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Sample records for aboveground biomass tended

  1. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha−1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y−1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y−1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y−1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests. PMID:26115195

  2. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests. PMID:26115195

  3. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests.

  4. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  5. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  6. Assessing aboveground tropical forest biomass using Google Earth canopy images.

    PubMed

    Ploton, Pierre; Pélissier, Raphaël; Proisy, Christophe; Flavenot, Théo; Barbier, Nicolas; Rai, S N; Couteron, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in efforts to combat climate change requires participating countries to periodically assess their forest resources on a national scale. Such a process is particularly challenging in the tropics because of technical difficulties related to large aboveground forest biomass stocks, restricted availability of affordable, appropriate remote-sensing images, and a lack of accurate forest inventory data. In this paper, we apply the Fourier-based FOTO method of canopy texture analysis to Google Earth's very-high-resolution images of the wet evergreen forests in the Western Ghats of India in order to (1) assess the predictive power of the method on aboveground biomass of tropical forests, (2) test the merits of free Google Earth images relative to their native commercial IKONOS counterparts and (3) highlight further research needs for affordable, accurate regional aboveground biomass estimations. We used the FOTO method to ordinate Fourier spectra of 1436 square canopy images (125 x 125 m) with respect to a canopy grain texture gradient (i.e., a combination of size distribution and spatial pattern of tree crowns), benchmarked against virtual canopy scenes simulated from a set of known forest structure parameters and a 3-D light interception model. We then used 15 1-ha ground plots to demonstrate that both texture gradients provided by Google Earth and IKONOS images strongly correlated with field-observed stand structure parameters such as the density of large trees, total basal area, and aboveground biomass estimated from a regional allometric model. Our results highlight the great potential of the FOTO method applied to Google Earth data for biomass retrieval because the texture-biomass relationship is only subject to 15% relative error, on average, and does not show obvious saturation trends at large biomass values. We also provide the first reliable map of tropical forest aboveground biomass predicted

  7. Evaluating lidar point densities for effective estimation of aboveground biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Stoker, Jason; Vogel, John M.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) was recently established to provide airborne lidar data coverage on a national scale. As part of a broader research effort of the USGS to develop an effective remote sensing-based methodology for the creation of an operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (Biomass ECV) data product, we evaluated the performance of airborne lidar data at various pulse densities against Landsat 8 satellite imagery in estimating above ground biomass for forests and woodlands in a study area in east-central Arizona, U.S. High point density airborne lidar data, were randomly sampled to produce five lidar datasets with reduced densities ranging from 0.5 to 8 point(s)/m2, corresponding to the point density range of 3DEP to provide national lidar coverage over time. Lidar-derived aboveground biomass estimate errors showed an overall decreasing trend as lidar point density increased from 0.5 to 8 points/m2. Landsat 8-based aboveground biomass estimates produced errors larger than the lowest lidar point density of 0.5 point/m2, and therefore Landsat 8 observations alone were ineffective relative to airborne lidar for generating a Biomass ECV product, at least for the forest and woodland vegetation types of the Southwestern U.S. While a national Biomass ECV product with optimal accuracy could potentially be achieved with 3DEP data at 8 points/m2, our results indicate that even lower density lidar data could be sufficient to provide a national Biomass ECV product with accuracies significantly higher than that from Landsat observations alone.

  8. Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Houghton, R. A.; DosSantos Alvala, R. C.; Soares, J. V.; Yu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The amount and spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon basin is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the flux of carbon released from land-cover and land-use change. Direct measurements of aboveground live biomass (AGLB) are limited to small areas of forest inventory plots and site-specific allometric equations that cannot be readily generalized for the entire basin. Furthermore, there is no spaceborne remote sensing instrument that can measure tropical forest biomass directly. To determine the spatial distribution of forest biomass of the Amazon basin, we report a method based on remote sensing metrics representing various forest structural parameters and environmental variables, and more than 500 plot measurements of forest biomass distributed over the basin. A decision tree approach was used to develop the spatial distribution of AGLB for seven distinct biomass classes of lowland old-growth forests with more than 80% accuracy. AGLB for other vegetation types, such as the woody and herbaceous savanna and secondary forests, was directly estimated with a regression based on satellite data. Results show that AGLB is highest in Central Amazonia and in regions to the east and north, including the Guyanas. Biomass is generally above 300Mgha(sup 1) here except in areas of intense logging or open floodplains. In Western Amazonia, from the lowlands of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia to the Andean mountains, biomass ranges from 150 to 300Mgha(sup 1). Most transitional and seasonal forests at the southern and northwestern edges of the basin have biomass ranging from 100 to 200Mgha(sup 1). The AGLB distribution has a significant correlation with the length of the dry season. We estimate that the total carbon in forest biomass of the Amazon basin, including the dead and below ground biomass, is 86 PgC with +/- 20% uncertainty.

  9. Stratified aboveground forest biomass estimation by remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifi, Hooman; Fassnacht, Fabian E.; Hartig, Florian; Berger, Christian; Hernández, Jaime; Corvalán, Patricio; Koch, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing-assisted estimates of aboveground forest biomass are essential for modeling carbon budgets. It has been suggested that estimates can be improved by building species- or strata-specific biomass models. However, few studies have attempted a systematic analysis of the benefits of such stratification, especially in combination with other factors such as sensor type, statistical prediction method and sampling design of the reference inventory data. We addressed this topic by analyzing the impact of stratifying forest data into three classes (broadleaved, coniferous and mixed forest). We compare predictive accuracy (a) between the strata (b) to a case without stratification for a set of pre-selected predictors from airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral data obtained in a managed mixed forest site in southwestern Germany. We used 5 commonly applied algorithms for biomass predictions on bootstrapped subsamples of the data to obtain cross validated RMSE and r2 diagnostics. Those values were analyzed in a factorial design by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to rank the relative importance of each factor. Selected models were used for wall-to-wall mapping of biomass estimates and their associated uncertainty. The results revealed marginal advantages for the strata-specific prediction models over the unstratified ones, which were more obvious on the wall-to-wall mapped area-based predictions. Yet further tests are necessary to establish the generality of these results. Input data type and statistical prediction method are concluded to remain the two most crucial factors for the quality of remote sensing-assisted biomass models.

  10. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Kai; Yuan, Mengting M.; Xie, Jianping; Li, Dejun; Qin, Yujia; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened. PMID:27677789

  11. Regional Mapping, Modelling, and Monitoring of Tree Aboveground Biomass Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Airborne lidar collections are preferred for mapping aboveground biomass carbon (AGBC), while historical Landsat imagery are preferred for monitoring decadal scale forest cover change. Our modelling approach tracks AGBC change regionally using Landsat time series metrics; training areas are defined by airborne lidar extents within which AGBC is accurately mapped with high confidence. Geospatial topographic and climate layers are also included in the predictive model. Validation is accomplished using systematically sampled Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data that have been independently collected, processed and summarized at the county level. Our goal is to demonstrate that spatially and temporally aggregated annual AGBC map predictions show no bias when compared to annual county-level summaries across the Northwest USA. A prominent source of bias is trees outside forest; much of the more arid portions of our study area meet the FIA definition of non-forest because the tree cover does not exceed their minimum tree cover threshold. We employ detailed tree cover maps derived from high-resolution aerial imagery to extend our AGBC predictions into non-forest areas. We also employ Landsat-derived annual disturbance maps into our mapped AGBC predictions prior to aggregation and validation.

  12. Developing a generalized allometric equation for aboveground biomass estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Balamuta, J. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Li, B.; Man, A.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A key potential uncertainty in estimating carbon stocks across multiple scales stems from the use of empirically calibrated allometric equations, which estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) from plant characteristics such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and/or height (H). The equations themselves contain significant and, at times, poorly characterized errors. Species-specific equations may be missing. Plant responses to their local biophysical environment may lead to spatially varying allometric relationships. The structural predictor may be difficult or impossible to measure accurately, particularly when derived from remote sensing data. All of these issues may lead to significant and spatially varying uncertainties in the estimation of AGB that are unexplored in the literature. We sought to quantify the errors in predicting AGB at the tree and plot level for vegetation plots in California. To accomplish this, we derived a generalized allometric equation (GAE) which we used to model the AGB on a full set of tree information such as DBH, H, taxonomy, and biophysical environment. The GAE was derived using published allometric equations in the GlobAllomeTree database. The equations were sparse in details about the error since authors provide the coefficient of determination (R2) and the sample size. A more realistic simulation of tree AGB should also contain the noise that was not captured by the allometric equation. We derived an empirically corrected variance estimate for the amount of noise to represent the errors in the real biomass. Also, we accounted for the hierarchical relationship between different species by treating each taxonomic level as a covariate nested within a higher taxonomic level (e.g. species < genus). This approach provides estimation under incomplete tree information (e.g. missing species) or blurred information (e.g. conjecture of species), plus the biophysical environment. The GAE allowed us to quantify contribution of each different

  13. [Spatial distribution of aboveground biomass of shrubs in Tianlaochi catchment of the Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Liang, Bei; Di, Li; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Peng, Shou-Zhang; Peng, Huan-Hua; Wang, Chao

    2014-02-01

    This study estimated the spatial distribution of the aboveground biomass of shrubs in the Tianlaochi catchment of Qilian Mountains based on the field survey and remote sensing data. A relationship model of the aboveground biomass and its feasibly measured factors (i. e. , canopy perimeter and plant height) was built. The land use was classified by object-oriented technique with the high resolution image (GeoEye-1) of the study area, and the distribution of shrub coverage was extracted. Then the total aboveground biomass of shrubs in the study area was estimated by the relationship model with the distribution of shrub coverage. The results showed that the aboveground biomass of shrubs in the study area was 1.8 x 10(3) t and the aboveground biomass per unit area was 1598.45 kg x m(-2). The distribution of shrubs mainly was at altitudes of 3000-3700 m, and the aboveground biomass of shrubs on the sunny slope (1.15 x 10(3) t) was higher than that on the shady slope (0.65 x 10(3) t).

  14. Impact of logging on aboveground biomass stocks in lowland rain forest, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Jane; Shearman, Phil; Ash, Julian; Kirkpatrick, J B

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse-gas emissions resulting from logging are poorly quantified across the tropics. There is a need for robust measurement of rain forest biomass and the impacts of logging from which carbon losses can be reliably estimated at regional and global scales. We used a modified Bitterlich plotless technique to measure aboveground live biomass at six unlogged and six logged rain forest areas (coupes) across two approximately 3000-ha regions at the Makapa concession in lowland Papua New Guinea. "Reduced-impact logging" is practiced at Makapa. We found the mean unlogged aboveground biomass in the two regions to be 192.96 +/- 4.44 Mg/ha and 252.92 +/- 7.00 Mg/ha (mean +/- SE), which was reduced by logging to 146.92 +/- 4.58 Mg/ha and 158.84 +/- 4.16, respectively. Killed biomass was not a fixed proportion, but varied with unlogged biomass, with 24% killed in the lower-biomass region, and 37% in the higher-biomass region. Across the two regions logging resulted in a mean aboveground carbon loss of 35 +/- 2.8 Mg/ha. The plotless technique proved efficient at estimating mean aboveground biomass and logging damage. We conclude that substantial bias is likely to occur within biomass estimates derived from single unreplicated plots. PMID:21265444

  15. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Gary D; Curran, Lisa M; Slik, J W F

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the relationship between soil fertility and aboveground biomass in lowland tropical forests have yielded conflicting results, reporting positive, negative and no effect of soil nutrients on aboveground biomass. Here, we quantify the impact of soil variation on the stand structure of mature Bornean forest throughout a lowland watershed (8-196 m a.s.l.) with uniform climate and heterogeneous soils. Categorical and bivariate methods were used to quantify the effects of (1) parent material differing in nutrient content (alluvium > sedimentary > granite) and (2) 27 soil parameters on tree density, size distribution, basal area and aboveground biomass. Trees > or =10 cm (diameter at breast height, dbh) were enumerated in 30 (0.16 ha) plots (sample area = 4.8 ha). Six soil samples (0-20 cm) per plot were analyzed for physiochemical properties. Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Across all plots, stem density averaged 521 +/- 13 stems ha(-1), basal area 39.6 +/- 1.4 m(2) ha(-1) and aboveground biomass 518 +/- 28 Mg ha(-1) (mean +/- SE). Adjusted forest-wide aboveground biomass to account for apparent overestimation of large tree density (based on 69 0.3-ha transects; sample area = 20.7 ha) was 430 +/- 25 Mg ha(-1). Stand structure did not vary significantly among substrates, but it did show a clear trend toward larger stature on nutrient-rich alluvium, with a higher density and larger maximum size of emergent trees. Across all plots, surface soil phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium and percentage sand content were significantly related to stem density and/or aboveground biomass (R (Pearson) = 0.368-0.416). In multiple linear regression, extractable P and percentage sand combined explained 31% of the aboveground biomass variance. Regression analyses on size classes showed that the abundance of emergent trees >120 cm dbh was positively related to soil P and exchangeable bases, whereas trees 60-90 cm dbh were negatively related to these

  16. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Gary D; Curran, Lisa M; Slik, J W F

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the relationship between soil fertility and aboveground biomass in lowland tropical forests have yielded conflicting results, reporting positive, negative and no effect of soil nutrients on aboveground biomass. Here, we quantify the impact of soil variation on the stand structure of mature Bornean forest throughout a lowland watershed (8-196 m a.s.l.) with uniform climate and heterogeneous soils. Categorical and bivariate methods were used to quantify the effects of (1) parent material differing in nutrient content (alluvium > sedimentary > granite) and (2) 27 soil parameters on tree density, size distribution, basal area and aboveground biomass. Trees > or =10 cm (diameter at breast height, dbh) were enumerated in 30 (0.16 ha) plots (sample area = 4.8 ha). Six soil samples (0-20 cm) per plot were analyzed for physiochemical properties. Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Across all plots, stem density averaged 521 +/- 13 stems ha(-1), basal area 39.6 +/- 1.4 m(2) ha(-1) and aboveground biomass 518 +/- 28 Mg ha(-1) (mean +/- SE). Adjusted forest-wide aboveground biomass to account for apparent overestimation of large tree density (based on 69 0.3-ha transects; sample area = 20.7 ha) was 430 +/- 25 Mg ha(-1). Stand structure did not vary significantly among substrates, but it did show a clear trend toward larger stature on nutrient-rich alluvium, with a higher density and larger maximum size of emergent trees. Across all plots, surface soil phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium and percentage sand content were significantly related to stem density and/or aboveground biomass (R (Pearson) = 0.368-0.416). In multiple linear regression, extractable P and percentage sand combined explained 31% of the aboveground biomass variance. Regression analyses on size classes showed that the abundance of emergent trees >120 cm dbh was positively related to soil P and exchangeable bases, whereas trees 60-90 cm dbh were negatively related to these

  17. Estimating forest and woodland aboveground biomass using active and passive remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Aboveground biomass was estimated from active and passive remote sensing sources, including airborne lidar and Landsat-8 satellites, in an eastern Arizona (USA) study area comprised of forest and woodland ecosystems. Compared to field measurements, airborne lidar enabled direct estimation of individual tree height with a slope of 0.98 (R2 = 0.98). At the plot-level, lidar-derived height and intensity metrics provided the most robust estimate for aboveground biomass, producing dominant species-based aboveground models with errors ranging from 4 to 14Mg ha –1 across all woodland and forest species. Landsat-8 imagery produced dominant species-based aboveground biomass models with errors ranging from 10 to 28 Mg ha –1. Thus, airborne lidar allowed for estimates for fine-scale aboveground biomass mapping with low uncertainty, while Landsat-8 seems best suited for broader spatial scale products such as a national biomass essential climate variable (ECV) based on land cover types for the United States.

  18. Above-ground biomass of mangrove species. I. Analysis of models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Mário Luiz Gomes; Schaeffer-Novelli, Yara

    2005-10-01

    This study analyzes the above-ground biomass of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa located in the mangroves of Bertioga (SP) and Guaratiba (RJ), Southeast Brazil. Its purpose is to determine the best regression model to estimate the total above-ground biomass and compartment (leaves, reproductive parts, twigs, branches, trunk and prop roots) biomass, indirectly. To do this, we used structural measurements such as height, diameter at breast-height (DBH), and crown area. A combination of regression types with several compositions of independent variables generated 2.272 models that were later tested. Subsequent analysis of the models indicated that the biomass of reproductive parts, branches, and prop roots yielded great variability, probably because of environmental factors and seasonality (in the case of reproductive parts). It also indicated the superiority of multiple regression to estimate above-ground biomass as it allows researchers to consider several aspects that affect above-ground biomass, specially the influence of environmental factors. This fact has been attested to the models that estimated the biomass of crown compartments.

  19. Standing crop and aboveground biomass partitioning of a dwarf mangrove forest in Taylor River Slough, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coronado-Molina, C.; Day, J.W.; Reyes, E.; Perez, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    The structure and standing crop biomass of a dwarf mangrove forest, located in the salinity transition zone ofTaylor River Slough in the Everglades National Park, were studied. Although the four mangrove species reported for Florida occurred at the study site, dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees dominated the forest. The structural characteristics of the mangrove forest were relatively simple: tree height varied from 0.9 to 1.2 meters, and tree density ranged from 7062 to 23 778 stems haa??1. An allometric relationship was developed to estimate leaf, branch, prop root, and total aboveground biomass of dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees. Total aboveground biomass and their components were best estimated as a power function of the crown area times number of prop roots as an independent variable (Y = B ?? Xa??0.5083). The allometric equation for each tree component was highly significant (p<0.0001), with all r2 values greater than 0.90. The allometric relationship was used to estimate total aboveground biomass that ranged from 7.9 to 23.2 ton haa??1. Rhizophora mangle contributed 85% of total standing crop biomass. Conocarpus erectus, Laguncularia racemosa, and Avicennia germinans contributed the remaining biomass. Average aboveground biomass allocation was 69% for prop roots, 25% for stem and branches, and 6% for leaves. This aboveground biomass partitioning pattern, which gives a major role to prop roots that have the potential to produce an extensive root system, may be an important biological strategy in response to low phosphorus availability and relatively reduced soils that characterize mangrove forests in South Florida.

  20. Range vegetation type mapping and above-ground green biomass estimations using multispectral imagery. [Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Gordon, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Range vegetation types have been successfully mapped on a portion of the 68,000 acre study site located west of Baggs, Wyoming, using ERTS-1 imagery. These types have been ascertained from field transects over a five year period. Comparable studies will be made with EREP imagery. Above-ground biomass estimation studies are being conducted utilizing double sampling techniques on two similar study sites. Information obtained will be correlated with percent relative reflectance measurements obtained on the ground which will be related to image brightness levels. This will provide an estimate of above-ground green biomass with multispectral imagery.

  1. Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Chave, Jérôme; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Búrquez, Alberto; Chidumayo, Emmanuel; Colgan, Matthew S; Delitti, Welington B C; Duque, Alvaro; Eid, Tron; Fearnside, Philip M; Goodman, Rosa C; Henry, Matieu; Martínez-Yrízar, Angelina; Mugasha, Wilson A; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Nelson, Bruce W; Ngomanda, Alfred; Nogueira, Euler M; Ortiz-Malavassi, Edgar; Pélissier, Raphaël; Ploton, Pierre; Ryan, Casey M; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Vieilledent, Ghislain

    2014-10-01

    Terrestrial carbon stock mapping is important for the successful implementation of climate change mitigation policies. Its accuracy depends on the availability of reliable allometric models to infer oven-dry aboveground biomass of trees from census data. The degree of uncertainty associated with previously published pantropical aboveground biomass allometries is large. We analyzed a global database of directly harvested trees at 58 sites, spanning a wide range of climatic conditions and vegetation types (4004 trees ≥ 5 cm trunk diameter). When trunk diameter, total tree height, and wood specific gravity were included in the aboveground biomass model as covariates, a single model was found to hold across tropical vegetation types, with no detectable effect of region or environmental factors. The mean percent bias and variance of this model was only slightly higher than that of locally fitted models. Wood specific gravity was an important predictor of aboveground biomass, especially when including a much broader range of vegetation types than previous studies. The generic tree diameter-height relationship depended linearly on a bioclimatic stress variable E, which compounds indices of temperature variability, precipitation variability, and drought intensity. For cases in which total tree height is unavailable for aboveground biomass estimation, a pantropical model incorporating wood density, trunk diameter, and the variable E outperformed previously published models without height. However, to minimize bias, the development of locally derived diameter-height relationships is advised whenever possible. Both new allometric models should contribute to improve the accuracy of biomass assessment protocols in tropical vegetation types, and to advancing our understanding of architectural and evolutionary constraints on woody plant development. PMID:24817483

  2. Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Chave, Jérôme; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Búrquez, Alberto; Chidumayo, Emmanuel; Colgan, Matthew S; Delitti, Welington B C; Duque, Alvaro; Eid, Tron; Fearnside, Philip M; Goodman, Rosa C; Henry, Matieu; Martínez-Yrízar, Angelina; Mugasha, Wilson A; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Nelson, Bruce W; Ngomanda, Alfred; Nogueira, Euler M; Ortiz-Malavassi, Edgar; Pélissier, Raphaël; Ploton, Pierre; Ryan, Casey M; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Vieilledent, Ghislain

    2014-10-01

    Terrestrial carbon stock mapping is important for the successful implementation of climate change mitigation policies. Its accuracy depends on the availability of reliable allometric models to infer oven-dry aboveground biomass of trees from census data. The degree of uncertainty associated with previously published pantropical aboveground biomass allometries is large. We analyzed a global database of directly harvested trees at 58 sites, spanning a wide range of climatic conditions and vegetation types (4004 trees ≥ 5 cm trunk diameter). When trunk diameter, total tree height, and wood specific gravity were included in the aboveground biomass model as covariates, a single model was found to hold across tropical vegetation types, with no detectable effect of region or environmental factors. The mean percent bias and variance of this model was only slightly higher than that of locally fitted models. Wood specific gravity was an important predictor of aboveground biomass, especially when including a much broader range of vegetation types than previous studies. The generic tree diameter-height relationship depended linearly on a bioclimatic stress variable E, which compounds indices of temperature variability, precipitation variability, and drought intensity. For cases in which total tree height is unavailable for aboveground biomass estimation, a pantropical model incorporating wood density, trunk diameter, and the variable E outperformed previously published models without height. However, to minimize bias, the development of locally derived diameter-height relationships is advised whenever possible. Both new allometric models should contribute to improve the accuracy of biomass assessment protocols in tropical vegetation types, and to advancing our understanding of architectural and evolutionary constraints on woody plant development.

  3. [Spatiotemporal variations of aboveground biomass and leaf area index of typical grassland in tower flux footprint].

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Li, Gui-cai; Wang, Jun-bang

    2011-03-01

    By using cyclic sampling method, the aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) of typical grassland in tower flux footprint were measured at three growth stages, i.e., early July (July 2-7), late July (July 20-26), and late August (Aug. 25-30), with their spatial patterns analyzed by geostatistics. At the three stages, the aboveground biomass of the grassland kept rising, while the LAI decreased after an initial increase. Both the two variables had good spatial autocorrelation, with similar spatial pattern and temporal evolution trend, and changed from stripe to patch. From early July to late August, the C0/(C0+C) of the aboveground biomass and LAI all decreased significantly, indicating that the spatial autocorrelation of the two variables changed from medium to high. The change ranges of the two variables gradually decreased, presenting the decrease of spatial continuity. The fractal dimension (D) also decreased gradually, suggesting the increase of spatial dependence. Topography and field management were the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass and LAI, which induced the spatial variability of water and heat, and further, affected the grass growth. PMID:21657018

  4. Aboveground total and green biomass of dryland shrub derived from terrestrial laser scanning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of many dryland vegetation species are expected to shift based on predictions of future increases in global temperatures. Quantifying aboveground biomass in dryland systems is important for assessing global carbon storage and monitoring the presence and distribution of these rapidl...

  5. [Spatiotemporal variations of aboveground biomass and leaf area index of typical grassland in tower flux footprint].

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Li, Gui-cai; Wang, Jun-bang

    2011-03-01

    By using cyclic sampling method, the aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) of typical grassland in tower flux footprint were measured at three growth stages, i.e., early July (July 2-7), late July (July 20-26), and late August (Aug. 25-30), with their spatial patterns analyzed by geostatistics. At the three stages, the aboveground biomass of the grassland kept rising, while the LAI decreased after an initial increase. Both the two variables had good spatial autocorrelation, with similar spatial pattern and temporal evolution trend, and changed from stripe to patch. From early July to late August, the C0/(C0+C) of the aboveground biomass and LAI all decreased significantly, indicating that the spatial autocorrelation of the two variables changed from medium to high. The change ranges of the two variables gradually decreased, presenting the decrease of spatial continuity. The fractal dimension (D) also decreased gradually, suggesting the increase of spatial dependence. Topography and field management were the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass and LAI, which induced the spatial variability of water and heat, and further, affected the grass growth.

  6. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Vu Thanh; van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB) and root biomass (RB) based on 300 (of 45 species) and 40 (of 25 species) sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H), wood density (WD) was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam. PMID:27309718

  7. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nam, Vu Thanh; van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB) and root biomass (RB) based on 300 (of 45 species) and 40 (of 25 species) sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H), wood density (WD) was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam. PMID:27309718

  8. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  9. Regional Contingencies in the Relationship between Aboveground Biomass and Litter in the World’s Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Lydia R.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Cleland, Elsa E.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Hobbie, Sarah; Harpole, W. Stan; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Chu, Chengjin; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Davies, Kendi F.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hagenah, Nicole; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Li, Wei; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Stevens, Carly J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on regional-scale studies, aboveground production and litter decomposition are thought to positively covary, because they are driven by shared biotic and climatic factors. Until now we have been unable to test whether production and decomposition are generally coupled across climatically dissimilar regions, because we lacked replicated data collected within a single vegetation type across multiple regions, obfuscating the drivers and generality of the association between production and decomposition. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationships between production and decomposition rests heavily on separate meta-analyses of each response, because no studies have simultaneously measured production and the accumulation or decomposition of litter using consistent methods at globally relevant scales. Here, we use a multi-country grassland dataset collected using a standardized protocol to show that live plant biomass (an estimate of aboveground net primary production) and litter disappearance (represented by mass loss of aboveground litter) do not strongly covary. Live biomass and litter disappearance varied at different spatial scales. There was substantial variation in live biomass among continents, sites and plots whereas among continent differences accounted for most of the variation in litter disappearance rates. Although there were strong associations among aboveground biomass, litter disappearance and climatic factors in some regions (e.g. U.S. Great Plains), these relationships were inconsistent within and among the regions represented by this study. These results highlight the importance of replication among regions and continents when characterizing the correlations between ecosystem processes and interpreting their global-scale implications for carbon flux. We must exercise caution in parameterizing litter decomposition and aboveground production in future regional and global carbon models as their relationship is complex. PMID:23405103

  10. Topographic Variation in Aboveground Biomass in a Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dunmei; Lai, Jiangshan; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Mi, Xiangcheng; Ma, Keping

    2012-01-01

    The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha−1 (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5]) and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha−1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0]) in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha−1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8]) in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage. PMID:23118961

  11. Estimating aboveground biomass for broadleaf woody plants and young conifers in Sierra Nevada, California forests.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Shook, Christine D.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of biomass is fundamental to a wide range of research and natural resource management goals. An accurate estimation of plant biomass is essential to predict potential fire behavior, calculate carbon sequestration for global climate change research, assess critical wildlife habitat, and so forth. Reliable allometric equations from simple field measurements are necessary for efficient evaluation of plant biomass. However, allometric equations are not available for many common woody plant taxa in the Sierra Nevada. In this report, we present more than 200 regression equations for the Sierra Nevada western slope that relate crown diameter, plant height, crown volume, stem diameter, and both crown diameter and height to the dry weight of foliage, branches, and entire aboveground biomass. Destructive sampling methods resulted in regression equations that accurately predict biomass from one or two simple, nondestructive field measurements. The tables presented here will allow researchers and natural resource managers to easily choose the best equations to fit their biomass assessment needs.

  12. Estimating aboveground biomass for broadleaf woody plants and young conifers in Sierra Nevada, California, forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGinnis, T.W.; Shook, C.D.; Keeley, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of biomass is fundamental to a wide range of research and natural resource management goals. An accurate estimation of plant biomass is essential to predict potential fire behavior, calculate carbon sequestration for global climate change research, assess critical wildlife habitat, and so forth. Reliable allometric equations from simple field measurements are necessary for efficient evaluation of plant biomass. However, allometric equations are not available for many common woody plant taxa in the Sierra Nevada. In this report, we present more than 200 regression equations for the Sierra Nevada western slope that relate crown diameter, plant height, crown volume, stem diameter, and both crown diameter and height to the dry weight of foliage, branches, and entire aboveground biomass. Destructive sampling methods resulted in regression equations that accurately predict biomass from one or two simple, nondestructive field measurements. The tables presented here will allow researchers and natural resource managers to easily choose the best equations to fit their biomass assessment needs.

  13. Monitoring Changes in Aboveground Biomass in Loblolly Pine Forests Using Multichannel Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasischke, Eric Stewart

    A study was conducted to evaluate using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for estimating aboveground biomass in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests. The data set for this experiment was a multiple-frequency (C-, L- and P-band), polarimetric SAR data set collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR System over the Duke University Research Forest located near Durham, North Carolina. In addition to the SAR data set, a set of ground measurements were collected to describe the tree geometry and biomass characteristics from 59 different stands consisting principally of loblolly pine within the Duke Forest. The aboveground, dry weight woody biomass in these test stands ranges from < 1 to >50 kg-m^2. The first analysis performed on this data set was to produce algorithms to estimate both dry and wet weight biomasses for each of the test stands, and to distribute this biomass amongst various tree components (e.g., boles, branches, and needles/leaves) as well as the different layers within the tree canopy (e.g., canopy, subcanopy and understory) in order to better relate biomass to the radar backscattering measurements. This was accomplished by development of allometric equations to estimate biomass for individual trees, from which stand estimates on an aerial basis were derived. The biomass estimates were then statistically correlated with radar backscatter (sigma ^circ) measurements derived from the SAR data set. It was found that sigma^ circ at a variety of radar frequencies (P, L, and C-bands) and linear-polarization combinations (HH, HV, and VV) were significantly correlated (at a level of significance of p = 0.001) to either individual biomass components (e.g., bole biomass, branch biomass, needle/leaf biomass, etc.) or multiple combinations of these components. While the correlations were significant at all linear polarizations at L- and P-bands, they were only significant in the cross -polarized channel at C-band. Finally, a two-step method was developed to estimate aboveground

  14. Topographically mediated controls on aboveground biomass across a mediterranean-type landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, K.; Asner, G. P.; Field, C. B.

    2009-12-01

    Aboveground biomass accumulation is a useful metric for evaluating habitat restoration and ecosystem services projects, in addition to being a robust measure of carbon sequestration. However, at the landscape scale non-anthropogenic controls on biomass accumulation are poorly understood. In this study we combined field measurements, high resolution data from the NASA JPL Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), and the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) system to create a comprehensive map of aboveground biomass across a patchy mediterranean-type landscape (Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, Stanford, CA). Candidate explanatory variables (e.g. slope, elevation, incident solar radiation) were developed using a geologic map and a digital elevation model derived from the lidar data. Finally, candidate variables were tested, and a model was produced to predict aboveground biomass from environmental data. Though many of the explanatory variables have only indirect effects on plant growth, the model permits inferences to be made about the relative importance of light, water, temperature, and edaphic characteristics on carbon accumulation in mediterranean-type systems.

  15. Shifts in Aboveground Biomass Allocation Patterns of Dominant Shrub Species across a Strong Environmental Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Kumordzi, Bright B.; Gundale, Michael J.; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Most plant biomass allocation studies have focused on allocation to shoots versus roots, and little is known about drivers of allocation for aboveground plant organs. We explored the drivers of within-and between-species variation of aboveground biomass allocation across a strong environmental resource gradient, i.e., a long-term chronosequence of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden across which soil fertility and plant productivity declines while light availability increases. For each of the three coexisting dominant understory dwarf shrub species on each island, we estimated the fraction of the total aboveground biomass produced year of sampling that was allocated to sexual reproduction (i.e., fruits), leaves and stems for each of two growing seasons, to determine how biomass allocation responded to the chronosequence at both the within-species and whole community levels. Against expectations, within-species allocation to fruits was least on less fertile islands, and allocation to leaves at the whole community level was greatest on intermediate islands. Consistent with expectations, different coexisting species showed contrasting allocation patterns, with the species that was best adapted for more fertile conditions allocating the most to vegetative organs, and with its allocation pattern showing the strongest response to the gradient. Our study suggests that co-existing dominant plant species can display highly contrasting biomass allocations to different aboveground organs within and across species in response to limiting environmental resources within the same plant community. Such knowledge is important for understanding how community assembly, trait spectra, and ecological processes driven by the plant community vary across environmental gradients and among contrasting ecosystems. PMID:27270445

  16. Are Inventory Based and Remotely Sensed Above-Ground Biomass Estimates Consistent?

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Timothy C.; Williams, Mathew; Bloom, A. Anthony; Mitchard, Edward T. A.; Ryan, Casey M.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation are poorly known at local, national and global scales. In part, this lack of knowledge results from uncertain above-ground biomass estimates. It is generally assumed that using more sophisticated methods of estimating above-ground biomass, which make use of remote sensing, will improve accuracy. We examine this assumption by calculating, and then comparing, above-ground biomass area density (AGBD) estimates from studies with differing levels of methodological sophistication. We consider estimates based on information from nine different studies at the scale of Africa, Mozambique and a 1160 km2 study area within Mozambique. The true AGBD is not known for these scales and so accuracy cannot be determined. Instead we consider the overall precision of estimates by grouping different studies. Since an the accuracy of an estimate cannot exceed its precision, this approach provides an upper limit on the overall accuracy of the group. This reveals poor precision at all scales, even between studies that are based on conceptually similar approaches. Mean AGBD estimates for Africa vary from 19.9 to 44.3 Mg ha−1, for Mozambique from 12.7 to 68.3 Mg ha−1, and for the 1160 km2 study area estimates range from 35.6 to 102.4 Mg ha−1. The original uncertainty estimates for each study, when available, are generally small in comparison with the differences between mean biomass estimates of different studies. We find that increasing methodological sophistication does not appear to result in improved precision of AGBD estimates, and moreover, inadequate estimates of uncertainty obscure any improvements in accuracy. Therefore, despite the clear advantages of remote sensing, there is a need to improve remotely sensed AGBD estimates if they are to provide accurate information on above-ground biomass. In particular, more robust and comprehensive uncertainty estimates are needed. PMID:24069275

  17. Carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species in lower Gangetic plain.

    PubMed

    Jana, Bipal K; Biswas, Soumyajit; Majumder, Mrinmoy; Roy, Pankaj K; Mazumdar, Asis

    2011-07-01

    Carbon is sequestered by the plant photosynthesis and stored as biomass in different parts of the tree. Carbon sequestration rate has been measured for young species (6 years age) of Shorea robusta at Chadra forest in Paschim Medinipur district, Albizzia lebbek in Indian Botanic Garden in Howrah district and Artocarpus integrifolia at Banobitan within Kolkata in the lower Gangetic plain of West Bengal in India by Automated Vaisala Made Instrument GMP343 and aboveground biomass carbon has been analyzed by CHN analyzer. The specific objective of this paper is to measure carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia. The carbon sequestration rate (mean) from the ambient air during winter season as obtained by Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 11.13 g/h, 14.86 g/h and 4.22g/h, respectively. The annual carbon sequestration rate from ambient air were estimated at 8.97 t C ha(-1) by Shorea robusta, 11.97 t C ha(-1) by Albizzia lebbek and 3.33 t C ha(-1) by Artocarpus integrifolia. The percentage of carbon content (except root) in the aboveground biomass of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 47.45, 47.12 and 43.33, respectively. The total aboveground biomass carbon stock per hectare as estimated for Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 5.22 t C ha(-1) , 6.26 t C ha(-1) and 7.28 t C ha(-1), respectively in these forest stands.

  18. Shifts in Aboveground Biomass Allocation Patterns of Dominant Shrub Species across a Strong Environmental Gradient.

    PubMed

    Kumordzi, Bright B; Gundale, Michael J; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A

    2016-01-01

    Most plant biomass allocation studies have focused on allocation to shoots versus roots, and little is known about drivers of allocation for aboveground plant organs. We explored the drivers of within-and between-species variation of aboveground biomass allocation across a strong environmental resource gradient, i.e., a long-term chronosequence of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden across which soil fertility and plant productivity declines while light availability increases. For each of the three coexisting dominant understory dwarf shrub species on each island, we estimated the fraction of the total aboveground biomass produced year of sampling that was allocated to sexual reproduction (i.e., fruits), leaves and stems for each of two growing seasons, to determine how biomass allocation responded to the chronosequence at both the within-species and whole community levels. Against expectations, within-species allocation to fruits was least on less fertile islands, and allocation to leaves at the whole community level was greatest on intermediate islands. Consistent with expectations, different coexisting species showed contrasting allocation patterns, with the species that was best adapted for more fertile conditions allocating the most to vegetative organs, and with its allocation pattern showing the strongest response to the gradient. Our study suggests that co-existing dominant plant species can display highly contrasting biomass allocations to different aboveground organs within and across species in response to limiting environmental resources within the same plant community. Such knowledge is important for understanding how community assembly, trait spectra, and ecological processes driven by the plant community vary across environmental gradients and among contrasting ecosystems. PMID:27270445

  19. Remote sensing of aboveground biomass and annual net aerial primary productivity in tidal wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Hardisky, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A technique was investigated for estimating biomass and net aerial primary productivity (NAPP) in Delaware tidal marshes from spectral data, describing marsh vegetation canopies. Spectral radiance data were collected with hand-held radiometers from the ground and from low altitude aircraft. Spectral wavebands corresponding to Landsat 4 thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 and multispectral scanner bands 5 and 7 were employed. Spectral data, expressed as index values, were substituted into simple regression models to nondestructively compute total aboveground biomass. Dead biomass, salt crystals on plant leaves and soil background reflectance, all attenuated the spectral radiance index values. A large spectral contribution from any one of these canopy components caused an underestimate of live biomass. Biomass and annual NAPP of a S. alterniflora dominated salt marsh was estimated by traditional harvesting techniques and from ground-gathered spectral radiance data. The live and dead standing crop biomass estimates computed from spectral data were usually not significantly different from harvest biomass estimates. Spectral estimates of NAPP were usually within 10% of NAPP estimates calculated from harvest data. August live standing crop biomass estimates computed from ground-gathered spectral data for a tidal brackish marsh were generally within 10% of harvest estimates. Live biomass estimates computed from spectral data gathered from a low altitude aircraft were equally similar to harvest biomass estimates. The remote sensing technique holds much promise for rapid and accurate estimates of biomass and NAPP in tidal marshes.

  20. Assessing general relationships between aboveground biomass and vegetation structure parameters for improved carbon estimate from lidar remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni-Meister, Wenge; Lee, Shihyan; Strahler, Alan H.; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Schaaf, Crystal; Yao, Tian; Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, Guoqing; Blair, J. Bryan

    2010-06-01

    Lidar-based aboveground biomass is derived based on the empirical relationship between lidar-measured vegetation height and aboveground biomass, often leading to large uncertainties of aboveground biomass estimates at large scales. This study investigates whether the use of any additional lidar-derived vegetation structure parameters besides height improves aboveground biomass estimation. The analysis uses data collected in the field and with the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), and the Echidna® validation instrument (EVI), a ground-based hemispherical-scanning lidar data in New England in 2003 and 2007. Our field data analysis shows that using wood volume (approximated by the product of basal area and top 10% tree height) and vegetation type (conifer/softwood or deciduous/hardwood forests, providing wood density) has the potential to improve aboveground biomass estimates at large scales. This result is comparable to previous individual-tree based analyses. Our LVIS data analysis indicates that structure parameters that combine height and gap fraction, such as RH100*cover and RH50*cover, are closely related to wood volume and thus biomass particularly for conifer forests. RH100*cover and RH50*cover perform similarly or even better than RH50, a good biomass predictor found in previous study. This study shows that the use of structure parameters that combine height and gap fraction (rather than height alone) improves the aboveground biomass estimate, and that the fusion of lidar and optical remote sensing (to provide vegetation type) will provide better aboveground biomass estimates than using lidar alone. Our ground lidar analysis shows that EVI provides good estimates of wood volume, and thus accurate estimates of aboveground biomass particularly at the stand level.

  1. Carbon and Nitrogen Storage in Aboveground Biomass and Organic Layer in Natural Larix Stands in Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, M.; Saito, H.; Sawamoto, T.; Hatano, R.; Yajima, T.; Takahashi, K.; Cha, J.; Isaev, A.; Maximov, T.

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the carbon storage capacity of natural Larix stands in eastern Siberia, aboveground biomass, carbon and nitrogen storage in the biomass and organic layer of soil, and net primary production (NPP) were estimated in relation to stand age. Stands studied were from young to mature growth stage. The aboveground biomass and carbon storage in the biomass increased sigmoidally with stand age. The asymptotes of the biomass and carbon storage were 104 t\\ha-1 and 52 tC\\ha-1, respectively. The carbon storage capacity of the aboveground biomass was considered not to be small depending on the long period during which a large biomass close to the asymptote is retained, while the annual increment of the biomass is small. Also, carbon sink efficiency of the biomass changed with stand age. NPP of the stands was small comparing with those of temperate and boreal stands. Estimated net ecosystem production was positive even in a mature stand. Siberian Larix stands studied were carbon sink irrespective of stand age. The carbon storage in organic layer of soil accounted for 80-100 % of that in the aboveground biomass and was a significant carbon sink. Nitrogen was considered as a limited nutrient for the production of the stands from its allocation pattern to aboveground tree organs and storage pattern in soil. Furthermore, the decomposition rate of litter was small and affects the accumulation of organic materials.

  2. Temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass decreases as spatial variability increases.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, Devan Allen; Hovick, Torre J; Elmore, R Dwayne; Engle, David M; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Winter, Stephen L; Miller, James R; Debinski, Diane M

    2016-03-01

    Ecological theory predicts that diversity decreases variability in ecosystem function. We predict that, at the landscape scale, spatial variability created by a mosaic of contrasting patches that differ in time since disturbance will decrease temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. Using data from a multi-year study of seven grazed tallgrass prairie landscapes, each experimentally managed for one to eight patches, we show that increased spatial variability driven by spatially patchy fire and herbivory reduces temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. This pattern is associated with statistical evidence for the portfolio effect and a positive relationship between temporal variability and functional group synchrony as predicted by metacommunity variability theory. As disturbance from fire and grazing interact to create a shifting mosaic of spatially heterogeneous patches within a landscape, temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass can be dampened. These results suggest that spatially heterogeneous disturbance regimes contribute to a portfolio of ecosystem functions provided by biodiversity, including wildlife habitat, fuel, and forage. We discuss how spatial patterns of disturbance drive variability within and among patches. PMID:27197382

  3. Temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass decreases as spatial variability increases.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, Devan Allen; Hovick, Torre J; Elmore, R Dwayne; Engle, David M; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Winter, Stephen L; Miller, James R; Debinski, Diane M

    2016-03-01

    Ecological theory predicts that diversity decreases variability in ecosystem function. We predict that, at the landscape scale, spatial variability created by a mosaic of contrasting patches that differ in time since disturbance will decrease temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. Using data from a multi-year study of seven grazed tallgrass prairie landscapes, each experimentally managed for one to eight patches, we show that increased spatial variability driven by spatially patchy fire and herbivory reduces temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. This pattern is associated with statistical evidence for the portfolio effect and a positive relationship between temporal variability and functional group synchrony as predicted by metacommunity variability theory. As disturbance from fire and grazing interact to create a shifting mosaic of spatially heterogeneous patches within a landscape, temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass can be dampened. These results suggest that spatially heterogeneous disturbance regimes contribute to a portfolio of ecosystem functions provided by biodiversity, including wildlife habitat, fuel, and forage. We discuss how spatial patterns of disturbance drive variability within and among patches.

  4. Tibetan alpine tundra responses to simulated changes in climate: Aboveground biomass and community responses

    SciTech Connect

    Yanqing Zhang; Welker, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    High-elevation ecosystems are predicted to be some of the terrestrial habitats most sensitive to changing climates. The ecological consequences of changes in alpine tundra environmental conditions are still unclear especially for habitats in Asia. In this study we report findings from a field experiment where an alpine tundra grassland on the Tibetan plateau (37{degrees}N, 101{degrees}E) was exposed to experimental warming, irradiance was lowered, and wind speed reduced to simulate a suite of potential changes in environmental conditions. Our warming treatment increased air temperatures by 5{degrees}C on average and soil temperatures were elevated by 3{degrees}C at 5 cm depth. Aboveground biomass of grasses responded rapidly to the warmer conditions whereby biomass was 25% greater than that of controls after only 5 wk of experimental warming. This increase was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in forb biomass, resulting in almost no net change in community biomass after 5 wk. Lower irradiance reduced grass biomass during the same period. Under ambient conditions total aboveground community biomass increased seasonally from 161 g m{sup -2} in July to a maximum of 351 g m{sup -2} in September, declining to 285 g m{sup -2} in October. However, under warmed conditions, peak community biomass was extended into October due in part to continued growth of grasses and the postponement of senescence. Our finding indicate that while alpine grasses respond favorably to altered conditions, others may not. And, while peak community biomass may actually change very little under warmer summers, the duration of peak biomass may be extended having feedback effects on net ecosystem CO{sub 2} balances, nutrient cycling, and forage availability. 47 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Estimating aboveground biomass of broadleaved woody plants in the understory of Florida Keys pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Koptur, S.; Snyder, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Species-specific allometric equations that provide estimates of biomass from measured plant attributes are currently unavailable for shrubs common to South Florida pine rocklands, where fire plays an important part in shaping the structure and function of ecosystems. We developed equations to estimate total aboveground biomass and fine fuel of 10 common hardwood species in the shrub layer of pine forests of the lower Florida Keys. Many equations that related biomass categories to crown area and height were significant (p < 0.05), but the form and variables comprising the best model varied among species. We applied the best-fit regression models to structural information from the shrub stratum in 18 plots on Big Pine Key, the most extensive pine forest in the Keys. Estimates based on species-specific equations indicated clearly that total aboveground shrub biomass and shrub fine fuel increased with time since last fire, but the relationships were non-linear. The relative proportion of biomass constituted by the major species also varied with stand age. Estimates based on mixed-species regressions differed slightly from estimates based on species-specific models, but the former could provide useful approximations in similar forests where species-specific regressions are not yet available. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping Aboveground Biomass in the Amazon Basin: Exploring Sensors, Scales, and Strategies for Optimal Data Linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W. S.; Baccini, A.

    2013-05-01

    Information on the distribution and density of carbon in tropical forests is critical to decision-making on a host of globally significant issues ranging from climate stabilization and biodiversity conservation to poverty reduction and human health. Encouraged by recent progress at both the international and jurisdictional levels on the design of incentive-based policy mechanisms to compensate tropical nations for maintaining their forests intact, governments throughout the tropics are moving with urgency to implement robust national and sub-national forest monitoring systems for operationally tracking and reporting on changes in forest cover and associated carbon stocks. Monitoring systems will be required to produce results that are accurate, consistent, complete, transparent, and comparable at sub-national to pantropical scales, and satellite-based remote sensing supported by field observations is widely-accepted as the most objective and cost-effective solution. The effectiveness of any system for large-area forest monitoring will necessarily depend on the capacity of current and near-future Earth observation satellites to provide information that meets the requirements of developing monitoring protocols. However, important questions remain regarding the role that spatially explicit maps of aboveground biomass and carbon can play in IPCC-compliant forest monitoring systems, with the majority of these questions stemming from doubts about the inherit sensitivity of satellite data to aboveground forest biomass, confusion about the relationship between accuracy and resolution, and a general lack of guidance on optimal strategies for linking field reference and remote sensing data sources. Here we demonstrate the ability of a state-of-the-art satellite radar sensor, the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR, and a venerable optical platform, Landsat 5, to support large-area mapping of aboveground tropical woody biomass across a 153,000-km2 region in the southwestern Amazon

  7. Assessing General Relationships Between Above-Ground Biomass and Vegetation Structure Parameters for Improved Carbon Estimate from Lidar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni-Meister, W.; Lee, S.; Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.; Schaaf, C.; Yao, T.; Ranson, J.; Sun, G.; Blair, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    Lidar remote sensing uses vegetation height to estimate large-scale above-ground biomass. However, lidar height and biomass relationships are empirical and thus often lead to large uncertainties in above-ground biomass estimates. This study uses vegetation structure measurements from field: an airborne lidar (Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor, LVIS)) and a full wave form ground-based lidar (Echidna® validation instrument, EVI) collected in the New England region in 2003 and 2007, to investigate using additional vegetation structure parameters besides height for improved above-ground biomass estimation from lidar. Our field data analysis shows that using woody volume (approximated by the product of basal area and top 10% tree height) and vegetation type (conifer/softwood or deciduous/hardwood forests, providing wood density) has the potential to improve above-ground biomass estimates at large scale. This result is comparable to previous work by Chave et al. (2005), which focused on individual trees. However this study uses a slightly different approach, and our woody volume is estimated differently from Chave et al. (2005). Previous studies found that RH50 is a good predictor of above-ground biomass (Drake et al., 2002; 2003). Our LVIS data analysis shows that structure parameters that combine height and gap fraction, such as RH100*cover and RH50*cover, perform similarly or even better than RH50. We also found that the close relationship of RH100*cover and RH50*cover with woody volume explains why they are good predictors of above-ground biomass. RH50 is highly related to RH100*cover, and this explains why RH50 is a better predictor of biomass than RH100. This study shows that using structure parameters combining height and gap fraction improve above-ground biomass estimate compared to height alone, and fusion of lidar and optical remote sensing (to provide vegetation type) will provide better above-ground biomass estimates than lidar alone. Ground lidar analysis

  8. Interactions between herbivory and warming in aboveground biomass production of arctic vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Christian; Post, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Background Many studies investigating the ecosystem effects of global climate change have focused on arctic ecosystems because the Arctic is expected to undergo the earliest and most pronounced changes in response to increasing global temperatures, and arctic ecosystems are considerably limited by low temperatures and permafrost. In these nutrient limited systems, a warmer climate is expected to increase plant biomass production, primarily through increases in shrubs over graminoids and forbs. But, the influence of vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores has been largely absent in studies investigating the effects of vegetation responses to climate change, despite the fact that herbivory can have a major influence on plant community composition, biomass and nutrient cycling. Here, we present results from a multi-annual field experiment investigating the effects of vertebrate herbivory on plant biomass response to simulated climate warming in arctic Greenland. Results The results after four years of treatments did not give any clear evidence of increased biomass of shrubs in response climate warming. Nor did our study indicate that vertebrate grazing mediated any increased domination of shrubs over other functional plant groups in response to warming. However, our results indicate an important role of insect outbreaks on aboveground biomass. Intense caterpillar foraging from a two-year outbreak of the moth Eurois occulta during two growing seasons may have concealed any treatment effects. However, there was some evidence suggesting that vertebrate herbivores constrain the biomass production of shrubs over graminoids and forbs. Conclusion Although inconclusive, our results were likely constrained by the overwhelming influence of an unexpected caterpillar outbreak on aboveground biomass. It is likely that the role of large vertebrate herbivores in vegetation response to warming will become more evident as this experiment proceeds and the plant community recovers from

  9. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands.

  10. Long-term patterns in tropical reforestation: plant community composition and aboveground biomass accumulation.

    PubMed

    Marín-Spiotta, E; Ostertag, R; Silver, W L

    2007-04-01

    Primary tropical forests are renowned for their high biodiversity and carbon storage, and considerable research has documented both species and carbon losses with deforestation and agricultural land uses. Economic drivers are now leading to the abandonment of agricultural lands, and the area in secondary forests is increasing. We know little about how long it takes for these ecosystems to achieve the structural and compositional characteristics of primary forests. In this study, we examine changes in plant species composition and aboveground biomass during eight decades of tropical secondary succession in Puerto Rico, and compare these patterns with primary forests. Using a well-replicated chronosequence approach, we sampled primary forests and secondary forests established 10, 20, 30, 60, and 80 years ago on abandoned pastures. Tree species composition in all secondary forests was different from that of primary forests and could be divided into early (10-, 20-, and 30-year) vs. late (60- and 80-year) successional phases. The highest rates of aboveground biomass accumulation occurred in the first 20 years, with rates of C sequestration peaking at 6.7 +/- 0.5 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1). Reforestation of pastures resulted in an accumulation of 125 Mg C/ha in aboveground standing live biomass over 80 years. The 80 year-old secondary forests had greater biomass than the primary forests, due to the replacement of woody species by palms in the primary forests. Our results show that these new ecosystems have different species composition, but similar species richness, and significant potential for carbon sequestration, compared to remnant primary forests. PMID:17494400

  11. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands. PMID:27164912

  12. [Vegetation above-ground biomass and its affecting factors in water/wind erosion crisscross region on Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-guo; Fan, Jun; Wang, Quan-jiu; Wang, Li

    2011-03-01

    Field investigations were conducted in Liudaogou small watershed in late September 2009 to study the differences of vegetation above-ground biomass, soil moisture content, and soil nutrient contents under different land use patterns, aimed to approach the vegetation above-ground biomass level and related affecting factors in typical small watershed in water/wind erosion crisscross region on Loess Plateau. The above-ground dry biomass of the main vegetations in Liudaogou was 177-2207 g x m(-2), and that in corn field, millet field, abandoned farmland, artificial grassland, natural grassland, and shrub land was 2097-2207, 518-775, 248-578, 280-545, 177-396, and 372-680 g x m(-2), respectively. The mean soil moisture content in 0-100 layer was the highest (14.2%) in farmlands and the lowest (10.9%) in shrub land. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture content was the greatest (26. 7% ) in abandoned farmland, indicating the strong spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture in this kind of farmland. The mean soil water storage was in the order of farmland > artificial grassland > natural grassland > shrub land. Soil dry layer was observed in alfalfa and caragana lands. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.639, P < 0.05) between above-ground dry biomass and 0-100 cm soil water storage, and also, a very significant positive correlation between above-ground fresh biomass and vegetation height. The above-ground biomass of the higher vegetations could potentially better control the wind and water erosion in the water/wind erosion crisscross region. Vegetation above-ground biomass was highly correlated with soil moisture and nutrient contents, but had no significant correlations with elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, and soil bulk density.

  13. Mapping aboveground forest biomass combining dendrometric data and spectral signature of forest species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avocat, H.; Tourneux, F.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate measures and explicit spatial representations of forest biomass compose an important aspect to model the forest productivity and crops, and to implement sustainable forest management. Several methods have been developed to estimate and to map forest biomass, combining point-sources measurements of biophysical variables such as diameter-at-breast height (DBH), tree height, crown size, crown length, crown volume and remote sensing data (spectral vegetation index values). In this study, we propose a new method for aboveground biomass (AGB) mapping of forests and isolated trees. This method is tested on a 1100 km2 area located in the eastern France. In contrast to most of studies, our model is not calibrated using field plot measurements or point-source inventory data. The primary goal of this model is to propose an accessible and reproducible method for AGB mapping of temperate forests, by combining standard biomass values coming from bibliography and remotely sensed data. This method relies on three steps. (1) The first step consists of produce a map of wooded areas including small woods and isolated trees, and to identify the major forest stands. To do this, we use an unsupervised classification of a Landsat 7 ETM+ image. Results are compared and improved with various land cover data. (2) The second step consists of extract the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values of main forest stands. (3) Finally, these values are combined with standard AGB values provided by bibliography, to calibrate four AGB estimation models of different forest types (broadleaves, coniferous, coppices, and mixed stands). This method provides a map of aboveground biomass for forests and isolated trees with a 30 meters spatial resolution. Results demonstrate that 71 % of AGB values for hardwoods vary between 143 and 363 t.ha-1, i.e. × 1 standard deviation around the average. For coniferous stands, most of values of AGB range from 167 to 256 t.ha-1.

  14. [Effect of flooding disturbance on aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis grassland--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengwen; Zhu, Tingcheng

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effect of flooding disturbance on the net primary productivity of Songnen steppe, a comparatively thorough study was conducted on Sanjiadian State-owned Rangeland in Da'an city, Jilin Province, which was partly flooded in 1998. The study site was located in the south Songnen plain of Northeastern China, dominated by Leymus chinensis grassland. An extensively mild slope with flooding gradients (from un-flooded to heavily flooded) was taken as the study site. Two flooded transects coded FL and FH which was respectively subjected to 3 and 9 months of flooding were designed, and an un-flooded one coded CK at a relatively higher elevation was set as a control. Before flooding occurred in 1998, the slope had an almost uniform soil and L. chinensis dominated vegetation. Each transect was 0.2 hm2 (100 m x 20 m) in size, and the two flooded transects were almost paralleled each other, with the longer sides of them perpendicular to the retrieving direction of floodwater. In each transect twenty 1 m2 sized quadrats were randomly chosen to survey the community structure and the aboveground biomass. Comparative analyses were made on the dynamics of soil water, soil N and P, and species composition of grassland communities that occurred in responses to flooding disturbance. The results showed that the lightly and heavily flooded transects had a significantly larger aboveground biomass than the control, with the increase of 89.54% and 113.45%, respectively. The heavily flooded transect had a slightly but insignificantly larger aboveground biomass than the lightly flooded one, indicating that on flooded sites, water was not the limiting factor of the aboveground biomass. The acute changes of soil water caused by flooding led to the changes of soil nutrients and species assemblages, which would impact community biomass. Just as the case for aboveground biomass, the soil water contents of the two flooded transects were significantly larger than that of control

  15. [Effect of flooding disturbance on aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis grassland--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengwen; Zhu, Tingcheng

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effect of flooding disturbance on the net primary productivity of Songnen steppe, a comparatively thorough study was conducted on Sanjiadian State-owned Rangeland in Da'an city, Jilin Province, which was partly flooded in 1998. The study site was located in the south Songnen plain of Northeastern China, dominated by Leymus chinensis grassland. An extensively mild slope with flooding gradients (from un-flooded to heavily flooded) was taken as the study site. Two flooded transects coded FL and FH which was respectively subjected to 3 and 9 months of flooding were designed, and an un-flooded one coded CK at a relatively higher elevation was set as a control. Before flooding occurred in 1998, the slope had an almost uniform soil and L. chinensis dominated vegetation. Each transect was 0.2 hm2 (100 m x 20 m) in size, and the two flooded transects were almost paralleled each other, with the longer sides of them perpendicular to the retrieving direction of floodwater. In each transect twenty 1 m2 sized quadrats were randomly chosen to survey the community structure and the aboveground biomass. Comparative analyses were made on the dynamics of soil water, soil N and P, and species composition of grassland communities that occurred in responses to flooding disturbance. The results showed that the lightly and heavily flooded transects had a significantly larger aboveground biomass than the control, with the increase of 89.54% and 113.45%, respectively. The heavily flooded transect had a slightly but insignificantly larger aboveground biomass than the lightly flooded one, indicating that on flooded sites, water was not the limiting factor of the aboveground biomass. The acute changes of soil water caused by flooding led to the changes of soil nutrients and species assemblages, which would impact community biomass. Just as the case for aboveground biomass, the soil water contents of the two flooded transects were significantly larger than that of control

  16. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition along a degradation gradient in the Inner Mongolian steppe, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaotian; Liu, Hongyan; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Wei; Hu, Guozheng; Qi, Zhaohuan

    2015-01-01

    Although nitrogen addition and recovery from degradation can both promote production of grassland biomass, these two factors have rarely been investigated in combination. In this study, we established a field experiment with six N-treatment (CK, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 g N m−2 yr−1) on five fields with different degradation levels in the Inner Mongolian steppe of China from 2011–2013. Our observations showed that while the external nitrogen increased the aboveground biomass in all five grasslands, the magnitude of the effects differed with the severity of degradation. Fields with a higher level of degradation tended to have a higher saturation value (20 g N m−2 yr−1) than those with a lower degradation level ( < 10 g N m−2 yr−1). After three years of experimentation, species richness showed little change across degradation levels. Among the four functional groups of grasses, sedges, forbs and legumes, grasses shared the most similar response patterns with those of the whole community, demonstrating the predominant role that they play in the restoration of grassland under a stimulus of nitrogen addition. PMID:26194184

  17. Landscape Patterns of Wood Density and Aboveground Biomass Along a Tropical Elevation Gradient in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    This research sought to understand how tree wood density and taxonomic diversity relate to topography and three-dimensional vegetation structure in the tropical montane forest of Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. The study utilized forest inventory and botanical data from twenty 1-ha plots ranging from 55 m to 2800 m above sea level and remote sensing data from an airborne lidar sensor (NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor [LVIS]) to quantify variations in forest structure. There is growing evidence that ecosystem structure may help to control the functional variations across landscapes. This study relates patterns of tree functional wood density and alpha diversity to three-dimensional structure using remote sensing observations of forest structure. We were able to test the effect of the gradient on wood density measured from collected tree cores and on the subsequent aboveground biomass estimations. We sought to determine if there was a significant pattern of wood density across the altitudinal gradient, which has implications for conservation of both ecosystem services and biodiversity. We also wanted to determine how many random individuals could be sampled to accurately estimate aboveground biomass in a one-hectare plot. Our results indicate that there is a strong relationship between LVIS-derived forest 3D-structure and alpha diversity, likely controlled by variations in abiotic factors and topography along the elevation. Using spatial analysis with the aid of remote sensing data, we found patterns along the environmental gradients defining species composition and forest structure. Wood density values were found to vary significantly from database values for the same species. This variation in tree growth has repercussions on overall forest structure, and subsequent carbon estimates extrapolated from field measurements. Because these wood density values are directly tied to biomass estimates, it is possible that carbon storage has been

  18. Modeling aboveground tree woody biomass using national-scale allometric methods and airborne lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Estimating tree aboveground biomass (AGB) and carbon (C) stocks using remote sensing is a critical component for understanding the global C cycle and mitigating climate change. However, the importance of allometry for remote sensing of AGB has not been recognized until recently. The overarching goals of this study are to understand the differences and relationships among three national-scale allometric methods (CRM, Jenkins, and the regional models) of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program in the U.S. and to examine the impacts of using alternative allometry on the fitting statistics of remote sensing-based woody AGB models. Airborne lidar data from three study sites in the Pacific Northwest, USA were used to predict woody AGB estimated from the different allometric methods. It was found that the CRM and Jenkins estimates of woody AGB are related via the CRM adjustment factor. In terms of lidar-biomass modeling, CRM had the smallest model errors, while the Jenkins method had the largest ones and the regional method was between. The best model fitting from CRM is attributed to its inclusion of tree height in calculating merchantable stem volume and the strong dependence of non-merchantable stem biomass on merchantable stem biomass. This study also argues that it is important to characterize the allometric model errors for gaining a complete understanding of the remotely-sensed AGB prediction errors.

  19. Estimation of aboveground biomass in forests using multi-sensor (LIDAR, IFSAR, ETM+) fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, P.; Dubuyah, R.; Blair, B.; Hofton, M.; Hunsaker, C.; Pierce, L.; Walker, W.

    2002-05-01

    Aboveground biomass in forests, or the dry weight of standing trees, is a key ecosystem parameter for carbon dynamics, fire modeling, and biodiversity studies. Field-based assessments are expensive and methods to scale from field plots to landscapes are not generally accepted. Remote sensing potentially provides a cost-effective alternative, but no single sensor has yet to provide accurate, consistent estimates in all biomes. Passive optical sensors and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) have been proven effective only in young, structurally simple forests. Light detecting and ranging (LIDAR) has been effective in old-growth, structurally complex forests, but data are not widely available. Combining information from these sensors will leverage the high information content, high cost LIDAR data with lower cost, more widely available SAR and passive optical data. In this study, Landsat ETM+, x-band interferometric SAR, and airborne LIDAR from the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) were statistically fused using a decision tree classifier and compared to field-based estimates of biomass in Sierra National Forest, CA, USA. Biomass estimates derived from all sensors combined were more accurate than those derived from any single sensor.

  20. Estimating aboveground biomass in interior Alaska with Landsat data and field measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, Lei; Wylie, Bruce K.; Nossov, Dana R.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McFarland, Jack W.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial plant biomass is a key biophysical parameter required for understanding ecological systems in Alaska. An accurate estimation of biomass at a regional scale provides an important data input for ecological modeling in this region. In this study, we created an aboveground biomass (AGB) map at 30-m resolution for the Yukon Flats ecoregion of interior Alaska using Landsat data and field measurements. Tree, shrub, and herbaceous AGB data in both live and dead forms were collected in summers and autumns of 2009 and 2010. Using the Landsat-derived spectral variables and the field AGB data, we generated a regression model and applied this model to map AGB for the ecoregion. A 3-fold cross-validation indicated that the AGB estimates had a mean absolute error of 21.8 Mg/ha and a mean bias error of 5.2 Mg/ha. Additionally, we validated the mapping results using an airborne lidar dataset acquired for a portion of the ecoregion. We found a significant relationship between the lidar-derived canopy height and the Landsat-derived AGB (R2 = 0.40). The AGB map showed that 90% of the ecoregion had AGB values ranging from 10 Mg/ha to 134 Mg/ha. Vegetation types and fires were the primary factors controlling the spatial AGB patterns in this ecoregion.

  1. Mapping aboveground woody biomass using forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bechu K V; Nandy, S

    2015-05-01

    Mapping forest biomass is fundamental for estimating CO₂ emissions, and planning and monitoring of forests and ecosystem productivity. The present study attempted to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) integrating forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques, viz., direct radiometric relationships (DRR), k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) and cokriging (CoK) and to evaluate their accuracy. A part of the Timli Forest Range of Kalsi Soil and Water Conservation Division, Uttarakhand, India was selected for the present study. Stratified random sampling was used to collect biophysical data from 36 sample plots of 0.1 ha (31.62 m × 31.62 m) size. Species-specific volumetric equations were used for calculating volume and multiplied by specific gravity to get biomass. Three forest-type density classes, viz. 10-40, 40-70 and >70% of Shorea robusta forest and four non-forest classes were delineated using on-screen visual interpretation of IRS P6 LISS-III data of December 2012. The volume in different strata of forest-type density ranged from 189.84 to 484.36 m(3) ha(-1). The total growing stock of the forest was found to be 2,024,652.88 m(3). The AGWB ranged from 143 to 421 Mgha(-1). Spectral bands and vegetation indices were used as independent variables and biomass as dependent variable for DRR, k-NN and CoK. After validation and comparison, k-NN method of Mahalanobis distance (root mean square error (RMSE) = 42.25 Mgha(-1)) was found to be the best method followed by fuzzy distance and Euclidean distance with RMSE of 44.23 and 45.13 Mgha(-1) respectively. DRR was found to be the least accurate method with RMSE of 67.17 Mgha(-1). The study highlighted the potential of integrating of forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques for forest biomass mapping.

  2. Total aboveground biomass (TAGB) estimation using IFSAR: speckle noise effect on TAGB in tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misbari, S.; Hashim, M.

    2014-02-01

    Total Aboveground Biomass (TAGB) estimation is critically important to enhance understanding of dynamics of carbon fluxes between atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem. For humid tropical forest, it is a challenging task for researchers due to complex canopy structure and predominant cloud cover. Optical sensors are only able to sense canopy crown. In contrast, radar technology is able to sense sub-canopy structure of the forest with penetration ability through the cloud for precise biomass estimation with validation from field data including diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees. This study is concerned about estimation of TAGB through the utilization of Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR). Based on this study, it is found that the stand parameters such as DBH and backscattered on IFSAR image has high correlation, R2=0.6411. The most suitable model for TAGB estimation on IFSAR is Chave Model with R2=0.9139. This study analyzes the impact brought by speckle noises on IFSAR image. It is found that filtering process has improves TAGB estimation about +30% using several filtering schemes especially Gamma filter for 11×11 window size. Using field data obtained from a primary tropical forest at Gerik, Perak, TAGBestimation can be validated and the assessment has been carried out.

  3. Linking Carbon Fluxes with Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Indices for Leaf Area and Aboveground Biomass Through Footprint Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayson, C.; Clark, K.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Skowronski, N.; Schmid, H. E.

    2010-12-01

    A major challenge of bottom-up scaling is that in-situ flux observations are spatially limited. Thus, to achieve valid regional exchange rates, models are used to interpolate and extrapolate to the vegetational/spatial domain covered by these observations. To parameterize these models from flux data, efforts must be made to select data that best represents the region being modeled as well as linking the fluxes to remotely-sensed data products that can be produced from site to regional scales. Because most long-term flux stations are not in spatially extensive, homogeneous locations, this requirement is often a challenge. However, this requirement can be met by selecting observation periods whose flux footprints are statistically representative of the type of ecosystem identified in the model. The flux footprint function indicates the time-varying surface “field-of-view” (or spatial sampling window) of an eddy-flux sensor, oriented mostly in upwind direction. For each observation period, the modeled flux footprint window is overlain with a high-resolution vegetation index map to determine a footprint-weighted vegetation index for which the observation is representative. Using flux-footprint analysis to link fluxes to models using just an enhanced vegetation index (EVI) map shows a positive trend between EVI and eddy covariance measured fluxes, but the link is not strong. Leaf area is linked with carbon (C) uptake, but forests tend to maximize leaf area, as determined through remote sensing, early on with forests having similar leaf areas across a wide range of ages. Adding another remotely-sensed dataset, aboveground biomass map (AGB), helps capture the processes of lower productivity rates (as biomass increases per unit of leaf area there is a decline, due to the forest ageing) and the C losses due to respiration, both heterotrophic and autotrophic (linked to live and detrital biomass pools). Adding biomass from LIDAR and a combined EVI-biomass layer to examine

  4. Wildfires in Bamboo-Dominated Amazonian Forest: Impacts on Above-Ground Biomass and Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M.; Mestre, Luiz A. M.; Andrade, Rafael B.; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z.; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions. PMID:22428035

  5. Relationships between functional diversity and aboveground biomass production in the Northern Tibetan alpine grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Juntao; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Yangjian

    2016-01-01

    Functional diversity, the extent of functional differences among species in a community, drives biodiversity–ecosystem function (BEF) relationships. Here, four species traits and aboveground biomass production (ABP) were considered. We used two community-wide measures of plant functional composition, (1) community weighted means of trait values (CWM) and (2) functional trait diversity based on Rao’s quadratic diversity (FDQ) to evaluate the effects of functional diversity on the ABP in the Northern Tibetan alpine grasslands. Both species and functional diversity were positively related to the ABP. Functional trait composition had a larger predictive power for the ABP than species diversity and FDQ, indicating a primary dependence of ecosystem property on the identity of dominant species in our study system. Multivariate functional diversity was ineffective in predicting ecosystem function due to the trade-offs among different traits or traits selection criterions. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms driving the BEF relationships in stressed ecosystems, and especially emphasizes that abiotic and biotic factors affect the BEF relationships in alpine grasslands. PMID:27666532

  6. Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon L; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Begne, Serge K; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Phillips, Oliver L; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Baker, Timothy R; Banin, Lindsay; Bastin, Jean-François; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J; Collins, Murray; Djagbletey, Gloria; Djuikouo, Marie Noël K; Droissart, Vincent; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Ewango, Cornielle E N; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R; Foli, Ernest G; Gillet, Jean-François; Hamilton, Alan C; Harris, David J; Hart, Terese B; de Haulleville, Thales; Hladik, Annette; Hufkens, Koen; Huygens, Dries; Jeanmart, Philippe; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Leal, Miguel E; Lloyd, Jon; Lovett, Jon C; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marshall, Andrew R; Ojo, Lucas; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Pickavance, Georgia; Poulsen, John R; Reitsma, Jan M; Sheil, Douglas; Simo, Murielle; Steppe, Kathy; Taedoumg, Hermann E; Talbot, Joey; Taplin, James R D; Taylor, David; Thomas, Sean C; Toirambe, Benjamin; Verbeeck, Hans; Vleminckx, Jason; White, Lee J T; Willcock, Simon; Woell, Hannsjorg; Zemagho, Lise

    2013-01-01

    We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stem density and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha⁻¹ (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha⁻¹) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo- compared with neotropical forests. However, mean stem density is low (426 ± 11 stems ha⁻¹ greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationships with C : N ratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus-AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes. PMID:23878327

  7. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M; Mestre, Luiz A M; Andrade, Rafael B; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions.

  8. Estimating aboveground biomass in Avicennia marina plantation in Indian Sundarbans using high-resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Sudip; Nandy, Subrata; Chanda, Abhra; Akhand, Anirban; Hazra, Sugata; Dadhwal, Vinay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are active carbon sequesters playing a crucial role in coastal ecosystems. In the present study, aboveground biomass (AGB) was estimated in a 5-year-old Avicennia marina plantation (approximate area ≈190 ha) of Indian Sundarbans using high-resolution satellite data in order to assess its carbon sequestration potential. The reflectance values of each band of LISS IV satellite data and the vegetation indices, viz., normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI), and transformed difference vegetation index (TDVI), derived from the satellite data, were correlated with the AGB. OSAVI showed the strongest positive linear relationship with the AGB and hence carbon content of the stand. OSAVI was found to predict the AGB to a great extent (r=0.72) as it is known to nullify the background soil reflectance effect added to vegetation reflectance. The total AGB of the entire plantation was estimated to be 236 metric tons having a carbon stock of 54.9 metric tons, sequestered within a time span of 5 years. Integration of this technique for monitoring and management of young mangrove plantations will give time and cost effective results.

  9. Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Simon L.; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Begne, Serge K.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Baker, Timothy R.; Banin, Lindsay; Bastin, Jean-François; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Collins, Murray; Djagbletey, Gloria; Djuikouo, Marie Noël K.; Droissart, Vincent; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Ewango, Cornielle E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Foli, Ernest G.; Gillet, Jean-François; Hamilton, Alan C.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; de Haulleville, Thales; Hladik, Annette; Hufkens, Koen; Huygens, Dries; Jeanmart, Philippe; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Leal, Miguel E.; Lloyd, Jon; Lovett, Jon C.; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marshall, Andrew R.; Ojo, Lucas; Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Pickavance, Georgia; Poulsen, John R.; Reitsma, Jan M.; Sheil, Douglas; Simo, Murielle; Steppe, Kathy; Taedoumg, Hermann E.; Talbot, Joey; Taplin, James R. D.; Taylor, David; Thomas, Sean C.; Toirambe, Benjamin; Verbeeck, Hans; Vleminckx, Jason; White, Lee J. T.; Willcock, Simon; Woell, Hannsjorg; Zemagho, Lise

    2013-01-01

    We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stem density and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha−1 (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha−1) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo- compared with neotropical forests. However, mean stem density is low (426 ± 11 stems ha−1 greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationships with C : N ratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus–AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes. PMID:23878327

  10. Comment on 'A first map of tropical Africa's above-ground biomass derived from satellite imagery'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchard, E. T. A.; Saatchi, S. S.; Lewis, S. L.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Gerard, F. F.; Woodhouse, I. H.; Meir, P.

    2011-10-01

    We present a critical evaluation of the above-ground biomass (AGB) map of Africa published in this journal by Baccini et al (2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 045011). We first test their map against an independent dataset of 1154 scientific inventory plots from 16 African countries, and find only weak correspondence between our field plots and the AGB value given for the surrounding 1 km pixel by Baccini et al. Separating our field data using a continental landcover classification suggests that the Baccini et al map underestimates the AGB of forests and woodlands, while overestimating the AGB of savannas and grasslands. Secondly, we compare their map to 216 000 × 0.25 ha spaceborne LiDAR footprints. A comparison between Lorey's height (basal-area-weighted average height) derived from the LiDAR data for 1 km pixels containing at least five LiDAR footprints again does not support the hypothesis that the Baccini et al map is accurate, and suggests that it significantly underestimates the AGB of higher AGB areas. We conclude that this is due to the unsuitability of some of the field data used by Baccini et al to create their map, and overfitting in their model, resulting in low accuracies outside the small areas from which their field data are drawn.

  11. Impacts of Tree Height-Dbh Allometry on Lidar-Based Tree Aboveground Biomass Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, R.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar has been widely used in tree aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation at plot or stand levels. Lidar-based AGB models are usually constructed with the ground AGB reference as the response variable and lidar canopy indices as predictor variables. Tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is the major variable of most allometric models for estimating reference AGB. However, lidar measurements are mainly related to tree vertical structure. Therefore, tree height-dbh allometric model residuals are expected to have a large impact on lidar-based AGB model performance. This study attempts to investigate sensitivity of lidar-based AGB model to the decreasing strength of height-dbh relationship using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. Striking decrease in R2 and increase in relative RMSE were found in lidar-based AGB model, as the variance of height-dbh model residuals grew. I, therefore, concluded that individual tree height-dbh model residuals fundamentally introduce errors to lidar-AGB models.

  12. Spatially explicit estimation of aboveground boreal forest biomass in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, Lei; Wylie, Bruce K.; Brown, Dana R. N.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Alexander, Heather D.; Mack, Michelle C.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McFarland, Jack W.; Chen, Xuexia; Pastick, Neal J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of aboveground biomass (AGB) in Alaska’s boreal forest is essential to the accurate evaluation of terrestrial carbon stocks and dynamics in northern high-latitude ecosystems. Our goal was to map AGB at 30 m resolution for the boreal forest in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska using Landsat data and ground measurements. We acquired Landsat images to generate a 3-year (2008–2010) composite of top-of-atmosphere reflectance for six bands as well as the brightness temperature (BT). We constructed a multiple regression model using field-observed AGB and Landsat-derived reflectance, BT, and vegetation indices. A basin-wide boreal forest AGB map at 30 m resolution was generated by applying the regression model to the Landsat composite. The fivefold cross-validation with field measurements had a mean absolute error (MAE) of 25.7 Mg ha−1 (relative MAE 47.5%) and a mean bias error (MBE) of 4.3 Mg ha−1(relative MBE 7.9%). The boreal forest AGB product was compared with lidar-based vegetation height data; the comparison indicated that there was a significant correlation between the two data sets.

  13. Aboveground biomass and carbon stocks modelling using non-linear regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ain Mohd Zaki, Nurul; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Nazip Suratman, Mohd; Zainee Zainal, Mohd

    2016-06-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important source of uncertainty in the carbon estimation for the tropical forest due to the variation biodiversity of species and the complex structure of tropical rain forest. Nevertheless, the tropical rainforest holds the most extensive forest in the world with the vast diversity of tree with layered canopies. With the usage of optical sensor integrate with empirical models is a common way to assess the AGB. Using the regression, the linkage between remote sensing and a biophysical parameter of the forest may be made. Therefore, this paper exemplifies the accuracy of non-linear regression equation of quadratic function to estimate the AGB and carbon stocks for the tropical lowland Dipterocarp forest of Ayer Hitam forest reserve, Selangor. The main aim of this investigation is to obtain the relationship between biophysical parameter field plots with the remotely-sensed data using nonlinear regression model. The result showed that there is a good relationship between crown projection area (CPA) and carbon stocks (CS) with Pearson Correlation (p < 0.01), the coefficient of correlation (r) is 0.671. The study concluded that the integration of Worldview-3 imagery with the canopy height model (CHM) raster based LiDAR were useful in order to quantify the AGB and carbon stocks for a larger sample area of the lowland Dipterocarp forest.

  14. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M; Mestre, Luiz A M; Andrade, Rafael B; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions. PMID:22428035

  15. Carbon dynamics in aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöngart, J.; Arieira, J.; Felfili Fortes, C.; Cezarine de Arruda, E.; Nunes da Cunha, C.

    2008-05-01

    This is the first estimation on carbon dynamics in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in Central Southern America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, DBH) have been performed and converted to predictions of AGWB by five different allometric models using two or three predicting parameters (DBH, tree height, wood density). Best prediction has been achieved using allometric equations with three independent variables. Carbon stocks (50% of AGWB) vary from 7.4 to 100.9 Mg C ha-1 between the four stands. Carbon sequestration differs 0.50-4.24 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 estimated by two growth models derived from tree-ring analysis describing the relationships between age and DBH for V. divergens and other tree species. We find a close correlation between estimated tree age and C-stock, C-sequestration and C-turnover (mean residence of C in AGWB).

  16. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hieu Cong; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Jungbin; Choi, Sung-Uk; Hong, Suk-Young; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The reflectance of the Earth's surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN) values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1) Dark Object Subtraction (DOS); (2) Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) and (3) the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA) reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB) estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE's, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development. PMID:26263996

  17. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hieu Cong; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Jungbin; Choi, Sung-Uk; Hong, Suk-Young; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The reflectance of the Earth’s surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN) values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1) Dark Object Subtraction (DOS); (2) Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) and (3) the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA) reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB) estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE’s, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development. PMID:26263996

  18. Aboveground Biomass Monitoring over Siberian Boreal Forest Using Radar Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmaszczuk-Gorska, M. A.; Thiel, C. J.; Schmullius, C.

    2014-12-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) plays an essential role in ecosystem research, global cycles, and is of vital importance in climate studies. AGB accumulated in the forests is of special monitoring interest as it contains the most of biomass comparing with other land biomes. The largest of the land biomes is boreal forest, which has a substantial carbon accumulation capability; carbon stock estimated to be 272 +/-23 Pg C (32%) [1]. Russian's forests are of particular concern, due to the largest source of uncertainty in global carbon stock calculations [1], and old inventory data that have not been updated in the last 25 years [2]. In this research new empirical models for AGB estimation are proposed. Using radar L-band data for AGB retrieval and optical data for an update of in situ data the processing scheme was developed. The approach was trained and validated in the Asian part of the boreal forest, in southern Russian Central Siberia; two Siberian Federal Districts: Krasnoyarsk Kray and Irkutsk Oblast. Together the training and testing forest territories cover an area of approximately 3,500 km2. ALOS PALSAR L-band single (HH - horizontal transmitted and received) and dual (HH and HV - horizontal transmitted, horizontal and vertical received) polarizations in Single Look Complex format (SLC) were used to calculate backscattering coefficient in gamma nought and coherence. In total more than 150 images acquired between 2006 and 2011 were available. The data were obtained through the ALOS Kyoto and Carbon Initiative Project (K&C). The data were used to calibrate a randomForest algorithm. Additionally, a simple linear and multiple-regression approach was used. The uncertainty of the AGB estimation at pixel and stand level were calculated approximately as 35% by validation against an independent dataset. The previous studies employing ALOS PALSAR data over boreal forests reported uncertainty of 39.4% using randomForest approach [2] or 42.8% using semi-empirical approach [3].

  19. Estimation of aboveground woody biomass using HJ-1 and Radarsat-2 data for deciduous forests in Daxing'anling, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; Yang, Le; Liu, Qinhuo; Li, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Accurate estimation of forest aboveground biomass is important for global carbon budgets and ecosystem change studies. Most algorithms for regional or global aboveground biomass estimation using optical and microwave remote sensing data are based on empirical regression and non-parametric training methods, which require large amount of ground measurements for training and are lacking of explicit interaction mechanisms between electromagnetic wave and vegetation. In this study, we proposed an optical/microwave synergy method based on a coherent polarimetric SAR model to estimate woody biomass. The study area is sparse deciduous forest dominated by birch with understory of shrubs and herbs in Daxing'anling, China. HJ-1, Radarsat-2 images, and field LAI were collected during May to August in 2013, tree biophysical parameters were measured at the field campaign during August to September in 2012. The effects of understory and wet ground were evaluated by introducing the NDVI derived from HJ-1 image and rain rate. Field measured LAI was used as an input to the SAR model to define the scattering and attenuation of the green canopy to the total backscatter. Finally, an logarithmic equation between the backscatter coefficient of direct forest scattering mechanism and woody biomass was generated (R2=0.582). The retrieval results were validated with the ground biomass measurements (RMSE=29.01ton/ha). The results indicated the synergy of optical and microwave remote sensing data based on SAR model has the potential to improve the accuracy of woody biomass estimation.

  20. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  1. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  2. Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a Bornean rain forest.

    PubMed

    Slik, J W Ferry; Bernard, Caroline S; Van Beek, Marloes; Breman, Floris C; Eichhorn, Karl A O

    2008-12-01

    Forest fires remain a devastating phenomenon in the tropics that not only affect forest structure and biodiversity, but also contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2. Fire used to be extremely rare in tropical forests, leaving ample time for forests to regenerate to pre-fire conditions. In recent decades, however, tropical forest fires occur more frequently and at larger spatial scales than they used to. We studied forest structure, tree species diversity, tree species composition, and aboveground biomass during the first 7 years since fire in unburned, once burned and twice burned forest of eastern Borneo to determine the rate of recovery of these forests. We paid special attention to changes in the tree species composition during burned forest regeneration because we expect the long-term recovery of aboveground biomass and ecosystem functions in burned forests to largely depend on the successful regeneration of the pre-fire, heavy-wood, species composition. We found that forest structure (canopy openness, leaf area index, herb cover, and stem density) is strongly affected by fire but shows quick recovery. However, species composition shows no or limited recovery and aboveground biomass, which is greatly reduced by fire, continues to be low or decline up to 7 years after fire. Consequently, large amounts of the C released to the atmosphere by fire will not be recaptured by the burned forest ecosystem in the near future. We also observed that repeated fire, with an inter-fire interval of 15 years, does not necessarily lead to a huge deterioration in the regeneration potential of tropical forest. We conclude that burned forests are valuable and should be conserved and that long-term monitoring programs in secondary forests are necessary to determine their recovery rates, especially in relation to aboveground biomass accumulation.

  3. Structure, Aboveground Biomass, and Soil Characterization of Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park, Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsumaiti, Tareefa Saad Sultan

    Mangrove forests are national treasures of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and other arid countries with limited forested areas. Mangroves form a crucial part of the coastal ecosystem and provide numerous benefits to society, economy, and especially the environment. Mangrove trees, specifically Avicennia marina, are studied in their native habitat in order to characterize their population structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties. This study focused on Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park in Abu Dhabi, which was the first mangrove protected area to be designated in UAE. In situ measurements were collected to estimate Avicennia marina status, mortality rate (%), height (m), crown spread (m), stem number, diameter at breast height (cm), basal area (m), and aboveground biomass (t ha-1 ). Small-footprint aerial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data acquired by UAE were processed to characterize mangrove canopy height and aboveground biomass density. This included extraction of LIDAR-derived height percentile statistics, segmentation of the forest into structurally homogenous units, and development of regression relationships between in situ reference and remote sensing data using a machine learning approach. An in situ soil survey was conducted to examine the soils' physical and chemical properties, fertility status, and organic matter. The data of soil survey were used to create soil maps to evaluate key characteristics of soils, and their influence on Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park. The results of this study provide new insights into Avicennia marina canopy population, structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties in Abu Dhabi, as data in such arid environments is lacking. This valuable information can help in managing and preserving this unique ecosystem.

  4. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  5. Modelling Growth and Partitioning of Annual Above-Ground Vegetative and Reproductive Biomass of Grapevine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meggio, Franco; Vendrame, Nadia; Maniero, Giovanni; Pitacco, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In the current climate change scenarios, both agriculture and forestry inherently may act as carbon sinks and consequently can play a key role in limiting global warming. An urgent need exists to understand which land uses and land resource types have the greatest potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to global change. A common believe is that agricultural fields cannot be net carbon sinks due to many technical inputs and repeated disturbances of upper soil layers that all contribute to a substantial loss both of the old and newly-synthesized organic matter. Perennial tree crops (vineyards and orchards), however, can behave differently: they grow a permanent woody structure, stand undisturbed in the same field for decades, originate a woody pruning debris, and are often grass-covered. In this context, reliable methods for quantifying and modelling emissions and carbon sequestration are required. Carbon stock changes are calculated by multiplying the difference in oven dry weight of biomass increments and losses with the appropriate carbon fraction. These data are relatively scant, and more information is needed on vineyard management practices and how they impact vineyard C sequestration and GHG emissions in order to generate an accurate vineyard GHG footprint. During the last decades, research efforts have been made for estimating the vineyard carbon budget and its allocation pattern since it is crucial to better understand how grapevines control the distribution of acquired resources in response to variation in environmental growth conditions and agronomic practices. The objective of the present study was to model and compare the dynamics of current year's above-ground biomass among four grapevine varieties. Trials were carried out over three growing seasons in field conditions. The non-linear extra-sums-of-squares method demonstrated to be a feasible way of growth models comparison to statistically assess significant differences among

  6. Plot-level aboveground woody biomass modeling using canopy height and auxiliary remote sensing data in a heterogeneous savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwenzi, David; Lefsky, Michael Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing studies aiming at assessing woody biomass have demonstrated a strong relationship between canopy height and plot-level aboveground biomass, but most of these studies focused on closed canopy forests. To date, a few studies have examined the strength and reliability of this relationship using large footprint lidar in savannas. Furthermore, there have been few studies of appropriate methods for the comparison of models that relate aboveground biomass to canopy height metrics without consideration of variation in species composition (generic models) to models developed for individual species composition or vegetation types. We developed generic models using the classical least-squares regression modeling approach to relate selected canopy height metrics to aboveground woody biomass in a savanna landscape. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis (HBA) was then used to explore the implications of using generic or composition-specific models. Our study used the estimates of aboveground biomass from field data, canopy height estimates from airborne discrete return lidar, and a proxy for canopy cover (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data, collected from the oak savannas of Tejon Ranch Conservancy in Kern County, California. Models were developed and analyzed using estimates of canopy height and aboveground biomass calculated at the level of 50-m diameter plots, comparable with footprint diameter of existing large footprint spaceborne lidar data. The two generic models that incorporated canopy cover proxies performed better than one model that did not use canopy cover information. From the HBA, we found out that for all models both the intercept and slope had interspecific variability. The valley oak dominated plots consistently had higher slopes and intercepts, whereas the plots dominated by blue oaks had the lowest. However, the intercept and slope values of the composition-specific models did not differ much from the

  7. Toward Aboveground Biomass Estimation with RADAR, Lidar and Optical Remote Sensing Data in Southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbazaev, M.; Thiel, C. J.; Schmullius, C.

    2014-12-01

    Information on the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) over large areas is needed (1) for understanding and managing the processes involved in the carbon cycle, and (2) supporting international policies for climate change mitigation and adaption. Using remote sensing techniques it is possible to provide spatially explicit information of AGB from local to global scales. In this work we present the first results on the use of multi-sensor remote sensing data to estimate AGB over three test sites in southern Mexico. In order to develop a set of AGB retrieval algorithms, we firstly compared different SAR parameters (e.g. multi-polarized backscatter intensities and interferometric coherence) obtained from ALOS PALSAR sensor and Landsat imagery with field-based AGB estimates using empirical regressions and analyzed the relationships between them. The next steps of the work will be development of a two-stage up-scaling approach: firstly, to enlarge the cal/val data, we propose to estimate AGB along airborne LiDAR (from G-LiHT sensor) transects using field-based AGB and LiDAR height metrics. With LiDAR-based AGB we will then calibrate SAR parameters in a non-parametric model (e.g., randomForest) to create AGB maps over the study areas. An overall aim of the study is the analysis of capabilities and limitations of SAR data for AGB mapping and the investigation of the potential synergistic use of SAR, LiDAR and optical systems.The proposed monitoring tool will facilitate quantitative estimations in loss of carbon storage and support the selection of terrestrial (e.g. tropical dry forests, shrublands) sites for conservation priorities with high value for the national carbon budget.

  8. Estimation of aboveground biomass in Mediterranean forests by statistical modelling of ASTER fraction images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Manso, O.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Quintano, C.

    2014-09-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation from optical satellite data is usually based on regression models of original or synthetic bands. To overcome the poor relation between AGB and spectral bands due to mixed-pixels when a medium spatial resolution sensor is considered, we propose to base the AGB estimation on fraction images from Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA). Our study area is a managed Mediterranean pine woodland (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in central Spain. A total of 1033 circular field plots were used to estimate AGB from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) optical data. We applied Pearson correlation statistics and stepwise multiple regression to identify suitable predictors from the set of variables of original bands, fraction imagery, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Tasselled Cap components. Four linear models and one nonlinear model were tested. A linear combination of ASTER band 2 (red, 0.630-0.690 μm), band 8 (short wave infrared 5, 2.295-2.365 μm) and green vegetation fraction (from LSMA) was the best AGB predictor (Radj2=0.632, the root-mean-squared error of estimated AGB was 13.3 Mg ha-1 (or 37.7%), resulting from cross-validation), rather than other combinations of the above cited independent variables. Results indicated that using ASTER fraction images in regression models improves the AGB estimation in Mediterranean pine forests. The spatial distribution of the estimated AGB, based on a multiple linear regression model, may be used as baseline information for forest managers in future studies, such as quantifying the regional carbon budget, fuel accumulation or monitoring of management practices.

  9. Aboveground Biomass Modeling from Field and LiDAR Data in Brazilian Amazon Tropical Rain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C. A.; Hudak, A. T.; Vierling, L. A.; Keller, M. M.; Klauberg Silva, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forests are an important component of global carbon stocks, but tropical forest responses to climate change are not sufficiently studied or understood. Among remote sensing technologies, airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) may be best suited for quantifying tropical forest carbon stocks. Our objective was to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) using airborne LiDAR and field plot data in Brazilian tropical rain forest. Forest attributes such as tree density, diameter at breast height, and heights were measured at a combination of square plots and linear transects (n=82) distributed across six different geographic zones in the Amazon. Using previously published allometric equations, tree AGB was computed and then summed to calculate total AGB at each sample plot. LiDAR-derived canopy structure metrics were also computed at each sample plot, and random forest regression modelling was applied to predict AGB from selected LiDAR metrics. The LiDAR-derived AGB model was assessed using the random forest explained variation, adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj. R²), root mean square error (RMSE, both absolute and relative) and BIAS (both absolute and relative). Our findings showed that the 99th percentile of height and height skewness were the best LiDAR metrics for AGB prediction. The AGB model using these two best predictors explained 59.59% of AGB variation, with an Adj. R² of 0.92, RMSE of 33.37 Mg/ha (20.28%), and bias of -0.69 (-0.42%). This study showed that LiDAR canopy structure metrics can be used to predict AGC stocks in Tropical Forest with acceptable precision and accuracy. Therefore, we conclude that there is good potential to monitor carbon sequestration in Brazilian Tropical Rain Forest using airborne LiDAR data, large field plots, and the random forest algorithm.

  10. Quantification of uncertainty in aboveground biomass estimates derived from small-footprint LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Greenberg, J. A.; Li, B.; Ramirez, C.; Balamuta, J. J.; Evans, K.; Man, A.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A promising approach to determining aboveground biomass (AGB) in forests comes through the use of individual tree crown delineation (ITCD) techniques applied to small-footprint LiDAR data. These techniques, when combined with allometric equations, can produce per-tree estimates of AGB. At this scale, AGB estimates can be quantified in a manner similar to how ground-based forest inventories are produced. However, these approaches have significant uncertainties that are rarely described in full. Allometric equations are often based on species-specific diameter-at-breast height (DBH) relationships, but neither DBH nor species can be reliably determined using remote sensing analysis. Furthermore, many approaches to ITCD only delineate trees appearing in the upper canopy so subcanopy trees are often missing from the inventories. In this research, we performed a propagation-of-error analysis to determine the spatially varying uncertainties in AGB estimates at the individual plant and stand level for a large collection of LiDAR acquisitions covering a large portion of California. Furthermore, we determined the relative contribution of various aspects of the analysis towards the uncertainty, including errors in the ITCD results, the allometric equations, the taxonomic designation, and the local biophysical environment. Watershed segmentation was used to obtain the preliminary crown segments. Lidar points within the preliminary segments were extracted to form profiling data of the segments, and then mode detection algorithms were applied to identify the tree number and tree heights within each segment. As part of this analysis, we derived novel "remote sensing aware" allometric equations and their uncertainties based on three-dimensional morphological metrics that can be accurately derived from LiDAR data.

  11. Above-ground Biomass Investments and Light Interception of Tropical Forest Trees and Lianas Early in Succession

    PubMed Central

    Selaya, N. G.; Anten, N. P. R.; Oomen, R. J.; Matthies, M.; Werger, M. J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Crown structure and above-ground biomass investment was studied in relation to light interception of trees and lianas growing in a 6-month-old regenerating forest. Methods The vertical distribution of total above-ground biomass, height, diameter, stem density, leaf angles and crown depth were measured for individual plants of three short-lived pioneers (SLPs), four long-lived pioneers (LLPs) and three lianas. Daily light interception per individual Φd was calculated with a canopy model. The model was then used to estimate light interception per unit of leaf mass (Φleaf mass), total above-ground mass (Φmass) and crown structure efficiency (Ea, the ratio of absorbed vs. available light). Key Results The SLPs Trema and Ochroma intercepted higher amounts of light per unit leaf mass (Φleaf mass) because they had shallower crowns, resulting in higher crown use efficiency (Ea) than the other species. These SLPs (but not Cecropia) were also taller and intercepted more light per unit leaf area (Φarea). LLPs and lianas had considerably higher amounts of leaf mass and area per unit above-ground mass (LMR and LAR, respectively) and thus attained Φmass values similar to the SLPs (Φmass=Φarea×LAR). Lianas, which were mostly self-supporting, had light interception efficiencies similar to those of the trees. Conclusions These results show how, due to the trade-off between crown structure and biomass allocation, SLPs, and LLPs and lianas intercept similar amount of light per unit mass which may contribute to the ability of the latter two groups to persist. PMID:17210607

  12. Multi- and hyperspectral remote-sensing retrieval of floodplain-forest aboveground biomass using machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, A. M.; Guneralp, I.; Randall, J.

    2014-12-01

    Forests within dynamic floodplain landscapes, such as meandering-river landscapes, are composed of uneven-aged trees and entail high spatial variability, which results from intersecting hydrological, fluvial, and ecological processes. Floodplain forests are an important carbon sink relative to other terrestrial ecosystems and thus serve a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Accurate, quantitative aboveground biomass (AGB) retrieval within floodplain forests is urgently needed for improved carbon-pool estimates in such areas and enhanced process understanding of river-floodplain biomorphodynamics. We perform remote AGB retrieval for a meander-bend bottomland hardwood forest, based on utilization of stochastic gradient boosting (SGB), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and Cubist algorithms and multi- and hyperspectral image-based data sets. For multispectral experiments, we use 30-m and 10-m image bands (Landsat 7 ETM+ and SPOT 5, respectively) and ancillary input vectors; for hyperspectral-based experiments, we use 30-m Hyperion bands and other input variables. Results indicate that for both the multispectral and hyperspectral experimental trials, SGB- and MARS-derived AGB are significantly more accurate than Cubist estimates. (Cubist is used for U.S. national-scale forest biomass mapping.) For the multispectral results, across all data-experiments and algorithms, at 10-m spatial resolution, SGB gives the most accurate estimates (RMSE = 22.49 tonnes/ha; coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.96) when geomorphometric data are also included. For 30-m multispectral data trials, MARS performs the best (RMSE = 29.2 tonnes/ha; R2 = 0.94) when image-derived data are also incorporated. For the hyperspectral experiments, the most accurate MARS- and SGB-based retrievals have R2 of 0.97 and 0.95, respectively; the most accurate Cubist AGB retrieval has R2 of 0.85. MARS and SGB AGB are not significantly different though for the hyperspectral experiments. The

  13. Grazing effects on aboveground primary production and root biomass of early-seral, mid-seral, and undisturbed semiarid grassland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milchunas, D.G.; Vandever, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Annual/perennial and tall/short plant species differentially dominate early to late successional shortgrass steppe communities. Plant species can have different ratios of above-/below-ground biomass distributions and this can be modified by precipitation and grazing. We compared grazing effects on aboveground production and root biomass in early- and mid-seral fields and undisturbed shortgrass steppe. Production averaged across four years and grazed and ungrazed treatments were 246, 134, and 102 g m−2 yr−1 for the early-, mid-seral, and native sites, respectively, while root biomass averaged 358, 560, and 981 g m−2, respectively. Early- and mid-seral communities provided complimentary forage supplies but at the cost of root biomass. Grazing increased, decreased, or had no effect on aboveground production in early-, mid-seral, and native communities, and had no effect on roots in any. Grazing had some negative effects on early spring forage species, but not in the annual dominated early-seral community. Dominant species increased with grazing in native communities with a long evolutionary history of grazing by large herbivores, but had no effects on the same species in mid-seral communities. Effects of grazing in native communities in a region cannot necessarily be used to predict effects at other seral stages.

  14. Quantifying variation in forest disturbance, and its effects on aboveground biomass dynamics, across the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Coomes, David A; Purves, Drew W

    2013-05-01

    The role of tree mortality in the global carbon balance is complicated by strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity that arises from the stochastic nature of carbon loss through disturbance. Characterizing spatio-temporal variation in mortality (including disturbance) and its effects on forest and carbon dynamics is thus essential to understanding the current global forest carbon sink, and to predicting how it will change in future. We analyzed forest inventory data from the eastern United States to estimate plot-level variation in mortality (relative to a long-term background rate for individual trees) for nine distinct forest regions. Disturbances that produced at least a fourfold increase in tree mortality over an approximately 5 year interval were observed in 1-5% of plots in each forest region. The frequency of disturbance was lowest in the northeast, and increased southwards along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts as fire and hurricane disturbances became progressively more common. Across the central and northern parts of the region, natural disturbances appeared to reflect a diffuse combination of wind, insects, disease, and ice storms. By linking estimated covariation in tree growth and mortality over time with a data-constrained forest dynamics model, we simulated the implications of stochastic variation in mortality for long-term aboveground biomass changes across the eastern United States. A geographic gradient in disturbance frequency induced notable differences in biomass dynamics between the least- and most-disturbed regions, with variation in mortality causing the latter to undergo considerably stronger fluctuations in aboveground stand biomass over time. Moreover, regional simulations showed that a given long-term increase in mean mortality rates would support greater aboveground biomass when expressed through disturbance effects compared with background mortality, particularly for early-successional species. The effects of increased tree mortality on

  15. Quantifying variation in forest disturbance, and its effects on aboveground biomass dynamics, across the eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Coomes, David A; Purves, Drew W

    2013-01-01

    The role of tree mortality in the global carbon balance is complicated by strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity that arises from the stochastic nature of carbon loss through disturbance. Characterizing spatio-temporal variation in mortality (including disturbance) and its effects on forest and carbon dynamics is thus essential to understanding the current global forest carbon sink, and to predicting how it will change in future. We analyzed forest inventory data from the eastern United States to estimate plot-level variation in mortality (relative to a long-term background rate for individual trees) for nine distinct forest regions. Disturbances that produced at least a fourfold increase in tree mortality over an approximately 5 year interval were observed in 1–5% of plots in each forest region. The frequency of disturbance was lowest in the northeast, and increased southwards along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts as fire and hurricane disturbances became progressively more common. Across the central and northern parts of the region, natural disturbances appeared to reflect a diffuse combination of wind, insects, disease, and ice storms. By linking estimated covariation in tree growth and mortality over time with a data-constrained forest dynamics model, we simulated the implications of stochastic variation in mortality for long-term aboveground biomass changes across the eastern United States. A geographic gradient in disturbance frequency induced notable differences in biomass dynamics between the least- and most-disturbed regions, with variation in mortality causing the latter to undergo considerably stronger fluctuations in aboveground stand biomass over time. Moreover, regional simulations showed that a given long-term increase in mean mortality rates would support greater aboveground biomass when expressed through disturbance effects compared with background mortality, particularly for early-successional species. The effects of increased tree mortality on

  16. Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 6. Relationship between cover and aboveground biomass. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmelpfennig, D.K.

    1982-06-01

    Assessment of revegetation success on mined lands is a difficult, time consuming task and has been the subject of a number of controversies. Present regulations require that both plant cover and aboveground plant biomass be measured for use in making that assessment. Of these two variables, biomass is the most time consuming to measure and requires destructive sampling, a most undesirable, requirement on fragile, recently revegetated areas. A study was done to evaluate the predictability of aboveground biomass production on revegetated mined sites and adjacent native prairies using plant cover estimates made with the point frame method. A positive, statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between plant cover and aboveground biomass regardless of the community type, species composition, diversity or level of biomass production. However, the latter did have their effects on the relationship and must be accounted for in any predictive equations.

  17. Applying ICESat/GLAS data to estimate forest aboveground biomass on Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, M.; Saigusa, N.; Oguma, H.; Yamao, Y.; Yamagata, Y.; Takao, G.

    2013-12-01

    Spaceborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) has an ability to measure forest resources with high accuracy, therefore, it will contribute to evaluating global carbon cycle or addressing climate change. We then evaluated the potential of spaceborne LiDAR to measure forest resources, and used Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data obtained with the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) to develop an estimation methodology for forest biomass. The study area was the island of Hokkaido, Japan. We compared two estimation methods: (i) a direct method that uses some of the GLAS waveform parameters to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) directly, and (ii) an allometric method that uses an allometric equation to estimate AGB from the canopy height estimated from the GLAS waveform. We used two kinds of ground truth data: (i) field survey data in situ measurements of AGB by the Bitterlich method at 106 points within GLAS footprints, and (ii) airborne LiDAR data from maximum canopy height measurements at 481 points within GLAS footprints. We then used the field survey data to develop the AGB estimation equation of the direct method by carrying out a multiple regression analysis that related GLAS waveform parameters to AGB. For the allometric method, we also carried out a multiple regression analysis using the airborne LiDAR data to estimate canopy height from GLAS data. Two parameters were used as the explanatory variables: a 'terrain index' calculated from the ground elevation difference within a GLAS footprint, and a 'GLAS waveform extent'. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the canopy height estimates was 4.1 m. We used the allometric equation determined from the field survey data to relate canopy height to AGB and then estimated the AGB from the GLAS estimates of canopy height. The accuracy of the AGB estimates obtained by these two estimation methods was determined by comparison with the field survey data. The RMSEs of the direct and allometric

  18. Aboveground biomass mapping in French Guiana by combining remote sensing, forest inventories and environmental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayad, Ibrahim; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Guitet, Stéphane; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Hérault, Bruno; Gond, Valéry; El Hajj, Mahmoud; Tong Minh, Dinh Ho

    2016-10-01

    Mapping forest aboveground biomass (AGB) has become an important task, particularly for the reporting of carbon stocks and changes. AGB can be mapped using synthetic aperture radar data (SAR) or passive optical data. However, these data are insensitive to high AGB levels (>150 Mg/ha, and >300 Mg/ha for P-band), which are commonly found in tropical forests. Studies have mapped the rough variations in AGB by combining optical and environmental data at regional and global scales. Nevertheless, these maps cannot represent local variations in AGB in tropical forests. In this paper, we hypothesize that the problem of misrepresenting local variations in AGB and AGB estimation with good precision occurs because of both methodological limits (signal saturation or dilution bias) and a lack of adequate calibration data in this range of AGB values. We test this hypothesis by developing a calibrated regression model to predict variations in high AGB values (mean >300 Mg/ha) in French Guiana by a methodological approach for spatial extrapolation with data from the optical geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS), forest inventories, radar, optics, and environmental variables for spatial inter- and extrapolation. Given their higher point count, GLAS data allow a wider coverage of AGB values. We find that the metrics from GLAS footprints are correlated with field AGB estimations (R2 = 0.54, RMSE = 48.3 Mg/ha) with no bias for high values. First, predictive models, including remote-sensing, environmental variables and spatial correlation functions, allow us to obtain "wall-to-wall" AGB maps over French Guiana with an RMSE for the in situ AGB estimates of ∼50 Mg/ha and R2 = 0.66 at a 1-km grid size. We conclude that a calibrated regression model based on GLAS with dependent environmental data can produce good AGB predictions even for high AGB values if the calibration data fit the AGB range. We also demonstrate that small temporal and spatial mismatches between field data and GLAS

  19. Investigating Appropriate Sampling Design for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Bruneian Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, D.; Abu Salim, K.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S.; Lee, W. K.; Davies, S. J.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed tropical forest structure is highly heterogeneous unlike plantation or mixed temperate forest structure, and therefore, different sampling approaches are required. However, the appropriate sampling design for estimating the above-ground biomass (AGB) in Bruneian lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to provide supportive information in sampling design for Bruneian forest carbon inventory. The study site was located at Kuala Belalong lowland MDF, which is part of the Ulu Tembulong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Six 60 m × 60 m quadrats were established, separated by a distance of approximately 100 m and each was subdivided into quadrats of 10 m × 10 m, at an elevation between 200 and 300 m above sea level. At each plot all free-standing trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 1 cm were measured. The AGB for all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm was estimated by allometric models. In order to analyze changes in the diameter-dependent parameters used for estimating the AGB, different quadrat areas, ranging from 10 m × 10 m to 60 m × 60 m, were used across the study area, starting at the South-West end and moving towards the North-East end. The derived result was as follows: (a) Big trees (dbh ≥ 70 cm) with sparse distribution have remarkable contribution to the total AGB in Bruneian lowland MDF, and therefore, special consideration is required when estimating the AGB of big trees. Stem number of trees with dbh ≥ 70 cm comprised only 2.7% of all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm, but 38.5% of the total AGB. (b) For estimating the AGB of big trees at the given acceptable limit of precision (p), it is more efficient to use large quadrats than to use small quadrats, because the total sampling area decreases with the former. Our result showed that 239 20 m × 20 m quadrats (9.6 ha in total) were required, while 15 60 m × 60 m quadrats (5.4 ha in total) were required when estimating the AGB of the trees

  20. Estimating aboveground biomass in the boreal forests of the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Nossov, D.; Peterson, B.; Waldrop, M. P.; McFarland, J.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Rover, J. A.; Chen, X.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of aboveground biomass (AGB) in Alaska's boreal forests is essential to accurately evaluate terrestrial carbon stocks and dynamics in northern high-latitude ecosystems. However, regional AGB datasets with spatially detailed information (<500 m) are not available for this extensive and remote area. Our goal was to map AGB at 30-m resolution for the boreal forests in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska using recent Landsat data and ground measurements. We collected field data in the Yukon River Basin from 2008 to 2010. Ground measurements included diameter at breast height (DBH) or basal diameter (BD) for live and dead trees and shrubs (>1 m tall), which were converted to plot-level AGB using allometric equations. We acquired Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images from the Web Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) that provides multi-date composites of top-of-atmosphere reflectance and brightness temperature for Alaska. From the WELD images, we generated a three-year (2008 - 2010) image composite for the Yukon River Basin using a series of compositing criteria including non-saturation, non-cloudiness, maximal normalize difference vegetation index (NDVI), and maximal brightness temperature. Airborne lidar datasets were acquired for two sub-regions in the central basin in 2009, which were converted to vegetation height datasets using the bare-earth digital surface model (DSM) and the first-return DSM. We created a multiple regression model in which the response variable was the field-observed AGB and the predictor variables were Landsat-derived reflectance, brightness temperature, and spectral vegetation indices including NDVI, soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized difference infrared index (NDII), and normalized difference water index (NDWI). Principal component analysis was incorporated in the regression model to remedy the multicollinearity problems caused by high correlations between predictor variables

  1. Carbon dynamics in aboveground biomass of co-dominant plant species in a temperate grassland ecosystem: same or different?

    PubMed

    Ostler, Ulrike; Schleip, Inga; Lattanzi, Fernando A; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of individual organisms in whole-ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes is probably the biggest current challenge in C cycle research. Thus, it is unknown whether different plant community members share the same or different residence times in metabolic (τmetab ) and nonmetabolic (i.e. structural) (τnonmetab ) C pools of aboveground biomass and the fraction of fixed C allocated to aboveground nonmetabolic biomass (Anonmetab ). We assessed τmetab , τnonmetab and Anonmetab of co-dominant species from different functional groups (two bunchgrasses, a stoloniferous legume and a rosette dicot) in a temperate grassland community. Continuous, 14-16-d-long (13) C-labeling experiments were performed in September 2006, May 2007 and September 2007. A two-pool compartmental system, with a well-mixed metabolic and a nonmixed nonmetabolic pool, was the simplest biologically meaningful model that fitted the (13) C tracer kinetics in the whole-shoot biomass of all species. In all experimental periods, the species had similar τmetab (5-8 d), whereas τnonmetab ranged from 20 to 58 d (except for one outlier) and Anonmetab from 7 to 45%. Variations in τnonmetab and Anonmetab were not systematically associated with species or experimental periods, but exhibited relationships with leaf life span, particularly in the grasses. Similar pool kinetics of species suggested similar kinetics at the community level.

  2. [Estimating individual tree aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest using airborne LiDAR technology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Lei, Pi-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Taking Wugang forest farm in Xuefeng Mountain as the research object, using the airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data under leaf-on condition and field data of concomitant plots, this paper assessed the ability of using LiDAR technology to estimate aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest. A semi-automated individual tree LiDAR cloud point segmentation was obtained by using condition random fields and optimization methods. Spatial structure, waveform characteristics and topography were calculated as LiDAR metrics from the segmented objects. Then statistical models between aboveground biomass from field data and these LiDAR metrics were built. The individual tree recognition rates were 93%, 86% and 60% for coniferous, broadleaf and mixed forests, respectively. The adjusted coefficients of determination (R(2)adj) and the root mean squared errors (RMSE) for the three types of forest were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.74, and 28.22, 29.79 and 32.31 t · hm(-2), respectively. The estimation capability of model based on canopy geometric volume, tree percentile height, slope and waveform characteristics was much better than that of traditional regression model based on tree height. Therefore, LiDAR metrics from individual tree could facilitate better performance in biomass estimation.

  3. The response of tundra plant biomass, above-ground production, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} flux to experimental warming

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbie, S.E.; Chapin, F.S. III

    1998-07-01

    The authors manipulated air temperature in tussock tundra near Toolik Lake, Alaska, and determined the consequences for total plant biomass, aboveground net primary production (ANPP), ecosystem nitrogen (N) pools and N uptake, and ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux. After 3.5 growing seasons, in situ plastic greenhouses that raised air temperature during the growing season had little effect on total biomass, N content, or growing-season N uptake of the major plant and soil pools. Similarly, vascular ANPP and net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange did not change with warming, although net primary production of mosses decreased with warming. Such general lack of response supports the hypothesis that productivity in tundra is constrained by the indirect effects of cold temperatures rather than by cold growing-season temperatures per se. Despite no effect on net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux, air warming stimulated early-season gross photosynthesis (GP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) throughout the growing season. This increased carbon turnover was probably associated with species-level responses to increased air temperature. Warming increased the aboveground biomass of the overstory shrub, dwarf birch (Betula nana), and caused a significant net redistribution of N from the understory evergreen shrub, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, to B. nana, despite no effects on soil temperature, total plant N, or N availability.

  4. Exploring the possibility of estimating the aboveground biomass of Vallisneria spiralis L. using Landsat TM image in Dahuchi, Jiangxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guofeng; de Leeuw, Jan; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Liu, Yaolin

    2005-10-01

    The provision of food to breeding and migrating waterfowl is one of the major functions of submerged aquatic vegetation in shallow lakes. Vallisneria spiralis L. is a submerged aquatic plant species widely distributed within Jiangxi Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve, China. More than 95% of the world population of the endangered Siberian crane as well as significant numbers of Bewick's swan and swan goose over winter in this area, while foraging on the tubers of Vallisneria. The objective of this paper was to explore the possibility of estimating the aboveground biomass of Vallisneria in Dahuchi Lake using Landsat TM image. The relations between aboveground biomass and the bands of a Landsat TM image and their derived variables were investigated using uni- and multivariate linear and non-linear regression models. The results revealed significant but very weak relations between aboveground biomass and the remotely sensed variables. Hence Landsat TM imagery offered little potential to predict aboveground biomass of Vallisneria in this particular region. Possible reasons which could have caused these results were discussed, including: 1) the possible influence of suspended matter in the water; 2) the less accurate field sampling; 3) the limitations of spatial and spectral resolutions of Landsat TM image; 4) the methods used are not appropriate; 5) the homogeneously spatial distribution of aboveground biomass. We propose considering two alternative methods to improve the estimation of aboveground biomass of Vallisneria. First of all, results might be improved while combining alternative data sources (hyperspectral or high spatial resolution images) with innovative methods and more accurate sampling data; Secondly we propose assessing aboveground biomass while using productivity simulation models of submerged aquatic vegetation integrated with geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing.

  5. Simulation results of aboveground woody biomass and leaf litterfall for African tropical forest with a global terrestrial model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Weirdt, Marjolein; Maignan, Fabienne; Peylin, Philippe; Poulter, Benjamin; Moreau, Inès; Ciais, Philippe; Defourny, Pierre; Steppe, Kathy; Verbeeck, Hans

    2014-05-01

    The response of tropical forest vegetation to global climate change could be central to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tropical forests are believed to annually process approximately six times as much carbon via photosynthesis and respiration as humans emit from fossil fuel use. Of all tropical forests worldwide, the role of African tropical forest is not very well known and both the quantity as well as the dynamics of tropical forest carbon stocks and fluxes are very poorly quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Furthermore, African tropical forest spatial carbon stocks patterns as measured in the field are not as well represented by the global biogeochemical models as they are for temperate forests. In this study, a first simulation for the African tropical forest with the process based global terrestrial ecosystem model ORCHIDEE was done. In this work, ORCHIDEE included deep soils, seasonal leaf litterfall and phosphorus availability mechanisms for tropical evergreen forests included. The ORCHIDEE model run outputs are evaluated against reported field inventories, investigating seasonal variations in leaf litterfall and spatial variation in aboveground woody biomass. A comparison between modeled and measured leaf litterfall was made at a semi-deciduous Equatorial rainforest site in the Republic of Congo at the Biosphere reserve Dimonika south of Gabon. Also, simulated woody aboveground biomass was compared against site-level field inventories and satellite-based estimates based on a combination of MODIS imagery with field inventory data from Uganda, DRC and Cameroon. First comparison results seem promising and show that the radiation driven leaf litterfall model results correspond well with the field inventories and that the mean of the modelled aboveground woody biomass matches the available field inventory observations but there is still a need for more ground data to evaluate the model outcome over a large region like

  6. Spectroscopic Determination of Aboveground Biomass in Grasslands Using Spectral Transformations, Support Vector Machine and Partial Least Squares Regression

    PubMed Central

    Marabel, Miguel; Alvarez-Taboada, Flor

    2013-01-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) is one of the strategic biophysical variables of interest in vegetation studies. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) for estimating the AGB of grasslands from field spectrometer data and to find out which data pre-processing approach was the most suitable. The most accurate model to predict the total AGB involved PLSR and the Maximum Band Depth index derived from the continuum removed reflectance in the absorption features between 916–1,120 nm and 1,079–1,297 nm (R2 = 0.939, RMSE = 7.120 g/m2). Regarding the green fraction of the AGB, the Area Over the Minimum index derived from the continuum removed spectra provided the most accurate model overall (R2 = 0.939, RMSE = 3.172 g/m2). Identifying the appropriate absorption features was proved to be crucial to improve the performance of PLSR to estimate the total and green aboveground biomass, by using the indices derived from those spectral regions. Ordinary Least Square Regression could be used as a surrogate for the PLSR approach with the Area Over the Minimum index as the independent variable, although the resulting model would not be as accurate. PMID:23925082

  7. Above-ground biomass estimation of tuberous bulrush ( Bolboschoenus planiculmis) in mudflats using remotely sensed multispectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Yoon; Im, Ran-Young; Do, Yuno; Kim, Gu-Yeon; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2016-03-01

    We present a multivariate regression approach for mapping the spatial distribution of above-ground biomass (AGB) of B. planiculmis using field data and coincident moderate spatial resolution satellite imagery. A total of 232 ground sample plots were used to estimate the biomass distribution in the Nakdong River estuary. Field data were overlain and correlated with digital values from an atmospherically corrected multispectral image (Landsat 8). The AGB distribution was derived using empirical models trained with field-measured AGB data. The final regression model for AGB estimation was composed using the OLI3, OLI4, and OLI7 spectral bands. The Pearson correlation between the observed and predicted biomass was significant (R = 0.84, p < 0.0001). OLI3 made the largest contribution to the final model (relative coefficient value: 53.4%) and revealed a negative relationship with the AGB biomass. The total distribution area of B. planiculmis was 1,922,979 m2. Based on the model estimation, the total AGB had a dry weight (DW) of approximately 298.2 tons. The distribution of high biomass stands (> 200 kg DW/900 m2) constituted approximately 23.91% of the total vegetated area. Our findings suggest the expandability of remotely sensed products to understand the distribution pattern of estuarine plant productivity at the landscape level.

  8. Predictive modeling of hazardous waste landfill total above-ground biomass using passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, Brian Christopher

    This dissertation assessed remotely sensed data and geospatial modeling technique(s) to map the spatial distribution of total above-ground biomass present on the surface of the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) hazardous waste landfill. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, regression kriging, and tree-structured regression were employed to model the empirical relationship between in-situ measured Bahia (Paspalum notatum Flugge) and Centipede [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] grass biomass against an assortment of explanatory variables extracted from fine spatial resolution passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data. Explanatory variables included: (1) discrete channels of visible, near-infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflectance, (2) spectral vegetation indices (SVI), (3) spectral mixture analysis (SMA) modeled fractions, (4) narrow-band derivative-based vegetation indices, and (5) LIDAR derived topographic variables (i.e. elevation, slope, and aspect). Results showed that a linear combination of the first- (1DZ_DGVI), second- (2DZ_DGVI), and third-derivative of green vegetation indices (3DZ_DGVI) calculated from hyperspectral data recorded over the 400--960 nm wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum explained the largest percentage of statistical variation (R2 = 0.5184) in the total above-ground biomass measurements. In general, the topographic variables did not correlate well with the MWMF biomass data, accounting for less than five percent of the statistical variation. It was concluded that tree-structured regression represented the optimum geospatial modeling technique due to a combination of model performance and efficiency/flexibility factors.

  9. Convection links biomass burning to increased tropical ozone - However, models will tend to overpredict O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Delany, Anthony C.

    1990-01-01

    Biomass burning throughout the inhabited portions of the tropics generates precursors which lead to significant local atmospheric ozone pollution. Several simulations show how this smog could be only an easily observed, local manifestation of a much broader increase in tropospheric ozone. The basic processes are illustrated with a one-dimensional time-dependent model that is closer to true meteorological motions than commonly used eddy diffusion models. Its application to a representative region of South America gives reasonable simulations of the local pollutants measured there. Three illustrative simulations indicate the importance of dilution, principally due to vertical transport, in increasing the efficiency of ozone production, possibly enough for high ozone to be apparent on a very large, intercontinental scale.

  10. QUANTIFYING FOREST ABOVEGROUND CARBON POOLS AND FLUXES USING MULTI-TEMPORAL LIDAR A report on field monitoring, remote sensing MMV, GIS integration, and modeling results for forestry field validation test to quantify aboveground tree biomass and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Spangler; Lee A. Vierling; Eva K. Stand; Andrew T. Hudak; Jan U.H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2012-04-01

    Sound policy recommendations relating to the role of forest management in mitigating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) depend upon establishing accurate methodologies for quantifying forest carbon pools for large tracts of land that can be dynamically updated over time. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing is a promising technology for achieving accurate estimates of aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, not much is known about the accuracy of estimating biomass change and carbon flux from repeat LiDAR acquisitions containing different data sampling characteristics. In this study, discrete return airborne LiDAR data was collected in 2003 and 2009 across {approx}20,000 hectares (ha) of an actively managed, mixed conifer forest landscape in northern Idaho, USA. Forest inventory plots, established via a random stratified sampling design, were established and sampled in 2003 and 2009. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm was used to establish statistical relationships between inventory data and forest structural metrics derived from the LiDAR acquisitions. Aboveground biomass maps were created for the study area based on statistical relationships developed at the plot level. Over this 6-year period, we found that the mean increase in biomass due to forest growth across the non-harvested portions of the study area was 4.8 metric ton/hectare (Mg/ha). In these non-harvested areas, we found a significant difference in biomass increase among forest successional stages, with a higher biomass increase in mature and old forest compared to stand initiation and young forest. Approximately 20% of the landscape had been disturbed by harvest activities during the six-year time period, representing a biomass loss of >70 Mg/ha in these areas. During the study period, these harvest activities outweighed growth at the landscape scale, resulting in an overall loss in aboveground carbon at this site. The 30-fold increase in sampling density

  11. Contrasting impacts of continuous moderate drought and episodic severe droughts on the aboveground-biomass increment and litterfall of three coexisting Mediterranean woody species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daijun; Ogaya, Romà; Barbeta, Adrià; Yang, Xiaohong; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the aridity in the Mediterranean Basin and severely affect forest productivity and composition. The responses of forests to different timescales of drought, however, are still poorly understood because extreme and persistent moderate droughts can produce nonlinear responses in plants. We conducted a rainfall-manipulation experiment in a Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo in the Prades Mountains in southern Catalonia from 1999 to 2014. The experimental drought significantly decreased forest aboveground-biomass increment (ABI), tended to increase the litterfall, and decreased aboveground net primary production throughout the 15 years of the study. The responses to the experimental drought were highly species-specific. A. unedo suffered a significant reduction in ABI, Q. ilex experienced a decrease during the early experiment (1999-2003) and in the extreme droughts of 2005-2006 and 2011-2012, and P. latifolia was unaffected by the treatment. The drought treatment significantly increased branch litterfall, especially in the extremely dry year of 2011, and also increased overall leaf litterfall. The drought treatment reduced the fruit production of Q. ilex, which affected seedling recruitment. The ABIs of all species were highly correlated with SPEI in early spring, whereas the branch litterfalls were better correlated with summer SPEIs and the leaf and fruit litterfalls were better correlated with autumn SPEIs. These species-specific responses indicated that the dominant species (Q. ilex) could be partially replaced by the drought-resistant species (P. latifolia). However, the results of this long-term study also suggest that the effect of drought treatment has been dampened over time, probably due to a combination of demographic compensation, morphological and physiological acclimation, and epigenetic changes. However, the structure of community (e.g., species composition

  12. Contrasting impacts of continuous moderate drought and episodic severe droughts on the aboveground-biomass increment and litterfall of three coexisting Mediterranean woody species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daijun; Ogaya, Romà; Barbeta, Adrià; Yang, Xiaohong; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the aridity in the Mediterranean Basin and severely affect forest productivity and composition. The responses of forests to different timescales of drought, however, are still poorly understood because extreme and persistent moderate droughts can produce nonlinear responses in plants. We conducted a rainfall-manipulation experiment in a Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo in the Prades Mountains in southern Catalonia from 1999 to 2014. The experimental drought significantly decreased forest aboveground-biomass increment (ABI), tended to increase the litterfall, and decreased aboveground net primary production throughout the 15 years of the study. The responses to the experimental drought were highly species-specific. A. unedo suffered a significant reduction in ABI, Q. ilex experienced a decrease during the early experiment (1999-2003) and in the extreme droughts of 2005-2006 and 2011-2012, and P. latifolia was unaffected by the treatment. The drought treatment significantly increased branch litterfall, especially in the extremely dry year of 2011, and also increased overall leaf litterfall. The drought treatment reduced the fruit production of Q. ilex, which affected seedling recruitment. The ABIs of all species were highly correlated with SPEI in early spring, whereas the branch litterfalls were better correlated with summer SPEIs and the leaf and fruit litterfalls were better correlated with autumn SPEIs. These species-specific responses indicated that the dominant species (Q. ilex) could be partially replaced by the drought-resistant species (P. latifolia). However, the results of this long-term study also suggest that the effect of drought treatment has been dampened over time, probably due to a combination of demographic compensation, morphological and physiological acclimation, and epigenetic changes. However, the structure of community (e.g., species composition

  13. Testing the generality of above-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types at the continent scale.

    PubMed

    Paul, Keryn I; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Chave, Jerome; England, Jacqueline R; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Specht, Alison; Lewis, Tom; Bennett, Lauren T; Baker, Thomas G; Adams, Mark A; Huxtable, Dan; Montagu, Kelvin D; Falster, Daniel S; Feller, Mike; Sochacki, Stan; Ritson, Peter; Bastin, Gary; Bartle, John; Wildy, Dan; Hobbs, Trevor; Larmour, John; Waterworth, Rob; Stewart, Hugh T L; Jonson, Justin; Forrester, David I; Applegate, Grahame; Mendham, Daniel; Bradford, Matt; O'Grady, Anthony; Green, Daryl; Sudmeyer, Rob; Rance, Stan J; Turner, John; Barton, Craig; Wenk, Elizabeth H; Grove, Tim; Attiwill, Peter M; Pinkard, Elizabeth; Butler, Don; Brooksbank, Kim; Spencer, Beren; Snowdon, Peter; O'Brien, Nick; Battaglia, Michael; Cameron, David M; Hamilton, Steve; McAuthur, Geoff; Sinclair, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground-based estimation of the carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems is critical to quantifying the global carbon budget. Allometric models provide cost-effective methods for biomass prediction. But do such models vary with ecoregion or plant functional type? We compiled 15 054 measurements of individual tree or shrub biomass from across Australia to examine the generality of allometric models for above-ground biomass prediction. This provided a robust case study because Australia includes ecoregions ranging from arid shrublands to tropical rainforests, and has a rich history of biomass research, particularly in planted forests. Regardless of ecoregion, for five broad categories of plant functional type (shrubs; multistemmed trees; trees of the genus Eucalyptus and closely related genera; other trees of high wood density; and other trees of low wood density), relationships between biomass and stem diameter were generic. Simple power-law models explained 84-95% of the variation in biomass, with little improvement in model performance when other plant variables (height, bole wood density), or site characteristics (climate, age, management) were included. Predictions of stand-based biomass from allometric models of varying levels of generalization (species-specific, plant functional type) were validated using whole-plot harvest data from 17 contrasting stands (range: 9-356 Mg ha(-1) ). Losses in efficiency of prediction were <1% if generalized models were used in place of species-specific models. Furthermore, application of generalized multispecies models did not introduce significant bias in biomass prediction in 92% of the 53 species tested. Further, overall efficiency of stand-level biomass prediction was 99%, with a mean absolute prediction error of only 13%. Hence, for cost-effective prediction of biomass across a wide range of stands, we recommend use of generic allometric models based on plant functional types. Development of new species

  14. Testing the generality of above-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types at the continent scale.

    PubMed

    Paul, Keryn I; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Chave, Jerome; England, Jacqueline R; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Specht, Alison; Lewis, Tom; Bennett, Lauren T; Baker, Thomas G; Adams, Mark A; Huxtable, Dan; Montagu, Kelvin D; Falster, Daniel S; Feller, Mike; Sochacki, Stan; Ritson, Peter; Bastin, Gary; Bartle, John; Wildy, Dan; Hobbs, Trevor; Larmour, John; Waterworth, Rob; Stewart, Hugh T L; Jonson, Justin; Forrester, David I; Applegate, Grahame; Mendham, Daniel; Bradford, Matt; O'Grady, Anthony; Green, Daryl; Sudmeyer, Rob; Rance, Stan J; Turner, John; Barton, Craig; Wenk, Elizabeth H; Grove, Tim; Attiwill, Peter M; Pinkard, Elizabeth; Butler, Don; Brooksbank, Kim; Spencer, Beren; Snowdon, Peter; O'Brien, Nick; Battaglia, Michael; Cameron, David M; Hamilton, Steve; McAuthur, Geoff; Sinclair, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground-based estimation of the carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems is critical to quantifying the global carbon budget. Allometric models provide cost-effective methods for biomass prediction. But do such models vary with ecoregion or plant functional type? We compiled 15 054 measurements of individual tree or shrub biomass from across Australia to examine the generality of allometric models for above-ground biomass prediction. This provided a robust case study because Australia includes ecoregions ranging from arid shrublands to tropical rainforests, and has a rich history of biomass research, particularly in planted forests. Regardless of ecoregion, for five broad categories of plant functional type (shrubs; multistemmed trees; trees of the genus Eucalyptus and closely related genera; other trees of high wood density; and other trees of low wood density), relationships between biomass and stem diameter were generic. Simple power-law models explained 84-95% of the variation in biomass, with little improvement in model performance when other plant variables (height, bole wood density), or site characteristics (climate, age, management) were included. Predictions of stand-based biomass from allometric models of varying levels of generalization (species-specific, plant functional type) were validated using whole-plot harvest data from 17 contrasting stands (range: 9-356 Mg ha(-1) ). Losses in efficiency of prediction were <1% if generalized models were used in place of species-specific models. Furthermore, application of generalized multispecies models did not introduce significant bias in biomass prediction in 92% of the 53 species tested. Further, overall efficiency of stand-level biomass prediction was 99%, with a mean absolute prediction error of only 13%. Hence, for cost-effective prediction of biomass across a wide range of stands, we recommend use of generic allometric models based on plant functional types. Development of new species

  15. Spatial effects of aboveground biomass on soil ecological parameters and trace gas fluxes in a savannah ecosystem of Mount Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Joscha; Gütlein, Adrian; Sierra Cornejo, Natalia; Kiese, Ralf; Hertel, Dietrich; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    The savannah biome is a hotspot for biodiversity and wildlife conservation in Africa and recently got in the focus of research on carbon sequestration. Savannah ecosystems are under strong pressure from climate and land-use change, especially around populous areas like the Mt. Kilimanjaro region. Savannah vegetation in this area consists of grassland with isolated trees and is therefore characterized by high spatial variation of canopy cover, aboveground biomass and root structure. Canopy structure is known to affect microclimate, throughfall and evapotranspiration and thereby controls soil moisture conditions. Consequently, the canopy structure is a major regulator for soil ecological parameters and soil-atmospheric trace gas exchange (CO2, N2O, CH4) in water limited environments. The spatial distribution of these parameters and the connection between above and belowground processes are important to understand and predict ecosystem changes and estimate its vulnerability. Our objective was to determine trends and changes of soil parameters and relate their spatial variability to the vegetation structure. We chose three trees from each of the two most dominant species (Acacia nilotica and Balanites aegyptiaca) in our research area. For each tree, we selected transects with nine sampling points of the same relative distances to the stem. Distances were calculated in relation to the crown radius. At these each sampling point a soil core was taken and separated in 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm depth. We measured soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage, microbial biomass carbon C and N, soil respiration as well as root biomass and -density, soil temperature and soil water content. Each tree was characterized by crown spread, leaf area index and basal area. Preliminary results show that C and N stocks decreased about 50% with depth independently of distance to the tree. Soil water content under the tree crown increased with depth while it decreased under grass cover. Microbial

  16. Net aboveground biomass declines of four major forest types with forest ageing and climate change in western Canada's boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han Y H; Luo, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Biomass change of the world's forests is critical to the global carbon cycle. Despite storing nearly half of global forest carbon, the boreal biome of diverse forest types and ages is a poorly understood component of the carbon cycle. Using data from 871 permanent plots in the western boreal forest of Canada, we examined net annual aboveground biomass change (ΔAGB) of four major forest types between 1958 and 2011. We found that ΔAGB was higher for deciduous broadleaf (DEC) (1.44 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) , 95% Bayesian confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.68) and early-successional coniferous forests (ESC) (1.42, CI, 1.30-1.56) than mixed forests (MIX) (0.80, CI, 0.50-1.11) and late-successional coniferous (LSC) forests (0.62, CI, 0.39-0.88). ΔAGB declined with forest age as well as calendar year. After accounting for the effects of forest age, ΔAGB declined by 0.035, 0.021, 0.032 and 0.069 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) per calendar year in DEC, ESC, MIX and LSC forests, respectively. The ΔAGB declines resulted from increased tree mortality and reduced growth in all forest types except DEC, in which a large biomass loss from mortality was accompanied with a small increase in growth. With every degree of annual temperature increase, ΔAGB decreased by 1.00, 0.20, 0.55 and 1.07 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in DEC, ESC, MIX and LSC forests, respectively. With every cm decrease of annual climatic moisture availability, ΔAGB decreased 0.030, 0.045 and 0.17 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in ESC, MIX and LSC forests, but changed little in DEC forests. Our results suggest that persistent warming and decreasing water availability have profound negative effects on forest biomass in the boreal forests of western Canada. Furthermore, our results indicate that forest responses to climate change are strongly dependent on forest composition with late-successional coniferous forests being most vulnerable to climate changes in terms of aboveground biomass.

  17. Carbon dynamics in aboveground biomass of co-dominant plant species: related rather to leaf life span than to species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostler, Ulrike; Schleip, Inga; Lattanzi, Fernando A.; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the role of individual organisms in whole ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes. It is currently unknown if different plant community members share the same or different kinetics of C pools in aboveground biomass, thereby adding (or not) variability to the first steps in ecosystem C cycling. We assessed the residence times in metabolic and non-metabolic (or structural) C pools and the allocation pattern of assimilated C in aboveground plant parts of four co-existing, co-dominant species from different functional groups in a temperate grassland community. For this purpose continuous, 14-16 day long 13CO2/12CO2-labeling experiments were performed in Sept. 2006, May 2007 and Sept. 2007, and the tracer kinetics were analysed with compartmental modeling. In all experimental periods, the species shared vastly similar residence times in metabolic C (5-8 d). In contrast, the residence times in non-metabolic C ranged from 20 to 58 d (except one outlier) and the fraction of fixed C allocated to the non-metabolic pool from 7 to 45%. These variations in non-metabolic C kinetics were not systematically associated with species or experimental periods, but exhibited close relationships with (independent estimates of) leaf life span, particularly in the grasses. This adds new meaning to leaf life span as a functional trait in the leaf and plant economics spectrum and its implication for C cycle studies in grassland and also forest systems. As the four co-dominant species accounted for ~80% of total community shoot biomass, we should also expect that the observed similarities in pool kinetics and allocation will scale up to similar relationships at the community level.

  18. Aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) mapping for Niassa Reserve, northern Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Natasha S.; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Shugart, Herman H.; Washington-Allen, Robert A.

    2008-09-01

    Estimations of biomass are critical in miombo woodlands because they represent the primary source of goods and services for over 80% of the population in southern Africa. This study was carried out in Niassa Reserve, northern Mozambique. The main objectives were first to estimate woody biomass and Leaf Area Index (LAI) using remotely sensed data [RADARSAT (C-band, λ = 5.7-cm)] and Landsat ETM+ derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Simple Ratio (SR) calibrated by field measurements and, second to determine, at both landscape and plot scales, the environmental controls (precipitation, woody cover density, fire and elephants) of biomass and LAI. A land-cover map (72% overall accuracy) was derived from the June 2004 ETM+ mosaic. Field biomass and LAI were correlated with RADARSAT backscatter (rbiomass = 0.65, rLAI = 0.57, p < 0.0001) from July 2004, NDVI (rbiomass = 0.30, rLAI = 0.35; p < 0.0001) and SR (rbiomass = 0.36, rLAI = 0.40, p < 0.0001). A jackknife stepwise regression technique was used to develop the best predictive models for biomass (biomass = -5.19 + 0.074 * radarsat + 1.56 * SR, r2 = 0.55) and LAI (LAI = -0.66 + 0.01 * radarsat + 0.22 * SR, r2 = 0.45). Biomass and LAI maps were produced with an estimated peak of 18 kg m-2 and 2.80 m2 m-2, respectively. On the landscape-scale, both biomass and LAI were strongly determined by mean annual precipitation (F = 13.91, p = 0.0002). On the plot spatial scale, woody biomass was significantly determined by fire frequency, and LAI by vegetation type.

  19. Estimating Forest Aboveground Biomass by Combining Optical and SAR Data: A Case Study in Genhe, Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Linjing

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of forest aboveground biomass is critical for regional carbon policies and sustainable forest management. Passive optical remote sensing and active microwave remote sensing both play an important role in the monitoring of forest biomass. However, optical spectral reflectance is saturated in relatively dense vegetation areas, and microwave backscattering is significantly influenced by the underlying soil when the vegetation coverage is low. Both of these conditions decrease the estimation accuracy of forest biomass. A new optical and microwave integrated vegetation index (VI) was proposed based on observations from both field experiments and satellite (Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RADARSAT-2) data. According to the difference in interaction between the multispectral reflectance and microwave backscattering signatures with biomass, the combined VI (COVI) was designed using the weighted optical optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) and microwave horizontally transmitted and vertically received signal (HV) to overcome the disadvantages of both data types. The performance of the COVI was evaluated by comparison with those of the sole optical data, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, and the simple combination of independent optical and SAR variables. The most accurate performance was obtained by the models based on the COVI and optical and microwave optimal variables excluding OSAVI and HV, in combination with a random forest algorithm and the largest number of reference samples. The results also revealed that the predictive accuracy depended highly on the statistical method and the number of sample units. The validation indicated that this integrated method of determining the new VI is a good synergistic way to combine both optical and microwave information for the accurate estimation of forest biomass. PMID:27338378

  20. Estimating Forest Aboveground Biomass by Combining Optical and SAR Data: A Case Study in Genhe, Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Linjing

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of forest aboveground biomass is critical for regional carbon policies and sustainable forest management. Passive optical remote sensing and active microwave remote sensing both play an important role in the monitoring of forest biomass. However, optical spectral reflectance is saturated in relatively dense vegetation areas, and microwave backscattering is significantly influenced by the underlying soil when the vegetation coverage is low. Both of these conditions decrease the estimation accuracy of forest biomass. A new optical and microwave integrated vegetation index (VI) was proposed based on observations from both field experiments and satellite (Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RADARSAT-2) data. According to the difference in interaction between the multispectral reflectance and microwave backscattering signatures with biomass, the combined VI (COVI) was designed using the weighted optical optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) and microwave horizontally transmitted and vertically received signal (HV) to overcome the disadvantages of both data types. The performance of the COVI was evaluated by comparison with those of the sole optical data, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, and the simple combination of independent optical and SAR variables. The most accurate performance was obtained by the models based on the COVI and optical and microwave optimal variables excluding OSAVI and HV, in combination with a random forest algorithm and the largest number of reference samples. The results also revealed that the predictive accuracy depended highly on the statistical method and the number of sample units. The validation indicated that this integrated method of determining the new VI is a good synergistic way to combine both optical and microwave information for the accurate estimation of forest biomass. PMID:27338378

  1. Aboveground Biomass and Dynamics of Forest Attributes using LiDAR Data and Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V V L, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, biomass estimation for tropical forests has received much attention because of the fact that regional biomass is considered to be a critical input to climate change. Biomass almost determines the potential carbon emission that could be released to the atmosphere due to deforestation or conservation to non-forest land use. Thus, accurate biomass estimation is necessary for better understating of deforestation impacts on global warming and environmental degradation. In this context, forest stand height inclusion in biomass estimation plays a major role in reducing the uncertainty in the estimation of biomass. The improvement in the accuracy in biomass shall also help in meeting the MRV objectives of REDD+. Along with the precise estimate of biomass, it is also important to emphasize the role of vegetation models that will most likely become an important tool for assessing the effects of climate change on potential vegetation dynamics and terrestrial carbon storage and for managing terrestrial ecosystem sustainability. Remote sensing is an efficient way to estimate forest parameters in large area, especially at regional scale where field data is limited. LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests. We estimated average tree canopy heights and AGB from GLAS waveform parameters by using a multi-regression linear model in forested area of Madhya Pradesh (area-3,08,245 km2), India. The derived heights from ICESat-GLAS were correlated with field measured tree canopy heights for 60 plots. Results have shown a significant correlation of R2= 74% for top canopy heights and R2= 57% for stand biomass. The total biomass estimation 320.17 Mt and canopy heights are generated by using random forest algorithm. These canopy heights and biomass maps were used in vegetation models to predict the changes biophysical/physiological characteristics of forest according to the changing climate. In our study we have

  2. A RAPID NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS OF SALT MARSH GRASSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the primary productivity of salt marshes requires accurate estimates of biomass. Unfortunately, these estimates vary enough within and among salt marshes to require large numbers of replicates if the averages are to be statistically meaningful. Large numbers of repl...

  3. A Comparison of Two Above-Ground Biomass Estimation Techniques Integrating Satellite-Based Remotely Sensed Data and Ground Data for Tropical and Semiarid Forests in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)...

  4. [Effects of China future land use change on aboveground vegetation biomass].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Fang; Yue, Tian-Xiang

    2012-08-01

    Land use change has significant effects on vegetation biomass via altering ecosystem structure. By adopting a spatially explicit land use change model, this paper simulated the spatiotemporal pattern of land use change in China till 2030, based on the historical scenario (in this scenario, the land use trend in 1988-2005 was extrapolated to obtain the area of each land use type in the future) and the planned scenario (in this scenario, the area of each land use type in the future was based on the national scale land use planning). On the basis of this simulation and using a biomass density approach, the spatial pattern of vegetation biomass change in China was estimated. The simulation showed that under the historical scenario, the forest area would be decreased but the forest age would be in adverse, and accordingly, the forest biomass density would have an increase. Till 2030, the overall vegetation biomass in China would be 14619 Tg, with an increase of 251.19 Tg as compared to the situation in 2005. Under the planned scenario, the forest area would be increased, and the overall vegetation biomass in 2030 would be 15468 Tg, with an increase of 1100 Tg as compared to the situation in 2005. In the planned scenario, the planted forest area would be larger while the forest age would be younger, resulting in a much lower vegetation biomass density in 2030 than that in the historical scenario, and thus, the China's vegetation in the planned scenario would have a higher potential to act as a carbon sink.

  5. [Aboveground biomass input of Myristicaceae tree species in the Amazonian Forest in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ureta Adrianzén, Marisabel

    2015-03-01

    Amazonian forests are a vast storehouse of biodiversity and function as carbon sinks from biomass that accumulates in various tree species. In these forests, the taxa with the greatest contribution of biomass cannot be precisely defined, and the representative distribution of Myristicaceae in the Peruvian Amazon was the starting point for designing the present study, which aimed to quantify the biomass contribution of this family. For this, I analyzed the databases that corresponded to 38 sample units that were previously collected and that were provided by the TeamNetwork and RAINFOR organizations. The analysis consisted in the estimation of biomass using pre-established allometric equations, Kruskal-Wallis sample comparisons, interpolation-analysis maps, and nonparametric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results showed that Myristicaceae is the fourth most important biomass contributor with 376.97 Mg/ha (9.92 Mg/ha in average), mainly due to its abundance. Additionally, the family shows a noticeable habitat preference for certain soil conditions in the physiographic units, such is the case of Virola pavonis in "varillales", within "floodplain", or Iryanthera tessmannii and Virola loretensis in sewage flooded areas or "igapo" specifically, and the preference of Virola elongata and irola surinamensis for white water flooded areas or "varzea" edaphic conditions of the physiographic units taken in the study. PMID:26299130

  6. Biotic and abiotic controls on the distribution of tropical forest aboveground biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Schimel, D.; Keller, M. M.; Chambers, J. Q.; Dubayah, R.; Duffy, P.; Yu, Y.; Robinson, C. M.; Chowdhury, D.; Yang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    AUTHOR: Sassan Saatchi1,2, Yan Yang2, Diya Chowdhury2, Yifan Yu2, Chelsea Robinson2, David Schimel1, Paul Duffy3, Michael Keller4, Ralph Dubayah5, Jeffery Chambers6 1. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA USA 2. Institute of Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA 3. Neptune and Company, Inc. Denver, CO, USA 4. International Institute of Tropical Forestry & International Programs, USDA Forest Service, Campinas, Brazil 5. Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA 6. Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA ABSTRACT BODY: In recent years, climate change policies and scientific research created a widespread interest in quantify the carbon stock and changes of global tropical forests extending from forest patches to national and regional scales. Using a combination of inventory data from field plots and forest structure from spaceborne Lidar data, we examine the main controls on the distribution of tropical forest biomass. Here, we concentrate on environmental and landscape variables (precipitation, temperature, topography, and soil), and biotic variables such as functional traits (density of large trees, and wood specific gravity). The analysis is performed using global bioclimatic variables for precipitation and temperature, SRTM data for topographical variables (elevation and ruggedness), and global harmonized soil data for soil type and texture. For biotic variables, we use the GLAS Lidar data to quantify the distribution of large trees, a combined field and remote sensing data for distribution of tree wood specific gravity. The results show that climate variables such as precipitation of dry season can explain the heterogeneity of forest biomass over the landscape but cannot predict the biomass variability significantly and particularly for high biomass forests. Topography such as elevation and ruggedness along with temperature can

  7. Landscape and forest structural controls on wood density and aboveground biomass along a tropical elevation gradient in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Clark, D. B.; Gillespie, T. W.; Andelman, S.

    2014-12-01

    This research seeks to understand how tree wood density and taxonomic diversity relate to topography and three-dimensional vegetation structure in the tropical montane forest of Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. The study utilized forest inventory and botanical data from twenty 1-ha plots ranging from 55 m to 2800 m above sea level and remote sensing data from an airborne lidar sensor (NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor [LVIS]) to quantify variations in forest structure. There is growing evidence that ecosystem structure plays an important role in defining patterns of species diversity and help to control the phenotypic and functional variations across landscapes. Elevation gradients along mountains provide landscape-size scales through which variations in topography, climate, and edaphic conditions as drivers of biodiversity can be tested. In this study we report on the effectiveness of relating patterns of tree wood density and alpha diversity to three-dimensional structure of a tropical montane forest using remote sensing observations of forest structure. Wood density is an important parameter for aboveground biomass and carbon estimations. Tree cores were analyzed for wood density and compared to existing database values for the same species. In this manner we were able to test the effect of the gradient on wood density and on the subsequent aboveground biomass estimations. Understanding these patterns has implications for conservation of both ecosystem services and biodiversity. Our results indicate that there is a strong relationship between LVIS-derived forest 3D-structure and alpha diversity, likely controlled controlled by variations in abiotic factors and topography along the elevation. Using spatial analysis with the aid of remote sensing data, we found distinct patterns along the environmental gradients defining species composition and forest structure. Wood density values were found to vary significantly from database values for the

  8. Rapid assessment of above-ground biomass of Giant Reed using visibility estimates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method for the rapid estimation of biomass and density of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) was developed using estimates of visibility as a predictive tool. Visibility estimates were derived by capturing digital images of a 0.25 m2 polystyrene whiteboard placed a set distance (1m) from the edge of gia...

  9. Recovery of aboveground plant biomass and productivity after fire in mesic and dry black spruce forests of interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, M.C.; Treseder, K.K.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Vogel, J.G.; Randerson, J.T.; Chapin, F. S.

    2008-01-01

    Plant biomass accumulation and productivity are important determinants of ecosystem carbon (C) balance during post-fire succession. In boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forests near Delta Junction, Alaska, we quantified aboveground plant biomass and net primary productivity (ANPP) for 4 years after a 1999 wildfire in a well-drained (dry) site, and also across a dry and a moderately well-drained (mesic) chronosequence of sites that varied in time since fire (2 to ???116 years). Four years after fire, total biomass at the 1999 burn site had increased exponentially to 160 ?? 21 g m-2 (mean ?? 1SE) and vascular ANPP had recovered to 138 ?? 32 g m-2 y -1, which was not different than that of a nearby unburned stand (160 ?? 48 g m-2 y-1) that had similar pre-fire stand structure and understory composition. Production in the young site was dominated by re-sprouting graminoids, whereas production in the unburned site was dominated by black spruce. On the dry and mesic chronosequences, total biomass pools, including overstory and understory vascular and non-vascular plants, and lichens, increased logarithmically (dry) or linearly (mesic) with increasing site age, reaching a maximum of 2469 ?? 180 (dry) and 4008 ?? 233 g m-2 (mesic) in mature stands. Biomass differences were primarily due to higher tree density in the mesic sites because mass per tree was similar between sites. ANPP of vascular and non-vascular plants increased linearly over time in the mesic chronosequence to 335 ?? 68 g m-2 y -1 in the mature site, but in the dry chronosequence it peaked at 410 ?? 43 g m-2 y-1 in a 15-year-old stand dominated by deciduous trees and shrubs. Key factors regulating biomass accumulation and production in these ecosystems appear to be the abundance and composition of re-sprouting species early in succession, the abundance of deciduous trees and shrubs in intermediate aged stands, and the density of black spruce across all stand ages. A better understanding of the controls

  10. Lasting effects of climate disturbance on perennial grassland above-ground biomass production under two cutting frequencies.

    PubMed

    Zwicke, Marine; Alessio, Giorgio A; Thiery, Lionel; Falcimagne, Robert; Baumont, René; Rossignol, Nicolas; Soussana, Jean-François; Picon-Cochard, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    Climate extremes can ultimately reshape grassland services such as forage production and change plant functional type composition. This 3-year field research studied resistance to dehydration and recovery after rehydration of plant community and plant functional types in an upland perennial grassland subjected to climate and cutting frequency (Cut+, Cut-) disturbances by measuring green tissue percentage and above-ground biomass production (ANPP). In year 1, a climate disturbance gradient was applied by co-manipulating temperature and precipitation. Four treatments were considered: control and warming-drought climatic treatment, with or without extreme summer event. In year 2, control and warming-drought treatments were maintained without extreme. In year 3, all treatments received ambient climatic conditions. We found that the grassland community was very sensitive to dehydration during the summer extreme: aerial senescence reached 80% when cumulated climatic water balance fell to -156 mm and biomass declined by 78% at the end of summer. In autumn, canopy greenness and biomass totally recovered in control but not in the warming-drought treatment. However ANPP decreased under both climatic treatments, but the effect was stronger on Cut+ (-24%) than Cut- (-15%). This decline was not compensated by the presence of three functional types because they were negatively affected by the climatic treatments, suggesting an absence of buffering effect on grassland production. In the following 2 years, lasting effects of climate disturbance on ANPP were observable. The unexpected stressful conditions of year 3 induced a decline in grassland production in the Cut+ control treatment. The fact that this treatment cumulated higher (45%) N export over the 3 years suggests that N plays a key role in ANPP stability. As ANPP in this mesic perennial grassland did not show engineering resilience, long-term experimental manipulation is needed. Infrequent mowing appears more

  11. Lasting effects of climate disturbance on perennial grassland above-ground biomass production under two cutting frequencies.

    PubMed

    Zwicke, Marine; Alessio, Giorgio A; Thiery, Lionel; Falcimagne, Robert; Baumont, René; Rossignol, Nicolas; Soussana, Jean-François; Picon-Cochard, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    Climate extremes can ultimately reshape grassland services such as forage production and change plant functional type composition. This 3-year field research studied resistance to dehydration and recovery after rehydration of plant community and plant functional types in an upland perennial grassland subjected to climate and cutting frequency (Cut+, Cut-) disturbances by measuring green tissue percentage and above-ground biomass production (ANPP). In year 1, a climate disturbance gradient was applied by co-manipulating temperature and precipitation. Four treatments were considered: control and warming-drought climatic treatment, with or without extreme summer event. In year 2, control and warming-drought treatments were maintained without extreme. In year 3, all treatments received ambient climatic conditions. We found that the grassland community was very sensitive to dehydration during the summer extreme: aerial senescence reached 80% when cumulated climatic water balance fell to -156 mm and biomass declined by 78% at the end of summer. In autumn, canopy greenness and biomass totally recovered in control but not in the warming-drought treatment. However ANPP decreased under both climatic treatments, but the effect was stronger on Cut+ (-24%) than Cut- (-15%). This decline was not compensated by the presence of three functional types because they were negatively affected by the climatic treatments, suggesting an absence of buffering effect on grassland production. In the following 2 years, lasting effects of climate disturbance on ANPP were observable. The unexpected stressful conditions of year 3 induced a decline in grassland production in the Cut+ control treatment. The fact that this treatment cumulated higher (45%) N export over the 3 years suggests that N plays a key role in ANPP stability. As ANPP in this mesic perennial grassland did not show engineering resilience, long-term experimental manipulation is needed. Infrequent mowing appears more

  12. Field note: comparative efficacy of a woody evapotranspiration landfill cover following the removal of aboveground biomass.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, William; Munk, Jens; Byrd, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Woody vegetation cultivated for moisture management on evapotranspiration (ET) landfill covers could potentially serve a secondary function as a biomass crop. However, research is required to evaluate the extent to which trees could be harvested from ET covers without significantly impacting their moisture management function. This study investigated the drainage through a six-year-old, primarily poplar/cottonwood ET test cover for a period of one year following the harvest of all woody biomass exceeding a height of 30 cm above ground surface. Results were compared to previously reported drainage observed during the years leading up to the coppice event. In the first year following coppice, the ET cover was found to be 93% effective at redirecting moisture during the spring/summer season, and 95% effective during the subsequent fall/winter season. This was slightly lower than the 95% and 100% efficacy observed in the spring/summer and fall/winter seasons, respectively, during the final measured year prior to coppice. However, the post-coppice efficacy was higher than the efficacy observed during the first three years following establishment of the cover. While additional longer-term studies are recommended, this project demonstrated that woody ET covers could potentially produce harvestable biomass while still effectively managing aerial moisture.

  13. Lidar Estimation of Aboveground Biomass in a Tropical Coastal Forest of Gabon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, V.; Saatchi, S. S.; Poulsen, J.; Clark, C.; Lewis, S.; White, L.

    2012-12-01

    Estimation of tropical forest carbon stocks is a critical yet challenging problem from both ground surveys and remote sensing measurements. However, with its increasing importance in global climate mitigation and carbon cycle assessment, there is a need to develop new techniques to measure forest carbon stocks at landscape scales. Progresses have been made in terms of above ground biomass (AGB) monitoring techniques using ground measurements, with the development of tree allometry techniques. Besides, studies have shown that new remote sensing technologies such as Lidar can give accurate information on tree height and forest structure at a landscape level and can be very useful to estimate AGB. This study examines the ability of small footprint Lidar to estimate above ground biomass in Mondah forest, Gabon. Mondah forest is a coastal tropical forest that is partially flooded and includes areas of mangrove. Its mean annual temperature is 18.8C and mean annual precipitation is 2631mm/yr. Its proximity to the capital of Gabon, Libreville, makes it particularly subject to environmental pressure. The analysis is based on small footprint Lidar waveform information and relative height (RH) metrics that correspond to the percentiles of energy of the signal (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). AGB estimation is calibrated with ground measurements. Ground-estimated AGB is calculated using allometric equations based on tree diameter, wood density and tree height. Lidar-derived AGB is calculated using a linear regression model between the four Lidar RH metrics and ground-estimated AGB and using available models developed in other tropical regions that use one height metric, average wood density, and tree stocking number. We present uncertainty of different approaches and discuss the universality of lidar biomass estimation models in tropical forests.

  14. Improving estimation of tree carbon stocks by harvesting aboveground woody biomass within airborne LiDAR flight areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, M.; Asner, G. P.; Swemmer, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    The accurate estimation of carbon stored in a tree is essential to accounting for the carbon emissions due to deforestation and degradation. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has been successful in estimating aboveground carbon density (ACD) by correlating airborne metrics, such as canopy height, to field-estimated biomass. This latter step is reliant on field allometry which is applied to forest inventory quantities, such as stem diameter and height, to predict the biomass of a given tree stem. Constructing such allometry is expensive, time consuming, and requires destructive sampling. Consequently, the sample sizes used to construct such allometry are often small, and the largest tree sampled is often much smaller than the largest in the forest population. The uncertainty resulting from these sampling errors can lead to severe biases when the allometry is applied to stems larger than those harvested to construct the allometry, which is then subsequently propagated to airborne ACD estimates. The Kruger National Park (KNP) mission of maintaining biodiversity coincides with preserving ecosystem carbon stocks. However, one hurdle to accurately quantifying carbon density in savannas is that small stems are typically harvested to construct woody biomass allometry, yet they are not representative of Kruger's distribution of biomass. Consequently, these equations inadequately capture large tree variation in sapwood/hardwood composition, root/shoot/leaf allocation, branch fall, and stem rot. This study eliminates the "middleman" of field allometry by directly measuring, or harvesting, tree biomass within the extent of airborne LiDAR. This enables comparisons of field and airborne ACD estimates, and also enables creation of new airborne algorithms to estimate biomass at the scale of individual trees. A field campaign was conducted at Pompey Silica Mine 5km outside Kruger National Park, South Africa, in Mar-Aug 2010 to harvest and weigh tree mass. Since

  15. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J H Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  16. Diversity and Above-Ground Biomass Patterns of Vascular Flora Induced by Flooding in the Drawdown Area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J.H.Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  17. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J H Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  18. Progress in the remote sensing of C3 and C4 grass species aboveground biomass over time and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoko, Cletah; Mutanga, Onisimo; Dube, Timothy

    2016-10-01

    The remote sensing of grass aboveground biomass (AGB) has gained considerable attention, with substantial research being conducted in the past decades. Of significant importance is their photosynthetic pathways (C3 and C4), which epitomizes a fundamental eco-physiological distinction of grasses functional types. With advances in technology and the availability of remotely sensed data at different spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolutions, coupled with the need for detailed information on vegetation condition, the monitoring of C3 and C4 grasses AGB has received renewed attention, especially in the light of global climate change, biodiversity and, most importantly, food security. This paper provides a detailed survey on the progress of remote sensing application in determining C3 and C4 grass species AGB. Importantly, the importance of species functional type is highlighted in conjunction with the availability and applicability of different remote sensing datasets, with refined resolutions, which provide an opportunity to monitor C3 and C4 grasses AGB. While some progress has been made, this review has revealed the need for further remote sensing studies to model the seasonal (cyclical) variability, as well as long-term AGB changes in C3 and C4 grasses, in the face of climate change and food security. Moreover, the findings of this study have shown the significance of shifting towards the application of advanced statistical models, to further improve C3 and C4 grasses AGB estimation accuracy.

  19. Using LiDAR to Estimate Total Aboveground Biomass of Redwood Stands in the Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M.; Vuong, H.

    2013-12-01

    The overall objective of this study is to develop a method for estimating total aboveground biomass of redwood stands in Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California using airborne LiDAR data. LiDAR data owing to its vertical and horizontal accuracy are increasingly being used to characterize landscape features including ground surface elevation and canopy height. These LiDAR-derived metrics involving structural signatures at higher precision and accuracy can help better understand ecological processes at various spatial scales. Our study is focused on two major species of the forest: redwood (Sequoia semperirens [D.Don] Engl.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga mensiezii [Mirb.] Franco). Specifically, the objectives included linear regression models fitting tree diameter at breast height (dbh) to LiDAR derived height for each species. From 23 random points on the study area, field measurement (dbh and tree coordinate) were collected for more than 500 trees of Redwood and Douglas-fir over 0.2 ha- plots. The USFS-FUSION application software along with its LiDAR Data Viewer (LDV) were used to to extract Canopy Height Model (CHM) from which tree heights would be derived. Based on the LiDAR derived height and ground based dbh, a linear regression model was developed to predict dbh. The predicted dbh was used to estimate the biomass at the single tree level using Jenkin's formula (Jenkin et al 2003). The linear regression models were able to explain 65% of the variability associated with Redwood's dbh and 80% of that associated with Douglas-fir's dbh.

  20. Adjusting lidar-derived digital terrain models in coastal marshes based on estimated aboveground biomass density

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James

    2015-03-25

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer to true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.

  1. Adjusting lidar-derived digital terrain models in coastal marshes based on estimated aboveground biomass density

    DOE PAGES

    Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James

    2015-03-25

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer tomore » true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.« less

  2. China Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation by Fusion of Inventory and Remote Sensing Data: 1st results from Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Y.; Li, Z.; Huang, G.; Sun, G.; Cheng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    Forests play an irreplaceable role in maintaining regional ecological environment, global carbon balance and mitigating global climate change. Forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important indicator of forest carbon stocks. Estimating forest aboveground biomass accurately could significantly reduce the uncertainties in terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. LIDAR provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests (Lefsky et al., 2007; Naesset et al., 2004; Pang et al., 2008). Combining airborne LiDAR and spaceborne LiDAR for regional forest biomass retrieval could provide a more reliable and accurate quantitative information in regional forest biomass estimate (Boudreau et al., 2008; Nelson et al., 2009; Pang et al., 2011; Saatchi et al., 2011). The Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province are rich in forest resources and suffers intensive forest management activities for timber products. The Heilongjiang Province is typical in temperate forest and the Yunnan Province contains multiple forest types including tropical forest. These two provinces also have good ground inventory system with thousands of permanent field plots. Two campaign consists of in-situ measurement, airborne Lidar data and spaceborne data fusion were designed and implemented. First results show that i). Both spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data are useful for AGB mapping at province level. ii). The combination of spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data gave better biomass estimation with less bias. iii). A pixel level bias mapping was also proposed and gave spatial explicit map of estimation uncertainties. This method will be investigated further with more reference data and tested in other area.

  3. Spatial distribution of forest aboveground biomass in China: estimation through combination of spaceborne lidar, optical imagery, and forest inventory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, B. L.; Su, Y.; Guo, Q.; Hu, T.; Alvarez, O.; Tao, S.; Fang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The global forest ecosystem, which acts as a large carbon sink, plays an important role in modeling the global carbon balance. An accurate estimation of the total forest carbon stock in the aboveground biomass (AGB) is therefore necessary to improve our understanding of carbon dynamics, especially against the background of global climate change. The forest area of China is among the top five globally. However, because of limitations in forest AGB mapping methods and the availability of ground inventory data, there is still a lack in nationwide wall-to-wall forest AGB estimation map for China. In this study, we collected over 8000 ground inventory data from the literature, and developed an AGB mapping method using a combination of these ground inventory data, Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)/Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data, optical imagery, climate surfaces, and topographic data. An uncertainty field model was introduced into the forest AGB mapping model to minimize the influence of plot locality uncertainty. Our nationwide wall-to-wall forest AGB mapping results show that the forest AGB density in China is 120 Mg/ha on average, with a standard deviation of 61 Mg/ha. Evaluation with an independent ground inventory dataset showed that our proposed method can accurately map wall-to-wall forest AGB across a large landscape. The coefficient of determination (R2) and root-mean-square error between our predicted results and the validation dataset were 0.75 and 42.39 Mg/ha, respectively. This new method and the resulting nationwide wall-to-wall AGB map will help to improve the accuracy of carbon dynamic predictions in China.

  4. Detection of large above-ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubanski, J.; Ballhorn, U.; Kronseder, K.; Franke, J.; Siegert, F.

    2013-06-01

    Quantification of tropical forest above-ground biomass (AGB) over large areas as input for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) projects and climate change models is challenging. This is the first study which attempts to estimate AGB and its variability across large areas of tropical lowland forests in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia) through correlating airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to forest inventory data. Two LiDAR height metrics were analysed, and regression models could be improved through the use of LiDAR point densities as input (R2 = 0.88; n = 52). Surveying with a LiDAR point density per square metre of about 4 resulted in the best cost / benefit ratio. We estimated AGB for 600 km of LiDAR tracks and showed that there exists a considerable variability of up to 140% within the same forest type due to varying environmental conditions. Impact from logging operations and the associated AGB losses dating back more than 10 yr could be assessed by LiDAR but not by multispectral satellite imagery. Comparison with a Landsat classification for a 1 million ha study area where AGB values were based on site-specific field inventory data, regional literature estimates, and default values by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) showed an overestimation of 43%, 102%, and 137%, respectively. The results show that AGB overestimation may lead to wrong greenhouse gas (GHG) emission estimates due to deforestation in climate models. For REDD+ projects this leads to inaccurate carbon stock estimates and consequently to significantly wrong REDD+ based compensation payments.

  5. Sensitivity of Above-Ground Biomass Estimates to Height-Diameter Modelling in Mixed-Species West African Woodlands

    PubMed Central

    Aynekulu, Ermias; Pitkänen, Sari; Packalen, Petteri

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that above-ground biomass (AGB) inventories should include tree height (H), in addition to diameter (D). As H is a difficult variable to measure, H-D models are commonly used to predict H. We tested a number of approaches for H-D modelling, including additive terms which increased the complexity of the model, and observed how differences in tree-level predictions of H propagated to plot-level AGB estimations. We were especially interested in detecting whether the choice of method can lead to bias. The compared approaches listed in the order of increasing complexity were: (B0) AGB estimations from D-only; (B1) involving also H obtained from a fixed-effects H-D model; (B2) involving also species; (B3) including also between-plot variability as random effects; and (B4) involving multilevel nested random effects for grouping plots in clusters. In light of the results, the modelling approach affected the AGB estimation significantly in some cases, although differences were negligible for some of the alternatives. The most important differences were found between including H or not in the AGB estimation. We observed that AGB predictions without H information were very sensitive to the environmental stress parameter (E), which can induce a critical bias. Regarding the H-D modelling, the most relevant effect was found when species was included as an additive term. We presented a two-step methodology, which succeeded in identifying the species for which the general H-D relation was relevant to modify. Based on the results, our final choice was the single-level mixed-effects model (B3), which accounts for the species but also for the plot random effects reflecting site-specific factors such as soil properties and degree of disturbance. PMID:27367857

  6. [Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus addition on the aboveground biomass in Inner Mongo- lia temperate steppe, China].

    PubMed

    He, Li-yuan; Hu, Zhong-min; Guo, Qun; Li, Sheng-gong; Bai, Wen-ming; Li, Ling-hao

    2015-08-01

    The plants in arid environment are constrained not only by water availability, but also by soil nutrient conditions. In order to clarify to what extent nutrient addition would facilitate the growth of plants in semi-arid region, we conducted a nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition experiment in Inner Mongolia temperate grassland in 2012 and 2013. In our experiment, N was added at 10 and 40 g N · m(-2) · a(-1) alone or in combination with P addition (10 g P · m(-2) · a(-1)). N addition significantly improved plant aboveground biomass (AGB) during the two study years. AGB in the treatments of 10 and 40 g · m2 · a(-1) was enhanced by 50.8% and 65.9% in 2012, and 71.6% and 93.3% in 2013, respectively. However, no significant difference in AGB enhancement was found between two N addition treatments. Compared with N addition treatments at the rates of 10 and 40 g · m(-2) · a(-1), N plus P addition improved AGB by 98.4% and 186.8% in 2012, and 111.7% and 141.4% in 2013, respectively. N addition generally increased all the three main functional types (i.e., Gramineae, Asteraceae and others) , and the three functional types contributed nearly equally to the increase of the community AGB. In comparison, Asteraceae contributed largest to the increments of AGB under the N plus P addition treatments. Our results also indicated that N and P addition remarkably increased the ground coverage, resulting in improved surface soil moisture condition, which might be one important reason that N and P addition could facilitate plant growth in arid environment.

  7. Sensitivity of Above-Ground Biomass Estimates to Height-Diameter Modelling in Mixed-Species West African Woodlands.

    PubMed

    Valbuena, Rubén; Heiskanen, Janne; Aynekulu, Ermias; Pitkänen, Sari; Packalen, Petteri

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that above-ground biomass (AGB) inventories should include tree height (H), in addition to diameter (D). As H is a difficult variable to measure, H-D models are commonly used to predict H. We tested a number of approaches for H-D modelling, including additive terms which increased the complexity of the model, and observed how differences in tree-level predictions of H propagated to plot-level AGB estimations. We were especially interested in detecting whether the choice of method can lead to bias. The compared approaches listed in the order of increasing complexity were: (B0) AGB estimations from D-only; (B1) involving also H obtained from a fixed-effects H-D model; (B2) involving also species; (B3) including also between-plot variability as random effects; and (B4) involving multilevel nested random effects for grouping plots in clusters. In light of the results, the modelling approach affected the AGB estimation significantly in some cases, although differences were negligible for some of the alternatives. The most important differences were found between including H or not in the AGB estimation. We observed that AGB predictions without H information were very sensitive to the environmental stress parameter (E), which can induce a critical bias. Regarding the H-D modelling, the most relevant effect was found when species was included as an additive term. We presented a two-step methodology, which succeeded in identifying the species for which the general H-D relation was relevant to modify. Based on the results, our final choice was the single-level mixed-effects model (B3), which accounts for the species but also for the plot random effects reflecting site-specific factors such as soil properties and degree of disturbance.

  8. Reducing Uncertainties in Satellite-derived Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimates using a High Resolution Forest Cover Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Ganguly, S.; Nemani, R. R.; Milesi, C.; Basu, S.; Kumar, U.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies to date have provided an extensive knowledge base for estimating forest aboveground biomass (AGB) and recent advances in space-based modeling of the 3-D canopy structure, combined with canopy reflectance measured by passive optical sensors and radar backscatter, are providing improved satellite-derived AGB density mapping for large scale carbon monitoring applications. A key limitation in forest AGB estimation from remote sensing, however, is the large uncertainty in forest cover estimates from the coarse-to-medium resolution satellite-derived land cover maps (present resolution is limited to 30-m of the USGS NLCD Program). The uncertainties in forest cover estimates at the Landsat scale result in high uncertainties for AGB estimation, predominantly in heterogeneous forest and urban landscapes. We have successfully developed an approach using a machine learning algorithm and High-Performance-Computing with NAIP air-borne imagery data for mapping tree cover at 1-m over California and Maryland. In a comparison with high resolution LiDAR data available over selected regions in the two states, we found our results to be promising both in terms of accuracy as well as our ability to scale nationally. The generated 1-m forest cover map will be aggregated to the Landsat spatial grid to demonstrate differences in AGB estimates (pixel-level AGB density, total AGB at aggregated scales like ecoregions and counties) when using a native 30-m forest cover map versus a 30-m map derived from a higher resolution dataset. The process will also be complemented with a LiDAR derived AGB estimate at the 30-m scale to aid in true validation.

  9. Sensitivity of Above-Ground Biomass Estimates to Height-Diameter Modelling in Mixed-Species West African Woodlands.

    PubMed

    Valbuena, Rubén; Heiskanen, Janne; Aynekulu, Ermias; Pitkänen, Sari; Packalen, Petteri

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that above-ground biomass (AGB) inventories should include tree height (H), in addition to diameter (D). As H is a difficult variable to measure, H-D models are commonly used to predict H. We tested a number of approaches for H-D modelling, including additive terms which increased the complexity of the model, and observed how differences in tree-level predictions of H propagated to plot-level AGB estimations. We were especially interested in detecting whether the choice of method can lead to bias. The compared approaches listed in the order of increasing complexity were: (B0) AGB estimations from D-only; (B1) involving also H obtained from a fixed-effects H-D model; (B2) involving also species; (B3) including also between-plot variability as random effects; and (B4) involving multilevel nested random effects for grouping plots in clusters. In light of the results, the modelling approach affected the AGB estimation significantly in some cases, although differences were negligible for some of the alternatives. The most important differences were found between including H or not in the AGB estimation. We observed that AGB predictions without H information were very sensitive to the environmental stress parameter (E), which can induce a critical bias. Regarding the H-D modelling, the most relevant effect was found when species was included as an additive term. We presented a two-step methodology, which succeeded in identifying the species for which the general H-D relation was relevant to modify. Based on the results, our final choice was the single-level mixed-effects model (B3), which accounts for the species but also for the plot random effects reflecting site-specific factors such as soil properties and degree of disturbance. PMID:27367857

  10. A comparison of two above-ground biomass estimation techniques integrating satellite-based remotely sensed data and ground data for tropical and semiarid forests in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iiames, J. S.; Riegel, J.; Lunetta, R.

    2013-12-01

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) program. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated above-ground forest biomass implementing methodology first posited by the Woods Hole Research Center developed for conterminous United States (National Biomass and Carbon Dataset [NBCD2000]). For EPA's effort, spatial predictor layers for above-ground biomass estimation included derived products from the U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (NLCD) (landcover and canopy density), the USGS Gap Analysis Program (forest type classification), the USGS National Elevation Dataset, and the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (tree heights). In contrast, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) biomass product integrated FIA ground-based data with a suite of geospatial predictor variables including: (1) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)-derived image composites and percent tree cover; (2) NLCD land cover proportions; (3) topographic variables; (4) monthly and annual climate parameters; and (5) other ancillary variables. Correlations between both data sets were made at variable watershed scales to test level of agreement. Notice: This work is done in support of EPA's Sustainable Healthy Communities Research Program. The U.S EPA funded and conducted the research described in this paper. Although this work was reviewed by the EPA and has been approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Mention of any trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  11. Greening of the Arctic: Spatial and temporal (1982-2009) variation of circumpolar tundra NDVI and aboveground biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. A.; Epstein, H. E.; Bhatt, U. S.; Raynolds, M. K.; Jia, G.; Comiso, J. C.; Pinzon, J.; Tucker, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Greening of the Arctic project examined the spatial and temporal variability of tundra productivity during field studies along two transects in North America and Russia and in circumpolar remote-sensing studies. Aboveground biomass of zonal vegetation was strongly correlated with summer air temperature along the North America transect (r2 > 0.8), but on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, there was a nearly flat relationship with air temperature in the central part of the climate gradient. The more homogeneous nature of the Russian transect is caused by more consistent soil conditions, warmer than expected temperatures along the central part of the Russian transect, and the homogenizing effect of various landscape-scale disturbances including reindeer grazing and disturbances related to permafrost thawing. We examined the circumpolar spatial variability of the NDVI with respect to land temperatures and a suite of vegetation/terrain variables in a circumpolar geographic information system (GIS). Tests of sensitivity of NDVI to increases in summer temperature showed the largest percentage increases in NDVI will likely occur in northern partially-vegetated areas. A temporal analysis of maximum summer NDVI from 1982-2008 also indicated the ongoing changes have been strongest in the Far North. The percentage changes in the annual maximum NDVI were highest in the Baffin Bay, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago and Davis Strait areas (10-15% changes). The NDVI trends for most Arctic regions were highly positively correlated with the changes in summer land temperatures and negatively correlated with temporal changes in the near-shore early-summer sea-ice concentrations. Trends from these and several other lines of evidence point to a general increase in biomass across the Arctic during the period of satellite observations. The most rapid changes are occurring in the Far North. The impact of shrubification on these trends is probably greatest in the southern parts of the Arctic

  12. Non-Parametric Responses of Aboveground Biomass and NDVI to Land Surface Parameters in Arctic-Alpine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihimäki, H. K.; Heiskanen, J.; Luoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important carbon pool and it affects various phenomena in Arctic and alpine areas, e.g. biodiversity, surface albedo and soil conditions. The growing availability of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM) makes it possible to utilize topographical information for modeling local ground surface conditions globally. We investigated the effect of topography on field measured AGB (n = 359) and its commonly used proxy, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated from SPOT 5 imagery. The study area located in an Arctic-alpine treeline environment (69 °N, 21 °E). We performed the analyses with boosted regression trees method by using elevation and four land surface parameters (LSPs), derived from 10 m DEM, as predictors. The LSPs were namely Potential Incoming Solar Radiation (PISR, MJ m-2 a-1), Topographic Position Index (TPI, r = 300 m), Slope (angle in degrees) and Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). AGB varied from 0 to 5647 g m-2, while median AGB of the data was 449 g m-2. The explained deviance of the AGB and NDVI models were 53 % and 65 %, respectively. Elevation and PISR were the most important predictors. Their interaction was also significant in both cases as the highest AGB were at low-elevation, high-radiation sites, which implicates that PISR significantly improves the modelling of temperature related growing conditions. TWI had no clear effect to AGB nor to NDVI. TPI and Slope had a minor effect on AGB, but no effect to NDVI. Areas lower than their surroundings (negative TPI) had relatively high AGB. Furthermore, steeper slopes had higher AGB compared to flat sites. This is probably caused by the presence of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), which favors protected and steeper topography. Local topography is an important driver of the fine scale AGB patterns. Thus, DEM derived LSPs should be taken into account when modelling current and future biomass distributions in Arctic and alpine

  13. A cross-scale remote sensing approach to estimate tree cover and aboveground biomass in pinyon-juniper woodlands of the Colorado Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Asner, G.; Martin, R.; Barger, N.; Neff, J.

    2007-12-01

    Vegetation dominated by pinyon pines and junipers (pinyon-juniper [P-J] woodlands) is one of the largest vegetation types in the North America. P-J woodlands maintain the highest level of woody biomass compared to other major dryland ecosystems. However, distributions of tree cover and biomass in the P-J woodlands of the Colorado Plateau have not been well studied. Here we developed a synoptic remote sensing approach to scale up pinyon pine and juniper cover and biomass field observations from plot to regional levels using fractional photosynthetic vegetation cover (PV) derived from airborne imaging spectroscopy and Landsat satellite data. Our results demonstrated strong correlations (p < 0.001) between field and airborne tree canopy cover estimates (r2 = 0.92), and between airborne and satellite canopy cover estimates (r2 = 0.61). Field data also indicated that P-J aboveground biomass can be estimated from canopy cover using a unified allometric equation (r2 = 0.69, p < 0.001). Using these multi-scale, cover-biomass relationships, we developed high-resolution, regional-scale maps of P-J cover and biomass for the western Colorado Plateau. The mean (± standard deviation) P-J cover was 27.4 (± 9.9)%, and the mean aboveground woody carbon (C) converted from biomass was 5.2 (± 2.0)MgC/ha. Combining our data with the southwest Regional Gap Analysis Program vegetation map, we estimated that total contemporary woody C storage for the entire Colorado Plateau P-J woodlands (113,600 km2) is 59 TgC. Our results facilitate further investigation of the processes controlling carbon stocks and fluxes across this large region, which forms a key component of the North American Carbon Program (NACP).

  14. Estimation of Regional Forest Aboveground Biomass Combining Icesat-Glas Waveforms and HJ-1A/HSI Hyperspectral Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yanqiu; Qiu, Sai; Ding, Jianhua; Tian, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Estimation of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is a critical challenge for understanding the global carbon cycle because it dominates the dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system has a unique capability for estimating accurately forest canopy height, which has a direct relationship and can provide better understanding to the forest AGB. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) is the first polarorbiting LiDAR instrument for global observations of Earth, and it has been widely used for extracting forest AGB with footprints of nominally 70 m in diameter on the earth's surface. However, the GLAS footprints are discrete geographically, and thus it has been restricted to produce the regional full coverage of forest AGB. To overcome the limit of discontinuity, the Hyper Spectral Imager (HSI) of HJ-1A with 115 bands was combined with GLAS waveforms to predict the regional forest AGB in the study. Corresponding with the field investigation in Wangqing of Changbai Mountain, China, the GLAS waveform metrics were derived and employed to establish the AGB model, which was used further for estimating the AGB within GLAS footprints. For HSI imagery, the Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) method was used to decrease noise and reduce the dimensionality of spectral bands, and consequently the first three of MNF were able to offer almost 98% spectral information and qualified to regress with the GLAS estimated AGB. Afterwards, the support vector regression (SVR) method was employed in the study to establish the relationship between GLAS estimated AGB and three of HSI MNF (i.e. MNF1, MNF2 and MNF3), and accordingly the full covered regional forest AGB map was produced. The results showed that the adj.R2 and RMSE of SVR-AGB models were 0.75 and 4.68 t hm-2 for broadleaf forests, 0.73 and 5.39 t hm-2 for coniferous forests and 0.71 and 6.15 t hm-2 for mixed forests respectively. The

  15. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar. PMID:21374054

  16. Soil water content and patterns of allocation to below- and above-ground biomass in the sexes of the subdioecious plant Honckenya peploides

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Vilas, Julia; Bermúdez, Raimundo; Retuerto, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Dioecious plants often show sex-specific differences in growth and biomass allocation. These differences have been explained as a consequence of the different reproductive functions performed by the sexes. Empirical evidence strongly supports a greater reproductive investment in females. Sex differences in allocation may determine the performance of each sex in different habitats and therefore might explain the spatial segregation of the sexes described in many dimorphic plants. Here, an investigation was made of the sexual dimorphism in seasonal patterns of biomass allocation in the subdioecious perennial herb Honckenya peploides, a species that grows in embryo dunes (i.e. the youngest coastal dune formation) and displays spatial segregation of the sexes at the studied site. The water content in the soil of the male- and female-plant habitats at different times throughout the season was also examined. Methods The seasonal patterns of soil-water availability and biomass allocation were compared in two consecutive years in male and female H. peploides plants by collecting soil and plant samples in natural populations. Vertical profiles of below-ground biomass and water content were studied by sampling soil in male- and female-plant habitats at different soil depths. Key Results The sexes of H. peploides differed in their seasonal patterns of biomass allocation to reproduction. Males invested twice as much in reproduction than females early in the season, but sexual differences became reversed as the season progressed. No differences were found in above-ground biomass between the sexes, but the allocation of biomass to below-ground structures varied differently in depth for males and females, with females usually having greater below-ground biomass than males. In addition, male and female plants of H. peploides had different water-content profiles in the soil where they were growing and, when differences existed (usually in the upper layers of the

  17. Above-ground biomass and carbon estimates of Shorea robusta and Tectona grandis forests using QuadPOL ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, M. D.; Tripathi, P.; Mishra, B.; Kumar, Shashi; Chitale, V. S.; Behera, Soumit K.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms to mitigate climate change in tropical countries such as India require information on forest structural components i.e., biomass and carbon for conservation steps to be implemented successfully. The present study focuses on investigating the potential use of a one time, QuadPOL ALOS PALSAR L-band 25 m data to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB) using a water cloud model (WCM) in a wildlife sanctuary in India. A significant correlation was obtained between the SAR-derived backscatter coefficient (σ°) and the field measured AGB, with the maximum coefficient of determination for cross-polarized (HV) σ° for Shorea robusta, and the weakest correlation was observed with co-polarized (HH) σ° for Tectona grandis forests. The biomass of S. robusta and that of T. grandis were estimated on the basis of field-measured data at 444.7 ± 170.4 Mg/ha and 451 ± 179.4 Mg/ha respectively. The mean biomass values estimated using the WCM varied between 562 and 660 Mg/ha for S. robusta; between 590 and 710 Mg/ha for T. grandis using various polarized data. Our results highlighted the efficacy of one time, fully polarized PALSAR data for biomass and carbon estimate in a dense forest.

  18. Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: Aboveground biomass study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the closure of Material Disposal Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Beguin, K.; Pressler, R.E.; Christensen, C.; Anderson, T.; French, S.; Schuman, R.

    2008-07-01

    Low-level radioactive waste generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) is disposed of at Technical Area (TA) 54, Material Disposal Area (MDA) G. The ability of MDA G to safely contain radioactive waste was evaluated in the facility's performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA). The PA and CA project that, due to uptake and incorporation of radionuclides into aboveground plant material, plant roots penetrating into buried waste may lead to releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment and potentially lead to the exposure to members of the public. The potential amount of contamination deposited on the ground surface, due to plant intrusion into buried waste, is a function of the quantity of litter generated by plants, as well as radionuclide concentrations within the litter. Radionuclide concentrations in plant litter is dependent on the distribution of root mass with depth and the efficiency with which radionuclides are extracted from contaminated soils by the plants roots. In order to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G, aboveground biomass surveys, plant litter production rates, and root mass with depth analyses for the four prominent vegetation types (grasses, forbs, shrubs and trees) are being conducted. Sampling occurred during the months of August and September of 2007 which measured aboveground biomass for the types of grasses and forbs that may become established at MDA G after the disposal facility undergoes final closure. Biomass data are representative of the future potential for the amount of contaminated plant litter fall, which could act as a latent conduit for radionuclide transport from the closed disposal area. Follow on work will be conducted to evaluate frequency and coverage of all growth forms, litter production rates will be measured, and root mass with depth for grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees will be analyzed. Together, data collected are expected to reduce uncertainties

  19. Evaluating the utility of the medium-spatial resolution Landsat 8 multispectral sensor in quantifying aboveground biomass in uMgeni catchment, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2015-03-01

    Aboveground biomass estimation is critical in understanding forest contribution to regional carbon cycles. Despite the successful application of high spatial and spectral resolution sensors in aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation, there are challenges related to high acquisition costs, small area coverage, multicollinearity and limited availability. These challenges hamper the successful regional scale AGB quantification. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the newly-launched medium-resolution multispectral Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) dataset with a large swath width, in quantifying AGB in a forest plantation. We applied different sets of spectral analysis (test I: spectral bands; test II: spectral vegetation indices and test III: spectral bands + spectral vegetation indices) in testing the utility of Landsat 8 OLI using two non-parametric algorithms: stochastic gradient boosting and the random forest ensembles. The results of the study show that the medium-resolution multispectral Landsat 8 OLI dataset provides better AGB estimates for Eucalyptus dunii, Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda especially when using the extracted spectral information together with the derived spectral vegetation indices. We also noted that incorporating the optimal subset of the most important selected medium-resolution multispectral Landsat 8 OLI bands improved AGB accuracies. We compared medium-resolution multispectral Landsat 8 OLI AGB estimates with Landsat 7 ETM + estimates and the latter yielded lower estimation accuracies. Overall, this study demonstrates the invaluable potential and strength of applying the relatively affordable and readily available newly-launched medium-resolution Landsat 8 OLI dataset, with a large swath width (185-km) in precisely estimating AGB. This strength of the Landsat OLI dataset is crucial especially in sub-Saharan Africa where high-resolution remote sensing data availability remains a challenge.

  20. Evaluating Post-fire Ecosystem Effects in Tussock Tundra of the Seward Peninsula: Characterizing Above-ground Biomass Accumulation, Soil Nutrient Pools, and Foliar Nitrogen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, T. N.; Mack, M. C.; Breen, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last century in the circumpolar north, changes in vegetation include shrub cover expansion and shifts in tree line. Invasion of tundra by trees and shrubs may be further facilitated by wildfire disturbance, which creates opportunities for establishment where recruitment is otherwise rare. Even moderate increases in warm-season temperatures are predicted to increase the likelihood of tundra fires. Understanding the consequences of a change in fire regime are complicated by the fact that there are relatively few large recent fires to study. However, the Seward Peninsula is a region that currently experiences more frequent and large fires than other tundra regions in Arctic Alaska. In this tundra region, there are areas of overlapping burns dating back to the 1970s. Using a chronosequence approach, we looked at post-fire biomass accumulation as well as foliar and soil C and N. Our experimental design incorporated sites that showed no evidence of recent burning, sites that burned in 1971, 1997, 2002, and 2011 as well as sites that burned multiple times over the last 30 years. We found that fire had a significant effect on total biomass and shrub basal area in tussock tundra. Our site that burned in 2011 had the lowest total biomass, about half of the biomass of our unburned site. However, our results indicated the site that burned in 1971 had over double the aboveground biomass and more soil N than the unburned site. We found that sites that repeatedly burned since 1971 were very similar in biomass to unburned tundra. This suggests that repeat fires keep a post-fire site at unburned levels of biomass. However, in these repeat fire sites, foliar C/N was ~25% greater and soil C and N was ~50% less than in unburned tundra. These results indicate that repeat fires are potentially causing nitrogen loss that not likely to be replenished into the system. As tundra fires become more frequent prediction of post-fire ecosystem effects is critical due to impacts on

  1. Estimation of Aboveground Biomass in Alpine Forests: A Semi-Empirical Approach Considering Canopy Transparency Derived from Airborne LiDAR Data

    PubMed Central

    Jochem, Andreas; Hollaus, Markus; Rutzinger, Martin; Höfle, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a semi-empirical model that was originally developed for stem volume estimation is used for aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation of a spruce dominated alpine forest. The reference AGB of the available sample plots is calculated from forest inventory data by means of biomass expansion factors. Furthermore, the semi-empirical model is extended by three different canopy transparency parameters derived from airborne LiDAR data. These parameters have not been considered for stem volume estimation until now and are introduced in order to investigate the behavior of the model concerning AGB estimation. The developed additional input parameters are based on the assumption that transparency of vegetation can bemeasured by determining the penetration of the laser beams through the canopy. These parameters are calculated for every single point within the 3D point cloud in order to consider the varying properties of the vegetation in an appropriate way. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is performed to evaluate the influence of the additional LiDAR derived canopy transparency parameters for AGB estimation. The study is carried out in a 560 km2 alpine area in Austria, where reference forest inventory data and LiDAR data are available. The investigations show that the introduction of the canopy transparency parameters does not change the results significantly according to R2 (R2 = 0.70 to R2 = 0.71) in comparison to the results derived from, the semi-empirical model, which was originally developed for stem volume estimation. PMID:22346577

  2. Aboveground biomass allocation of ponderosa pine along an elevational gradient: An analog for response to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, R.M.; DeLucia, E.H.; Schlesinger, W.H. Duke Univ., Durham, NC )

    1993-06-01

    Predictions of CO[sub 2]-enhanced growth for adult trees are primarily based on leaf-level assimilation responses and improved growth rates of seedlings and saplings. Plant growth may be more dependent on biomass allocation than on rates of assimilation, but predictions have not incorporated the effects of temperature on biomass reallocation among autotrophic and heterotrophic tissues and whole-plant carbon balance. We measured biomass allocation of Pinus ponderosa on hydrothermally altered andesite in montane and desert climates, thus substrate was held constant while climate varied. Trees from montane climates supported higher leaf mass per cross-sectional sapwood area (functional conducting xylem) than trees from desert climates, suggesting that a functional response to climate had occurred. Our results also indicate that sapwood mass:leaf mass ratios of P. ponderosa may increase [approx] 50% with a 5[degrees]C change. in mean growing season temperature, approximately the difference between our montane and desert sites. Such an increase in sapwood:leaf ratio may partially offset predicted CO[sub 2]-enhancement effects and substantially reduce whole-plant carbon balance. Biomass allocation responses must be incorporated into growth-response models used to predict fluctuations in forest productivity with changes in climate and atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration.

  3. Effect of seven years of experimental drought on the aboveground biomass storage of an eastern Amazonian rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Galbraith, David; Almeida, Samuel; Fisher, Rosie; Phillips, Oliver; Metcalfe, Daniel; Levy, Peter; Portela, Bruno; da Costa, Mauricio; Meir, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    At least one climate model predicts severe reductions of rainfall over Amazonia during this century. Long-term throughfall exclusion (TFE) experiments represent the best available means to investigate the resilience of the Amazon rainforest to such droughts. Results are presented from a 7-year TFE study at Caxiuanã National Forest, eastern Amazonia. We focus on the impacts of the drought on tree mortality, wood production and aboveground carbon storage. Tree mortality in the TFE plot over the experimental period was 2.5% yr-1, compared to 1.25% yr-1 in a nearby Control plot experiencing normal rainfall. Differences in stem mortality between plots were greatest in the largest (> 40 cm dbh) size class (4.1% yr-1 in the TFE and 1.4% yr-1 in the Control). Wood production in the TFE plot was approximately 30% lower than in the Control plot. Together, these changes resulted in a loss of 37.8 ± 2.0 Mg C ha-1 (~ 20%) in the TFE plot (2002-2008), whereas the Control plot was essentially carbon neutral(change of - 0.2 ± 1.0 Mg C ha-1). These results are remarkably consistent with those from another TFE (at Tapajós National Forest), suggesting that Amazonian forests may respond to prolonged drought in a predictable manner.

  4. The influences of CO2 fertilization and land use change on the total aboveground biomass in Amazonian tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanho, A. D.; Zhang, K.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Field observations from undisturbed old-growth Amazonian forest plots have recently reported on the temporal variation of many of the physical and chemical characteristics such as: physiological properties of leaves, above ground live biomass, above ground productivity, mortality and turnover rates. However, although this variation has been measured, it is still not well understood what mechanisms control the observed temporal variability. The observed changes in time are believed to be a result of a combination of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variability, recovery from natural disturbance (drought, wind blow, flood), and increase of nutrient availability. The time and spatial variability of the fertilization effect of CO2 on above ground biomass will be explored in more detail in this work. A precise understanding of the CO2 effect on the vegetation is essential for an accurate prediction of the future response of the forest to climate change. To address this issue we simultaneously explore the effects of climate variability, historical CO2 and land-use change on total biomass and productivity using two different Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM). We use the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1 (ED2.1). Using land use changes database from 1700 - 2008 we reconstruct the total carbon balance in the Amazonian forest in space and time and present how the models predict the forest as carbon sink or source and explore why the model and field data diverge from each other. From 1970 to 2005 the Amazonian forest has been exposed to an increase of approximately 50 ppm in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Preliminary analyses with the IBIS and ED2.1 dynamic vegetation model shows the CO2 fertilization effect could account for an increase in above ground biomass of 0.03 and 0.04 kg-C/m2/yr on average for the Amazon basin, respectively. The annual biomass change varies temporally and spatially from about 0

  5. Pathways of Leymus chinensis Individual Aboveground Biomass Decline in Natural Semiarid Grassland Induced by Overgrazing: A Study at the Plant Functional Trait Scale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xinhong; Li, Xinle; Hu, Jing; Shi, Hongxiao; Guo, Fenghui; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Natural grassland productivity, which is based on an individual plant’s aboveground biomass (AB) and its interaction with herbivores, can obviously affect terrestrial ecosystem services and the grassland’s agricultural production. As plant traits have been linked to both AB and ecosystem success, they may provide a useful approach to understand the changes in individual plants and grassland productivity in response to grazing on a generic level. Unfortunately, the current lack of studies on how plant traits affect AB affected by herbivores leaves a major gap in our understanding of the mechanism of grassland productivity decline. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the paths of overgrazing-induced decline in the individual AB of Leymus chinensis (the dominant species of meadow-steppe grassland in northern China) on a plant functional trait scale. Using a paired-sampling approach, we compared the differences in the functional traits of L. chinensis in long-term grazing-excluded and experimental grazing grassland plots over a continuous period of approximately 20 years (located in meadow steppe lands in Hailar, Inner Mongolia, China). We found a highly significant decline in the individual height and biomass (leaf, stem, and the whole plant) of L. chinensis as a result of overgrazing. Biomass allocation and leaf mass per unit area were significantly affected by the variation in individual size. Grazing clearly enhanced the sensitivity of the leaf-to-stem biomass ratio in response to variation in individual size. Moreover, using a method of standardized major axis estimation, we found that the biomass in the leaves, stems, and the plant as a whole had highly significant allometric scaling with various functional traits. Also, the slopes of the allometric equations of these relationships were significantly altered by grazing. Therefore, a clear implication of this is that grazing promotes an asymmetrical response of different plant functional traits to variation

  6. Pathways of Leymus chinensis Individual Aboveground Biomass Decline in Natural Semiarid Grassland Induced by Overgrazing: A Study at the Plant Functional Trait Scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiliang; Liu, Zhiying; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xinhong; Li, Xinle; Hu, Jing; Shi, Hongxiao; Guo, Fenghui; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Natural grassland productivity, which is based on an individual plant's aboveground biomass (AB) and its interaction with herbivores, can obviously affect terrestrial ecosystem services and the grassland's agricultural production. As plant traits have been linked to both AB and ecosystem success, they may provide a useful approach to understand the changes in individual plants and grassland productivity in response to grazing on a generic level. Unfortunately, the current lack of studies on how plant traits affect AB affected by herbivores leaves a major gap in our understanding of the mechanism of grassland productivity decline. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the paths of overgrazing-induced decline in the individual AB of Leymus chinensis (the dominant species of meadow-steppe grassland in northern China) on a plant functional trait scale. Using a paired-sampling approach, we compared the differences in the functional traits of L. chinensis in long-term grazing-excluded and experimental grazing grassland plots over a continuous period of approximately 20 years (located in meadow steppe lands in Hailar, Inner Mongolia, China). We found a highly significant decline in the individual height and biomass (leaf, stem, and the whole plant) of L. chinensis as a result of overgrazing. Biomass allocation and leaf mass per unit area were significantly affected by the variation in individual size. Grazing clearly enhanced the sensitivity of the leaf-to-stem biomass ratio in response to variation in individual size. Moreover, using a method of standardized major axis estimation, we found that the biomass in the leaves, stems, and the plant as a whole had highly significant allometric scaling with various functional traits. Also, the slopes of the allometric equations of these relationships were significantly altered by grazing. Therefore, a clear implication of this is that grazing promotes an asymmetrical response of different plant functional traits to variation in

  7. Changes in composition, structure and aboveground biomass over seventy-six years (1930-2006) in the Black Rock Forest, Hudson Highlands, southeastern New York State.

    PubMed

    Schuster, W S F; Griffin, K L; Roth, H; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D; Tissue, D T

    2008-04-01

    We sought to quantify changes in tree species composition, forest structure and aboveground forest biomass (AGB) over 76 years (1930-2006) in the deciduous Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA. We used data from periodic forest inventories, published floras and a set of eight long-term plots, along with species-specific allometric equations to estimate AGB and carbon content. Between the early 1930s and 2000, three species were extirpated from the forest (American elm (Ulmus americana L.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (nigra) (Mill.) BSP)) and seven species invaded the forest (non-natives tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) and white poplar (Populus alba L.) and native, generally southerly distributed, southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides Walt.), cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli L.), red mulberry (Morus rubra L.), eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.)). Forest canopy was dominated by red oak and chestnut oak, but the understory tree community changed substantially from mixed oak-maple to red maple-black birch. Density decreased from an average of 1500 to 735 trees ha(-1), whereas basal area doubled from less than 15 m(2) ha(-1) to almost 30 m(2) ha(-1) by 2000. Forest-wide mean AGB from inventory data increased from about 71 Mg ha(-1) in 1930 to about 145 Mg ha(-1) in 1985, and mean AGB on the long-term plots increased from 75 Mg ha(-1) in 1936 to 218 Mg ha(-1) in 1998. Over 76 years, red oak (Quercus rubra L.) canopy trees stored carbon at about twice the rate of similar-sized canopy trees of other species. However, there has been a significant loss of live tree biomass as a result of canopy tree mortality since 1999. Important constraints on long-term biomass increment have included insect outbreaks and droughts.

  8. Structural, physiognomic and above-ground biomass variation in savanna-forest transition zones on three continents - how different are co-occurring savanna and forest formations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, E. M.; Torello-Raventos, M.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Domingues, T. F.; Gerard, F.; Schrodt, F.; Saiz, G.; Quesada, C. A.; Djagbletey, G.; Ford, A.; Kemp, J.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Lenza, E.; Ratter, J. A.; Maracahipes, L.; Sasaki, D.; Sonke, B.; Zapfack, L.; Villarroel, D.; Schwarz, M.; Yoko Ishida, F.; Gilpin, M.; Nardoto, G. B.; Affum-Baffoe, K.; Arroyo, L.; Bloomfield, K.; Ceca, G.; Compaore, H.; Davies, K.; Diallo, A.; Fyllas, N. M.; Gignoux, J.; Hien, F.; Johnson, M.; Mougin, E.; Hiernaux, P.; Killeen, T.; Metcalfe, D.; Miranda, H. S.; Steininger, M.; Sykora, K.; Bird, M. I.; Grace, J.; Lewis, S.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2015-05-01

    Through interpretations of remote-sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands located mostly within zones of transition (where both vegetation types occur in close proximity) in Africa, South America and Australia. Woody plant leaf area index variation was related to tree canopy cover in a similar way for both savanna and forest with substantial overlap between the two vegetation types. As total woody plant canopy cover increased, so did the relative contribution of middle and lower strata of woody vegetation. Herbaceous layer cover declined as woody cover increased. This pattern of understorey grasses and herbs progressively replaced by shrubs as the canopy closes over was found for both savanna and forests and on all continents. Thus, once subordinate woody canopy layers are taken into account, a less marked transition in woody plant cover across the savanna-forest-species discontinuum is observed compared to that inferred when trees of a basal diameter > 0.1 m are considered in isolation. This is especially the case for shrub-dominated savannas and in taller savannas approaching canopy closure. An increased contribution of forest species to the total subordinate cover is also observed as savanna stand canopy closure occurs. Despite similarities in canopy-cover characteristics, woody vegetation in Africa and Australia attained greater heights and stored a greater amount of above-ground biomass than in South America. Up to three times as much above-ground biomass is stored in forests compared to savannas under equivalent climatic conditions. Savanna-forest transition zones were also found to typically occur at higher precipitation regimes for South America than for Africa. Nevertheless, consistent across all three continents coexistence

  9. Recovery and Phylogenetic Analysis of nifH Sequences from Diazotrophic Bacteria Associated with Dead Aboveground Biomass of Spartina alterniflora

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, Charles R.; Friez, Michael J.; Longshore, John W.; Bagwell, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    DNA was extracted from dry standing dead Spartina alterniflora stalks as well as dry Spartina wrack from the North Inlet (South Carolina) and Sapelo Island (Georgia) salt marshes. Partial nifH sequences were PCR amplified, the products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the prominent DGGE bands were sequenced. Most sequences (109 of 121) clustered with those from α-Proteobacteria, and 4 were very similar (>99%) to that of Azospirillum brasilense. Seven sequences clustered with those from known γ-Proteobacteria and five with those from known anaerobic diazotrophs. The diazotroph assemblages associated with dead Spartina biomass in these two salt marshes were very similar, and relatively few major lineages were represented. PMID:11679360

  10. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition – a five-year experiment in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kejian; Qi, Yu; Huang, Yongmei; Chen, Huiying; Sheng, Zhilu; Xu, Xia; Duan, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the response of the plant community to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is helpful for improving pasture management in semi-arid areas. We implemented a 5-year N addition experiment in a Stipa krylovii steppe of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were measured annually. Along with the N addition levels, the species richness declined significantly, and the species composition changed noticeably. However, the total AGB did not exhibit a noticeable increase. We found that compensatory effects of the AGB occurred not only between the grasses and the forbs but also among Gramineae species. The plant responses to N addition, from the community to species level, lessened in dry years compared to wet or normal years. The N addition intensified the reduction of community productivity in dry years. Our study indicated that the compensatory effects of the AGB among the species sustained the stability of grassland productivity. However, biodiversity loss resulting from increasing N deposition might lead the semi-arid grassland ecosystem to be unsustainable, especially in dry years.

  11. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition - a five-year experiment in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    He, Kejian; Qi, Yu; Huang, Yongmei; Chen, Huiying; Sheng, Zhilu; Xu, Xia; Duan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of the plant community to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is helpful for improving pasture management in semi-arid areas. We implemented a 5-year N addition experiment in a Stipa krylovii steppe of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were measured annually. Along with the N addition levels, the species richness declined significantly, and the species composition changed noticeably. However, the total AGB did not exhibit a noticeable increase. We found that compensatory effects of the AGB occurred not only between the grasses and the forbs but also among Gramineae species. The plant responses to N addition, from the community to species level, lessened in dry years compared to wet or normal years. The N addition intensified the reduction of community productivity in dry years. Our study indicated that the compensatory effects of the AGB among the species sustained the stability of grassland productivity. However, biodiversity loss resulting from increasing N deposition might lead the semi-arid grassland ecosystem to be unsustainable, especially in dry years. PMID:27573360

  12. The evaluation of different forest structural indices to predict the stand aboveground biomass of even-aged Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Kunduz, Northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ercanli, İlker; Kahriman, Aydın

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effect of stand structural diversity, including the Shannon, improved Shannon, Simpson, McIntosh, Margelef, and Berger-Parker indices, on stand aboveground biomass (AGB) and developed statistical prediction models for the stand AGB values, including stand structural diversity indices and some stand attributes. The AGB prediction model, including only stand attributes, accounted for 85 % of the total variance in AGB (R (2)) with an Akaike's information criterion (AIC) of 807.2407, Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of 809.5397, Schwarz Bayesian criterion (SBC) of 818.0426, and root mean square error (RMSE) of 38.529 Mg. After inclusion of the stand structural diversity into the model structure, considerable improvement was observed in statistical accuracy, including 97.5 % of the total variance in AGB, with an AIC of 614.1819, BIC of 617.1242, SBC of 633.0853, and RMSE of 15.8153 Mg. The predictive fitting results indicate that some indices describing the stand structural diversity can be employed as significant independent variables to predict the AGB production of the Scotch pine stand. Further, including the stand diversity indices in the AGB prediction model with the stand attributes provided important predictive contributions in estimating the total variance in AGB.

  13. Age-related and stand-wise estimates of carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöngart, J.; Arieira, J.; Felfili Fortes, C.; Cezarine de Arruda, E.; Nunes da Cunha, C.

    2011-11-01

    In this study we use allometric models combined with tree ring analysis to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in central South America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer tree species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, D) have been performed and converted to estimates of AGWB by two allometric models using three independent parameters (D, tree height H and wood density ρ). We perform a propagation of measurement errors to estimate uncertainties in the estimates of AGWB. Carbon stocks of AGWB vary from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 97.2 ± 14.4 Mg C ha-1 between the four stands. From models relating tree ages determined by dendrochronological techniques to C-stocks in AGWB we derived estimates for C-sequestration which differs from 0.50 ± 0.03 to 3.34 ± 0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Maps based on geostatistic techniques indicate the heterogeneous spatial distribution of tree ages and C-stocks of the four studied stands. This distribution is the result of forest dynamics due to the colonizing and retreating of V. divergens and other species associated with pluriannual wet and dry episodes in the Pantanal, respectively. Such information is essential for the management of the cultural landscape of the Pantanal wetlands.

  14. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition – a five-year experiment in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Kejian; Qi, Yu; Huang, Yongmei; Chen, Huiying; Sheng, Zhilu; Xu, Xia; Duan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of the plant community to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is helpful for improving pasture management in semi-arid areas. We implemented a 5-year N addition experiment in a Stipa krylovii steppe of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were measured annually. Along with the N addition levels, the species richness declined significantly, and the species composition changed noticeably. However, the total AGB did not exhibit a noticeable increase. We found that compensatory effects of the AGB occurred not only between the grasses and the forbs but also among Gramineae species. The plant responses to N addition, from the community to species level, lessened in dry years compared to wet or normal years. The N addition intensified the reduction of community productivity in dry years. Our study indicated that the compensatory effects of the AGB among the species sustained the stability of grassland productivity. However, biodiversity loss resulting from increasing N deposition might lead the semi-arid grassland ecosystem to be unsustainable, especially in dry years. PMID:27573360

  15. Assessment of variations in taxonomic diversity, forest structure, and aboveground biomass using remote sensing along an altitudinal gradient in tropical montane forest of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Clark, D.; Fricker, G. A.; Wolf, J.; Gillespie, T. W.; Rovzar, C. M.; Andelman, S.

    2012-12-01

    This research sought to understand how alpha and beta diversity of plants vary and relate to the three-dimensional vegetation structure and aboveground biomass along environmental gradients in the tropical montane forests of Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. There is growing evidence that ecosystem structure plays an important role in defining patterns of species diversity and along with abiotic factors (climate and edaphic) control the phenotypic and functional variations across landscapes. It is well documented that strong subdivisions at local and regional scales are found mainly on geologic or climate gradients. These general determinants of biodiversity are best demonstrated in regions with natural gradients such as tropical montane forests. Altitudinal gradients provide a landscape scale changes through variations in topography, climate, and edaphic conditions on which we tested several theoretical and biological hypotheses regarding drivers of biodiversity. The study was performed by using forest inventory and botanical data from nine 1-ha plots ranging from 100 m to 2800 m above sea level and remote sensing data from airborne lidar and radar sensors to quantify variations in forest structure. In this study we report on the effectiveness of relating patterns of tree taxonomic alpha diversity to three-dimensional structure of a tropical montane forest using lidar and radar observations of forest structure and biomass. We assessed alpha and beta diversity at the species, genus, and family levels utilizing datasets provided by the Terrestrial Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network. Through the comparison to active remote sensing imagery, our results show that there is a strong relationship between forest 3D-structure, and alpha and beta diversity controlled by variations in abiotic factors along the altitudinal gradient. Using spatial analysis with the aid of remote sensing data, we find distinct patterns along the environmental gradients

  16. Determining aboveground biomass of the forest successional chronosequence in a test-site of Brazilian Amazon through X- and L-band data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, João. R.; Silva, Camila V. d. J.; Galvão, Lênio S.; Treuhaft, Robert; Mura, José C.; Madsen, Soren; Gonçalves, Fábio G.; Keller, Michael M.

    2014-08-01

    Secondary succession is an important process in the Amazonian region with implications for the global carbon cycle and for the sustainable regional agricultural and pasture activities. In order to better discriminate the secondary succession and to characterize and estimate the aboveground biomass (AGB), backscatter and interferometric SAR data generally have been analyzed through empirical-based statistical modeling. The objective of this study is to verify the capability of the full polarimetric PALSAR/ALOS (L-band) attributes, when combined with the interferometric (InSAR) coherence from the TanDEM-X (X-band), to improve the AGB estimates of the succession chronosequence located in the Brazilian Tapajós region. In order to perform this study, we carried out multivariate regression using radar attributes and biophysical parameters acquired during a field inventory. A previous floristic-structural analysis was performed to establish the chronosequence in three stages: initial vegetation regrowth, intermediate, and advanced regrowth. The relationship between PALSAR data and AGB was significant (p<0.001) and results suggested that the "volumetric scattering" (Pv) and "anisotropy" (A) attributes were important to explain the biomass content of the successional chronosequence (R2adjusted = 0.67; RMSE = 32.29 Mg.ha-1). By adding the TanDEM-derived interferometric coherence (Υi) into the regression modeling, better results were obtained (R2adjusted = 0.75; RMSE = 28.78Mg.ha-1). When we used both the L- and X-band attributes, the stock density prediction improved to 10.8 % for the secondary succession stands.

  17. Influence of tree size, taxonomy, and edaphic conditions on heart rot in mixed-dipterocarp Bornean rainforests: implications for aboveground biomass estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heineman, K. D.; Russo, S. E.; Baillie, I. C.; Mamit, J. D.; Chai, P. P.-K.; Chai, L.; Hindley, E. W.; Lau, B.-T.; Tan, S.; Ashton, P. S.

    2015-05-01

    Fungal decay of heartwood creates hollows and areas of reduced wood density within the stems of living trees known as heart rot. Although heart rot is acknowledged as a source of error in forest aboveground biomass estimates, there are few datasets available to evaluate the environmental controls over heart rot infection and severity in tropical forests. Using legacy and recent data from drilled, felled, and cored stems in mixed dipterocarp forests in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, we quantified the frequency and severity of heart rot, and used generalized linear mixed effect models to characterize the association of heart rot with tree size, wood density, taxonomy, and edaphic conditions. Heart rot was detected in 55% of felled stems > 30 cm DBH, while the detection frequency was lower for stems of the same size evaluated by non-destructive drilling (45%) and coring (23%) methods. Heart rot severity, defined as the percent stem volume lost in infected stems, ranged widely from 0.1-82.8%. Tree taxonomy explained the greatest proportion of variance in heart rot frequency and severity among the fixed and random effects evaluated in our models. Heart rot frequency, but not severity, increased sharply with tree diameter, ranging from 56% infection across all datasets in stems > 50 cm DBH to 11% in trees 10-30 cm DBH. The frequency and severity of heart rot increased significantly in soils with low pH and cation concentrations in topsoil, and heart rot was more common in tree species associated with dystrophic sandy soils than with nutrient-rich clays. When scaled to forest stands, the percent of stem biomass lost to heart rot varied significantly with soil properties, and we estimate that 7% of the forest biomass is in some stage of heart rot decay. This study demonstrates not only that heart rot is a significant source of error in forest carbon estimates, but also that it strongly covaries with soil resources, underscoring the need to account for edaphic variation in

  18. Estimating aboveground forest biomass carbon and fire consumption in the U.S. Utah High Plateaus using data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program, Landsat, and LANDFIRE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, X.; Liu, S.; Zhu, Z.; Vogelmann, J.; Li, Z.; Ohlen, D.

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing and greatly affecting global climate and socio-economic systems. Actively growing forests are generally considered to be a major carbon sink, but forest wildfires lead to large releases of biomass carbon into the atmosphere. Aboveground forest biomass carbon (AFBC), an important ecological indicator, and fireinduced carbon emissions at regional scales are highly relevant to forest sustainable management and climate change. It is challenging to accurately estimate the spatial distribution of AFBC across large areas because of the spatial heterogeneity of forest cover types and canopy structure. In this study, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, Landsat, and Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Project (LANDFIRE) data were integrated in a regression tree model for estimating AFBC at a 30-m resolution in the Utah High Plateaus. AFBC were calculated from 225 FIA field plots and used as the dependent variable in the model. Of these plots, 10% were held out for model evaluation with stratified random sampling, and the other 90% were used as training data to develop the regression tree model. Independent variable layers included Landsat imagery and the derived spectral indicators, digital elevation model (DEM) data and derivatives, biophysical gradient data, existing vegetation cover type and vegetation structure. The cross-validation correlation coefficient (r value) was 0.81 for the training model. Independent validation using withheld plot data was similar with r value of 0.82. This validated regression tree model was applied to map AFBC in the Utah High Plateaus and then combined with burn severity information to estimate loss of AFBC in the Longston fire of Zion National Park in 2001. The final dataset represented 24 forest cover types for a 4 million ha forested area. We estimated a total of 353 Tg AFBC with an average of 87 MgC/ha in the Utah High

  19. Spatial Structure of Above-Ground Biomass Limits Accuracy of Carbon Mapping in Rainforest but Large Scale Forest Inventories Can Help to Overcome

    PubMed Central

    Guitet, Stéphane; Hérault, Bruno; Molto, Quentin; Brunaux, Olivier; Couteron, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Precise mapping of above-ground biomass (AGB) is a major challenge for the success of REDD+ processes in tropical rainforest. The usual mapping methods are based on two hypotheses: a large and long-ranged spatial autocorrelation and a strong environment influence at the regional scale. However, there are no studies of the spatial structure of AGB at the landscapes scale to support these assumptions. We studied spatial variation in AGB at various scales using two large forest inventories conducted in French Guiana. The dataset comprised 2507 plots (0.4 to 0.5 ha) of undisturbed rainforest distributed over the whole region. After checking the uncertainties of estimates obtained from these data, we used half of the dataset to develop explicit predictive models including spatial and environmental effects and tested the accuracy of the resulting maps according to their resolution using the rest of the data. Forest inventories provided accurate AGB estimates at the plot scale, for a mean of 325 Mg.ha-1. They revealed high local variability combined with a weak autocorrelation up to distances of no more than10 km. Environmental variables accounted for a minor part of spatial variation. Accuracy of the best model including spatial effects was 90 Mg.ha-1 at plot scale but coarse graining up to 2-km resolution allowed mapping AGB with accuracy lower than 50 Mg.ha-1. Whatever the resolution, no agreement was found with available pan-tropical reference maps at all resolutions. We concluded that the combined weak autocorrelation and weak environmental effect limit AGB maps accuracy in rainforest, and that a trade-off has to be found between spatial resolution and effective accuracy until adequate “wall-to-wall” remote sensing signals provide reliable AGB predictions. Waiting for this, using large forest inventories with low sampling rate (<0.5%) may be an efficient way to increase the global coverage of AGB maps with acceptable accuracy at kilometric resolution. PMID

  20. Optimizing the number of training areas for modeling above-ground biomass with ALS and multispectral remote sensing in subtropical Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Parvez; Gautam, Basanta; Tokola, Timo

    2016-07-01

    Remote sensing-based inventories of above-ground forest biomass (AGB) require a set of training plots representative of the area to be studied, the collection of which is the most expensive part of the analysis. These are time-consuming and costly because the large variety in forest conditions requires more plots to adequately capture this variability. A field campaign in general is challenging and is hampered by the complex topographic conditions, limited accessibility, steep mountainous terrains which increase labor efforts and costs. In addition it is also depend on the ratio between size of study area and number of training plots. In this study, we evaluate the number of training areas (sample size) required to estimate AGB for an area in the southern part of Nepal using airborne laser scanning (ALS), RapidEye and Landsat data. Three experiments were conducted: (i) AGB model performance, based on all the field training plots; (ii) reduction of the sample size, based on the ALS metrics and the AGB distribution; and (iii) prediction of the optimal number of training plots, based on the correlation between the remote sensing and field data. The AGB model was fitted using the sparse Bayesian method. AGB model performance was validated using an independent validation dataset. The effect of the strategies for reducing the sample size was readily apparent for the ALS-based AGB prediction, but the RapidEye and Landsat sensor data failed to capture any such effect. The results indicate that adequate coverage of the variability in tree height and density was an important condition for selecting the training plots. In addition, the ALS-based AGB prediction required the smallest number of training plots and was also quite stable with a small number of field plots.

  1. Spatial Structure of Above-Ground Biomass Limits Accuracy of Carbon Mapping in Rainforest but Large Scale Forest Inventories Can Help to Overcome.

    PubMed

    Guitet, Stéphane; Hérault, Bruno; Molto, Quentin; Brunaux, Olivier; Couteron, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Precise mapping of above-ground biomass (AGB) is a major challenge for the success of REDD+ processes in tropical rainforest. The usual mapping methods are based on two hypotheses: a large and long-ranged spatial autocorrelation and a strong environment influence at the regional scale. However, there are no studies of the spatial structure of AGB at the landscapes scale to support these assumptions. We studied spatial variation in AGB at various scales using two large forest inventories conducted in French Guiana. The dataset comprised 2507 plots (0.4 to 0.5 ha) of undisturbed rainforest distributed over the whole region. After checking the uncertainties of estimates obtained from these data, we used half of the dataset to develop explicit predictive models including spatial and environmental effects and tested the accuracy of the resulting maps according to their resolution using the rest of the data. Forest inventories provided accurate AGB estimates at the plot scale, for a mean of 325 Mg.ha-1. They revealed high local variability combined with a weak autocorrelation up to distances of no more than10 km. Environmental variables accounted for a minor part of spatial variation. Accuracy of the best model including spatial effects was 90 Mg.ha-1 at plot scale but coarse graining up to 2-km resolution allowed mapping AGB with accuracy lower than 50 Mg.ha-1. Whatever the resolution, no agreement was found with available pan-tropical reference maps at all resolutions. We concluded that the combined weak autocorrelation and weak environmental effect limit AGB maps accuracy in rainforest, and that a trade-off has to be found between spatial resolution and effective accuracy until adequate "wall-to-wall" remote sensing signals provide reliable AGB predictions. Waiting for this, using large forest inventories with low sampling rate (<0.5%) may be an efficient way to increase the global coverage of AGB maps with acceptable accuracy at kilometric resolution.

  2. Impacts of cattle grazing on spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and above-ground live plant biomass in mixed grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virk, Ravinder

    Areas with relatively high spatial heterogeneity generally have more biodiversity than spatially homogeneous areas due to increased potential habitat. Management practices such as controlled grazing also affect the biodiversity in grasslands, but the nature of this impact is not well understood. Therefore this thesis studies the impacts of variation in grazing on soil moisture and biomass heterogeneity. These are not only important in terms of management of protected grasslands, but also for designing an effective grazing system from a livestock management point of view. This research is a part of the cattle grazing experiment underway in Grasslands National Park (GNP) of Canada since 2006, as part of the adaptive management process for restoring ecological integrity of the northern mixed-grass prairie region. An experimental approach using field measurements and remote sensing (Landsat) was combined with modelling (CENTURY) to examine and predict the impacts of grazing intensity on the spatial heterogeneity and patterns of above-ground live plant biomass (ALB) in experimental pastures in a mixed grassland ecosystem. The field-based research quantified the temporal patterns and spatial variability in both soil moisture (SM) and ALB, and the influence of local intra-seasonal weather variability and slope location on the spatio-temporal variability of SM and ALB at field plot scales. Significant impacts of intra-seasonal weather variability, slope position and grazing pressure on SM and ALB across a range of scales (plot and local (within pasture)) were found. Grazing intensity significantly affected the ALB even after controlling for the effect of slope position. Satellite-based analysis extended the scale of interest to full pastures and the surrounding region to assess the effects of grazing intensity on the spatio-temporal pattern of ALB in mixed grasslands. Overall, low to moderate grazing intensity showed increase in ALB heterogeneity whereas no change in ALB

  3. Evaluation of stem rot in 339 Bornean tree species: implications of size, taxonomy, and soil-related variation for aboveground biomass estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heineman, K. D.; Russo, S. E.; Baillie, I. C.; Mamit, J. D.; Chai, P. P.-K.; Chai, L.; Hindley, E. W.; Lau, B.-T.; Tan, S.; Ashton, P. S.

    2015-10-01

    Fungal decay of heart wood creates hollows and areas of reduced wood density within the stems of living trees known as stem rot. Although stem rot is acknowledged as a source of error in forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimates, there are few data sets available to evaluate the controls over stem rot infection and severity in tropical forests. Using legacy and recent data from 3180 drilled, felled, and cored stems in mixed dipterocarp forests in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, we quantified the frequency and severity of stem rot in a total of 339 tree species, and related variation in stem rot with tree size, wood density, taxonomy, and species' soil association, as well as edaphic conditions. Predicted stem rot frequency for a 50 cm tree was 53 % of felled, 39 % of drilled, and 28 % of cored stems, demonstrating differences among methods in rot detection ability. The percent stem volume infected by rot, or stem rot severity, ranged widely among trees with stem rot infection (0.1-82.8 %) and averaged 9 % across all trees felled. Tree taxonomy explained the greatest proportion of variance in both stem rot frequency and severity among the predictors evaluated in our models. Stem rot frequency, but not severity, increased sharply with tree diameter, ranging from 13 % in trees 10-30 cm DBH to 54 % in stems ≥ 50 cm DBH across all data sets. The frequency of stem rot increased significantly in soils with low pH and cation concentrations in topsoil, and stem rot was more common in tree species associated with dystrophic sandy soils than with nutrient-rich clays. When scaled to forest stands, the maximum percent of stem biomass lost to stem rot varied significantly with soil properties, and we estimate that stem rot reduces total forest AGB estimates by up to 7 % relative to what would be predicted assuming all stems are composed strictly of intact wood. This study demonstrates not only that stem rot is likely to be a significant source of error in forest AGB estimation

  4. Sensitivity of Backscatter Intensity of ALOS/PALSAR to Above-ground Biomass and Other Biophysical Parameters of Boreal Forests in Alaska and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, R.; Hayashi, M.; Kim, Y.; Ishii, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Shoyama, K.; Adachi, M.; Takahashi, A.; Saigusa, N.; Ito, A.

    2012-12-01

    For the better understanding of the carbon cycle in the global environment, investigations on the spatio-temporal variation of the carbon stock which is stored as vegetation biomass is important. The backscatter intensity of "Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR)" onboard the satellite "Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)" provides us the information which is applicable to estimate the forest above-ground biomass (AGB). This study examines the sensitivity of the backscatter intensity of ALOS/PALSAR to the forest AGB and other biophysical parameters (tree height, tree diameter at breast height (DBH), and tree stand density) for boreal forests in two geographical regions of Alaska and Kushiro, northern Japan, and compares the sensitivities in two regions. In Alaska, a forest survey was executed in the south-north transect (about 300 km long) along a trans-Alaska pipeline which profiles the ecotone from the boreal forest to tundra in 2007. Forest AGBs and other biophysical parameters at 29 forests along the transect were measured by Bitterlich method. In Kushiro, a forest survey was carried out at 42 forests in 2011 and those parameters were similarly obtained by Bitterlich method. 20 and 2 scenes of ALOS/PALSAR FBD Level 1.5 data that cover the regions in Alaska and Kushiro, respectively, were collected and mosaicked. Backscatter intensities of ALOS/PALSAR in HH (horizontally polarized transmitted and horizontally polarized received) and HV (horizontally polarized transmitted and vertically polarized received) modes were compared with the forest AGB and other biophysical parameters. The intensity generally increased with the increase of those biophysical parameters in both HV and HH modes, but the intensity in HV mode generally had a stronger correlation to those parameters than in HH mode in both Alaska and Kushiro. The HV intensity had strong correlation to the forest AGB and DBH, while weak correlation to the tree stand density in Alaska

  5. Structural, physiognomic and aboveground biomass variation in savanna-forest transition zones on three continents. How different are co-occurring savanna and forest formations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, E. M.; Torello-Raventos, M.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Domingues, T. F.; Gerard, F.; Schrodt, F.; Saiz, G.; Quesada, C. A.; Djagbletey, G.; Ford, A.; Kemp, J.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Lenza, E.; Ratter, J. A.; Maracahipes, L.; Sasaki, D.; Sonké, B.; Zapfack, L.; Villarroel, D.; Schwarz, M.; Yoko Ishida, F.; Gilpin, M.; Nardoto, G. B.; Affum-Baffoe, K.; Arroyo, L.; Bloomfield, K.; Ceca, G.; Compaore, H.; Davies, K.; Diallo, A.; Fyllas, N. M.; Gignoux, J.; Hien, F.; Johnson, M.; Mougin, E.; Hiernaux, P.; Killeen, T.; Metcalfe, D.; Miranda, H. S.; Steininger, M.; Sykora, K.; Bird, M. I.; Grace, J.; Lewis, S.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-03-01

    Through interpretations of remote sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands mostly located within zones of transition (where both vegetation types occur in close proximity) in Africa, South America and Australia. Woody plant leaf area index variation was related in a similar way to tree canopy cover for both savanna and forest with substantial overlap between the two vegetation types. As total woody plant canopy cover increased, so did the contribution of middle and lower strata of woody vegetation to this total. Herbaceous layer cover also declined as woody cover increased. This pattern of understorey grasses and herbs being progressively replaced by shrubs as canopy closure occurs was found for both savanna and forests and on all continents. Thus, once subordinate woody canopy layers are taken into account, a less marked transition in woody plant cover across the savanna-forest species discontinuum is observed compared to that implied when trees of a basal diameter > 0.1m are considered in isolation. This is especially the case for shrub-dominated savannas and in taller savannas approaching canopy closure. An increased contribution of forest species to the total subordinate cover is also observed as savanna stand canopy closure occurs. Despite similarities in canopy cover characteristics, woody vegetation in Africa and Australia attained greater heights and stored a greater concentration of above ground biomass than in South America. Up to three times as much aboveground biomass is stored in forests compared to savannas under equivalent climatic conditions. Savanna/forest transition zones were also found to typically occur at higher precipitation regimes for South America than for Africa. Nevertheless, coexistence was found to be

  6. Estimating Mangrove Canopy Height and Above-Ground Biomass in Everglades National Park with Airbone LiDAR and TanDEM-X Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M. D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Lee, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal mangroves forests of Everglades National Park (ENP) are well protected from development. Nevertheless, climate change, hurricanes and other anthropogenic disturbances have affected these intertidal ecosystems. Understanding and monitoring forest structural parameters such as canopy height and above-ground biomass (AGB) are important for the establishment of an historical database for past, present and future ecosystem comparison. Forest canopy height has a well understood and directly proportional correlation with AGB. It is possible to derive it using (1) airborne LiDAR/Laser Scanning (ALS) or (2) space-borne radar systems such as Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and TanDEM-X (TDX). A previous study of the mangrove canopy height and AGB in the ENP was conducted a decade ago based on ALS data acquired in 2004 in conjunction with SRTM data, which were acquired in 2000 (Simard et al. 2006). In this study we estimated canopy height and AGB using an ALS dataset acquired in 2012 and TDX data acquired during the years 2012-2014. The ALS dataset was acquired along a 16.5 x 1.5 km swath of mangrove forest with variable canopy height. The sampled areas were representative of mangrove stature and structure in the whole ENP. Analysis of the ALS dataset showed that mangrove canopy height can reach up to ~25 meters close to the coastal ENP waters. Additionally, by comparing our ALS results with those of a previous study by Simard et al. (2006) we identified areas where mangrove height changes greater than ± 3 meters occurred. To expand the study area to the full ENP mangrove ecosystem we processed single-polarization TDX data to obtain a Digital Canopy Model (DCM) that represents the mangrove canopy height. In order to obtain the true canopy height we calibrated the TDX phase center height with ALS true canopy height. Preliminary results of a corrected single-polarized (HH) TDX scene show that mangrove canopy height can reach up to ~25 meters in the western

  7. Development of a data driven process-based model for remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystem productivity, evapotranspiration, and above-ground biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Masri, Bassil

    2011-12-01

    Modeling terrestrial ecosystem functions and structure has been a subject of increasing interest because of the importance of the terrestrial carbon cycle in global carbon budget and climate change. In this study, satellite data were used to estimate gross primary production (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET) for two deciduous forests: Morgan Monroe State forest (MMSF) in Indiana and Harvard forest in Massachusetts. Also, above-ground biomass (AGB) was estimated for the MMSF and the Howland forest (mixed forest) in Maine. Surface reflectance and temperature, vegetation indices, soil moisture, tree height and canopy area derived from the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMRS-E), LIDAR, and aerial imagery respectively, were used for this purpose. These variables along with others derived from remotely sensed data were used as inputs variables to process-based models which estimated GPP and ET and to a regression model which estimated AGB. The process-based models were BIOME-BGC and the Penman-Monteith equation. Measured values for the carbon and water fluxes obtained from the Eddy covariance flux tower were compared to the modeled GPP and ET. The data driven methods produced good estimation of GPP and ET with an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.17 molC/m2 and 0.40 mm/day, respectively for the MMSF and the Harvard forest. In addition, allometric data for the MMSF were used to develop the regression model relating AGB with stem volume. The performance of the AGB regression model was compared to site measurements using remotely sensed data for the MMSF and the Howland forest where the model AGB RMSE ranged between 2.92--3.30 Kg C/m2. Sensitivity analysis revealed that improvement in maintenance respiration estimation and remotely sensed maximum photosynthetic activity as well as accurate estimate of canopy resistance will result in improved GPP and ET predictions. Moreover, AGB estimates were

  8. Estimation of Aboveground Biomass Change for Tropical Deciduous Forest in Bago Yoma, Myanmar between year 2000 and 2014 using Landsat Images and Ground Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. S.; Wynn, K. Z.; Ryu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Even with recently increased awareness of the environmental conservation, the degradation of tropical forests are still one of the major sources of global carbon emission. Especially in Myanmar, the pressure to develop natural forest is growing rapidly after the change from socialism to capitalism in 2010. As the initial step of the forest conservation, the aboveground biomass(AGB) of South Zarmani Reserved Forest in Bago Yoma region were estimated using Landsat 8 OLI after the evaluation with 100 sample plot measurements. Multiple linear regression (MLR) model of band values and their principal component analysis (PCA) model were developed to estimate the AGB using the spectral reflectance from Landsat images and elevation as the input variables. The MLR model had r2 = 0.43, RMSE = 60.2 tons/ha, relative RMSE = 70.1%, Bias = -9.1 tons/ha, Bias (%) = -10.6%, and p < 0.0001, while the PCA model showed r2 = 0.45, RMSE = 55.1 tons/ha, relative RMSE = 64.1%, Bias = -8.3 tons/ha, Bias (%) = -9.7%, and p < 0.0001. The AGB maps of the study area were generated based on both MLR and PCA models. The estimated mean AGB values were 74.74±22.3 tons/ha and 73.04±17.6 tons/ha and the total AGB of the study area are about 5.7 and 5.6 million tons from MLR and PCA, respectively. Then, Landsat 7 ETM+ image acquired on 2000 was also used to compare the changing of AGB between year 2000 and 2014. The estimated mean AGB value generated from the Landsat 7 ETM+ image was 78.9±16.9 tons/ha, which is substantially decreased about 7.5% compared to year 2014. The reduction of AGB increased with closeness to village, however AGB in distant areas showed steady increases. In conclusion, we were able to generate solid regression models from Landsat 8 OLI image after ground truth and two regression models gave us very similar AGB estimation (less than 2%) of the study area. We were also able to estimate the changing of AGB from year 2000 to 2014 of South Zarmani Reserved Forest, Bago Yoma

  9. Potential for post-closure radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: aboveground biomass, litter production rates, and the distribution of root mass with depth at material disposal area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B; Christensen, Candace; Jennings, Terry L; Jaros, Christopher L; Wykoff, David S; Crowell, Kelly J; Shuman, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) is disposed of at LANL's Technical Area (T A) 54, Material Disposal Area (MDA) G. The ability of MDA G to safely contain radioactive waste during current and post-closure operations is evaluated as part of the facility's ongoing performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA). Due to the potential for uptake and incorporation of radio nuclides into aboveground plant material, the PA and CA project that plant roots penetrating into buried waste may lead to releases of radionuclides into the accessible environment. The potential amount ofcontamination deposited on the ground surface due to plant intrusion into buried waste is a function of the quantity of litter generated by plants, as well as radionuclide concentrations within the litter. Radionuclide concentrations in plant litter is dependent on the distribution of root mass with depth and the efficiency with which radionuclides are extracted from contaminated soils by the plant's roots. In order to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G, surveys are being conducted to assess aboveground biomass, plant litter production rates, and root mass with depth for the four prominent vegetation types (grasses, forbs, shrubs and trees). The collection of aboveground biomass for grasses and forbs began in 2007. Additional sampling was conducted in October 2008 to measure root mass with depth and to collect additional aboveground biomass data for the types of grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees that may become established at MDA G after the facility undergoes final closure, Biomass data will be used to estimate the future potential mass of contaminated plant litter fall, which could act as a latent conduit for radionuclide transport from the closed disposal area. Data collected are expected to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G and ultimately aid in the assessment and subsequent

  10. Investigating the robustness of the new Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager derived texture metrics in estimating plantation forest aboveground biomass in resource constrained areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2015-10-01

    The successful launch of the 30-m Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) pushbroom sensor offers a new primary data source necessary for aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation, especially in resource-limited environments. In this work, the strength and performance of Landsat-8 OLI image derived texture metrics (i.e. texture measures and texture ratios) in estimating plantation forest species AGB was investigated. It was hypothesized that the sensor's pushbroom design, coupled with the presence of refined spectral properties, enhanced radiometric resolution (i.e. from 8 bits to 12 bits) and improved signal-to-noise ratio have the potential to provide detailed spectral information necessary for significantly strengthening AGB estimation in medium-density forest canopies. The relationship between image texture metrics and measurements of forest attributes can be used to help characterize complex forests, and enhance fine vegetation biophysical properties, a difficult challenge when using spectral vegetation indices especially in closed canopies. This study examines the prospects of using Landsat-8 OLI sensor derived texture metrics for estimating AGB for three medium-density plantation forest species in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. In order to achieve this objective, three unique data pre-processing techniques were tested (analysis I: Landsat-8 OLI raw spectral-bands vs. raw texture bands; analysis II: Landsat-8 OLI raw spectral-band ratios vs. texture band ratios and analysis III: Landsat-8 OLI derived vegetation indices vs. texture band ratios). The landsat-8 OLI derived texture parameters were examined for robustness in estimating AGB using linear regression, stepwise-multiple linear regression and stochastic gradient boosting regression models. The results of this study demonstrated that all texture parameters particularly band texture ratios calculated using a 3 × 3 window size, could enhance AGB estimation when compared to simple spectral reflectance, simple

  11. The impact of integrating WorldView-2 sensor and environmental variables in estimating plantation forest species aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in uMgeni Catchment, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-09-01

    Reliable and accurate mapping and extraction of key forest indicators of ecosystem development and health, such as aboveground biomass (AGB) and aboveground carbon stocks (AGCS) is critical in understanding forests contribution to the local, regional and global carbon cycle. This information is critical in assessing forest contribution towards ecosystem functioning and services, as well as their conservation status. This work aimed at assessing the applicability of the high resolution 8-band WorldView-2 multispectral dataset together with environmental variables in quantifying AGB and aboveground carbon stocks for three forest plantation species i.e. Eucalyptus dunii (ED), Eucalyptus grandis (EG) and Pinus taeda (PT) in uMgeni Catchment, South Africa. Specifically, the strength of the Worldview-2 sensor in terms of its improved imaging agilities is examined as an independent dataset and in conjunction with selected environmental variables. The results have demonstrated that the integration of high resolution 8-band Worldview-2 multispectral data with environmental variables provide improved AGB and AGCS estimates, when compared to the use of spectral data as an independent dataset. The use of integrated datasets yielded a high R2 value of 0.88 and RMSEs of 10.05 t ha-1 and 5.03 t C ha-1 for E. dunii AGB and carbon stocks; whereas the use of spectral data as an independent dataset yielded slightly weaker results, producing an R2 value of 0.73 and an RMSE of 18.57 t ha-1 and 09.29 t C ha-1. Similarly, high accurate results (R2 value of 0.73 and RMSE values of 27.30 t ha-1 and 13.65 t C ha-1) were observed from the estimation of inter-species AGB and carbon stocks. Overall, the findings of this work have shown that the integration of new generation multispectral datasets with environmental variables provide a robust toolset required for the accurate and reliable retrieval of forest aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in densely forested terrestrial ecosystems.

  12. Comparing the above-ground component biomass estimates of western junipers using airborne and full-waveform terrestrial laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, R.; Glenn, N. F.; Spaete, L.; Hardegree, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    With the rapid expansion into shrub steppe and grassland ecosystems over the last century, western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis var. occidentalis Hook) is becoming a major component of the regional carbon pool in the Intermountain West. Understanding how biomass is allocated across individual tree components is necessary to understand the uncertainties in biomass estimates and more accurately quantify biomass and carbon dynamics in these ecosystems. Estimates of component biomass are also important for canopy fuel load assessment and predicting rangeland fire behavior. Airborne LiDAR can capture vegetation structure over larger scales, but the high crown penetration and sampling density of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) instruments can better capture tree components. In this study, we assessed the ability of airborne LiDAR to estimate biomass of tree components of western juniper with validation data from field measured tees and a full-waveform TLS. Sixteen juniper trees (height range 1.5-10 m) were randomly selected using a double sampling strategy from different height classes in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in the Owyhee Mountains, southwestern Idaho, USA. Each tree was scanned with a full-waveform TLS, and the dry biomass of each component (foliage, branches and main stem) were measured by destructive harvesting of the trees. We compare the allometric relationships of biomass estimates of the tree components obtained from field-measured trees and TLS-based estimates with the estimates from discrete-return airborne-LiDAR based estimates.

  13. Mortality as a key driver of the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass in Amazonian forests: results from a Dynamic Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbart, N.; Ciais, P.; Chave, J.; Viovy, N.; Malhi, Y.; Le Toan, T.

    2010-04-01

    Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs) simulate energy, water and carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, between the vegetation and the soil, and between plant organs. They also estimate the potential biomass of a forest in equilibrium having grown under a given climate and atmospheric CO2 level. In this study, we evaluate the above ground woody biomass (AGWB) and the above ground woody Net Primary Productivity (NPPAGW) simulated by the DVM ORCHIDEE across Amazonian forests, by comparing the simulation results to a large set of ground measurements (220 sites for biomass, 104 sites for NPPAGW). We found that the NPPAGW is on average overestimated by 63%. We also found that the fraction of biomass that is lost through mortality is 85% too high. These model biases nearly compensate each other to give an average simulated AGWB close to the ground measurement average. Nevertheless, the simulated AGWB spatial distribution differs significantly from the observations. Then, we analyse the discrepancies in biomass with regards to discrepancies in NPPAGW and those in the rate of mortality. When we correct for the error in NPPAGW, the errors on the spatial variations in AGWB are exacerbated, showing clearly that a large part of the misrepresentation of biomass comes from a wrong modelling of mortality processes. Previous studies showed that Amazonian forests with high productivity have a higher mortality rate than forests with lower productivity. We introduce this relationship, which results in strongly improved modelling of biomass and of its spatial variations. We discuss the possibility of modifying the mortality modelling in ORCHIDEE, and the opportunity to improve forest productivity modelling through the integration of biomass measurements, in particular from remote sensing.

  14. Mortality as a key driver of the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass in Amazonian forest: results from a dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbart, N.; Ciais, P.; Chave, J.; Viovy, N.; Malhi, Y.; Le Toan, T.

    2010-10-01

    Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs) simulate energy, water and carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, between the vegetation and the soil, and between plant organs. They also estimate the potential biomass of a forest in equilibrium having grown under a given climate and atmospheric CO2 level. In this study, we evaluate the Above Ground Woody Biomass (AGWB) and the above ground woody Net Primary Productivity (NPPAGW) simulated by the DVM ORCHIDEE across Amazonian forests, by comparing the simulation results to a large set of ground measurements (220 sites for biomass, 104 sites for NPPAGW). We found that the NPPAGW is on average overestimated by 63%. We also found that the fraction of biomass that is lost through mortality is 85% too high. These model biases nearly compensate each other to give an average simulated AGWB close to the ground measurement average. Nevertheless, the simulated AGWB spatial distribution differs significantly from the observations. Then, we analyse the discrepancies in biomass with regards to discrepancies in NPPAGW and those in the rate of mortality. When we correct for the error in NPPAGW, the errors on the spatial variations in AGWB are exacerbated, showing clearly that a large part of the misrepresentation of biomass comes from a wrong modelling of mortality processes. Previous studies showed that Amazonian forests with high productivity have a higher mortality rate than forests with lower productivity. We introduce this relationship, which results in strongly improved modelling of biomass and of its spatial variations. We discuss the possibility of modifying the mortality modelling in ORCHIDEE, and the opportunity to improve forest productivity modelling through the integration of biomass measurements, in particular from remote sensing.

  15. Weed management, training, and irrigation practices for organic production of trailing blackberry: III. Accumulation and removal of aboveground biomass, carbon, and nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of various production practices on biomass, C, and nutrient content, accumulation, and loss were assessed over 2 years in a mature organic trailing blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson) production system. Treatments included two irrigation options (no irrigation after harvest and ...

  16. Productivity of aboveground coarse wood biomass and stand age related to soil hydrology of Amazonian forests in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintra, B. B. L.; Schietti, J.; Emillio, T.; Martins, D.; Moulatlet, G.; Souza, P.; Levis, C.; Quesada, C. A.; Schöngart, J.

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing demand for information on forest productivity has increased the number of permanent monitoring plots across the Amazon. Those plots, however, do not comprise the whole diversity of forest types in the Amazon. The complex effects of soil, climate and hydrology on the productivity of seasonally waterlogged interfluvial wetland forests are still poorly understood. The presented study is the first field-based estimate for tree ages and wood biomass productivity in the vast interfluvial region between the Purus and Madeira rivers. We estimate stand age and wood biomass productivity by a combination of tree-ring data and allometric equations for biomass stocks of eight plots distributed along 600 km in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area that is crossed by the BR-319 highway. We relate stand age and wood biomass productivity to hydrological and edaphic conditions. Mean productivity and stand age were 5.6 ± 1.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 102 ± 18 yr, respectively. There is a strong relationship between tree age and diameter, as well as between mean diameter increment and mean wood density within a plot. Regarding the soil hydromorphic properties we find a positive correlation with wood biomass productivity and a negative relationship with stand age. Productivity also shows a positive correlation with the superficial phosphorus concentration. In addition, superficial phosphorus concentration increases with enhanced soil hydromorphic condition. We raise three hypotheses to explain these results: (1) the reduction of iron molecules on the saturated soils with plinthite layers close to the surface releases available phosphorous for the plants; (2) the poor structure of the saturated soils creates an environmental filter selecting tree species of faster growth rates and shorter life spans and (3) plant growth on saturated soil is favored during the dry season, since there should be low restrictions for soil water availability.

  17. Aboveground biomass estimation using SAR-optical (Lidar, RapidEye) and field inventory datasets in Skukuza, Kruger National Park in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyango Odipo, Victor; Hüttich, Christian; Luck, Wolfgang; Schmullius, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    African savanna covers approximately two-thirds of sub-saharan Africa, playing important roles as a carbon pool, habitat for mankind and wildlife, source of livelihood, an important tropical climate modifier, among other ecological roles. Sub-saharan Africa alone accounts for 25% of the tropical aboveground carbon stock (193 Gt C). Global and national level AGB estimates rely on extrapolations with regression models from few field inventories, leading in some cases, up to 100% uncertainty. Remote sensing has proven to provide reliable vegetation structural mapping, given the high spatial and temporal resolution allowing datasets to be availed in areas where ground based inventories are infeasible due to time and financial constraints. The availability of freely accessible optical remotely-sensed datasets has made this feat attainable. However, the heterogeneity of tropical savannas (co-existence of trees and grasses), coupled with erratic rainfall events and atmospheric clouds and aerosol in the tropics has made it difficult to extract biophysical properties of the savannas by solely using optical datasets. This has necessitated an assessment of synergies between active and passive remotely sensed datasets to benefit from the complementarities. In this study we assess the extent to which multi-level sub-centimeter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Lidar, high resolution RapidEye and microwave (ALOS PALSAR L-band and Sentinel-1 C-band) remotely sensed datasets can be used together with tree census datasets to estimate AGB within the complex southern Africa savanna ecosystem. A random forest (RF) regression model is produced which relates the Lidar canopy-height metrics (CHM) with both synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and high resolution RapidEye datasets. As a validation, we compare our results with both national and global level ABG estimates.

  18. Responses of plant community composition and biomass production to warming and nitrogen deposition in a temperate meadow ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Rui; Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental warming had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. Warming tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. Warming tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of warming on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental warming had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that warming had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of warming plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that environmental changes (warming and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China.

  19. Responses of Plant Community Composition and Biomass Production to Warming and Nitrogen Deposition in a Temperate Meadow Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental warming had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. Warming tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. Warming tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of warming on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental warming had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that warming had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of warming plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that environmental changes (warming and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China. PMID:25874975

  20. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  1. Aboveground and belowground competition between willow Salix caprea its understory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Hermová, Markéta; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The effects of aboveground and belowground competition with the willow S. caprea on its understory plant community were studied in unreclaimed post-mining sites. Belowground competition was evaluated by comparing (i) frames inserted into the soil that excluded woody roots (frame treatment), (ii) frames that initially excluded woody root growth but then allowed regrowth of the roots (open-frame treatment), and (iii) undisturbed soil (no-frame treatment). These treatments were combined with S. caprea thinning to assess the effect of aboveground competition. Three years after the start of the experiment, aboveground competition from S. caprea (as modified by thinning of the S. caprea canopy) had not affected understory biomass or species number but had affected species composition. In contrast, belowground competition significantly affected both the aboveground and belowground biomass of the understory. The aboveground biomass of the understory was greater in the frame treatment (which excluded woody roots) than in the other two treatments. The belowground biomass of the understory was greater in the frame than in the open-frame treatment. Unlike aboveground competition (light availability), belowground competition did not affect understory species composition. Our results suggest that S. caprea is an important component during plant succession on post-mining sites because it considerably modifies its understory plant community. Belowground competition is a major reason for the low cover and biomass of the herbaceous understory in S. caprea stands on post-mining sites.

  2. Lidar and Ground Assessment of Diversity, Wood Density, and Aboveground Biomass Along an Elevation Gradient in Tropical Montane Forest of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Clark, D.; Andelman, S.; Gillespie, T.

    2013-12-01

    This research seeks to understand how tree diversity relates to three-dimensional vegetation structure along environmental gradients in the tropical montane forest of Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. Elevation gradients along mountains provide landscape-size scales through which variations in topography and climatic conditions can be tested as drivers of biodiversity. In this study we report on the effectiveness of relating patterns of tree alpha diversity to three-dimensional structure of a tropical montane forest using remote sensing observations of forest structure. The study was utilized forest inventory and botanical data from nine 1-ha plots ranging from 100m-2800m above sea level and remote sensing data from an airborne lidar sensor (NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor [LVIS]) to quantify variations in forest structure. In addition to calculating alpha diversity, we report on the variations in wood density with elevation, important for biomass and carbon estimations. Tree cores were analyzed for wood density and compared to existing database values for the same species, often collected only in the lowlands. In this manner we were able to test the effect of the gradient on effective wood density. Through the comparison to the lidar, our results show that there is a strong relationship between forest 3D structure and alpha diversity controlled by variations in abiotic factors along the elevational gradient. Using spatial analysis with the aid of remote sensing data, we found distinct patterns along the environmental gradients defining species composition. Wood density values with elevation change were found to vary significantly from database values for the same species. These wood density values are directly tied to biomass estimates, and it is possible that carbon storage has been overestimated along this gradient using prior methods. This variation in individual tree growth has repercussions on overall forest structure, as well as

  3. [Effects of artificial tending on Pinus tabulaeformis forest growth and its structural characteristics].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yun; Yang, Yie; Song, Bingyu; Huang, Heping; Yang, Mingbo; Zheng, Min

    2005-03-01

    The investigation on the growth status, community composition, and structural characteristics of Pinus tabulaeformis forest artificially tended for six years showed that there were significant differences in the average DBH, height, and crown size of the forest among the treatments DA (trimming without intermediate cutting), FA (trimming and intermediate cutting) and CK (without trending). Treatment FA had the highest values of average DBH (7.8 +/- 0.29 cm), height (5.5 +/- 0.09 m) and crown size (249 +/- 7.24 cm), while the CK had the lowest ones. The average biomass of new leaf (1-year-old), old leaf (2 or more-year-old), and branch per tree increased significantly (P<0.01) with enhancing tending treatments. The aboveground biomass of treatment FA was the biggest (44.0 t x hm(-2)), and that of CK was the smallest (14.9 t x hm(-2)). The leaf length and SLA at the early and terminal stages of development (May, June and September) had significant difference among the treatments, and the amount of community composition and the cover degree of undergrowth plants increased evidently under artificial tending treatments. PMID:15943345

  4. Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi) biomass distribution, fire regime and post-fire recovery in northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, L. T.; Beck, P. S. A.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

    2012-06-01

    Climate change and land-use activities are increasing fire activity across much of the Siberian boreal forest, yet the climate feedbacks from forest disturbances remain difficult to quantify due to limited information on forest biomass distribution, disturbance regimes, and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery. Our primary objective here was to analyze post-fire accumulation of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) aboveground biomass for a 100 000 km2 area of open forest in far northeastern Siberia. In addition to examining effects of fire size and topography on post-fire larch aboveground biomass, we assessed regional fire rotation and density, as well as performance of burned area maps generated from MODIS satellite imagery. Using Landsat imagery, we mapped 116 fire scar perimeters that dated ca. 1969-2007. We then mapped larch aboveground biomass by linking field biomass measurements to tree shadows mapped synergistically from WorldView-1 and Landsat 5 satellite imagery. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be low during early succession (≥ 25 yr, 271 ± 26 g m-2, n=66 [mean ± SE]) and decreased with increasing elevation and northwardly aspect. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be higher during mid-succession (33-38 yr, 746 ± 100 g m-2, n=32), though was highly variable. The high variability was not associated with topography and potentially reflected differences in post-fire density of tree regrowth. Neither fire size nor latitude were significant predictors of post-fire larch aboveground biomass. Fire activity was considerably higher in the Kolyma Mountains (fire rotation = 110 yr, fire density = 1.0 ± 1.0 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2 than along the forest-tundra border (fire rotation = 792 yr, fire density = 0.3 ± 0.3 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2. The MODIS burned area maps underestimated the total area burned in this region from 2000-2007 by 40%. Tree shadows mapped jointly using high and medium resolution satellite imagery were strongly associated (r2≍0

  5. Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi) biomass distribution, fire regime and post-fire recovery in northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, L. T.; Beck, P. S. A.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate change and land-use activities are increasing fire activity across much of the Siberian boreal forest, yet the climate feedbacks from forest disturbances remain difficult to quantify due to limited information on forest biomass distribution, disturbance regimes and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery. Our primary objective here was to analyse post-fire accumulation of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) aboveground biomass for a 100 000 km2 area of open forest in far northeastern Siberia. In addition to examining effects of fire size and topography on post-fire larch aboveground biomass, we assessed regional fire rotation and density, as well as performance of burned area maps generated from MODIS satellite imagery. Using Landsat imagery, we mapped 116 fire scar perimeters that dated c. 1966-2007. We then mapped larch aboveground biomass by linking field biomass measurements to tree shadows mapped synergistically from WorldView-1 and Landsat 5 satellite imagery. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be low during early succession (≤ 25 yr, 271 ± 26 g m-2, n = 66 [mean ± SE]) and decreased with increasing elevation and northwardly aspect. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be higher during mid-succession (33-38 yr, 746 ± 100 g m-2, n = 32), though was highly variable. The high variability was not associated with topography and potentially reflected differences in post-fire density of tree regrowth. Neither fire size nor latitude were significant predictors of post-fire larch aboveground biomass. Fire activity was considerably higher in the Kolyma Mountains (fire rotation = 110 yr, fire density = 1.0 ± 1.0 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2) than along the forest-tundra border (fire rotation = 792 yr, fire density = 0.3 ± 0.3 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2). The MODIS burned area maps underestimated the total area burned in this region from 2000-2007 by 40%. Tree shadows mapped jointly using high and medium resolution satellite imagery were strongly associated (r2 ≈ 0

  6. Nutrient subsidies to belowground microbes impact aboveground food web interactions.

    PubMed

    Hines, Jes; Megonigal, J Patrick; Denno, Robert F

    2006-06-01

    Historically, terrestrial food web theory has been compartmentalized into interactions among aboveground or belowground communities. In this study we took a more synthetic approach to understanding food web interactions by simultaneously examining four trophic levels and investigating how nutrient (nitrogen and carbon) and detrital subsidies impact the ability of the belowground microbial community to alter the abundance of aboveground arthropods (herbivores and predators) associated with the intertidal cord grass Spartina alterniflora. We manipulated carbon, nitrogen, and detrital resources in a field experiment and measured decomposition rate, soil nitrogen pools, plant biomass and quality, herbivore density, and arthropod predator abundance. Because carbon subsidies impact plant growth only indirectly (microbial pathways), whereas nitrogen additions both directly (plant uptake) and indirectly (microbial pathways) impact plant primary productivity, we were able to assess the effect of both belowground soil microbes and nutrient availability on aboveground herbivores and their predators. Herbivore density in the field was suppressed by carbon supplements. Carbon addition altered soil microbial dynamics (net potential ammonification, litter decomposition rate, DON [dissolved organic N] concentration), which limited inorganic soil nitrogen availability and reduced plant size as well as predator abundance. Nitrogen addition enhanced herbivore density by increasing plant size and quality directly by increasing inorganic soil nitrogen pools, and indirectly by enhancing microbial nitrification. Detritus adversely affected aboveground herbivores mainly by promoting predator aggregation. To date, the effects of carbon and nitrogen subsidies on salt marshes have been examined as isolated effects on either the aboveground or the belowground community. Our results emphasize the importance of directly addressing the soil microbial community as a factor that influences

  7. Stand structural diversity rather than species diversity enhances aboveground carbon storage in secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong; Chen, Han Y. H.; Chang, Scott X.; Zhao, Yan-Tao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ming-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Stand structural diversity, typically characterized by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height, plays a critical role in influencing aboveground carbon (C) storage. However, few studies have considered the multivariate relationships of aboveground C storage with stand age, stand structural diversity, and species diversity in natural forests. In this study, aboveground C storage, stand age, tree species, DBH and height diversity indices, were determined across 80 subtropical forest plots in Eastern China. We employed structural equation modelling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand structural diversity, species diversity, and stand age on aboveground C storage. The three final SEMs with different directions for the path between species diversity and stand structural diversity had a similar goodness of fit to the data. They accounted for 82 % of the variation in aboveground C storage, 55-59 % of the variation in stand structural diversity, and 0.1 to 9 % of the variation in species diversity. Stand age demonstrated strong positive total effects, including a positive direct effect (β = 0.41), and a positive indirect effect via stand structural diversity (β = 0.41) on aboveground C storage. Stand structural diversity had a positive direct effect on aboveground C storage (β = 0.56), whereas there was little total effect of species diversity as it had a negative direct association with, but had a positive indirect effect, via stand structural diversity, on aboveground C storage. The negligible total effect of species diversity on aboveground C storage in the forests under study may have been attributable to competitive exclusion with high aboveground biomass, or a historical logging preference for productive species. Our analyses suggested that stand structural diversity was a major determinant for variations in aboveground C storage in the secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China. Hence, maintaining tree DBH and

  8. Plant-mediated links between detritivores and aboveground herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on plant-mediated above–belowground interactions focus on soil biota with direct trophic links to plant roots such as root herbivores, pathogens, and symbionts. Detritivorous soil fauna, though ubiquitous and present in high abundances and biomasses in soil, are under-represented in those studies. Understanding of their impact on plants is mainly restricted to growth and nutrient uptake parameters. Detritivores have been shown to affect secondary metabolites and defense gene expression in aboveground parts of plants, with potential impacts on aboveground plant–herbivore interactions. The proposed mechanisms range from nutrient mobilization effects and impacts on soil microorganisms to defense induction by passive or active ingestion of roots. Since their negative effects (disruption or direct feeding of roots) may be counterbalanced by their overall beneficial effects (nutrient mobilization), detritivores may not harm, but rather enable plants to respond to aboveground herbivore attacks in a more efficient way. Both more mechanistic and holistic approaches are needed to better understand the involvement of detritivores in plant-mediated above–belowground interactions and their potential for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24069027

  9. Dynamics of Aboveground Phytomass of the Circumpolar Arctic Tundra During the Past Three Decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, Howard E.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.; Bhatt, Uma S.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the dynamics of Arctic tundra vegetation throughout the past few decades, using remotely sensed proxies of vegetation, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). While extremely useful, these coarse-scale satellite-derived measurements give us minimal information with regard to how these changes are being expressed on the ground, in terms of tundra structure and function. In this analysis, we used a strong regression model between NDVI and aboveground tundra phytomass, developed from extensive field-harvested measurements of vegetation biomass, to estimate the biomass dynamics of the circumpolar Arctic tundra over the period of continuous satellite records (1982-2010). We found that the southernmost tundra subzones (C-E) dominate the increases in biomass, ranging from 20 to 26%, although there was a high degree of heterogeneity across regions, floristic provinces, and vegetation types. The estimated increase in carbon of the aboveground live vegetation of 0.40 Pg C over the past three decades is substantial, although quite small relative to anthropogenic C emissions. However, a 19.8% average increase in aboveground biomass has major implications for nearly all aspects of tundra ecosystems including hydrology, active layer depths, permafrost regimes, wildlife and human use of Arctic landscapes. While spatially extensive on-the-ground measurements of tundra biomass were conducted in the development of this analysis, validation is still impossible without more repeated, long-term monitoring of Arctic tundra biomass in the field.

  10. Correlating radar backscatter with components of biomass in loblolly pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.; Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.

    1995-05-01

    The relationship between radar backscatter and the aboveground biomass in loblolly pine forests was examined using a multifrequency, multipolarization airborne SAR data set. In addition, the potential of SAR to estimate aboveground biomass in these forests was also examined. The total aboveground biomass used in the tests stands ranged from less than 1-50 kg m(sup - 2). In addition to aboveground biomass, the biomass of the tree boles, branches, and needles/leaves were considered. Basing from the results obtained, it is concluded that the image intensity signatures recorded on SAR imagery have the potential to be used as the basis for the estimation of aboveground biomass in pine forests, for total stand biomass levels up to 35-40 kg m(sup - 2).

  11. Regional contingencies in the relationship between aboveground Bbomass and litter in the world’s grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O’Halloran, Lydia R.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Cleland, Elsa E.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Hobbie, Sarah; Harpole, W. Stan; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Davies, Kendi F.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hagenah, Nicole; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Li, Wei; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Stevens, Carly J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on regional-scale studies, aboveground production and litter decomposition are thought to positively covary, because they are driven by shared biotic and climatic factors. Until now we have been unable to test whether production and decomposition are generally coupled across climatically dissimilar regions, because we lacked replicated data collected within a single vegetation type across multiple regions, obfuscating the drivers and generality of the association between production and decomposition. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationships between production and decomposition rests heavily on separate meta-analyses of each response, because no studies have simultaneously measured production and the accumulation or decomposition of litter using consistent methods at globally relevant scales. Here, we use a multi-country grassland dataset collected using a standardized protocol to show that live plant biomass (an estimate of aboveground net primary production) and litter disappearance (represented by mass loss of aboveground litter) do not strongly covary. Live biomass and litter disappearance varied at different spatial scales. There was substantial variation in live biomass among continents, sites and plots whereas among continent differences accounted for most of the variation in litter disappearance rates. Although there were strong associations among aboveground biomass, litter disappearance and climatic factors in some regions (e.g. U.S. Great Plains), these relationships were inconsistent within and among the regions represented by this study. These results highlight the importance of replication among regions and continents when characterizing the correlations between ecosystem processes and interpreting their global-scale implications for carbon flux. We must exercise caution in parameterizing litter decomposition and aboveground production in future regional and global carbon models as their relationship is complex.

  12. The roles of community biomass and species pools in the regulation of plant diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Considerable debate has developed over the importance of community biomass and species pools in the regulation of community diversity. Attempts to explain patterns of plant diversity as a function of community biomass or productivity have been only partially successful and in general, have explained only a fraction of the observed variation in diversity. At the same time studies that have focused on the importance of species pools have led some to conclude that diversity is primarily regulated in the short term by the size of the species pool rather than by biotic interactions. In this paper, I explore how community biomass and species pools may work in combination to regulate diversity in herbaceous plant communities. To address this problem, I employ a simple model in which the dynamics of species richness are a function of aboveground community biomass and environmentally controlled gradients in species pools. Model results lead to two main predictions about the role of biomass regulation: (1) Seasonal dynamics of richness will tend to follow a regular oscillation, with richness rising to peak values during the early to middle portion of the growing season and then declining during the latter part of the season. (2.) Seasonal dieback of aboveground tissues facilitates the long-term maintenance of high levels of richness in the community. The persistence of aboveground tissues and accumulation of litter are especially important in limiting the number of species through the suppression of recruitment. Model results also lead to two main predictions about the role of species pools: (1) The height and position of peak richness relative to community biomass will be influenced by the rate at which the species pool increases as available soil resources increase. (2) Variations in nonresource environmental factors (e.g. soil pH or soil salinity) have the potential to regulate species pools in a way that is uncorrelated with aboveground biomass. Under extreme conditions

  13. Relationships Between Visual Obstruction and Aboveground Biomass in Shortgrass Steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visual obstruction is increasingly used by management agencies for decision-making and monitoring of remaining residue levels. Applicability of this technique for shortgrass steppe may be limited, however, given the dominance of short-statured vegetation such as blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (Will...

  14. Contribution of aboveground plant respiration to carbon cycling in a Bornean tropical rainforet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Tanaka, Kenzo; Ichie, Tomoaki; Kume, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ohashi, Mizue; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2014-05-01

    Bornean tropical rainforests have a different characteristic from Amazonian tropical rainforests, that is, larger aboveground biomass caused by higher stand density of large trees. Larger biomass may cause different carbon cycling and allocation pattern. However, there are fewer studies on carbon allocation and each component in Bornean tropical rainforests, especially for aboveground plant respiration, compared to Amazonian forests. In this study, we measured woody tissue respiration and leaf respiration, and estimated those in ecosystem scale in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Then, we examined carbon allocation using the data of soil respiration and aboveground net primary production obtained from our previous studies. Woody tissue respiration rate was positively correlated with diameter at breast height (dbh) and stem growth rate. Using the relationships and biomass data, we estimated woody tissue respiration in ecosystem scale though methods of scaling resulted in different estimates values (4.52 - 9.33 MgC ha-1 yr-1). Woody tissue respiration based on surface area (8.88 MgC ha-1 yr-1) was larger than those in Amazon because of large aboveground biomass (563.0 Mg ha-1). Leaf respiration rate was positively correlated with height. Using the relationship and leaf area density data at each 5-m height, leaf respiration in ecosystem scale was estimated (9.46 MgC ha-1 yr-1), which was similar to those in Amazon because of comparable LAI (5.8 m2 m-2). Gross primary production estimated from biometric measurements (44.81 MgC ha-1 yr-1) was much higher than those in Amazon, and more carbon was allocated to woody tissue respiration and total belowground carbon flux. Large tree with dbh > 60cm accounted for about half of aboveground biomass and aboveground biomass increment. Soil respiration was also related to position of large trees, resulting in high soil respiration rate in this study site. Photosynthesis ability of top canopy for large trees was high and leaves for

  15. Aboveground vs. Belowground Carbon Stocks in African Tropical Lowland Rainforest: Drivers and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bauters, Marijn; Hufkens, Koen; Lisingo, Janvier; Baert, Geert; Verbeeck, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background African tropical rainforests are one of the most important hotspots to look for changes in the upcoming decades when it comes to C storage and release. The focus of studying C dynamics in these systems lies traditionally on living aboveground biomass. Belowground soil organic carbon stocks have received little attention and estimates of the size, controls and distribution of soil organic carbon stocks are highly uncertain. In our study on lowland rainforest in the central Congo basin, we combine both an assessment of the aboveground C stock with an assessment of the belowground C stock and analyze the latter in terms of functional pools and controlling factors. Principal Findings Our study shows that despite similar vegetation, soil and climatic conditions, soil organic carbon stocks in an area with greater tree height (= larger aboveground carbon stock) were only half compared to an area with lower tree height (= smaller aboveground carbon stock). This suggests that substantial variability in the aboveground vs. belowground C allocation strategy and/or C turnover in two similar tropical forest systems can lead to significant differences in total soil organic C content and C fractions with important consequences for the assessment of the total C stock of the system. Conclusions/Significance We suggest nutrient limitation, especially potassium, as the driver for aboveground versus belowground C allocation. However, other drivers such as C turnover, tree functional traits or demographic considerations cannot be excluded. We argue that large and unaccounted variability in C stocks is to be expected in African tropical rain-forests. Currently, these differences in aboveground and belowground C stocks are not adequately verified and implemented mechanistically into Earth System Models. This will, hence, introduce additional uncertainty to models and predictions of the response of C storage of the Congo basin forest to climate change and its contribution to

  16. Long-term remote monitoring of salt marsh biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.; Hardisky, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Methods developed for monitoring salt-marsh biomass remotedly are considered in the framework of NASA's Biospheric Research Program. Satellite-derived estimates of the aboveground biomass is considered, and it is noted that a long-term program for long-term remote monitoring is only practical if the relationship between biomass and spectral data remains essentially constant from year to year. Emphasis is placed on ground-based sampling, satellite measurements of mean marsh live aboveground biomass, the spatial distribution of biomass within the marsh, and changes in marsh hydrography as seen from a satellite. Linking aboveground and belowground biomass is discussed, as well as the problem with obtaining cloud-free images and measuring dead biomass.

  17. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests.

    PubMed

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Broadbent, Eben N; Chazdon, Robin L; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben H J; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans F M; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M A

    2016-02-11

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha(-1)) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  18. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T. Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M.; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben H. J.; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; Dewalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I. Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans F. M.; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C. G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha-1), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha-1) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  19. [Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition on the biomass accumulation and allocation in south subtropical main native tree species and their mixed communities].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Guo-yi; Zhang, De-qiang; Duan, Hong-lang; Liu, Ju-xiu

    2011-08-01

    A 5-year experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated elevated CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, and their combination on the biomass accumulation and allocation in five south subtropical native tree species Schima superba, Ormosia pinnata, Acmena acuminatissima, Syzygium hancei, and Castanopsis hystrix and their mixed communities. The test tree species had different responses in their biomass accumulation and allocation to the elevated CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition. Elevated CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition increased the biomass of legume species by 49.3% and 71.0%, respectively, and promoted the biomass accumulation in sun species. Nitrogen deposition increased the biomass of shade-preference species significantly, but elevated CO2 concentration was in adverse. Elevated CO2 concentration inhibited the biomass allocation in the belowground part of sun species but promoted the biomass allocation in the belowground part of shade-preference species. Elevated CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, and their interaction all promoted the biomass accumulation in mixed communities. Elevated CO2 concentration increased the biomass accumulation in the belowground part of the communities, while nitrogen deposition increased the biomass accumulation in the aboveground part. Under the background of global climate change, Ormosia pinnata and Castanopsis hystrix tended to be the appropriate species for carbon fixation in south subtropical area.

  20. Estimating Aboveground Net Primary Productivity of Black Spruce along a Climatic Gradient in the Boreal Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, J.; Varem-Sanders, T.; Bouriaud, O.

    2005-12-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is the difference between carbon assimilation by photosynthesis and plant respiration quantifies the rate at which carbon is accumulated in the living vegetation. The ability to measure net primary productivity (NPP) over a period of years using relatively inexpensive methods can be a tremendous asset when assessing the forest response to climate change. This project investigates and evaluates a new comprehensive method of estimating multi-decadal historical black spruce productivity using biomass stocks and tree ring width measurements along a climatic gradient. Black spruce aboveground NPP was calculated for even aged stands along Boreal Forest Transect Case Study (BFTCS) with similar soil and fertility characteristics. Biomass functions were modified using local DBH-height functions to determine tree level with Dbh as the sole predictor. Above ground net primary productivity was estimated from the stand level change in biomass with measured litter production rate on these sites. Tree biomass increment and litter production increases from Central Saskatchewan at the southern limit of the boreal forest where the climate is warm and dry up to Thompson (Northern Manitoba) where the climate is wetter and colder. Aboveground NPP for mature stands ranges from 671 to 1567 kg C ha-1 yr-1. Both at the southern boreal sites and northern boreal sites, the tree productivity was highly sensitivity to climate variability. The younger mixed black spruce stands are considerably more productive than older pure stands. Litter production is a major component and accounts for 30 to 60% of aboveground NPP. Practical robust estimation of aboveground NPP using tree ring measurement offers the potential for application over large spatial and temporal scale.

  1. Interrelated effects of mycorrhiza and free-living nitrogen fixers cascade up to aboveground herbivores.

    PubMed

    Khaitov, Botir; Patiño-Ruiz, José David; Pina, Tatiana; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Aboveground plant performance is strongly influenced by belowground microorganisms, some of which are pathogenic and have negative effects, while others, such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, usually have positive effects. Recent research revealed that belowground interactions between plants and functionally distinct groups of microorganisms cascade up to aboveground plant associates such as herbivores and their natural enemies. However, while functionally distinct belowground microorganisms commonly co-occur in the rhizosphere, their combined effects, and relative contributions, respectively, on performance of aboveground plant-associated organisms are virtually unexplored. Here, we scrutinized and disentangled the effects of free-living nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum (DB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae (AMF) on host plant choice and reproduction of the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on common bean plants Phaseolus vulgaris. Additionally, we assessed plant growth, and AMF and DB occurrence and density as affected by each other. Both AMF alone and DB alone increased spider mite reproduction to similar levels, as compared to the control, and exerted additive effects under co-occurrence. These effects were similarly apparent in host plant choice, that is, the mites preferred leaves from plants with both AMF and DB to plants with AMF or DB to plants grown without AMF and DB. DB, which also act as AMF helper bacteria, enhanced root colonization by AMF, whereas AMF did not affect DB abundance. AMF but not DB increased growth of reproductive plant tissue and seed production, respectively. Both AMF and DB increased the biomass of vegetative aboveground plant tissue. Our study breaks new ground in multitrophic belowground-aboveground research by providing first insights into the fitness implications of plant-mediated interactions between interrelated belowground fungi

  2. Interrelated effects of mycorrhiza and free-living nitrogen fixers cascade up to aboveground herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Khaitov, Botir; Patiño-Ruiz, José David; Pina, Tatiana; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground plant performance is strongly influenced by belowground microorganisms, some of which are pathogenic and have negative effects, while others, such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, usually have positive effects. Recent research revealed that belowground interactions between plants and functionally distinct groups of microorganisms cascade up to aboveground plant associates such as herbivores and their natural enemies. However, while functionally distinct belowground microorganisms commonly co-occur in the rhizosphere, their combined effects, and relative contributions, respectively, on performance of aboveground plant-associated organisms are virtually unexplored. Here, we scrutinized and disentangled the effects of free-living nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum (DB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae (AMF) on host plant choice and reproduction of the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on common bean plants Phaseolus vulgaris. Additionally, we assessed plant growth, and AMF and DB occurrence and density as affected by each other. Both AMF alone and DB alone increased spider mite reproduction to similar levels, as compared to the control, and exerted additive effects under co-occurrence. These effects were similarly apparent in host plant choice, that is, the mites preferred leaves from plants with both AMF and DB to plants with AMF or DB to plants grown without AMF and DB. DB, which also act as AMF helper bacteria, enhanced root colonization by AMF, whereas AMF did not affect DB abundance. AMF but not DB increased growth of reproductive plant tissue and seed production, respectively. Both AMF and DB increased the biomass of vegetative aboveground plant tissue. Our study breaks new ground in multitrophic belowground–aboveground research by providing first insights into the fitness implications of plant-mediated interactions between interrelated belowground fungi

  3. Plant genetic variation mediates an indirect ecological effect between belowground earthworms and aboveground aphids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interactions between aboveground and belowground terrestrial communities are often mediated by plants, with soil organisms interacting via the roots and aboveground organisms via the shoots and leaves. Many studies now show that plant genetics can drive changes in the structure of both above and belowground communities; however, the role of plant genetic variation in mediating aboveground-belowground interactions is still unclear. We used an earthworm-plant-aphid model system with two aphid species (Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum) to test the effect of host-plant (Vicia faba) genetic variation on the indirect interaction between the belowground earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the aboveground aphid populations. Results Our data shows that host-plant variety mediated an indirect ecological effect of earthworms on generalist black bean aphids (A. fabae), with earthworms increasing aphid growth rate in three plant varieties but decreasing it in another variety. We found no effect of earthworms on the second aphid species, the pea aphid (A. pisum), and no effect of competition between the aphid species. Plant biomass was increased when earthworms were present, and decreased when A. pisum was feeding on the plant (mediated by plant variety). Although A. fabae aphids were influenced by the plants and worms, they did not, in turn, alter plant biomass. Conclusions Previous work has shown inconsistent effects of earthworms on aphids, but we suggest these differences could be explained by plant genetic variation and variation among aphid species. This study demonstrates that the outcome of belowground-aboveground interactions can be mediated by genetic variation in the host-plant, but depends on the identity of the species involved. PMID:25331082

  4. ROOT BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN THE WORLD'S UPLAND FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the world's forests play a major role in regulating nutrient and carbon cycles, there is much interest in estimating their biomass. Estimates of aboveground biomass based on well-established methods are relatively abundant; estimates of root biomass based on standard meth...

  5. Manned space platforms, payloads and tending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    A concept has been developed for providing for a permanent manned presence in space for science, applications, and technology plus growth potential to support major future operational missions. An initial crew of two to four is accommodated along with installations for interior, exterior and tended payloads. Tended payloads support includes servicing of remote free-flying spacecraft, basing of reusable orbital transfer vehicles and basing of teleoperator-mounted payloads for near-station excursions. Candidate payloads, plus configuration, flight operation, subsystem and ground logistics aspects are described, as are Shuttle interactions.

  6. Prospects for the Regional Assessment of Aboveground Carbon Stocks of Northern Forests Using the ICESAT-GLAS Spaceborne Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, H. A.; Nelson, R. F.; Boudreau, J.; Wulder, M.; Andersen, H. E.; Beaudoin, A.; Guindon, L.

    2009-05-01

    Northern forests in North America contain a vast amount of sequestered carbon that is potentially vulnerable to climate change. Scientists from Canada and the US are working in close collaboration to assess the capacity of the GLAS lidar sensor on the ICESAT satellite to estimate the amount, spatial distribution and statistical uncertainty of aboveground tree biomass of these forests. A pilot study in the 1.2 million km2 forest region of Quebec has demonstrated the capability and precision of this spaceborne sensor and we are now applying the technique we developed to the ˜6.2 million km2 area of the boreal biome of North America, i.e. both Canada and Alaska. The biomass of ground plots located in different regions is related to tree height data collected from an airborne profiling small-footprint lidar system. The airborne data is then related to GLAS data for a sample of ICESat orbits. Finally, the full set of available GLAS data is combined with land cover and topographic data to predict aboveground tree biomass as well as the sources and magnitude of the uncertainty. Aboveground biomass for the Quebec study area averaged 39.0 ± 2.2 Mg ha-1 and totalled 4.9 ± 0.3 Pg. Biomass distributions in Quebec were 12.6% northern hardwoods, 12.6% northern mixedwood, 38.4% commercial boreal, 13% non-commercial boreal, 14.2% taiga, and 9.2% treed tundra. Non-commercial forests represented 36% of the estimated aboveground biomass, thus highlighting the importance of remote northern forests to C sequestration.

  7. Impact of precipitation patterns on biomass and species richness of annuals in a dry steppe.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Liang, Cunzhu; Li, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhongling; Miao, Bailing; He, Chunguang; Sheng, Lianxi

    2015-01-01

    Annuals are an important component part of plant communities in arid and semiarid grassland ecosystems. Although it is well known that precipitation has a significant impact on productivity and species richness of community or perennials, nevertheless, due to lack of measurements, especially long-term experiment data, there is little information on how quantity and patterns of precipitation affect similar attributes of annuals. This study addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing how quantity and temporal patterns of precipitation affect aboveground biomass, interannual variation aboveground biomass, relative aboveground biomass, and species richness of annuals using a 29-year dataset from a dry steppe site at the Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station. Results showed that aboveground biomass and relative aboveground biomass of annuals increased with increasing precipitation. The coefficient of variation in aboveground biomass of annuals decreased significantly with increasing annual and growing-season precipitation. Species richness of annuals increased significantly with increasing annual precipitation and growing-season precipitation. Overall, this study highlights the importance of precipitation for aboveground biomass and species richness of annuals.

  8. Deer browsing delays succession by altering aboveground vegetation and belowground seed banks.

    PubMed

    DiTommaso, Antonio; Morris, Scott H; Parker, John D; Cone, Caitlin L; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-01-01

    Soil seed bank composition is important to the recovery of natural and semi-natural areas from disturbance and serves as a safeguard against environmental catastrophe. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations have increased dramatically in eastern North America over the past century and can have strong impacts on aboveground vegetation, but their impacts on seed bank dynamics are less known. To document the long-term effects of deer browsing on plant successional dynamics, we studied the impacts of deer on both aboveground vegetation and seed bank composition in plant communities following agricultural abandonment. In 2005, we established six 15 × 15 m fenced enclosures and paired open plots in recently followed agricultural fields near Ithaca, NY, USA. In late October of each of six years (2005-2010), we collected soil from each plot and conducted seed germination cycles in a greenhouse to document seed bank composition. These data were compared to measurements of aboveground plant cover (2005-2008) and tree density (2005-2012). The impacts of deer browsing on aboveground vegetation were severe and immediate, resulting in significantly more bare soil, reduced plant biomass, reduced recruitment of woody species, and relatively fewer native species. These impacts persisted throughout the experiment. The impacts of browsing were even stronger on seed bank dynamics. Browsing resulted in significantly decreased overall species richness (but higher diversity), reduced seed bank abundance, relatively more short-lived species (annuals and biennials), and fewer native species. Both seed bank richness and the relative abundance of annuals/biennials were mirrored in the aboveground vegetation. Thus, deer browsing has long-term and potentially reinforcing impacts on secondary succession, slowing succession by selectively consuming native perennials and woody species and favoring the persistence of short-lived, introduced species that continually recruit from an

  9. Aboveground pipeline response to random ground motion

    SciTech Connect

    Banerji, P.; Ghosh, A.

    1995-12-31

    Response of two types of aboveground pipelines--rigid, segmented pipelines, and flexible, continuous pipelines--to random ground motion are studied in this paper. The emphasis is on studying the effect of pipeline system parameters on its response. It is seen that pipe parameters, except for the pipe span, affect system response negligibly. Pier height and flexibility, and foundation-soil flexibility, however, affect response significantly. Furthermore, for practical situations, pipe and pier responses are decoupled, and the pier, therefore, behaves essentially as a point structure that is not affected by spatial variation of ground motion.

  10. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands.

    PubMed

    Risch, Anita C; Schotz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Busse, Matt D; Page-dumroese, Deborah S; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore species or guilds. We assessed how a diverse herbivore community affects net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands. By using size-selective fences, we progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals, as well as invertebrates from two vegetation types, and assessed how the exclosure types (ET) affected net N mineralization. The two vegetation types differed in long-term management (centuries), forage quality, and grazing history and intensity. To gain a more mechanistic understanding of how herbivores affect net N mineralization, we linked mineralization to soil abiotic (temperature; moisture; NO3-, NH4+, and total inorganic N concentrations/pools; C, N, P concentrations; pH; bulk density), soil biotic (microbial biomass; abundance of collembolans, mites, and nematodes) and plant (shoot and root biomass; consumption; plant C, N, and fiber content; plant N pool) properties. Net N mineralization differed between ET, but not between vegetation types. Thus, short-term changes in herbivore community composition and, therefore, in grazing intensity had a stronger effect on net N mineralization than long-term management and grazing history. We found highest N mineralization values when only invertebrates were present, suggesting that mammals had a negative effect on net N mineralization. Of the variables included in our analyses, only mite abundance and aboveground plant biomass explained variation in net N mineralization among ET. Abundances of both mites and leaf-sucking invertebrates were positively correlated with aboveground plant biomass, and biomass increased with progressive exclusion

  11. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands.

    PubMed

    Risch, Anita C; Schotz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Busse, Matt D; Page-dumroese, Deborah S; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore species or guilds. We assessed how a diverse herbivore community affects net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands. By using size-selective fences, we progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals, as well as invertebrates from two vegetation types, and assessed how the exclosure types (ET) affected net N mineralization. The two vegetation types differed in long-term management (centuries), forage quality, and grazing history and intensity. To gain a more mechanistic understanding of how herbivores affect net N mineralization, we linked mineralization to soil abiotic (temperature; moisture; NO3-, NH4+, and total inorganic N concentrations/pools; C, N, P concentrations; pH; bulk density), soil biotic (microbial biomass; abundance of collembolans, mites, and nematodes) and plant (shoot and root biomass; consumption; plant C, N, and fiber content; plant N pool) properties. Net N mineralization differed between ET, but not between vegetation types. Thus, short-term changes in herbivore community composition and, therefore, in grazing intensity had a stronger effect on net N mineralization than long-term management and grazing history. We found highest N mineralization values when only invertebrates were present, suggesting that mammals had a negative effect on net N mineralization. Of the variables included in our analyses, only mite abundance and aboveground plant biomass explained variation in net N mineralization among ET. Abundances of both mites and leaf-sucking invertebrates were positively correlated with aboveground plant biomass, and biomass increased with progressive exclusion

  12. Aboveground production does not increase after ten years of elevated CO2 in the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newingham, B. A.; Vanier, C. H.; Charlet, D.; Zitzer, S. F.; Smith, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) is assumed to increase primary production, particularly in desert systems through stimulatory effects on plant water-use efficiency. We examined the effects of elevated [CO2] at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-air CO2 Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in an intact Mojave Desert ecosystem. At the NDFF, ambient and elevated [CO2] levels were 360 and 550 μmol mol-1 [CO2], respectively. CO2 treatments were applied continuously from 1997-2007 in intact plots 25 m in diameter. While other studies focused on soil and root responses to elevated [CO2], our study focused on aboveground production of annuals and perennial plants. In 1997, diameters and heights of all perennial individuals were recorded and mapped. In 2007, diameters and heights were re-measured and aboveground biomass was harvested for every mapped perennial individual. Harvest data were used to construct regressions for twenty perennial species to predict starting biomass based on diameters and heights. Annual plants were harvested yearly at peak biomass from permanent transects. We found no significant effect of elevated [CO2] on total perennial plant biomass or cover at the end of the experiment. Regardless of [CO2] treatment, perennial cover increased while total biomass did not change over the ten years of the experiment. Perennial biomass allocation to vegetative, twig and woody biomass was not differentially affected by elevated [CO2], although leaf area index increased under elevated [CO2]. Similarly, there was no consistent elevated [CO2] effect on yearly production of annual (ephemeral) plants, although an exotic grass (Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens) exhibited a higher relative stimulation in production at elevated [CO2] than did native dicot and grass species. Other studies in our research group have shown that increases in production are only seen in wet years during the ten-year period of CO2 treatments at the NDFF, and so future effects of rising [CO2] may primarily

  13. Aboveground Tree Growth Varies with Belowground Carbon Allocation in a Tropical Rainforest Environment

    PubMed Central

    Raich, James W.; Clark, Deborah A.; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Wood, Tana E.

    2014-01-01

    Young secondary forests and plantations in the moist tropics often have rapid rates of biomass accumulation and thus sequester large amounts of carbon. Here, we compare results from mature forest and nearby 15–20 year old tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica to evaluate differences in allocation of carbon to aboveground production and root systems. We found that the tree plantations, which had fully developed, closed canopies, allocated more carbon belowground - to their root systems - than did mature forest. This increase in belowground carbon allocation correlated significantly with aboveground tree growth but not with canopy production (i.e., leaf fall or fine litter production). In contrast, there were no correlations between canopy production and either tree growth or belowground carbon allocation. Enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can enhance plant nutrient uptake, providing nutrients beyond those required for the production of short-lived tissues such as leaves and fine roots, and thus enabling biomass accumulation. Our analyses support this deduction at our site, showing that enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can be an important mechanism promoting biomass accumulation during forest growth in the moist tropics. Identifying factors that control when, where and for how long this occurs would help us to improve models of forest growth and nutrient cycling, and to ascertain the role that young forests play in mitigating increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. PMID:24945351

  14. Aboveground tree growth varies with belowground carbon allocation in a tropical rainforest environment.

    PubMed

    Raich, James W; Clark, Deborah A; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Wood, Tana E

    2014-01-01

    Young secondary forests and plantations in the moist tropics often have rapid rates of biomass accumulation and thus sequester large amounts of carbon. Here, we compare results from mature forest and nearby 15-20 year old tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica to evaluate differences in allocation of carbon to aboveground production and root systems. We found that the tree plantations, which had fully developed, closed canopies, allocated more carbon belowground - to their root systems - than did mature forest. This increase in belowground carbon allocation correlated significantly with aboveground tree growth but not with canopy production (i.e., leaf fall or fine litter production). In contrast, there were no correlations between canopy production and either tree growth or belowground carbon allocation. Enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can enhance plant nutrient uptake, providing nutrients beyond those required for the production of short-lived tissues such as leaves and fine roots, and thus enabling biomass accumulation. Our analyses support this deduction at our site, showing that enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can be an important mechanism promoting biomass accumulation during forest growth in the moist tropics. Identifying factors that control when, where and for how long this occurs would help us to improve models of forest growth and nutrient cycling, and to ascertain the role that young forests play in mitigating increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  15. Dependence of radar backscatter on coniferous forest biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, M.C.; Ulaby, F.T. ); LeToan, T.; Beaudoin, A. ); Kasischke, E.S. ); Christensen, N. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses two independent experimental efforts which have examined the dependence of radar backscatter on aboveground biomass of mono specie conifer forests using polarimetric airborne SAR data at P-, L- and C-bands. Plantations of maritime pines near Landes, France range in age from 8 to 46 years with aboveground biomass between 5 and 105 tons/ha. Loblolly pine stands established on abandoned agricultural fields near Duke, NC range in age from 4 to 90 years and extend the range of aboveground biomass to 560 tons/ha for the older stands. These two experimental forests are largely complementary with respect to biomass. Radar backscatter is found to increase approximately linearly with increasing biomass until it saturates at a biomass level that depends on the radar frequency. The biomass saturation level is about 200 tons/ha at P-band and 100 tons/ha at L-band, and the C-band backscattering coefficient shows much less sensitivity to total aboveground biomass.

  16. Canopy leaf area constrains [CO2]-induced enhancement of productivity and partitioning among aboveground carbon pools

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Heather R.; Oren, Ram; Finzi, Adrien C.; Johnsen, Kurt H.

    2006-01-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is enhanced under future atmospheric [CO2] in temperate forests representing a broad range of productivity. Yet questions remain in regard to how elevated [CO2]-induced NPP enhancement may be affected by climatic variations and limiting nutrient resources, as well as how this additional production is distributed among carbon (C) pools of different longevities. Using 10 years of data from the Duke free-air CO2 enrichment (Duke FACE) site, we show that spatially, the major control of NPP was nitrogen (N) availability, through its control on canopy leaf area index (L). Elevated CO2 levels resulted in greater L, and thus greater NPP. After canopy closure had occurred, elevated [CO2] did not enhance NPP at a given L, regardless of soil water availability. Additionally, using published data from three other forest FACE sites and replacing L with leaf area duration (LD) to account for differences in growing season length, we show that aboveground NPP responded to [CO2] only through the enhancement of LD. For broadleaf forests, the fraction of aboveground NPP partitioned to wood biomass saturated with increasing LD and was not enhanced by [CO2], whereas it linearly decreased for the conifer forest but was enhanced by [CO2]. These results underscore the importance of resolving [CO2] effects on L to assess the response of NPP and C allocation. Further study is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms that control the differential allocation of C among aboveground pools in different forest types. PMID:17159159

  17. Conspecific and Heterospecific Aboveground Herbivory Both Reduce Preference by a Belowground Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Milano, N J; Barber, N A; Adler, L S

    2015-04-01

    Insect herbivores damage plants both above- and belowground, and interactions in each realm can influence the other via shared hosts. While effects of leaf damage on aboveground interactions have been well-documented, studies examining leaf damage effects on belowground interactions are limited, and mechanisms for these indirect interactions are poorly understood. We examined how leaf herbivory affects preference of root-feeding larvae [Acalymma vittatum F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)] in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We manipulated leaf herbivory using conspecific adult A. vittatum and heterospecific larval Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) herbivores in the greenhouse and the conspecific only in the field, allowing larvae to choose between roots of damaged and undamaged plants. We also examined whether leaf herbivory induced changes in defensive cucurbitacin C in leaves and roots. We hypothesized that induced changes in roots would deter larvae, and that effects would be stronger for damage by conspecifics than the unrelated caterpillar because the aboveground damage could be a cue to plants indicating future root damage by the same species. In both the greenhouse and field, plants with damaged leaves recruited significantly fewer larvae to their roots than undamaged plants. Effects of conspecific and heterospecific damage did not differ. Leaf damage did not induce changes in leaf or root cucurbitacin C, but did reduce root biomass. While past work has suggested that systemic induction by aboveground herbivory increases resistance in roots, our results suggest that decreased preference by belowground herbivores in this system may be because of reduced root growth.

  18. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests.

    PubMed

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Broadbent, Eben N; Chazdon, Robin L; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben H J; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans F M; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M A

    2016-02-11

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha(-1)) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience. PMID:26840632

  19. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure testing... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed...

  20. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure...

  1. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure...

  2. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure...

  3. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure...

  4. Consequences of long-term severe industrial pollution for aboveground carbon and nitrogen pools in northern taiga forests at local and regional scales.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Zverev, Vitali; Bergman, Igor; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2015-12-01

    Boreal coniferous forests act as an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The overall tree carbon (C) sink in the forests of Europe has increased during the past decades, especially due to management and elevated nitrogen (N) deposition; however, industrial atmospheric pollution, primarily sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, still negatively affect forest biomass production at different spatial scales. We report local and regional changes in forest aboveground biomass, C and N concentrations in plant tissues, and C and N pools caused by long-term atmospheric emissions from a large point source, the nickel-copper smelter in Monchegorsk, in north-western Russia. An increase in pollution load (assessed as Cu concentration in forest litter) caused C to increase in foliage but C remained unchanged in wood, while N decreased in foliage and increased in wood, demonstrating strong effects of pollution on resource translocation between green and woody tissues. The aboveground C and N pools were primarily governed by plant biomass, which strongly decreased with an increase in pollution load. In our study sites (located 1.6-39.7 km from the smelter) living aboveground plant biomass was 76 to 4888 gm(-2), and C and N pools ranged 35-2333 g C m(-2) and 0.5-35.1 g N m(-2), respectively. We estimate that the aboveground plant biomass is reduced due to chronic exposure to industrial air pollution over an area of about 107,200 km2, and the total (aboveground and belowground) loss of phytomass C stock amounts to 4.24×10(13) g C. Our results emphasize the need to account for the overall impact of industrial polluters on ecosystem C and N pools when assessing the C and N dynamics in northern boreal forests because of the marked long-term negative effects of their emissions on structure and productivity of plant communities. PMID:26254064

  5. Consequences of long-term severe industrial pollution for aboveground carbon and nitrogen pools in northern taiga forests at local and regional scales.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Zverev, Vitali; Bergman, Igor; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2015-12-01

    Boreal coniferous forests act as an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The overall tree carbon (C) sink in the forests of Europe has increased during the past decades, especially due to management and elevated nitrogen (N) deposition; however, industrial atmospheric pollution, primarily sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, still negatively affect forest biomass production at different spatial scales. We report local and regional changes in forest aboveground biomass, C and N concentrations in plant tissues, and C and N pools caused by long-term atmospheric emissions from a large point source, the nickel-copper smelter in Monchegorsk, in north-western Russia. An increase in pollution load (assessed as Cu concentration in forest litter) caused C to increase in foliage but C remained unchanged in wood, while N decreased in foliage and increased in wood, demonstrating strong effects of pollution on resource translocation between green and woody tissues. The aboveground C and N pools were primarily governed by plant biomass, which strongly decreased with an increase in pollution load. In our study sites (located 1.6-39.7 km from the smelter) living aboveground plant biomass was 76 to 4888 gm(-2), and C and N pools ranged 35-2333 g C m(-2) and 0.5-35.1 g N m(-2), respectively. We estimate that the aboveground plant biomass is reduced due to chronic exposure to industrial air pollution over an area of about 107,200 km2, and the total (aboveground and belowground) loss of phytomass C stock amounts to 4.24×10(13) g C. Our results emphasize the need to account for the overall impact of industrial polluters on ecosystem C and N pools when assessing the C and N dynamics in northern boreal forests because of the marked long-term negative effects of their emissions on structure and productivity of plant communities.

  6. Mapping biomass with remote sensing: a comparison of methods for the case study of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Assessing biomass is gaining increasing interest mainly for bioenergy, climate change research and mitigation activities, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). In response to these needs, a number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches but the lack of comparable reference data limits their proper validation. The objectives of this study are to compare the available maps for Uganda and to understand the sources of variability in the estimation. Uganda was chosen as a case-study because it presents a reliable national biomass reference dataset. Results The comparison of the biomass/carbon maps show strong disagreement between the products, with estimates of total aboveground biomass of Uganda ranging from 343 to 2201 Tg and different spatial distribution patterns. Compared to the reference map based on country-specific field data and a national Land Cover (LC) dataset (estimating 468 Tg), maps based on biome-average biomass values, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default values, and global LC datasets tend to strongly overestimate biomass availability of Uganda (ranging from 578 to 2201 Tg), while maps based on satellite data and regression models provide conservative estimates (ranging from 343 to 443 Tg). The comparison of the maps predictions with field data, upscaled to map resolution using LC data, is in accordance with the above findings. This study also demonstrates that the biomass estimates are primarily driven by the biomass reference data while the type of spatial maps used for their stratification has a smaller, but not negligible, impact. The differences in format, resolution and biomass definition used by the maps, as well as the fact that some datasets are not independent from the reference data to which they

  7. Plant diversity impacts decomposition and herbivory via changes in aboveground arthropods.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Anne; Meyer, Sebastian T; Abbas, Maike; Eisenhauer, Nico; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lange, Markus; Scherber, Christoph; Vogel, Anja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2014-01-01

    Loss of plant diversity influences essential ecosystem processes as aboveground productivity, and can have cascading effects on the arthropod communities in adjacent trophic levels. However, few studies have examined how those changes in arthropod communities can have additional impacts on ecosystem processes caused by them (e.g. pollination, bioturbation, predation, decomposition, herbivory). Therefore, including arthropod effects in predictions of the impact of plant diversity loss on such ecosystem processes is an important but little studied piece of information. In a grassland biodiversity experiment, we addressed this gap by assessing aboveground decomposer and herbivore communities and linking their abundance and diversity to rates of decomposition and herbivory. Path analyses showed that increasing plant diversity led to higher abundance and diversity of decomposing arthropods through higher plant biomass. Higher species richness of decomposers, in turn, enhanced decomposition. Similarly, species-rich plant communities hosted a higher abundance and diversity of herbivores through elevated plant biomass and C:N ratio, leading to higher herbivory rates. Integrating trophic interactions into the study of biodiversity effects is required to understand the multiple pathways by which biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning.

  8. Plant Diversity Impacts Decomposition and Herbivory via Changes in Aboveground Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Anne; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Abbas, Maike; Eisenhauer, Nico; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lange, Markus; Scherber, Christoph; Vogel, Anja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of plant diversity influences essential ecosystem processes as aboveground productivity, and can have cascading effects on the arthropod communities in adjacent trophic levels. However, few studies have examined how those changes in arthropod communities can have additional impacts on ecosystem processes caused by them (e.g. pollination, bioturbation, predation, decomposition, herbivory). Therefore, including arthropod effects in predictions of the impact of plant diversity loss on such ecosystem processes is an important but little studied piece of information. In a grassland biodiversity experiment, we addressed this gap by assessing aboveground decomposer and herbivore communities and linking their abundance and diversity to rates of decomposition and herbivory. Path analyses showed that increasing plant diversity led to higher abundance and diversity of decomposing arthropods through higher plant biomass. Higher species richness of decomposers, in turn, enhanced decomposition. Similarly, species-rich plant communities hosted a higher abundance and diversity of herbivores through elevated plant biomass and C:N ratio, leading to higher herbivory rates. Integrating trophic interactions into the study of biodiversity effects is required to understand the multiple pathways by which biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning. PMID:25226237

  9. Effects of root herbivory on pyrrolizidine alkaloid content and aboveground plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions in Jacobaea vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kostenko, Olga; Mulder, Patrick P J; Bezemer, T Martijn

    2013-01-01

    The importance of root herbivory is increasingly recognized in ecological studies, and the effects of root herbivory on plant growth, chemistry, and performance of aboveground herbivores have been relatively well studied. However, how belowground herbivory by root feeding insects affects aboveground parasitoid development is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of root herbivory by wireworms (Agriotes lineatus) on the expression of primary and secondary compounds in the leaves and roots of ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris). We also studied the effects of root herbivory on the performance of a generalist aboveground herbivore, Mamestra brassicae and its parasitoid Microplitis mediator. In contrast to what most other studies have reported, root herbivory in J. vulgaris had a strong negative effect on the total concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in shoot tissues. The composition of PAs in the shoots also changed after root herbivory. In particular, the concentration of less toxic N-oxide PAs decreased. There was no significant effect of root herbivory on PA composition and concentration in the roots. Although the concentration of PA in the leaves decreased, M. brassicae tended to grow slower on the plants exposed to root herbivory. Parasitoid performance was not affected by root herbivory, but parasitoids developed faster when the concentration of jacobine-type PAs in the foliage was higher. These results point at a putative role of individual PAs in multitrophic interactions and emphasize that generalizations about aboveground-belowground effects should be made with great caution.

  10. Multi-decade biomass dynamics in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Woods, Kerry D

    2014-01-01

    Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD) in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962-2009), combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equilibrial ecosystems? Specifically, do biomass pools and CWD inputs show consistent long-term trends and relationships, and can living and dead biomass pools and trends be related to forest composition and history? Aboveground living biomass densities, estimated using standard allometric relationships, range from 360-450 Mg/ha among sampled stands and types; these values are among the highest recorded for northeastern North American forests. Biomass densities showed significant decade-scale variation, but no consistent trends over the full study period (one stand, originating following an 1830 fire, showed an aggrading trend during the first 25 years of the study). Even though total above-ground biomass pools are neither increasing nor decreasing, they have been increasingly dominated, over the full study period, by very large (>70 cm dbh) stems and by the most shade-tolerant species (Acer saccharum and Tsuga canadensis). CWD pools measured in 2007 averaged 151 m(3)/ha, with highest values in Acer-dominated stands. Snag densities averaged 27/ha, but varied nearly ten-fold with canopy composition (highest in Tsuga-dominated stands, lowest in Acer-dominated); snags constituted 10-50% of CWD biomass. Annualized CWD inputs from tree mortality over the full study period averaged 1.9-3.2 Mg/ha/yr, depending on stand and species composition. CWD input rates tended to increase over the course of the study. Input rates may be expected to increase over longer-term observations because, (a

  11. Elicitors aboveground: an alternative for control of a belowground pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation ...

  12. 78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, drawing number AW30-02-09, dated 15 October, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. NORTH ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. ABOVEGROUND PORTION IS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. ABOVE-GROUND PORTION IS ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVEGROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVE-GROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Dryland Wheat Domestication Changed the Development of Aboveground Architecture for a Well-Structured Canopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pu-Fang; Cheng, Zheng-Guo; Ma, Bao-Luo; Palta, Jairo A.; Kong, Hai-Yan; Mo, Fei; Wang, Jian-Yong; Zhu, Ying; Lv, Guang-Chao; Batool, Asfa; Bai, Xue; Li, Feng-Min; Xiong, You-Cai

    2014-01-01

    We examined three different-ploidy wheat species to elucidate the development of aboveground architecture and its domesticated mechanism under environment-controlled field conditions. Architecture parameters including leaf, stem, spike and canopy morphology were measured together with biomass allocation, leaf net photosynthetic rate and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi). Canopy biomass density was decreased from diploid to tetraploid wheat, but increased to maximum in hexaploid wheat. Population yield in hexaploid wheat was higher than in diploid wheat, but the population fitness and individual competition ability was higher in diploid wheats. Plant architecture was modified from a compact type in diploid wheats to an incompact type in tetraploid wheats, and then to a more compact type of hexaploid wheats. Biomass accumulation, population yield, harvest index and the seed to leaf ratio increased from diploid to tetraploid and hexaploid, associated with heavier specific internode weight and greater canopy biomass density in hexaploid and tetraploid than in diploid wheat. Leaf photosynthetic rate and WUEi were decreased from diploid to tetraploid and increased from tetraploid to hexaploid due to more compact leaf type in hexaploid and diploid than in tetraploid. Grain yield formation and WUEi were closely associated with spatial stance of leaves and stems. We conclude that the ideotype of dryland wheats could be based on spatial reconstruction of leaf type and further exertion of leaf photosynthetic rate. PMID:25181037

  16. How much biomass do plant communities pack per unit volume?

    PubMed Central

    Rheault, Guillaume; Bonin, Laurianne; Roca, Irene Torrecilla; Martin, Charles A.; Desrochers, Louis; Seiferling, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground production in terrestrial plant communities is commonly expressed in amount of carbon, or biomass, per unit surface. Alternatively, expressing production per unit volume allows the comparison of communities by their fundamental capacities in packing carbon. In this work we reanalyzed published data from more than 900 plant communities across nine ecosystems to show that standing dry biomass per unit volume (biomass packing) consistently averages around 1 kg/m3 and rarely exceeds 5 kg/m3 across ecosystem types. Furthermore, we examined how empirical relationships between aboveground production and plant species richness are modified when standing biomass is expressed per unit volume rather than surface. We propose that biomass packing emphasizes species coexistence mechanisms and may be an indicator of resource use efficiency in plant communities. PMID:25802814

  17. Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of warming and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David

    2016-02-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of environmental change, including climate warming and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of warming on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and warming, and, in concert, warming (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground warming over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground warming effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of warming-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of warming-induced environmental conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with warming in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity warming had no detectable effect. This may be because warming increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative warming × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of warming on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that warming and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both

  18. Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of warming and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David

    2016-02-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of environmental change, including climate warming and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of warming on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and warming, and, in concert, warming (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground warming over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground warming effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of warming-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of warming-induced environmental conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with warming in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity warming had no detectable effect. This may be because warming increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative warming × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of warming on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that warming and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both

  19. Herbaceous plant species invading natural areas tend to have stronger adaptive root foraging than other naturalized species

    PubMed Central

    Keser, Lidewij H.; Visser, Eric J. W.; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Although plastic root-foraging responses are thought to be adaptive, as they may optimize nutrient capture of plants, this has rarely been tested. We investigated whether nutrient-foraging responses are adaptive, and whether they pre-adapt alien species to become natural-area invaders. We grew 12 pairs of congeneric species (i.e., 24 species) native to Europe in heterogeneous and homogeneous nutrient environments, and compared their foraging responses and performance. One species in each pair is a USA natural-area invader, and the other one is not. Within species, individuals with strong foraging responses, measured as plasticity in root diameter and specific root length, had a higher biomass. Among species, the ones with strong foraging responses, measured as plasticity in root length and root biomass, had a higher biomass. Our results therefore suggest that root foraging is an adaptive trait. Invasive species showed significantly stronger root-foraging responses than non-invasive species when measured as root diameter. Biomass accumulation was decreased in the heterogeneous vs. the homogeneous environment. In aboveground, but not belowground and total biomass, this decrease was smaller in invasive than in non-invasive species. Our results show that strong plastic root-foraging responses are adaptive, and suggest that it might aid in pre-adapting species to becoming natural-area invaders. PMID:25964790

  20. Herbaceous plant species invading natural areas tend to have stronger adaptive root foraging than other naturalized species.

    PubMed

    Keser, Lidewij H; Visser, Eric J W; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Although plastic root-foraging responses are thought to be adaptive, as they may optimize nutrient capture of plants, this has rarely been tested. We investigated whether nutrient-foraging responses are adaptive, and whether they pre-adapt alien species to become natural-area invaders. We grew 12 pairs of congeneric species (i.e., 24 species) native to Europe in heterogeneous and homogeneous nutrient environments, and compared their foraging responses and performance. One species in each pair is a USA natural-area invader, and the other one is not. Within species, individuals with strong foraging responses, measured as plasticity in root diameter and specific root length, had a higher biomass. Among species, the ones with strong foraging responses, measured as plasticity in root length and root biomass, had a higher biomass. Our results therefore suggest that root foraging is an adaptive trait. Invasive species showed significantly stronger root-foraging responses than non-invasive species when measured as root diameter. Biomass accumulation was decreased in the heterogeneous vs. the homogeneous environment. In aboveground, but not belowground and total biomass, this decrease was smaller in invasive than in non-invasive species. Our results show that strong plastic root-foraging responses are adaptive, and suggest that it might aid in pre-adapting species to becoming natural-area invaders.

  1. [Compatible biomass models for main tree species with measurement error in Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-hu; Li, Feng-ri; Jia, Wei-wei; Liu, Fu-xiang; Wang, He-zhi

    2011-10-01

    Based on the biomass data of 516 sampling trees, and by using non-linear error-in-variable modeling approach, the compatible models for the total biomass and the biomass of six components including aboveground part, underground part, stem, crown, branch, and foliage of 15 major tree species (or groups) in Heilongjiang Province were established, and the best models for the total biomass and components biomass were selected. The compatible models based on total biomass were developed by adopting the method of joint control different level ratio function. The heteroscedasticity of the models for total biomass was eliminated with log transformation, and the weighted regression was applied to the models for each individual component. Among the compatible biomass models established for the 15 major species (or groups) , the model for total biomass had the highest prediction precision (90% or more), followed by the models for aboveground part and stem biomass, with a precision of 87.5% or more. The prediction precision of the biomass models for other components was relatively low, but it was still greater than 80% for most test tree species. The modeling efficiency (EF) values of the total, aboveground part, and stem biomass models for all the tree species (or groups) were over 0.9, and the EF values of the underground part, crown, branch, and foliage biomass models were over 0.8.

  2. Biomass and nutrient distributions in central Oregon second-growth ponderosa pine ecosystems. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Little, S.N.; Shainsky, L.J.

    1995-03-01

    We investigated the distributioin of biomass and nurtrients in second-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) ecosystems in central Oregon. Destructive sampling of aboveground and belowground tree biomass was carried out at six sites in the Deschutes National Forest; three of these sites also were intensively sampled for biomass and nutrient concentrations of the soil, forest floor, residue, and shrub components. Tree biomass equations were developed that related component biomass to diameter at breast height and total tree height.

  3. Aboveground allometric models for freeze-affected black mangroves (Avicennia germinans): equations for a climate sensitive mangrove-marsh ecotone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Larriviere, Jack C.; From, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1) total aboveground biomass; (2) leaf biomass; (3) stem plus branch biomass; and (4) leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height) was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone.

  4. Aboveground Allometric Models for Freeze-Affected Black Mangroves (Avicennia germinans): Equations for a Climate Sensitive Mangrove-Marsh Ecotone

    PubMed Central

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Larriviere, Jack C.; From, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1) total aboveground biomass; (2) leaf biomass; (3) stem plus branch biomass; and (4) leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height) was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone. PMID:24971938

  5. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  6. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment. PMID:22744011

  7. The response of aboveground plant productivity to earlier snowmelt and summer warming in an Arctic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livensperger, C.; Steltzer, H.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Sullivan, P.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Weintraub, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Plant communities in the Arctic are undergoing changes in structure and function due to shifts in seasonality from changing winters and summer warming. These changes will impact biogeochemical cycling, surface energy balance, and functioning of vertebrate and invertebrate communities. To examine seasonal controls on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in a moist acidic tundra ecosystem in northern Alaska, we shifted the growing season by accelerating snowmelt (using radiation absorbing shadecloth) and warming air and soil temperature (using 1 m2 open-top chambers), individually and in combination. After three years, we measured ANPP by harvesting up to 16 individual ramets, tillers and rhizomes for each of 7 plant species, including two deciduous shrubs, two graminoids, two evergreen shrubs and one forb during peak season. Our results show that ANPP per stem summed across the 7 species increased when snow melt occurred earlier. However, standing biomass, excluding current year growth, was also greater. The ratio of ANPP/standing biomass decreased in all treatments compared to the control. ANPP per unit standing biomass summed for the four shrub species decreases due to summer warming alone or in combination with early snowmelt; however early snowmelt alone did not lead to lower ANPP for the shrubs. ANPP per tiller or rhizome summed for the three herbaceous species increased in response to summer warming. Understanding the differential response of plants to changing seasonality will inform predictions of future Arctic plant community structure and function.

  8. Salinity influences on aboveground and belowground net primary productivity in tidal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierfelice, Kathryn N.; Graeme Lockaby, B.; Krauss, Ken W.; Conner, William H.; Noe, Gregory; Ricker, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Tidal freshwater wetlands are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change and rising sea levels. However salinification within these systems is poorly understood, therefore, productivity (litterfall, woody biomass, and fine roots) were investigated on three forested tidal wetlands [(1) freshwater, (2) moderately saline, and (3) heavily salt-impacted] and a marsh along the Waccamaw and Turkey Creek in South Carolina. Mean aboveground (litterfall and woody biomass) production on the freshwater, moderately saline, heavily salt-impacted, and marsh, respectively, was 1,061, 492, 79, and 0  g m−2 year−1 versus belowground (fine roots) 860, 490, 620, and 2,128  g m−2 year−1. Litterfall and woody biomass displayed an inverse relationship with salinity. Shifts in productivity across saline sites is of concern because sea level is predicted to continue rising. Results from the research reported in this paper provide baseline data upon which coupled hydrologic/wetland models can be created to quantify future changes in tidal forest functions.

  9. Mapping Africa Biomass with MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, N.; Baccini, A.; Houghton, R.

    2006-12-01

    Central Africa contains the second largest block of tropical forest remaining in the world, and is one of the largest carbon reservoirs on Earth. The carbon dynamics of the region differ substantially from other tropical forests because most deforestation and land use is associated with selective logging and small-scale landholders practicing traditional "slash-and-burn" agriculture. Despite estimates of 1-2 PgC/yr released to the atmosphere from tropical deforestation, the amount released from Central Africa is highly uncertain relative to the amounts released from other tropical forest areas. The uncertainty in carbon fluxes results from inadequate estimates of both rates of deforestation and standing stocks of carbon (forest biomass). Here we present new results mapping above-ground forest biomass for tropical Africa using machine learning techniques to integrate MODIS 1km spectral reflectance with forest inventory measurements to calibrate an empirical relationship. The derived forest biomass at each MODIS pixel shows the spatial distribution of forest biomass over the entire tropical forest region. The model has been tested in Uganda, Mali and part of Republic of Congo where field data were available. The regression tree model based on MODIS NBAR surface reflectance for Uganda, Mali and Republic of Congo explains 94 percent of the variance in above-ground biomass with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 27 Tons/ha. The approach shows promise for use of optical remote sensing data in mapping the spatial distribution of forest biomass across the region.

  10. Cathodic protection of aboveground storage tanks in an Arctic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, T.; Bayle, R.; Kennelley, K.

    1996-05-01

    The Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) is one of the largest pipeline systems in the world. Fifty eight major aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) are a critical part of the daily operation of the pipeline. A variety of cathodic protection (CP) retrofit systems are available for aboveground storage tanks. The presence of secondary containment liners, refrigeration systems, and an Arctic environment necessitates the use of a CP system in which the anodes are located in close proximity to the tank bottom. Impressed current CP retrofit systems were evaluated.

  11. 30 CFR 56.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 56.7012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 57.7012 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in...

  13. 30 CFR 56.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 56.7012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 57.7012 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in...

  15. 30 CFR 57.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 57.7012 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 56.7012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 57.7012 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in...

  18. 30 CFR 56.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 56.7012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 57.7012 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 56.7012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall...

  1. Telerobotic Tending of Space Based Plant Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, P. G.; Long, M. K.; Das, H.

    1994-01-01

    The kinematic design of a telerobotic mechanism for tending a plant growth space science experiment chamber is described. Ground based control of tending mechanisms internal to space science experiments will allow ground based principal investigators to interact directly with their space science experiments.

  2. Biomass and energy productivity of Leucaena under humid subtropical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, A.B.; Prine, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A table shows the amount and energy content of above-ground biomass produced in 1982 and 1983 by the 12 most productive of 62 accessions of Leucanena spp. established in 1979 at the University of Florida. Mean annual biomass production of the 12 accessions was 29.3 and 24.7 Mg/ha, with energy contents of 19,690 and 19,820 J/g, in 1982 and 1983 respectively.

  3. Ability of LANDSAT-8 Oli Derived Texture Metrics in Estimating Aboveground Carbon Stocks of Coppice Oak Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, A.; Sohrabi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The role of forests as a reservoir for carbon has prompted the need for timely and reliable estimation of aboveground carbon stocks. Since measurement of aboveground carbon stocks of forests is a destructive, costly and time-consuming activity, aerial and satellite remote sensing techniques have gained many attentions in this field. Despite the fact that using aerial data for predicting aboveground carbon stocks has been proved as a highly accurate method, there are challenges related to high acquisition costs, small area coverage, and limited availability of these data. These challenges are more critical for non-commercial forests located in low-income countries. Landsat program provides repetitive acquisition of high-resolution multispectral data, which are freely available. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of multispectral Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) derived texture metrics in quantifying aboveground carbon stocks of coppice Oak forests in Zagros Mountains, Iran. We used four different window sizes (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, and 9×9), and four different offsets ([0,1], [1,1], [1,0], and [1,-1]) to derive nine texture metrics (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, dissimilar, entropy, homogeneity, inverse difference, mean, and variance) from four bands (blue, green, red, and infrared). Totally, 124 sample plots in two different forests were measured and carbon was calculated using species-specific allometric models. Stepwise regression analysis was applied to estimate biomass from derived metrics. Results showed that, in general, larger size of window for deriving texture metrics resulted models with better fitting parameters. In addition, the correlation of the spectral bands for deriving texture metrics in regression models was ranked as b4>b3>b2>b5. The best offset was [1,-1]. Amongst the different metrics, mean and entropy were entered in most of the regression models. Overall, different models based on derived texture metrics

  4. WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 3568), SPARES INERT STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3570), MISSILE ASSEMBLY SHOP (BUILDING 3578) AND SEGREGATED MAGAZINE STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3572). VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  5. Forecasting annual aboveground net primary production in the intermountain west

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many land manager’s annual aboveground net primary production, or plant growth, is a key factor affecting business success, profitability and each land manager's ability to successfully meet land management objectives. The strategy often utilized for forecasting plant growth is to assume every y...

  6. Ant tending influences soldier production in a social aphid.

    PubMed Central

    Shingleton, A W; Foster, W A

    2000-01-01

    The aphid Pseudoregma sundanica (Van der Goot) (Homoptera: Aphididae) has two defence strategies. It is obligatorily tended by various species of ant and also produces sterile soldiers. We investigated how they allocate their investment in these two strategies. We measured the size, number of soldiers, number and species of tending ant, and number and species of predators in P. sundanica populations. We found that the level of ant tending correlated negatively with soldier investment in P. sundanica. The species of tending ant also influenced soldier investment. We excluded ants from aphid populations and recorded changes in population size and structure over four weeks. Ant exclusion led to population decline and extinction. At the same time, surviving populations showed a significant increase in soldier investment. The data demonstrate that social aphids can adjust their investment in soldiers in direct response to environmental change. PMID:11052537

  7. TENDING THE MOLD, DURING THE TRANSFER FROM TUNDISH TO MOLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TENDING THE MOLD, DURING THE TRANSFER FROM TUNDISH TO MOLD TO CONTAINMENT CHAMBER IS CONTINUOUS CASTING OPERATOR, CALVIN ANDERS. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Water-propellant resistojets for man-tended platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louviere, Allen J.; Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.

    1987-01-01

    The selection of a propulsion system for a man-tended platform has been influenced by the planned use of resistojets for drag make-up on the manned space station. For that application a resistojet has been designed that is capable of operation with a wide variety of propellants, including water. The reasons for the selection of water as the propellant and the performance of water as a propellant are discussed. The man-tended platform and its mission requirements are described.

  9. Species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: associations with grassland plant richness and biomass.

    PubMed

    Hiiesalu, Inga; Pärtel, Meelis; Davison, John; Gerhold, Pille; Metsis, Madis; Moora, Mari; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Wilson, Scott D

    2014-07-01

    Although experiments show a positive association between vascular plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species richness, evidence from natural ecosystems is scarce. Furthermore, there is little knowledge about how AMF richness varies with belowground plant richness and biomass. We examined relationships among AMF richness, above- and belowground plant richness, and plant root and shoot biomass in a native North American grassland. Root-colonizing AMF richness and belowground plant richness were detected from the same bulk root samples by 454-sequencing of the AMF SSU rRNA and plant trnL genes. In total we detected 63 AMF taxa. Plant richness was 1.5 times greater belowground than aboveground. AMF richness was significantly positively correlated with plant species richness, and more strongly with below- than aboveground plant richness. Belowground plant richness was positively correlated with belowground plant biomass and total plant biomass, whereas aboveground plant richness was positively correlated only with belowground plant biomass. By contrast, AMF richness was negatively correlated with belowground and total plant biomass. Our results indicate that AMF richness and plant belowground richness are more strongly related with each other and with plant community biomass than with the plant aboveground richness measures that have been almost exclusively considered to date.

  10. Soil water content determination with cosmic-ray neutron sensor: Correcting aboveground hydrogen effects with thermal/fast neutron ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhengchao; Li, Zizhong; Liu, Gang; Li, Baoguo; Ren, Tusheng

    2016-09-01

    The cosmic-ray neutron sensor (CRNS), which estimates field scale soil water content, bridges the gap between point measurement and remote sensing. The accuracy of CRNS measurements, however, is affected by additional hydrogen pools (e.g., vegetation, snow, and rainfall interception). The objectives of this study are to: (i) evaluate the accuracy of CRNS estimates in a farmland system using depth and horizontal weighted point measurements, (ii) introduce a novel method for estimating the amounts of hydrogen from biomass and snow cover in CRNS data, and (iii) propose a simple approach for correcting the influences of aboveground hydrogen pool (expressed as aboveground water equivalent, AWE) on CRNS measurements. A field experiment was conducted in northeast China to compare soil water content results from CRNS to in-situ data with time domain reflectometry (TDR) and neutron probe (NP) in the 0-40 cm soil layers. The biomass water equivalent (BWE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) were observed to have separate linear relationships with the thermal/fast neutron ratio, and the dynamics of BWE and SWE were estimated correctly in the crop seasons and snow-covered seasons, respectively. A simple approach, which considered the AWE, AWE at calibration, and the effective measurement depth of CRNS, was introduced to correct the errors caused by BWE and SWE. After correction, the correlation coefficients between soil water contents determined by CRNS and TDR were 0.79 and 0.77 during the 2014 and 2015 crop seasons, respectively, and CRNS measurements had RMSEs of 0.028, 0.030, and 0.039 m3 m-3 in the 2014 and 2015 crop seasons and the snow-covered seasons, respectively. The experimental results also indicated that the accuracies of CRNS estimated BWE and SWE were affected by the distributions of aboveground hydrogen pools, which were related to the height of the CRNS device above ground surface.

  11. Biomass pretreatment

    DOEpatents

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  12. Converting wood volume to biomass for pinyon and juniper. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Chojnacky, D.C.; Moisen, G.G.

    1993-03-01

    A technique was developed to convert pinyon-juniper volume equation predictions to weights. The method uses specific gravity and biomass conversion equations to obtain foliage weight and total wood weight of all stems, branches, and bark. Specific gravity data are given for several Arizona pinyon-juniper species. Biomass conversion equations are constructed from pinyon-juniper data collected in Nevada. Results provide an interim means of estimating pinyon-juniper aboveground biomass from available volume inventory data.

  13. Plant biomass in the Tanana River Basin, Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Vegetation biomass tables are presented for the Tanana River Basin. Average biomass for each species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in the 13 forest and 30 nonforest vegetation types is shown. These data combined with area estimates for each vegetation type provide a tool for estimating habitat carrying capacity for many wildlife species. Tree biomass is reported for the entire aboveground tree, thereby allowing estimates of total fiber content.

  14. Inconsistent impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions

    PubMed Central

    Schädler, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The intensive discussion on the importance of biodiversity for the stability of essential processes in ecosystems has prompted a multitude of studies since the middle of the last century. Nevertheless, research has been extremely biased by focusing on the producer level, while studies on the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of ecosystem functions are lacking. Here, we investigate the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability (reliability) of three important aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions: primary productivity (shoot and root biomass), litter decomposition, and herbivore infestation. For this, we analyzed the results of three laboratory experiments manipulating decomposer diversity (1–3 species) in comparison to decomposer-free treatments in terms of variability of the measured variables. Decomposer diversity often significantly but inconsistently affected the stability of all aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions investigated in the present study. While primary productivity was mainly destabilized, litter decomposition and aphid infestation were essentially stabilized by increasing decomposer diversity. However, impacts of decomposer diversity varied between plant community and fertility treatments. There was no general effect of the presence of decomposers on stability and no trend toward weaker effects in fertilized communities and legume communities. This indicates that impacts of decomposers are based on more than effects on nutrient availability. Although inconsistent impacts complicate the estimation of consequences of belowground diversity loss, underpinning mechanisms of the observed patterns are discussed. Impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of essential ecosystem functions differed between plant communities of varying composition and fertility, implicating that human-induced changes of biodiversity and land-use management might have unpredictable effects on the processes mankind relies on

  15. Potato tuber herbivory increases resistance to aboveground lepidopteran herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Ortiz, Erandi Vargas; Garrido, Etzel; Poveda, Katja; Jander, Georg

    2016-09-01

    Plants mediate interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores. Although effects of root herbivory on foliar herbivores have been documented in several plant species, interactions between tuber-feeding herbivores and foliar herbivores are rarely investigated. We report that localized tuber damage by Tecia solanivora (Guatemalan tuber moth) larvae reduced aboveground Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) performance on Solanum tuberosum (potato). Conversely, S. exigua leaf damage had no noticeable effect on belowground T. solanivora performance. Tuber infestation by T. solanivora induced systemic plant defenses and elevated resistance to aboveground herbivores. Lipoxygenase 3 (Lox3), which contributes to the synthesis of plant defense signaling molecules, had higher transcript abundance in T. solanivora-infested leaves and tubers than in equivalent control samples. Foliar expression of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase I (HMGR1) genes, which are involved in chlorogenic acid and steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, respectively, also increased in response to tuber herbivory. Leaf metabolite profiling demonstrated the accumulation of unknown metabolites as well as the known potato defense compounds chlorogenic acid, α-solanine, and α-chaconine. When added to insect diet at concentrations similar to those found in potato leaves, chlorogenic acid, α-solanine, and α-chaconine all reduced S. exigua larval growth. Thus, despite the fact that tubers are a metabolic sink tissue, T. solanivora feeding elicits a systemic signal that induces aboveground resistance against S. exigua and S. frugiperda by increasing foliar abundance of defensive metabolites.

  16. Potato tuber herbivory increases resistance to aboveground lepidopteran herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Ortiz, Erandi Vargas; Garrido, Etzel; Poveda, Katja; Jander, Georg

    2016-09-01

    Plants mediate interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores. Although effects of root herbivory on foliar herbivores have been documented in several plant species, interactions between tuber-feeding herbivores and foliar herbivores are rarely investigated. We report that localized tuber damage by Tecia solanivora (Guatemalan tuber moth) larvae reduced aboveground Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) performance on Solanum tuberosum (potato). Conversely, S. exigua leaf damage had no noticeable effect on belowground T. solanivora performance. Tuber infestation by T. solanivora induced systemic plant defenses and elevated resistance to aboveground herbivores. Lipoxygenase 3 (Lox3), which contributes to the synthesis of plant defense signaling molecules, had higher transcript abundance in T. solanivora-infested leaves and tubers than in equivalent control samples. Foliar expression of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase I (HMGR1) genes, which are involved in chlorogenic acid and steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, respectively, also increased in response to tuber herbivory. Leaf metabolite profiling demonstrated the accumulation of unknown metabolites as well as the known potato defense compounds chlorogenic acid, α-solanine, and α-chaconine. When added to insect diet at concentrations similar to those found in potato leaves, chlorogenic acid, α-solanine, and α-chaconine all reduced S. exigua larval growth. Thus, despite the fact that tubers are a metabolic sink tissue, T. solanivora feeding elicits a systemic signal that induces aboveground resistance against S. exigua and S. frugiperda by increasing foliar abundance of defensive metabolites. PMID:27147449

  17. Biomass Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Ian Bonner; David J. Muth

    2015-04-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  18. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  19. Biomass and nitrogen accumulation of hairy vetch-cereal rye cover crop mixtures as influenced by species proportions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance and suitability of a legume-grass cover crop mixture for specific functions may be influenced by the proportions of each species in the mixture. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate aboveground biomass and species biomass proportions at different hairy vetch (Vicia villo...

  20. Transgenerational effects and the cost of ant tending in aphids.

    PubMed

    Tegelaar, Karolina; Glinwood, Robert; Pettersson, Jan; Leimar, Olof

    2013-11-01

    In mutualistic interactions, partners obtain a net benefit, but there may also be costs associated with the provision of benefits for a partner. The question of whether aphids suffer such costs when attended by ants has been raised in previous work. Transgenerational effects, where offspring phenotypes are adjusted based on maternal influences, could be important in the mutualistic interaction between aphids and ants, in particular because aphids have telescoping generations where two offspring generations can be present in a mature aphid. We investigated the immediate and transgenerational influence of ant tending on aphid life history and reproduction by observing the interaction between the facultative myrmecophile Aphis fabae and the ant Lasius niger over 13 aphid generations in the laboratory. We found that the effect of ant tending changes dynamically over successive aphid generations after the start of tending. Initially, total aphid colony weight, aphid adult weight and aphid embryo size decreased compared with untended aphids, consistent with a cost of ant association, but these differences disappeared within four generations of interaction. We conclude that transgenerational effects are important in the aphid-ant interactions and that the costs for aphids of being tended by ants can vary over generations.

  1. Tending to Business: On the Education Committee of the Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodget, Alden S.

    2011-01-01

    Most business people seem to understand the direct connection between product and revenue; they seem keenly aware of the staggering cost of inattention to product. Yet, when these same business people become trustees of independent schools, they tend to overlook this connection, which is surprising when one considers the frequency with which they…

  2. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Philip; Asner, Gregory; Dahlin, Kyla; Anderson, Christopher; Knapp, David; Martin, Roberta; Mascaro, Joseph; Chazdon, Robin; Cole, Rebecca; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Malavassi, Edgar; Vilchez-Alvarado, Braulio; Townsend, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD) varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH) and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH) reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors contribute to ACD

  3. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Philip; Asner, Gregory; Dahlin, Kyla; Anderson, Christopher; Knapp, David; Martin, Roberta; Mascaro, Joseph; Chazdon, Robin; Cole, Rebecca; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Malavassi, Edgar; Vilchez-Alvarado, Braulio; Townsend, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD) varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH) and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH) reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors contribute to ACD

  4. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Philip; Asner, Gregory; Dahlin, Kyla; Anderson, Christopher; Knapp, David; Martin, Roberta; Mascaro, Joseph; Chazdon, Robin; Cole, Rebecca; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Malavassi, Edgar; Vilchez-Alvarado, Braulio; Townsend, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD) varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH) and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH) reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors contribute to ACD

  5. Remote sensing of submerged vegetation canopies for biomass estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Roy A.

    1993-01-01

    The visible bands of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor were used in an empirical assessment of seagrass biomass on shallow banks near Lee Stocking Island in the Bahamas. The TM bands were transformed to minimize the depth-dependent variance in the bottom reflectance signal. Regression analyses were performed between the transformed bands and field measurements of seagrass standing crop (above-ground biomass). Regression equations using spectral data accounted for up to 80 per cent of the variability in seagrass biomass. The unexplained variance was ascribed to variations in bottom sediment color.

  6. Changes in the relationship between tree size and aboveground respiration in field-grown hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) trees over three years.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Taketo; Hagihara, Akio

    1998-01-01

    Respiration measurements of aerial parts of 18-year-old hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.) trees were made under field conditions over three years to study changing relationships with tree age between respiration and phytomass, phytomass increment, and leaf mass. The relationship between annual respiration (r(a)) and phytomass (w(T)) was approximated by a proportional function (r(a) = aw(T)), where the proportional constant (a) decreased year by year. The effect of time on the relationship between annual respiration and phytomass of each sample tree was fitted by a power function. Respiration of the tree suppressed by the canopy decreased year by year, but respiration of the other trees increased slightly with age. The relationship between annual respiration and leaf mass was also approximated by a generalized power function. Excluding the suppressed tree, the relationship between annual respiration (r(a)) and the annual increment of aboveground phytomass (Deltaw(T)) was described by a proportional function (r(a) = 2.27Deltaw(T)), where the proportional constant, 2.27, was independent of sample tree and year, indicating that about 2.3 times of the annual aboveground phytomass increment equivalent was respired annually. For any tree, the time constant relationships between annual respiration and leaf mass and phytomass increment for different-sized trees were similar to the corresponding time continuum relationships. In contrast, the time continuum relationship between annual respiration and phytomass differed from the time constant relationship, indicating that respiration of less active woody tissue contributed significantly to aboveground respiration. Based on the relationship between tree size and annual respiration, annual aboveground stand respiration was estimated to be 25.0, 26.9, and 25.8 Mg(dm) ha(-1) year(-1) for the three consecutive years, respectively, and the corresponding aboveground stand biomass was 60.0, 69.0, and 76.8 Mg

  7. Long-term aboveground and belowground consequences of red wood ant exclusion in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Wardle, David A; Hyodo, Fujio; Bardgett, Richard D; Yeates, Gregor W; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2011-03-01

    Despite their ubiquity, the role of ants in driving ecosystem processes both aboveground and belowground has been seldom explored, except within the nest. During 1995 we established 16 ant exclusion plots of approximately 1.1 x 1.1 m, together with paired control plots, in the understory layer of a boreal forest ecosystem in northern Sweden that supports high densities of the mound-forming ant Formica aquilonia, a red wood ant species of the Formica rufa group. Aboveground and belowground measurements were then made on destructively sampled subplots in 2001 and 2008, i.e., 6 and 13 years after set-up. While ant exclusion had no effect on total understory plant biomass, it did greatly increase the relative contribution of herbaceous species, most likely through preventing ants from removing their seeds. This in turn led to higher quality resources entering the belowground subsystem, which in turn stimulated soil microbial biomass and activity and the rates of loss of mass and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from litter in litterbags placed in the plots. This was accompanied by losses of approximately 15% of N and C stored in the humus on a per area basis. Ant exclusion also had some effects on foliar stable isotope ratios for both C and N, most probably as a consequence of greater soil fertility. Further, exclusion of ants had multitrophic effects on a microbe-nematode soil food web with three consumer trophic levels and after six years promoted the bacterial-based relative to the fungal-based energy channel in this food web. Our results point to a major role of red wood ants in determining forest floor vegetation and thereby exerting wide-ranging effects on belowground properties and processes. Given that the boreal forest occupies 11% of the Earth's terrestrial surface and stores more C than any other forest biome, our results suggest that this role of ants could potentially be of widespread significance for biogeochemical nutrient cycling, soil nutrient capital, and

  8. Ontogeny tends to recapitulate phylogeny in digital organisms.

    PubMed

    Clune, Jeff; Pennock, Robert T; Ofria, Charles; Lenski, Richard E

    2012-09-01

    Biologists have long debated whether ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny and, if so, why. Two plausible explanations are that (i) changes to early developmental stages are selected against because they tend to disrupt later development and (ii) simpler structures often precede more complex ones in both ontogeny and phylogeny if the former serve as building blocks for the latter. It is difficult to test these hypotheses experimentally in natural systems, so we used a computational system that exhibits evolutionary dynamics. We observed that ontogeny does indeed recapitulate phylogeny; traits that arose earlier in a lineage's history also tended to be expressed earlier in the development of individuals. The relative complexity of traits contributed substantially to this correlation, but a significant tendency toward recapitulation remained even after accounting for trait complexity. This additional effect provides evidence that selection against developmental disruption also contributed to the conservation of early stages in development. PMID:22854085

  9. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Louis; Houle, Daniel; Ouimet, Rock; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Logan, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m) of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km(2) of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha(-1), which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC) were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec's managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041-2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec's forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests. PMID:26966680

  10. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Louis; Houle, Daniel; Ouimet, Rock; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Logan, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m) of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km(2) of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha(-1), which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC) were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec's managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041-2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec's forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests.

  11. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Daniel; Ouimet, Rock; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Logan, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m) of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km2 of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha−1, which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC) were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec’s managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041–2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec’s forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests. PMID:26966680

  12. Belowground plant biomass allocation in tundra ecosystems and its relationship with temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Heijmans, Monique M. P. D.; Mommer, Liesje; van Ruijven, Jasper; Maximov, Trofim C.; Berendse, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Climate warming is known to increase the aboveground productivity of tundra ecosystems. Recently, belowground biomass is receiving more attention, but the effects of climate warming on belowground productivity remain unclear. Enhanced understanding of the belowground component of the tundra is important in the context of climate warming, since most carbon is sequestered belowground in these ecosystems. In this study we synthesized published tundra belowground biomass data from 36 field studies spanning a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient from -20 °C to 0 °C across the tundra biome, and determined the relationships between different plant biomass pools and MAT. Our results show that the plant community biomass-temperature relationships are significantly different between above and belowground. Aboveground biomass clearly increased with MAT, whereas total belowground biomass and fine root biomass did not show a significant increase over the broad MAT gradient. Our results suggest that biomass allocation of tundra vegetation shifts towards aboveground in warmer conditions, which could impact on the carbon cycling in tundra ecosystems through altered litter input and distribution in the soil, as well as possible changes in root turnover.

  13. Variability of aboveground litter inputs alters soil physicochemical and biological processes: a meta-analysis of litterfall-manipulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Liu, L.; Sayer, E. J.

    2013-03-01

    Global change has been shown to greatly alter the amount of aboveground litter inputs to soil, which could cause substantial cascading effects on belowground biogeochemical cyling. Although having been studied extensively, there is uncertainty about how changes in aboveground litter inputs affect soil carbon and nutrient turnover and transformation. Here, we conducted a comprehensive compilation of 68 studies on litter addition or removal experiments, and used meta-analysis to assess the responses of soil physicochemical properties and carbon and nutrient cycling under changed aboveground litter inputs. Our results suggested that litter addition or removal could significantly alter soil temperature and moisture, but not soil pH. Litter inputs were more crucial in buffering soil temperature and moisture fluctuations in grassland than in forest. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon and total carbon in the mineral soil increased with increasing litter inputs, suggesting that soil acted as a~net carbon sink although carbon loss and transformation increased with increasing litter inputs. Total nitrogen and the C : N ratio in the mineral soil increased with increased litter inputs. However, there was no correlation between litter inputs and extractable inorganic nitrogen in the mineral soil. Compared to other ecosystems, tropical and subtropical forests are more sensitive to variation in litter inputs. Increased or decreased litter inputs altered the turnover and accumulation of soil carbon and nutrient in tropical and subtropical forests more substantially over a shorter time period compared to other ecosystems. Overall, our study suggested that, although the magnitude of responses differed greatly among ecosystems, increased litter inputs generally accelerated the decomposition and accumulation of carbon and nutrients in soil, and decreased litter inputs reduced them.

  14. Human and environmental controls over aboveground carbon storage in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate, high-resolution mapping of aboveground carbon density (ACD, Mg C ha-1) could provide insight into human and environmental controls over ecosystem state and functioning, and could support conservation and climate policy development. However, mapping ACD has proven challenging, particularly in spatially complex regions harboring a mosaic of land use activities, or in remote montane areas that are difficult to access and poorly understood ecologically. Using a combination of field measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and satellite data, we present the first large-scale, high-resolution estimates of aboveground carbon stocks in Madagascar. Results We found that elevation and the fraction of photosynthetic vegetation (PV) cover, analyzed throughout forests of widely varying structure and condition, account for 27-67% of the spatial variation in ACD. This finding facilitated spatial extrapolation of LiDAR-based carbon estimates to a total of 2,372,680 ha using satellite data. Remote, humid sub-montane forests harbored the highest carbon densities, while ACD was suppressed in dry spiny forests and in montane humid ecosystems, as well as in most lowland areas with heightened human activity. Independent of human activity, aboveground carbon stocks were subject to strong physiographic controls expressed through variation in tropical forest canopy structure measured using airborne LiDAR. Conclusions High-resolution mapping of carbon stocks is possible in remote regions, with or without human activity, and thus carbon monitoring can be brought to highly endangered Malagasy forests as a climate-change mitigation and biological conservation strategy. PMID:22289685

  15. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Citizen Scientists Provide Critical Data to Refine Aboveground Carbon Estimates in Restored Riparian Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Integrating citizen scientists into ecological informatics research can be difficult due to limited opportunities for meaningful engagement given vast data streams. This is particularly true for analysis of remotely sensed data, which are increasingly being used to quantify ecosystem services over space and time, and to understand how land uses deliver differing values to humans and thus inform choices about future human actions. Carbon storage and sequestration are such ecosystem services, and recent environmental policy advances in California (i.e., AB 32) have resulted in a nascent carbon market that is helping fuel the restoration of riparian forests in agricultural landscapes. Methods to inventory and monitor aboveground carbon for market accounting are increasingly relying on hyperspatial remotely sensed data, particularly the use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technologies, to estimate biomass. Because airborne discrete return LiDAR can inexpensively capture vegetation structural differences at high spatial resolution (< 1 m) over large areas (> 1000 ha), its use is rapidly increasing, resulting in vast stores of point cloud and derived surface raster data. While established algorithms can quantify forest canopy structure efficiently, the highly complex nature of native riparian forests can result in highly uncertain estimates of biomass due to differences in composition (e.g., species richness, age class) and structure (e.g., stem density). This study presents the comparative results of standing carbon estimates refined with field data collected by citizen scientists at three different sites, each capturing a range of agricultural, remnant forest, and restored forest cover types. These citizen science data resolve uncertainty in composition and structure, and improve allometric scaling models of biomass and thus estimates of aboveground carbon. Results indicate that agricultural land and horticulturally restored riparian forests store similar

  16. Alien and endangered plants in the Brazilian Cerrado exhibit contrasting relationships with vegetation biomass and N : P stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Lannes, Luciola S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Edwards, Peter J; Venterink, Harry Olde

    2012-11-01

    Although endangered and alien invasive plants are commonly assumed to persist under different environmental conditions, surprisingly few studies have investigated whether this is the case. We examined how endangered and alien species are distributed in relation to community biomass and N : P ratio in the above-ground community biomass in savanna vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado. For 60 plots, we related the occurrence of endangered (Red List) and alien invasive species to plant species richness, vegetation biomass and N : P ratio, and soil variables. Endangered plants occurred mainly in plots with relatively low above-ground biomass and high N : P ratios, whereas alien invasive species occurred in plots with intermediate to high biomass and low N : P ratios. Occurrences of endangered or alien plants were unrelated to extractable N and P concentrations in the soil. These contrasting distributions in the Cerrado imply that alien species only pose a threat to endangered species if they are able to invade sites occupied by these species and increase the above-ground biomass and/or decrease the N : P ratio of the vegetation. We found some evidence that alien species do increase above-ground community biomass in the Cerrado, but their possible effect on N : P stoichiometry requires further study.

  17. Alien and endangered plants in the Brazilian Cerrado exhibit contrasting relationships with vegetation biomass and N : P stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Lannes, Luciola S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Edwards, Peter J; Venterink, Harry Olde

    2012-11-01

    Although endangered and alien invasive plants are commonly assumed to persist under different environmental conditions, surprisingly few studies have investigated whether this is the case. We examined how endangered and alien species are distributed in relation to community biomass and N : P ratio in the above-ground community biomass in savanna vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado. For 60 plots, we related the occurrence of endangered (Red List) and alien invasive species to plant species richness, vegetation biomass and N : P ratio, and soil variables. Endangered plants occurred mainly in plots with relatively low above-ground biomass and high N : P ratios, whereas alien invasive species occurred in plots with intermediate to high biomass and low N : P ratios. Occurrences of endangered or alien plants were unrelated to extractable N and P concentrations in the soil. These contrasting distributions in the Cerrado imply that alien species only pose a threat to endangered species if they are able to invade sites occupied by these species and increase the above-ground biomass and/or decrease the N : P ratio of the vegetation. We found some evidence that alien species do increase above-ground community biomass in the Cerrado, but their possible effect on N : P stoichiometry requires further study. PMID:22998613

  18. Food Traceability System Tending to Maturation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyun; Zhu, Jianhua; Shang, Minghua; Zhao, Yimin; Liu, Shuyun

    The study on food safety traceability system in China started from 2002. During the study and implementation, some related standards and guides have been gradually made, many traceable foods and traceable enterprises were created and a series of traceability subsystems were developed. This paper introduces the importance of food safety traceability system construction, the present construction situation in China and the food safety traceability platform by bar code, deeply analyzes the existing problems and puts forward some advices. It shows that a sound food traceability system has been built in China and tends to maturate. It provides the reference for food safety traceability system construction in developing countries.

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-06-30

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 134 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as “Aboveground Storage Tanks” and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 15, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site: · CAS 03-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank · CAS 03-01-04, Tank · CAS 15-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank · CAS 29-01-01, Hydrocarbon Stain

  20. Responses of Soil Bacterial Communities to Nitrogen Deposition and Precipitation Increment Are Closely Linked with Aboveground Community Variation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Xu, Zhuwen; Yang, Shan; Li, Xiaobin; Top, Eva M; Wang, Ruzhen; Zhang, Yuge; Cai, Jiangping; Yao, Fei; Han, Xingguo; Jiang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    It has been predicted that precipitation and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition will increase in northern China; yet, ecosystem responses to the interactive effects of water and N remain largely unknown. In particular, responses of belowground microbial community to projected global change and their potential linkages to aboveground macro-organisms are rarely studied. In this study, we examined the responses of soil bacterial diversity and community composition to increased precipitation and multi-level N deposition in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, and explored the diversity linkages between aboveground and belowground communities. It was observed that N addition caused the significant decrease in bacterial alpha-diversity and dramatic changes in community composition. In addition, we documented strong correlations of alpha- and beta-diversity between plant and bacterial communities in response to N addition. It was found that N enriched the so-called copiotrophic bacteria, but reduced the oligotrophic groups, primarily by increasing the soil inorganic N content and carbon availability and decreasing soil pH. We still highlighted that increased precipitation tended to alleviate the effects of N on bacterial diversity and dampen the plant-microbe connections induced by N. The counteractive effects of N addition and increased precipitation imply that even though the ecosystem diversity and function are predicted to be negatively affected by N deposition in the coming decades; the combination with increased precipitation may partially offset this detrimental effect.

  1. Biomass allocation patterns across China's terrestrial biomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limei; Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; Tian, Xin; Wang, Xiaoke; Luo, Geping

    2014-01-01

    Root to shoot ratio (RS) is commonly used to describe the biomass allocation between below- and aboveground parts of plants. Determining the key factors influencing RS and interpreting the relationship between RS and environmental factors is important for biological and ecological research. In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China's terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including vegetation type, soil texture, climatic variables, and stand age. The median value of RS (RSm) for grasslands, shrublands, and forests was 6.0, 0.73, and 0.23, respectively. The range of RS was considerably wide for each vegetation type. RS values for all three major vegetation types were found to be significantly correlated to mean annual precipitation (MAP) and potential water deficit index (PWDI). Mean annual temperature (MAT) also significantly affect the RS for forests and grasslands. Soil texture and forest origin altered the response of RS to climatic factors as well. An allometric formula could be used to well quantify the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass, although each vegetation type had its own inherent allometric relationship.

  2. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. PMID:25676198

  3. Aboveground carbon loss in natural and managed tropical forests from 2000 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyukavina, A.; Baccini, A.; Hansen, M. C.; Potapov, P. V.; Stehman, S. V.; Houghton, R. A.; Krylov, A. M.; Turubanova, S.; Goetz, S. J.

    2015-07-01

    Tropical forests provide global climate regulation ecosystem services and their clearing is a significant source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and resultant radiative forcing of climate change. However, consensus on pan-tropical forest carbon dynamics is lacking. We present a new estimate that employs recommended good practices to quantify gross tropical forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss from 2000 to 2012 through the integration of Landsat-derived tree canopy cover, height, intactness and forest cover loss and GLAS-lidar derived forest biomass. An unbiased estimate of forest loss area is produced using a stratified random sample with strata derived from a wall-to-wall 30 m forest cover loss map. Our sample-based results separate the gross loss of forest AGC into losses from natural forests (0.59 PgC yr-1) and losses from managed forests (0.43 PgC yr-1) including plantations, agroforestry systems and subsistence agriculture. Latin America accounts for 43% of gross AGC loss and 54% of natural forest AGC loss, with Brazil experiencing the highest AGC loss for both categories at national scales. We estimate gross tropical forest AGC loss and natural forest loss to account for 11% and 6% of global year 2012 CO2 emissions, respectively. Given recent trends, natural forests will likely constitute an increasingly smaller proportion of tropical forest GHG emissions and of global emissions as fossil fuel consumption increases, with implications for the valuation of co-benefits in tropical forest conservation.

  4. Belowground plant biomass allocation in tundra ecosystems and its relationship with temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Heijmans, Monique M. P. D.; Mommer, Liesje; van Ruijven, Jasper; Maximov, Trofim C.; Berendse, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Climate warming is known to increase the aboveground productivity of tundra ecosystems. Recently, belowground biomass is receiving more attention, but the effects of climate warming on belowground productivity remain unclear. Enhanced understanding of the belowground component of the tundra is important in the context of climate warming, since most carbon is sequestered belowground in these ecosystems. In this study we synthesized published tundra belowground biomass data from 36 field studies spanning a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient from ‑20 °C to 0 °C across the tundra biome, and determined the relationships between different plant biomass pools and MAT. Our results show that the plant community biomass–temperature relationships are significantly different between above and belowground. Aboveground biomass clearly increased with MAT, whereas total belowground biomass and fine root biomass did not show a significant increase over the broad MAT gradient. Our results suggest that biomass allocation of tundra vegetation shifts towards aboveground in warmer conditions, which could impact on the carbon cycling in tundra ecosystems through altered litter input and distribution in the soil, as well as possible changes in root turnover.

  5. Biomass Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Stephen R.; Sheehan, John; Dayton, David C.; Bozell, Joseph J.; Adney, William S.; Hames, Bonnie; Thomas, Steven R.; Bain, Richard L.; Czernik, Stefan; Zhang, Min; Himmel, Michael E.

    In its simplest terms, biomass is all the plant matter found on our planet. Biomass is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. Plant photosynthesis uses energy from the sun to combine carbon dioxide from the atmosphere with water to produce organic plant matter. More inclusive definitions are possible. For example, animal products and waste can be included in the definition of biomass. Animals, like plants, are renewable; but animals clearly are one step removed from the direct use of sunlight. Using animal rather than plant material thus leads to substantially less efficient use of our planet's ultimate renewable resource, the sun. So, we emphasize plant matter in our definition of biomass. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utlize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a "carbon neutral" fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere.

  6. Biomass [updated

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  7. From grass to forest biomass: uncertainty estimates with lidar remote sensing (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, S. C.; Zhao, K.; Feagin, R. A.; Gatziolis, D.; Sheridan, R.; Srinivasan, S.; Ku, N.; Kulawardhana, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Lidar remote sensing from three platforms - ground, airborne, and spaceborne - has the capability to acquire direct three-dimensional measurements of the vegetation canopy that are useful for estimating biophysical characteristics, including biomass. Each platform provides data over different spatial scales and enables biomass and carbon estimates with different levels of uncertainty. The overall goal of this presentation is to discuss error sources involved in biomass estimation with lidar remote sensing, with terrestrial, airborne, and satellite sensors, with examples of studies of coastal vegetation grasses, brush, and forests. Specific objectives will focus on the accuracy of estimating vegetation dimensions, such as height and crown widths, allometrics used to derive biomass, regression models for biomass estimation, and comparison between methods and sensors. In our studies, ICESat height variables were able to explain 80% of the variance associated with the reference forest biomass derived from airborne lidar, with an RMSE of 37.7 Mg/ha. For salt marshes, the combination of airborne lidar and multispectral variables explained 47% of the biomass variance, whereas the best models using lidar and multi-spectral data separately explained 37% and 28% of variances in live biomass measurements respectively. Terrestrial lidar was able to explain up to 81% of the variance associated with the aboveground biomass of rangeland woody plants in a semi-arid environment in Texas. With airborne lidar and a scale-invariant approach, previous work suggests that regression models can accurately predict biomass and yield consistent predictive performances across a variety of scales ranging from 80% to 95% biomass variance explained, with RMSE values from 14. 3 Mg/ha to 33.7 Mg/ha among regression models. The results of these studies demonstrate the ability of using lidar remote sensing on multiple platforms for assessing aboveground biomass and the uncertainty of estimates and

  8. Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

  9. Tend to Compare and Tend to Be Fair: The Relationship between Social Comparison Sensitivity and Justice Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social comparison is a prerequisite for processing fairness, although the two types of cognition may be associated with different emotions. Whereas social comparison may induce envy, the perception of unfairness may elicit anger. Yet, it remains unclear whether people who tend to have a strong sense of fairness also tend to compare themselves more with others. Here, Study 1 used a modified ultimatum game (UG) and a social comparison game (SCG) to examine the relationship between justice sensitivity and social comparison sensitivity in 51 young adults. Study 2 examined self-reported social comparison and justice sensitivity in 142 young adults. Both studies showed a positive correlation between social comparison sensitivity and justice sensitivity. We reason that social comparison and justice sensitivity have an important positive correlation in human decision-making. The rejection of self-disadvantageous inequality offers may be due to the social comparison effect, which suggests that the tendency to compare oneself with others may contribute to having a strong sense of justice. Our findings suggest that the predictions of game theory may vary depending on the social culture context and incorporating notions of fairness and social comparison tendency may be essential to better predict the actual behavior of players in social interactive situations. PMID:27214372

  10. Tend to Compare and Tend to Be Fair: The Relationship between Social Comparison Sensitivity and Justice Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social comparison is a prerequisite for processing fairness, although the two types of cognition may be associated with different emotions. Whereas social comparison may induce envy, the perception of unfairness may elicit anger. Yet, it remains unclear whether people who tend to have a strong sense of fairness also tend to compare themselves more with others. Here, Study 1 used a modified ultimatum game (UG) and a social comparison game (SCG) to examine the relationship between justice sensitivity and social comparison sensitivity in 51 young adults. Study 2 examined self-reported social comparison and justice sensitivity in 142 young adults. Both studies showed a positive correlation between social comparison sensitivity and justice sensitivity. We reason that social comparison and justice sensitivity have an important positive correlation in human decision-making. The rejection of self-disadvantageous inequality offers may be due to the social comparison effect, which suggests that the tendency to compare oneself with others may contribute to having a strong sense of justice. Our findings suggest that the predictions of game theory may vary depending on the social culture context and incorporating notions of fairness and social comparison tendency may be essential to better predict the actual behavior of players in social interactive situations. PMID:27214372

  11. Tend to Compare and Tend to Be Fair: The Relationship between Social Comparison Sensitivity and Justice Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social comparison is a prerequisite for processing fairness, although the two types of cognition may be associated with different emotions. Whereas social comparison may induce envy, the perception of unfairness may elicit anger. Yet, it remains unclear whether people who tend to have a strong sense of fairness also tend to compare themselves more with others. Here, Study 1 used a modified ultimatum game (UG) and a social comparison game (SCG) to examine the relationship between justice sensitivity and social comparison sensitivity in 51 young adults. Study 2 examined self-reported social comparison and justice sensitivity in 142 young adults. Both studies showed a positive correlation between social comparison sensitivity and justice sensitivity. We reason that social comparison and justice sensitivity have an important positive correlation in human decision-making. The rejection of self-disadvantageous inequality offers may be due to the social comparison effect, which suggests that the tendency to compare oneself with others may contribute to having a strong sense of justice. Our findings suggest that the predictions of game theory may vary depending on the social culture context and incorporating notions of fairness and social comparison tendency may be essential to better predict the actual behavior of players in social interactive situations.

  12. Aboveground and belowground responses to nutrient additions and herbivore exclusion in Arctic tundra ecosystems in northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; Gough, L.; Simpson, R.; Johnson, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic has experienced significant increased regional warming over the past 30 years. Warming generally increases tundra soil nutrient availability by creating a more favorable environment for plant growth, decomposition and nutrient mineralization. Aboveground there has been a "greening" of the Arctic with increased net primary productivity (NPP), and an increase in woody vegetation. Concurrent with the changes aboveground has been an increase in root growth at lower depths and a loss of soil organic C (40 -100 g C m-2 yr-1). Given that arctic soils contain 14% of the global soil C pool, understanding the mechanisms behind shifts of this magnitude that are changing arctic soils from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric C is critical. We took an integrated multi-trophic level approach to examine how altering soil nutrients and mammalian herbivore activity affects vegetation, soil fauna, and microbial communities as well as soil physical characteristics in moist acidic (MAT) and dry heath (DH) tundra. Our work was conducted at the Arctic LTER site in northern Alaska. We sampled the nutrient (controls and annual N+P additions) and herbivore (controls and exclosures) manipulations established in 1996 after 10 years of treatment. Models that incorporated the biomass estimates from the field were used to characterize the trophic structure of the belowground food web and to estimate carbon flux among soil organisms and C-mineralization rates. Both MAT and DH exhibited significant increases in NPP and root growth and changes in vegetation structure with transitions from a mixed community to deciduous shrubs in MAT and from lichens to grasses and shrubs in DH, with nutrient additions and herbivore exclosures. Belowground responses to the treatments were dependent on ecosystem type, but exposed alterations in trophic structure that included changes in microbial biomass, the establishment of microbivorous enchytreaids, increases in root-feeding nematodes, and

  13. Influence of Prescribed Fire on Ecosystem Biomass, Carbon, and Nitrogen in a Pinyon Juniper Woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinyon and juniper woodland encroachment associated with climate change and land use history in the Great Basin is thought to provide offsets for carbon emissions. However, the largest pools of carbon in arid landscapes are typically found in soils, and aboveground biomass cannot be considered long ...

  14. The Spatial Distribution of Forest Biomass in the Brazilian Amazon: A Comparison of Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.; Lawrence, J. L.; Hackler, J. L.; Brown, S.

    2001-01-01

    The amount of carbon released to the atmosphere as a result of deforestation is determined, in part, by the amount of carbon held in the biomass of the forests converted to other uses. Uncertainty in forest biomass is responsible for much of the uncertainty in current estimates of the flux of carbon from land-use change. We compared several estimates of forest biomass for the Brazilian Amazon, based on spatial interpolations of direct measurements, relationships to climatic variables, and remote sensing data. We asked three questions. First, do the methods yield similar estimates? Second, do they yield similar spatial patterns of distribution of biomass? And, third, what factors need most attention if we are to predict more accurately the distribution of forest biomass over large areas? Amazonian forests (including dead and below-ground biomass) vary by more than a factor of two, from a low of 39 PgC to a high of 93 PgC. Furthermore, the estimates disagree as to the regions of high and low biomass. The lack of agreement among estimates confirms the need for reliable determination of aboveground biomass over large areas. Potential methods include direct measurement of biomass through forest inventories with improved allometric regression equations, dynamic modeling of forest recovery following observed stand-replacing disturbances (the approach used in this research), and estimation of aboveground biomass from airborne or satellite-based instruments sensitive to the vertical structure plant canopies.

  15. Rainforest burning and the global carbon budget: Biomass, combustion efficiency, and charcoal formation in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M.; Leal, N. Jr.; Fernandes, F.M.

    1993-09-20

    Biomass present before and after burning was measured in forest cleared for pasture in a cattle ranch (Fazenda Dimona) near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Aboveground dry weight biomass loading averaged 265 t ha{sup {minus}1} (standard deviation (SD) = 110, n = 6 quadrats) at Fazenda Dimonas. Postburn aboveground biomass loading was evaluated by cutting and weighing of 100 m{sup 2} quadrats and by line intersect sampling. Quadrats had a mean dry weight of 187 t ha{sup {minus}1} (SD = 69, n = 10), a 29.3% reduction from the preburn mean in the same clearing. Line intersect estimates in 1.65 km of transects indicated that 265 m{sup 3} ha{sup {minus}1} (approximately 164 t ha{sup {minus}1} of aboveground dry matter) survived burning. Using carbon contents measured for different biomass components (all {approximately} 50% carbon) and assuming a carbon content of 74.8% for charcoal (from other studies near Manaus), the destructive measurements imply a 27.6% reduction of aboveground carbon pools. Charcoal composed 2.5% of the dry weight of the remains in the postburn destructive quadrats and 2.8% of the volume in the line intersect transects. Thus approximately 2.7% of the preburn aboveground carbon stock was converted to charcoal, substantially less than is generally assumed in global carbon models. The findings confirm high values for biomass in central Amazonia. High variability indicates the need for further studies in many localities and for making maximum use of less laborious indirect methods of biomass estimation. While indirect methods are essential for regional estimates of average biomass, only direct weighing such as that reported here can yield information on combustion efficiency and charcoal formation. Both high biomass and low percentage of charcoal formation suggest the significant potential contribution of forest burning to global climate changes from CO{sub 2} and trace gases. 66 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Forest biomass variation in Southernmost Brazil: the impact of Araucaria trees.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Milena Fermina; Souza, Alexandre F

    2014-03-01

    A variety of environmental and biotic factors determine vegetation growth and affect plant biomass accumulation. From temperature to species composition, aboveground biomass storage in forest ecosystems is influenced by a number of variables and usually presents a high spatial variability. With this focus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the variables affecting live aboveground forest biomass (AGB) in Subtropical Moist Forests of Southern Brazil, and to analyze the spatial distribution of biomass estimates. Data from a forest inventory performed in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, was used in the present study. Thirty-eight 1-ha plots were sampled and all trees with DBH > or = 9.5cm were included for biomass estimation. Values for aboveground biomass were obtained using published allometric equations. Environmental and biotic variables (elevation, rainfall, temperature, soils, stem density and species diversity) were obtained from the literature or calculated from the dataset. For the total dataset, mean AGB was 195.2 Mg/ha. Estimates differed between Broadleaf and Mixed Coniferous-Broadleaf forests: mean AGB was lower in Broadleaf Forests (AGB(BF)=118.9 Mg/ha) when compared to Mixed Forests (AGB(MF)=250.3 Mg/ha). There was a high spatial and local variability in our dataset, even within forest types. This condition is normal in tropical forests and is usually attributed to the presence of large trees. The explanatory multiple regressions were influenced mainly by elevation and explained 50.7% of the variation in AGB. Stem density, diversity and organic matter also influenced biomass variation. The results from our study showed a positive relationship between aboveground biomass and elevation. Therefore, higher values of AGB are located at higher elevations and subjected to cooler temperatures and wetter climate. There seems to be an important contribution of the coniferous species Araucaria angustifolia in Mixed Forest plots, as it presented

  17. Forest biomass variation in Southernmost Brazil: the impact of Araucaria trees.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Milena Fermina; Souza, Alexandre F

    2014-03-01

    A variety of environmental and biotic factors determine vegetation growth and affect plant biomass accumulation. From temperature to species composition, aboveground biomass storage in forest ecosystems is influenced by a number of variables and usually presents a high spatial variability. With this focus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the variables affecting live aboveground forest biomass (AGB) in Subtropical Moist Forests of Southern Brazil, and to analyze the spatial distribution of biomass estimates. Data from a forest inventory performed in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, was used in the present study. Thirty-eight 1-ha plots were sampled and all trees with DBH > or = 9.5cm were included for biomass estimation. Values for aboveground biomass were obtained using published allometric equations. Environmental and biotic variables (elevation, rainfall, temperature, soils, stem density and species diversity) were obtained from the literature or calculated from the dataset. For the total dataset, mean AGB was 195.2 Mg/ha. Estimates differed between Broadleaf and Mixed Coniferous-Broadleaf forests: mean AGB was lower in Broadleaf Forests (AGB(BF)=118.9 Mg/ha) when compared to Mixed Forests (AGB(MF)=250.3 Mg/ha). There was a high spatial and local variability in our dataset, even within forest types. This condition is normal in tropical forests and is usually attributed to the presence of large trees. The explanatory multiple regressions were influenced mainly by elevation and explained 50.7% of the variation in AGB. Stem density, diversity and organic matter also influenced biomass variation. The results from our study showed a positive relationship between aboveground biomass and elevation. Therefore, higher values of AGB are located at higher elevations and subjected to cooler temperatures and wetter climate. There seems to be an important contribution of the coniferous species Araucaria angustifolia in Mixed Forest plots, as it presented

  18. Climatic controls on aboveground net primary production of tropical lowland rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofhansl, F.; Drage, S.; Poelz, E.; Richter, A.; Wanek, W.

    2012-12-01

    Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of tropical forests is driven by soil fertility and climate, the latter receiving special attention as recent projections of global circulation models predict Mesoamerican tropics to become drier and warmer. Given the scarcity of manipulative experiments, interannual climate variations caused by El Nino Southern Oscillation have been used to assess the potential responses of tropical ANPP to projected climate change. The focus of this study was (1) to investigate how seasonal and interannual climate variations affect ANPP and the partitioning between litterfall and stem increment on three forest sites differing in soil fertility and disturbance regime in SW Costa Rica, and (2) to identify major drivers of tropical forest ANPP by integrating our results into a dataset provided by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). While forest productivity was reported to decline in areas with high precipitation and temperature, we measured among the highest stem increments and litterfall rates published to date at a site with >6000 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP) and a mean annual temperature (MAT) of 28 °C. Based on the full dataset MAP was inversely correlated with litterfall, while MAT and soil fertility promoted stem increment. Therefore the percentage of litterfall and stem increment to ANPP shifted from 80:20 in low productive tropical forests to 40:60 at forest sites with high biomass production. Our results suggest that there is a shift in the allocation of biomass towards greater nutrient conservation (i.e. production of wood biomass) in more productive tropical forests while litterfall is sustaining nutrient recycling processes in less productive forests and that this relationship is driven by climate. We finally demonstrate that both ANPP components are sensitive to seasonal and interannual climate variation at the three forest sites studied, but that the controls differ for litterfall and stem

  19. Sibling competition in a brood-tending leech

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Martin; Govedich, Fredric R; Bateson, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Conflict among siblings over parental investment, particularly over parental feeding, is a feature of family life in many kinds of animals. In some bird species, the size of prey items provided to juveniles has been implicated as a cause of aggressive competition among sibling chicks, because prey size determines whether dominance allows monopolization of parental offerings. Our experiment was meant to test the generality of this factor in creating intrafamilial conflict. We investigated sibling competition in relation to prey size using the carnivorous, brood-tending leech Helobdella papillornata. We equalized the total amount of food available to H. papillornata broods, but varied the size of individual prey items. Competition, measured by disparity in body size at independence, was more intense in broods provisioned with small items than in broods receiving large items, but similar between broods receiving large items and broods fed ad libitum. These patterns suggest that the intensity of conflict did not depend only on the total food amount, but was enhanced by small prey size. Our results indicate that conflict over the provision of parental resources to offspring can have a similar basis across very dissimilar organisms. PMID:16959636

  20. Model Effects on GLAS-Based Regional Estimates of Forest Biomass and Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross

    2008-01-01

    ICESat/GLAS waveform data are used to estimate biomass and carbon on a 1.27 million sq km study area. the Province of Quebec, Canada, below treeline. The same input data sets and sampling design are used in conjunction with four different predictive models to estimate total aboveground dry forest biomass and forest carbon. The four models include nonstratified and stratified versions of a multiple linear model where either biomass or (square root of) biomass serves as the dependent variable. The use of different models in Quebec introduces differences in Provincial biomass estimates of up to 0.35 Gt (range 4.942+/-0.28 Gt to 5.29+/-0.36 Gt). The results suggest that if different predictive models are used to estimate regional carbon stocks in different epochs, e.g., y2005, y2015, one might mistakenly infer an apparent aboveground carbon "change" of, in this case, 0.18 Gt, or approximately 7% of the aboveground carbon in Quebec, due solely to the use of different predictive models. These findings argue for model consistency in future, LiDAR-based carbon monitoring programs. Regional biomass estimates from the four GLAS models are compared to ground estimates derived from an extensive network of 16,814 ground plots located in southern Quebec. Stratified models proved to be more accurate and precise than either of the two nonstratified models tested.

  1. Biomass of Secondary Evergreen and Deciduous Broadleaved Mixed Forest in Plateau-type Karst Terrain of Guizhou Province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.

    2014-12-01

    Using allometric functions, harvest and soil column methods, we investigated the biomass of a secondary evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in Tianlongshan permanent monitoring plot (a horizontally-projected area of 2 hectares) of Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Results showed that the total biomass of the forest is 165.4 Mg·hm-2. The aboveground biomass and root biomass are 137.7 Mg·hm-2 and 27.7 Mg·hm-2, respectively. Among the aboveground biomass, the tree layer accounts for 97.76%, which is obviously greater than the shrub layer and herb layer. Larger trees (the diameter at breast height, DBH is between 5 cm and 20 cm) occupies 76.85% of the aboveground biomass, especially the five dominant species(Lithocarpus confinis, Platycarya longipes, Itea yunnanensis, Machilus cavaleriei and Carpinus pubescens). Shrubs and lianas (DBH = 1 cm) account for more than 30% of total shrub and liana biomass, although their individuals are less than 2% of total shrub individuals and 1% of total liana individuals, respectively. The root biomass differs in root diameters, i.e. coarse root > medium root > fine root. Root biomass decreases with the increase of soil depth. Within soil depth of 20 cm, the root biomass is 20.1 Mg·hm-2, which is more than 70% of total root biomass. Within soil depth of 50 cm, the root biomass is 26.7 Mg·hm-2, which is 96.39% of total root biomass. Compared with non-karst forests in the same climate zone, karst forest has lower biomass and carbon stock, but it further has greater potential of carbon sink.

  2. Biomass carbon accumulation by Japan's forests from 1947 to 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jingyun; Oikawa, Takehisa; Kato, Tomomichi; Mo, Wenhong; Wang, Zhiheng

    2005-06-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere function as carbon (C) sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide; however, the magnitude, location, and cause of the sinks remain uncertain. A number of field measurements of forest biomass and systematic national forest inventories in Japan make it possible to quantify the C sinks and their distribution. Allometric relationships between forest biomass and stem volume were obtained for the major forest types in Japan from 945 sets of direct field measurements across the country. These relationships were used to estimate the changes in C accumulations of aboveground biomass and total living biomass from 1947 to 1995 from the national forest inventories of 1947, 1956, 1961, 1965, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. The results showed that the C accumulations have significantly increased during the last 50 years. The C density (C stock per hectare) and total C stock of aboveground biomass increased from 27.6 Mg C/ha and 611.7 Tg C in 1947 to 43.2 Mg C/ha and 1027.7 Tg C in 1995, respectively, and those of total living biomass increased from 33.9 Mg C/ha and 751.8 Tg C in 1947 to 53.6 Mg C/ha and 1274.8 Tg C in 1995. These increases were remarkable during 1976-1995, with a net increase of 5.6 Mg C/ha and 369 Tg C for the C density and total living biomass. These results suggest that Japan's forest vegetation is a significant C sink. In the past 20 years, living vegetation has sequestered 18.5 Tg C annually, 14.6 Tg C of which was accumulated in aboveground biomass. The total C sink for the whole forest sector (including nonliving biomass) of Japan was estimated as 36 Tg C/yr if using the net change ratio of nonliving biomass C to living biomass C derived from the United States and Europe. On the basis of average C sink per hectare, Japan's forests have a higher sequestration rate (0.77 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) than the average of the other northern countries (0.14-0.19 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The expansion and regrowth of planted forests are two

  3. Biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers a broad, interdisciplinary approach to assessing the factors that are key determinants to the use of biomass energies, stressing their limitations, complexities, uncertainties, links, and consequences. Considers photosynthesis, energy costs of nutrients, problems with monoculture, and the energy analysis of intensive tree plantations. Subjects are examined in terms of environmental and economic impact. Emphasizes the use and abuse of biomass energies in China, India, and Brazil. Topics include forests, trees for energy, crop residues, fuel crops, aquatic plants, and animal and human wastes. Recommended for environmental engineers and planners, and those involved in ecology, systematics, and forestry.

  4. Intra-annual changes in biomass, carbon, and nitrogen dynamics at 4-year old switchgrass field trials in West Tennessee, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, Jr, C. T.; Smith, Jeffery L.; Tyler, Donald D.; Amonette, James E.; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Brice, D. J.; Castro, H. F.; Graham, Robin L.; Gunderson, C. A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Jardine, Philip M.; Jastrow, J. D.; Kerley, M. K.; Matamala, R.; Mayes, M. A.; Metting, F. B.; Miller, R. M.; Moran, K. K.; Post, W. M.; Sands, Ronald D.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Phillips, J. R.; Thomson, Allison M.; Vugteveen, T.; West, T. O.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2010-02-15

    Switchgrass is a potential bioenergy crop that could promote soil C sequestration in some environments. We compared four cultivars on a well-drained Alfisol to test for differences in biomass, C, and N dynamics during the fourth growing season. There was no difference (P > 0.05) among cultivars and no significant cultivar x time interaction in analyses of dry mass, C stocks, or N stocks in aboveground biomass and surface litter. At the end of the growing season, mean (±SE) aboveground biomass was 2.1±0.13 kg m-2, and surface litter dry mass was approximately 50% of aboveground biomass. Prior to harvest, the live root:shoot biomass ratio was 0.76. There was no difference (P > 0.05) among cultivars for total biomass, C, and N stocks belowground. Total belowground biomass (90-cm soil depth) as well as coarse (greater than or equal to 1 mm diameter) and fine (< 1 mm diameter) live root biomass increased from April to October. Dead roots were less than 7% of live root biomass to a depth of 90 cm. Net production of total belowground biomass (505 ±132 g m-2) occurred in the last half of the growing season. The increase in total live belowground biomass (426 ±139 g m-2) was more or less evenly divided among rhizomes, coarse, and fine roots. The N budget for annual switchgrass production was closely balanced with 6.3 g N m-2 removed by harvest of aboveground biomass and 6.7 g N m-2 supplied by fertilization. At the location of our study in west Tennessee, intra-annual changes in biomass, C, and N stocks belowground were of greater importance to crop management for C sequestration than were differences among cultivars.

  5. Above- and Belowground Biomass Allocation in Shrub Biomes across the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuanhe; Yang, Lucun; Zhou, Guoying

    2016-01-01

    Biomass partitioning has been explored across various biomes. However, the strategies of allocation in plants still remain contentious. This study investigated allocation patterns of above- and belowground biomass at the community level, using biomass survey from the Tibetan Plateau. We explored above- and belowground biomass by conducting three consecutive sampling campaigns across shrub biomes on the northeast Tibetan Plateau during 2011–2013. We then documented the above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB) and root: shoot ratio (R/S) and the relationships between R/S and environment factors using data from 201 plots surveyed from 67 sites. We further examined relationships between above-ground and below-ground biomass across various shrub types. Our results indicated that the median values of AGB, BGB, and R/S in Tibetan shrub were 1102.55, 874.91 g m-2, and 0.85, respectively. R/S showed significant trend with mean annual precipitation (MAP), while decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT). Reduced major axis analysis indicated that the slope of the log-log relationship between above- and belowground biomass revealed a significant difference from 1.0 over space, supporting the optimal hypothesis. Interestingly, the slopes of the allometric relationship between log AGB and log BGB differed significantly between alpine and desert shrub. Our findings supported the optimal theory of above- and belowground biomass partitioning in Tibetan shrub, while the isometric hypothesis for alpine shrub at the community level. PMID:27119379

  6. The effects of acid rain and ozone on biomass and leaf area parameters of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.).

    PubMed

    Shelburne, V B; Reardon, J C; Paynter, V A

    1993-03-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seedlings in 24 open-top chambers were exposed to combinations of ozone (carbon-filtered (control), ambient, 1.7 x ambient, and 2.5 x ambient) and acidic precipitation (pH 5.3, 4.3 and 3.3) for 16 months (1989 harvest) or 28 months (1990 harvest). Although the effects of acid rain were generally not significant, there was a trend toward increased aboveground biomass and leaf area in seedlings subjected to the low pH treatments. Because N concentrations in the soils generally increased with decreasing pH, we concluded that the effects of acid rain on aboveground biomass and leaf area were a consequence of an increasing concentration of soil N. In the 1989 harvest, seedlings in the 2.5 x ambient ozone treatment had significantly less biomass in all aboveground plant components and significantly less total leaf area than seedlings in the 1.7 x ambient ozone treatment. In the 1990 harvest, there were no significant effects of ozone on total aboveground biomass, although there was a trend toward reduced biomass in seedlings in the 2.5 x ambient ozone treatment. Both total leaf area and leaf biomass were significantly less in seedlings exposed to 2.5 x ambient ozone for 28 months than in both control seedlings and seedlings in the 1.7 x ambient ozone treatment. The greater, but not always significant, aboveground biomass and leaf area of seedlings in the 1.7 x ambient ozone treatment compared with control seedlings may be associated with the observed increase in soil nitrate concentration as a result of increased rates of leaf senescence and litterfall.

  7. Sequential effects of root and foliar herbivory on aboveground and belowground induced plant defense responses and insect performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minggang; Biere, Arjen; Van der Putten, Wim H; Bezemer, T Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Plants are often simultaneously or sequentially attacked by multiple herbivores and changes in host plants induced by one herbivore can influence the performance of other herbivores. We examined how sequential feeding on the plant Plantago lanceolata by the aboveground herbivore Spodoptera exigua and the belowground herbivore Agriotes lineatus influences plant defense and the performance of both insects. Belowground herbivory caused a reduction in the food consumption by the aboveground herbivore independent of whether it was initiated before, at the same time, or after that of the aboveground herbivore. By contrast, aboveground herbivory did not significantly affect belowground herbivore performance, but significantly reduced the performance of later arriving aboveground conspecifics. Interestingly, belowground herbivores negated negative effects of aboveground herbivores on consumption efficiency of their later arriving conspecifics, but only if the belowground herbivores were introduced simultaneously with the early arriving aboveground herbivores. Aboveground-belowground interactions could only partly be explained by induced changes in an important class of defense compounds, iridoid glycosides (IGs). Belowground herbivory caused a reduction in IGs in roots without affecting shoot levels, while aboveground herbivory increased IG levels in roots in the short term (4 days) but only in the shoots in the longer term (17 days). We conclude that the sequence of aboveground and belowground herbivory is important in interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores and that knowledge on the timing of exposure is essential to predict outcomes of aboveground-belowground interactions.

  8. Biomass Estimation of Dry Tropical Woody Species at Juvenile Stage

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, R. K.; Raghubanshi, A. S.; Singh, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate characterization of biomass in different forest components is important to estimate their contribution to total carbon stock. Due to lack of allometric equations for biomass estimation of woody species at juvenile stage, the carbon stored in this forest component is ignored. We harvested 47 woody species at juvenile stage in a dry tropical forest and developed regression models for the estimation of above-ground biomass (AGB). The models including wood-specific gravity (ρ) exhibited higher R2 than those without ρ. The model consisting of ρ, stem diameter (D), and height (H) not only exhibited the highest R2 value but also had the lowest standard error of estimate. We suggest that ρ-based regression model is a viable option for nondestructive estimation of biomass of forest trees at juvenile stage. PMID:22448139

  9. Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Torrence; Zhu, Lixue; Lopéz, Lorena; Pechanova, Olga; Shivaji, Renuka; Ankala, Arunkanth; Williams, W. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Insect pests that attempt to feed on the caterpillar-resistant maize genotype Mp708 encounter a potent, multipronged defense system that thwarts their invasion. First, these plants are on “constant alert” due to constitutively elevated levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid that signals the plant to activate its defenses. The higher jasmonic acid levels trigger the expression of defense genes prior to herbivore attack so the plants are “primed” and respond with a faster and stronger defense. The second defense is the rapid accumulation of a toxic cysteine protease called Mir1-CP in the maize whorl in response to caterpillar feeding. When caterpillars ingest Mir1-CP, it damages the insect's midgut and retards their growth. In this article, we discuss a third possible defense strategy employed by Mp708. We have shown that foliar caterpillar feeding causes Mir1-CP and defense gene transcripts to accumulate in its roots. We propose that caterpillar feeding aboveground sends a signal belowground via the phloem that results in Mir1-CP accumulation in the roots. We also postulate that the roots serve as a reservoir of Mir1-CP that can be mobilized to the whorl in response to caterpillar assault. PMID:21270535

  10. Biomass allocation and long-term growth patterns of temperate lianas in comparison with trees.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Ryuji; Tateno, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    The host-dependent support habit of lianas is generally interpreted as a strategy designed to reduce resource investment in mechanical tissues; this allows preferential allocation to leaf and stem extension, thereby enhancing productivity and competitive abilities. However, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. We examined the aboveground allometries regarding biomass allocation (leaf mass and current-year stem mass (approximated as biomass allocated to extension growth) vs total aboveground mass) and long-term apparent growth patterns (height and aboveground mass vs age, i.e. numbers of growth rings) for nine deciduous liana species in Japan. Lianas had, on average, three- and five-fold greater leaf and current-year stem mass, respectively, than trees for a given aboveground mass, whereas the time course to reach the forest canopy was comparable and biomass accumulation during that period was only one-tenth that of co-occurring canopy trees. The balance between the lengths of yearly stem extension and existing older stems indicated that lianas lost c. 75% of stem length during growth to the canopy, which is probably a consequence of the host-dependent growth. Our observations suggest that, although lianas rely on hosts mechanically, allowing for short-term vigorous growth, this habit requires a large cost and could limit plant growth over protracted periods.

  11. Biotechnology of biomass conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers: An introduction to biomass crops; The microbiology of fermentation processes; The production of ethanol from biomass crops, such as sugar cane and rubbers; The energy of biomass conversion; and The economics of biomass conversion.

  12. Evaluation of non-destructive methods for estimating biomass in marshes of the upper Texas, USA coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitbeck, M.; Grace, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The estimation of aboveground biomass is important in the management of natural resources. Direct measurements by clipping, drying, and weighing of herbaceous vegetation are time-consuming and costly. Therefore, non-destructive methods for efficiently and accurately estimating biomass are of interest. We compared two non-destructive methods, visual obstruction and light penetration, for estimating aboveground biomass in marshes of the upper Texas, USA coast. Visual obstruction was estimated using the Robel pole method, which primarily measures the density and height of the canopy. Light penetration through the canopy was measured using a Decagon light wand, with readings taken above the vegetation and at the ground surface. Clip plots were also taken to provide direct estimates of total aboveground biomass. Regression relationships between estimated and clipped biomass were significant using both methods. However, the light penetration method was much more strongly correlated with clipped biomass under these conditions (R2 value 0.65 compared to 0.35 for the visual obstruction approach). The primary difference between the two methods in this situation was the ability of the light-penetration method to account for variations in plant litter. These results indicate that light-penetration measurements may be better for estimating biomass in marshes when plant litter is an important component. We advise that, in all cases, investigators should calibrate their methods against clip plots to evaluate applicability to their situation. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  13. Field-quantified responses of tropical rainforest aboveground productivity to increasing CO2 and climatic stress, 1997-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Deborah A.; Clark, David B.; Oberbauer, Steven F.

    2013-06-01

    A directional change in tropical-forest productivity, a large component in the global carbon budget, would affect the rate of increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]). One current hypothesis is that "CO2 fertilization" has been increasing tropical forest productivity. Some lines of evidence instead suggest climate-driven productivity declines. Relevant direct field observations remain extremely limited for this biome. Using a unique long-term record of annual field measurements, we assessed annual aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and its relation to climatic factors and [CO2] in a neotropical rainforest through 1997-2009. Over this 12 year period, annual productivity did not increase, as would be expected with a dominant CO2 fertilization effect. Instead, the negative responses of ANPP components to climatic stress far exceeded the small positive responses associated with increasing [CO2]. Annual aboveground biomass production was well explained (73%) by the independent negative effects of increasing minimum temperatures and greater dry-season water stress. The long-term records enable a first field-based estimate of the [CO2] response of tropical forest ANPP: 5.24 g m-2 yr-1 yr-1 (the summed [CO2]-associated increases in two of the four production components; the largest component, leaf litterfall, showed no [CO2] association). If confirmed by longer data series, such a small response from a fertile tropical rainforest would indicate that current global models overestimate the benefits from CO2 fertilization for this biome, where most forests' poorer nutrient status more strongly constrains productivity responses to increasing [CO2]. Given the rapidly intensifying warming across tropical regions, tropical forest productivity could sharply decline through coming decades.

  14. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  15. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  16. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOEpatents

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  17. Genetic variation in biomass traits among 20 diverse rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Courtney E; Mckay, John K; Mauleon, Ramil; Stephens, Janice; McNally, Kenneth L; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels provide a promising route of producing energy while reducing reliance on petroleum. Developing sustainable liquid fuel production from cellulosic feedstock is a major challenge and will require significant breeding efforts to maximize plant biomass production. Our approach to elucidating genes and genetic pathways that can be targeted for improving biomass production is to exploit the combination of genomic tools and genetic diversity in rice (Oryza sativa). In this study, we analyzed a diverse set of 20 recently resequenced rice varieties for variation in biomass traits at several different developmental stages. The traits included plant size and architecture, aboveground biomass, and underlying physiological processes. We found significant genetic variation among the 20 lines in all morphological and physiological traits. Although heritability estimates were significant for all traits, heritabilities were higher in traits relating to plant size and architecture than for physiological traits. Trait variation was largely explained by variety and breeding history (advanced versus landrace) but not by varietal groupings (indica, japonica, and aus). In the context of cellulosic biofuels development, cell wall composition varied significantly among varieties. Surprisingly, photosynthetic rates among the varieties were inversely correlated with biomass accumulation. Examining these data in an evolutionary context reveals that rice varieties have achieved high biomass production via independent developmental and physiological pathways, suggesting that there are multiple targets for biomass improvement. Future efforts to identify loci and networks underlying this functional variation will facilitate the improvement of biomass traits in other grasses being developed as energy crops.

  18. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    study provides a new framework for investigating how aboveground insect feeding modulates the belowground microbiome. PMID:27656163

  19. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyun G; Kim, Byung K; Song, Geun C; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    study provides a new framework for investigating how aboveground insect feeding modulates the belowground microbiome. PMID:27656163

  20. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    study provides a new framework for investigating how aboveground insect feeding modulates the belowground microbiome.

  1. Tropical Africa: Land use, biomass, and carbon estimates for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Gaston, G.; Daniels, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980 and describes a methodology that may be used to extend this data set to 1990 and beyond based on population and land cover data. The biomass data and carbon estimates are for woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible magnitude of historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth`s land surface and includes those countries that for the most part are located in Tropical Africa. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in southern Africa (i.e., Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Western Sahara) have maximum potential biomass and land cover information but do not have biomass or carbon estimate. The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{sup TM} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass-carbon values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  2. BOREAS RSS-15 SIR-C and Landsat TM Biomass and Landcover Maps of the NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Ranson, K. Jon

    2000-01-01

    As part of BOREAS, the RSS-15 team conducted an investigation using SIR-C, X-SAR, and Landsat TM data for estimating total above-ground dry biomass for the SSA and NSA modeling grids and component biomass for the SSA. Relationships of backscatter to total biomass and total biomass to foliage, branch, and bole biomass were used to estimate biomass density across the landscape. The procedure involved image classification with SAR and Landsat TM data and development of simple mapping techniques using combinations of SAR channels. For the SSA, the SIR-C data used were acquired on 06-Oct-1994, and the Landsat TM data used were acquired on 02-Sep-1995. The maps of the NSA were developed from SIR-C data acquired on 13-Apr-1994. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  3. Dissecting variation in biomass conversion factors across China's forests: implications for biomass and carbon accounting.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunjian; Zhang, Xiaoquan; Wang, Xiaoke; Ren, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Biomass conversion factors (BCFs, defined as the ratios of tree components (i.e. stem, branch, foliage and root), as well as aboveground and whole biomass of trees to growing stock volume, Mg m-3) are considered as important parameters in large-scale forest biomass carbon estimation. To date, knowledge of possible sources of the variation in BCFs is still limited at large scales. Using our compiled forest biomass dataset of China, we presented forest type-specific values of BCFs, and examined the variation in BCFs in relation to forest type, stand development and environmental factors (climate and soil fertility). BCFs exhibited remarkable variation across forest types, and also were significantly related to stand development (especially growing stock volume). BCFs (except Stem BCF) had significant relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) (P<0.001). Climatic data (MAT and MAP) collectively explained 10.0-25.0% of the variation in BCFs (except Stem BCFs). Moreover, stronger climatic effects were found on BCFs for functional components (i.e. branch, foliage and root) than BCFs for combined components (i.e. aboveground section and whole trees). A general trend for BCFs was observed to decrease and then increase from low to high soil fertility. When qualitative soil fertility and climatic data (MAT and MAP) were combined, they explained 14.1-29.7% of the variation in in BCFs (except Stem BCFs), adding only 4.1-4.9% than climatic data used. Therefore, to reduce the uncertainty induced by BCFs in forest carbon estimates, we should apply values of BCFs for a specified forest type, and also consider climatic and edaphic effects, especially climatic effect, in developing predictive models of BCFs (except Stem BCF).

  4. Efficacy of generic allometric equations for estimating biomass: a test in Japanese natural forests.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masae I; Utsugi, Hajime; Tanouchi, Hiroyuki; Aiba, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Onoda, Yusuke; Nagano, Masahiro; Umehara, Toru; Ando, Makoto; Miyata, Rie; Hiura, Tsutom

    2015-07-01

    Accurate estimation of tree and forest biomass is key to evaluating forest ecosystem functions and the global carbon cycle. Allometric equations that estimate tree biomass from a set of predictors, such as stem diameter and tree height, are commonly used. Most allometric equations are site specific, usually developed from a small number of trees harvested in a small area, and are either species specific or ignore interspecific differences in allometry. Due to lack of site-specific allometries, local equations are often applied to sites for which they were not originally developed (foreign sites), sometimes leading to large errors in biomass estimates. In this study, we developed generic allometric equations for aboveground biomass and component (stem, branch, leaf, and root) biomass using large, compiled data sets of 1203 harvested trees belonging to 102 species (60 deciduous angiosperm, 32 evergreen angiosperm, and 10 evergreen gymnosperm species) from 70 boreal, temperate, and subtropical natural forests in Japan. The best generic equations provided better biomass estimates than did local equations that were applied to foreign sites. The best generic equations included explanatory variables that represent interspecific differences in allometry in addition to stem diameter, reducing error by 4-12% compared to the generic equations that did not include the interspecific difference. Different explanatory variables were selected for different components. For aboveground and stem biomass, the best generic equations had species-specific wood specific gravity as an explanatory variable. For branch, leaf, and root biomass, the best equations had functional types (deciduous angiosperm, evergreen angiosperm, and evergreen gymnosperm) instead of functional traits (wood specific gravity or leaf mass per area), suggesting importance of other traits in addition to these traits, such as canopy and root architecture. Inclusion of tree height in addition to stem diameter improved

  5. Efficacy of generic allometric equations for estimating biomass: a test in Japanese natural forests.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masae I; Utsugi, Hajime; Tanouchi, Hiroyuki; Aiba, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Onoda, Yusuke; Nagano, Masahiro; Umehara, Toru; Ando, Makoto; Miyata, Rie; Hiura, Tsutom

    2015-07-01

    Accurate estimation of tree and forest biomass is key to evaluating forest ecosystem functions and the global carbon cycle. Allometric equations that estimate tree biomass from a set of predictors, such as stem diameter and tree height, are commonly used. Most allometric equations are site specific, usually developed from a small number of trees harvested in a small area, and are either species specific or ignore interspecific differences in allometry. Due to lack of site-specific allometries, local equations are often applied to sites for which they were not originally developed (foreign sites), sometimes leading to large errors in biomass estimates. In this study, we developed generic allometric equations for aboveground biomass and component (stem, branch, leaf, and root) biomass using large, compiled data sets of 1203 harvested trees belonging to 102 species (60 deciduous angiosperm, 32 evergreen angiosperm, and 10 evergreen gymnosperm species) from 70 boreal, temperate, and subtropical natural forests in Japan. The best generic equations provided better biomass estimates than did local equations that were applied to foreign sites. The best generic equations included explanatory variables that represent interspecific differences in allometry in addition to stem diameter, reducing error by 4-12% compared to the generic equations that did not include the interspecific difference. Different explanatory variables were selected for different components. For aboveground and stem biomass, the best generic equations had species-specific wood specific gravity as an explanatory variable. For branch, leaf, and root biomass, the best equations had functional types (deciduous angiosperm, evergreen angiosperm, and evergreen gymnosperm) instead of functional traits (wood specific gravity or leaf mass per area), suggesting importance of other traits in addition to these traits, such as canopy and root architecture. Inclusion of tree height in addition to stem diameter improved

  6. Variability of above-ground litter inputs alters soil physicochemical and biological processes: a meta-analysis of litterfall-manipulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Liu, L. L.; Sayer, E. J.

    2013-11-01

    Global change has been shown to alter the amount of above-ground litter inputs to soil greatly, which could cause substantial cascading effects on below-ground biogeochemical cycling. Despite extensive study, there is uncertainty about how changes in above-ground litter inputs affect soil carbon and nutrient turnover and transformation. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis on 70 litter-manipulation experiments in order to assess how changes in above-ground litter inputs alter soil physicochemical properties, carbon dynamics and nutrient cycles. Our results demonstrated that litter removal decreased soil respiration by 34%, microbial biomass carbon in the mineral soil by 39% and total carbon in the mineral soil by 10%, whereas litter addition increased them by 31, 26 and 10%, respectively. This suggests that greater litter inputs increase the soil carbon sink despite higher rates of carbon release and transformation. Total nitrogen and extractable inorganic nitrogen in the mineral soil decreased by 17 and 30%, respectively, under litter removal, but were not altered by litter addition. Overall, litter manipulation had a significant impact upon soil temperature and moisture, but not soil pH; litter inputs were more crucial in buffering soil temperature and moisture fluctuations in grassland than in forest. Compared to other ecosystems, tropical and subtropical forests were more sensitive to variation in litter inputs, as altered litter inputs affected the turnover and accumulation of soil carbon and nutrients more substantially over a shorter time period. Our study demonstrates that although the magnitude of responses differed greatly among ecosystems, the direction of the responses was very similar across different ecosystems. Interactions between plant productivity and below-ground biogeochemical cycling need to be taken into account to predict ecosystem responses to environmental change.

  7. Biomass, decomposition and nutrient cycling in a SW Atlantic Sarcocornia perennis marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrin, Vanesa L.; Pratolongo, Paula D.; de Villalobos, Ana E.; Botté, Sandra E.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

    2015-03-01

    Biomass dynamics, decomposition and nutrient cycling were studied in a Sarcocornia perennis salt marsh in the Bahia Blanca estuary (Argentina) to achieve a better understanding of these processes and provide information about a species and a region underrepresented in the literature. Above and belowground biomass stocks and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration in plant tissues were monitored every 2 months during a year. The decomposition rate and the concentration of C, N and P during the process were also estimated in above and belowground tissues. Biomass values were low (mean of 363 ± 43 and 242 ± 27 g m- 2 for aboveground and belowground tissues, respectively), presumably associated with the high salinity of this estuary. The general trend of higher values for aboveground biomass is in agreement with other reports for this species and has an effect on nutrients pools, which are higher for aboveground tissues for C and N. Above and belowground decomposition rates were high (64 and 70% after a year, respectively), meaning this process plays a significant role in the cycling of organic matter. C/N and C/P ratios changed during decomposition, but final ratios were usually higher, suggesting a net release of nutrients. Our results indicate that significant amounts of C, N and P are recycled by S. perennis, highlighting the role of this species and suggesting important consequences of its lost in the study area.

  8. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect.

    PubMed

    Borgström, Pernilla; Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  9. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect.

    PubMed

    Borgström, Pernilla; Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  10. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect

    PubMed Central

    Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  11. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    PubMed

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  12. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    PubMed

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  13. Soil C:N stoichiometry controls carbon sink partitioning between above-ground tree productivity and soil organic matter in high fertility forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotrufo, M.; Alberti, G.; Vicca, S.; Inglima, I.; Belelli-Marchesini, L.; Genesio, L.; Miglietta, F.; Marjanovic, H.; Martinez, C.; Matteucci, G.; Peressotti, A.; Petrella, L.; Rodeghiero, M.

    2013-12-01

    The release of organic compounds from roots is a key process influencing soil carbon (C) dynamics and nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems and is a process by which plants stimulate microbial activity and soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization thus releasing nitrogen (N) to sustain their gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP). Root inputs also contribute to soil organic matter (SOM) formation. In this study, we quantified the annual net root derived C input to soil (Net-Croot) across six high fertile forests using an in-growth core isotope technique. On the basis of Net-Croot, wood and coarse root biomass changes and eddy covariance data, we quantified net belowground C sequestration. This and GPP were inversely related to soil C:N, but not to climate or age. Because, at these high fertile sites, biomass growth did not change with soil C:N ratio, biomass growth-to-GPP ratio significantly increased with increasing soil C:N. This was true for both our six forest sites and for high fertile sites across a set of other 23 sites selected at global scale. We suggest that, at high fertile sites, the interaction between plant demand for nutrients, soil stoichiometry and microbial activity sustain higher ecosystem C-sink allocation to above ground tree biomass with increasing soil C:N ratio and that this clear and strong relationship can be used for modelling forest C sink partitioning between plant biomass and soil. When C:N is high, microbes have a low C use efficiency, respire more of the fresh C inputs by roots and prime SOM decomposition increasing N availability for tree uptake. Soil C sequestration would therefore decrease, whereas the extra N released during SOM decomposition can promote tree growth and ecosystem C sink allocation in aboveground biomass. Conversely, C is sequestered in soil when the low soil C:N promotes microbial C use efficiency and new SOM formation.

  14. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change. PMID:18215439

  15. 29 CFR 788.7 - “Planting or tending trees.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPlanting or tending trees.â 788.7 Section 788.7 Labor... MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.7 “Planting or tending trees.” Employees employed in “planting or tending trees” include those engaged in weeding, preparing firebreaks, removing...

  16. 29 CFR 788.7 - “Planting or tending trees.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPlanting or tending trees.â 788.7 Section 788.7 Labor... MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.7 “Planting or tending trees.” Employees employed in “planting or tending trees” include those engaged in weeding, preparing firebreaks, removing...

  17. 29 CFR 788.7 - “Planting or tending trees.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âPlanting or tending trees.â 788.7 Section 788.7 Labor... MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.7 “Planting or tending trees.” Employees employed in “planting or tending trees” include those engaged in weeding, preparing firebreaks, removing...

  18. 29 CFR 788.7 - “Planting or tending trees.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âPlanting or tending trees.â 788.7 Section 788.7 Labor... MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.7 “Planting or tending trees.” Employees employed in “planting or tending trees” include those engaged in weeding, preparing firebreaks, removing...

  19. 29 CFR 788.7 - “Planting or tending trees.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âPlanting or tending trees.â 788.7 Section 788.7 Labor... MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.7 “Planting or tending trees.” Employees employed in “planting or tending trees” include those engaged in weeding, preparing firebreaks, removing...

  20. Aboveground and belowground effects of single-tree removals in New Zealand rain forest.

    PubMed

    Wardle, David A; Wiser, Susan K; Allen, Robert B; Doherty, James E; Bonner, Karen I; Williamson, Wendy M

    2008-05-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in how human-induced species loss affects community and ecosystem properties. These effects are particularly apparent when a commercially valuable species is harvested from an ecosystem, such as occurs through single-tree harvesting or selective logging of desired timber species in natural forests. In New Zealand mixed-species rain forests, single-tree harvesting of the emergent gymnosperm Dacrydium cupressinum, or rimu, has been widespread. This harvesting has been contentious in part because of possible ecological impacts of Dacrydium removal on the remainder of the forest, but many of these effects remain unexplored. We identified an area where an unintended 40-year "removal experiment" had been set up that involved selective extraction of individual Dacrydium trees. We measured aboveground and belowground variables at set distances from both individual live trees and stumps of trees harvested 40 years ago. Live trees had effects both above and below ground by affecting diversity and cover of several components of the vegetation (usually negatively), promoting soil C sequestration, enhancing ratios of soil C:P and N:P, and affecting community structure of soil microflora. These effects extended to 8 m from the tree base and were likely caused by poor-quality litter and humus produced by the trees. Measurements for the stumps revealed strong legacy effects of prior presence of trees on some properties (e.g., cover by understory herbs and ferns, soil C sequestration, soil C:P and N:P ratios), but not others (e.g., soil fungal biomass, soil N concentration). These results suggest that the legacy of prior presence of Dacrydium may remain for several decades or centuries, and certainly well over 40 years. They also demonstrate that, while large Dacrydium individuals (and their removal) may have important effects in their immediate proximity, within a forest, these effects should only be important in localized patches

  1. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  2. Biomass Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Traylor, T.D.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-03-01

    Biomass Energy Research announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development (R&D) information available on biomass power systems, alternate feedstocks from biomass, and biofuels supply options.

  3. Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

  4. Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Macauley, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales.

  5. Biomass production, nutrient cycling, and carbon fixation by Salicornia brachiata Roxb.: A promising halophyte for coastal saline soil rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Aditya P; Chaudhary, Doongar R; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-08-01

    In order to increase our understanding of the interaction of soil-halophyte (Salicornia brachiata) relations and phytoremediation, we investigated the aboveground biomass, carbon fixation, and nutrient composition (N, P, K, Na, Ca, and Mg) of S. brachiata using six sampling sites with varying characteristics over one growing season in intertidal marshes. Simultaneously, soil characteristics and nutrient concentrations were also estimated. There was a significant variation in soil characteristics and nutrient contents spatially (except pH) as well as temporally. Nutrient contents in aboveground biomass of S. brachiata were also significantly differed spatially (except C and Cl) as well as temporally. Aboveground biomass of S. brachiata ranged from 2.51 to 6.07 t/ha at maturity and it was positively correlated with soil electrical conductivity and available Na, whereas negatively with soil pH. The K/Na ratio in plant was below one, showing tolerance to salinity. The aboveground C fixation values ranged from 0.77 to 1.93 C t/ha at all six sampling sites. This study provides new understandings into nutrient cycling-C fixation potential of highly salt-tolerant halophyte S. brachiata growing on intertidal soils of India. S. brachiata have a potential for amelioration of the salinity due to higher Na bioaccumulation factor. PMID:26852782

  6. Biomass production efficiency controlled by management in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campioli, M.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Bilcke, J.; Ceschia, E.; Chapin, F. S., III; Ciais, P.; Fernández-Martínez, M.; Malhi, Y.; Obersteiner, M.; Olefeldt, D.; Papale, D.; Piao, S. L.; Peñuelas, J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Wang, X.; Zenone, T.; Janssens, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Plants acquire carbon through photosynthesis to sustain biomass production, autotrophic respiration and production of non-structural compounds for multiple purposes. The fraction of photosynthetic production used for biomass production, the biomass production efficiency, is a key determinant of the conversion of solar energy to biomass. In forest ecosystems, biomass production efficiency was suggested to be related to site fertility. Here we present a database of biomass production efficiency from 131 sites compiled from individual studies using harvest, biometric, eddy covariance, or process-based model estimates of production. The database is global, but dominated by data from Europe and North America. We show that instead of site fertility, ecosystem management is the key factor that controls biomass production efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, in natural forests, grasslands, tundra, boreal peatlands and marshes, biomass production efficiency is independent of vegetation, environmental and climatic drivers. This similarity of biomass production efficiency across natural ecosystem types suggests that the ratio of biomass production to gross primary productivity is constant across natural ecosystems. We suggest that plant adaptation results in similar growth efficiency in high- and low-fertility natural systems, but that nutrient influxes under managed conditions favour a shift to carbon investment from the belowground flux of non-structural compounds to aboveground biomass.

  7. Allometric scaling relationship between above- and below-ground biomass within and across five woody seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dongliang; Ma, Yuzhu; Zhong, Quanling; Xu, Weifeng

    2014-01-01

    Allometric biomass allocation theory predicts that leaf biomass (ML) scaled isometrically with stem (MS) and root (MR) biomass, and thus above-ground biomass (leaf and stem) (MA) and root (MR) scaled nearly isometrically with below-ground biomass (root) for tree seedlings across a wide diversity of taxa. Furthermore, prior studies also imply that scaling constant should vary with species. However, litter is known about whether such invariant isometric scaling exponents hold for intraspecific biomass allocation, and how variation in scaling constants influences the interspecific scaling relationship between above- and below-ground biomass. Biomass data of seedlings from five evergreen species were examined to test scaling relationships among biomass components across and within species. Model Type II regression was used to compare the numerical values of scaling exponents and constants among leaf, stem, root, and above- to below-ground biomass. The results indicated that ML and MS scaled in an isometric or a nearly isometric manner with MR, as well as MA to MR for five woody species. Significant variation was observed in the Y-intercepts of the biomass scaling curves, resulting in the divergence for intraspecific scaling and interspecific scaling relationships for ML versus MS and ML versus MR, but not for MS versus MR and MA versus MR. We conclude, therefore, that a nearly isometric scaling relationship of MA versus MR holds true within each of the studied woody species and across them irrespective the negative scaling relationship between leaf and stem. PMID:25505524

  8. The Biomass mission: a step forward in quantifying forest biomass and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LE Toan, T.

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of the ESA BIOMASS mission is to determine, for the first time and in a consistent manner, the global distribution of above-ground forest biomass (AGB) in order to provide greatly improved quantification of the size and distribution of the terrestrial carbon pool, and improved estimates of terrestrial carbon fluxes. Specifically, BIOMASS will measure forest carbon stock, as well as forest height, from data provided by a single satellite giving a biomass map covering tropical, temperate and boreal forests at a resolution of around 200 m every 6 months throughout the five years of the mission. BIOMASS will use a long wavelength SAR (P-band) providing three mutually supporting measurement techniques, namely polarimetric SAR (PolSAR), polarimetric interferometric SAR (PolInSAR) and tomographic SAR (TomoSAR). The combination of these techniques will significantly reduce the uncertainties in biomass retrievals by yielding complementary information on biomass properties. Horizontal mapping: For a forest canopy, the P-band radar waves penetrate deep into the canopy, and their interaction with the structure of the forest will be exploited to map above ground biomass (AGB), as demonstrated from airborne data for temperate, boreal forests and tropical forest. Height mapping: By repeat revisits to the same location, the PolInSAR measurements will be used to estimate the height of scattering in the forest canopy. The long wavelength used by BIOMASS is crucial for the temporal coherence to be preserved over much longer timescales than at L-band, for example. 3D mapping: The P-band frequency used by BIOMASS is low enough to ensure penetration through the entire canopy, even in dense tropical forests. As a consequence, resolution of the vertical structure of the forest will be possible using tomographic methods from the multi-baseline acquisitions. This is the concept of SAR tomography, which will be implemented in the BIOMASS mission. The improvement in the

  9. Aboveground predation by an American badger (Taxidea taxus) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    During research on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), we repeatedly observed a female American badger (Taxidea taxus) hunting prairie dogs on a colony in southern Phillips County, Montana. During 1-14 June 2006, we observed 7 aboveground attacks (2 successful) and 3 successful excavations of prairie dogs. The locations and circumstances of aboveground attacks suggested that the badger improved her probability of capturing prairie dogs by planning the aboveground attacks based on perceptions of speeds, angles, distances, and predicted escape responses of prey. Our observations add to previous reports on the complex and varied predatory methods and cognitive capacities of badgers. These observations also underscore the individuality of predators and support the concept that predators are active participants in predator-prey interactions.

  10. Forest Biomass Mapping From Lidar and Radar Synergies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Guoqing; Ranson, K. Jon; Guo, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Montesano, P.; Kimes, D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of lidar and radar instruments to measure forest structure attributes such as height and biomass at global scales is being considered for a future Earth Observation satellite mission, DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice). Large footprint lidar makes a direct measurement of the heights of scatterers in the illuminated footprint and can yield accurate information about the vertical profile of the canopy within lidar footprint samples. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is known to sense the canopy volume, especially at longer wavelengths and provides image data. Methods for biomass mapping by a combination of lidar sampling and radar mapping need to be developed. In this study, several issues in this respect were investigated using aircraft borne lidar and SAR data in Howland, Maine, USA. The stepwise regression selected the height indices rh50 and rh75 of the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data for predicting field measured biomass with a R(exp 2) of 0.71 and RMSE of 31.33 Mg/ha. The above-ground biomass map generated from this regression model was considered to represent the true biomass of the area and used as a reference map since no better biomass map exists for the area. Random samples were taken from the biomass map and the correlation between the sampled biomass and co-located SAR signature was studied. The best models were used to extend the biomass from lidar samples into all forested areas in the study area, which mimics a procedure that could be used for the future DESDYnI Mission. It was found that depending on the data types used (quad-pol or dual-pol) the SAR data can predict the lidar biomass samples with R2 of 0.63-0.71, RMSE of 32.0-28.2 Mg/ha up to biomass levels of 200-250 Mg/ha. The mean biomass of the study area calculated from the biomass maps generated by lidar- SAR synergy 63 was within 10% of the reference biomass map derived from LVIS data. The results from this study are preliminary, but do show the

  11. Coppicing shifts CO2 stimulation of poplar productivity to above-ground pools: a synthesis of leaf to stand level results from the POP/EUROFACE experiment.

    PubMed

    Liberloo, Marion; Lukac, Martin; Calfapietra, Carlo; Hoosbeek, Marcel R; Gielen, Birgit; Miglietta, Franco; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe E; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2009-01-01

    A poplar short rotation coppice (SRC) grown for the production of bioenergy can combine carbon (C) storage with fossil fuel substitution. Here, we summarize the responses of a poplar (Populus) plantation to 6 yr of free air CO(2) enrichment (POP/EUROFACE consisting of two rotation cycles). We show that a poplar plantation growing in nonlimiting light, nutrient and water conditions will significantly increase its productivity in elevated CO(2) concentrations ([CO(2)]). Increased biomass yield resulted from an early growth enhancement and photosynthesis did not acclimate to elevated [CO(2)]. Sufficient nutrient availability, increased nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and the large sink capacity of poplars contributed to the sustained increase in C uptake over 6 yr. Additional C taken up in high [CO(2)] was mainly invested into woody biomass pools. Coppicing increased yield by 66% and partly shifted the extra C uptake in elevated [CO(2)] to above-ground pools, as fine root biomass declined and its [CO(2)] stimulation disappeared. Mineral soil C increased equally in ambient and elevated [CO(2)] during the 6 yr experiment. However, elevated [CO(2)] increased the stabilization of C in the mineral soil. Increased productivity of a poplar SRC in elevated [CO(2)] may allow shorter rotation cycles, enhancing the viability of SRC for biofuel production.

  12. Below-ground herbivory limits induction of extrafloral nectar by above-ground herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Siemann, Evan; Carrillo, Juli; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Many plants produce extrafloral nectar (EFN), and increase production following above-ground herbivory, presumably to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Below-ground herbivores, alone or in combination with those above ground, may also alter EFN production depending on the specificity of this defence response and the interactions among herbivores mediated through plant defences. To date, however, a lack of manipulative experiments investigating EFN production induced by above- and below-ground herbivory has limited our understanding of how below-ground herbivory mediates indirect plant defences to affect above-ground herbivores and their natural enemies. Methods In a greenhouse experiment, seedlings of tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) were subjected to herbivory by a specialist flea beetle (Bikasha collaris) that naturally co-occurs as foliage-feeding adults and root-feeding larvae. Seedlings were subjected to above-ground adults and/or below-ground larvae herbivory, and EFN production was monitored. Key Results Above- and/or below-ground herbivory significantly increased the percentage of leaves with active nectaries, the volume of EFN and the mass of soluble solids within the nectar. Simultaneous above- and below-ground herbivory induced a higher volume of EFN and mass of soluble solids than below-ground herbivory alone, but highest EFN production was induced by above-ground herbivory when below-ground herbivores were absent. Conclusions The induction of EFN production by below-ground damage suggests that systemic induction underlies some of the EFN response. The strong induction by above-ground herbivory in the absence of below-ground herbivory points to specific induction based on above- and below-ground signals that may be adaptive for this above-ground indirect defence. PMID:25681822

  13. Large grazers modify effects of aboveground-belowground interactions on small-scale plant community composition.

    PubMed

    Veen, G F Ciska; Geuverink, Elzemiek; Olff, Han

    2012-02-01

    Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales interact with small-scale aboveground-belowground interactions on plant community heterogeneity. Here, we investigate how cattle (Bos taurus) modify the effects of interactions between yellow meadow ants (Lasius flavus) and European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) on the formation of small-scale heterogeneity in vegetation composition. In the absence of cattle, hares selectively foraged on ant mounds, while under combined grazing by hares and cattle, vertebrate grazing pressure was similar on and off mounds. Ant mounds that were grazed by only hares had a different plant community composition compared to their surroundings: the cover of the grazing-intolerant grass Elytrigia atherica was reduced on ant mounds, whereas the relative cover of the more grazing-tolerant and palatable grass Festuca rubra was enhanced. Combined grazing by hares and cattle, resulted in homogenization of plant community composition on and off ant mounds, with high overall cover of F. rubra. We conclude that hares can respond to local ant-soil-vegetation interactions, because they are small, selective herbivores that make their foraging decisions on a local scale. This results in small-scale plant patches on mounds of yellow meadow ants. In the presence of cattle, which are less selective aboveground herbivores, local plant community patterns triggered by small-scale aboveground-belowground interactions can disappear. Therefore, cattle modify the consequences of aboveground-belowground interactions for small-scale plant community composition.

  14. Understanding cross-communication between aboveground and belowground tissues via transcriptome analysis of a sucking insect whitefly-infested pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Plants have developed defensive machinery to protect themselves against herbivore and pathogen attacks. We previously reported that aboveground whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) infestation elicited induced resistance in leaves and roots and influenced the modification of the rhizosphere microflora. In this study, to obtain molecular evidence supporting these plant fitness strategies against whitefly infestation, we performed a 300 K pepper microarray analysis using leaf and root tissues of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) applied with whitefly, benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), and the combination of BTH+whitefly. We defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as genes exhibiting more than 2-fold change (1.0 based on log2 values) in expression in leaves and roots in response to each treatment compared to the control. We identified a total of 16,188 DEGs in leaves and roots. Of these, 6685, 6752, and 4045 DEGs from leaf tissue and 6768, 7705, and 7667 DEGs from root tissue were identified in the BTH, BTH+whitefly, and whitefly treatment groups, respectively. The total number of DEGs was approximately two-times higher in roots than in whitefly-infested leaves subjected to whitefly infestation. Among DEGs, whitefly feeding induced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways in leaves and roots. Several transporters and auxin-responsive genes were upregulated in roots, which can explain why biomass increase is facilitated. Using transcriptome analysis, our study provides new insights into the molecular basis of whitefly-mediated intercommunication between aboveground and belowground plant tissues and provides molecular evidence that may explain the alteration of rhizosphere microflora and root biomass by whitefly infestation.

  15. Patterns of Plant Biomass Partitioning Depend on Nitrogen Source

    PubMed Central

    Cambui, Camila Aguetoni; Svennerstam, Henrik; Gruffman, Linda; Nordin, Annika; Ganeteg, Ulrika; Näsholm, Torgny

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability is a strong determinant of plant biomass partitioning, but the role of different N sources in this process is unknown. Plants inhabiting low productivity ecosystems typically partition a large share of total biomass to belowground structures. In these systems, organic N may often dominate plant available N. With increasing productivity, plant biomass partitioning shifts to aboveground structures, along with a shift in available N to inorganic forms of N. We tested the hypothesis that the form of N taken up by plants is an important determinant of plant biomass partitioning by cultivating Arabidopsis thaliana on different N source mixtures. Plants grown on different N mixtures were similar in size, but those supplied with organic N displayed a significantly greater root fraction. 15N labelling suggested that, in this case, a larger share of absorbed organic N was retained in roots and split-root experiments suggested this may depend on a direct incorporation of absorbed amino acid N into roots. These results suggest the form of N acquired affects plant biomass partitioning and adds new information on the interaction between N and biomass partitioning in plants. PMID:21544211

  16. Biomass treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  17. Estimation and Mapping of Coastal Mangrove Biomass Using Both Passive and Active Remote Sensing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiqiong, L.; Lu, W.; Zhou, J.; Gan, W.; Cui, X.; Lin, G., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Mangrove forests play an important role in global carbon cycle, but carbon stocks in different mangrove forests are not easily measured at large scale. In this research, both active and passive remote sensing methods were used to estimate the aboveground biomass of dominant mangrove communities in Zhanjiang National Mangrove Nature Reserve in Guangdong, China. We set up a decision tree including spectral, texture, position and geometry indexes to achieve mangrove inter-species classification among 5 main species named Aegiceras corniculatum, Aricennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Kandelia candel, Sonneratia apetala by using 5.8m multispectral ZY-3 images. In addition, Lidar data were collected and used to obtain the canopy height of different mangrove species. Then, regression equations between the field measured aboveground biomass and the canopy height deduced from Lidar data were established for these mangrove species. By combining these results, we were able to establish a relatively accurate method for differentiating mangrove species and mapping their aboveground biomass distribution at the estuary scale, which could be applied to mangrove forests in other regions.

  18. Secondary Forest Age and Tropical Forest Biomass Estimation Using TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. F.; Kimes, D. S.; Salas, W. A.; Routhier, M.

    1999-01-01

    The age of secondary forests in the Amazon will become more critical with respect to the estimation of biomass and carbon budgets as tropical forest conversion continues. Multitemporal Thematic Mapper data were used to develop land cover histories for a 33,000 Square kM area near Ariquemes, Rondonia over a 7 year period from 1989-1995. The age of the secondary forest, a surrogate for the amount of biomass (or carbon) stored above-ground, was found to be unimportant in terms of biomass budget error rates in a forested TM scene which had undergone a 20% conversion to nonforest/agricultural cover types. In such a situation, the 80% of the scene still covered by primary forest accounted for over 98% of the scene biomass. The difference between secondary forest biomass estimates developed with and without age information were inconsequential relative to the estimate of biomass for the entire scene. However, in futuristic scenarios where all of the primary forest has been converted to agriculture and secondary forest (55% and 42% respectively), the ability to age secondary forest becomes critical. Depending on biomass accumulation rate assumptions, scene biomass budget errors on the order of -10% to +30% are likely if the age of the secondary forests are not taken into account. Single-date TM imagery cannot be used to accurately age secondary forests into single-year classes. A neural network utilizing TM band 2 and three TM spectral-texture measures (bands 3 and 5) predicted secondary forest age over a range of 0-7 years with an RMSE of 1.59 years and an R(Squared) (sub actual vs predicted) = 0.37. A proposal is made, based on a literature review, to use satellite imagery to identify general secondary forest age groups which, within group, exhibit relatively constant biomass accumulation rates.

  19. Above ground biomass and tree species richness estimation with airborne lidar in tropical Ghana forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaglio Laurin, Gaia; Puletti, Nicola; Chen, Qi; Corona, Piermaria; Papale, Dario; Valentini, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    Estimates of forest aboveground biomass are fundamental for carbon monitoring and accounting; delivering information at very high spatial resolution is especially valuable for local management, conservation and selective logging purposes. In tropical areas, hosting large biomass and biodiversity resources which are often threatened by unsustainable anthropogenic pressures, frequent forest resources monitoring is needed. Lidar is a powerful tool to estimate aboveground biomass at fine resolution; however its application in tropical forests has been limited, with high variability in the accuracy of results. Lidar pulses scan the forest vertical profile, and can provide structure information which is also linked to biodiversity. In the last decade the remote sensing of biodiversity has received great attention, but few studies focused on the use of lidar for assessing tree species richness in tropical forests. This research aims at estimating aboveground biomass and tree species richness using discrete return airborne lidar in Ghana forests. We tested an advanced statistical technique, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), which does not require assumptions on data distribution or on the relationships between variables, being suitable for studying ecological variables. We compared the MARS regression results with those obtained by multilinear regression and found that both algorithms were effective, but MARS provided higher accuracy either for biomass (R2 = 0.72) and species richness (R2 = 0.64). We also noted strong correlation between biodiversity and biomass field values. Even if the forest areas under analysis are limited in extent and represent peculiar ecosystems, the preliminary indications produced by our study suggest that instrument such as lidar, specifically useful for pinpointing forest structure, can also be exploited as a support for tree species richness assessment.

  20. ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS DISTRIBUTION OF US EASTERN HARDWOOD FORESTS AND THE USE OF LARGE TREES AS AN INDICATOR OF FOREST DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past clearing and harvesting of the deciduous hardwood forests of eastern USA released large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, but through recovery and regrowth these forests are now accumulating atmospheric carbon (C). This study examined quantities and distribution ...

  1. Root growth dynamics linked to aboveground growth in walnuts (Juglans regia L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Examination of belowground plant responses to canopy and soil moisture manipulation is scant compared to that aboveground but needed to understand whole plant responses to environmental factors. Plasticity in the seasonal timing and vertical distribution of root growth in respon...

  2. Characteristics of train noise in above-ground and underground stations with side and island platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokura, Ryota; Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2011-04-01

    Railway stations can be principally classified by their locations, i.e., above-ground or underground stations, and by their platform styles, i.e., side or island platforms. However, the effect of the architectural elements on the train noise in stations is not well understood. The aim of the present study is to determine the different acoustical characteristics of the train noise for each station style. The train noise was evaluated by (1) the A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure level ( LAeq), (2) the amplitude of the maximum peak of the interaural cross-correlation function (IACC), (3) the delay time ( τ1) and amplitude ( ϕ1) of the first maximum peak of the autocorrelation function. The IACC, τ1 and ϕ1 are related to the subjective diffuseness, pitch and pitch strength, respectively. Regarding the locations, the LAeq in the underground stations was 6.4 dB higher than that in the above-ground stations, and the pitch in the underground stations was higher and stronger. Regarding the platform styles, the LAeq on the side platforms was 3.3 dB higher than on the island platforms of the above-ground stations. For the underground stations, the LAeq on the island platforms was 3.3 dB higher than that on the side platforms when a train entered the station. The IACC on the island platforms of the above-ground stations was higher than that in the other stations.

  3. Technical basis for the aboveground structure failure and associated represented hazardous conditions

    SciTech Connect

    MANGAN, D.

    2003-03-20

    The purpose of the Technical Basis Document is to determine the consequences and frequency of aboveground structure failures. These failures include drops of contained equipment, such as a pump, from a SST or DST, a crane failure resulting in a load drop onto a HEPA filter. These failures can result in an uncontrolled release of radiological and toxicological material.

  4. Putative linkages between below- and aboveground mutualisms during alien plant invasions

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Traveset, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the fundamental role of below–aboveground links in controlling ecosystem processes is mostly based on studies done with soil herbivores or mutualists and aboveground herbivores. Much less is known about the links between belowground and aboveground mutualisms, which have been studied separately for decades. It has not been until recently that these mutualisms—mycorrhizas and legume–rhizobia on one hand, and pollinators and seed dispersers on the other hand—have been found to influence each other, with potential ecological and evolutionary consequences. Here we review the mechanisms that may link these two-level mutualisms, mostly reported for native plant species, and make predictions about their relevance during alien plant invasions. We propose that alien plants establishing effective mutualisms with belowground microbes might improve their reproductive success through positive interactions between those mutualists and pollinators and seed dispersers. On the other hand, changes in the abundance and diversity of soil mutualists induced by invasion can also interfere with below–aboveground links for native plant species. We conclude that further research on this topic is needed in the field of invasion ecology as it can provide interesting clues on synergistic interactions and invasional meltdowns during alien plant invasions. PMID:26034049

  5. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness. PMID:26797948

  6. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness.

  7. Biomass measurement from LANDSAT: Drought and energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory supporting the use of vegetation indices derived from LANDSAT data for the direct measurement of biomass is reviewed. The use of multispectral data to measure biomass is a natural and viable application since the photosynthetic production of biomass gives vegetation its unique spectral properties. Vegetation indices also perform a normalization function which tends to make them insensitive to atmospheric and soil color variations. Optical and digital LANDSAT products are discussed relative to the use of vegetation indices to monitor drought impact. Based on results obtained in Colorado, operational use of LANDSAT to monitor drought is cost effective, practical and ready for implementation today. The direct measurement of biomass energy resources may also benefit from LANDSAT technology. Measurement of total biomass and annual primary production may be feasible. Identification of that component of biomass resources available for energy use will require other sources of information, however.

  8. Increasing biomass in Amazonian forest plots.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Timothy R; Phillips, Oliver L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Almeida, Samuel; Arroyo, Luzmila; Di Fiore, Anthony; Erwin, Terry; Higuchi, Niro; Killeen, Timothy J; Laurance, Susan G; Laurance, William F; Lewis, Simon L; Monteagudo, Abel; Neill, David A; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Pitman, Nigel C A; Silva, J Natalino M; Martínez, Rodolfo Vásquez

    2004-01-01

    A previous study by Phillips et al. of changes in the biomass of permanent sample plots in Amazonian forests was used to infer the presence of a regional carbon sink. However, these results generated a vigorous debate about sampling and methodological issues. Therefore we present a new analysis of biomass change in old-growth Amazonian forest plots using updated inventory data. We find that across 59 sites, the above-ground dry biomass in trees that are more than 10 cm in diameter (AGB) has increased since plot establishment by 1.22 +/- 0.43 Mg per hectare per year (ha(-1) yr(-1), where 1 ha = 10(4) m2), or 0.98 +/- 0.38 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) if individual plot values are weighted by the number of hectare years of monitoring. This significant increase is neither confounded by spatial or temporal variation in wood specific gravity, nor dependent on the allometric equation used to estimate AGB. The conclusion is also robust to uncertainty about diameter measurements for problematic trees: for 34 plots in western Amazon forests a significant increase in AGB is found even with a conservative assumption of zero growth for all trees where diameter measurements were made using optical methods and/or growth rates needed to be estimated following fieldwork. Overall, our results suggest a slightly greater rate of net stand-level change than was reported by Phillips et al. Considering the spatial and temporal scale of sampling and associated studies showing increases in forest growth and stem turnover, the results presented here suggest that the total biomass of these plots has on average increased and that there has been a regional-scale carbon sink in old-growth Amazonian forests during the previous two decades. PMID:15212090

  9. Cadmium uptake in above-ground parts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiwang; Pang, Yan; Ji, Puhui; Gao, Pengcheng; Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Tong, Yan'an

    2016-03-01

    Because of its high Cd uptake and translocation, lettuce is often used in Cd contamination studies. However, there is a lack of information on Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of lettuce during the entire growing season. In this study, a field experiment was carried out in a Cd-contaminated area. Above-ground lettuce parts were sampled, and the Cd content was measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the Cd concentration in the above-ground parts of lettuce increased from 2.70 to 3.62mgkg(-1) during the seedling stage, but decreased from 3.62 to 2.40mgkg(-1) during organogenesis and from 2.40 to 1.64mgkg(-1) during bolting. The mean Cd concentration during the seedling stage was significantly higher than that during organogenesis (a=0.05) and bolting (a=0.01). The Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of an individual lettuce plant could be described by a sigmoidal curve. Cadmium uptake during organogenesis was highest (80% of the total), whereas that during bolting was only 4.34%. This research further reveals that for Rome lettuce: (1) the highest Cd content of above-ground parts occurred at the end of the seedling phase; (2) the best harvest time with respect to Cd phytoaccumulation is at the end of the organogenesis stage; and (3) the organogenesis stage is the most suitable time to enhance phytoaccumulation efficiency by adjusting the root:shoot ratio. PMID:26685781

  10. Cadmium uptake in above-ground parts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiwang; Pang, Yan; Ji, Puhui; Gao, Pengcheng; Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Tong, Yan'an

    2016-03-01

    Because of its high Cd uptake and translocation, lettuce is often used in Cd contamination studies. However, there is a lack of information on Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of lettuce during the entire growing season. In this study, a field experiment was carried out in a Cd-contaminated area. Above-ground lettuce parts were sampled, and the Cd content was measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the Cd concentration in the above-ground parts of lettuce increased from 2.70 to 3.62mgkg(-1) during the seedling stage, but decreased from 3.62 to 2.40mgkg(-1) during organogenesis and from 2.40 to 1.64mgkg(-1) during bolting. The mean Cd concentration during the seedling stage was significantly higher than that during organogenesis (a=0.05) and bolting (a=0.01). The Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of an individual lettuce plant could be described by a sigmoidal curve. Cadmium uptake during organogenesis was highest (80% of the total), whereas that during bolting was only 4.34%. This research further reveals that for Rome lettuce: (1) the highest Cd content of above-ground parts occurred at the end of the seedling phase; (2) the best harvest time with respect to Cd phytoaccumulation is at the end of the organogenesis stage; and (3) the organogenesis stage is the most suitable time to enhance phytoaccumulation efficiency by adjusting the root:shoot ratio.

  11. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession.

    PubMed

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Poorter, Lourens; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans

    2015-05-01

    Over half of the world's forests are disturbed, and the rate at which ecosystem processes recover after disturbance is important for the services these forests can provide. We analyze the drivers' underlying changes in rates of key ecosystem processes (biomass productivity, litter productivity, actual litter decomposition, and potential litter decomposition) during secondary succession after shifting cultivation in wet tropical forest of Mexico. We test the importance of three alternative drivers of ecosystem processes: vegetation biomass (vegetation quantity hypothesis), community-weighted trait mean (mass ratio hypothesis), and functional diversity (niche complementarity hypothesis) using structural equation modeling. This allows us to infer the relative importance of different mechanisms underlying ecosystem process recovery. Ecosystem process rates changed during succession, and the strongest driver was aboveground biomass for each of the processes. Productivity of aboveground stem biomass and leaf litter as well as actual litter decomposition increased with initial standing vegetation biomass, whereas potential litter decomposition decreased with standing biomass. Additionally, biomass productivity was positively affected by community-weighted mean of specific leaf area, and potential decomposition was positively affected by functional divergence, and negatively by community-weighted mean of leaf dry matter content. Our empirical results show that functional diversity and community-weighted means are of secondary importance for explaining changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession. Instead, simply, the amount of vegetation in a site is the major driver of changes, perhaps because there is a steep biomass buildup during succession that overrides more subtle effects of community functional properties on ecosystem processes. We recommend future studies in the field of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning to separate the effects of

  12. Practices & Procedures of Mason Tending I & II. Instructor Manual. Trainee Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This packet consists of the instructor and trainee manuals for two courses: practices and procedures of mason tending I and II. The instructor manual for mason tending I contains a schedule for a 40-hour, 5-day course and instructor outline. The outline provides a step-by-step description of the instructor's activities and includes answer sheets…

  13. Stimulus Control: The Sought or Unsought Influence of the Objects We Tend to

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Larson, Lindsay R. L.; Zarolia, Pareezad; Bargh, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Does the mere presence of the things we have tended to influence our actions systematically, in ways that escape our awareness? For example, while entering a tool shed, does perceiving objects that we once tended to (e.g., tools, musical instruments) influence how we then execute a simple action (e.g., flicking the shed's light switch)? Ancient…

  14. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants. PMID:27200071

  15. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  16. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants. PMID:27200071

  17. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  18. Poyang Lake wetland vegetation biomass inversion using polarimetric RADARSAT-2 synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guozhuang; Liao, Jingjuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Ju

    2015-01-01

    Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China and one of the most important wetlands in the world. Vegetation, an important component of wetland ecosystems, is one of the main sources of the carbon in the atmosphere. Biomass can quantify the contribution of wetland vegetation to carbon sinks and carbon sources. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which can operate in all day and weather conditions and penetrate vegetation to some extent, can be used to retrieve information about vegetation structure and the aboveground biomass. In this study, RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data were used to retrieve aboveground vegetation biomass in the Poyang Lake wetland. Based on the canopy backscatter model, the vegetation backscatter characteristics in the C-band were studied, and a good relation between simulated backscatter and backscatter in the RADARSAT-2 imagery was achieved. Using the backscatter model, pairs of training data were built and used to train the back propagation artificial neural network. The biomass was retrieved using this ANN and compared with the field survey results. The root-mean-square error in the biomass estimation was 45.57 g/m2. This shows that the combination of the model and polarimetric decomposition components can efficiently improve the inversion precision.

  19. Forest Biomass Mapping Using Lidar-derived Canopy Height Metrics at Maine in USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Sun, G.

    2010-12-01

    Forest biomass from regional to global level is important for underlying and monitoring the ecosystem responses to natural and human activities. Lidar provides the ability to directly measure canopy height index for aboveground biomass estimation. Our study site is located in Howland, Maine, United States. Data source consists of airborne medium footprint lidar data in 2009 and ground data from DESDynI field campaign in August 2009 and 2010. Canopy vertical structures are captured by the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) with entire return signal (i.e. in ~30 cm vertical bins). We first calculated height metrics (i.e. h10 to h100, totally 15 indices) by waveform decomposition using either Gaussian or numeric filter. Then, metrics were compared with RH indices at different levels: footprint of 20m diameter circle, squared plot of 25 x 25m, 50 x 50 m, 50 x 100 m and 50 x 200 m, respectively. At last, the biomass map was created. Height metrics from h50 to h80 show high correlation with biomass. Among them, h65 and h70 are the best, which is consistent with previous perspective that RH50 (or HOME, height of median energy) and RH75 have the best linear relationship with aboveground biomass. Comparison between h metrics and RH indices shows the latter one is better. In addition, both single and multi-variable linear regression model significant improvement with the increasing of field plot size.

  20. Effectiveness of Biomass Harvesting from Stormwater Detention Areas in Reducing Phosphorus Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.

    2014-12-01

    Stormwater Detention Areas (SDAs) in agricultural landscapes are considered to be the most important Best Management Practice by state agencies in Florida. Two main processes responsible for Phosphorus (P) retention in SDAs are soil adsorption and plant uptake. Long term pumping of agricultural drainage may saturate the SDA's soil with P which can put these systems at the risk of becoming a source of P. Given that these systems already occupy part of the farmland and are costly to build, interventions are needed to sustain SDAs as a sink of P. Soil and vegetation P content at two SDAs (SDA1 and 2) in south Florida was quantified in addition to inflow and outflow P loads. Analyses showed that soil was saturated with limited to no P adsorption capacity remaining. Negative Soil Phosphorus Storage Capacity (SPSC) indicated that soil was at a risk of P release. Given these conditions, the only avenue to remove P from SDAs without any potentially undesirable ecological impacts, was biomass harvesting. At SDA1, results showed that harvesting the aboveground biomass would result in 19% extra P retention if the current vegetation (Para grass, Brachiaria mutica) is harvested. Given that aboveground tissue P content of Para grass is very low, replacing it with another native grass (Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon) and harvesting it annually could retain most of the incoming P load. A similar analysis showed that at SDA2, almost 40% additional P could be retained by harvesting aboveground biomass of the dominant vegetation (Torpedo Grass, Panicum repens and Smartweed, Polygonum hydropiperoides). A spatial analysis in conjunction with SPSC values and aboveground plant P indicated that biomass harvesting can transform both the SDAs from a source to sink in 2 to 3 years. A fifty year net present value analysis showed that overall it is an economically feasible strategy with an average annual benefit of 3,223 and 34,825 for SDA1 and 2, respectively. Harvesting aboveground biomass

  1. Remote sensing of biomass and annual net aerial primary productivity of a salt marsh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.; Daiber, F. C.; Roman, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    Net aerial primary productivity is the rate of storage of organic matter in above-ground plant issues exceeding the respiratory use by the plants during the period of measurement. It is pointed out that this plant tissue represents the fixed carbon available for transfer to and consumption by the heterotrophic organisms in a salt marsh or the estuary. One method of estimating annual net aerial primary productivity (NAPP) required multiple harvesting of the marsh vegetation. A rapid nondestructive remote sensing technique for estimating biomass and NAPP would, therefore, be a significant asset. The present investigation was designed to employ simple regression models, equating spectral radiance indices with Spartina alterniflora biomass to nondestructively estimate salt marsh biomass. The results of the study showed that the considered approach can be successfully used to estimate salt marsh biomass.

  2. Energy from Biomass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

  3. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  4. Education Highlights: Forest Biomass

    ScienceCinema

    Barone, Rachel; Canter, Christina

    2016-07-12

    Argonne intern Rachel Barone from Ithaca College worked with Argonne mentor Christina Canter in studying forest biomass. This research will help scientists develop large scale use of biofuels from forest biomass.

  5. National-scale estimation of gross forest aboveground carbon loss: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S. V.; Potapov, P. V.; Turubanova, S. A.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing enable the mapping and monitoring of carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where national forest inventories (NFI) are either non-existent or out of date. Here we demonstrate a method for estimating national-scale gross forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss and associated uncertainties using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Lidar data were used as a surrogate for NFI plot measurements to estimate carbon stocks and AGC loss based on forest type and activity data derived using time-series multispectral imagery. Specifically, DRC forest type and loss from the FACET (Forêts d’Afrique Centrale Evaluées par Télédétection) product, created using Landsat data, were related to carbon data derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Validation data for FACET forest area loss were created at a 30-m spatial resolution and compared to the 60-m spatial resolution FACET map. We produced two gross AGC loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a map-scale estimate (53.3 ± 9.8 Tg C yr-1) accounting for whole-pixel classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a sub-grid estimate (72.1 ± 12.7 Tg C yr-1) that took into account 60-m cells that experienced partial forest loss. Our sub-grid forest cover and AGC loss estimates, which included smaller-scale forest disturbances, exceed published assessments. Results raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and validation, and subsequent impacts on remotely sensed carbon stock change estimation, particularly for smallholder dominated systems such as the DRC.

  6. Pretreated densified biomass products

    DOEpatents

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  7. Biomass allocation of montane and desert Pondersoa Pine: An analog for response to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, R.M.; DeLucia, E.H. ); Schlesinger, W.H. )

    1994-07-01

    Aboveground biomass allocation of Pinus ponderosa on hydrothermally altered andesite in montane and desert climates was measured. Trees from montane climates had higher leaf mass per unit cross-sectional area of sapwood than trees from desert climates, suggesting a function response to differences in climate. Results also indicate that sapwood mass:leaf mass ratios of P. ponderosa may increase [approx]50% with a 5[degrees]C change in mean growing-season temperature. High proportional allocation of biomass to sapwood may improve water relations of P. ponderosa, but because sapwood contains living parenchyma, respiratory costs may be high. Simulated montane trees were 46-52% taller than desert trees, and montane trees 10 cm in dbh had twice the total aboveground mass of desert counterparts. Simulated 50-cm montane and desert trees were almost identical in total mass, even though the montane tree was 46% taller. The predicted proportion of biomass allocated to bole sapwood increased with size for both montane and desert models; however, the 50-cm desert model contained 8% more total sapwood mass than the taller montane model. Biomass of primary and secondary branches differed considerably. The 50-cm desert model had twice as much biomass in primary branches, whereas the montane model had 3 times more biomass in secondary branches than the desert model. For 10-cm trees of the desert and montane models 29 and 33% of the biomass were leaves, respectively. In larger trees, leaf allocation decreased to 5 and 7% for desert and montane models, respectively. The effects of climate on biomass allocation such as reported here, and corresponding changes in whole-plant assimilation rates must be incorporated into growth-response models used to predict future fluctuations in forest productivity due to global climate change. 35 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. The importance of crown dimensions to improve tropical tree biomass estimates.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Rosa C; Phillips, Oliver L; Baker, Timothy R

    2014-06-01

    Tropical forests play a vital role in the global carbon cycle, but the amount of carbon they contain and its spatial distribution remain uncertain. Recent studies suggest that once tree height is accounted for in biomass calculations, in addition to diameter and wood density, carbon stock estimates are reduced in many areas. However, it is possible that larger crown sizes might offset the reduction in biomass estimates in some forests where tree heights are lower because even comparatively short trees develop large, well-lit crowns in or above the forest canopy. While current allometric models and theory focus on diameter, wood density, and height, the influence of crown size and structure has not been well studied. To test the extent to which accounting for crown parameters can improve biomass estimates, we harvested and weighed 51 trees (11-169 cm diameter) in southwestern Amazonia where no direct biomass measurements have been made. The trees in our study had nearly half of total aboveground biomass in the branches (44% +/- 2% [mean +/- SE]), demonstrating the importance of accounting for tree crowns. Consistent with our predictions, key pantropical equations that include height, but do not account for crown dimensions, underestimated the sum total biomass of all 51 trees by 11% to 14%, primarily due to substantial underestimates of many of the largest trees. In our models, including crown radius greatly improves performance and reduces error, especially for the largest trees. In addition, over the full data set, crown radius explained more variation in aboveground biomass (10.5%) than height (6.0%). Crown form is also important: Trees with a monopodial architectural type are estimated to have 21-44% less mass than trees with other growth patterns. Our analysis suggests that accounting for crown allometry would substantially improve the accuracy of tropical estimates of tree biomass and its distribution in primary and degraded forests.

  9. BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

  10. Biomass Program Biopower Factsheet

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    Generating electricity and thermal energy from biomass has the potential to help meet national goals for renewable energy. The forest products industry has used biomass for power and heat for many decades, yet widespread use of biomass to supply electricity to the U.S. power grid and other applications is relatively recent.

  11. Small Modular Biomass Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-01

    This fact sheet provides information about modular biomass systems. Small modular biomass systems can help supply electricity to rural areas, businesses, and the billions of people who live without power worldwide. These systems use locally available biomass fuels such as wood, crop waste, animal manures, and landfill gas.

  12. Efficacies of designer biochars in improving biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat grown in a hard setting subsoil layer.

    PubMed

    Sigua, G C; Novak, J M; Watts, D W; Johnson, M G; Spokas, K

    2016-01-01

    In the Coastal Plains region of the United States, the hard setting subsoil layer of Norfolk soils results in low water holding capacity and nutrient retention, which often limits root development. In this region, the Norfolk soils are under intensive crop production that further depletes nutrients and reduces organic carbon (C). Incorporation of pyrolyzed organic residues or "biochars" can provide an alternative recalcitrant C source. However, biochar quality and effect can be inconsistent and different biochars react differently in soils. We hypothesized that addition of different designer biochars will have variable effects on biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of designer biochars on biomass productivity and nutrient uptake of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer. Biochars were added to Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer at the rate of 40 Mg ha(-1). The different sources of biochars were: plant-based (pine chips, PC); animal-based (poultry litter, PL); 50:50 blend (50% PC:50% PL); 80:20 blend (80% PC:20% PL); and hardwood (HW). Aboveground and belowground biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat varied significantly (p⩽0.0001) with the different designer biochar applications. The greatest increase in the belowground biomass of winter wheat over the control was from 80:20 blend of PC:PL (81%) followed by HW (76%), PC (59%) and 50:50 blend of PC:PL (9%). However, application of PL resulted in significant reduction of belowground biomass by about 82% when compared to the control plants. The average uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Al, Fe, Cu and Zn in both the aboveground and belowground biomass of winter wheat varied remarkably with biochar treatments. Overall, our results showed promising significance for the treatment of a Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer since designer biochars did improve both aboveground/belowground biomass and nutrient uptake

  13. 50 CFR 622.405 - Trap construction specifications and tending restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.405 Trap... lobster trap may be no larger in dimension than 3 feet by 2 feet by 2 feet (91.4 cm by 61.0 cm by 61.0 cm.... (b) Tending restrictions. (1) A spiny lobster trap in the EEZ may be pulled or tended during...

  14. 50 CFR 622.405 - Trap construction specifications and tending restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.405 Trap... lobster trap may be no larger in dimension than 3 feet by 2 feet by 2 feet (91.4 cm by 61.0 cm by 61.0 cm.... (b) Tending restrictions. (1) A spiny lobster trap in the EEZ may be pulled or tended during...

  15. [Error structure and additivity of individual tree biomass model for four natural conifer species in Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Dogn, Li-hu; Li, Feng-ri; Song, Yu-wen

    2015-03-01

    Based on the biomass data of 276 sampling trees of Pinus koraiensis, Abies nephrolepis, Picea koraiensis and Larix gmelinii, the mono-element and dual-element additive system of biomass equations for the four conifer species was developed. The model error structure (additive vs. multiplicative) of the allometric equation was evaluated using the likelihood analysis, while nonlinear seemly unrelated regression was used to estimate the parameters in the additive system of biomass equations. The results indicated that the assumption of multiplicative error structure was strongly supported for the biomass equations of total and tree components for the four conifer species. Thus, the additive system of log-transformed biomass equations was developed. The adjusted coefficient of determination (Ra 2) of the additive system of biomass equations for the four conifer species was 0.85-0.99, the mean relative error was between -7.7% and 5.5%, and the mean absolute relative error was less than 30.5%. Adding total tree height in the additive systems of biomass equations could significantly improve model fitting performance and predicting precision, and the biomass equations of total, aboveground and stem were better than biomass equations of root, branch, foliage and crown. The precision of each biomass equation in the additive system varied from 77.0% to 99.7% with a mean value of 92.3% that would be suitable for predicting the biomass of the four natural conifer species.

  16. Modelling above-ground carbon dynamics using multi-temporal airborne lidar: insights from a Mediterranean woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonson, W.; Ruiz-Benito, P.; Valladares, F.; Coomes, D.

    2016-02-01

    Woodlands represent highly significant carbon sinks globally, though could lose this function under future climatic change. Effective large-scale monitoring of these woodlands has a critical role to play in mitigating for, and adapting to, climate change. Mediterranean woodlands have low carbon densities, but represent important global carbon stocks due to their extensiveness and are particularly vulnerable because the region is predicted to become much hotter and drier over the coming century. Airborne lidar is already recognized as an excellent approach for high-fidelity carbon mapping, but few studies have used multi-temporal lidar surveys to measure carbon fluxes in forests and none have worked with Mediterranean woodlands. We use a multi-temporal (5-year interval) airborne lidar data set for a region of central Spain to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB) and carbon dynamics in typical mixed broadleaved and/or coniferous Mediterranean woodlands. Field calibration of the lidar data enabled the generation of grid-based maps of AGB for 2006 and 2011, and the resulting AGB change was estimated. There was a close agreement between the lidar-based AGB growth estimate (1.22 Mg ha-1 yr-1) and those derived from two independent sources: the Spanish National Forest Inventory, and a tree-ring based analysis (1.19 and 1.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1, respectively). We parameterised a simple simulator of forest dynamics using the lidar carbon flux measurements, and used it to explore four scenarios of fire occurrence. Under undisturbed conditions (no fire) an accelerating accumulation of biomass and carbon is evident over the next 100 years with an average carbon sequestration rate of 1.95 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. This rate reduces by almost a third when fire probability is increased to 0.01 (fire return rate of 100 years), as has been predicted under climate change. Our work shows the power of multi-temporal lidar surveying to map woodland carbon fluxes and provide parameters for carbon

  17. Modelling above-ground carbon dynamics using multi-temporal airborne lidar: insights from a Mediterranean woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonson, W.; Ruiz-Benito, P.; Valladares, F.; Coomes, D.

    2015-09-01

    Woodlands represent highly significant carbon sinks globally, though could lose this function under future climatic change. Effective large-scale monitoring of these woodlands has a critical role to play in mitigating for, and adapting to, climate change. Mediterranean woodlands have low carbon densities, but represent important global carbon stocks due to their extensiveness and are particularly vulnerable because the region is predicted to become much hotter and drier over the coming century. Airborne lidar is already recognized as an excellent approach for high-fidelity carbon mapping, but few studies have used multi-temporal lidar surveys to measure carbon fluxes in forests and none have worked with Mediterranean woodlands. We use a multi-temporal (five year interval) airborne lidar dataset for a region of central Spain to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB) and carbon dynamics in typical mixed broadleaved/coniferous Mediterranean woodlands. Field calibration of the lidar data enabled the generation of grid-based maps of AGB for 2006 and 2011, and the resulting AGB change were estimated. There was a close agreement between the lidar-based AGB growth estimate (1.22 Mg ha-1 year-1) and those derived from two independent sources: the Spanish National Forest Inventory, and a~tree-ring based analysis (1.19 and 1.13 Mg ha-1 year-1, respectively). We parameterised a simple simulator of forest dynamics using the lidar carbon flux measurements, and used it to explore four scenarios of fire occurrence. Under undisturbed conditions (no fire occurrence) an accelerating accumulation of biomass and carbon is evident over the next 100 years with an average carbon sequestration rate of 1.95 Mg C ha-1 year-1. This rate reduces by almost a third when fire probability is increased to 0.01, as has been predicted under climate change. Our work shows the power of multi-temporal lidar surveying to map woodland carbon fluxes and provide parameters for carbon dynamics models. Space

  18. Effects of non-native earthworms on on below- and aboveground processes in the Mid-Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlavecz, K. A.; McCormick, M. K.; Xia, L.; Pitz, S.; O'Neill, J.; Bernard, M.; Chang, C.; Whigham, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    Many biotic and abiotic disturbances have shaped the structure of the deciduous forests in the Mid-Atlantic region. One major anthropogenic factor is land use history. Agricultural practices in the past undoubtedly facilitated non-native earthworm colonization and establishment. Today most secondary forests are dominated by European lumbricid earthworms, although native species also occur in some habitats. To investigate how earthworm community composition and abundance affect belowground processes and tree seedling growth we set up a field manipulation experiment at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, MD. A total of 66 experimental plots were set up in successional (70 yrs) and mature (150 yrs) Tulip-poplar-Oak associations. We manipulated earthworm abundance and leaf litter input, and planted seedlings of Tulip poplar, Red maple, Red oak, and American beech. The experiment lasted for two years during which we regularly monitored density, biomass and species composition of earthworm assemblages and measured soil respiration. Soil moisture, temperature and air temperature were also continuously monitored using a wireless sensor network. At harvest, soil bulk density, pH, N pools, C:N ratio, potential N-mineralization rates, and enzyme activity were determined. We used quantitative PCR to assess the community composition of soil fungi. We also determined the extent of mycorrhizal colonization and biomass of roots, shoots and leaves. We conducted likelihood ratio tests for random and fixed effects based on mixed model analyses of variance. Differences between soil depths and among sites and plots accounted for a large portion of the variation in many soil properties. Litter quality affected soil pH and N mineralization. Earthworm densities affected bulk density, inorganic N content, and N mineralization. Both mycorrhizal groups were more abundant in mature than in successional forests. Both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular (AM) fungi were

  19. Modelling of blast loading on aboveground structures - I. General phenomenology and external blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshara, F. B. A.

    1994-06-01

    The paper is concerned with the prediction of dynamic effects of unconfined explosions needed for the structural analysis of blast-loaded aboveground structures. The basic features of the explosion and blast wave phenomena are presented along with a discussion of TNT equivalency and blast scaling laws. The characteristics of incident overpressure loading due to atomic weapons, conventional high explosives and unconfined vapour cloud explosions are addressed and followed by a description of the other blast loading components associated with air flow and reflection process. In the final part, the modelling of external blast loads on the different faces of aboveground rigid structures is considered. A unified approach is followed in the presentation of the governing equations of modelling of blast loads for mathematical and practical applications.

  20. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation Modulates Transcriptional Levels of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Jasmonic Acid Signaling-Related Genes and Augments the Cope with Drought Stress of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Bae, Dong-Won; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the potential underlying molecular mechanisms by which maize (Zea mays L.) plants elicit defense responses by infestation with a phloem feeding insect whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] have been barely elucidated against (a)biotic stresses. To fill this gap of current knowledge maize plants were infested with whitefly and these plants were subsequently assessed the levels of water loss. To understand the mode of action, plant hormone contents and the stress-related mRNA expression were evaluated. Whitefly-infested maize plants did not display any significant phenotypic differences in above-ground tissues (infested site) compared with controls. By contrast, root (systemic tissue) biomass was increased by 2-fold by whitefly infestation. The levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were significantly higher in whitefly-infested plants. The biosynthetic or signaling-related genes for JA and anthocyanins were highly up-regulated. Additionally, we found that healthier plants were obtained in whitefly-infested plants under drought conditions. The weight of whitefly-infested plants was approximately 20% higher than that of control plants at 14 d of drought treatment. The drought tolerance-related genes, ZmbZIP72, ZmSNAC1, and ZmABA1, were highly expressed in the whitefly-infected plants. Collectively, our results suggest that IAA/JA-derived maize physiological changes and correlation of H2O2 production and water loss are modulated by above-ground whitefly infestation in maize plants. PMID:26630288

  1. Stimulation of the Salicylic Acid Pathway Aboveground Recruits Entomopathogenic Nematodes Belowground.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S; Junior, Alcides Moino; Pareja, Martin; Borai, Fahiem El; Dickson, Donald W; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Duncan, Larry W

    2016-01-01

    Plant defense pathways play a critical role in mediating tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. While the impact of plant defense pathway stimulation on natural enemies has been extensively explored aboveground, belowground ramifications of plant defense pathway stimulation are equally important in regulating subterranean pests and still require more attention. Here we investigate the effect of aboveground stimulation of the salicylic acid pathway through foliar application of the elicitor methyl salicylate on belowground recruitment of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema diaprepesi. Also, we implicate a specific root-derived volatile that attracts S. diaprepesi belowground following aboveground plant stimulation by an elicitor. In four-choice olfactometer assays, citrus plants treated with foliar applications of methyl salicylate recruited S. diaprepesi in the absence of weevil feeding as compared with negative controls. Additionally, analysis of root volatile profiles of citrus plants receiving foliar application of methyl salicylate revealed production of d-limonene, which was absent in negative controls. The entomopathogenic nematode S. diaprepesi was recruited to d-limonene in two-choice olfactometer trials. These results reinforce the critical role of plant defense pathways in mediating tritrophic interactions, suggest a broad role for plant defense pathway signaling belowground, and hint at sophisticated plant responses to pest complexes. PMID:27136916

  2. Stimulation of the Salicylic Acid Pathway Aboveground Recruits Entomopathogenic Nematodes Belowground

    PubMed Central

    Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S.; Junior, Alcides Moino; Pareja, Martin; Borai, Fahiem El; Dickson, Donald W.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.; Duncan, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Plant defense pathways play a critical role in mediating tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. While the impact of plant defense pathway stimulation on natural enemies has been extensively explored aboveground, belowground ramifications of plant defense pathway stimulation are equally important in regulating subterranean pests and still require more attention. Here we investigate the effect of aboveground stimulation of the salicylic acid pathway through foliar application of the elicitor methyl salicylate on belowground recruitment of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema diaprepesi. Also, we implicate a specific root-derived volatile that attracts S. diaprepesi belowground following