just below (10.54 GeV). The BaBar detector includes a 5-layer, double-sided silicon vertex tracker and a 40-layer drift chamber in a 1.5 T solenoidal magnetic field, which detect charged particles and measures their momenta and ionization energy losses. Photons, electrons, and neutral hadrons are detected with a CsI(Tl)-crystal electromagnetic calorimeter. An internally reflecting ring-imaging Cherenkov is also used for particle id. Penetrating muon and neutral hadrons are identified by an array of resistive-plate chambers embedded in the steel of the flux return. The detector allows good track and vertex resolution, good particle id and good photon detection so it is especially suited for spectroscopy studies.« less

  15. Interference of Nonstandard Interactions with Standard Model in {B^0} \\to {π ^0}\\bar vv, B_c^ - \\to {D^ - }\\bar vv and \\bar B_s^0 \\to {K^0}\\bar vv Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Shakeel; Tahir, Farida; Mir, Azeem

    2018-05-01

    We study the contributions of nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI) to the rare decays of pseudoscalar mesons involving neutrinos in the final state {B^0} \\to {π ^0}\\bar vv, B_c^ - \\to {D^ - }\\bar vv and \\bar B_s^0 \\to {\\bar K^0}\\bar vv, It is pointed that dominant contribution comes from the interference between standard model and nonstandard interaction We predict limits on NSIs free parameter ɛ uL ττ and compare them with experimental data. We further compare our results with perturbative QCD (pQCD) and QCD results for these reactions.

  16. Robust Modeling of Stellar Triples in PHOEBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Kyle E.; Prsa, Andrej; Horvat, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-01-01

    The number of known mutually-eclipsing stellar triple and multiple systems has increased greatly during the Kepler era. These systems provide significant opportunities to both determine fundamental stellar parameters of benchmark systems to unprecedented precision as well as to study the dynamical interaction and formation mechanisms of stellar and planetary systems. Modeling these systems to their full potential, however, has not been feasible until recently. Most existing available codes are restricted to the two-body binary case and those that do provide N-body support for more components make sacrifices in precision by assuming no stellar surface distortion. We have completely redesigned and rewritten the PHOEBE binary modeling code to incorporate support for triple and higher-order systems while also robustly modeling data with Kepler precision. Here we present our approach, demonstrate several test cases based on real data, and discuss the current status of PHOEBE's support for modeling these types of systems. PHOEBE is funded in part by NSF grant #1517474.

  17. Triple-activated blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    The current shortage of portland cement in the world will require the use of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) to fill demands in many industrialized countries. Therefore, an extensive series of triple-activated slag experiments have been undertaken to optimize an economical combination of mechanical properties for alkali-activated slags. Na{sub 2}OSiO{sub 2} (N Grade), Ca(OH){sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} have been added as activators in 5 to 10, 0 to 5 and 0 to 5 weight percentages of water and slag in a mix with a water:cement ratio of 1:1. Silica Fume and Sika 10 superplasticizer havemore » been added as 1 and 10 weight percent of slag. Set times, initial hardening times and compressive strengths at percentages of the mix to identify more refined formulations. Finally, the resulting aggregate to develop a triple-activated slag formulation with the ultimate objective of contributing toward satisfying the world shortage of high performance concrete.« less

  18. Prediction of triple-charm molecular pentaquarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Hosaka, Atsushi; Liu, Xiang

    2017-12-01

    In a one-boson-exchange model, we study molecular states of double-charm baryon [Ξc c(3621 )] and a charmed meson (D and D*). Our model indicates that there exist two possible triple-charm molecular pentaquarks, a Ξc cD state with I (JP)=0 (1 /2-), and a Ξc cD* state with I (JP)=0 (3 /2-), and we do not find bound solutions for isotriplet states. In addition, we also extend our formula to explore Ξc cB¯(*), Ξc cD¯(*), and Ξc cB(*) systems and find more possible heavy flavor molecular pentaquarks, a Ξc cB ¯ state with I (JP)=0 (1 /2-), a Ξc cB¯* state with I (JP)=0 (3 /2-), and Ξc cD¯*/Ξc cB* states with I (JP)=0 (1 /2-). Experimental research for these predicted triple-charm molecular pentaquarks is encouraged.

  19. Immunotherapeutic interventions of Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zehuan; Qiu, Yiran; Lu, Weiqi; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Jin

    2018-05-30

    Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous subtype of breast cancer that lacks the expression of oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Although TNBC is sensitive to chemotherapy, the overall outcomes of TNBC are worse than for other breast cancers, and TNBC is still one of the most fatal diseases for women. With the discovery of antigens specifically expressed in TNBC cells and the developing technology of monoclonal antibodies, chimeric antigen receptors and cancer vaccines, immunotherapy is emerging as a novel promising option for TNBC. This review is mainly focused on the tumour microenvironment and host immunity, Triple Negative Breast Cancer and the clinical treatment of TNBC, novel therapies for cancer and immunotherapy for TNBC, and the future outlook for the treatment for TNBC and the interplay between the therapies, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors with targeted treatments in TNBC, adoptive cell therapy, cancer vaccines. The review also highlights recent reports on the synergistic effects of immunotherapy and chemotherapy, antibody-drug conjugates, and exosomes, as potential multifunctional therapeutic agents in TNBC.

  20. Triple galaxies and a hidden mass problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Lebedev, V. S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors consider a homogeneous sample of 84 triple systems of galaxies with components brighter than m = 15.7, located in the northern sky and satisfying an isolation criterion with respect to neighboring galaxies in projection. The distributions of basic dynamical parameters for triplets have median values as follows: radial velocity dispersion 133 km/s, mean harmonic radius 63 kpc, absolute magnitude of galaxies M sub B equals -20.38, crossing time tau = 0.04 H(sup minus 1). For different ways of estimation the median mass-to-luminosity ratio is (20 - 30). A comparison of the last value with the ones for single and binary galaxies shows the presence of a virial mass excess for triplets by a factor 4. The mass-to-luminosity ratio is practically uncorrelated with linear size of triplets or with morphological types of their components. We note that a significant part of the virial excess may be explained by the presence of nonisolated triple configurations in the sample, which are produced by debris of more populous groups of galaxies.

  1. Brown Dwarf Binaries from Disintegrating Triple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2015-04-01

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi-Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  2. Recovery and normalization of triple coincidences in PET.

    PubMed

    Lage, Eduardo; Parot, Vicente; Moore, Stephen C; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Udías, Jose M; Dave, Shivang R; Park, Mi-Ae; Vaquero, Juan J; Herraiz, Joaquin L

    2015-03-01

    Triple coincidences in positron emission tomography (PET) are events in which three γ-rays are detected simultaneously. These events, though potentially useful for enhancing the sensitivity of PET scanners, are discarded or processed without special consideration in current systems, because there is not a clear criterion for assigning them to a unique line-of-response (LOR). Methods proposed for recovering such events usually rely on the use of highly specialized detection systems, hampering general adoption, and/or are based on Compton-scatter kinematics and, consequently, are limited in accuracy by the energy resolution of standard PET detectors. In this work, the authors propose a simple and general solution for recovering triple coincidences, which does not require specialized detectors or additional energy resolution requirements. To recover triple coincidences, the authors' method distributes such events among their possible LORs using the relative proportions of double coincidences in these LORs. The authors show analytically that this assignment scheme represents the maximum-likelihood solution for the triple-coincidence distribution problem. The PET component of a preclinical PET/CT scanner was adapted to enable the acquisition and processing of triple coincidences. Since the efficiencies for detecting double and triple events were found to be different throughout the scanner field-of-view, a normalization procedure specific for triple coincidences was also developed. The effect of including triple coincidences using their method was compared against the cases of equally weighting the triples among their possible LORs and discarding all the triple events. The authors used as figures of merit for this comparison sensitivity, noise-equivalent count (NEC) rates and image quality calculated as described in the NEMA NU-4 protocol for the assessment of preclinical PET scanners. The addition of triple-coincidence events with the authors' method increased peak

  3. Recovery and normalization of triple coincidences in PET

    SciTech Connect

    Lage, Eduardo, E-mail: elage@mit.edu; Parot, Vicente; Dave, Shivang R.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Triple coincidences in positron emission tomography (PET) are events in which three γ-rays are detected simultaneously. These events, though potentially useful for enhancing the sensitivity of PET scanners, are discarded or processed without special consideration in current systems, because there is not a clear criterion for assigning them to a unique line-of-response (LOR). Methods proposed for recovering such events usually rely on the use of highly specialized detection systems, hampering general adoption, and/or are based on Compton-scatter kinematics and, consequently, are limited in accuracy by the energy resolution of standard PET detectors. In this work, the authors propose amore » simple and general solution for recovering triple coincidences, which does not require specialized detectors or additional energy resolution requirements. Methods: To recover triple coincidences, the authors’ method distributes such events among their possible LORs using the relative proportions of double coincidences in these LORs. The authors show analytically that this assignment scheme represents the maximum-likelihood solution for the triple-coincidence distribution problem. The PET component of a preclinical PET/CT scanner was adapted to enable the acquisition and processing of triple coincidences. Since the efficiencies for detecting double and triple events were found to be different throughout the scanner field-of-view, a normalization procedure specific for triple coincidences was also developed. The effect of including triple coincidences using their method was compared against the cases of equally weighting the triples among their possible LORs and discarding all the triple events. The authors used as figures of merit for this comparison sensitivity, noise-equivalent count (NEC) rates and image quality calculated as described in the NEMA NU-4 protocol for the assessment of preclinical PET scanners. Results: The addition of triple-coincidence events with

  4. The intrinsic three-dimensional shape of galactic bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Abreu, J.; Costantin, L.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Corsini, E. M.

    2018-06-01

    We present the first statistical study on the intrinsic three-dimensional (3D) shape of a sample of 83 galactic bars extracted from the CALIFA survey. We use the galaXYZ code to derive the bar intrinsic shape with a statistical approach. The method uses only the geometric information (ellipticities and position angles) of bars and discs obtained from a multi-component photometric decomposition of the galaxy surface-brightness distributions. We find that bars are predominantly prolate-triaxial ellipsoids (68%), with a small fraction of oblate-triaxial ellipsoids (32%). The typical flattening (intrinsic C/A semiaxis ratio) of the bars in our sample is 0.34, which matches well the typical intrinsic flattening of stellar discs at these galaxy masses. We demonstrate that, for prolate-triaxial bars, the intrinsic shape of bars depends on the galaxy Hubble type and stellar mass (bars in massive S0 galaxies are thicker and more circular than those in less massive spirals). The bar intrinsic shape correlates with bulge, disc, and bar parameters. In particular with the bulge-to-total (B/T) luminosity ratio, disc g - r color, and central surface brightness of the bar, confirming the tight link between bars and their host galaxies. Combining the probability distributions of the intrinsic shape of bulges and bars in our sample we show that 52% (16%) of bulges are thicker (flatter) than the surrounding bar at 1σ level. We suggest that these percentages might be representative of the fraction of classical and disc-like bulges in our sample, respectively.

  5. Practical guide to bar coding for patient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Mark; Cohen, Michael R; Vaida, Allen J; Patchett, Jeffrey A; Kelly, Jamie; Trohimovich, Barbara

    2003-04-15

    Bar coding for the medication administration step of the drug-use process is discussed. FDA will propose a rule in 2003 that would require bar-code labels on all human drugs and biologicals. Even with an FDA mandate, manufacturer procrastination and possible shifts in product availability are likely to slow progress. Such delays should not preclude health systems from adopting bar-code-enabled point-of-care (BPOC) systems to achieve gains in patient safety. Bar-code technology is a replacement for traditional keyboard data entry. The elements of bar coding are content, which determines the meaning; data format, which refers to the embedded data and symbology, which describes the "font" in which the machine-readable code is written. For a BPOC system to deliver an acceptable level of patient protection, the hospital must first establish reliable processes for a patient identification band, caregiver badge, and medication bar coding. Medications can have either drug-specific or patient-specific bar codes. Both varieties result in the desired code that supports patient's five rights of drug administration. When medications are not available from the manufacturer in immediate-container bar-coded packaging, other means of applying the bar code must be devised, including the use of repackaging equipment, overwrapping, manual bar coding, and outsourcing. Virtually all medications should be bar coded, the bar code on the label should be easily readable, and appropriate policies, procedures, and checks should be in place. Bar coding has the potential to be not only cost-effective but to produce a return on investment. By bar coding patient identification tags, caregiver badges, and immediate-container medications, health systems can substantially increase patient safety during medication administration.

  6. Outcome Measures of Triple Board Graduates, 1991-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Marla J.; Dunn, David W.; Rushton, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe program outcomes for the Combined Training Program in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pediatrics, and Psychiatry (Triple Board Program). Method: All Triple Board Program graduates to date (1991-2003) were asked to participate in a 37-item written survey from February to April 2004. Results: The response rate was 80.7%. Most…

  7. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danson, Mike; Todeva, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion of the role of regional government and regional Triple Helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. The impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional Triple Helix constellations, and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional…

  8. "Special Issue": Regional Dimensions of the Triple Helix Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todeva, Emanuela; Danson, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the rationale for the special issue and its contributions, which bridge the literature on regional development and the Triple Helix model. The concept of the Triple Helix at the sub-national, and specifically regional, level is established and examined, with special regard to regional economic development founded on…

  9. Regional Dimensions of the Triple Helix Model: Setting the Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todeva, Emanuela; Danson, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the rationale for the special issue and its contributions, which bridge the literature on regional development and the Triple Helix model. The concept of the Triple Helix at the sub-national, and specifically regional, level is established and examined, with special regard to regional economic development founded on…

  10. Correlation of Selected Subsize Charpy Bars versus the Standard Charpy Bar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-05-01

    WAL TR 112/91 TECIINICAL REPORT r- i -I WATERTOWN ARSENAL LABORATORI ES CORRELATION OF SELECTED SUBSIZE CHARPY BARS VERSUS THE STANDARD CHARPY BAR...DTIC BY fitELECTED CHARLES Ht. CURIL MAY 8 19813 GEORGE M. OR14ER 0.0. PROJECT: INDUSTRIAL PREPAREDNESS MEASURE, ,... DEVELOPMENT OF SUBSIZE CHARPY ...STANDARD P.E.S.D. NO.: 60302l281-16-65003 REPORT NO.: WAL TR 112191 FILING SUBJECT: SUBSIZE CHARPY IThis documnt~ has mo f1 P~ub1c teT -rie and mczlelIN

  11. Near infrared spectra of the Orion bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, A.; Testi, L.; Natta, A.; Walmsley, C. M.

    1998-02-01

    We have used the LONGSP spectrometer on the 1.5-m TIRGO telescope to obtain long slit spectra in the J, H, and K wavelength bands towards two positions along the Orion bar. These data have been supplemented with images made using the ARNICA camera mounted on TIRGO as well as with an ESO NTT observation carried out by Dr A. Moorwood. We detect a variety of transitions of hydrogen, helium, OI, FeII, FeIII, and H_2. From our molecular hydrogen data, we conclude that densities are moderate (3-6x 10(4) cm(-3) ) in the layer responsible for the molecular hydrogen emission and give no evidence for the presence of dense neutral clumps. We also find that the molecular hydrogen bar is likely to be tilted by ~ 10 degrees relative to the line of sight. We discuss the relative merits of several models of the structure of the bar and conclude that it may be split into two structures separated by 0.2-0.3 parsec along the line of sight. It also seems likely to us that in both structures, density increases along a line perpendicular to the ionization front which penetrates into the neutral gas. We have used the 1.317mum OI line to estimate the FUV radiation field incident at the ionization front and find values of 1-3x 10(4) greater than the average interstellar field. From [FeII] line measurements, we conclude that the electron density in the ionized layer associated with the ionization front is of order 10(4) \\percc. Finally, our analysis of the helium and hydrogen recombination lines implies essential coincidence of the helium and hydrogen Stromgren spheres.

  12. Hubble Spots a Barred Lynx Spiral

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Discovered by British astronomer William Herschel over 200 years ago, NGC 2500 lies about 30 million light-years away in the northern constellation of Lynx. As this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows, NGC 2500 is a particular kind of spiral galaxy known as a barred spiral, its wispy arms swirling out from a bright, elongated core. Barred spirals are actually more common than was once thought. Around two-thirds of all spiral galaxies — including the Milky Way — exhibit these straight bars cutting through their centers. These cosmic structures act as glowing nurseries for newborn stars, and funnel material towards the active core of a galaxy. NGC 2500 is still actively forming new stars, although this process appears to be occurring very unevenly. The upper half of the galaxy — where the spiral arms are slightly better defined — hosts many more star-forming regions than the lower half, as indicated by the bright, dotted islands of light. There is another similarity between NGC 2500 and our home galaxy. Together with Andromeda, Triangulum and many smaller natural satellites, the Milky Way is part of the Local Group of galaxies, a gathering of over 50 galaxies all loosely held together by gravity. NGC 2500 forms a similar group with some of its nearby neighbors, including NGC 2541, NGC 2552, NGC 2537 and the bright, Andromeda-like spiral NGC 2481 (known collectively as the NGC 2841 group). Image Credit: ESA/Hubble/NASA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key points Vertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer. The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s-2 and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement. Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  14. Predicting Error Bars for QSAR Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeter, Timon; Schwaighofer, Anton; Mika, Sebastian; Ter Laak, Antonius; Suelzle, Detlev; Ganzer, Ursula; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2007-09-01

    Unfavorable physicochemical properties often cause drug failures. It is therefore important to take lipophilicity and water solubility into account early on in lead discovery. This study presents log D7 models built using Gaussian Process regression, Support Vector Machines, decision trees and ridge regression algorithms based on 14556 drug discovery compounds of Bayer Schering Pharma. A blind test was conducted using 7013 new measurements from the last months. We also present independent evaluations using public data. Apart from accuracy, we discuss the quality of error bars that can be computed by Gaussian Process models, and ensemble and distance based techniques for the other modelling approaches.

  15. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  16. Failure Waves in Cylindrical Glass Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazamias, James U.; Bless, Stephan J.; Marder, Michael P.

    1997-07-01

    Failure waves, a propagating front separating virgin and comminuted material, have been receiving a fair amount of attention the last couple of years. While most scientists have been looking at failure waves in plate impact geometries, we have conducted a series of experiments on Pyrex bars. In this paper, we present two types of photographic data from a series of tests. A streak camera was used to determine velocities of the failure front as a function of impact stress. A polaroid camera and a flash lamp provide detailed pictures of the actual event. Attempts were made to observe failure waves in amorphous quartz and acrylic.

  17. Parker Solar Probe Light Bar Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-06-05

    In the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near NASA's Kennedy Space Center, on Tuesday, June 5, 2018, technicians and engineers perform light bar testing on NASA's Parker Solar Probe. The Parker Solar Probe will launch on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket from Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida no earlier than Aug. 4, 2018. The mission will perform the closest-ever observations of a star when it travels through the Sun's atmosphere, called the corona. The probe will rely on measurements and imaging to revolutionize our understanding of the corona and the Sun-Earth connection.

  18. Dynamic crystallization study of barred olivine chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary; Lanier, A. B.

    1990-01-01

    The 'classic' barred olivine (BO) texture was defined by Donaldson (1976) as a single-plate dendrite which shares the entire chondrule with the remaining glass or subsequent crystallization products. This paper describes experiments in which BO textures were produced experimentally from two starting compositions: one modeled after the average BO chondrule composition in L-chondrites determined by Weisberg (1987), and the other after an olivine-rich composition (CH-1) studied by Lofgren (1989). It is shown that most of the textural features observed in natural BO chondrules are replicated in the experimentally produced chondrules. Several new constraints on models for the chondrule-forming process are proposed.

  19. The nearby triple star HIP 101955

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xia

    2018-04-01

    The nearby triple star HIP 101955 with strongly inclined orbit still remains. Thus the long-term dynamical stability deserves to be discussed based on the new dynamical state parameters (component masses and kinematic parameters) derived from fitting the accurate three-body model to the radial velocity, the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (HIAD), and the accumulated speckle and visual data. It is found that the three-body system remains integrated and most likely undergoes Kozai cycles. With the already accumulated high-precision data, the three-body effects cannot always be neglected in the determination of the dynamical state. And it is expected that this will be the general case under the available Gaia data.

  20. Exotic triple-charm deuteronlike hexaquarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Wang, Fu-Lai; Hosaka, Atsushi; Liu, Xiang

    2018-06-01

    Adopting the one-boson-exchange model, we perform a systematic investigation of interactions between a doubly charmed baryon (Ξc c) and an S -wave charmed baryon (Λc, Σc(*), and Ξc(',*)). Both the S - D mixing effect and coupled-channel effect are considered in this work. Our results suggest that there may exist several possible triple-charm deuteronlike hexaquarks. Meanwhile, we further study the interactions between a doubly charmed baryon and an S -wave anticharmed baryon. We find that a doubly charmed baryon and an S -wave anticharmed baryon can be easily bound together to form shallow molecular hexaquarks. These heavy flavor hexaquarks predicted here can be accessible at future experiment like LHCb.

  1. [Triple fracture of the shoulder suspensory complex].

    PubMed

    Tamimi Mariño, I; Martin Rodríguez, I; Mora Villadeamigo, J

    2013-01-01

    The superior suspensory complex of the shoulder (SSCS) is a ring shaped structure composed of bones and soft tissues that play a fundamental role in the stability of the shoulder joint. Isolated injuries of the SSCS are relatively common, but injuries that affect 3 components are extremely unusual. We present a triple injury of the SSCS in a 26 year old patient with a Neer type ii clavicular fracture, a Kuhn type iii acromion fracture and an Ogawa type i coracoid fracture. An open reduction and stabilization of the clavicle was performed with 2 Kirschner nails. The acromial fracture was synthesized with 2 cannulated screws, and the coracoid fracture was treated conservatively. After 24 months of follow up the patient had an excellent functional outcome according to the Constat-Murley shoulder score and QuickDASH scoring system, and all the fractures healed correctly. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Triple flames in microgravity flame spread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichman, Indrek S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to examine in detail the influence of the triple flame structure on the flame spread problem. It is with an eye to the practical implications that this fundamental research project must be carried out. The microgravity configuration is preferable because buoyancy-induced stratification and vorticity generation are suppressed. A more convincing case can be made for comparing our predictions, which are zero-g, and any projected experiments. Our research into the basic aspects will employ two models. In one, flows of fuel and oxidizer from the lower wall are not considered. In the other, a convective flow is allowed. The non-flow model allows us to develop combined analytical and numerical solution methods that may be used in the more complicated convective-flow model.

  3. Finite Element Simulations to Explore Assumptions in Kolsky Bar Experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Justin

    2015-08-05

    The chief purpose of this project has been to develop a set of finite element models that attempt to explore some of the assumptions in the experimental set-up and data reduction of the Kolsky bar experiment. In brief, the Kolsky bar, sometimes referred to as the split Hopkinson pressure bar, is an experimental apparatus used to study the mechanical properties of materials at high strain rates. Kolsky bars can be constructed to conduct experiments in tension or compression, both of which are studied in this paper. The basic operation of the tension Kolsky bar is as follows: compressed air ismore » inserted into the barrel that contains the striker; the striker accelerates towards the left and strikes the left end of the barrel producing a tensile stress wave that propogates first through the barrel and then down the incident bar, into the specimen, and finally the transmission bar. In the compression case, the striker instead travels to the right and impacts the incident bar directly. As the stress wave travels through an interface (e.g., the incident bar to specimen connection), a portion of the pulse is transmitted and the rest reflected. The incident pulse, as well as the transmitted and reflected pulses are picked up by two strain gauges installed on the incident and transmitted bars as shown. By interpreting the data acquired by these strain gauges, the stress/strain behavior of the specimen can be determined.« less

  4. Why Buckling Stellar Bars Weaken in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Shlosman, Isaac

    2004-09-01

    Young stellar bars in disk galaxies experience a vertical buckling instability that terminates their growth and thickens them, resulting in a characteristic peanut/boxy shape when viewed edge-on. Using N-body simulations of galactic disks embedded in live halos, we have analyzed the bar structure throughout this instability and found that the outer (approximately) third of the bar dissolves completely while the inner part (within the vertical inner Lindblad resonance) becomes less oval. The bar acquires the frequently observed peanut/boxy-shaped isophotes. We also find that the bar buckling is responsible for a mass injection above the plane, which is subsequently trapped by specific three-dimensional families of periodic orbits of particular shapes explaining the observed isophotes, in line with previous work. Using a three-dimensional orbit analysis and surfaces of sections, we infer that the outer part of the bar is dissolved by a rapidly widening stochastic region around its corotation radius-a process related to the bar growth. This leads to a dramatic decrease in the bar size, decrease in the overall bar strength, and a mild increase in its pattern speed but is not expected to lead to a complete bar dissolution. The buckling instability appears primarily responsible for shortening the secular diffusion timescale to a dynamical one when building the boxy isophotes. The sufficiently long timescale of the described evolution, ~1 Gyr, can affect the observed bar fraction in the local universe and at higher redshifts, both through reduced bar strength and the absence of dust offset lanes in the bar.

  5. Automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction using robust montmorillonite/epoxy-coated stir bars.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Milad; Saraji, Mohammad; Maya, Fernando; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-05-06

    Herein we present a simple, rapid and low cost strategy for the preparation of robust stir bar coatings based on the combination of montmorillonite with epoxy resin. The composite stir bar was implemented in a novel automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction system (MS-SBSE), and applied to the extraction of four chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) as model compounds, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The different experimental parameters of the MS-SBSE, such as sample volume, selection of the desorption solvent, desorption volume, desorption time, sample solution pH, salt effect and extraction time were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits were between 0.02 and 0.34μgL(-1). Relative standard deviations (RSD) of the method for the analytes at 10μgL(-1) concentration level ranged from 3.5% to 4.1% (as intra-day RSD) and from 3.9% to 4.3% (as inter-day RSD at 50μgL(-1) concentration level). Batch-to-batch reproducibility for three different stir bars was 4.6-5.1%. The enrichment factors were between 30 and 49. In order to investigate the capability of the developed technique for real sample analysis, well water, wastewater and leachates from a solid waste treatment plant were satisfactorily analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Implant-retained mandibular bar-supported overlay dentures: a finite element stress analysis of four different bar heights.

    PubMed

    Rismanchian, Mansoor; Dakhilalian, Mansour; Bajoghli, Farshad; Ghasemi, Ehsan; Sadr-Eshkevari, Pooyan

    2012-04-01

    Proper stress distribution on dental implants is necessary in bar-retained implant overlay dentures. We aimed to comparatively assess this stress distribution according to different bar heights using finite element models. A three-dimensional (3D) computer model of mandible with 2 implants (ITI, 4.1 mm diameter and 12 mm length) in canine areas and an overlying implant-supported bar-retained overlay denture were simulated with 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-mm bar heights using ABAQUS software. A vertical force was applied to the left first molar and gradually increased from 0 to 50 N. The resultant stress distribution was evaluated. Bars of 1 and 2 mm in height transferred the least stress to the implants (3.882 and 3.896 MPa, respectively). The 0-mm height of the bar connection transferred the highest stress value (4.277 MPa). The amount of stress transferred by 3-mm heights of the bar connection was greater than that of 1- and 2-mm bar connections and smaller than that of 0-mm bar connection (4.165 kgN). This 3D finite element analysis study suggested that the use of Dolder bar attachment with 1- and 2-mm heights could be associated with appropriate stress distribution for implant-retained overlay dentures.

  7. [Period-tripling in Multiscale Physical and Biological Events].

    PubMed

    Bondar, A T; Fedorov, M V; Kolombet, V A

    2015-01-01

    A recent paper by S.J. Puetz et al. (Chaos, Solitons -& Fractals, v. 62-63, p. 55, 2014) described a fundamental period-tripled model. It involves periods of different astronomical (quasars, Sun), geophysical (geomagnetic, climatic, volcanic) and some biological processes. This work contains statistics for sixteen pairs of a period-tripled sequence. These periods range from -50 years to 1.5 billion years and no signs of the timescale limitations are found. We believe that the universal scope of the fundamental period-tripled model can be used for the development of new methodology of research data analysis: the main idea is that the spectrum of the periods of the studied event should be tested for the similarity with the spectrum of fundamental period-tripling pattern (because of the fundamental nature of the period-tripled model). Using this method, in this study we complement an already described period-tripled model with periods of human memory performance ranging from one minute to one month also adding seven relevant periods/frequencies of the period-tripled model in the range of human hearing. We make a conclusion that these characteristic frequencies may form the basis for music and singing phenomena. The new methodology is particularly appropriate for being applied in medicine and engineering.

  8. The effects of complex chemistry on triple flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echekki, T.; Chen, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    The structure, ignition, and stabilization mechanisms for a methanol (CH3OH)-air triple flame are studied using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). The methanol (CH3OH)-air triple flame is found to burn with an asymmetric shape due to the different chemical and transport processes characterizing the mixture. The excess fuel, methanol (CH3OH), on the rich premixed flame branch is replaced by more stable fuels CO and H2, which burn at the diffusion flame. On the lean premixed flame side, a higher concentration of O2 leaks through to the diffusion flame. The general structure of the triple point features the contribution of both differential diffusion of radicals and heat. A mixture fraction-temperature phase plane description of the triple flame structure is proposed to highlight some interesting features in partially premixed combustion. The effects of differential diffusion at the triple point add to the contribution of hydrodynamic effects in the stabilization of the triple flame. Differential diffusion effects are measured using two methods: a direct computation using diffusion velocities and an indirect computation based on the difference between the normalized mixture fractions of C and H. The mixture fraction approach does not clearly identify the effects of differential diffusion, in particular at the curved triple point, because of ambiguities in the contribution of carbon and hydrogen atoms' carrying species.

  9. Vectorized data acquisition and fast triple-correlation integrals for Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgeway, William K.; Millar, David P.; Williamson, James R.

    2013-04-01

    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is widely used to quantify reaction rates and concentrations of molecules in vitro and in vivo. We recently reported Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy (F3CS), which correlates three signals together instead of two. F3CS can analyze the stoichiometries of complex mixtures and detect irreversible processes by identifying time-reversal asymmetries. Here we report the computational developments that were required for the realization of F3CS and present the results as the Triple Correlation Toolbox suite of programs. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete data analysis pipeline capable of acquiring, correlating and fitting large data sets. Each segment of the pipeline handles error estimates for accurate error-weighted global fitting. Data acquisition was accelerated with a combination of off-the-shelf counter-timer chips and vectorized operations on 128-bit registers. This allows desktop computers with inexpensive data acquisition cards to acquire hours of multiple-channel data with sub-microsecond time resolution. Off-line correlation integrals were implemented as a two delay time multiple-tau scheme that scales efficiently with multiple processors and provides an unprecedented view of linked dynamics. Global fitting routines are provided to fit FCS and F3CS data to models containing up to ten species. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete package that enables F3CS to be performed on existing microscopes. Catalogue identifier: AEOP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 50189 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6135283 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C/Assembly. Computer: Any with GCC and

  10. Kolkata Restaurant Problem as a Generalised El Farol Bar Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    Generalisation of the El Farol bar problem to that of many bars here leads to the Kolkata restaurant problem, where the decision to go to any restaurant or not is much simpler (depending on the previous experience of course, as in the El Farol bar problem). This generalised problem can be exactly analysed in some limiting cases discussed here. The fluctuation in the restaurant service can be shown to have precisely an inverse cubic behavior, as widely seen in the stock market fluctuations.

  11. Uncertainties in the deprojection of the observed bar properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yanfei; Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhao-Yu, E-mail: jshen@shao.ac.cn

    2014-08-10

    In observations, it is important to deproject the two fundamental quantities characterizing a bar, i.e., its length (a) and ellipticity (e), to face-on values before any careful analyses. However, systematic estimation on the uncertainties of the commonly used deprojection methods is still lacking. Simulated galaxies are well suited in this study. We project two simulated barred galaxies onto a two-dimensional (2D) plane with different bar orientations and disk inclination angles (i). Bar properties are measured and deprojected with the popular deprojection methods in the literature. Generally speaking, deprojection uncertainties increase with increasing i. All of the deprojection methods behave badlymore » when i is larger than 60°, due to the vertical thickness of the bar. Thus, future statistical studies of barred galaxies should exclude galaxies more inclined than 60°. At moderate inclination angles (i ≤ 60°), 2D deprojection methods (analytical and image stretching), and Fourier-based methods (Fourier decomposition and bar-interbar contrast) perform reasonably well with uncertainties ∼10% in both the bar length and ellipticity, whereas the uncertainties of the one-dimensional (1D) analytical deprojection can be as high as 100% in certain extreme cases. We find that different bar measurement methods show systematic differences in the deprojection uncertainties. We further discuss the deprojection uncertainty factors with the emphasis on the most important one, i.e., the three-dimensional structure of the bar itself. We construct two triaxial toy bar models that can qualitatively reproduce the results of the 1D and 2D analytical deprojections; they confirm that the vertical thickness of the bar is the main source of uncertainties.« less

  12. Characterizing bars in low surface brightness disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Wesley; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we use B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm azimuthal light profiles of four low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs; UGC 628, F568-1, F568-3, F563-V2) to characterize three bar parameters: length, strength, and corotation radius. We employ three techniques to measure the radius of the bars, including a new method using the azimuthal light profiles. We find comparable bar radii between the I-band and 3.6 μm for all four galaxies when using our azimuthal light profile method, and that our bar lengths are comparable to those in high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs). In addition, we find the bar strengths for our galaxies to be smaller than those for HSBs. Finally, we use Fourier transforms of the B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm images to characterize the bars as either `fast' or `slow' by measuring the corotation radius via phase profiles. When using the B- and I-band phase crossings, we find three of our galaxies have faster than expected relative bar pattern speeds for galaxies expected to be embedded in centrally dense cold dark matter haloes. When using the B-band and 3.6 μm phase crossings, we find more ambiguous results, although the relative bar pattern speeds are still faster than expected. Since we find a very slow bar in F563-V2, we are confident that we are able to differentiate between fast and slow bars. Finally, we find no relation between bar strength and relative bar pattern speed when comparing our LSBs to HSBs.

  13. An exploratory study of drug use in bar environments

    PubMed Central

    Trocki, Karen; Michalak, Laurence; McDaniel, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of bars where drug use was observed compared to those where no drug use was observed. The study was done through a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques gleaned through observations and interviews. Among the most important of indicators were the type of activity (particularly dancing) and the level of rowdiness evident in the bars. In addition drug use bars had higher levels of other types of rule-breaking. Patron characteristics (more men) and behavioral patterns (more sexual risk-taking) also distinguished these bars. PMID:25221431

  14. Experimental Study on Basic Mechanical Properties of BFRP Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaochun; Xu, Ting; Zhou, Zhengrong; Zhou, Xun

    2017-10-01

    Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) bars have the advantages of corrosion resistance, high strength, light weight, good dielectric properties, and they are new type of green reinforced alternative material. In order to determine the mechanical properties of BFRP bars, the tensile strength of basalt fiber bars was necessary to be studied. The diameters of the basalt fiber bars were compared by means of uniaxial tensile test in this article. Then the stress-strain curve can be drawn out. The results show that the stress - strain curve of BFRP bars present straight line relation, and there is no sign before failure; there is no yield platform on the stress-strain curve of BFRP bars, which are typical brittle material;the tensile strength of BFRP bars is about 3 times higher than that of ordinary steel bars. and the elastic modulus is about 1/5 of that of ordinary steel; the ultimate tensile strength of BFRP bars varies little with the increase of diameter, but there exist some differences in modulus values.

  15. A young person's game: immersion and distancing in bar work.

    PubMed

    Conway, Thomas; MacNeela, Pádraig

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that bar workers report high levels of alcohol consumption, but the bar work experience itself has been little studied as a means to understand health threats associated with this job role. The subjective experience and meaning of bar work was explored in this study by interviewing current and ex-bar workers from a district in an Irish city that had a high density of bars and busy tourism industry. A total of 12 participants took part in focus groups (FGs) and seven in individual interviews. Four themes were identified in a thematic analysis. The central depiction of bar work was of an initial immersion in an intensive lifestyle characterised by heavy drinking, with subsequent distancing from the extremes of the lifestyle. The participants affiliated strongly with the bar work occupational identity, which included alcohol use in group scenarios for drinking during work, after work and on time off. The bar work lifestyle was most intense in the 'superpub' environment, characterised by permissive staff drinking norms and reported stress. Although an important identity, bar work was ultimately a transient role. The findings are considered in relation to research on occupation-specific stress and alcohol use, social identity and developmental needs in young adulthood.

  16. Development of ceramic-coated weld backing bars

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleston, B.R.

    1994-10-20

    In shipbuilding and many other industries, copper weld backing bars are used to draw the heat out of the weld. The problem that some users of these bars encounter is that these bars, on occasion, actually melt in spots and become welded to the weld plates. After this happens a number of times, the backing bar becomes so degraded that it must be either discarded or machined, both of which are very costly and time-consuming actions. To avoid this fusion between the backing bar and the weld plate, the weld processes that are used cannot be ones of high beatmore » input. This requirement is very limiting when thick plates are being welded. The plates must be beveled, and more weld passes must be run. These problems are also costly and time consuming. The aim of this project is to find a way to produce backing bars with nearly the same `chilling` effect but with both a greater resistance to molten metal and resistance to arcing to the backing bar itself. A possible solution currently being tested is to coat the copper bars with a thin layer of a ceramic coating. The procedure used was to coat the copper bars with either alumina or spinel by a plasma spraying method.« less

  17. Bars in Field and Cluster Galaxies at Intermediate Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazza, F. D.; Jablonka, P.; Ediscs Collaboration

    2009-12-01

    We present the first study of large-scale bars in clusters at intermediate redshifts (z=0.4-0.8). We compare the properties of the bars and their host galaxies in the clusters with those of a field sample in the same redshift range. We use a sample of 945 moderately inclined disk galaxies drawn from the EDisCS project. The morphological classification of the galaxies and the detection of bars are based on deep HST/ACS F814W images. The total optical bar fraction in the redshift range z=0.4-0.8, averaged over the entire sample, is 25%. This is lower than found locally, but in good agreement with studies of bars in field environments at intermediate redshifts. For the cluster and field subsamples, we measure bar fractions of 24% and 29%, respectively. In agreement with local studies, we find that disk-dominated galaxies have a higher bar fraction than bulge-dominated galaxies. We also find, based on a small subsample, that bars in clusters are on average longer than in the field and preferentially found close to the cluster center, where the bar fraction is somewhat higher than at larger distances.

  18. Continuous-Variable Triple-Photon States Quantum Entanglement.

    PubMed

    González, E A Rojas; Borne, A; Boulanger, B; Levenson, J A; Bencheikh, K

    2018-01-26

    We investigate the quantum entanglement of the three modes associated with the three-photon states obtained by triple-photon generation in a phase-matched third-order nonlinear optical interaction. Although the second-order processes have been extensively dealt with, there is no direct analogy between the second and third-order mechanisms. We show, for example, the absence of quantum entanglement between the quadratures of the three modes in the case of spontaneous parametric triple-photon generation. However, we show robust, seeding-dependent, genuine triple-photon entanglement in the fully seeded case.

  19. Continuous-Variable Triple-Photon States Quantum Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, E. A. Rojas; Borne, A.; Boulanger, B.; Levenson, J. A.; Bencheikh, K.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the quantum entanglement of the three modes associated with the three-photon states obtained by triple-photon generation in a phase-matched third-order nonlinear optical interaction. Although the second-order processes have been extensively dealt with, there is no direct analogy between the second and third-order mechanisms. We show, for example, the absence of quantum entanglement between the quadratures of the three modes in the case of spontaneous parametric triple-photon generation. However, we show robust, seeding-dependent, genuine triple-photon entanglement in the fully seeded case.

  20. On Pythagoras Theorem for Products of Spectral Triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, Francesco; Martinetti, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    We discuss a version of Pythagoras theorem in noncommutative geometry. Usual Pythagoras theorem can be formulated in terms of Connes' distance, between pure states, in the product of commutative spectral triples. We investigate the generalization to both non-pure states and arbitrary spectral triples. We show that Pythagoras theorem is replaced by some Pythagoras inequalities, that we prove for the product of arbitrary (i.e. non-necessarily commutative) spectral triples, assuming only some unitality condition. We show that these inequalities are optimal, and we provide non-unital counter-examples inspired by K-homology.

  1. Large velocity dispersion of molecular gas in bars of strongly barred galaxies NGC 1300 and NGC 5383

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Fumiya; Ohta, Kouji; Fujimoto, Yusuke; Habe, Asao; Baba, Junichi

    2018-06-01

    We carried out ^{12}CO(J = 1-0) observations toward bar and arm regions of the strongly barred galaxies NGC 1300 and NGC 5383 with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope (beam size of 1-2 kpc in the galaxies). The aim of the observations is to qualitatively examine a new scenario for the suppression of star formation in bars based on recent high-resolution numerical simulations: higher speed collisions between molecular clouds in the bar region compared with the arm region suppress the massive star formation. CO emissions were detected from all the regions, indicating the presence of molecular gases in the strong bars without associating clear H II regions. In both galaxies, the velocity width of the CO line profile tends to be larger in the bar region than in the arm region, which is qualitatively consistent with the new scenario.

  2. Magnetic Polarizability of Virtual (s\\bar{s}) and (c\\bar{c}) Pairs in the Nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Peter

    2017-12-01

    We suggest 3 P 0 quantum state of virtual (s\\bar{s}) pairs in the nucleon can be polarised by the internal fields permeating the volume of the nucleon (proton or neutron). Due to the quadratic Zeeman interaction, 3 P 0 wavefunction of virtual (q\\bar{q}) pairs acquires the admixture of 1 P 10 quantum state in the magnetic field, which generates the antiparallel polarization of s and \\bar{s} quarks (in the nucleon). Considering the internal magnetic fields of neutron and proton (originating from their measured magnetic dipole moments), we suggest the induced s-quark polarization in the neutron to be of the oposite direction compared to the proton case. We mention the influence of the internal chromo-magnetic fields on the quantum state of (q\\bar{q}) pairs in the nucleon and we discuss also the expected behaviour of virtual (c\\bar{c}) pairs.

  3. Human Rights and Dignity Behind Bars.

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Richter, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Death and dying in prisons constitute a topic of growing importance across the globe. Based on the contributions made in this special issue, we reflect on current debates and outline recommendations for dialogue and practice. Scientific dialogue across the Atlantic, and across the globe, provides insights into different national carceral systems and their ways of dealing with end of life behind bars. At the same time, the comparison also helps to identify basic needs and practices that can work in various settings. We identify several issues where further efforts need to be taken to deepen the dialogue. A common ground for all advancement of legislation and practice constitute the minimal level of rights to which every human being is entitled.

  4. Symmetrical Taylor impact of glass bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, N. H.; Bourne, N. K.; Field, J. E.; Rosenberg, Z.

    1998-07-01

    Brar and Bless pioneered the use of plate impact upon bars as a technique for investigating the 1D stress loading of glass but limited their studies to relatively modest stresses (1). We wish to extend this technique by applying VISAR and embedded stress gauge measurements to a symmetrical version of the test in which two rods impact one upon the other. Previous work in the laboratory has characterised the glass types (soda-lime and borosilicate)(2). These experiments identify the failure mechanisms from high-speed photography and the stress and particle velocity histories are interpreted in the light of these results. The differences in response of the glasses and the relation of the fracture to the failure wave in uniaxial strain are discussed.

  5. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  6. Predicting Error Bars for QSAR Models

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeter, Timon; Technische Universitaet Berlin, Department of Computer Science, Franklinstrasse 28/29, 10587 Berlin; Schwaighofer, Anton

    2007-09-18

    Unfavorable physicochemical properties often cause drug failures. It is therefore important to take lipophilicity and water solubility into account early on in lead discovery. This study presents log D{sub 7} models built using Gaussian Process regression, Support Vector Machines, decision trees and ridge regression algorithms based on 14556 drug discovery compounds of Bayer Schering Pharma. A blind test was conducted using 7013 new measurements from the last months. We also present independent evaluations using public data. Apart from accuracy, we discuss the quality of error bars that can be computed by Gaussian Process models, and ensemble and distance based techniquesmore » for the other modelling approaches.« less

  7. Phantom smoking among young adult bar patrons

    PubMed Central

    Guillory, Jamie; Lisha, Nadra; Lee, Youn Ok; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and sociodemographic makeup of smokers who do not self-identify as smokers (ie, phantom smokers) compared with self-identifying smokers in a sample of bar-going young adults aged 18–30 years to more accurately assess young adult prevalence of smoking and inform cessation message targeting. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of smokers (n=3089) were conducted in randomly selected bars/nightclubs in seven US cities. Logistic regression models assessed associations between phantom smoking ( past 30-day smoking and denial of being a smoker), tobacco and alcohol use behaviours (eg, social smoking, nicotine dependence, smoking while drinking, past 30-day alcohol use) and demographics. Results Compared with smokers, phantom smokers were more likely to be college graduates (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.98) and to identify themselves as social smokers (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.12). Phantom smokers had lower odds of smoking while drinking (OR=0.28, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.32), being nicotine dependent (OR=0.36, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.76) and having quit for at least 1 day in the last year (OR=0.46, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.69) compared with smokers. Conclusions This research extends phantom smoking literature on college students to provide a broader picture of phantom smoking among young adults in high-risk contexts and of varying levels of educational attainment. Phantom smokers may be particularly sensitive to social pressures against smoking, suggesting the importance of identifying smoking as a behaviour (rather than identity) in cessation messaging to ensure that phantom smokers are reached. PMID:27048205

  8. Pectus bar removal: surgical technique and strategy to avoid complications.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Pectus bar removal is the final stage of the procedure for minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum. Based on our experience with one of the largest scale data, we would like to address the important issues in pectus bar removal, such as appropriate duration of bar maintenance, techniques for bar removal, and strategies to avoid complications. Between September 1999 and August 2015, we operated on 2,553 patients with pectus excavatum and carinatum using pectus bars for a minimally invasive approach. Among them, 1,821 patients (71.3%) underwent pectus bar removal as a final stage of pectus deformity repair, and their data were analyzed retrospectively to identify the outcomes and adverse effects of the pectus bar removal procedure. The mean age of the patients was 9.13 years (range, 16 months to 44 years) and the male to female ratio was 3.55. The study is approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB), the ethical committee of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. The IRB has exempted the informed consent from every patient in this study due to this is a retrospective chart review without revealing any patients' personal data. Our technique involved straightening of the bar in a supine position. The overall mean duration of pectus bar maintenance was 2.57 years (range, 4 months to 14 years). The mean duration was 2.02 years (range, 4 months to 7 years) for children under 12 years, 2.99 years (range, 7 months to 9 years) for teenagers aged 12-20 years, and 3.53 years (range, 3 months to 14 years) for adults over 20 years. Forty-eight patients (2.6%) underwent bar removal more than 5 years after bar insertion and 58 patients (3.2%) underwent bar removal earlier than initially planned. The most common adverse reaction after bar removal was wound seroma including infection (43 patients, 2.36%). Recurrence after bar removal occurred in nine patients (0.49%), and seven of these required redo repair (0.38%). Pectus bar removal is a safe and straightforward procedure with a

  9. Pectus bar removal: surgical technique and strategy to avoid complications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Pectus bar removal is the final stage of the procedure for minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum. Based on our experience with one of the largest scale data, we would like to address the important issues in pectus bar removal, such as appropriate duration of bar maintenance, techniques for bar removal, and strategies to avoid complications. Methods Between September 1999 and August 2015, we operated on 2,553 patients with pectus excavatum and carinatum using pectus bars for a minimally invasive approach. Among them, 1,821 patients (71.3%) underwent pectus bar removal as a final stage of pectus deformity repair, and their data were analyzed retrospectively to identify the outcomes and adverse effects of the pectus bar removal procedure. The mean age of the patients was 9.13 years (range, 16 months to 44 years) and the male to female ratio was 3.55. The study is approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB), the ethical committee of Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital. The IRB has exempted the informed consent from every patient in this study due to this is a retrospective chart review without revealing any patients’ personal data. Results Our technique involved straightening of the bar in a supine position. The overall mean duration of pectus bar maintenance was 2.57 years (range, 4 months to 14 years). The mean duration was 2.02 years (range, 4 months to 7 years) for children under 12 years, 2.99 years (range, 7 months to 9 years) for teenagers aged 12–20 years, and 3.53 years (range, 3 months to 14 years) for adults over 20 years. Forty-eight patients (2.6%) underwent bar removal more than 5 years after bar insertion and 58 patients (3.2%) underwent bar removal earlier than initially planned. The most common adverse reaction after bar removal was wound seroma including infection (43 patients, 2.36%). Recurrence after bar removal occurred in nine patients (0.49%), and seven of these required redo repair (0.38%). Conclusions Pectus bar removal is a

  10. Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    2000-01-01

    Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

  11. Preparation of a polar monolithic stir bar based on methacrylic acid and divinylbenzene for the sorptive extraction of polar pharmaceuticals from complex water samples.

    PubMed

    Bratkowska, D; Fontanals, N; Cormack, P A G; Borrull, F; Marcé, R M

    2012-02-17

    A monolithic, hydrophilic stir bar coating based upon a copolymer of methacrylic acid and divinylbenzene [poly(MAA-co-DVB)] was synthesised and evaluated as a new polymeric phase for the stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of polar compounds from complex environmental water samples. The experimental conditions for the extraction and liquid desorption in SBSE were optimised. Liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the determination of a group of polar pharmaceuticals in environmental water matrices. The extraction performance of the poly(MAA-co-DVB) stir bar was compared to the extraction performance of a commercially available polydimethylsiloxane stir bar; it was found that the former gave rise to significantly higher extraction efficiency of polar analytes (% recovery values near to 100% for most of the studied analytes) than the commercial product. The developed method was applied to determine the studied analytes at low ng L⁻¹ in different complex environmental water samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Drug knowledge expressed as computable semantic triples.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Peter L; Carter, John S; Nabar, Manasi; Tuttle, Mark; Lincoln, Michael; Brown, Steven H

    2011-01-01

    The majority of questions that arise in the practice of medicine relate to drug information. Additionally, adverse reactions account for as many as 98,000 deaths per year in the United States. Adverse drug reactions account for a significant portion of those errors. Many authors believe that clinical decision support associated with computerized physician order entry has the potential to decrease this adverse drug event rate. This decision support requires knowledge to drive the process. One important and rich source of drug knowledge is the DailyMed product labels. In this project we used computationally extracted SNOMED CT™ codified data associated with each section of each product label as input to a rules engine that created computable assertional knowledge in the form of semantic triples. These are expressed in the form of "Drug" HasIndication "SNOMED CT™". The information density of drug labels is deep, broad and quite substantial. By providing a computable form of this information content from drug labels we make these important axioms (facts) more accessible to computer programs designed to support improved care.

  13. Triple Hybrid Energy Harvesting Interface Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluşan, H.; Chamanian, S.; Pathirana, W. M. P. R.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a novel triple hybrid system that combines simultaneously generated power from thermoelectric (TE), vibration-based electromagnetic (EM) and piezoelectric (PZT) harvesters for a relatively high power supply capability. In the proposed solution each harvesting source utilizes a distinct power management circuit that generates a DC voltage suitable for combining the three parallel supplies. The circuits are designed and implemented in 180 nm standard CMOS technology, and are terminated with a schottky diode to avoid reverse current flow. The harvested AC signal from the EM harvester is rectified with a self-powered AC-DC doubler, which utilizes active diode structures to minimize the forward- bias voltage drop. The PZT interface electronics utilizes a negative voltage converter as the first stage, followed by synchronous power extraction and DC-to-DC conversion through internal switches, and an external inductor. The ultra-low voltage DC power harvested by the TE generator is stepped up through a charge-pump driven by an LC oscillator with fully- integrated center-tapped differential inductors. Test results indicate that hybrid energy harvesting circuit provides more than 1 V output for load resistances higher than 100 kΩ (10 μW) where the stand-alone harvesting circuits are not able to reach 1 V output. This is the first hybrid harvester circuit that simultaneously extracts energy from three independent sources, and delivers a single DC output.

  14. Arthroscopic Triple Labral Repair in an Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Eric J; Frank, Rachel M; Trenhaile, Scott W

    2017-10-01

    Traumatic glenohumeral dislocations often result in significant injury to the anterior-inferior labrum, most commonly leading to recurrent anterior instability. While in skeletally immature patients, shoulder trauma more commonly results in fracture versus a true dislocation, shoulder instability does occur and can be difficult to manage in the setting of open physes. In any event, the goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of recurrence and allow full participation in activities, including sports. Arthroscopic stabilization has been shown to be an effective treatment option for young patients, with good return to sport rates; however, the vast majority of literature on shoulder instability in the youth patient population focuses on anterior instability. Concomitant lesions of the anterior, posterior, and superior labrum have been rarely described in youth athletes and present a formidable clinical challenge, particularly in skeletally immature patients. In this Technical Note, we describe the authors' preferred technique for arthroscopic repair of a traumatic triple labral tear, including anterior, posterior, and type IV SLAP components, in adolescent patients.

  15. Triple-Label β Liquid Scintillation Counting

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Thomas R.; Moffett, Tyler C.; Revkin, James H.; Ploger, James D.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of radioactive compounds by liquid scintillation has revolutionized modern biology, yet few investigators make full use of the power of this technique. Even though multiple isotope counting is considerably more difficult than single isotope counting, many experimental designs would benefit from using more than one isotope. The development of accurate isotope counting techniques enabling the simultaneous use of three β-emitting tracers has facilitated studies in our laboratory using the multiple tracer indicator dilution technique for assessing rates of transmembrane transport and cellular metabolism. The details of sample preparation, and of stabilizing the liquid scintillation spectra of the tracers, are critical to obtaining good accuracy. Reproducibility is enhanced by obtaining detailed efficiency/quench curves for each particular set of tracers and solvent media. The numerical methods for multiple-isotope quantitation depend on avoiding error propagation (inherent to successive subtraction techniques) by using matrix inversion. Experimental data obtained from triple-label β counting illustrate reproducibility and good accuracy even when the relative amounts of different tracers in samples of protein/electrolyte solutions, plasma, and blood are changed. PMID:1514684

  16. Triple oxygen isotope composition of photosynthetic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Anne; Kaiser, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The measurement of biological production rates is essential for our understanding how marine ecosystems are sustained and how much CO2 is taken up through aquatic photosynthesis. Traditional techniques to measure marine production are laborious and subject to systematic errors. A biogeochemical approach based on triple oxygen isotope measurements in dissolved oxygen (O2) has been developed over the last few years, which allows the derivation of gross productivity integrated over the depth of the mixed layer and the time-scale of O2 gas exchange (Luz and Barkan, 2000). This approach exploits the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences of dissolved O2 compared to atmospheric O2 to work out the rate of biological production. Two parameters are key for this calculation: the isotopic composition of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with air and the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen. Recently, a controversy has emerged in the literature over these parameters (Kaiser, 2011) and one of the goals of this research is to provide additional data to resolve this controversy. In order to obtain more information on the isotopic signature of biological oxygen, laboratory experiments have been conducted to determine the isotopic composition of oxygen produced by different phytoplankton cultures.

  17. Northwest corner, showing arcade at ground level, and triple leaded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest corner, showing arcade at ground level, and triple leaded glass windows of bender room high on north elevation. - Stanford University Library, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  18. Elevation of north facades of #156158 (triple wards) National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of north facades of #156-158 (triple wards) - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Buildings, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED IN DAM CONSTRUCTION, NORTH EAST OF EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTH - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  20. A Study of Neoadjuvant Paclitaxel in Combination With Bavituximab in Early- Stage Triple- Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-08

    Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms; Triple-Negative Breast Neoplasm; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Neoplasms; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

  1. Does Lactation Mitigate Triple Negative/Basal Breast Cancer Progression?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    201 – 31 August 201 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DOES LACTATION MITIGATE TRIPLE NEGATIVE /BASAL BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION? 5b...25 1 INTRODUCTION Young African American women have an increased risk of developing aggressive forms of breast cancer (i.e... triple negative /basal-like) than young non-Hispanic white women. Recent epidemiological data show increased risk of basal-like breast cancer with

  2. Polygonal Triples and the Double Ruling of a Hyperboloid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiu, Paul

    2012-01-01

    For a given positive integer k [not equal] 4, let "P[subscript k,n]" denote the "n"-th "k"-gonal number. We study "k"-gonal triples ("a", "b", "c") satisfying P[subscript k,a] + P[subscript k,b] = P[subscript k,c]. A "k"-gonal triple corresponds to a rational point on the rectangular hyperboloid x[squared] + y[squared] = z[squared] + 1. The simple…

  3. Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Casero RA, Davidson NE. Molecular mechanisms of polyamine analogues in cancer cells. Anti - Cancer Drugs, 16(3): 229-241, 2005. PMID: 15711175 18 3...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0237 TITLE: Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yi...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0237 5c

  4. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  5. Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

  6. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except...

  7. Alcohol Service Practices: A Survey of Bar and Restaurant Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can result from illegal sales to intoxicated patrons at bars and restaurants. We surveyed bar/restaurant managers about their practices in reducing illegal sales to intoxicated patrons. We found that managers were confident that they could refuse service to intoxicated customers but were less likely to have…

  8. Estimation of the fatigue life of railroad joint bars

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-03-13

    This paper investigates the influence of physical track conditions in the vicinity of a rail joint on the fatigue life of the joint bars. Recent derailments due to broken joint bars, such as the Minot, ND accident in January 2002, have highlighted th...

  9. VIEW OF SHEAR (ELECTRIC POWERED), SCALE HOUSE TO LEFT. BARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHEAR (ELECTRIC POWERED), SCALE HOUSE TO LEFT. BARS ARE PLACED ON WEIGHING SCALE SHOWN LOWER LEFT. 15-TON CLEVELAND CRANE HANDLES BARS FOR FINAL LOADING INTO RAILROAD CARS (12" BAY) AND FOR MOVING FROM TABLE TO SHEAR TABLE. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  10. Dowel bar retrofit evaluation, district 12, Orange County, Interstate 405

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-09-01

    A dowel bar retrofit project on Interstate 405 near Irvine in Orange County began to exhibit sights of failure in the bond between the existing concrete and the backfill grout in the dowel bar slots. It was requested the Office of Rigid Pavement and ...

  11. Defining the formative discharge for alternate bars in alluvial rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redolfi, M.; Carlin, M.; Tubino, M.; Adami, L.; Zolezzi, G.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the properties of alternate bars in long straight reaches of channelized streams subject to an unsteady, irregular flow regime. To this aim we propose a novel integration of a statistical approach with the analytical perturbation model of Tubino (1991) which predicts the evolution of bar properties (namely amplitude and wavelength) as consequence of a flood. The outcomes of our integrated modelling approach are probability distribution of the bar properties, which depend essentially on two ingredients: (i) the statistical properties of the flow regime (duration, frequency and magnitude of the flood events, and (ii) the reach-averaged hydro-geomorphic characteristics of the channel (bed material, channel gradient and width). This allows to define a "bar-forming" discharge value as the flow value which would reproduce the most likely bar properties in a river reach under unsteady flow. Alternate bars are often migrating downstream and growing or declining during flood events. The timescale of bar growth and migration is often comparable with the duration of the floods: consequently, bar properties such as height and wavelength do not respond instantaneously to discharge variations (i.e. quasi-equilibrium response) but may depend on previous flood events. Theoretical results are compared with observations in three Alpine, channelized gravel bed rivers with encouraging outcomes.

  12. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a...

  13. 12 CFR 380.32 - Claims bar date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.32 Claims bar date. Upon its appointment as receiver for a covered financial company, the Corporation as receiver shall establish a claims bar date by which date creditors of the covered financial company shall present their claims, together...

  14. Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows adjustable bars at top of structure; diagonal and vertical members on truss are not adjustable. Looking north from civilian land. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Daggett Road Bridge, Daggett Road traversing Burns Cut Off, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  15. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth / ... nutritivas: ¿Energía o mera exageración? The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

  16. Bar-Code System for a Microbiological Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Kirschner, Larry

    2007-01-01

    A bar-code system has been assembled for a microbiological laboratory that must examine a large number of samples. The system includes a commercial bar-code reader, computer hardware and software components, plus custom-designed database software. The software generates a user-friendly, menu-driven interface.

  17. Gas inflow patterns and nuclear rings in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear rings, dust lanes, and nuclear spirals are common structures in the inner region of barred galaxies, with their shapes and properties linked to the physical parameters of the galaxies. We use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study gas inflow patterns in barred galaxies, with special attention on the nuclear rings. The location and thickness of nuclear ringsare tightly correlated with galactic properties, such as the bar pattern speed and bulge central density, within certain ranges. We identify the backbone of nuclear rings with a major orbital family of bars. The rings form exactly at the radius where the residual angular momentum of inflowing gas balances the centrifugal force. We propose a new simple method to predict the bar pattern speed for barred galaxies possessing a nuclear ring, without actually doing simulations. We apply this method to some real galaxies and find that our predicted bar pattern speed compare reasonably well with other estimates. Our study may have important implications for using nuclear ringsto measure the parameters of real barred galaxies with detailed gas kinematics. We have also extended current hydrodynamical simulations to model gas features in the Milky Way.

  18. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on collective...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification General § 9701.205 Bar on collective bargaining. As...

  20. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label requirements...

  1. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label requirements...

  2. River bar vegetation mowing response in the Middle Rio Grande

    Treesearch

    Esteban Muldavin; Elizabeth Milford; Yvonne Chauvin

    1999-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation routinely mows vegetation on side bars along the Rio Grande to assist with river flow management. To address the question of how such mowing affects vegetation composition and structure, three bars in the middle Rio Grande near Albuquerque, New Mexico were selected in 1994 for an experimental mowing program. Three 50-foot-wide strips on each...

  3. STELLAR, GAS, AND DARK MATTER CONTENT OF BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo, E-mail: b.cervantes@crya.unam.mx

    We select a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) where galaxies are classified, through visual inspection, as hosting strong bars, weak bars, or as unbarred galaxies, and make use of H i mass and kinematic information from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog, to study the stellar, atomic gas, and dark matter content of barred disk galaxies. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that the bar fraction increases with increasing stellar mass. A similar trend is found with total baryonic mass, although the dependence is not as strong as with stellarmore » mass, due to the contribution of gas. The bar fraction shows a decrease with increasing gas mass fraction. This anticorrelation between the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar with the gas richness of the galaxy results from the inhibiting effect the gas has in the formation of bars. We also find that for massive galaxies with stellar masses larger than 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, at fixed stellar mass, the bar fraction decreases with increasing global halo mass (i.e., halo mass measured up to a radius of the order of the H i disk extent).« less

  4. A directional nucleation-zipping mechanism for triple helix formation

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Patrizia; Arimondo, Paola B.; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Garestier, Thérèse; Hélène, Claude; Sun, Jian-Sheng

    2002-01-01

    A detailed kinetic study of triple helix formation was performed by surface plasmon resonance. Three systems were investigated involving 15mer pyrimidine oligonucleotides as third strands. Rate constants and activation energies were validated by comparison with thermodynamic values calculated from UV-melting analysis. Replacement of a T·A base pair by a C·G pair at either the 5′ or the 3′ end of the target sequence allowed us to assess mismatch effects and to delineate the mechanism of triple helix formation. Our data show that the association rate constant is governed by the sequence of base triplets on the 5′ side of the triplex (referred to as the 5′ side of the target oligopurine strand) and provides evidence that the reaction pathway for triple helix formation in the pyrimidine motif proceeds from the 5′ end to the 3′ end of the triplex according to the nucleation-zipping model. It seems that this is a general feature for all triple helices formation, probably due to the right-handedness of the DNA double helix that provides a stronger base stacking at the 5′ than at the 3′ duplex–triplex junction. Understanding the mechanism of triple helix formation is not only of fundamental interest, but may also help in designing better triple helix-forming oligonucleotides for gene targeting and control of gene expression. PMID:12490709

  5. Warps, grids and curvature in triple vector bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flari, Magdalini K.; Mackenzie, Kirill

    2018-06-01

    A triple vector bundle is a cube of vector bundle structures which commute in the (strict) categorical sense. A grid in a triple vector bundle is a collection of sections of each bundle structure with certain linearity properties. A grid provides two routes around each face of the triple vector bundle, and six routes from the base manifold to the total manifold; the warps measure the lack of commutativity of these routes. In this paper we first prove that the sum of the warps in a triple vector bundle is zero. The proof we give is intrinsic and, we believe, clearer than the proof using decompositions given earlier by one of us. We apply this result to the triple tangent bundle T^3M of a manifold and deduce (as earlier) the Jacobi identity. We further apply the result to the triple vector bundle T^2A for a vector bundle A using a connection in A to define a grid in T^2A . In this case the curvature emerges from the warp theorem.

  6. Triple X syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Otter, Maarten; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T R M; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2010-03-01

    The developmental and clinical aspects in the literature on triple X syndrome are reviewed. Prenatal diagnosis depends on karyotyping. The incidence is 1 of 1000 females. At birth, 47,XXX girls have a lower mean birth weight and a smaller head circumference. Triple X diagnosis was not suspected at birth. The maternal age seems to be increased. Toddlers with triple X syndrome show delayed language development. The youngest girls show accelerated growth until puberty. EEG abnormalities seem to be rather common. Many girls show motor-coordination problems and auditory-processing disorders are not rare. Scoliosis is probably more common in adolescent cases. The IQ levels are 20 points below that of controls, and verbal IQ is lowest. The girls struggle with low self-esteem and they need psychological, behavioural and educational support. They perform best in stable families. After leaving school they seem to feel better. In adults, premature ovarian failure seems to be more prevalent than in controls. MRIs of the brain seem to show decreased brain volumes. The 47,XXX women most often find jobs that reflect their performance abilities. Psychotic illness seems to be more prevalent in triple X adult women than in controls. Psychotic disorders respond well to psychotropic drugs. Triple X adults suffer more frequently from cyclothymic and labile personality traits. Research on triple X syndrome may yield more insight into brain and behaviour relations, developmental psychopathology, auditory-processing disorders, EEG disorders, personality and psychotic disorders, etc.

  7. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  8. On the stability and collisions in triple stellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Matthias Y.; Petrovich, Cristobal

    2018-02-01

    A significant fraction of main-sequence (MS) stars are part of a triple system. We study the long-term stability and dynamical outcomes of triple stellar systems using a large number of long-term direct N-body integrations with relativistic precession. We find that the previously proposed stability criteria by Eggleton & Kiseleva and Mardling & Aarseth predict the stability against ejections reasonably well for a wide range of parameters. Assuming that the triple stellar systems follow orbital and mass distributions from FGK binary stars in the field, we find that ˜ 1 per cent and ˜ 0.5 per cent of the triple systems lead to a direct head-on collision (impact velocity ˜ escape velocity) between MS stars and between a MS star and a stellar-mass compact object, respectively. We conclude that triple interactions are the dominant channel for direct collisions involving a MS star in the field with a rate of one event every ˜100 years in the Milky Way. We estimate that the fraction of triple systems that form short-period binaries is up to ˜ 23 per cent with only up to ˜ 13 per cent being the result of three-body interactions with tidal dissipation, which is consistent with previous work using a secular code.

  9. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H.; Howd, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  10. Hader bar and clip attachment retained mandibular complete denture

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kunwarjeet; Gupta, Nidhi; Kapoor, Vikram; Gupta, Ridhimaa

    2013-01-01

    Bar and clip attachments significantly improve the level of satisfaction of denture-wearing patients by enhancing the retention and stability of the prosthesis. These attachments have been most commonly used for connecting the prosthesis to implants, but they can be effectively used to retain tooth-supported prosthesis as well. The primary functions of bar attachments are splinting the abutments together, even distribution of forces to the abutments and supporting areas, guiding the prosthesis into place, improving the retention, stability, support and comfort of the patient. The primary requirement for the use of bar attachments is the availability of sufficient vertical and buccolingual space for the proper placement of the bar, sleeves, teeth arrangement and sufficient thickness of acrylic denture base to minimise incidence of denture fracture in the area of bar assembly. PMID:24145505

  11. Tobacco related bar promotions: insights from tobacco industry documents.

    PubMed

    Katz, S K; Lavack, A M

    2002-03-01

    To examine the tobacco industry's use of bar promotions, including their target groups, objectives, strategies, techniques, and results. Over 2000 tobacco industry documents available as a result of the Master Settlement Agreement were reviewed on the internet at several key web sites using keyword searches that included "bar", "night", "pub", "party", and "club". The majority of the documents deal with the US market, with a minor emphasis on Canadian and overseas markets. The documents indicate that bar promotions are important for creating and maintaining brand image, and are generally targeted at a young adult audience. Several measures of the success of these promotions are used, including number of individuals exposed to the promotion, number of promotional items given away, and increased sales of a particular brand during and after the promotion. Bar promotions position cigarettes as being part of a glamorous lifestyle that includes attendance at nightclubs and bars, and appear to be highly successful in increasing sales of particular brands.

  12. Hader bar and clip attachment retained mandibular complete denture.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwarjeet; Gupta, Nidhi; Kapoor, Vikram; Gupta, Ridhimaa

    2013-10-21

    Bar and clip attachments significantly improve the level of satisfaction of denture-wearing patients by enhancing the retention and stability of the prosthesis. These attachments have been most commonly used for connecting the prosthesis to implants, but they can be effectively used to retain tooth-supported prosthesis as well. The primary functions of bar attachments are splinting the abutments together, even distribution of forces to the abutments and supporting areas, guiding the prosthesis into place, improving the retention, stability, support and comfort of the patient. The primary requirement for the use of bar attachments is the availability of sufficient vertical and buccolingual space for the proper placement of the bar, sleeves, teeth arrangement and sufficient thickness of acrylic denture base to minimise incidence of denture fracture in the area of bar assembly.

  13. Study of aging and embrittlement of microalloyed steel bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campillo, B.; Perez, R.; Martinez, L.

    1996-10-01

    The aging of hooks, anchors, and other bent reinforcing steel bars in concrete structures are considered in modern international standards. Rebend test procedures have been designed in order to predict the aging embrittlement susceptibility by submerging bent reinforcing bar specimens in boiling water. Subsequently the bars are rebent or straightened in order to determine the loss of ductility or embrittlement of the aged material. The present work considers the influence of carbon, sulfur, and niobium on the performance of reinforcing bars in rebend tests of 300 heats of microalloyed steel bars with a variety of compositions. The microstructural evidence and the statistical results clearly indicate the strong influence of carbon and sulfur on rebend failure, while niobium-rich precipitates contribute to the hardening of the ferrite grains during aging.

  14. THE NATURE AND NURTURE OF BARS AND DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez-Abreu, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Zarattini, S.

    The effects that interactions produce on galaxy disks and how they modify the subsequent formation of bars need to be distinguished to fully understand the relationship between bars and environment. To this aim we derive the bar fraction in three different environments ranging from the field to Virgo and Coma Clusters, covering an unprecedentedly large range of galaxy luminosities (or, equivalently, stellar masses). We confirm that the fraction of barred galaxies strongly depends on galaxy luminosity. We also show that the difference between the bar fraction distributions as a function of galaxy luminosity (and mass) in the field and Comamore » Cluster is statistically significant, with Virgo being an intermediate case. The fraction of barred galaxies shows a maximum of about 50% at M{sub r} {approx_equal} - 20.5 in clusters, whereas the peak is shifted to M{sub r} {approx_equal} - 19 in the field. We interpret this result as a variation of the effect of environment on bar formation depending on galaxy luminosity. We speculate that brighter disk galaxies are stable enough against interactions to keep their cold structure, thus, the interactions are able to trigger bar formation. For fainter galaxies, the interactions become strong enough to heat up the disks inhibiting bar formation and even destroying the disks. Finally, we point out that the controversy regarding whether the bar fraction depends on environment could be resolved by taking into account the different luminosity ranges probed by the galaxy samples studied so far.« less

  15. The triple-A supply chain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hau L

    2004-10-01

    Building a strong supply chain is essential for business success. But when it comes to improving their supply chains, few companies take the right approach. Many businesses work to make their chains faster or more cost-effective, assuming that those steps are the keys to competitive advantage. To the contrary: Supply chains that focus on speed and costs tend to deteriorate over time. The author has spent 15 years studying more than 60 companies to gain insight into this and other supply chain dilemmas. His conclusion: Only companies that build supply chains that are agile, adaptable, and aligned get ahead of their rivals. All three components are essential; without any one of them, supply chains break down. Great companies create supply chains that respond to abrupt changes in markets. Agility is critical because in most industries, both demand and supply fluctuate rapidly and widely. Supply chains typically cope by playing speed against costs, but agile ones respond both quickly and cost-efficiently. Great companies also adapt their supply networks when markets or strategies change. The best supply chains allow managers to identify structural shifts early by recording the latest data, filtering out noise, and tracking key patterns. Finally, great companies align the interests of the partners in their supply chains with their own. That's important because every firm is concerned solely with its own interests. If its goals are out of alignment with those of other partners in the supply chain, performance will suffer. When companies hear about the triple-A supply chain, they assume that building one will require increased technology and investment. But most firms already have the infrastructure in place to create one. A fresh attitude alone can go a long way toward making it happen.

  16. Search for CP Violation in Hyperon Decay: $$\\Xi^- / \\bar{\\Xi}^+$$ and $$\\Lambda / \\bar{\\Lambda}$$ (in French)

    SciTech Connect

    Leros, Nicolas

    2001-06-01

    The HyperCP(EB71) experiment, performed at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in the United States, provides a primary search for direct OP violation in the decays ofmore » $$\\Xi^-/\\bar{\\Xi}^+$$ and $$\\Lambda/ \\bar{\\Lambda}$$ hyperons....« less

  17. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame 14a Figures 14a and 14b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

  18. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame 14a Figures 14a and 14b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

  19. Laser speckle strain and deformation sensor using linear array image cross-correlation method for specifically arranged triple-beam triple-camera configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafzadeh-Khoee, Adel K. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides a method of triple-beam and triple-sensor in a laser speckle strain/deformation measurement system. The triple-beam/triple-camera configuration combined with sequential timing of laser beam shutters is capable of providing indications of surface strain and structure deformations. The strain and deformation quantities, the four variables of surface strain, in-plane displacement, out-of-plane displacement and tilt, are determined in closed form solutions.

  20. The Role of 2D Circulation in Sand Bar Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splinter, K. D.; Holman, R. A.; Plant, N. G.; Holland, K. T.

    2006-12-01

    Models of bar dynamics typically involve moments of the cross-shore flow, with offshore movement associated with the strong offshore directed undertow and onshore migration related to wave asymmetry and skewness [Gallagher, et al., 1998]. Based on these hypotheses, models and laboratory studies have used the alongshore-mean bar position and alongshore-uniform wave conditions (a 1DH approach) to study bar response to varying wave conditions. Commonly, cases of offshore migration were reproduced with reasonable accuracy, but predictions of onshore migration were less successful. However, examination of time-exposure images of waves show that during periods of offshore migration, bars tend to be alongshore uniform and move rapidly offshore, but during onshore migration, sand bars are rarely straight, instead becoming very sinuous, violating the 1DH approach. We hypothesize that under milder wave conditions, the 2DH circulation associated with this alongshore-variable morphology is, in fact, largely responsible for increased onshore net sand transport and the resulting onshore bar movement. We extend the work of Plant et al. [in review] that relates bar position, sinuosity, and wave forcing within a dynamical feedback model. The model consists of coupled differential equations that govern the rates of change of cross-shore position and horizontal sinuosity as a function of the current cross-shore position and sinuosity and a proxy for wave forcing. Using a short data set from Duck, NC, they solve for the unknown coupling coefficients by doing a least-squares fit. They find that the coefficients for the self-interaction terms have a negative sign, indicating the overall system is stable. The coefficients of the cross-interaction terms (the effect of sinuosity on rate of change of bar position and visa versa), however, are non-zero and have opposite signs indicating the systems are coupled and stability is not affected by these terms. We expand this study, relating bar

  1. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Morojele, Neo K.; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T.; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:24750106

  2. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morojele, Neo K; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention.

  3. Dehydration kinetics of talc at 1 bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, J.; Bose, K.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on the dehydration kinetics of talc, which is likely to be a major potential resource for water and hydrogen in carbonaceous chondrites, is presented. The rate of dehydration of an essentially pure Mg-end member natural talc, (Mg(.99)Fe(.01))3Si4O10(OH)2, was studied by measuring in situ weight change under isothermal condition at 1 bar as a function of time in the temperature range 775 to 985 C. The grain size of the starting material was 0.7 to 1 micron. It was found that the data up to 50 to 60 percent dehydration can be fitted by an equation of the form alpha = exp(-Kt(exp n)), where alpha is the weight fraction of talc remaining, K is a rate constant and n is a numerical constant for a given temperature. For any set of isothermal data, there is a major change in the value of n for larger dehydration. For up to approximately 50 percent dehydration, all rate constants can be described by an Arrheniun relation with an activation energy of 432 (+/- 30) kJ/mol; n has a nearly constant value of 0.54 between 775 and 875 C, but increases almost linearly according to n = -10.77 + 0.012T C at T greater than or equal to 875 C.

  4. Computer modeling of dynamic necking in bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partom, Yehuda; Lindenfeld, Avishay

    2017-06-01

    Necking of thin bodies (bars, plates, shells) is one form of strain localization in ductile materials that may lead to fracture. The phenomenon of necking has been studied extensively, initially for quasistatic loading and then also for dynamic loading. Nevertheless, many issues concerning necking are still unclear. Among these are: 1) is necking a random or deterministic process; 2) how does the specimen choose the final neck location; 3) to what extent do perturbations (material or geometrical) influence the neck forming process; and 4) how do various parameters (material, geometrical, loading) influence the neck forming process. Here we address these issues and others using computer simulations with a hydrocode. Among other things we find that: 1) neck formation is a deterministic process, and by changing one of the parameters influencing it monotonously, the final neck location moves monotonously as well; 2) the final neck location is sensitive to the radial velocity of the end boundaries, and as motion of these boundaries is not fully controlled in tests, this may be the reason why neck formation is sometimes regarded as a random process; and 3) neck formation is insensitive to small perturbations, which is probably why it is a deterministic process.

  5. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, James B.

    1984-01-01

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengageable servo drives which cannot be clutched out. Two gage balls (10, 12) are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit (14) and a rigid member (16, 18, 20, 22, 24). One gage ball (10) is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly (34) which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball (12) is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly (38) which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball (12) is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball (10). As the moving ball (12) executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls (10, 12) caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly (50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60) actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit (14). Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball (10) locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine.

  6. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, J.B.

    1984-03-13

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengageable servo drives which cannot be clutched out is disclosed. Two gage balls are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit and a rigid member. One gage ball is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball. As the moving ball executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit. Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine. 3 figs.

  7. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, J.B.

    1982-03-15

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengagable servo drives which cannot be clutched out. Two gage balls are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit and a rigid member. One gage ball is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball. As the moving ball executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit. Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine.

  8. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  9. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities toward Peptomeric Triple-Helical Substrates.

    PubMed

    Stawikowski, Maciej J; Stawikowska, Roma; Fields, Gregg B

    2015-05-19

    Although collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) possess common domain organizations, there are subtle differences in their processing of collagenous triple-helical substrates. In this study, we have incorporated peptoid residues into collagen model triple-helical peptides and examined MMP activities toward these peptomeric chimeras. Several different peptoid residues were incorporated into triple-helical substrates at subsites P3, P1, P1', and P10' individually or in combination, and the effects of the peptoid residues were evaluated on the activities of full-length MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13, and MMP-14/MT1-MMP. Most peptomers showed little discrimination between MMPs. However, a peptomer containing N-methyl Gly (sarcosine) in the P1' subsite and N-isobutyl Gly (NLeu) in the P10' subsite was hydrolyzed efficiently only by MMP-13 [nomenclature relative to the α1(I)772-786 sequence]. Cleavage site analysis showed hydrolysis at the Gly-Gln bond, indicating a shifted binding of the triple helix compared to the parent sequence. Favorable hydrolysis by MMP-13 was not due to sequence specificity or instability of the substrate triple helix but rather was based on the specific interactions of the P7' peptoid residue with the MMP-13 hemopexin-like domain. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer triple-helical peptomer was constructed and found to be readily processed by MMP-13, not cleaved by MMP-1 and MMP-8, and weakly hydrolyzed by MT1-MMP. The influence of the triple-helical structure containing peptoid residues on the interaction between MMP subsites and individual substrate residues may provide additional information about the mechanism of collagenolysis, the understanding of collagen specificity, and the design of selective MMP probes.

  10. 33 CFR 13.01-45 - Replacement of medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-45 Replacement of medals and bars. The Gold or Silver Lifesaving Medal or bar...

  11. 33 CFR 13.01-45 - Replacement of medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-45 Replacement of medals and bars. The Gold or Silver Lifesaving Medal or bar...

  12. 33 CFR 13.01-45 - Replacement of medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-45 Replacement of medals and bars. The Gold or Silver Lifesaving Medal or bar...

  13. 33 CFR 13.01-45 - Replacement of medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-45 Replacement of medals and bars. The Gold or Silver Lifesaving Medal or bar...

  14. 33 CFR 13.01-45 - Replacement of medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-45 Replacement of medals and bars. The Gold or Silver Lifesaving Medal or bar...

  15. Bond Strength of Composite CFRP Reinforcing Bars in Timber

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, Marco; Righetti, Luca; Borri, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The use of near-surface mounted (NSM) fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars is an interesting method for increasing the shear and flexural strength of existing timber members. This article examines the behaviour of carbon FRP (CFRP) bars in timber under direct pull-out conditions. The objective of this experimental program is to investigate the bond strength between composite bars and timber: bars were epoxied into small notches made into chestnut and fir wood members using a commercially-available epoxy system. Bonded lengths varied from 150 to 300 mm. Failure modes, stress and strain distributions and the bond strength of CFRP bars have been evaluated and discussed. The pull-out capacity in NSM CFRP bars at the onset of debonding increased with bonded length up to a length of 250 mm. While CFRP bar’s pull-out was achieved only for specimens with bonded lengths of 150 and 200 mm, bar tensile failure was mainly recorded for bonded lengths of 250 and 300 mm. PMID:28793423

  16. Alluvial Bars of the Obed Wild and Scenic River, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, W.J.; Fitch, K.C.; Ladd, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) initiated a reconnaissance study of alluvial bars along the Obed Wild and Scenic River (Obed WSR), in Cumberland and Morgan Counties, Tennessee. The study was partly driven by concern that trapping of sand by upstream impoundments might threaten rare, threatened, or endangered plant habitat by reducing the supply of sediment to the alluvial bars. The objectives of the study were to: (1) develop a preliminary understanding of the distribution, morphology, composition, stability, and vegetation structure of alluvial bars along the Obed WSR, and (2) determine whether evidence of human alteration of sediment dynamics in the Obed WSR warrants further, more detailed examination. This report presents the results of the reconnaissance study of alluvial bars along the Obed River, Clear Creek, and Daddys Creek in the Obed WSR. The report is based on: (1) field-reconnaissance visits by boat to 56 alluvial bars along selected reaches of the Obed River and Clear Creek; (2) analysis of aerial photographs, topographic and geologic maps, and other geographic data to assess the distribution of alluvial bars in the Obed WSR; (3) surveys of topography, surface particle size, vegetation structure, and ground cover on three selected alluvial bars; and (4) analysis of hydrologic records.

  17. Washing with contaminated bar soap is unlikely to transfer bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, J. E.; Yackovich, F.

    1988-01-01

    Recent reports of the isolation of microorganisms from used soap bars have raised the concern that bacteria may be transferred from contaminated soap bars during handwashing. Since only one study addressing this question has been published, we developed an additional procedure to test this concern. In our new method prewashed and softened commercial deodorant soap bars (0.8% triclocarban) not active against Gram-negative bacteria were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to give mean total survival levels of 4.4 X 10(5) c.f.u. per bar which was 70-fold higher than those reported on used soap bars. Sixteen panelists were instructed to wash with the inoculated bars using their normal handwashing procedure. After washing, none of the 16 panelists had detectable levels of either test bacterium on their hands. Thus, the results obtained using our new method were in complete agreement with those obtained with the previously published method even though the two methods differ in a number of procedural aspects. These findings, along with other published reports, show that little hazard exists in routine handwashing with previously used soap bars and support the frequent use of soap and water for handwashing to prevent the spread of disease. PMID:3402545

  18. The interface of mental health and human rights in Indigenous peoples: triple jeopardy and triple opportunity.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Insufficient understanding of the reciprocal interactions between health and human rights, mental health and human rights and the realization of all human rights by Indigenous peoples constitute a triple jeopardy in how these topics are currently being addressed and/or openly antagonized. This paper will attempt to show how a combined health and human rights approach to mental health in Indigenous peoples can transform a triple jeopardy into a triple opportunity. The vast and growing body of literature on mental health, health as a whole, and human rights as these relate to health and to Indigenous peoples will be used to frame the discussion. Attention to the complex interactions of health and human rights can guide policy formulation and action by offering a method of analysis, a process of participatory decision and a framework for accountability. In addition, mental health can find its rightful place in the health and human rights discourse through efforts to help policymakers and practitioners broaden their vision of mental illness to holistically encompass aspects of physical, social, emotional and cultural wellbeing. Finally, connecting the role that rights realization plays in determining health and wellbeing will add power to the rightful claims by Indigenous peoples to the promotion and protection of all their human rights--civil, political, economic, social and cultural. Broadening the research agenda by applying systematically a health and human rights analytical framework to the understanding of social determinants of health would minimize the risk of assigning health outcome merely to behaviours, practices and lifestyles, uncovering structural determinants of holistic health entrenched in policies and governmental conduct. Building the evidence of the negative impact of human rights violation on health and the negative impact of ill-health on the fulfilment of other human rights can help in designing comprehensive interventions, building on the

  19. AAA-DDD triple hydrogen bond complexes.

    PubMed

    Blight, Barry A; Camara-Campos, Amaya; Djurdjevic, Smilja; Kaller, Martin; Leigh, David A; McMillan, Fiona M; McNab, Hamish; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2009-10-07

    Experiment and theory both suggest that the AAA-DDD pattern of hydrogen bond acceptors (A) and donors (D) is the arrangement of three contiguous hydrogen bonding centers that results in the strongest association between two species. Murray and Zimmerman prepared the first example of such a system (complex 3*2) and determined the lower limit of its association constant (K(a)) in CDCl(3) to be 10(5) M(-1) by (1)H NMR spectroscopy (Murray, T. J. and Zimmerman, S. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 4010-4011). The first cationic AAA-DDD pair (3*4(+)) was described by Bell and Anslyn (Bell, D. A. and Anslyn, E. A. Tetrahedron 1995, 51, 7161-7172), with a K(a) > 5 x 10(5) M(-1) in CH(2)Cl(2) as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. We were recently able to quantify the strength of a neutral AAA-DDD arrangement using a more chemically stable AAA-DDD system, 6*2, which has an association constant of 2 x 10(7) M(-1) in CH(2)Cl(2) (Djurdjevic, S., Leigh, D. A., McNab, H., Parsons, S., Teobaldi, G. and Zerbetto, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 476-477). Here we report on further AA(A) and DDD partners, together with the first precise measurement of the association constant of a cationic AAA-DDD species. Complex 6*10(+)[B(3,5-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3))(4)(-)] has a K(a) = 3 x 10(10) M(-1) at RT in CH(2)Cl(2), by far the most strongly bound triple hydrogen bonded system measured to date. The X-ray crystal structure of 6*10(+) with a BPh(4)(-) counteranion shows a planar array of three short (NH...N distances 1.95-2.15 A), parallel (but staggered rather than strictly linear; N-H...N angles 165.4-168.8 degrees), primary hydrogen bonds. These are apparently reinforced, as theory predicts, by close electrostatic interactions (NH-*-N distances 2.78-3.29 A) between each proton and the acceptor atoms of the adjacent primary hydrogen bonds.

  20. Icing research tunnel rotating bar calibration measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Theresa L.; Dearmon, John M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to measure icing patterns across a test section of the Icing Research Tunnel, an automated rotating bar measurement system was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. In comparison with the previously used manual measurement system, this system provides a number of improvements: increased accuracy and repeatability, increased number of data points, reduced tunnel operating time, and improved documentation. The automated system uses a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) to measure ice accretion. This instrument is driven along the bar by means of an intelligent stepper motor which also controls data recording. This paper describes the rotating bar calibration measurement system.

  1. Steel Bar corrosion monitoring based on encapsulated piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Tang, Tianyou

    2018-05-01

    The durability of reinforced concrete has a great impact on the structural bearing capacity, while the corrosion of steel bars is the main reason for the degradation of structural durability. In this paper, a new type of encapsulated cement based piezoelectric sensor is developed and its working performance is verified. The consistency of the finite element simulation and the experimental results shows the feasibility of monitoring the corrosion of steel bars using encapsulated piezoelectric sensors. The research results show that the corrosion conditions of the steel bars can be determined by the relative amplitude of the measured signal through the encapsulated piezoelectric sensor.

  2. Reappraisal of the Arabia-India-Somalia triple junction kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Marc; Patriat, Philippe; Leroy, Sylvie

    2001-07-01

    We propose alternative kinematics for the Arabia-India-Somalia triple junction based on a re-interpretation of seismological and magnetic data. The new triple junction of the ridge-ridge-ridge type is located at the bend of the Sheba Ridge in the eastern gulf of Aden at 14.5°N and 56.4°E. The Owen fracture zone (Arabia-India boundary) is connected to the Sheba Ridge by an ultra-slow divergent boundary trending N80°E±10° marked by diffuse seismicity. The location of the Arabia-India rotation pole is constrained at 14.1°N and 71.2°E by fitting the active part of the Owen fracture zone with a small circle. The finite kinematics of the triple junction is inferred from the present-day kinematics. Since the inception of the accretion 15-18 Ma ago, the Sheba Ridge has probably receded ∼300 km at the expense of the Carlsberg Ridge which propagated northwestward in the gulf of Aden, while an ultra-slow divergent plate boundary developed between the Arabian and Indian plates. The overall geometry of the new triple junction is very similar to that of the Azores triple junction.

  3. Development of 600 kV triple resonance pulse transformer.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingjia; Zhang, Faqiang; Liang, Chuan; Xu, Zhou

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a triple-resonance pulse transformer based on an air-core transformer is introduced. The voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is significantly less than the output voltage; instead, the full output voltage appears across the tuning inductor. The maximum ratio of peak load voltage to peak transformer voltage is 2.77 in theory. By analyzing pulse transformer's lossless circuit, the analytical expression for the output voltage and the characteristic equation of the triple-resonance circuit are presented. Design method for the triple-resonance pulse transformer (iterated simulation method) is presented, and a triple-resonance pulse transformer is developed based on the existing air-core transformer. The experimental results indicate that the maximum ratio of peak voltage across the load to peak voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is approximately 2.0 and the peak output voltage of the triple-resonance pulse transformer is approximately 600 kV.

  4. The Bar Mode Instability in Deleptonizing Fizzlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, James N.; Durisen, R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Core collapse in massive rotating nonmagnetic stars may hangup before neutron star densities are reached when rotationally supported or partially rotation supported, hot, lepton-rich objects known as fizzlers form. For typical massive core masses, fizzlers may form if the core has angular momentum J > 1049 g cm2 s-1. Newly formed fizzlers are stable to secular and dynamic nonaxisymmetric instabilities because of the high electron fraction per baryon, Ye > 0.3, and high entropy per baryon, Sn = 1-2 k of fizzler material, and the long-term evolution of a fizzler to neutron star density is driven by deleptonization and cooling of the lepton-rich fizzler material. Both processes lead to pressure loss which causes the fizzler to contract and spin-up. All deleptonizing fizzlers eventually become subject to gravito-rotation-driven nonaxisymmetric instabilities before they reach neutron star density. We study the development of barlike instabilities in deleptonizing fizzlers. We find that vigorous growth in barlike modes occurs only after the bar mode dynamic instability threshold is passed. Because barlike modes break axial symmetry, a burst of gravitational wave (GW) radiation is produced as barlike modes develop. For typical fizzler properties, the GW radiation will have frequency 300-600 Hz with strains of 10-23-10-23, for fizzlers at distances of 15 Mpc ( Virgo cluster of galaxies). Fizzlers in the Virgo cluster would be easily detectable by the gravitational wave obervatory LIGO if the barlike mode persisted for several hundred cycles. We find that barlike modes in fizzlers persist for at least 15-30 cycles in our simulations, depending on the deleptonization rate.

  5. Triple-band metamaterial absorption utilizing single rectangular hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Jik; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, YoungPak

    2017-01-01

    In the general metamaterial absorber, the single absorption band is made by the single meta-pattern. Here, we introduce the triple-band metamaterial absorber only utilizing single rectangular hole. We also demonstrate the absorption mechanism of the triple absorption. The first absorption peak was caused by the fundamental magnetic resonance in the metallic part between rectangular holes. The second absorption was generated by induced tornado magnetic field. The process of realizing the second band is also presented. The third absorption was induced by the third-harmonic magnetic resonance in the metallic region between rectangular holes. In addition, the visible-range triple-band absorber was also realized by using similar but smaller single rectangular-hole structure. These results render the simple metamaterials for high frequency in large scale, which can be useful in the fabrication of metamaterials operating in the optical range.

  6. On universality of scaling law describing roughness of triple line.

    PubMed

    Bormashenko, Edward; Musin, Albina; Whyman, Gene; Barkay, Zahava; Zinigrad, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The fine structure of the three-phase (triple) line was studied for different liquids, various topographies of micro-rough substrates and various wetting regimes. Wetting of porous and pillar-based micro-scaled polymer surfaces was investigated. The triple line was visualized with the environmental scanning electron microscope and scanning electron microscope for the "frozen" triple lines. The value of the roughness exponent ζ for water (ice)/rough polymer systems was located within 0.55-0.63. For epoxy glue/rough polymer systems somewhat lower values of the exponent, 0.42 < ζ < 0.54, were established. The obtained values of ζ were close for the Cassie and Wenzel wetting regimes, different liquids, and different substrates' topographies. Thus, the above values of the exponent are to a great extent universal. The switch of the exponent, when the roughness size approaches to the correlation length of the defects, is also universal.

  7. Shaping planetary nebulae with jets in inclined triple stellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Muhammad; Soker, Noam

    2017-08-01

    We conduct three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of two opposite jets launched obliquely to the orbital plane around an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star and within its dense wind, and demonstrate the formation of a 'messy' planetary nebula (PN), namely a PN lacking any type of symmetry (I.e. highly irregular). In building the initial conditions, we assume that a tight binary system orbits the AGB star and that the orbital plane of the tight binary system is inclined to the orbital plane of the binary system and the AGB star (the triple system plane). We further assume that the accreted mass on to the tight binary system forms an accretion disc around one of the stars and that the plane of the disc is tilted to the orbital plane of the triple system. The highly asymmetrical and filamentary structures that we obtain support the notion that messy PNe might be shaped by triple stellar systems.

  8. A modified split Hopkinson pressure bar for toughness tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granier, N.; Grunenwald, T.

    2006-08-01

    In order to characterize material toughness or to study crack arrest under dynamic loading conditions, a new testing device has been developed at CEA/Valduc. A new Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) has been modified: it is now composed of a single incident bar and a double transmitter bar. With this facility, a notched specimen can be loaded under three points bending conditions. Qualification tests with titanium and steel notched samples are presented. Data treatment software has been adapted to estimate the sample deflection as a function of time and treat the energy balance. These results are compared with classical Charpy experiments. Effect of various contact areas between specimen and bars are studied to point out their influence on obtained measurements. The advantage of a “knife” contact compared to a plane one is then clearly demonstrated. All results obtained with this new testing device are in good agreement and show a reduced scattering.

  9. Deterioration of J-bar reinforcement in abutments and piers.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-31

    Deterioration and necking of J-bars has been reportedly observed at the interface of the footing and stem wall during the demolition : of older retaining walls and bridge abutments. Similar deterioration has been reportedly observed between the pier ...

  10. Tobacco related bar promotions: insights from tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    Katz, S; Lavack, A

    2002-01-01

    Design: Over 2000 tobacco industry documents available as a result of the Master Settlement Agreement were reviewed on the internet at several key web sites using keyword searches that included "bar", "night", "pub", "party", and "club". The majority of the documents deal with the US market, with a minor emphasis on Canadian and overseas markets. Results: The documents indicate that bar promotions are important for creating and maintaining brand image, and are generally targeted at a young adult audience. Several measures of the success of these promotions are used, including number of individuals exposed to the promotion, number of promotional items given away, and increased sales of a particular brand during and after the promotion. Conclusion: Bar promotions position cigarettes as being part of a glamorous lifestyle that includes attendance at nightclubs and bars, and appear to be highly successful in increasing sales of particular brands. PMID:11893819

  11. Context matters: the educational potential of gay bars revisited.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Ian; Douglas, Nicola; Aggleton, Peter; Boyce, Paul

    2003-08-01

    Gay bars have been frequently identified as suitable environments in which to conduct HIV prevention activities among homosexually active men. In theory, they provide easy access to a relatively diverse group of men. However, gay bars are environments in which the primary purpose is a social one. Gay men use them to take time out, to socialize, and, on occasions, to find new sexual partners. They are also settings in which social reputations often have to be managed. This study examined the HIV/AIDS educational potential of four gay bars in London, Britain. Semistructured observations and interviews took place in four contrasting bars with a focus on men's perceptions of HIV/AIDS-related health promotion activities including condom promotion, the use of posters and small media, and understandings of safer sex. Respondents were ambivalent about AIDS-related health education activities being undertaken. The implications of such responses for the development of HIV primary prevention activities in such settings are discussed.

  12. 45. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOLWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOLWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS LINKING SWITCH LEVERS AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  14. Visual mining geo-related data using pixel bar charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming C.; Keim, Daniel A.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Wright, Peter; Schneidewind, Joern

    2005-03-01

    A common approach to analyze geo-related data is using bar charts or x-y plots. They are intuitive and easy to use. But important information often gets lost. In this paper, we introduce a new interactive visualization technique called Geo Pixel Bar Charts, which combines the advantages of Pixel Bar Charts and interactive maps. This technique allows analysts to visualize large amounts of spatial data without aggregation and shows the geographical regions corresponding to the spatial data attribute at the same time. In this paper, we apply Geo Pixel Bar Charts to visually mining sales transactions and Internet usage from different locations. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of this technique for providing data distribution and exceptions from the map.

  15. 3. THREE HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPHS, VIEWS OF SCAFFOLDING AND REINFORCING BARS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. THREE HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPHS, VIEWS OF SCAFFOLDING AND REINFORCING BARS, CA. 1935. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Guinea Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  16. Membrane curvature and its generation by BAR proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mim, Carsten; Unger, Vinzenz M

    2012-01-01

    Membranes are flexible barriers that surround the cell and its compartments. To execute vital functions such as locomotion or receptor turnover, cells need to control the shapes of their membranes. In part, this control is achieved through membrane-bending proteins, such as the bin/amphiphysin/rvs domain (BAR) proteins. Many open questions remain about the mechanisms by which membrane-bending proteins function. Addressing this shortfall, recent structures of BAR protein:membrane complexes support existing mechanistic models, but also produced novel insights into how BAR-domain proteins sense, stabilize and generate curvature. Here we review these recent findings, focusing on how BAR proteins interact with the membrane, and how the resulting scaffold structures might aid the recruitment of other proteins to the sites where membranes are bent. PMID:23058040

  17. Main interior space facing the bar. The more recent kitchen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main interior space facing the bar. The more recent kitchen and restroom additions are behind the rear wall. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  18. Triple shape memory polymers by 4D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A. R.; Liao, W. H.

    2018-06-01

    This article aims at introducing triple shape memory polymers (SMPs) by four-dimensional (4D) printing technology and shaping adaptive structures for mechanical/bio-medical devices. The main approach is based on arranging hot–cold programming of SMPs with fused decomposition modeling technology to engineer adaptive structures with triple shape memory effect (SME). Experiments are conducted to characterize elasto-plastic and hyper-elastic thermo-mechanical material properties of SMPs in low and high temperatures at large deformation regime. The feasibility of the dual and triple SMPs with self-bending features is demonstrated experimentally. It is advantageous in situations either where it is desired to perform mechanical manipulations on the 4D printed objects for specific purposes or when they experience cold programming inevitably before activation. A phenomenological 3D constitutive model is developed for quantitative understanding of dual/triple SME of SMPs fabricated by 4D printing in the large deformation range. Governing equations of equilibrium are established for adaptive structures on the basis of the nonlinear Green–Lagrange strains. They are then solved by developing a finite element approach along with an elastic-predictor plastic-corrector return map procedure accomplished by the Newton–Raphson method. The computational tool is applied to simulate dual/triple SMP structures enabled by 4D printing and explore hot–cold programming mechanisms behind material tailoring. It is shown that the 4D printed dual/triple SMPs have great potential in mechanical/bio-medical applications such as self-bending gripers/stents and self-shrinking/tightening staples.

  19. Targeting the androgen receptor in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gucalp, Ayca; Traina, Tiffany A

    Triple-negative breast cancer represents approximately 15%-20% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers, but it accounts for a disproportionate number of breast cancer-related deaths each year. Owing to the lack of estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, patients with triple-negative breast cancer do not benefit from generally well-tolerated and effective therapies targeting the estrogen and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 signaling pathways and are faced with an increased risk of disease progression and poorer overall survival. The heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer has been increasingly recognized and this may lead to therapeutic opportunities because of newly defined oncogenic drivers and targets. A subset of triple-negative breast tumors expresses the androgen receptor (AR) and this may benefit from treatments that inhibit the AR-signaling pathway. The first proof-of-concept trial established activity of the AR antagonist, bicalutamide, in patients with advanced AR+ triple-negative breast cancer. Since that time, evidence further supports the activity of other next-generation AR-targeted agents such as enzalutamide. Not unlike in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, mechanisms of resistance are being investigated and rationale exists for thoughtful, well-designed combination regimens such as AR antagonism with CDK4/6 pathway inhibitors or PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, novel agents developed for the treatment of prostate cancer, which reduce androgen production such as abiraterone acetate and seviteronel, are being tested as well. This review summarizes the underlying biology of AR signaling in breast cancer development and the available clinical trial data for the use of anti-androgen therapy in the treatment of AR+ triple-negative breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CRITICAL CURVES AND CAUSTICS OF TRIPLE-LENS MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Daněk, Kamil; Heyrovský, David, E-mail: kamil.danek@utf.mff.cuni.cz, E-mail: heyrovsky@utf.mff.cuni.cz

    2015-06-10

    Among the 25 planetary systems detected up to now by gravitational microlensing, there are two cases of a star with two planets, and two cases of a binary star with a planet. Other, yet undetected types of triple lenses include triple stars or stars with a planet with a moon. The analysis and interpretation of such events is hindered by the lack of understanding of essential characteristics of triple lenses, such as their critical curves and caustics. We present here analytical and numerical methods for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses.more » We apply the methods to the analysis of four symmetric triple-lens models, and obtain altogether 9 different critical-curve topologies and 32 caustic structures. While these results include various generic types, they represent just a subset of all possible triple-lens critical curves and caustics. Using the analyzed models, we demonstrate interesting features of triple lenses that do not occur in two-point-mass lenses. We show an example of a lens that cannot be described by the Chang–Refsdal model in the wide limit. In the close limit we demonstrate unusual structures of primary and secondary caustic loops, and explain the conditions for their occurrence. In the planetary limit we find that the presence of a planet may lead to a whole sequence of additional caustic metamorphoses. We show that a pair of planets may change the structure of the primary caustic even when placed far from their resonant position at the Einstein radius.« less

  1. The Barred Inner Region of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Ortwin

    2018-04-01

    The central few kpc of our Galaxy, the Milky Way, are dominated by thegravitational field of the Galactic bar. This talk describes dynamicalmodels of the bar and box/peanut bulge, and what we have learnt fromthem about the dynamical structure, the distribution of stellar anddark matter mass, and the spatial and orbital distributions of theGalactic stellar populations. Finally I discuss models for theformation of galaxies like ours, and how Milky Way studies enlightengalaxy formation theories in general.

  2. Bar-Chart-Monitor System For Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Real-time monitor system provides bar-chart displays of significant operating parameters developed for National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at Ames Research Center. Designed to gather and process sensory data on operating conditions of wind tunnels and models, and displays data for test engineers and technicians concerned with safety and validation of operating conditions. Bar-chart video monitor displays data in as many as 50 channels at maximum update rate of 2 Hz in format facilitating quick interpretation.

  3. Galaxy Zoo: finding offset discs and bars in SDSS galaxies★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, Sandor J.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Bamford, Steven P.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Fortson, Lucy; Hart, Ross E.; Häußler, Boris; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Smethurst, Rebecca J.

    2017-08-01

    We use multiwavelength Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images and Galaxy Zoo morphologies to identify a sample of ˜270 late-type galaxies with an off-centre bar. We measure offsets in the range 0.2-2.5 kpc between the photometric centres of the stellar disc and stellar bar. The measured offsets correlate with global asymmetries of the galaxies, with those with largest offsets showing higher lopsidedness. These findings are in good agreement with predictions from simulations of dwarf-dwarf tidal interactions producing off-centre bars. We find that the majority of galaxies with off-centre bars are of Magellanic type, with a median mass of 109.6 M⊙, and 91 per cent of them having M⋆ < 3 × 1010 M⊙, the characteristic mass at which galaxies start having higher central concentrations attributed to the presence of bulges. We conduct a search for companions to test the hypothesis of tidal interactions, but find that a similar fraction of galaxies with offset bars have companions within 100 kpc as galaxies with centred bars. Although this may be due to the incompleteness of the SDSS spectroscopic survey at the faint end, alternative scenarios that give rise to offset bars such as interactions with dark companions or the effect of lopsided halo potentials should be considered. Future observations are needed to confirm possible low-mass companion candidates and to determine the shape of the dark matter halo, in order to find the explanation for the off-centre bars in these galaxies.

  4. Multi-wavelength observations of barred, flocculent galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratay, Douglas Lee

    Although it is generally accepted that large galaxies form through the assemblage of smaller objects, an explanation for the morphology of galaxies is not available. Any complete theory of galaxy morphology must include production and dissolution mechanisms for galactic bars, rings, nuclear bars, spiral arms, and companions. This theory does not exist because of the lack of detailed data from many types of galaxies in different environments. We have defined a new sample of galaxies which are simultaneously flocculent, barred, and isolated. We have performed optical, near-infrared, and radio (HI) observations of the galaxies in this sample. We measured properties of our galaxies including bar length, bar axis ratio, HI diameter, HI mass, and dynamical mass. We found that our sample group is heterogeneous, and compares well to a standard samples of galaxies. We found two of our galaxies to possess companions, and two others to show evidence of current interactions. This is consistent with other observations indicating that local isolated galaxies do not possess a large number of small companions. We cannot rule out the possibility of very small companions. We find that as a group our sample is slightly less luminous than normal galaxies and may be more likely to be involved in interactions. We conclude that the bar and spiral arm features in our sample are due to processes internal to the galaxies, likely involving the interaction between the galactic disk and halo. We defined a control sample of barred, grand design galaxies to further determine the acceptability of barred, flocculent galaxies as a physically meaningful subset of galaxies.

  5. Genderedness of bar drinking culture and alcohol-related harms: A multi-country study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in predominantly male bar-drinking countries. Multilevel analysis was used to analyze survey data from 21 countries representing five continents from Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Bar frequency was positively associated with harms overall. Relationships between bar frequency and harms varied across country. Genderedness modified associations between bar frequency and odds of fights, marriage/relationship harms, and work harms. Findings were significant only for men. Contrary to our hypothesis, odds of harms associated with bar drinking increased less rapidly in countries where bar drinking is predominantly male. This suggests predominantly male bar drinking cultures may be protective for males who more frequently drink in bars. PMID:23710158

  6. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barooji, Younes F.; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes.

  7. Discrete shear-transformation-zone plasticity modeling of notched bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondori, Babak; Amine Benzerga, A.; Needleman, Alan

    2018-02-01

    Plane strain tension analyses of un-notched and notched bars are carried out using discrete shear transformation zone plasticity. In this framework, the carriers of plastic deformation are shear transformation zones (STZs) which are modeled as Eshelby inclusions. Superposition is used to represent a boundary value problem solution in terms of discretely modeled Eshelby inclusions, given analytically for an infinite elastic medium, and an image solution that enforces the prescribed boundary conditions. The image problem is a standard linear elastic boundary value problem that is solved by the finite element method. Potential STZ activation sites are randomly distributed in the bars and constitutive relations are specified for their evolution. Results are presented for un-notched bars, for bars with blunt notches and for bars with sharp notches. The computed stress-strain curves are serrated with the magnitude of the associated stress-drops depending on bar size, notch acuity and STZ evolution. Cooperative deformation bands (shear bands) emerge upon straining and, in some cases, high stress levels occur within the bands. Effects of specimen geometry and size on the stress-strain curves are explored. Depending on STZ kinetics, notch strengthening, notch insensitivity or notch weakening are obtained. The analyses provide a rationale for some conflicting findings regarding notch effects on the mechanical response of metallic glasses.

  8. Visual mining business service using pixel bar charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Casati, Fabio

    2004-06-01

    Basic bar charts have been commonly available, but they only show highly aggregated data. Finding the valuable information hidden in the data is essential to the success of business. We describe a new visualization technique called pixel bar charts, which are derived from regular bar charts. The basic idea of a pixel bar chart is to present all data values directly instead of aggregating them into a few data values. Pixel bar charts provide data distribution and exceptions besides aggregated data. The approach is to represent each data item (e.g. a business transaction) by a single pixel in the bar chart. The attribute of each data item is encoded into the pixel color and can be accessed and drilled down to the detail information as needed. Different color mappings are used to represent multiple attributes. This technique has been prototyped in three business service applications-Business Operation Analysis, Sales Analysis, and Service Level Agreement Analysis at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. Our applications show the wide applicability and usefulness of this new idea.

  9. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-09-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  10. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo, E-mail: b.cervantes@irya.unam.mx, E-mail: o.sanchez@irya.unam.mx

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness ismore » mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.« less

  11. Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Craig Stephen

    ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.

  12. THE MASS PROFILE AND SHAPE OF BARS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G): SEARCH FOR AN AGE INDICATOR FOR BARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Sheth, Kartik

    2015-01-20

    We have measured the radial light profiles and global shapes of bars using two-dimensional 3.6 μm image decompositions for 144 face-on barred galaxies from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. The bar surface brightness profile is correlated with the stellar mass and bulge-to-total (B/T) ratio of their host galaxies. Bars in massive and bulge-dominated galaxies (B/T > 0.2) show a flat profile, while bars in less massive, disk-dominated galaxies (B/T ∼ 0) show an exponential, disk-like profile with a wider spread in the radial profile than in the bulge-dominated galaxies. The global two-dimensional shapes of bars, however, are rectangular/boxy, independentmore » of the bulge or disk properties. We speculate that because bars are formed out of disks, bars initially have an exponential (disk-like) profile that evolves over time, trapping more disk stars to boxy bar orbits. This leads bars to become stronger and have flatter profiles. The narrow spread of bar radial profiles in more massive disks suggests that these bars formed earlier (z > 1), while the disk-like profiles and a larger spread in the radial profile in less massive systems imply a later and more gradual evolution, consistent with the cosmological evolution of bars inferred from observational studies. Therefore, we expect that the flatness of the bar profile can be used as a dynamical age indicator of the bar to measure the time elapsed since the bar formation. We argue that cosmic gas accretion is required to explain our results on bar profile and the presence of gas within the bar region.« less

  13. Comparing the physiological and perceptual responses of construction workers (bar benders and bar fixers) in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del Pui-Lam; Chung, Joanne Wai-Yee; Chan, Albert Ping-Chuen; Wong, Francis Kwan-Wah; Yi, Wen

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to (1) quantify the respective physical workloads of bar bending and fixing; and (2) compare the physiological and perceptual responses between bar benders and bar fixers. Field studies were conducted during the summer in Hong Kong from July 2011 to August 2011 over six construction sites. Synchronized physiological, perceptual, and environmental parameters were measured from construction rebar workers. The average duration of the 39 field measurements was 151.1 ± 22.4 min under hot environment (WBGT = 31.4 ± 2.2 °C), during which physiological, perceptual and environmental parameters were synchronized. Energy expenditure of overall rebar work, bar bending, and bar fixing were 2.57, 2.26 and 2.67 Kcal/min (179, 158 and 186 W), respectively. Bar fixing induced significantly higher physiological responses in heart rate (113.6 vs. 102.3 beat/min, p < 0.05), oxygen consumption (9.53 vs. 7.14 ml/min/kg, p < 0.05), and energy expenditure (2.67 vs. 2.26 Kcal/min, p < 0.05) (186 vs. 158 W, p < 0.05) as compared to bar bending. Perceptual response was higher in bar fixing but such difference was not statistically significant. Findings of this study enable the calculation of daily energy expenditure of rebar work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Eliminating smoking in bars, restaurants, and gaming clubs in California: BREATH, the California Smoke-Free Bar Program.

    PubMed

    Kiser, D; Boschert, T

    2001-01-01

    On January 1, 1998, California became the first state in the country to prohibit indoor smoking in nightspots, bars, bar/restaurant combinations, bingo parlors, cardrooms, and casinos on a statewide basis. This paper describes the activities which achieved this result, based on a program with three main goals: Ease the transition for business owners; Activate public support for the law; Defeat tobacco industry efforts to undermine the law. Important lessons learned from this campaign are presented.

  15. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Dugger, Katie M.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  16. The origin of the LMC stellar bar: clues from the SFH of the bar and inner disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteagudo, L.; Gallart, C.; Monelli, M.; Bernard, E. J.; Stetson, P. B.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the origin of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) stellar bar by comparing the star formation histories (SFHs) obtained from deep colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) in the bar and in a number of fields in different directions within the inner disc. The CMDs, reaching the oldest main-sequence turn-offs in these very crowded fields, have been obtained with VIMOS on the Very Large Telescope in the service mode, under very good seeing conditions. We show that the SFHs of all fields share the same patterns, with consistent variations of the star formation rate as a function of time in all of them. We therefore conclude that no specific event of star formation can be identified with the formation of the LMC bar, which instead likely formed from a redistribution of disc material which occurred when the LMC disc became bar unstable, and shared a common SFH with the inner disc thereafter. The strong similarity between the SFH of the centre and edge of the bar rules out the expected significant spatial variations of the SFH across the bar.

  17. The high-bar and low-bar back-squats: A biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Glassbrook, Daniel J; Brown, Scott R; Helms, Eric R; Duncan, J Scott; Storey, Adam G

    2017-02-08

    No prior study has compared the joint angle and ground reaction force (Fv) differences between the high-bar back-squat (HBBS) and low-bar back-squat (LBBS) above 90% 1RM. Six male powerlifters (height: 179.2 ± 7.8 cm; bodyweight: 87.1 ± 8.0 kg; age: 27.3 ± 4.2 years) of international level, six male Olympic weightlifters (height: 176.7 ± 7.7 cm; bodyweight: 83.1 ± 13 kg; age: 25.3 ± 3.1 years) of national level, and six recreationally trained male athletes (height: 181.9 ± 8.7 cm; bodyweight: 87.9 ± 15.3 kg; age: 27.7 ± 3.8 years) performed the LBBS, HBBS, and both LBBS and HBBS (respectively) up to and including 100% 1RM. Small to moderate (d = 0.2-0.5) effect size differences were observed between the powerlifters and Olympic weightlifters in joint angles and Fv, although none were statistically significant. However, significant joint angle results were observed between the experienced powerlifters/weightlifters and the recreationally trained group. Our findings suggest that practitioners seeking to place emphasis on the stronger hip musculature should consider the LBBS. Also, when the goal is to lift the greatest load possible, the LBBS may be preferable. Conversely, the HBBS is more suited to replicate movements that exhibit a more upright torso position, such as the snatch and clean, or to place more emphasis on the associated musculature of the knee joint.

  18. Residential Density: The Effects of Tripling College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Shannon; Everhart, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Due to a greater number of students enrolling in higher educational institutions, an increase in demand for housing on college campuses exists putting a strain on infrastructure. In order to accommodate the students, some universities are tripling students in residential settings by putting three students in a room originally designed for two.…

  19. Quadrupolar, Triple [Delta]-Function Potential in One Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    The energy and parity eigenstates for quadrupolar, triple [delta]-function potential are analysed. Using the analytical solutions in specific domains, simple expressions are obtained for even- and odd-parity bound-state energies. The Heisenberg uncertainty product is observed to have a minimum for a specific strength of the potential. The…

  20. Peptide tessellation yields micrometre-scale collagen triple helices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanrikulu, I. Caglar; Forticaux, Audrey; Jin, Song; Raines, Ronald T.

    2016-11-01

    Sticky-ended DNA duplexes can associate spontaneously into long double helices; however, such self-assembly is much less developed with proteins. Collagen is the most prevalent component of the extracellular matrix and a common clinical biomaterial. As for natural DNA, the ~103-residue triple helices (~300 nm) of natural collagen are recalcitrant to chemical synthesis. Here we show how the self-assembly of short collagen-mimetic peptides (CMPs) can enable the fabrication of synthetic collagen triple helices that are nearly a micrometre in length. Inspired by the mathematics of tessellations, we derive rules for the design of single CMPs that self-assemble into long triple helices with perfect symmetry. Sticky ends thus created are uniform across the assembly and drive its growth. Enacting this design yields individual triple helices that, in length, match or exceed those in natural collagen and are remarkably thermostable, despite the absence of higher-order association. The symmetric assembly of CMPs provides an enabling platform for the development of advanced materials for medicine and nanotechnology.

  1. Evaluation of assumptions in soil moisture triple collocation analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triple collocation analysis (TCA) enables estimation of error variances for three or more products that retrieve or estimate the same geophysical variable using mutually-independent methods. Several statistical assumptions regarding the statistical nature of errors (e.g., mutual independence and ort...

  2. Beyond triple collocation: Applications to satellite soil moisture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triple collocation is now routinely used to resolve the exact (linear) relationships between multiple measurements and/or representations of a geophysical variable that are subject to errors. It has been utilized in the context of calibration, rescaling and error characterisation to allow comparison...

  3. Recent advances in (soil moisture) triple collocation analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To date, triple collocation (TC) analysis is one of the most important methods for the global scale evaluation of remotely sensed soil moisture data sets. In this study we review existing implementations of soil moisture TC analysis as well as investigations of the assumptions underlying the method....

  4. Triple redundant computer system/display and keyboard subsystem interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulde, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    Interfacing of the redundant display and keyboard subsystem with the triple redundant computer system is defined according to space shuttle design. The study is performed in three phases: (1) TRCS configuration and characteristics identification; (2) display and keyboard subsystem configuration and characteristics identification, and (3) interface approach definition.

  5. Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    A triple effect absorption method and apparatus having a high coefficient of performance. Two single effect absorption circuits are combined with heat exchange occurring between a condenser and absorber of a high temperature circuit, and a generator of a low temperature circuit. The evaporators of both the high and low temperature circuits provide cooling to an external heat load.

  6. Organizing product innovation: hierarchy, market or triple-helix networks?

    PubMed

    Fitjar, Rune Dahl; Gjelsvik, Martin; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés

    This paper assesses the extent to which the organization of the innovation effort in firms, as well as the geographical scale at which this effort is pursued, affects the capacity to benefit from product innovations. Three alternative modes of organization are studied: hierarchy, market and triple-helix-type networks. Furthermore, we consider triple-helix networks at three geographical scales: local, national and international. These relationships are tested on a random sample of 763 firms located in five urban regions of Norway which reported having introduced new products or services during the preceding 3 years. The analysis shows that firms exploiting internal hierarchy or triple-helix networks with a wide range of partners managed to derive a significantly higher share of their income from new products, compared to those that mainly relied on outsourcing within the market. In addition, the analysis shows that the geographical scale of cooperation in networks, as well as the type of partner used, matters for the capacity of firms to benefit from product innovation. In particular, firms that collaborate in international triple-helix-type networks involving suppliers, customers and R&D institutions extract a higher share of their income from product innovations, regardless of whether they organize the processes internally or through the network.

  7. Performance of Mercury Triple-Point Cells Made in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovic, S. G.; Santiago, J. F. N.; Filho, R. R.; Teixeira, R. N.; Santos, P. R. F.

    2003-09-01

    Fixed-points cells are primary standards in ITS-90. They contain reference material with a purity of 99.999 % or more. The gallium in a melting-point cell, for example, can reach a purity of 99.99999 %. This level of purity is not easy to obtain. However, substances like water and mercury can be purified by means of distillation and chemical procedures. This paper presents the results of mercury triple-point cells made in Brazil that were directly compared to a mercury triple-point cell of 99.999% purity. This reference cell, made by Isotech (England), was previously compared to cells from CENAM (Mexico) and NRC (Canada) and the maximum deviation found was approximately 0.4 mK. The purification stage started with a sample of mercury 99.3 % pure, and the repeated use of both mechanical and chemical processes led to a purification grade considered good enough for calibration of standard platinum resistance thermometers. The purification procedures, the method of construction of the cell, the laboratory facilities, the comparison results and the budget of uncertainties are described in this paper. All of the cells tested have a triple-point temperature within 0.25 mK of the triple-point temperature of the Inmetro reference cell.

  8. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  9. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holm, Samantha R.; Noon, Barry R.; Wiens, David; Ripple, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the barred owl (Strix varia) has expanded its range into the Pacific Northwest of the United States resulting in pronounced effects on the demography and behavior of the northern spotted owl (S. occidentalis caurina). The range expansion has brought together historically allopatric species, creating the potential for significant changes in the avian predator community with possible cascading effects on food-web dynamics. The adverse effects of the barred owl on the behavior and demography of the northern spotted owl are well-documented, but little is known about the immediate and long-term effects changes in the predator community may have on native species composition and ecosystem processes. Based on northern spotted owl and barred owl selection for diet and habitat resources, there is a potential for trophic cascades within the region's predator and prey communities, differing responses by their shared and unique prey species, and possible direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes. We explored the possible ecological consequences of the barred owl range expansion to wildlife communities of the Pacific Northwest based on the theoretical underpinnings of predator–prey relationships, interspecific competition, intraguild predation, and potential cascading trophic interactions. Negative effects on fitness of northern spotted owls because of interspecific competition with barred owls are strong selection forces that may contribute to the regional extinction of the northern spotted owl. In addition, we posit that shared prey species and those uniquely consumed by barred owls, along with other competing native predators, may experience changes in behavior, abundance, and distribution as a result of increased rates of predation by rapidly expanding populations of barred owls.

  10. Fatigue of reinforcing bars during hydro-demolition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, C. W. K.; Ouwejan, A.

    2017-05-01

    Reinforcing steel fractured during hydro-demolition of a reinforced concrete pier head due to low cycle flexural fatigue from vibration caused by impact of the high pressure water jet on the exposed length of the bars. Research into the fatigue performance of steel reinforcing steel tends to focus on the high cycle axial performance in reinforced concrete members and re-bending behaviour. However with the increasing use of hydro-demolition of concrete structures as part of remediation works care is required to ensure the steel reinforcement exposed to the high pressure jet of water is not going to suffer relatively low cycle flexural damage that may compromise the designed performance of the completed reinforced concrete structure. This paper describes the failure assessment, fatigue analysis, and metallographic examination that was undertaken. It was found that the rib to flank transition radius on the reinforcement steel was small enough to cause a significant stress concentration effect and was the location of fatigue crack growth. A relatively simple analysis using the maximum unrestrained cantilevered bar length and force exerted by the water jet was used to calculate the maximum expected bending moment. This was compared to the bending capacity at initiation of yielding at the rib flank transition accounting for stress concentration effects. This showed that the observed cyclic reversing ductile crack growth and fracture of the H25 bars was consistent with the loading applied. A method is proposed based on these observations to assess suitable limits for unrestrained bar lengths or maximum working offset of the water jet from the point of bar restraint when undertaking hydro-demolition work. The fatigue critical performance requirements of AS/NZS4671 500E bars are also therefore compared with those of BS4449:2005 and PN EN/ISO 15630-1:2011 for comparable 500C bars

  11. Behavior of Triple Langmuir Probes in Non-Equilibrium Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Ratcliffe, Alicia C.

    2018-01-01

    The triple Langmuir probe is an electrostatic probe in which three probe tips collect current when inserted into a plasma. The triple probe differs from a simple single Langmuir probe in the nature of the voltage applied to the probe tips. In the single probe, a swept voltage is applied to the probe tip to acquire a waveform showing the collected current as a function of applied voltage (I-V curve). In a triple probe three probe tips are electrically coupled to each other with constant voltages applied between each of the tips. The voltages are selected such that they would represent three points on the single Langmuir probe I-V curve. Elimination of the voltage sweep makes it possible to measure time-varying plasma properties in transient plasmas. Under the assumption of a Maxwellian plasma, one can determine the time-varying plasma temperature T(sub e)(t) and number density n(sub e)(t) from the applied voltage levels and the time-histories of the collected currents. In the present paper we examine the theory of triple probe operation, specifically focusing on the assumption of a Maxwellian plasma. Triple probe measurements have been widely employed for a number of pulsed and timevarying plasmas, including pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs), dense plasma focus devices, plasma flows, and fusion experiments. While the equilibrium assumption may be justified for some applications, it is unlikely that it is fully justifiable for all pulsed and time-varying plasmas or for all times during the pulse of a plasma device. To examine a simple non-equilibrium plasma case, we return to basic governing equations of probe current collection and compute the current to the probes for a distribution function consisting of two Maxwellian distributions with different temperatures (the two-temperature Maxwellian). A variation of this method is also employed, where one of the Maxwellians is offset from zero (in velocity space) to add a suprathermal beam of electrons to the tail of the

  12. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years.

    PubMed

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) proposed the Triple Aim, strategic organizing principles for health care organizations and geographic communities that seek, simultaneously, to improve the individual experience of care and the health of populations and to reduce the per capita costs of care for populations. In 2010, the Triple Aim became part of the US national strategy for tackling health care issues, especially in the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Since that time, IHI and others have worked together to determine how the implementation of the Triple Aim has progressed. Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on this endeavor: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously "improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations." IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and

  13. Defining Genomic Changes in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Women of African Descent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    African and African - American breast cancer cases. Gene Expression Array Studies The 31 triple negative Kijabe samples were... American Adjacent Normal Breast Tissue PI: Pegram & Baumbach Defining Genomic Changes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer in Women of African ...Tissues from African - American and East African Patients with Triple Negative Breast

  14. Is Three a Crowd? Exploring the Development and Satisfaction of Students in Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Larry D.; Kujawa, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Tripling, the assignment of a third resident to a room designed for two, is a common practice at many colleges and universities across the United States. Most of the research on tripling was conducted three or four decades ago, and research exploring how living in a triple affects the educational gains and satisfaction of college students is…

  15. Nearshore sandbar rotation at single-barred embayed beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blossier, B.; Bryan, K. R.; Daly, C. J.; Winter, C.

    2016-04-01

    The location of a shore-parallel nearshore sandbar derived from 7 years of video imagery data at the single-barred embayed Tairua Beach (NZ) is investigated to assess the contribution of barline rotation to the overall morphodynamics of sandbars in embayed environments and to characterize the process of rotation in relation to external conditions. Rotation induces cross-shore barline variations at the embayment extremities on the order of magnitude of those induced by alongshore uniform cross-shore migration of the bar. Two semiempirical models have been developed to relate the barline cross-shore migration and rotation to external wave forcing conditions. The rotation model is directly derived from the cross-shore migration model. Therefore, its formulation advocates for a primary role of cross-shore processes in the rotation of sandbars at embayed beaches. The orientation evolves toward an equilibrium angle directly related to the alongshore wave energy gradient due to two different mechanisms. Either the bar extremities migrate in opposite directions with no overall cross-shore bar migration (pivotal rotation) or the rotation relates to an overall migration of the barline which is not uniform along the beach (migration-driven rotation). Migration and rotation characteristic response times are similar, ranging from 10 to 30 days for mild and energetic wave conditions and above 200 days during very calm conditions or when the bar is located far offshore.

  16. [Amaranth bars enriched with fructans: acceptability and nutritional value].

    PubMed

    Dias Capriles, Vanessa; Gomes Arêas, José Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing appeal for convenience foods with potential health benefits to the consumer. Raw materials with high nutritional value and functional properties must be used on the development of these food products. Amaranth is a gluten-free grain with high nutrition value. Inulin and oligofructose are prebiotic ingredients presenting effects as the enhancement of calcium absorption. Amaranth bars enriched with inulin and oligofructose were developed in the flavors: banana, Brazilian nuts and dried grape, coconut, peach, strawberry and wall nut. The proximate composition were determined and compared to commercial cereal bars, available in traditional (n=59), light (n=60), diet (n=8), with soy (n=10) and quinoa (n=1) categories. Amaranth bars present mean global acceptance values from 6.3 to 7.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale, nutritional advantages as compared to commercial cereal bars (caloric reduction and higher levels of dietary fiber). Although amaranth is an unknown raw material in Brazil, it shows good potential to be used in the manufacturing of ready-to-eat products. As they are gluten free, these amaranth bars are also an alternative product for celiacs, also contributing to the enhancement of calcium absorption, a problem frequently observed in these patients.

  17. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Ga"lle; Petersen, Paul Michael; Thestrup, Birgitte

    2011-03-01

    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big smile has been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order, a slow axis focusing cylindrical lens of 40 mm focal length and an output coupler which is 10% reflective. In the free running mode, the laser emission spectrum was 5.5 nm wide at an operating current of 30A. The output power was measured to be in excess of 12W. Under the external cavity operation, the wavelength spread of the laser could be limited to 0.04 nm with an output power in excess of 8 W at an operating current of 30A. The spectrum was found to be tuneable in a range of 16 nm.

  18. The role of chest radiography following pectus bar removal.

    PubMed

    Farach, Sandra M; Danielson, Paul D; Chandler, Nicole M

    2016-07-01

    Surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE) via a minimally invasive approach involves placement of a steel bar, which is subsequently removed. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the incidence of pneumothorax and the role for chest radiography (CXR) in patients undergoing pectus bar removal. A retrospective review of 84 patients who underwent pectus bar removal from 2006 to 2014 was performed. Results of postoperative CXR, repeat imaging, need for chest thoracostomy tube placement, and complications were analyzed. Mean Haller index prior to correction was 4.3 ± 0.9. The mean time between PE repair and bar removal was 2.3 ± 0.6 years. Sixty-one patients (72.6 %) had a postoperative CXR. Thirty-one (50.8 %) had no acute findings, 20 (32.8 %) had findings of atelectasis or subcutaneous emphysema, and 10 (16.4 %) had a pneumothorax. One patient (1.6 %) had a second postoperative CXR for a small pneumothorax and rib fractures. There were two complications (2.4 %). No chest tubes were placed for pneumothorax, and 95 % of patients were discharged the day of surgery. Postoperative CXR following pectus bar removal is unnecessary given the low incidence of postoperative pneumothorax requiring intervention. Patients can be safely discharged the day of surgery without the need for routine postoperative chest imaging.

  19. Magnetometry of micro-magnets with electrostatically defined Hall bars

    SciTech Connect

    Lachance-Quirion, Dany; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Bergeron, Laurent

    2015-11-30

    Micro-magnets are key components for quantum information processing with individual spins, enabling arbitrary rotations and addressability. In this work, characterization of sub-micrometer sized CoFe ferromagnets is performed with Hall bars electrostatically defined in a two-dimensional electron gas. Due to the ballistic nature of electron transport in the cross junction of the Hall bar, anomalies such as the quenched Hall effect appear near zero external magnetic field, thus hindering the sensitivity of the magnetometer to small magnetic fields. However, it is shown that the sensitivity of the diffusive limit can be almost completely restored at low temperatures using a large currentmore » density in the Hall bar of about 10 A/m. Overcoming the size limitation of conventional etched Hall bars with electrostatic gating enables the measurement of magnetization curves of 440 nm wide micro-magnets with a signal-to-noise ratio above 10{sup 3}. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity of the stray magnetic field created by the micro-magnets is directly measured using the gate-voltage-dependent width of the sensitive area of the Hall bar.« less

  20. Localized Triple Modular Redundancy vs. Distributed Triple Modular Redundancy on a ProASIC3E Reprogrammable FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuffey, Alex; Berg, Melanie; Pellish, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are used in every space application. Currently, most space flight applications use radiation hardened (RH) FPGAs, which are very expensive. There is a desire to use cheaper, commercial off the shelf reprogrammable FPGAs, which are more susceptible to radiation effects known as single-event effects (SEE). The RH parts have SEE and total ionizing dose (TID) hardened elements pre-integrated into the part. This means that the designer does not need to implement any hardening techniques while configuring the device. The COTS parts on the other hand must be mitigated by design in order to insure any form of mitigation. The design techniques this project examines concern the use of localized triple modular redundancy (LTMR) and distributed triple modular redundancy (DTMR). LTMR triples every flip flop in the device architecture while DTMR triples everything except for the global routes (clocks, resets, and enables). The testing was performed on a ProASIC3E FPGA at the Texas A&M cyclotron facility. Two design architectures were used: shift registers and counters, both with LTMR and DTMR mitigation techniques. The test results prove that DTMR is more effective at reducing SEE than LTMR. We also determined that there was not a significant difference between the use of shift registers and counters for test purposes. More testing is required to obtain additional linear energy transfer values for each architecture and mitigation technique in order to determine the most cost-effective method of SEE mitigation.

  1. Impact of the Lok-bar for High-precision Radiotherapy with Tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Makoto; Monzen, Hajime; Tamura, Mikoto; Kubo, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Hanaoka, Kohei; Okumura, Masahiko; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2018-05-01

    Patient immobilization systems are used to establish a reproducible patient position relative to the couch. In this study, the impact of conventional lok-bars for CT-simulation (CIVCO-bar) and treatment (iBEAM-bar) were compared with a novel lok-bar (mHM-bar) in tomotherapy. Verification was obtained as follows: i. artifacts in CT images; ii. dose attenuation rate of lok-bar, compared to without lok-bar; and iii. dose differences between the calculated and measured absorbed doses. With the CIVCO-bar, there were obvious metal artifacts, while there were nearly no artifacts with the mHM-bar. The mean dose attenuation rates with the mHM-bar and iBEAM-bar were 1.31% and 2.28%, and the mean dose difference was 1.55% and 1.66% for mHM-bar and iBEAM-bar. Using the mHM-bar reduced artifacts on the CT image and improved dose attenuation are obtained. The lok-bar needs to be inserted as a structure set in treatment planning with tomotherapy. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of the weighing bar position in vessel on measurement of cement’s particle size distribution by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambun, R.; Sihombing, R. O.; Simanjuntak, A.; Hanum, F.

    2018-02-01

    The buoyancy weighing-bar method is a new simple and cost-effective method to determine the particle size distribution both settling and floating particle. In this method, the density change in a suspension due to particle migration is measured by weighing buoyancy against a weighing-bar hung in the suspension, and then the particle size distribution is calculated using the length of the bar and the time-course change in the mass of the bar. The apparatus of this method consists of a weighing-bar and an analytical balance with a hook for under-floor weighing. The weighing bar is used to detect the density change in suspension. In this study we investigate the influences of position of weighing bar in vessel on settling particle size distribution measurements of cement by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method. The vessel used in this experiment is graduated cylinder with the diameter of 65 mm and the position of weighing bar is in center and off center of vessel. The diameter of weighing bar in this experiment is 10 mm, and the kerosene is used as a dispersion liquids. The results obtained show that the positions of weighing bar in vessel have no significant effect on determination the cement’s particle size distribution by using buoyancy weighing-bar method, and the results obtained are comparable to those measured by using settling balance method.

  3. Predictions for the $$\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow \\bar{K}^{\\ast 0}$$ X(YZ) and $$\\bar{B}^{0}_{s}\\rightarrow\\phi$$ X(YZ) with X(4160), Y(3940), Z(3930)

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Wei -Hong; Molina, R.; Xie, Ju -Jun; ...

    2015-05-22

    We investigate the decay ofmore » $$\\bar B^0 \\to \\bar K^{*0} R$$ and $$\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi R$$ with $R$ being the $X(4160)$, $Y(3940)$, $Z(3930)$ resonances. Under the assumption that these states are dynamically generated from the vector-vector interaction, as has been concluded from several theoretical studies, we use a reaction mechanism of quark production at the elementary level, followed by hadronization of one final $$q \\bar q$$ pair into two vectors and posterior final state interaction of this pair of vector mesons to produce the resonances. With this procedure we are able to predict five ratios for these decays, which are closely linked to the dynamical nature of these states, and also predict the order of magnitude of the branching ratios which we find of the order of $$10^{-4}$$, well within the present measurable range. In order to further test the dynamical nature of these resonances we study the $$\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi D^* \\bar D^*$$ and $$\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi D_s^* \\bar D_s^*$$ decays close to the $$D^* \\bar D^*$$ and $$D_s^* \\bar D_s^*$$ thresholds and make predictions for the ratio of the mass distributions in these decays and the $$\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi R$$ decay widths. In conclusion, the measurement of these decays rates can help unravel the nature of these resonances.« less

  4. Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.

  5. A Kolsky tension bar technique using a hollow incident tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, O.; Frew, D. J.; Chen, W.

    2011-04-01

    Load control of the incident pulse profiles in compression Kolsky bar experiments has been widely used to subject the specimen to optimal testing conditions. Tension Kolsky bars have been used to determine dynamic material behavior since the 1960s with limited capability to shape the loading pulses due to the pulse-generating mechanisms. We developed a modified Kolsky tension bar where a hollow incident tube is used to carry the incident stress waves. The incident tube also acts as a gas gun barrel that houses the striker for impact. The main advantage of this new design is that the striker impacts on an impact cap of the incident tube. Compression pulse shapers can be attached to the impact cap, thus fully utilizing the predictive compression pulse-shaping capability in tension experiments. Using this new testing technique, the dynamic tensile material behavior for Al 6061-T6511 and TRIP 800 (transformation-induced plasticity) steel has been obtained.

  6. Comparison of Failure Process of Bended Beams Reinforced with Steel Bars and GFRP Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszyńska, Maria; Błyszko, Jarosław; Olczyk, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    load were tested. Both types of beams were designed to have the same bearing capacity. Beams reinforced with GFRP rebar exhibited much bigger cracking than traditionally reinforced bars. The width of cracks appearing in beams reinforced with GFRP bars was equal or greater than limit values (0.4 mm) even though the ratio of moment of resistance and cracking moment was greater than 3. The composite rebar exhibits many significant advantages over steel rebar, but its rather low Young’s modulus comparing to steel causes exceeded deflection and cracking of bended concrete elements.

  7. Release of iron, zinc, and lead from common iron construction bars and zinc metallic bars in water solutions and meals.

    PubMed

    Lechtig, Aarón; Lòpez de Romaña, Daniel; Boy, Erick; Vargas, Alejandro; Rosas del Portal, Mauricio; Huaylinos, María Luisa

    2007-12-01

    The use of iron pots has decreased the prevalence of anemia. To investigate the release of iron, zinc, and lead from metallic iron and zinc bars incubated in water and in meals. Iron, zinc, and lead concentrations were measured at different incubation conditions in water and in meals. The iron concentration in water was 1.26 mg/L after incubation with one iron bar at pH 7 and 100 degrees C for 20 minutes and in meals was 0.97 mg per 100 g of wet meals, rich in phytate, cooking at 100 degrees C during 20 minutes. The maximum contents were 7720 mg/L of iron and 1826 mg/L of zinc in vinegar at pH 3 and 20 degrees C after 90 and 32 days, respectively. Lead was released from the bars, but at concentrations well below the upper tolerable limits. In outreach populations, the use of iron and zinc metallic bars in water and meals could contribute to sustainable, very low-cost prevention of iron and zinc deficiencies, and home-fortified vinegar could be used for treatment of both deficiencies. Field trials should be performed to determine the impact that the use of iron and zinc metallic bars in water and meals might have on the iron and zinc status of population groups.

  8. Spectroscopy of snake states using a graphene Hall bar

    SciTech Connect

    Milovanović, S. P., E-mail: slavisa.milovanovic@gmail.com; Ramezani Masir, M., E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com; Peeters, F. M., E-mail: francois.peeters@ua.ac.be

    2013-12-02

    An approach to observe snake states in a graphene Hall bar containing a pn-junction is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the bend resistance in a ballistic graphene Hall bar structure containing a tilted pn-junction oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field. We show that each oscillation is due to a specific snake state that moves along the pn-interface. Furthermore, depending on the value of the magnetic field and applied potential, we can control the lead in which the electrons will end up and hence control the response of the system.

  9. Bandwagon effects and error bars in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Monwhea

    2007-02-01

    We study historical records of experiments on particle masses, lifetimes, and widths, both for signs of expectation bias, and to compare actual errors with reported error bars. We show that significant numbers of particle properties exhibit "bandwagon effects": reported values show trends and clustering as a function of the year of publication, rather than random scatter about the mean. While the total amount of clustering is significant, it is also fairly small; most individual particle properties do not display obvious clustering. When differences between experiments are compared with the reported error bars, the deviations do not follow a normal distribution, but instead follow an exponential distribution for up to ten standard deviations.

  10. Development of an active boring bar for increased chatter immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Barney, P.; Smith, D.

    The development and initial evaluation of a prototype boring bar featuring active vibration control for increased chatter immunity is described. The significance of active damping both normal and tangential to the workpiece surface is evaluated, indicating the need for two axis control to ensure adequate performance over expected variations in tool mounting procedures. The prototype tool features a commercially available boring bar modified to accommodate four PZT stack actuators for two axis bending control. Measured closed-loop dynamics are combined with a computer model of the boring process to simulate increased metal removal rate and improved workpiece surface finish through activemore » control.« less

  11. Print media coverage of California's smokefree bar law

    PubMed Central

    Magzamen, S.; Charlesworth, A.; Glantz, S.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the print media coverage of California's smokefree bar law in the state of California.
DESIGN—Content analysis of newspaper, trade journal, and magazine items.
SUBJECTS—Items regarding the smokefree bar law published seven months before and one year following the implementation of the smokefree bar law (June 1997 to December 1998). Items consisted of news articles (n = 446), opinion editorials (n = 31), editorials (n = 104), letters to the editor (n = 240), and cartoons (n = 10).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Number and timing of publication of items, presence of tobacco industry arguments or public health arguments regarding law, positive, negative, and neutral views of opinion items published.
RESULTS—53% of items published concerning the smokefree bar law were news articles, 47% were opinion items. 45% of items regarding the smokefree bar law were published during the first month of implementation. The tobacco industry dominated coverage in most categories (economics, choice, enforcement, ventilation, legislation, individual quotes), except for categories public health used the most frequently (government role, tactics, organisational quotes). Anti-law editorials and letters to the editor were published more than pro-law editorials and letters. Region of the state, paper size, presence of local clean indoor air legislation, and voting on tobacco related ballot initiatives did not have an impact on the presence of opinion items.
CONCLUSIONS—The tobacco industry succeeded in obtaining more coverage of the smokefree bar law, both in news items and opinion items. The tobacco industry used historical arguments of restricting freedom of choice and economic ramifications in fighting the smokefree bar law, while public health groups focused on the worker protection issue, and exposed tobacco industry tactics. Despite the skewed coverage, public health groups obtained adequate attention to their arguments to keep the law in

  12. The e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}DD-bar, J/{psi}DD-bar* reactions with dynamically generated resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Gamermann, D.; Oset, E.

    2008-08-31

    In two recent reactions by Belle producing DD-bar and DD-bar* meson pairs, peaks above threshold have been measured in the differential cross sections, possibly indicating new resonances in these channels. We want to study such reactions from the point of view that the D meson pairs are produced from already known or predicted resonances below threshold. Our study shows that the peak in the DD-bar* production is not likely to be caused by the X(3872) resonance, but the peak seen in DD-bar invariant mass can be well described if the DD-bar pair comes from the already predicted scalar X(3700) resonance.

  13. Relationships between drinking onset, alcohol use intensity, and nighttime risk behaviors in a college bar district.

    PubMed

    Thombs, Dennis L; O'Mara, Ryan; Tobler, Amy L; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Clapp, John D

    2009-01-01

    To identify antecedents of risk behavior events in college bar patrons. In this nighttime field study, self-report data and alcohol intoxication readings were collected from patrons immediately upon exiting bars (n = 618). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed positive associations between age of drinking onset and both alcohol use intensity in the past year and recent bar-going frequency. In turn, alcohol use intensity in the past year was positively associated with bar-going frequency and intoxication at bar exit. An association between drinking onset and bar-going frequency was mediated by alcohol use intensity in the past year. Discernable paths from age of drinking onset to monthly bar-going frequency and intoxication level after leaving a bar can be identified. The results highlight the critical role of drinking onset in development of college student alcohol abuse. Research is needed to determine whether college bars are environmental pathogens mediating between genetic risk factors and patron risk behavior.

  14. Different functional modes of BAR domain proteins in formation and plasticity of mammalian postsynapses.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Michael M; Qualmann, Britta

    2015-09-01

    A plethora of cell biological processes involve modulations of cellular membranes. By using extended lipid-binding interfaces, some proteins have the power to shape membranes by attaching to them. Among such membrane shapers, the superfamily of Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins has recently taken center stage. Extensive structural work on BAR domains has revealed a common curved fold that can serve as an extended membrane-binding interface to modulate membrane topologies and has allowed the grouping of the BAR domain superfamily into subfamilies with structurally slightly distinct BAR domain subtypes (N-BAR, BAR, F-BAR and I-BAR). Most BAR superfamily members are expressed in the mammalian nervous system. Neurons are elaborately shaped and highly compartmentalized cells. Therefore, analyses of synapse formation and of postsynaptic reorganization processes (synaptic plasticity) - a basis for learning and memory formation - has unveiled important physiological functions of BAR domain superfamily members. These recent advances, furthermore, have revealed that the functions of BAR domain proteins include different aspects. These functions are influenced by the often complex domain organization of BAR domain proteins. In this Commentary, we review these recent insights and propose to classify BAR domain protein functions into (1) membrane shaping, (2) physical integration, (3) action through signaling components, and (4) suppression of other BAR domain functions. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Extreme AO Observations of Two Triple Asteroid Systems with SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Beauvalet, L.; Marchis, F.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M.; Nielsen, E. L.; Vachier, F.

    2016-04-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured.

  16. Revealing Secrets of Triple Asteroid Systems with SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Wahhaj, Zahed; Beauvalet, Laurene; Marchis, Franck; Dumas, Christophe; Marsset, Michaël

    2015-11-01

    A multiple-asteroid system provides otherwise unattainable information about the intrinsic properties of the system itself as well as its formation and evolution. Comparative spectroscopy and imaging of two large multiple main-belt asteroids: (93) Minerva and (130) Elektra were performed using the newly commissioned Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research instrument (SPHERE) on ESO's 8.2-m VLT. A new moon (S/2014 (130) 1), of the known binary asteroid (130) Elektra, was discovered based on the SPHERE observations, making (130) Elektra the sixth triple system detected in the asteroid belt. We will present the component-resolved near infrared spectra, from 0.9 to 1.6 micron, of the Minerva and the Elektra triple systems. We will also present the orbital solution and the dynamical simulations on the two moons of (130) Elektra.

  17. Triple dividends of water consumption charges in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letsoalo, Anthony; Blignaut, James; de Wet, Theuns; de Wit, Martin; Hess, Sebastiaan; Tol, Richard S. J.; van Heerden, Jan

    2007-05-01

    The South African government is exploring ways to address water scarcity problems by introducing a water resource management charge on the quantity of water used in sectors such as irrigated agriculture, mining, and forestry. It is expected that a more efficient water allocation, lower use, and a positive impact on poverty can be achieved. This paper reports on the validity of these claims by applying a computable general equilibrium model to analyze the triple dividend of water consumption charges in South Africa: reduced water use, more rapid economic growth, and a more equal income distribution. It is shown that an appropriate budget-neutral combination of water charges, particularly on irrigated agriculture and coal mining, and reduced indirect taxes, particularly on food, would yield triple dividends, that is, less water use, more growth, and less poverty.

  18. Simulation of Triple Oxidation Ditch Wastewater Treatment Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Lixiang; Hu, Yongfeng; Xu, Ziming

    2010-11-01

    This paper presented the modeling mechanism and method of a sewage treatment system. A triple oxidation ditch process of a WWTP was simulated based on activated sludge model ASM2D with GPS-X software. In order to identify the adequate model structure to be implemented into the GPS-X environment, the oxidation ditch was divided into several completely stirred tank reactors depended on the distribution of aeration devices and dissolved oxygen concentration. The removal efficiency of COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and SS were simulated by GPS-X software with influent quality data of this WWTP from June to August 2009, to investigate the differences between the simulated results and the actual results. The results showed that, the simulated values could well reflect the actual condition of the triple oxidation ditch process. Mathematical modeling method was appropriate in effluent quality predicting and process optimizing.

  19. Photodissociation of methyl formate: Conical intersections, roaming and triple fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, King-Chuen; Tsai, Po-Yu; Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan

    2015-12-31

    The photodissociation channels of methyl formate have been extensively investigated by two different advanced experimental techniques, ion imaging and Fourier-Transform-Infrared emission spectroscopy, combined with quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Our aim is to characterize the role of alternative routes to the conventional transition-state mediated pathway: the roaming and the triple fragmentation processes. The photolysis experiments, carried out at a range of laser wavelengths in the vicinity of the triple fragmentation threshold, beside the simulation of large bunches of classical trajectories with different initial conditions, have shown that both mechanisms share a common path that involves a conical intersectionmore » during the relaxation process from the electronic excited state S{sub 1} to the ground state S{sub 0}.« less

  20. Discovery of the triple asteroidal system 87 Sylvia.

    PubMed

    Marchis, Franck; Descamps, Pascal; Hestroffer, Daniel; Berthier, Jérome

    2005-08-11

    After decades of speculation, the existence of binary asteroids has been observationally confirmed, with examples in all minor planet populations. However, no triple systems have hitherto been discovered. Here we report the unambiguous detection of a triple asteroidal system in the main belt, composed of a 280-km primary (87 Sylvia) and two small moonlets orbiting at 710 and 1,360 km. We estimate their orbital elements and use them to refine the shape of the primary body. Both orbits are equatorial, circular and prograde, suggesting a common origin. Using the orbital information to estimate its mass and density, 87 Sylvia appears to have a rubble-pile structure with a porosity of 25-60 per cent. The system was most probably formed through the disruptive collision of a parent asteroid, with the new primary resulting from accretion of fragments, while the moonlets are formed from the debris, as has been predicted previously.

  1. EXTREME AO OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRIPLE ASTEROID SYSTEMS WITH SPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. Wemore » find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured.« less

  2. Triple Helix Formation in a Topologically Controlled DNA Nanosystem.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Yutaro; Emura, Tomoko; Hidaka, Kumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Endo, Masayuki

    2016-04-11

    In the present study, we demonstrate single-molecule imaging of triple helix formation in DNA nanostructures. The binding of the single-molecule third strand to double-stranded DNA in a DNA origami frame was examined using two different types of triplet base pairs. The target DNA strand and the third strand were incorporated into the DNA frame, and the binding of the third strand was controlled by the formation of Watson-Crick base pairing. Triple helix formation was monitored by observing the structural changes in the incorporated DNA strands. It was also examined using a photocaged third strand wherein the binding of the third strand was directly observed using high-speed atomic force microscopy during photoirradiation. We found that the binding of the third strand could be controlled by regulating duplex formation and the uncaging of the photocaged strands in the designed nanospace. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Grain boundary and triple junction diffusion in nanocrystalline copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, M.; Leuthold, J.; Peterlechner, M.; Song, X.; Divinski, S. V.; Wilde, G.

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary and triple junction diffusion in nanocrystalline Cu samples with grain sizes, , of ˜35 and ˜44 nm produced by spark plasma sintering were investigated by the radiotracer method using the 63Ni isotope. The measured diffusivities, Deff, are comparable with those determined previously for Ni grain boundary diffusion in well-annealed, high purity, coarse grained, polycrystalline copper, substantiating the absence of a grain size effect on the kinetic properties of grain boundaries in a nanocrystalline material at grain sizes d ≥ 35 nm. Simultaneously, the analysis predicts that if triple junction diffusion of Ni in Cu is enhanced with respect to the corresponding grain boundary diffusion rate, it is still less than 500ṡDgb within the temperature interval from 420 K to 470 K.

  4. Viscoplastic sculpting in stable triple layer heavy oil transport flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmadi, Parisa; Hormozi, Sarah; A. Frigaard, Ian

    2017-11-01

    In we introduced a novel methodology for efficient transport of heavy oil via a triple layer core-annular flow. Pumping pressures are significantly reduced by concentrating high shear rates to a lubricating layer, while ideas from Visco-Plastic Lubrication are used to eliminate interfacial instabilities. We purposefully position a shaped unyielded skin of a viscoplastic fluid between the transported oil and the lubricating fluid layer to balance the density difference between the fluids. Here we address the sculpting of the shaped skin within a concentric inflow manifold. We use the quasi-steady model to provide inputs to an axisymmetric triple layer computation, showing the development of the streamwise skin profile and establishment of the flow. For this, we use a finite element discretization with the augmented-Lagrangian method to represent the yield surface behaviour accurately and a PLIC method to track the interface motion.

  5. Characteristics of Known Triple Asteroid Systems in the Main Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, Franck; Berthier, J.; Burns, K. J.; Descamps, P.; Durech, J.; Emery, J. P.; Enriquez, J. E.; Lainey, V.; Reiss, A. E.; Vachier, F.

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of "Sylvia Remus II” [1], around the binary asteroid (87) Sylvia [2] using the VLT/NACO instrument, the number of known triple systems increased significantly. Using the same instrument, a second moonlet was discovered around the binary (45) Eugenia [3] in 2007 [4]. Using an improved W.M. Keck II AO system, [5] announced the discovery of two 3 & 5-km moons orbiting the M-type asteroid (216) Kleopatra and more recently, [6] revealed the presence of two tiny 4-km moons around the C-type (93) Minerva. 3749 Balam is a different triple asteroid system whose existence was suggested by combining lightcurves and AO observations [7]. The properties of these triple systems have been derived individually and published recently [1, 8,9,10]. We will review and contrast their characteristics, including the orbital parameters of the satellite orbits, the size and shape of the primary and the satellites, their taxonomic classes, their bulk densities, and their ages. The goal of this study is to uncover clues concerning the formation and evolution of these mini-planetary systems. The National Science Foundation supported this research under award number AAG-0807468. 1. Marchis et al. Nature 2005 2. Brown et al., IAU 7588, 2001 3. Merline et al. Nature 401, 1999 4. Marchis et al. IAU 1073, 2007 5. Marchis et al. IAU 8980, 2008 6. Marchis et al., IAU 9069, 2009 7. Marchis et al., IAU 8928, 2008 8. Marchis et al., A Dynamical Solution of the Triple Asteroid System (45) Eugenia , Icarus in press, 2010 9. Descamps et al, Triplicity and Physical Characteristics of Asteroid 216 Kleopatra Icarus, in revision, 2010 10. Marchis et al., Triplicity and Physical Characteristics of the main-belt Asteroid (93) Minerva, Icarus submitted 2010

  6. Lifestyle Triple P: a parenting intervention for childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4–8 years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Methods/Design Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children’s body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds). Secondary outcome measures are children’s dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings). Discussion Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured outcomes. Trial Registration

  7. Scalp Defect Reconstruction with Triple Rotation Flap: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shilpa, Kanathur; Divya, Gorur; Budamakuntla, Leelavathy; Lakshmi, Dammaningala Venkataramaiah

    2018-01-01

    Scalp surgeries are some of the surgeries frequently performed in dermatosurgery department. These surgical procedures may leave large defects, especially when performed for malignant condition in which wide margin has to be excised. Such large defects are difficult to close primarily when reconstruction with local flap is essential. Here we report a case of epithelioid angiosarcoma of the scalp in a 24-year-old man where excision and reconstruction were performed using triple rotation flap.

  8. View north towards yard Triple Stub Switch in foreground. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north towards yard Triple Stub Switch in foreground. The three tracks lead into the East Railroad's Shop complex and Roundhouse. The Steel Hopper Car was used to haul coal and was in the process of being rebuilt but in 1956, when the railroad ended freight operations. As a result it was never completed and was left outside - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  9. [Triple-negative breast carcinoma--rewiev of current literature].

    PubMed

    Rubovszky, Gábor; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Horváth, Zsolt; Láng, István; Kásler, Miklós

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Approximately 15% of cases belong to the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) group, in which no estrogen/progesterone receptors, or HER2 expression is detected. The unfavorable prognosis of this group of patients, as well as the lack of effective targeted therapy makes TNBC the subject of intensive research. In the present study, we searched PubMed for publications from January 2007 to June 2009 with the following key-words in addition to "breast cancer" and "triple negative": "epidemiology" or "gene-profile" or "predictive" or "prognostic" or "therapy" or "review". A total of 513 publications were identified. Relevant references were also reviewed. Beyond the well-known facts that TNBC affects younger patients, and is more common among Afro- or Hispano-Americans with lower socioeconomic status, hormonal environment and obesity emerged as potential etiologic factors. TNBC is not a homogenous disease. It can be further sub-classified based on histomorphologic features and immunohistochemistry. Hereditary BRCA1 mutations as well as acquired BRCA1 disfunction are described to be common in TNBC. Previously, many investigators considered TNBC to be identical to a subgroup called basal-like breast cancer defined by gene expression micro-array technology, but in the light of more recent findings, this view is no longer accepted by most investigators. Several large studies provide evidence that triple negativity, per se, is an independent adverse prognostic factor, in spite of the fact that approximately 10% of TNBC patients have a good prognosis. The therapy of choice for TNBC is systemic chemotherapy. Promising novel targeted chemotherapeutic agents include PARP1 inhibitors, a new group of compounds exploiting the defective DNA repair machinery. Rubovszky G, Udvarhelyi N, Horváth Z, Láng I, Kásler M. Triple negative breast carcinoma - rewiev of current literature.

  10. Stability of planetary orbits in triple star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busetti, Franco; Beust, Hervé; Harley, Charis

    2018-06-01

    Triple stellar systems comprising a central binary orbited by a third star at a larger distance are fairly common. However, there have been very few studies on the stability of planetary orbits in such systems. There has been almost no work on generalised systems, little on retrograde planetary orbits and none on retrograde stellar orbits, with nearly all being for coplanar orbits and for a limited number of orbital parameters. We provide a generalised numerical mapping of the regions of planetary stability in triples, using the symplectic N-body code HJS (Beust 2003) designed for the dynamics of multiple hierarchical systems. We investigate all these orbit types and extend the parameters used to all relevant orbital elements of the triple’s stars, also expanding these elements and mass ratios to wider ranges.This establishes the regions of secular stability and results in empirical models describing the stability bounds for planets in each type of triple configuration, as functions of the various system parameters. These results are compared to the corresponding results for binaries in the limit of a vanishing mass of the third star. A general feature is that retrograde planetary orbits appear more stable than prograde ones, and that stable regions also tend to be wider when the third star's motion is retrograde. Conversely, we point out the destabilizing role of Kozai-Lidov resonance in non-coplanar systems, which shrinks the stability regions as a result of large induced eccentricity variations. Nonetheless, large enough stability regions for planets do exist in triples, and this should motivate future observational campaigns.Refs : Beust, 2003, A&A 400, 1129 Busetti, Beust, Harley, 2018, to be submitted to A&A

  11. Lifestyle Triple P: a parenting intervention for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gerards, Sanne M P L; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Jansen, Maria W J; van der Goot, Lidy O H M; de Vries, Nanne K; Sanders, Matthew R; Kremers, Stef P J

    2012-04-03

    Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4-8 years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children's body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds). Secondary outcome measures are children's dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings). Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured outcomes. Current Controlled Trials NTR 2555 MEC AZM/UM: NL 31988

  12. Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    mechanisms of polyamine analogues in cancer cells. Anti - Cancer Drugs, 16(3): 229-241, 2005. PMID: 15711175 3. Huang Y, Nayak S, Jankowitz R, Davidson NE...immunoprecipitated with anti -LSD1 antibody followed by IB with anti -HDAC5 and LSD1 antibodies in indicated breast cancer cell lines. IgG was used as...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0237 TITLE: Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yi Huang

  13. Tidal breakup of triple stars in the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Gualandris, Alessia

    2018-04-01

    The last decade has seen the detection of fast moving stars in the Galactic halo, the so-called hypervelocity stars (HVSs). While the bulk of this population is likely the result of a close encounter between a stellar binary and the supermassive black hole (MBH) in the Galactic Centre (GC), other mechanims may contribute fast stars to the sample. Few observed HVSs show apparent ages, which are shorter than the flight time from the GC, thereby making the binary disruption scenario unlikely. These stars may be the result of the breakup of a stellar triple in the GC, which led to the ejection of a hypervelocity binary (HVB). If such binary evolves into a blue straggler star due to internal processes after ejection, a rejuvenation is possible that make the star appear younger once detected in the halo. A triple disruption may also be responsible for the presence of HVBs, of which one candidate has now been observed. We present a numerical study of triple disruptions by the MBH in the GC and find that the most likely outcomes are the production of single HVSs and single/binary stars bound to the MBH, while the production of HVBs has a probability ≲ 1 per cent regardless of the initial parameters. Assuming a triple fraction of ≈ 10 per cent results in an ejection rate of ≲ 1 Gyr - 1, insufficient to explain the sample of HVSs with lifetimes shorter than their flight time. We conclude that alternative mechanisms are responsible for the origin of such objects and HVBs in general.

  14. Comparison of the passivity between cast alloy and laser-welded titanium overdenture bars.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Jose; Givan, Daniel A; Broome, James C; Lemons, Jack E; McCracken, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fit of cast alloy overdenture and laser-welded titanium-alloy bars by measuring induced strain upon tightening of the bars on a master cast as well as a function of screw tightening sequence. Four implant analogs were secured into Type IV dental stone to simulate a mandibular edentulous patient cast, and two groups of four overdenture bars were fabricated. Group I was four cast alloy bars and Group II was four laser-welded titanium bars. The cast alloy bars included Au-Ag-Pd, Pd-Ag-Au, Au-Ag-Cu-Pd, and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au, while the laser-welded bars were all Ti-Al-V alloy. Bars were made from the same master cast, were torqued into place, and the total strain in the bars was measured through five strain gauges bonded to the bar between the implants. Each bar was placed and torqued 27 times to 30 Ncm per screw using three tightening sequences. Data were processed through a strain amplifier and analyzed by computer using StrainSmart software. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Significant differences were found between alloy types. Laser-welded titanium bars tended to have lower strains than corresponding cast bars, although the Au-Ag-Pd bar was not significantly different. The magnitudes of total strain were the least when first tightening the ends of the bar. The passivity of implant overdenture bars was evaluated using total strain of the bar when tightening. Selecting a high modulus of elasticity cast alloy or use of laser-welded bar design resulted in the lowest average strain magnitudes. While the effect of screw tightening sequence was minimal, tightening the distal ends first demonstrated the lowest strain, and hence the best passivity.

  15. Comparison of vertical hydraulic conductivity in a streambed-point bar system of a gaining stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Weihong; Chen, Xunhong; Wang, Zhaowei; Ou, Gengxin; Liu, Can

    2012-07-01

    SummaryVertical hydraulic conductivities (Kv) of both streambed and point bars can influence water and solute exchange between streams and surrounding groundwater systems. The sediments in point bars are relatively young compared to the older sediments in the adjacent aquifers but slightly older compared to submerged streambeds. Thus, the permeability in point bar sediments can be different not only from regional aquifer but also from modern streambed. However, there is a lack of detailed studies that document spatial variability of vertical hydraulic conductivity in point bars of meandering streams. In this study, the authors proposed an in situ permeameter test method to measure vertical hydraulic conductivity of the two point bars in Clear Creek, Nebraska, USA. We compared the Kv values in streambed and adjacent point bars through 45 test locations in the two point bars and 51 test locations in the streambed. The Kv values in the point bars were lower than those in the streambed. Kruskal-Wallis test confirmed that the Kv values from the point bars and from the channel came from two statistically different populations. Within a point bar, the Kv values were higher along the point bar edges than those from inner point bars. Grain size analysis indicated that slightly more silt and clay particles existed in sediments from inner point bars, compared to that from streambed and from locations near the point bar edges. While point bars are the deposits of the adjacent channel, the comparison of two groups of Kv values suggests that post-depositional processes had an effect on the evolution of Kv from channel to point bars in fluvial deposits. We believed that the transport of fine particles and the gas ebullition in this gaining stream had significant effects on the distribution of Kv values in a streambed-point bar system. With the ageing of deposition in a floodplain, the permeability of point bar sediments can likely decrease due to reduced effects of the upward

  16. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-07-26

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m², in 2014 for bars ≥100 m², and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m² (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m² (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m³ pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m³ after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m², ≥100 m², and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further.

  17. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m2, in 2014 for bars ≥100 m2, and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m2 (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m2 (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m3 pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m3 after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m2, ≥100 m2, and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further. PMID:27472349

  18. GATA3 expression in triple-negative breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Byrne, David J; Deb, Siddhartha; Takano, Elena A; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-07-01

    GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) is a well-studied transcription factor found to be essential in the development of luminal breast epithelium and has been identified in a variety of tumour types, including breast and urothelial carcinomas, making it a useful immunohistochemistry marker in the diagnosis of both primary and metastatic disease. We investigated GATA3 protein expression in a 106 primary triple-negative breast carcinomas (100 basal-like, six non-basal-like) using Cell Marque mouse monoclonal anti-GATA3 (L50-823). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to quantify mRNA expression in 22 triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) (20 primary and two cell lines), four luminal (three primary and one cell line) and five human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (four primary and one cell line) amplified tumours. In 98 TNBCs where IHC was assessable, 47 (48%) had a 1+ or greater staining with 20 (21%) having high GATA3 expression when using a weighted scoring. Our study has demonstrated that GATA3 expression is common in primary triple-negative breast carcinomas. It also suggests that although GATA3 is an oestrogen receptor (ER) regulated gene, it still proves useful in differentiating between primary and metastatic tumours in patients with a history of breast cancer regardless of its molecular subtype. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Constraints from triple gauge couplings on vectorlike leptons

    DOE PAGES

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Perez-Gonzalez, Yuber F.; ...

    2017-08-30

    Here, we study the contributions of colorless vectorlike fermions to the triple gauge couplings W +W -γ and W +W -Z 0. We consider models in which their coupling to the Standard Model Higgs boson is allowed or forbidden by quantum numbers. We assess the sensitivity of the future accelerators FCC-ee, ILC, and CLIC to the parameters of these models, assuming they will be able to constrain the anomalous triple gauge couplings with precision δ κV~O(10 -4), V = γ,Z 0. We show that the combination of measurements at different center-of-mass energies helps to improve the sensitivity to the contributionmore » of vectorlike fermions, in particular when they couple to the Higgs. In fact, the measurements at the FCC-ee and, especially, the ILC and the CLIC, may turn the triple gauge couplings into a new set of precision parameters able to constrain the models better than the oblique parameters or the H → γγ decay, even assuming the considerable improvement of the latter measurements achievable at the new machines.« less

  20. Constraints from triple gauge couplings on vectorlike leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Perez-Gonzalez, Yuber F.

    Here, we study the contributions of colorless vectorlike fermions to the triple gauge couplings W +W -γ and W +W -Z 0. We consider models in which their coupling to the Standard Model Higgs boson is allowed or forbidden by quantum numbers. We assess the sensitivity of the future accelerators FCC-ee, ILC, and CLIC to the parameters of these models, assuming they will be able to constrain the anomalous triple gauge couplings with precision δ κV~O(10 -4), V = γ,Z 0. We show that the combination of measurements at different center-of-mass energies helps to improve the sensitivity to the contributionmore » of vectorlike fermions, in particular when they couple to the Higgs. In fact, the measurements at the FCC-ee and, especially, the ILC and the CLIC, may turn the triple gauge couplings into a new set of precision parameters able to constrain the models better than the oblique parameters or the H → γγ decay, even assuming the considerable improvement of the latter measurements achievable at the new machines.« less

  1. Layout compliance for triple patterning lithography: an iterative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Garreton, Gilda; Pan, David Z.

    2014-10-01

    As the semiconductor process further scales down, the industry encounters many lithography-related issues. In the 14nm logic node and beyond, triple patterning lithography (TPL) is one of the most promising techniques for Metal1 layer and possibly Via0 layer. As one of the most challenging problems in TPL, recently layout decomposition efforts have received more attention from both industry and academia. Ideally the decomposer should point out locations in the layout that are not triple patterning decomposable and therefore manual intervention by designers is required. A traditional decomposition flow would be an iterative process, where each iteration consists of an automatic layout decomposition step and manual layout modification task. However, due to the NP-hardness of triple patterning layout decomposition, automatic full chip level layout decomposition requires long computational time and therefore design closure issues continue to linger around in the traditional flow. Challenged by this issue, we present a novel incremental layout decomposition framework to facilitate accelerated iterative decomposition. In the first iteration, our decomposer not only points out all conflicts, but also provides the suggestions to fix them. After the layout modification, instead of solving the full chip problem from scratch, our decomposer can provide a quick solution for a selected portion of layout. We believe this framework is efficient, in terms of performance and designer friendly.

  2. New Approaches Towards Recognition of Nucleic Acid Triple Helices

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Dev P.

    2012-01-01

    We show that groove recognition of nucleic acid triple helices can be achieved with aminosugars. Among these aminosugars, neomycin is the most effective aminoglycoside (groove binder) for stabilizing a DNA triple helix. It stabilizes both the T·A·T triplex and mixed-base DNA triplexes better than known DNA minor groove binders (which usually destabilize the triplex) and polyamines. Neomycin selectively stabilizes the triplex (T·A·T and mixed base) without any effect on the DNA duplex. The selectivity of neomycin likely originates from its potential and shape complementarity to the triplex Watson–Hoogsteen groove, making it the first molecule that selectively recognizes a triplex groove over a duplex groove. The groove recognition of aminoglycosides is not limited to DNA triplexes, but also extends to RNA and hybrid triple helical structures. Intercalator–neomycin conjugates are shown to simultaneously probe the base stacking and groove surface in the DNA triplex. Calorimetric and spectrosocopic studies allow the quantification of the effect of surface area of the intercalating moiety on binding to the triplex. These studies outline a novel approach to the recognition of DNA triplexes that incorporates the use of non-competing binding sites. These principles of dual recognition should be applicable to the design of ligands that can bind any given nucleic acid target with nanomolar affinities and with high selectivity. PMID:21073199

  3. Design of triple-band polarization controlled terahertz metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ben-Xin; Xie, Qin; Dong, Guangxi; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2018-02-01

    A kind of triple-band polarization tunable terahertz absorber based on a metallic mirror and a metallic patch structure with two indentations spaced by an insulating medium layer is presented. Results prove that three near-perfect absorption peaks with average absorption coefficients of 98.25% are achieved when the polarization angle is equal to zero, and their absorptivities gradually decrease (and even disappear) by increasing the angle of polarization. When the polarization angle is increased to 90°, three new resonance modes with average absorption rates of 96.59% can be obtained. The field distributions are given to reveal the mechanisms of the triple-band absorption and the polarization tunable characteristics. Moreover, by introducing photosensitive silicon materials (its conductivity can be changed by the pump beam) in the indentations of the patch structure, the number of resonance peaks of the device can be actively tuned from triple-band to dual-band. The presented absorbers have potential applications, such as controlling thermal emissivity, and detection of polarization direction of the incident waves.

  4. Does test-enhanced learning transfer for triple associates?

    PubMed

    Pan, Steven C; Wong, Carol M; Potter, Zachary E; Mejia, Jonathan; Rickard, Timothy C

    2016-01-01

    Test-enhanced learning and transfer for triple-associate word stimuli was assessed in three experiments. In each experiment, training and final-test trials involved the presentation of two words per triple associate (triplet), with the third word having to be retrieved. In agreement with the prior literature on different stimuli, training through testing with feedback yielded markedly better final-test performance than did restudy. However, in contrast to the positive transfer reported for paired associate stimuli, minimal or no positive transfer was observed, relative to a restudy control, from a trained cue combination (e.g., A, B, ?) to other cue combinations from the same triplet that required a different response (e.g., B, C, ?). That result also held when two unique cue combinations per triplet were tested during training, and for triplets with low and high average associative strengths. Supplementary analyses provided insight into the overall transfer effect: An incorrect response during training appears to yield positive transfer relative to restudy, whereas a correct response appears to yield no, or even negative, transfer. Cross-experiment analyses indicated that test-enhanced learning is not diminished when two or three cue combinations are presented during training. Thus, even though learning through testing is highly specific, testing on all possible stimulus-response combinations remains the most efficient strategy for the learning of triple associates.

  5. Preparation and characterization of triple shape memory composite foams.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Hossein Birjandi; Baker, Richard M; Mather, Patrick T

    2014-10-28

    Foams prepared from shape memory polymers (SMPs) offer the potential for low density materials that can be triggered to deploy with a large volume change, unlike their solid counterparts that do so at near-constant volume. While examples of shape memory foams have been reported in the past, they have been limited to dual SMPs: those polymers featuring one switching transition between an arbitrarily programmed shape and a single permanent shape established by constituent crosslinks. Meanwhile, advances by SMP researchers have led to several approaches toward triple- or multi-shape polymers that feature more than one switching phase and thus a multitude of temporary shapes allowing for a complex sequence of shape deployments. Here, we report the design, preparation, and characterization of a triple shape memory polymeric foam that is open cell in nature and features a two phase, crosslinked SMP with a glass transition temperature of one phase at a temperature lower than a melting transition of the second phase. The soft materials were observed to feature high fidelity, repeatable triple shape behavior, characterized in compression and demonstrated for complex deployment by fixing a combination of foam compression and bending. We further explored the wettability of the foams, revealing composition-dependent behavior favorable for future work in biomedical investigations.

  6. Realization of the Gallium Triple Point at NMIJ/AIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Tamura, O.; Sakurai, H.

    2008-02-01

    The triple point of gallium has been realized by a calorimetric method using capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometers (CSPRTs) and a small glass cell containing about 97 mmol (6.8 g) of gallium with a nominal purity of 99.99999%. The melting curve shows a very flat and relatively linear dependence on 1/ F in the region from 1/ F = 1 to 1/ F = 20 with a narrow width of the melting curve within 0.1 mK. Also, a large gallium triple-point cell was fabricated for the calibration of client-owned CSPRTs. The gallium triple-point cell consists of a PTFE crucible and a PTFE cap with a re-entrant well and a small vent. The PTFE cell contains 780 g of gallium from the same source as used for the small glass cell. The PTFE cell is completely covered by a stainless-steel jacket with a valve to enable evacuation of the cell. The melting curve of the large cell shows a flat plateau that remains within 0.03 mK over 10 days and that is reproducible within 0.05 mK over 8 months. The calibrated value of a CSPRT obtained using the large cell agrees with that obtained using the small glass cell within the uncertainties of the calibrations.

  7. Accurate Acoustic Thermometry I: The Triple Point of Gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldover, M. R.; Trusler, J. P. M.

    1988-01-01

    The speed of sound in argon has been accurately measured in the pressure range 25-380 kPa at the temperature of the triple point of gallium (Tg) and at 340 kPa at the temperature of the triple point of water (Tt). The results are combined with previously published thermodynamic and transport property data to obtain Tg = (302.9169 +/- 0.0005) K on the thermodynamic scale. Among recent determinations of T68 (the temperature on IPTS-68) at the gallium triple point, those with the smallest measurement uncertainty fall in the range 302.923 71 to 302.923 98 K. We conclude that T-T68 = (-6.9 +/- 0.5) mK near 303 K, in agreement with results obtained from other primary thermometers. The speed of sound was measured with a spherical resonator. The volume and thermal expansion of the resonator were determined by weighing the mercury required to fill it at Tt and Tg. The largest part of the standard error in the present determination of Tg is systematic. It results from imperfect knowledge of the thermal expansion of mercury between Tt and Tg. Smaller parts of the error result from imperfections in the measurement of the temperature of the resonator and of the resonance frequencies.

  8. Prenatal diagnosis and prognosis of triple X syndrome: 47, XXX.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamouda, H; Mkacher, N; Elghezal, H; Bannour, H; Kamoun, M; Soua, H; Saad, A; Souissi, M M; Sfar, M T

    2009-11-01

    Triple X syndrome is a relatively common sex chromosomal abnormality occurring in 0,1% of live-born female infants. Most of these infants have a normal phenotype and only a few cases with 47, XXX karyotype have congenital malformations. We report three cases of triple X syndrome that were diagnosed prenatally by genetic amniocentesis for advanced maternal age and have been observed from birth to age of 3 to 12 years. A description of their growth and development is presented. The birth weight was normal in all patients and one of them had facial dysmorphism with right microphtalmia and auricular septal defect. During the first 2 years of life, the neuromotor development of these infants was not distinguishable from chromosomally normal children. By 3 years of age, two patients have a moderate developmental delay in speech and language. One girl 12-year-old had normal schooling. The diagnosis of the triple X syndrome can be never made because clinical demonstrations are not rather important to arouse the demand of a karyotype. Prenatal diagnosis is often made in front of the advanced maternal age. Expectant parents must be counseled as to the significance of this 47, XXX karyotype and prognostic information must be given.

  9. Triple X Egyptian woman and a Down's syndrome offspring

    PubMed Central

    El-Dahtory, Faeza Abdel Mogib

    2013-01-01

    The 47, XXX karyotype (triple X) has a frequency of 1 in 1000 female newborns. However, this karyotype is not usually suspected at birth or childhood. Female patients with a sex chromosome abnormality may be fertile. In patients with a 47, XXX cell line there appears to be an increased risk of a cytogenetically abnormal child but the extent of this risk cannot yet be determined; it is probably lower in the non-mosaic 47, XXX patient than the mosaic 46, XX/47, XXX one. We describe a new rare case of triple X woman and a Down's syndrome offspring. The patient is 26 years of age. She is a housewife, her height is 160 cm and weight is 68 kg and her physical features and mentality are normal. She has had one pregnancy at the age of 25 years resulted in a girl with Down's syndrome. The child had 47 chromosomes with trisomy 21 (47, XX, +21) Figure 1. The patient also has 47 chromosomes with a triple X karyotype (47, XX, +X) Figure 2. The patient's husband (27 years old) is physically and mentally normal. He has 46 chromosomes with a normal XY karyotype (46, XY). There are neither Consanguinity between her parent's nor she and her husband. PMID:23901206

  10. Comparison of stellar and gasdynamics of a barred galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, G.; Gottesman, S.T.; Hunter, J.H. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    The stellar and gas dynamics of several models of barred galaxies were studied, and results for some representative cases are reported for galaxies in which the stars and gas respond to the same potentials. Inside corotation there are two main families of periodic orbits, designated x1 and 4/1. Close to the center, the x1 orbits are like elongated ellipses. As the 4/1 resonance is approached, these orbits become like lozenges, with apices along the bar and perpendicular to it. The family 4/1 consists of orbits like parallelograms which produce the boxy component of the bar. The orbits in spirals outsidemore » corotation enhance the spiral between the outer -4/1 resonance and the outer Lindblad resonance. Between corotation and the -4/1 resonance in strong spirals, the orbits are mostly stochastic and fill almost circular rings. A spiral field must be added to gasdynamical models to obtain gaseous arms extending from the end of a bar. 38 refs.« less

  11. 9. A photograph, looking southwest, from the sand bar on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. A photograph, looking southwest, from the sand bar on the east side of the bridge. This image shows the west abutment, including the mold marks which remained from the timber forms. Leaching and cracking are also visible along the arch ring. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  12. 1. View looking east from sand bar on west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking east from sand bar on west side of bridge, upstream in the bed of Sugar Creek. West elevation of the bridge - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  13. Kinematic signature of a rotating bar near a resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    Recent work based on H I, star count and emission data suggests that the Milky Way has rotating bar-like features. In this paper, I show that such features cause distinctive stellar kinematic signatures near Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR) and Inner Lindblad Resonance (ILR). The effect of these resonances may be observable far from the peak density of the pattern and relatively nearby the solar position. The details of the kinematic signatures depend on the evolutionary history of the 'bar' and therefore velocity data, both systematic and velocity dispersion, may be used to probe the evolutionary history as well as the present state of Galaxy. Kinematic models for a variety of sample scenarios are presented. Models with evolving pattern speeds show significantly stronger dispersion signatures than those with static pattern speeds, suggesting that useful observational constraints are possible. The models are applied to the proposed rotating spheroid and bar models; we find (1) none of these models chosen to represent the proposed large-scale rotating spheroid are consistent with the stellar kinematics and (2) a Galactic bar with semimajor axis of 3 kpc will cause a large increase in velocity dispersion in the vicinity of OLR (approximately 5 kpc) with little change in the net radial motion and such a signature is suggested by K-giant velocity data. Potential future observations and analyses are discussed.

  14. Mandatory Identification Bar Checks: How Bouncers Are Doing Their Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Allen, John; Casten, John; Cowling, Catherine; Gray, Charles; Guhr, David; Hoofnagle, Kara; Huffman, Jessica; Mina, Moises; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of bouncers at on site establishments that served alcohol was observed. Our aim was to better understand how bouncers went about their job when the bar had a mandatory policy to check identification of all customers. Utilizing an ethnographic decision model, we found that bouncers were significantly more likely to card customers that…

  15. A Multivariate Generalizability Analysis of the Multistate Bar Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Ping

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the content structure of the Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) using the "table of specifications" model from the perspective of multivariate generalizability theory. Specifically, using MBE data collected over different years (six administrations: three from the February test and three from July test),…

  16. 15. VIEW OF ROLLING OPERATION. INGOTS AND BAR STOCK WERE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF ROLLING OPERATION. INGOTS AND BAR STOCK WERE ROLLED TO A SPECIFIED THICKNESS IN PREPARATION FOR FURTHER PROCESSING. (11/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh; Bray, Hubert L., E-mail: lmedina@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: bray@math.duke.edu, E-mail: tmatos@fis.cinvestav.mx

    2015-12-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particlesmore » simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter.« less

  18. Science Behind Bars: Reaching Inmates from Rikers Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocsy, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    I report on the project ``Science Behind Bars: Reaching Inmates on Rikers Island'' partially funded through an APS Public Outreach and Informing the Public grant. This project involves developing leave-behind materials and setting up meetings to speak with Rikers Island inmates about science, evidence-based reasoning, and the dangers of stereotype threat. APS Mini Grant.

  19. College Students' Exposure to Tobacco Marketing in Nightclubs and Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridner, S. Lee; Myers, John A.; Hahn, Ellen J.; Ciszewski, Tiffany N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a college student's exposure to tobacco marketing in nightclubs and bars was affected by the presence of a smoke-free law. Participants: A random sample (N = 478) of students participated in the survey (no smoke-free law, n = 240; smoke-free law, n = 238). The analysis was limited to students who reported being in…

  20. 8. Photocopied August 1978. BREAKING CONCRETE BARS, JULY 1898. TESTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopied August 1978. BREAKING CONCRETE BARS, JULY 1898. TESTING MACHINE USED BY VON SCHON IN EXPERIMENTS ON METHODS OF MIXING CONCRETE AND ON CONCRETE AGGREGATES WHICH USED LOCAL MATERIALS. (4) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  1. The eisosome core is composed of BAR domain proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Couto, Agustina; Graña, Martin; Harispe, Laura; Aguilar, Pablo S.

    2011-01-01

    Eisosomes define sites of plasma membrane organization. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, eisosomes delimit furrow-like plasma membrane invaginations that concentrate sterols, transporters, and signaling molecules. Eisosomes are static macromolecular assemblies composed of cytoplasmic proteins, most of which have no known function. In this study, we used a bioinformatics approach to analyze a set of 20 eisosome proteins. We found that the core components of eisosomes, paralogue proteins Pil1 and Lsp1, are distant homologues of membrane-sculpting Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) proteins. Consistent with this finding, purified recombinant Pil1 and Lsp1 tubulated liposomes and formed tubules when the proteins were overexpressed in mammalian cells. Structural homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis indicate that Pil1 positively charged surface patches are needed for membrane binding and liposome tubulation. Pil1 BAR domain mutants were defective in both eisosome assembly and plasma membrane domain organization. In addition, we found that eisosome-associated proteins Slm1 and Slm2 have F-BAR domains and that these domains are needed for targeting to furrow-like plasma membrane invaginations. Our results support a model in which BAR domain protein–mediated membrane bending leads to clustering of lipids and proteins within the plasma membrane. PMID:21593205

  2. Science Behind Bars: Reaching Inmates on Rikers Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mócsy, Ágnes

    2016-03-01

    I report on the project ``Science Behind Bars: Reaching Inmates on Rikers Island'' partially funded through an APS Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grant. This project involves setting up meetings to speak with female prisoners on Rikers Island about science, evidence based reasoning and the dangers of stereo-type threat.

  3. Adolescent Student Use of School-Based Salad Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lori; Myers, Leann; O'Malley, Keelia; Mundorf, Adrienne R.; Harris, Diane M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity continues to be a public health problem in the United States. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables (F/V) is one strategy for decreasing high consumption of energy-dense, high-fat foods, thereby improving weight status. Many Orleans Parish public schools were provided with salad bars (SBs) to augment school…

  4. Bars in dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, A.; Oman, K. A.; Navarro, J. F.; Frenk, C. S.; Oosterloo, T.

    2018-05-01

    We study the shape and kinematics of simulated dwarf galaxy discs in the APOSTLE suite of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We find that a large fraction of these gas-rich, star-forming discs show weak bars in their stellar component, despite being dark-matter-dominated systems. The bar pattern shape and orientation reflect the ellipticity of the dark matter potential, and its rotation is locked to the slow figure rotation of the triaxial dark halo. The bar-like nature of the potential induces non-circular motions in the gas component, including strong bisymmetric flows that can be readily seen as m = 3 harmonic perturbations in the H I line-of-sight velocity fields. Similar bisymmetric flows are seen in many galaxies of The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) and Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes THINGS (LITTLE THINGS), although on average their amplitudes are a factor of ˜2 weaker than in our simulated discs. Our results indicate that bar-like patterns may arise even when baryons are not dominant, and that they are common enough to warrant careful consideration when analysing the gas kinematics of dwarf galaxy discs.

  5. The BaBar detector: Upgrades, operation and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.

    2013-11-01

    The BaBar detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking.

  6. Dowel Bar Retrofit Mix Design and Specification : Technical Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-01

    Current INDOT specifications for repair materials to be used in dowel bar retrofit (DBR) applications (Sections 507.08 and 901.07 of INDOTs Book of Specifications) are based, in large part, on the requirements of ASTM C 928 and the manufacturer-pr...

  7. Should Persons with Contagious Diseases Be Barred from School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews recent court decisions regarding whether individuals with contagious diseases may be barred from public schools. Devotes specific attention to the issue of whether certain communicable diseases such as tuberculosis and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be classified as handicaps and thereby qualify a person for protection…

  8. Stress tracking in thin bars by eigenstrain actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeftner, J.; Irschik, H.

    2016-11-01

    This contribution focuses on stress tracking in slender structures. The axial stress distribution of a linear elastic bar is investigated, in particular, we seek for an answer to the following question: in which manner do we have to distribute eigenstrains, such that the axial stress in a bar is equal to a certain desired stress distribution, despite external forces or support excitations are present? In order to track a certain time- and space-dependent stress function, smart actuators, such as piezoelectric actuators, are needed to realize eigenstrains. Based on the equation of motion and the constitutive relation, which relate stress, strain, displacement and eigenstrains, an analytical solution for the stress tracking problem is derived. The starting point for the derivation of a solution for the stress tracking problem is a semi-positive definite integral depending on the error stress which is the difference between the actual stress and the desired stress. Our derived stress tracking theory is verified by two examples: first, a clamped-free bar which is harmonically excited is investigated. It is shown under which circumstances the axial stress vanishes at every location and at every time instant. The second example is a support-excited bar with end mass, where a desired stress profile is prescribed.

  9. Using a Spreadsheet Scroll Bar to Solve Equilibrium Concentrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres

    2012-01-01

    A simple, conceptual method is described for using the spreadsheet scroll bar to find the composition of a system at chemical equilibrium. Simulation of any kind of chemical equilibrium can be carried out using this method, and the effects of different disturbances can be predicted. This simulation, which can be used in general chemistry…

  10. Deficiency of ''Thin'' Stellar Bars in Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosman, Isaac; Peletier, Reynier F.; Knapen, Johan

    1999-01-01

    Using all available major samples of Seyfert galaxies and their corresponding control samples of closely matched non-active galaxies, we find that the bar ellipticities (or axial ratios) in Seyfert galaxies are systematically different from those in non-active galaxies. Overall, there is a deficiency of bars with large ellipticities (i.e., 'fat' or 'weak' bars) in Seyferts, compared to non-active galaxies. Accompanied with a large dispersion due to small number statistics, this effect is strictly speaking at the 2 sigma level. To obtain this result, the active galaxy samples of near-infrared surface photometry were matched to those of normal galaxies in type, host galaxy ellipticity, absolute magnitude, and, to some extent, in redshift. We discuss possible theoretical explanations of this phenomenon within the framework of galactic evolution, and, in particular, of radial gas redistribution in barred galaxies. Our conclusions provide further evidence that Seyfert hosts differ systematically from their non-active counterparts on scales of a few kpc.

  11. A Dwarf Galaxy Star Bar and Dusty Wing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-10

    In combined data from ESA Herschel and NASA Spitzer telescopes, irregular distribution of dust in the Small Magellanic Cloud becomes clear. A stream of dust extends to left, known as the galaxy wing, and a bar of star formation appears to right.

  12. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 51, Silver Spring, MD...-600), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25...

  13. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857 (requests... Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25...

  14. Analysis of stiffness and stress in I-bar clasps.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Tsuga, K; Abe, Y; Asahara, S; Akagawa, Y

    2001-06-01

    An I-bar clasp is one of the most popular direct retainers for distal-extension removable partial dentures. However, no adequate information is available on the shape associated with biomechanics. This study aimed (1) to establish a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element modelling method of I-bar clasps, and (2) to clarify the effect of the shape on the stress and stiffness of I-bar clasps. 3D computer models of I-bar clasps were created with vertical and horizontal straight sections connected with a curved section with six parameters: thickness of the clasp tip (T), width of the clasp tip (W), radius of the curvature (R), horizontal distance between the base and the vertical axis (H), vertical dimension between the tip and the horizontal axis (V), taper (change of width per unit length along the axis)(Tp). Stress decreased as T, W, R and Tp increased, and as V decreased. Stiffness (which is proportional to retention) increased as T, W, R and Tp increased, and as H and V decreased. In both stress and stiffness, the effects of T and Tp were especially large. From the results, a systematic formula between the clasp shape and the stiffness was derived.

  15. Finite element analysis on preferable I-bar clasp shape.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Tsuga, K; Abe, Y; Asahara, S; Akagawa, Y

    2001-05-01

    An I-bar clasp is one of the most popular direct retainers for distal-extension removable partial dentures. However, no adequate information is available on preferable shape as determined by biomechanics. This study aimed (1) to investigate, by finite element analysis (FEA), the dimensions and stress of I-bar clasps having the same stiffness, and (2) to estimate a mechanically preferable clasp design. Three-dimensional FEA models of I-bar clasps were created with vertical and horizontal straight sections connected by a curved section characterized by six parameters: thickness of the clasp tip, width of the clasp tip, radius of the curvature, horizontal distance between the base and the vertical axis, vertical dimension between the tip and the horizontal axis, and taper (change of width per unit length along the axis). Stress was calculated with a concentrated load of 5 N applied 2 mm from the tip of the clasp in the buccal direction. A thinner and wider clasp having an taper of 0.020-0.023 and radius of curvature of 2.75-3.00 showed less stress. The results suggest that such a shape might be the preferable I-bar clasp shape as biomechanical viewpoint.

  16. Protein supplementation with sports protein bars in renal patients.

    PubMed

    Meade, Anthony

    2007-05-01

    Malnutrition prevalence in patients on dialysis is well established. The protein requirements for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have been documented elsewhere, including the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure. The clinical challenge is to assist patients in meeting these targets, especially in those with anorexia. Traditional supplements have included fluid, which is an issue for patients who are fluid restricted. The study objectives were to (1) investigate the range of sports protein supplements that may be suitable for patients on hemodialysis to use and (2) trial nonfluid protein supplements in patients on hemodialysis. Known manufacturers of sports protein bars and other sports supplements available in Australia were contacted for the nutrient breakdown of high-protein products, specifically potassium, protein, and phosphorus contents. As a result, selected high-protein sports bars (Protein FX, Aussie Bodies, Port Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) were used as an alternative to the more commonly used renal-specific fluid supplements (Nepro, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL; Novasource Renal, Novartis Nutrition Corporation, Fremont, MI; and Renilon, Nutricia, Wiltshire, UK) in patients with poor nutritional status requiring supplementation. Patient satisfaction and clinical nutrition markers were investigated. The study took place at inpatient, in-center, and satellite hemodialysis settings in Adelaide, South Australia. A total of 32 patients (16 females and 16 males) with an average age of 62.9 years (range 32-86 years) undergoing hemodialysis (acute and maintenance) were included. Subjects were selected by the author as part of routine clinical nutrition care. Patients trialed sports protein bars as a protein supplement alone or in conjunction with other supplementary products. All patients were in favor of the trial, with 22 of 32 patients continuing with the protein

  17. An empirical understanding of triple collocation evaluation measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipal, Klaus; Doubkova, Marcela; Hegyova, Alena; Dorigo, Wouter; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Triple collocation method is an advanced evaluation method that has been used in the soil moisture field for only about half a decade. The method requires three datasets with an independent error structure that represent an identical phenomenon. The main advantages of the method are that it a) doesn't require a reference dataset that has to be considered to represent the truth, b) limits the effect of random and systematic errors of other two datasets, and c) simultaneously assesses the error of three datasets. The objective of this presentation is to assess the triple collocation error (Tc) of the ASAR Global Mode Surface Soil Moisture (GM SSM 1) km dataset and highlight problems of the method related to its ability to cancel the effect of error of ancillary datasets. In particular, the goal is to a) investigate trends in Tc related to the change in spatial resolution from 5 to 25 km, b) to investigate trends in Tc related to the choice of a hydrological model, and c) to study the relationship between Tc and other absolute evaluation methods (namely RMSE and Error Propagation EP). The triple collocation method is implemented using ASAR GM, AMSR-E, and a model (either AWRA-L, GLDAS-NOAH, or ERA-Interim). First, the significance of the relationship between the three soil moisture datasets was tested that is a prerequisite for the triple collocation method. Second, the trends in Tc related to the choice of the third reference dataset and scale were assessed. For this purpose the triple collocation is repeated replacing AWRA-L with two different globally available model reanalysis dataset operating at different spatial resolution (ERA-Interim and GLDAS-NOAH). Finally, the retrieved results were compared to the results of the RMSE and EP evaluation measures. Our results demonstrate that the Tc method does not eliminate the random and time-variant systematic errors of the second and the third dataset used in the Tc. The possible reasons include the fact a) that the TC

  18. Automatic detection of service initiation signals used in bars

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Sebastian; Huth, Kerstin; De Ruiter, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the intention of others is important in all social interactions, especially in the service domain. Enabling a bartending robot to serve customers is particularly challenging as the system has to recognize the social signals produced by customers and respond appropriately. Detecting whether a customer would like to order is essential for the service encounter to succeed. This detection is particularly challenging in a noisy environment with multiple customers. Thus, a bartending robot has to be able to distinguish between customers intending to order, chatting with friends or just passing by. In order to study which signals customers use to initiate a service interaction in a bar, we recorded real-life customer-staff interactions in several German bars. These recordings were used to generate initial hypotheses about the signals customers produce when bidding for the attention of bar staff. Two experiments using snapshots and short video sequences then tested the validity of these hypothesized candidate signals. The results revealed that bar staff responded to a set of two non-verbal signals: first, customers position themselves directly at the bar counter and, secondly, they look at a member of staff. Both signals were necessary and, when occurring together, sufficient. The participants also showed a strong agreement about when these cues occurred in the videos. Finally, a signal detection analysis revealed that ignoring a potential order is deemed worse than erroneously inviting customers to order. We conclude that (a) these two easily recognizable actions are sufficient for recognizing the intention of customers to initiate a service interaction, but other actions such as gestures and speech were not necessary, and (b) the use of reaction time experiments using natural materials is feasible and provides ecologically valid results. PMID:24009594

  19. Cold dust in the giant barred galaxy NGC 1365

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, F. S.; Weiß, A.; Combes, F.; Henkel, C.; Menten, K. M.; Beck, R.; Kovács, A.; Güsten, R.

    2013-07-01

    Constraining the physcial properties of dust requires observations at submm wavelengths. This will provide important insight into the gas content of galaxies. We mapped NGC 1365 at 870 μm with LABOCA, the Large APEX Bolometer Camera, allowing us to probe the central mass concentration as well as the rate at which the gas flows to the center. We obtained the dust physical properties both globally and locally for different locations in the galaxy. A 20 K modified black body represents about 98% of the total dust content of the galaxy, the rest can be represented by a warmer dust component of 40 K. The bar exhibits an east-west asymmetry in the dust distribution: The eastern bar is heavier than the western bar by more than a factor of 4. Integrating the dust spectral energy distribution, we derived a total infrared luminosity, LTIR, of 9.8 × 1010 L⊙, leading to a dust-enshrouded star formation rate of SFRTIR ≃ 16.7 M⊙ yr-1 in NGC 1365. We derived the gas mass from the measurements of the dust emission, resulting in a CO-to-H2 conversion factor of XCO ≃ 1.2 × 1020 mol cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 in the central disk, including the bar. Taking into account the metallicity variation, the central gas mass concentration is only ≃20% at R < 40″ (3.6 kpc). On the other hand, the timescale on which the gas flows into the center, ≃300 Myr, is relatively short. This indicates that the current central mass in NGC 1365 is evolving fast because of the strong bar.

  20. Integrating Compassionate, Collaborative Care (the "Triple C") Into Health Professional Education to Advance the Triple Aim of Health Care.

    PubMed

    Lown, Beth A; McIntosh, Sharrie; Gaines, Martha E; McGuinn, Kathy; Hatem, David S

    2016-03-01

    Empathy and compassion provide an important foundation for effective collaboration in health care. Compassion (the recognition of and response to the distress and suffering of others) should be consistently offered by health care professionals to patients, families, staff, and one another. However, compassion without collaboration may result in uncoordinated care, while collaboration without compassion may result in technically correct but depersonalized care that fails to meet the unique emotional and psychosocial needs of all involved. Providing compassionate, collaborative care (CCC) is critical to achieving the "triple aim" of improving patients' health and experiences of care while reducing costs. Yet, values and skills related to CCC (or the "Triple C") are not routinely taught, modeled, and assessed across the continuum of learning and practice. To change this paradigm, an interprofessional group of experts recently recommended approaches and a framework for integrating CCC into health professional education and postgraduate training as well as clinical care. In this Perspective, the authors describe how the Triple C framework can be integrated and enhance existing competency standards to advance CCC across the learning and practice continuum. They also discuss strategies for partnering with patients and families to improve health professional education and health care design and delivery through quality improvement projects. They emphasize that compassion and collaboration are important sources of professional, patient, and family satisfaction as well as critical aspects of professionalism and person-centered, relationship-based high-quality care.

  1. An investigation of the tri-bar gripping system on isometric muscular endurance.

    PubMed

    Drury, Daniel G; Faggiono, Heath; Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2004-11-01

    Recently, a new product called the Tri-Bar has been introduced as an alternative to the standard round weightlifting bar. The Tri-Bar has the same weight, length, and circumference as a standard weightlifting bar and differs only in that the shape of the bar is formed like a triangle with rounded edges. Theoretically, the shape of the bar will enhance gripping comfort and increase muscular endurance. We studied 32 moderately trained males who were free from upper-body injury or limitation. Each participant completed 4 visits to the lab as part of 2 separate investigations. The first investigation was a comparison of straight-arm hang times while grasping a standard Olympic bar or a Tri-Bar attached to the top of a power rack. The second investigation involved grasping a standard revolving cable handle or a Tri-Bar revolving handle attached to a weight equal to half the subject's body weight. In both investigations, time was used as a measure of isometric muscular endurance. Differences were determined using a dependent t-test, and a level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Mean hang times were significantly longer when the men hung from the Tri-Bar (107.6 seconds) versus the standard bar (95.4 seconds) (p = 0.015). Conversely, in the investigation using the revolving handles, the round bar produced longer grasping times (71.5 seconds) than the Tri-Bar (62.6 seconds) (p = 0.000). The results of this investigation indicate that a fixed and stable Tri-Bar may help to increase hang time, but a Tri-Bar free to rotate within the grasp may decrease grasping time in comparison to a standard round handle. With regard to exercises that require isometric grasping, the Tri-Bar may be an effective alternative to the standard bar for increasing isometric grasping endurance.

  2. Triple-negative breast cancer: current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Rastelli, Francesca; Biancanelli, Sandra; Falzetta, Amalia; Martignetti, Angelo; Casi, Camilla; Bascioni, Romeo; Giustini, Lucio; Crispino, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer, defined by a lack of expression of estrogen, progesterone and HER-2 receptors, accounts for 15% of all types of breast cancer. The subtype mainly includes a molecularly distinct subgroup, the basal-like subtype (accounting for 75% of all cases). We attempt to define triple-negative breast cancer and compare it with basal-like disease, review the molecular, pathologic and clinical features of triple-negative disease, provide an overview of a retrospective subset analysis of clinical trials, and outline ongoing therapeutic trials and possible paths for future research. We collected data regarding classification, molecular and clinical features and treatment, drawn from the existing literature, including abstracts and verbal accounts. By the term "basal-like", we defined all cases where gene expression array or more sophisticated immunophenotypes are used for identification. When the analysis is restricted to clinical assay (immunohistochemistry), we refer to "triple-negative". Basal-like breast cancer expresses genes characteristic of basal epithelial cells, which include high-molecular weight basal cytokeratins (CK5/6, CK14, CK17), vimentin, p-cadherin, alpha B crystalline, caveolins 1 and 2 and EGFR. The expression of basal markers (basal cytokeratins and EGFR) is related to a worse prognosis and identifies a clinically distinct subgroup within the triple-negative breast cancer. BRCA1 mutations are present in 11% of triple-negative tumors and even more rare is BRCA2 deficiency. BR-CA1-associated breast cancers types are typically characterized by a high rate of DNA aberrations and defective DNA repair pathways (the so-called "BRCAness"). The use of regimens based on DNA-damaging agents, such as anthracyclines, platinum derivatives and cyclophosphamide seems a sensible option for this breast cancer subtypes. Clinical data support a strong sensitivity to primary chemotherapy with pathologic response rates ranging from 27-45% (with

  3. Metal/polymer composite Nuss bar for minimally invasive bar removal after Pectus Excavatum treatment: FEM simulations.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Ciuti, Gastone; Ghionzoli, Marco; Messineo, Antonio; Menciassi, Arianna

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at assessing the mechanical behavior of a composite metal/polymer bar to be implanted in the retrosternal position, in order to correct chest wall deformities, such as Pectus Excavatum. A 300-mm-long, 12.7-mm-wide, and 3.5-mm-thick Nuss bar was considered, made of different metals and biodegradable polymers, fixed at its extremities, and with a constant force of 250 N applied on its center. Two different geometries for the metal elements to be embedded in the polymeric matrix were tested: in the former, thin metal sheets and in the latter, cylindrical metal reinforcing rods were considered. Finite element method simulation results are reported, in terms of maximum stress and strain of the bar. Furthermore, the maximum stress values obtained by varying metal sheet thickness or rod diameter (and therefore the volumetric percentage of metal within the matrix) for different material combinations are also shown; optimal configuration for the Pectus Excavatum treatment was finally identified for a composite Nuss bar. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Image decomposition of barred galaxies and AGN hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Dimitri Alexei

    2008-02-01

    I present the results of multicomponent decomposition of V and R broad-band images of a sample of 17 nearby galaxies, most of them hosting bars and active galactic nuclei (AGN). I use BUDDA v2.1 to produce the fits, allowing the inclusion of bars and AGN in the models. A comparison with previous results from the literature shows a fairly good agreement. It is found that the axial ratio of bars, as measured from ellipse fits, can be severely underestimated if the galaxy axisymmetric component is relatively luminous. Thus, reliable bar axial ratios can only be determined by taking into account the contributions of bulge and disc to the light distribution in the galaxy image. Through a number of tests, I show that neglecting bars when modelling barred galaxies can result in an overestimation of the bulge-to-total luminosity ratio of a factor of 2. Similar effects result when bright, type 1 AGN are not considered in the models. By artificially redshifting the images, I show that the structural parameters of more distant galaxies can in general be reliably retrieved through image fitting, at least up to the point where the physical spatial resolution is ~1.5kpc. This corresponds, for instance, to images of galaxies at z = 0.05 with a seeing full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 1.5arcsec, typical of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In addition, such a resolution is also similar to what can be achieved with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and ground-based telescopes with adaptive optics, at z ~ 1-2. Thus, these results also concern deeper studies such as COSMOS and SINS. This exercise shows that disc parameters are particularly robust, but bulge parameters are prone to errors if its effective radius is small compared to the seeing radius, and might suffer from systematic effects. For instance, the bulge-to-total luminosity ratio is systematically overestimated, on average, by 0.05 (i.e. 5 per cent of the galaxy total luminosity). In this low-resolution regime, the

  5. Etched poly(ether ether ketone) jacket stir bar with detachable dumbbell-shaped structure for stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Chenlu; Wang, Xuemei; Chen, Zilin

    2018-06-08

    Development of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) device with high stability and extraction efficiency is critical and challenging by date. In this work, etched poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) tube with high mechanical strength and large specific surface area was used as jacket for SBSE device. By etching with concentrated sulfuric acid, the smooth outer surface of PEEK become porous with plenty of micro holes, which was beneficial for coating of sorbents and significantly improved the extraction performance. After functionalized by bio-polydopamine method, strong hydrophobic p-naphtholbenzein molecular was immobilized onto the chemical resistant PEEK surface (PNB@E-PEEK) as stationary phase. We also firstly developed a simple detachable dumbbell-shaped structure for improving the workability of PEEK jacket stir bar. The dumbbell-shaped construction can eliminate the friction between stir bar and container, and the design of detachable structure make elution can be accomplished easier with small amount of organic solvent. It was interesting that the developed detachable dumbbell-shaped PNB@E-PEEK stir bar showed exceptional stability and extraction efficiency for SBSE enrichment of multiple analytes including several Sudan dyes, triazines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkaloids and flavonoid. By coupling with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV), PNB@E-PEEK stir bar based SBSE-HPLC-UV method was applied for the analysis of common Sudan dye pollutants. The method showed low limits of detection (0.02-0.03 ng/mL), good linearity (R 2  ≥ 0.9979) and good reproducibility (relative standard deviation ≤ 7.96%). It has been successfully applied to determine three dye pollutants in tap and lake water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Review of the Biomechanical Differences Between the High-Bar and Low-Bar Back-Squat.

    PubMed

    Glassbrook, Daniel J; Helms, Eric R; Brown, Scott R; Storey, Adam G

    2017-09-01

    Glassbrook, DJ, Helms, ER, Brown, SR, and Storey, AG. A review of the biomechanical differences between the high-bar and low-bar back-squat. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2618-2634, 2017-The back-squat is a common exercise in strength and conditioning for a variety of sports. It is widely regarded as a fundamental movement to increase and measure lower-body and trunk function, as well as an effective injury rehabilitation exercise. There are typically 2 different bar positions used when performing the back-squat: the traditional "high-bar" back-squat (HBBS) and the "low-bar" back-squat (LBBS). Different movement strategies are used to ensure that the center of mass remains in the base of support for balance during the execution of these lifts. These movement strategies manifest as differences in (a) joint angles, (b) vertical ground reaction forces, and (c) the activity of key muscles. This review showed that the HBBS is characterized by greater knee flexion, lesser hip flexion, a more upright torso, and a deeper squat. The LBBS is characterized by greater hip flexion and, therefore, a greater forward lean. However, there are limited differences in vertical ground reaction forces between the HBBS and LBBS. The LBBS can also be characterized by a greater muscle activity of the erector spinae, adductors, and gluteal muscles, whereas the HBBS can be characterized by greater quadriceps muscle activity. Practitioners seeking to develop the posterior-chain hip musculature (i.e., gluteal, hamstring, and erector muscle groups) may seek to use the LBBS. In comparison, those seeking to replicate movements with a more upright torso and contribution from the quadriceps may rather seek to use the HBBS in training.

  7. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-03-01

    The present research project investigates monitoring concrete precast panels for bridge decks that are reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars. Due to the lack of long term research on concrete members reinforced with GFRP bars, lo...

  8. Bar code, good for industry and trade--how does it benefit the dentist?

    PubMed

    Oehlmann, H

    2001-10-01

    Every dentist who attentively follows the change in product labelling can easily see that the HIBC bar code is on the increase. In fact, according to information from FIDE/VDDI and ADE/BVD, the dental industry and trade are firmly resolved to apply the HIBC bar code to all products used internationally in dental practices. Why? Indeed, at first it looks like extra expense to additionally print a bar code on the packages. Good reasons can only lie in advantages which manufacturers and the trade expect from the HIBC bar code, Indications in dental technician circles are that the HIBC bar code is coming. If there are advantages, what are these, and can the dentist also profit from them? What does HIBC bar code mean and what items of interest does it include? What does bar code cost and does only one code exist? This is explained briefly, concentrating on the benefits bar code can bring for different users.

  9. Selecting and Effectively Using Sports Drinks, Carbohydrate Gels and Energy Bars

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Effectively Using Sports Drinks, Carbohydrate Gels and Energy Bars Depending upon the length of your workout ... can hinder performance. Sports drinks, carbohydrate gels and energy bars can help restore your body’s fluids and ...

  10. Engineering studies on joint bar integrity, part II : finite element analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-02

    This paper is the second in a two-part series describing : research sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration : (FRA) to study the structural integrity of joint bars. In Part I, : observations from field surveys of joint bar inspections : cond...

  11. Evaluation of dowel bar inserter practices in PCC pavements with magnetic tomography technology : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-01

    Dowel Bar Inserters (DBI) are automated mechanical equipment that position dowel bars in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) after concrete is placed. Compared to the alternative approach, which is using dowel baskets, DBIs offer advantages in cost and sp...

  12. Prototype Stop Bar System Evaluation at John F. Kennedy International Airport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    2 Red Stop Bar Visual Presentation 4 3 Green Stop Bar Visual Presentation 5 4 Photographs of Red and Green Inset Stop Bar Lights 6 5 Photographs of...to green. This provides pilots with a visual confirmation of the controller’s verbal clearance and is intended to prevent runway incursions. The Port...34 colocated with the red lights. The visual presentation of an individual stop bar appears as either five red lights (see figure 2), or five green

  13. Testing of selected metallic reinforcing bars for extending the service life of future concrete bridges : summary of conclusions and recommendations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the major conclusions drawn from its companion reports, which described investigations conducted using a stainless steel-clad bar, selected stainless steel bars (304, 316LN, and duplex 2205), and a carbon steel bar in concrete ...

  14. A reconstruction theorem for Connes-Landi deformations of commutative spectral triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaćić, Branimir

    2015-12-01

    We formulate and prove an extension of Connes's reconstruction theorem for commutative spectral triples to so-called Connes-Landi or isospectral deformations of commutative spectral triples along the action of a compact Abelian Lie group G, also known as toric noncommutative manifolds. In particular, we propose an abstract definition for such spectral triples, where noncommutativity is entirely governed by a deformation parameter sitting in the second group cohomology of the Pontryagin dual of G, and then show that such spectral triples are well-behaved under further Connes-Landi deformation, thereby allowing for both quantisation from and dequantisation to G-equivariant abstract commutative spectral triples. We then use a refinement of the Connes-Dubois-Violette splitting homomorphism to conclude that suitable Connes-Landi deformations of commutative spectral triples by a rational deformation parameter are almost-commutative in the general, topologically non-trivial sense.

  15. Compositional limits and analogs of monoclinic triple-chain silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David M.; Gilleaudeau, Geoffrey J.; Kawa, Cynthia; Dibiase, Jaclyn M.; Fokin, Maria

    2012-08-01

    Growing recognition of triple-chain silicates in nature has prompted experimental research into the conditions under which they can form and the extent of solid solution that is feasible for some key chemical substitutions. Experiments were done primarily in the range of 0.1-0.5 GPa and 200-850 °C for durations of 18-1,034 h. A wide range of bulk compositions were explored in this study that can be classified broadly into two groups: those that are Na free and involve various possible chemical substitutions into jimthompsonite (Mg10Si12O32(OH)4), and those that are Na bearing and involve chemical substitutions into the ideal end-member Na4Mg8Si12O32(OH)4. Numerous attempts to synthesize jimthompsonite or clinojimthompsonite were unsuccessful despite the type of starting material used (reagent oxides, magnesite + SiO2, talc + enstatite, or anthophyllite). Similarly, the chemical substitutions of F- for OH-, Mn2+, Ca2+, or Fe2+ for Mg2+, and 2Li+ for Mg2+ and a vacancy were unsuccessful at nucleating triple-chain silicates. Conversely, nearly pure yields of monoclinic triple-chain silicate could be made at temperatures of 440-630 °C and 0.2 GPa from the composition Na4Mg8Si12O32(OH)4, as found in previous studies, though its composition is most likely depleted in Na as evidenced by electron microprobe and FTIR analysis. Pure yields of triple-chain silicate were also obtained for the F-analog composition Na4Mg8Si12O32F4 at 550-750 °C and 0.2-0.5 GPa if a flux consisting of Na-halide salt and water in a 2:1 ratio by weight was used. In addition, limited chemical substitution could be documented for the substitutions of 2 Na+ for Na+ + H+ and of Mg2+ + vacancy for 2Na+. For the former, the Na content appears to be limited to 2.5 cations giving the ideal composition of Na2.5Mg8Si12O30.5(OH)5.5, while for the latter substitution the Na content may go as low as 1.1 cations giving the composition Na1.1Mg9.4Si12O31.9(OH)4.1 based on a fixed number of Si cations. Further

  16. 33 CFR 13.01-35 - Description of gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Description of gold and silver... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-35 Description of gold and silver bars. (a) The bar is plain and horizontal...

  17. 33 CFR 13.01-35 - Description of gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Description of gold and silver... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-35 Description of gold and silver bars. (a) The bar is plain and horizontal...

  18. 33 CFR 13.01-35 - Description of gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Description of gold and silver... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-35 Description of gold and silver bars. (a) The bar is plain and horizontal...

  19. 33 CFR 13.01-35 - Description of gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Description of gold and silver... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-35 Description of gold and silver bars. (a) The bar is plain and horizontal...

  20. 33 CFR 13.01-35 - Description of gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of gold and silver... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-35 Description of gold and silver bars. (a) The bar is plain and horizontal...

  1. 75 FR 6257 - Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and Roane Counties, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... on Watts Bar Reservoir (Project Operations and marginal strip) would continue to be administered by... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and... Watts Bar Reservoir in Tennessee. On November 19, 2009, the TVA Board of Directors (TVA Board) decided...

  2. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  3. 19 CFR 142.45 - Use of bar code by entry filer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of bar code by entry filer. 142.45 Section 142... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.45 Use of bar code by entry filer. (a... with instructions from the port director, shall preprint invoices with the C-4 Code in bar code and...

  4. 75 FR 70226 - Mackay Bar Corporation; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 3041-004] Mackay Bar... Mackay Bar Corporation, licensee for the Hettinger Hydroelectric Project, filed an Application to..., notice is hereby given that an annual license for Project No. 3041 is issued to the Mackay Bar...

  5. Genderedness of Bar Drinking Culture and Alcohol-Related Harms: A Multi-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…

  6. 38 CFR 3.363 - Bar to benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar to benefits under 38... Purposes § 3.363 Bar to benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151. (a) Claims subject to this section. This section.... (b) Administrative award, compromises, or settlements, or judgments that bar benefits under 38 U.S.C...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6231(e)-2 - Judicial decision not a bar to certain adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judicial decision not a bar to certain....6231(e)-2 Judicial decision not a bar to certain adjustments. (a) In general. A court decision with respect to a partner's income tax liability attributable to nonpartnership items shall not be a bar to...

  8. 77 FR 49818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label... allow 60 days for public comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the bar... technology. Bar Code Label Requirement for Human Drug and Biological Products--(OMB Control Number 0910-0537...

  9. 5 CFR 1651.18 - Payment to one bars payment to another.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to one bars payment to another... BENEFITS § 1651.18 Payment to one bars payment to another. Payment made to a beneficiary(ies) in accordance with this part, based upon information received before payment, bars any claim by any other person. ...

  10. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes... water bar tubes shall thoroughly be cleaned mechanically, washed, and inspected. Circulators and thermic...

  11. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Municipal Smokefree Ordinances: Attitudes of Restaurant and Bar Owners and Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Scott P.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the attitudes of restaurant and bar owners and managers toward a smokefree city ordinance can contribute greatly to the success of a smokefree policy campaign. While local opposition to a smokefree policy always arises from restaurant and bar owners, this study of restaurant and bar owners and managers in two Midwestern cities…

  12. 75 FR 27925 - Use of Turkey Shackle in Bar-Type Cut Operations; Correcting Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ...-0045] Use of Turkey Shackle in Bar-Type Cut Operations; Correcting Amendment AGENCY: Food Safety and... the required shackle width for Bar-type cut turkey operations that use J-type cut maximum line speeds... provides that turkey slaughter establishments that open turkey carcasses with Bar-type cuts may operate at...

  13. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

  14. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.70 Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar...

  15. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.70 Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar...

  16. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.70 Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar...

  17. Enabling Handicapped Nonreaders to Independently Obtain Information: Initial Development of an Inexpensive Bar Code Reader System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBiervliet, Alan

    A project to develop and evaluate a bar code reader system as a self-directed information and instructional aid for handicapped nonreaders is described. The bar code technology involves passing a light sensitive pen or laser over a printed code with bars which correspond to coded numbers. A system would consist of a portable device which could…

  18. 77 FR 45239 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ...-1366; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANE-13] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME AGENCY: Federal... area at Bar Harbor, ME, as the Surry Non-Directional Radio Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new... airspace at Bar Harbor, ME (77 FR 27666) Docket No. FAA-2011-1366. Interested parties were invited to...

  19. 77 FR 27666 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...-1366; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANE-13] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Bar Harbor, ME, as the Surry Non-Directional Radio Beacon... Airport, Bar Harbor, ME. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to the decommissioning of the Surry NDB...

  20. A method for locating Barred Owl (Strix varia) nests in the southern boreal forest of Saskatchewan

    Treesearch

    Shanna D. Frith; Kurt M. Mazur; Paul C. James

    1997-01-01

    Barred Owl (Strix varia) nests are often very difficult to locate. We developed a method for locating Barred Owl nests within the boreal forest of central Saskatchewan, Canada. During the nesting period, we located pairs of Barred Owls through call-playback surveys. We returned to the survey location at sunset and listened for vocalizations from the...