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Sample records for aboveground oil storage

  1. WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 3568), SPARES INERT STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3570), MISSILE ASSEMBLY SHOP (BUILDING 3578) AND SEGREGATED MAGAZINE STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3572). VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  2. Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Emily; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2016-10-12

    A substantial amount of global carbon is stored in mature trees. However, no experiments to date test how warming affects mature tree carbon storage. Using a unique, citywide, factorial experiment, we investigated how warming and insect herbivory affected physiological function and carbon sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global warming are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Stand structural diversity rather than species diversity enhances aboveground carbon storage in secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong; Chen, Han Y. H.; Chang, Scott X.; Zhao, Yan-Tao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ming-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Stand structural diversity, typically characterized by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height, plays a critical role in influencing aboveground carbon (C) storage. However, few studies have considered the multivariate relationships of aboveground C storage with stand age, stand structural diversity, and species diversity in natural forests. In this study, aboveground C storage, stand age, tree species, DBH and height diversity indices, were determined across 80 subtropical forest plots in Eastern China. We employed structural equation modelling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand structural diversity, species diversity, and stand age on aboveground C storage. The three final SEMs with different directions for the path between species diversity and stand structural diversity had a similar goodness of fit to the data. They accounted for 82 % of the variation in aboveground C storage, 55-59 % of the variation in stand structural diversity, and 0.1 to 9 % of the variation in species diversity. Stand age demonstrated strong positive total effects, including a positive direct effect (β = 0.41), and a positive indirect effect via stand structural diversity (β = 0.41) on aboveground C storage. Stand structural diversity had a positive direct effect on aboveground C storage (β = 0.56), whereas there was little total effect of species diversity as it had a negative direct association with, but had a positive indirect effect, via stand structural diversity, on aboveground C storage. The negligible total effect of species diversity on aboveground C storage in the forests under study may have been attributable to competitive exclusion with high aboveground biomass, or a historical logging preference for productive species. Our analyses suggested that stand structural diversity was a major determinant for variations in aboveground C storage in the secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China. Hence, maintaining tree DBH and

  4. Tree aboveground carbon storage correlates with environmental gradients and functional diversity in a tropical forest

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yong; Yu, Shixiao; Lian, Juyu; Shen, Hao; Cao, Honglin; Lu, Huanping; Ye, Wanhui

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests play a disproportionately important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, but it remains unclear how local environments and functional diversity regulate tree aboveground C storage. We examined how three components (environments, functional dominance and diversity) affected C storage in Dinghushan 20-ha plot in China. There was large fine-scale variation in C storage. The three components significantly contributed to regulate C storage, but dominance and diversity of traits were associated with C storage in different directions. Structural equation models (SEMs) of dominance and diversity explained 34% and 32% of variation in C storage. Environments explained 26–44% of variation in dominance and diversity. Similar proportions of variation in C storage were explained by dominance and diversity in regression models, they were improved after adding environments. Diversity of maximum diameter was the best predictor of C storage. Complementarity and selection effects contributed to C storage simultaneously, and had similar importance. The SEMs disengaged the complex relationships among the three components and C storage, and established a framework to show the direct and indirect effects (via dominance and diversity) of local environments on C storage. We concluded that local environments are important for regulating functional diversity and C storage. PMID:27278688

  5. Structural Health Monitoring of Above-Ground Storage Tank Floors by Ultrasonic Guided Wave Excitation on the Tank Wall.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Premesh S; Duan, Wenbo; Kanfoud, Jamil; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2017-11-04

    There is an increasing interest in using ultrasonic guided waves to assess the structural degradation of above-ground storage tank floors. This is a non-invasive and economically viable means of assessing structural degradation. Above-ground storage tank floors are ageing assets which need to be inspected periodically to avoid structural failure. At present, normal-stress type transducers are bonded to the tank annular chime to generate a force field in the thickness direction of the floor and excite fundamental symmetric and asymmetric Lamb modes. However, the majority of above-ground storage tanks in use have no annular chime due to a simplified design and/or have a degraded chime due to corrosion. This means that transducers cannot be mounted on the chime to assess structural health according to the present technology, and the market share of structural health monitoring of above-ground storage tank floors using ultrasonic guided wave is thus limited. Therefore, the present study investigates the potential of using the tank wall to bond the transducer instead of the tank annular chime. Both normal and shear type transducers were investigated numerically, and results were validated using a 4.1 m diameter above-ground storage tank. The study results show shear mode type transducers bonded to the tank wall can be used to assess the structural health of the above-ground tank floors using an ultrasonic guided wave. It is also shown that for the cases studied there is a 7.4 dB signal-to-noise ratio improvement at 45 kHz for the guided wave excitation on the tank wall using shear mode transducers.

  6. Structural Health Monitoring of Above-Ground Storage Tank Floors by Ultrasonic Guided Wave Excitation on the Tank Wall

    PubMed Central

    Kanfoud, Jamil; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using ultrasonic guided waves to assess the structural degradation of above-ground storage tank floors. This is a non-invasive and economically viable means of assessing structural degradation. Above-ground storage tank floors are ageing assets which need to be inspected periodically to avoid structural failure. At present, normal-stress type transducers are bonded to the tank annular chime to generate a force field in the thickness direction of the floor and excite fundamental symmetric and asymmetric Lamb modes. However, the majority of above-ground storage tanks in use have no annular chime due to a simplified design and/or have a degraded chime due to corrosion. This means that transducers cannot be mounted on the chime to assess structural health according to the present technology, and the market share of structural health monitoring of above-ground storage tank floors using ultrasonic guided wave is thus limited. Therefore, the present study investigates the potential of using the tank wall to bond the transducer instead of the tank annular chime. Both normal and shear type transducers were investigated numerically, and results were validated using a 4.1 m diameter above-ground storage tank. The study results show shear mode type transducers bonded to the tank wall can be used to assess the structural health of the above-ground tank floors using an ultrasonic guided wave. It is also shown that for the cases studied there is a 7.4 dB signal-to-noise ratio improvement at 45 kHz for the guided wave excitation on the tank wall using shear mode transducers. PMID:29113058

  7. Preliminary study on the relationships between aboveground storage and remotely sensed data at Pingdong plain afforestation land in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C.; Chen, J. M.; Yu, J.; Cheng, C.; Lai, Y.; Chiang, P.; Hong, C.; Chang, C.; Wey, T.; Tsai, M.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This research aims on the relationships between LAI and five vegetation index (BR, SRBR, BD, NDVI and TNDVI) from remotely sensed images, in situ measurements and aboveground storage for 10-11yr old plain afforestation (14 species) located at Wanlong farm of subtropical-tropical region at the southern part of Taiwan which originally governed by Taiwan Sugar Corporation. The preliminary results show the aboveground storage is 14.19×9.19 m3 ha-1 and the correlation coefficient between aboveground storage and BR, SRBR, BD, NDVI and TNDVI is 0.331 (p=0.211), 0.317 (p=0.232), 0.310 (p=0.244), 0.714 (p=0.002) and 0.706 (p=0.002) while NDVI performs the best correlation. LAI value using Fisheye or Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC) is 0.76×0.37 and 3.89×2.81, respectively. Besides, CI measured by TRAC is 0.83×0.09 and the correlation coefficient with LAI is 0.868 (p<0.001). It shows feasible to estimate aboveground storage using ground investigation incorporating remotely sensed data for young plain afforestation stand. Due to the mixed-plantation and difference between growing and non-growing season at the sample site, the relationship between aboveground storage, LAI and VI is yet to be developed for independent species and may need to modify due to seasonally and inter-annually variation.

  8. Tree species diversity promotes aboveground carbon storage through functional diversity and functional dominance.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Sylvanus; Veldtman, Ruan; Assogbadjo, Achille E; Glèlè Kakaï, Romain; Seifert, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function has increasingly been debated as the cornerstone of the processes behind ecosystem services delivery. Experimental and natural field-based studies have come up with nonconsistent patterns of biodiversity-ecosystem function, supporting either niche complementarity or selection effects hypothesis. Here, we used aboveground carbon (AGC) storage as proxy for ecosystem function in a South African mistbelt forest, and analyzed its relationship with species diversity, through functional diversity and functional dominance. We hypothesized that (1) diversity influences AGC through functional diversity and functional dominance effects; and (2) effects of diversity on AGC would be greater for functional dominance than for functional diversity. Community weight mean (CWM) of functional traits (wood density, specific leaf area, and maximum plant height) were calculated to assess functional dominance (selection effects). As for functional diversity (complementarity effects), multitrait functional diversity indices were computed. The first hypothesis was tested using structural equation modeling. For the second hypothesis, effects of environmental variables such as slope and altitude were tested first, and separate linear mixed-effects models were fitted afterward for functional diversity, functional dominance, and both. Results showed that AGC varied significantly along the slope gradient, with lower values at steeper sites. Species diversity (richness) had positive relationship with AGC, even when slope effects were considered. As predicted, diversity effects on AGC were mediated through functional diversity and functional dominance, suggesting that both the niche complementarity and the selection effects are not exclusively affecting carbon storage. However, the effects were greater for functional diversity than for functional dominance. Furthermore, functional dominance effects were strongly transmitted by CWM of

  9. Impacts of Storm Surge Mitigation Strategies on Aboveground Storage Tank Chemical Spill Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, C.; Bass, B. J.; Bernier, C.; Samii, A.; Dawson, C.; Bedient, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC), located in the hurricane-prone Houston-Galveston region of the upper Texas Coast, is one of the busiest waterways in the United States and is home to one of the largest petrochemical complexes in the world. Due to the proximity of the HSC to Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, chemical spills resulting from storm surge damage to aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) pose serious threats to the environment, residential communities, and national/international markets whose activities in the HSC generate billions of dollars annually. In an effort to develop a comprehensive storm surge mitigation strategy for Galveston Bay and its constituents, Rice University's Severe Storm Prediction, Education, and Evacuation from Disasters Center proposed two structural storm surge mitigation concepts, the Mid Bay Structure (MBS) and the Lower Bay Structure (LBS) as components of the Houston-Galveston Area Protection System (H-GAPS) project. The MBS consists of levees along the HSC and a navigational gate across the channel, and the LBS consists of a navigation gate and environmental gates across Bolivar Road. The impacts of these two barrier systems on the fate of AST chemical spills in the HSC have previously been unknown. This study applies the coupled 2D SWAN+ADCIRC model to simulate hurricane storm surge circulation within the Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay due to a synthetic storm which results in approximately 250-year surge levels in Galveston Bay. The SWAN+ADCIRC model is run using high-resolution computational meshes that incorporate the MBS and LBS scenarios, separately. The resulting wind and water velocities are then fed into a Lagrangian particle transport model to simulate the spill trajectories of the ASTs most likely to fail during the 250-year proxy storm. Results from this study illustrate how each storm surge mitigation strategy impacts the transport of chemical spills (modeled as Lagrangian particles) during storm surge as

  10. Erecting Gas Storage Facilities and Oil Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-21

    these allow steam to flow from the steam lines into the storage tank and to hydraulic seals , then into the water via steam -jet conveyors. The...of the dry gas tank is similar to that of a steam engine. There is a special seal between the plate and the wall. The plate, by the action of gas...stable and sealed during the entire period of use. The formation of cracks and the leakage of gas through them may create danger for above-ground

  11. 40 CFR 279.22 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.22 Section 279...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.22 Used oil storage. Used... Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used oil stored in underground tanks whether or not...

  12. 40 CFR 279.22 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.22 Section 279...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.22 Used oil storage. Used... Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used oil stored in underground tanks whether or not...

  13. 40 CFR 279.22 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.22 Section 279...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.22 Used oil storage. Used... Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used oil stored in underground tanks whether or not...

  14. Regulation of above-ground oil and waste containers. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Tourism, and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, January 26, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    Representatives from the petroleum industry, US EPA, National Bureau of Standards and Congress were among those testifying at a hearing to discuss one of the worst inland environmental disasters in this Nation's history. The January 2 collapse of the Ashland Oil Co.'s storage tank in Floreffe, Pennsylvania resulted in the release of some 4 million gallons of diesel fuel. Approximately a million gallons escaped the containment structures and spilled over into the Monongahela River. This spill has contaminated the drinking water sources for millions of people downstream, from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati to Louisville, and beyond. Attention is focused on themore » causes of this tank's collapse, the response measures taken by Ashland Oil, the Coast Guard, the EPA, and the need for tighter federal regulations of above-ground tanks used for the storage of petroleum and hazardous substances.« less

  15. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279... for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill.... Used oil burners are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used...

  16. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279... for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill.... Used oil burners are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used...

  17. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279... for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill.... Used oil burners are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used...

  18. 40 CFR 279.22 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.22 Section 279...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.22 Used oil storage. Used oil generators are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures (40 CFR...

  19. 40 CFR 279.22 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.22 Section 279...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.22 Used oil storage. Used oil generators are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures (40 CFR...

  20. Influences of shelterwood prescriptions to aboveground carbon storage and herpetofaunal and small mammal communities

    Treesearch

    Padraic Conner; Yong Wang; Callie Jo Schweitzer

    2015-01-01

    We examined the response of herpetofaunal and small mammal communities to silvicultural treatments. In addition, differences between silvicultural treatments of carbon storage ratios in trees, shrubs, vines, herbaceous material, course woody debris, and fine woody debris were studied. A complete randomized design with multiple replications, 20 experimental stands of...

  1. 2. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, North end of base, northwest of Mess Hall & south of Basketball Court, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  2. 1. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, North end of base, northwest of Mess Hall & south of Basketball Court, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  3. Investigating the effect of fire dynamics on aboveground carbon storage in the Bateke landscape, Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto Quintano, P.; Mitchard, E. T.; Ryan, C.; Tim, R.

    2016-12-01

    It is estimated that 68% of Africa's surface area burns every year (Roy et al. 2008), being the savanna biome the most continuously affected by burning with strong environmental and social impacts (Romero-Ruiz et al., 2010). Most fires in Africa are anthropogenic and occur during the Late Dry Season, but their dynamics and effects remain understudied. Sankaran et al. (2005) suggested that if disturbances by fire, browsers and humans were absent, then large areas of Africa would become forests. The main objective of this research is to understand the woody cover, productivity, carbon storage and fire regime of the complex forest/savanna system of the Bateke Plateau. The Bateke Plateau is a landscape composed of frequently burned grassland savanna surrounded by tropical forest, situated in the centre of the Republic of Congo. This study combines two approaches: firstly experimental, with long term field experiments where the fire regime is manipulated, and then observational, using remote sensing to study the past history of fire regime in the region. Field experiments suggest that late dry season fires are more intense and have higher mortality rates. We also investigated aboveground biomass, fire occurrence and intensity, using Landsat, ALOS PALSAR and the fire products of MODIS. We found that most savanna areas burnt at least once every 4 years, with more frequent fires occurring in the late dry season and around roads and settlements. This two approaches will be then combined to create a novel model of vegetation-fire-climate interactions in order to predict the vegetation response to different future scenarios. The results will be used to promote better management of this area to enhance carbon storage, as well as increase our understanding of vegetation dynamics in this understudied ecosystem and help orient policy and conservation.

  4. [Influence of fire disturbance on aboveground deadwood debris carbon storage in Huzhong forest region of Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Da; He, Hong-shi; Wu, Zhi-wei; Liang, Yu; Huang, Chao; Luo, Xu; Xiao, Jiang-tao; Zhang, Qing-long

    2015-02-01

    Based on the field inventory data, the aboveground deadwood debris carbon storage under different fire severities was analyzed in Huzhong forest region of Great Xing' an Mountains. The results showed that the fire severity had a significant effect on aboveground deadwood debris carbon storage. The deadwood debris carbon storage was in the order of high-severity > low-severity > unburned in Larix gmelinii stands, and mixed conifer-broadleaf stands ( L. gmelinii and Betula platyphylla), and in the order of high severity > unburned > low-severity in B. platyphylla stands. Fire disturbance significantly changed the component percentage of the deadwood debris carbon storage. The component percentage of snags increased and litter decreased with the increasing fire severity. Logs and stumps did not change significantly with the increasing fire severity. The spatial variation of deadwood debris carbon storage in forests burned with low-severity fire was higher than that in unburned forests. The spatial variation of deadwood debris carbon storage with high-severity fires was lowest. This spatial variation needed to be accounted when calculating forest deadwood debris carbon storage.

  5. Evaluating land use and aboveground biomass dynamics in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Borneo using optical remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Minerva; Malhi, Yadvinder; Bhagwat, Shonil

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study is to assess the efficacy of using optical remote sensing (RS) in evaluating disparities in forest composition and aboveground biomass (AGB). The research was carried out in the East Sabah region, Malaysia, which constitutes a disturbance gradient ranging from pristine old growth forests to forests that have experienced varying levels of disturbances. Additionally, a significant proportion of the area consists of oil palm plantations. In accordance with local laws, riparian forest (RF) zones have been retained within oil palm plantations and other forest types. The RS imagery was used to assess forest stand structure and AGB. Band reflectance, vegetation indicators, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) consistency features were used as predictor variables in regression analysis. Results indicate that the spectral variables were limited in their effectiveness in differentiating between forest types and in calculating biomass. However, GLCM based variables illustrated strong correlations with the forest stand structures as well as with the biomass of the various forest types in the study area. The present study provides new insights into the efficacy of texture examination methods in differentiating between various land-use types (including small, isolated forest zones such as RFs) as well as their AGB stocks.

  6. Construction of VLCC marine oil storage cost index system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Yule; Lu, Jinshu; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhu, Faxin; Chen, Tian; Qin, Beichen

    2018-04-01

    VLCC as the research object, the basic knowledge of VLCC is summarized. According to the phenomenon that VLCC is applied to offshore oil storage gradually, this paper applies the theoretical analysis method to analyze the excess capacity from VLCC, the drop of oil price, the aging VLCC is more suitable for offshore storage The paper analyzes the reason of VLCC offshore oil storage from three aspects, analyzes the cost of VLCC offshore storage from the aspects of manpower cost and shipping cost, and constructs the cost index system of VLCC offshore oil storage.

  7. 90. VIEW NORTHEAST OF BUILDING 98 OIL HOUSE AND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. VIEW NORTHEAST OF BUILDING 98 OIL HOUSE AND STORAGE TANK; OIL FOR POWER GENERATION WAS UNLOADED FROM TANK CARS AND STORED AT THIS FACILITY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  8. OVERVIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING PLANT, WITH OIL STORAGE ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING PLANT, WITH OIL STORAGE ON LEFT, BOILER BUILDING ON RIGHT, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, CAMERA FACING NORTH. - New Haven Rail Yard, Central Steam Plant and Oil Storage, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  9. 4. Storage building, outhouse, oil house, keeper's house and light ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Storage building, outhouse, oil house, keeper's house and light tower, view southwest, northeast sides (southeast and northeast sides of keeper's house) - Petit Manan Light Station, 2.5 miles south of Petit Manan Point, Milbridge, Washington County, ME

  10. 1. Keeper's house, oil house, light tower and storage building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, oil house, light tower and storage building, view northeast, south or southwest sides - Petit Manan Light Station, 2.5 miles south of Petit Manan Point, Milbridge, Washington County, ME

  11. Above-ground carbon storage, downed wood, and understory plant species richness after thinning in western Oregon

    Treesearch

    Julia I. Burton; Adrian Ares; Sara E. Mulford; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about climate change have generated worldwide interest in managing forests for the uptake and storage of carbon (C). Simultaneously, preserving and enhancing structural, functional, and species diversity in forests remains an important objective. Therefore, understanding tradeoffs and synergies among C storage and sequestration and diversity in managed forests...

  12. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  13. Thermal and storage characteristics of tomato seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermal oxidative stability and effect of different storage conditions on quality characteristics of tomato seed oil have not been studied. The objectives of this research were to determine the changes in quality and oxidative stability of tomato seed oil, including color, antioxidant activity, per...

  14. Acoustic Profiling of Bottom Sediments in Large Oil Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svet, V. D.; Tsysar', S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Characteristic features of acoustic profiling of bottom sediments in large oil storage tanks are considered. Basic acoustic parameters of crude oil and bottom sediments are presented. It is shown that, because of the presence of both transition layers in crude oil and strong reverberation effects in oil tanks, the volume of bottom sediments that is calculated from an acoustic surface image is generally overestimated. To reduce the error, additional post-processing of acoustic profilometry data is proposed in combination with additional measurements of viscosity and tank density distributions in vertical at several points of the tank.

  15. Storage stability of cooked sausages containing vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Papavergou, E J; Ambrosiadis, J A; Psomas, J

    1995-01-01

    Comminuted cooked sausages were produced using standard industrial practices, by substituting corn oil, sunflower oil, cotton seed oil, soybean oil and hydrogenated vegetable fat for animal fat. When processed, products were assessed for their stability with respect to autoxidation and change in organoleptic properties during vacuum-packed storage in a domestic refrigerator at 4 degrees C. Data obtained indicated that changes in thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values and organoleptic properties of products produced using corn oil, sunflower oil and hydrogenated vegetable fat were similar to those observed for reference material produced using lard. In the case of samples produced using soybean and cotton seed oil, TBA value changes were more pronounced, but did not exceed acceptable limits. A more rapid deterioration of organoleptic characteristics was also observed for the same samples, which showed flavour problems after 3 months of storage at 4 degrees C. Substitution of plant oils for lard considerably reduced the cholesterol content and increased the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids of cooked sausages.

  16. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained. The...

  17. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained. The...

  18. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained. The...

  19. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained. The...

  20. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained. The...

  1. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... soil, groundwater, or surface water. (d) Secondary containment for existing aboveground tanks. Existing... system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (e) Secondary containment for new aboveground tanks... containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (f) Labels. (1...

  2. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... soil, groundwater, or surface water. (d) Secondary containment for existing aboveground tanks. Existing... system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (e) Secondary containment for new aboveground tanks... containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (f) Labels. (1...

  3. Storage quality of walnut oil containing lycopene during accelerated oxidation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chaonan; Ma, Zheng Feei; Li, Fang; Zhang, Hongxia; Kong, Lingming; Yang, Zhipan; Xie, Weifeng

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of investigation was to assess the effect of lycopene on the peroxide value, acid value, fatty acids, total phenolic content and ferric-reducing antioxidant power of walnut oil. Walnut oil was extracted from Xinjiang walnut variety using cold pressing method. Our study reported that after 45 days of accelerated oxidation at 60 °C (Schaal oven test), 0.005% lycopene exhibited the greatest antioxidant effect than other addition levels of lycopene. Therefore, under ambient storage conditions, the shelf-life of walnut oil could be extended up to 16 months by 0.005% lycopene. Moreover, 0.005% lycopene added to walnut oil had a significantly higher content of saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid, total phenol, reducing ability of the polar and non-polar components than the blank sample (walnut oil without any addition of lycopene). In conclusion, lycopene improved the quality of walnut oil because of its antioxidant effect against lipid oxidation.

  4. Research Progress in Carbon Dioxide Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Wang, Gang; Lu, Chunjing

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of global economy, human beings have become highly dependent upon fossil fuel such as coal and petroleum. Much fossil fuel is consumed in industrial production and human life. As a result, carbon dioxide emissions have been increasing, and the greenhouse effects thereby generated are posing serious threats to environment of the earth. These years, increasing average global temperature, frequent extreme weather events and climatic changes cause material disasters to the world. After scientists’ long-term research, ample evidences have proven that emissions of greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide have brought about tremendous changes to global climate. To really reduce carbon dioxide emissions, governments of different countries and international organizations have invested much money and human resources in performing research related to carbon dioxide emissions. Manual underground carbon dioxide storage and carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery are schemes with great potential and prospect for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Compared with other schemes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions, aforementioned two schemes exhibit high storage capacity and yield considerable economic benefits, so they have become research focuses for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. This paper introduces the research progress in underground carbon dioxide storage and enhanced oil recovery, pointing out the significance and necessity of carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery.

  5. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  6. Potential evaluation of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery of tight oil reservoir in the Ordos Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Linsong; Cao, Renyi; Zhang, Miaoyi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Carbon -di-oxide (CO2) is regarded as the most important greenhouse gas to accelerate climate change and ocean acidification. The Chinese government is seeking methods to reduce anthropogenic CO2 gas emission. CO2 capture and geological storage is one of the main methods. In addition, injecting CO2 is also an effective method to replenish formation energy in developing tight oil reservoirs. However, exiting methods to estimate CO2 storage capacity are all based on the material balance theory. This was absolutely correct for normal reservoirs. However, as natural fractures widely exist in tight oil reservoirs and majority of them are vertical ones, tight oil reservoirs are not close. Therefore, material balance theory is not adaptive. In the present study, a new method to calculate CO2 storage capacity is presented. The CO2 effective storage capacity, in this new method, consisted of free CO2, CO2 dissolved in oil and CO2 dissolved in water. Case studies of tight oil reservoir from Ordos Basin was conducted and it was found that due to far lower viscosity of CO2 and larger solubility in oil, CO2 could flow in tight oil reservoirs more easily. As a result, injecting CO2 in tight oil reservoirs could obviously enhance sweep efficiency by 24.5% and oil recovery efficiency by 7.5%. CO2 effective storage capacity of Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Longdong area was 1.88 x 10(7) t. The Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Ordos Basin was estimated to be 6.38 x 10(11) t. As tight oil reservoirs were widely distributed in Songliao Basin, Sichuan Basin and so on, geological storage capacity of CO2 in China is potential.

  7. Research on crude oil storage and transportation based on optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xuhua

    2018-04-01

    At present, the optimization theory and method have been widely used in the optimization scheduling and optimal operation scheme of complex production systems. Based on C++Builder 6 program development platform, the theoretical research results are implemented by computer. The simulation and intelligent decision system of crude oil storage and transportation inventory scheduling are designed. The system includes modules of project management, data management, graphics processing, simulation of oil depot operation scheme. It can realize the optimization of the scheduling scheme of crude oil storage and transportation system. A multi-point temperature measuring system for monitoring the temperature field of floating roof oil storage tank is developed. The results show that by optimizing operating parameters such as tank operating mode and temperature, the total transportation scheduling costs of the storage and transportation system can be reduced by 9.1%. Therefore, this method can realize safe and stable operation of crude oil storage and transportation system.

  8. CO 2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Frailey, Scott M.; Krapac, Ivan G.; Damico, James R.

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO 2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO 2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO 2 flooding.

  9. Storage stability and composition changes of three cold-pressed nut oils under refrigeration and room temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Rabadán, Adrián; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Pardo, José Emilio; Alvarruiz, Andrés

    2018-09-01

    Chemical composition and stability parameters of three cold-pressed nut oils (almond, walnut and pistachio) were monitored for up to 16 months of storage at 5 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C and room temperature. Freshly pressed pistachio oil had lower peroxide value than almond oil and higher induction period than almond and walnut oils, indicating a higher stability. The peroxide values increased faster at room temperature than at lower temperatures during the storage time, and the highest increase was for pistachio oil stored at room temperature exposed to daylight. The induction period decreased for all three nut oils during the storage time, regardless of the storage conditions. Pistachio oil remained the most stable oil at the end of the storage time, followed by almond oil. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased slightly throughout the storage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Do Shale Pore Throats Have a Threshold Diameter for Oil Storage?

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Caineng; Jin, Xu; Zhu, Rukai; Gong, Guangming; Sun, Liang; Dai, Jinxing; Meng, Depeng; Wang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jianming; Wu, Songtao; Liu, Xiaodan; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a nanoporous template with a controllable channel diameter was used to simulate the oil storage ability of shale pore throats. On the basis of the wetting behaviours at the nanoscale solid-liquid interfaces, the seepage of oil in nano-channels of different diameters was examined to accurately and systematically determine the effect of the pore diameter on the oil storage capacity. The results indicated that the lower threshold for oil storage was a pore throat of 20 nm, under certain conditions. This proposed pore size threshold provides novel, evidence-based criteria for estimating the geological reserves, recoverable reserves and economically recoverable reserves of shale oil. This new understanding of shale oil processes could revolutionize the related industries. PMID:26314637

  11. Do Shale Pore Throats Have a Threshold Diameter for Oil Storage?

    PubMed

    Zou, Caineng; Jin, Xu; Zhu, Rukai; Gong, Guangming; Sun, Liang; Dai, Jinxing; Meng, Depeng; Wang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jianming; Wu, Songtao; Liu, Xiaodan; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2015-08-28

    In this work, a nanoporous template with a controllable channel diameter was used to simulate the oil storage ability of shale pore throats. On the basis of the wetting behaviours at the nanoscale solid-liquid interfaces, the seepage of oil in nano-channels of different diameters was examined to accurately and systematically determine the effect of the pore diameter on the oil storage capacity. The results indicated that the lower threshold for oil storage was a pore throat of 20 nm, under certain conditions. This proposed pore size threshold provides novel, evidence-based criteria for estimating the geological reserves, recoverable reserves and economically recoverable reserves of shale oil. This new understanding of shale oil processes could revolutionize the related industries.

  12. Stability evaluation of quality parameters for palm oil products at low temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nur Aainaa Syahirah; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azmil; Musa, Hajar; Ghazali, Razmah

    2018-07-01

    Palm oil is one of the major oils and fats produced and traded worldwide. The value of palm oil products is mainly influenced by their quality. According to ISO 17025:2005, accredited laboratories require a quality control procedure with respect to monitoring the validity of tests for determination of quality parameters. This includes the regular use of internal quality control using secondary reference materials. Unfortunately, palm oil reference materials are not currently available. To establish internal quality control samples, the stability of quality parameters needs to be evaluated. In the present study, the stability of quality parameters for palm oil products was examined over 10 months at low temperature storage (6 ± 2 °C). The palm oil products tested included crude palm oil (CPO); refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (RBDPO); RBD palm olein (RBDPOo); and RBD palm stearin (RBDPS). The quality parameters of the oils [i.e. moisture content, free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), fatty acids composition (FAC) and slip melting point (SMP)] were determined prior to and throughout the storage period. The moisture, FFA, IV, FAC and SMP for palm oil products changed significantly (P < 0.05), whereas the moisture content for CPO, IV for RBDPO and RBDPOo, stearic acid composition for CPO and linolenic acid composition for CPO, RBDPO, RBDPOo and RBDPS did not (P > 0.05). The stability study indicated that the quality of the palm oil products was stable within the specified limits throughout the storage period at low temperature. The storage conditions preserved the quality of palm oil products throughout the storage period. These findings qualify the use of the palm oil products CPO, RBDPO, RBDPOo and RBDPS as control samples in the validation of test results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Quantitative risk analysis of oil storage facilities in seismic areas.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocino, Giovanni; Iervolino, Iunio; Orlando, Francesca; Salzano, Ernesto

    2005-08-31

    Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) of industrial facilities has to take into account multiple hazards threatening critical equipment. Nevertheless, engineering procedures able to evaluate quantitatively the effect of seismic action are not well established. Indeed, relevant industrial accidents may be triggered by loss of containment following ground shaking or other relevant natural hazards, either directly or through cascade effects ('domino effects'). The issue of integrating structural seismic risk into quantitative probabilistic seismic risk analysis (QpsRA) is addressed in this paper by a representative study case regarding an oil storage plant with a number of atmospheric steel tanks containing flammable substances. Empirical seismic fragility curves and probit functions, properly defined both for building-like and non building-like industrial components, have been crossed with outcomes of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for a test site located in south Italy. Once the seismic failure probabilities have been quantified, consequence analysis has been performed for those events which may be triggered by the loss of containment following seismic action. Results are combined by means of a specific developed code in terms of local risk contour plots, i.e. the contour line for the probability of fatal injures at any point (x, y) in the analysed area. Finally, a comparison with QRA obtained by considering only process-related top events is reported for reference.

  14. Experiment on the Effects of Storage Duration of Biodiesel produced from Crude Palm Oil, Waste Cooking oil and Jatropha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanihar, Nadiarulah; Khalid, Amir; Mustaffa, Norrizal; Jaat, Norrizam; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel based on vegetable oil is an alternative that had various advantage in term of sustainability and environmental attractive compare to others conventional diesel. Biodiesel is product of any fat or oil that derived from any organic sources through a refinery process called transesterification process. This research investigates the effects of storage duration and variant ambient condition on the biodiesel properties and characteristics. In this study, there are three types of blending which is 5vol% blends ( 5vol% plant oil 95vol% diesel), 10vol% blending (10vol% plant oil and 90vol% diesel) and 15vol% blending (15vol% plant oil and 85vol% diesel) each called CPO5 (crude palm oil 5vol%), CPO10 (crude palm oil 10vol%),CPO15 (crude palm oil 15vol%), JO5 (jatropha oil 5vol%), JO10 (jatropha oil 10vol%),and JO15 (jatropha oil 15vol%) respectively. Biodiesel samples were stored at indoor condition and outdoor condition for a 3 months period. The fuel properties such as acid value, viscosity, density, water content and flash point are observed with the laboratory instrument. Flash point value and water content increased under both of indoor and outdoor condition and a steady data for viscosity and density. However, acid value at indoor condition nearly constant but increased dramatically for outdoor condition over the time.

  15. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the

  16. A role for caleosin in degradation of oil-body storage lipid during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Poxleitner, Marianne; Rogers, Sally W; Lacey Samuels, A; Browse, John; Rogers, John C

    2006-09-01

    Caleosin is a Ca(2+)-binding oil-body surface protein. To assess its role in the degradation of oil-bodies, two independent insertion mutants lacking caleosin were studied. Both mutants demonstrated significant delay of breakdown of the 20:1 storage lipid at 48 and 60 h of germination. Additionally, although germination rates for seeds were not affected by the mutations, mutant seedlings grew more slowly than wild type when measured at 48 h of germination, a defect that was corrected with continued growth for 72 and 96 h in the light. After 48 h of germination, wild-type central vacuoles had smooth contours and demonstrated internalization of oil bodies and of membrane containing alpha- and delta-tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), markers for protein storage vacuoles. In contrast, mutant central vacuoles had distorted limiting membranes displaying domains with clumps of the two TIPs, and they contained fewer oil bodies. Thus, during germination caleosin plays a role in the degradation of storage lipid in oil bodies. Its role involves both the normal modification of storage vacuole membrane and the interaction of oil bodies with vacuoles. The results indicate that interaction of oil bodies with vacuoles is one mechanism that contributes to the degradation of storage lipid.

  17. Persistency of larvicidal effects of plant oil extracts under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    The persistency of larvicidal effects of 13 oils (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum, and sandalwood) was examined by storage of 50-ppm solutions under different conditions (open, closed, in the light, and in the dark) for 1 month after the preparation of the solutions. The stored solutions were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae for four times during the storage period. Some oils under some conditions stayed effective until the last test, while some solutions had lost their toxicity during a short time after preparation. Thus, the mode of storage is absolutely important for the larvicidal effects. The fresh preparations were always the best.

  18. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  19. Effect of containers on the quality of Chemlali olive oil during storage.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Zribi, Akram; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    This study is undertaken to determine the storage stability of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in different containers such as clear and dark glass bottles, polyethylene (PE) and tin containers. The different oil samples were stored under light at room temperature. Quality parameters monitored during a 6-month-storage period included: acidity, peroxide value (PV), spectrophotometric indices (K232 and K270), chlorophyll and carotene pigments, fatty acids and sterol compositions, total phenols, Rancimat induction time as well as sensory evaluation. Tin containers and dark glass bottles recorded the lowest oxidation values. In addition, oil packed in tin containers and dark glass bottles showed better physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics than that stored in clear glass bottles and PE containers. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the antioxidant contents (carotenes, chlorophylls and total phenols) was observed in the oil stored in the clear glass bottles and PE containers. Such results proved that the storage of oil in tin containers and dark glass bottles appeared most adequate, and showed a gradual loss of quality during storage, especially in PE containers and clear glass bottles. This study has shown that the best packaging materials for the commercial packing of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil are tin containers and dark glass bottles.

  20. Oxidative stability of red palm oils blended chicken nuggets during frozen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruzaman, Nurkhuzaiah; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    The effects of red palm oils known as Naturally Vitamin Rich Oil (NVRO) on the lipid stability of chicken nuggets were determined. Lipid oxidation was analyzed during frozen storage (-18 °C) for up to 4 months. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values and peroxide value (PV) for all samples chicken nuggets increased throughout 3 months of frozen storage and then start to decrease thereafter. Chicken nuggets formulated with NVRO, NVRO-100 and NVRO-50 showed lower TBA values and PV compared to the samples prepared with chicken fat. However, among NVRO, there were not significantly different for most of the months. It was concluded that the utilization of red palm oils in chicken nuggets significantly reduced the oxidation of lipid, which was indicated by the PV throughout 4 months of frozen storage.

  1. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

    PubMed

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  2. The mathematical model accuracy estimation of the oil storage tank foundation soil moistening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildebrandt, M. I.; Ivanov, R. N.; Gruzin, AV; Antropova, L. B.; Kononov, S. A.

    2018-04-01

    The oil storage tanks foundations preparation technologies improvement is the relevant objective which achievement will make possible to reduce the material costs and spent time for the foundation preparing while providing the required operational reliability. The laboratory research revealed the nature of sandy soil layer watering with a given amount of water. The obtained data made possible developing the sandy soil layer moistening mathematical model. The performed estimation of the oil storage tank foundation soil moistening mathematical model accuracy showed the experimental and theoretical results acceptable convergence.

  3. Improved Characterization and Modeling of Tight Oil Formations for CO 2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Potential and Storage Capacity Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, James; Smith, Steven; Kurz, Bethany

    Tight oil formations such as those in the Bakken petroleum system are known to hold hundreds of billions of barrels of oil in place; however, the primary recovery factor for these plays is typically less than 10%. Tight oil formations, including the Bakken Formation, therefore, may be attractive candidates for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO 2. Multiphase fluid behavior and flow in fluid-rich shales can vary substantially depending on the size of pore throats, and properties such as fluid viscosity and density are much different in nanoscale pores than in macroscale pores. Thus it is critical to understand themore » nature and distribution of nano-, micro-, and macroscale pores and fracture networks. To address these issues, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been conducting a research program entitled “Improved Characterization and Modeling of Tight Oil Formations for CO 2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Potential and Storage Capacity Estimation.” The objectives of the project are 1) the use of advanced characterization methods to better understand and quantify the petrophysical and geomechanical factors that control CO 2 and oil mobility within tight oil formation samples, 2) the determination of CO 2 permeation and oil extraction rates in tight reservoir rocks and organic-rich shales of the Bakken, and 3) the integration of the laboratory-based CO 2 permeation and oil extraction data and the characterization data into geologic models and dynamic simulations to develop predictions of CO 2 storage resource and EOR in the Bakken tight oil formation. A combination of standard and advanced petrophysical characterization techniques were applied to characterize samples of Bakken Formation tight reservoir rock and shales from multiple wells. Techniques included advanced computer tomography (CT) imaging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, whole-core and micro x-ray CT imaging, field emission (FE) SEM, and focused ion beam (FIB) SEM

  4. Estimates of forest canopy height and aboveground biomass using ICESat.

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Lefsky; David J. Harding; Michael Keller; Warren B. Cohen; Claudia C. Carabajal; Fernando Del Bom Espirito-Santo; Maria O. Hunter; Raimundo de Oliveira Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Exchange of carbon between forests and the atmosphere is a vital component of the global carbon cycle. Satellite laser altimetry has a unique capability for estimating forest canopy height, which has a direct and increasingly well understood relationship to aboveground carbon storage. While the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud and land...

  5. Microfluidic and micro-core methods for enhanced oil recovery and carbon storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phong

    Injection of CO2 into the subsurface, for both storage and oil recovery, is an emerging strategy to mitigate atmospheric CO2 emissions and associated climate change. In this thesis microfluidic and micro-core methods were developed to inform combined CO2-storage and oil recovery operations and determine relevant fluid properties. Pore scale studies of nanoparticle stabilized CO2-in-water foam and its application in oil recovery to show significant improvement in oil recovery rate with different oils from around the world (light, medium, and heavy). The CO2 nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foams generate a three-fold increase in oil recovery (an additional 15% of initial oil in place) as compared to an otherwise similar CO2 gas flood. Nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foam flooding also results in significantly smaller oil-in-water emulsion sizes. All three oils show substantial additional oil recovery and a positive reservoir homogenization effect. A supporting microfluidic approach is developed to quantify the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) -- a critical parameter for combined CO 2 storage and enhanced oil recovery. The method leverages the inherent fluorescence of crude oils, is faster than conventional technologies, and provides quantitative, operator-independent measurements. In terms of speed, a pressure scan for a single minimum miscibility pressure measurement required less than 30 min, in stark contrast to days or weeks with existing rising bubble and slimtube methods. In practice, subsurface geology also interacts with injected CO 2. Commonly carbonate dissolution results in pore structure, porosity, and permeability changes. These changes are measured by x-ray microtomography (micro-CT), liquid permeability measurements, and chemical analysis. Chemical composition of the produced liquid analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) shows concentrations of magnesium and calcium. This work leverages established advantages of

  6. Effects of Preheating and Storage Temperatures on Aroma Profile and Physical Properties of Citrus-Oil Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Zhao, Chengying; Tian, Guifang; Lu, Chang; Zhao, Shaojie; Bao, Yuming; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang; Zheng, Jinkai

    2017-09-06

    Citrus oils are used as good carrier oil for emulsion fabrication due to their special flavor and various health-promoting functions. In this study, the effects of preheating temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C) and storage temperature (4, 25, and 37 °C) on aroma profiles and physical properties of three citrus-oil (i.e., mandarin, sweet orange, and bergamot oils) emulsions were systematically investigated for the first time. The results demonstrated the significant impact of temperature on aroma profile and physical properties. The abundance of d-limonene was found to be the main factor determining the aroma of the three citrus-oil emulsions at different preheating and storage temperatures, while β-linalool and linalyl acetate were important for the aroma of bergamot oil emulsion. Preheating temperature showed a profound impact on the aroma of citrus-oil emulsions, and the aroma of different citrus oil emulsions showed different sensitivity to preheating temperature. Storage temperature was also able to alter the properties of citrus oil emulsions. The higher was the storage temperature, the more alteration of aroma and more instability of the emulsions there was, which could be attributed to the alteration of the oil components and the properties of emulsions. Among all three emulsions, bergamot-oil emulsion was the most stable and exhibited the most potent ability to preserve the aroma against high temperature. Our results would facilitate the application of citrus-oil emulsions in functional foods and beverages.

  7. Storage of Residual Fuel Oil in Underground Unlined Rock Caverns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    underground space as the above-mentioned companies.) These companies are anxious to market their experience and cite contacts with the U.S. Department of...expanding marketing efforts. Detailed descriptions 13. In the original plan for producing a generic study of the four storage media, it was decided to...Jollanssonr and Mr. Tuomlo SaarniI Manager, Market ing Energy Sector (Bibl: 14, 15, arid 16). 13 . Ekono Oy is one ol the four companies forming the

  8. Tank atmosphere perturbation: a procedure for assessing flashing losses from oil storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, David; Lucas, Donald

    2003-03-01

    A new procedure to measure the total volume of emissions from heavy crude oil storage tanks is described. Tank flashing losses, which are difficult to measure, can be determined by correcting this value for working and breathing losses. The procedure uses a fan or blower to vent the headspace of the storage tank, with subsequent monitoring of the change in concentrations of oxygen or other gases. Combined with a separate determination of the reactive organic carbon (ROC) fraction in the gas, this method allows the evaluation of the total amount of ROC emitted. The operation of the system is described, and results from measurement of several storage tanks in California oil fields are presented. Our measurements are compared with those obtained using the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 150 method.

  9. Retention of natural antioxidants of blends of groundnut and sunflower oils with minor oils during storage and frying.

    PubMed

    Sunil, L; Reddy, P Vanitha; Krishna, A G Gopala; Urooj, Asna

    2015-02-01

    Unrefined groundnut oil (GNO) and refined sunflower oil (SFO) were blended with four minor oils including laboratory refined red palmolein (RRPO), physically refined rice bran oil (RBO), unrefined sesame oil (SESO), and unrefined coconut oil (CNO) containing natural antioxidants viz., β-carotene, tocopherols, oryzanol and lignans. The five blends prepared were GNO + RRPO (80:20), GNO + RBO (80:20), GNO + SESO (80:20), SFO + RRPO (50:50) and SFO + CNO (60:40). Prepared blends contained saturated fatty acids (SFA) (16.7-53.3 %); monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (16.0-45.5 %) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (29.2-37.8 %). GNO blends viz., GNO + RRPO, GNO + RBO and GNO + SESO contained β-carotene (10.7 mg/100 g), oryzanol (0.12 g/100 g) and lignans (0.35 g/100 g) respectively as natural antioxidants. SFO was enriched with β-carotene (28.7 mg/100 g) and medium chain fatty acids (34.2 %) by blending with RRPO and CNO respectively. The oil blends (200 ml) were packed and stored at 38 °C/90 % relative humidity (RH) and 27 °C/65 % RH and samples were withdrawn at fixed intervals for analysis. Freshly prepared blends were also investigated for their frying performance. During storage, GNO + RBO blend showed highest oxidative stability probably due to the presence of oryzanol in the order GNO + RBO > GNO + SESO > GNO + RRPO. During frying, the peroxide value of GNO blends with RBO (rich in oryzanol) and SESO (rich in lignans) was less while the free fatty acid value was less in SFO blends with RRPO and CNO. Hence, blending of natural antioxidants rich minor oils (RRPO, RBO and SESO) with the major vegetable oils (GNO and SFO) may preserve them by lowering their rate of oxidation during storage and frying.

  10. Effect of the type of oil on the evolution of volatile compounds of taralli during storage.

    PubMed

    Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito M; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

    2012-03-01

    Baking process leads to a huge quantity of newly formed volatile compounds, which play a major role in developing the flavor of the final product. The aim of this work was to investigate on the evolution of the volatile profile of taralli as a function of both the kind of oil used in the dough and the storage time. The volatile compounds from the taralli were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Forty-four volatile compounds were identified in taralli, most of which produced by thermically induced reactions occurring during baking process, such as volatiles deriving from Maillard reaction and/or sugar degradation and lipid oxidation. The results obtained demonstrated the essential role played by the type of oil on the formation and on the release of volatile compounds. The volatile compounds significantly increased during storage and their individual levels were in most cases significantly lower in taralli made with extra virgin olive oil than in those made with refined oils. Finally, the taralli made with extra virgin olive oil, compared with those prepared with other vegetable oils, showed to be more resistant to oxidation, probably due to the presence of natural antioxidants. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Effect of chitosan-lemon essential oil coatings on volatile profile of strawberries during storage.

    PubMed

    Perdones, Ángela; Escriche, Isabel; Chiralt, Amparo; Vargas, Maria

    2016-04-15

    Chitosan coatings containing lemon essential oils were described as effective at controlling fruit fungal decay at 20°C during 7 days. In this work, GC-MS was used to characterise the volatile compounds of strawberries during cold storage in order to analyse the influence of fruit coatings with chitosan, containing or not containing lemon essential oil, on the volatile profile of the fruits. The coatings affected the metabolic pathways and volatile profile of the fruits. Pure chitosan promoted the formation of esters and dimethyl furfural in very short time after coating, while coatings containing lemon essential oil incorporated terpenes (limonene, γ-terpinene, p-cymene and α-citral) to the fruit volatiles and enhanced the fermentative process, modifying the typical fruit aroma composition. No effect of chitosan coatings was sensorially perceived, the changes induced by lemon essential oil were notably appreciated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Volatile changes in cv. Verdeal Transmontana olive oil: From the drupe to the table, including storage.

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Rodrigues, Nuno; Renard, Catherine M G C; Pereira, José Alberto

    2018-04-01

    This study focused on the volatile changes in cv. Verdeal Transmontana throughout the entire olive oil processing chain, from the drupe to olive oil storage up to 12 months, while correlating it with quality parameters and sensory quality. During crushing and malaxation, the volatiles formed were mainly "green-leaf volatiles" (GLVs), namely (E)-2-hexenal, hexanal, and 1-hexanol. Centrifugation and clarification steps increased the total volatile amounts to 130 mg kg -1 . However, clarification also increased nonanal and (E)-2-decenal contents, two markers of oxidation, with a noticeable loss of phenolic compounds and oxidative stability. During storage, the total volatile amounts reduced drastically (94% at 12 months after extraction), together with the positive sensory attributes fruity, green, bitter, and pungent. Despite being classified as extra-virgin after one year of storage, peroxides and conjugated dienes were significantly higher while there was a reduction in antioxidant capacity as well as in phenolic compounds (less 50%) and oxidative stability (57%). The present work allowed concluding that the extraction process modulates the volatile composition of olive oil, with a concentration of volatiles at the clarification step. During storage, volatiles are lost, mainly eight months after extraction, leading to the loss of important sensory attributes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance Analysis and Parametric Study of a Natural Convection Solar Air Heater With In-built Oil Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhote, Yogesh; Thombre, Shashikant

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the thermal performance of the proposed double flow natural convection solar air heater with in-built liquid (oil) sensible heat storage. Unused engine oil was used as thermal energy storage medium due to its good heat retaining capacity even at high temperatures without evaporation. The performance evaluation was carried out for a day of the month March for the climatic conditions of Nagpur (India). A self reliant computational model was developed using computational tool as C++. The program developed was self reliant and compute the performance parameters for any day of the year and would be used for major cities in India. The effect of change in storage oil quantity and the inclination (tilt angle) on the overall efficiency of the solar air heater was studied. The performance was tested initially at different storage oil quantities as 25, 50, 75 and 100 l for a plate spacing of 0.04 m with an inclination of 36o. It has been found that the solar air heater gives the best performance at a storage oil quantity of 50 l. The performance of the proposed solar air heater is further tested for various combinations of storage oil quantity (50, 75 and 100 l) and the inclination (0o, 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 75o, 90o). It has been found that the proposed solar air heater with in-built oil storage shows its best performance for the combination of 50 l storage oil quantity and 60o inclination. Finally the results of the parametric study was also presented in the form of graphs carried out for a fixed storage oil quantity of 25 l, plate spacing of 0.03 m and at an inclination of 36o to study the behaviour of various heat transfer and fluid flow parameters of the solar air heater.

  14. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Co-Optimization of CO 2-EOR and Storage Processes in Mature Oil Reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Ampomah, William; Balch, Robert S.; Grigg, Reid B.; ...

    2016-08-02

    This article presents an optimization methodology for CO 2 enhanced oil recovery in partially depleted reservoirs. A field-scale compositional reservoir flow model was developed for assessing the performance history of an active CO 2 flood and for optimizing both oil production and CO 2 storage in the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Ochiltree County, Texas. A geological framework model constructed from geophysical, geological, and engineering data acquired from the FWU was the basis for all reservoir simulations and the optimization method. An equation of state was calibrated with laboratory fluid analyses and subsequently used to predict the thermodynamic minimum miscible pressure (MMP).more » Initial history calibrations of primary, secondary and tertiary recovery were conducted as the basis for the study. After a good match was achieved, an optimization approach consisting of a proxy or surrogate model was constructed with a polynomial response surface method (PRSM). The PRSM utilized an objective function that maximized both oil recovery and CO 2 storage. Experimental design was used to link uncertain parameters to the objective function. Control variables considered in this study included: water alternating gas cycle and ratio, production rates and bottom-hole pressure of injectors and producers. Other key parameters considered in the modeling process were CO 2 purchase, gas recycle and addition of infill wells and/or patterns. The PRSM proxy model was ‘trained’ or calibrated with a series of training simulations. This involved an iterative process until the surrogate model reached a specific validation criterion. A sensitivity analysis was first conducted to ascertain which of these control variables to retain in the surrogate model. A genetic algorithm with a mixed-integer capability optimization approach was employed to determine the optimum developmental strategy to maximize both oil recovery and CO 2 storage. The proxy model reduced the computational cost

  16. Co-Optimization of CO 2-EOR and Storage Processes in Mature Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ampomah, William; Balch, Robert S.; Grigg, Reid B.

    This article presents an optimization methodology for CO 2 enhanced oil recovery in partially depleted reservoirs. A field-scale compositional reservoir flow model was developed for assessing the performance history of an active CO 2 flood and for optimizing both oil production and CO 2 storage in the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Ochiltree County, Texas. A geological framework model constructed from geophysical, geological, and engineering data acquired from the FWU was the basis for all reservoir simulations and the optimization method. An equation of state was calibrated with laboratory fluid analyses and subsequently used to predict the thermodynamic minimum miscible pressure (MMP).more » Initial history calibrations of primary, secondary and tertiary recovery were conducted as the basis for the study. After a good match was achieved, an optimization approach consisting of a proxy or surrogate model was constructed with a polynomial response surface method (PRSM). The PRSM utilized an objective function that maximized both oil recovery and CO 2 storage. Experimental design was used to link uncertain parameters to the objective function. Control variables considered in this study included: water alternating gas cycle and ratio, production rates and bottom-hole pressure of injectors and producers. Other key parameters considered in the modeling process were CO 2 purchase, gas recycle and addition of infill wells and/or patterns. The PRSM proxy model was ‘trained’ or calibrated with a series of training simulations. This involved an iterative process until the surrogate model reached a specific validation criterion. A sensitivity analysis was first conducted to ascertain which of these control variables to retain in the surrogate model. A genetic algorithm with a mixed-integer capability optimization approach was employed to determine the optimum developmental strategy to maximize both oil recovery and CO 2 storage. The proxy model reduced the computational cost

  17. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    between GPP and T in the morning and the early decreases of both fluxes at midday suggest the existence of internal water storage mechanisms in oil palms both in the leaves and in the stem, which delayed the detection of water movement at the leaf petioles. The combination of our measured data with the model simulations suggest the existence of both external and internal trunk water storage mechanisms in mature oil palms contributing to ecosystem water fluxes. Oil palm plantations can lead to surface warming at early stages of development, but further assessments should be performed at landscape level to understand the climatic feedbacks of oil palm expansion.

  19. Evaluation of Clausena pentaphylla (Roxb.) DC oil as a fungitoxicant against storage mycoflora of pigeon pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, Nijendra N

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of 30 essential oils against four dominant fungi Aspergillus flavus Link., A. niger van Tieghem, A. ochraceus Wilhelm and A. terreus Thom of stored pigeon pea seeds at a concentration of 0.36 µL mL(-1). Various fungitoxic properties, such as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration and fungitoxic spectrum, of the most potent oil were determined. The efficacy of the most potent oil in preservation of pigeon pea seeds for 6 months was also carried out by storing 1 kg of seeds in the oil vapour. Clausena pentaphylla and Citrus limon oils were more effective against all the fungi tested, which exhibited 100% per cent mycelial inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. pentaphylla oil was determined as 0.07 µL mL(-1) against all the test fungi and was found to be more toxic than Citrus limon oil. C. pentaphylla oil exhibited a broad range of fungitoxicity against 16 other storage fungi of pigeon pea seeds. C. pentaphylla oil significantly protected 1 kg seeds of pigeon pea from fungal deterioration and was superior to synthetic fumigants. The oil did not show any phytotoxicity and the protein content of the seeds was significantly retained for up to 6 months of storage. Thus, C. pentaphylla oil may be used as an effective fumigant in the ecofriendly management of storage fungi of pigeon pea seeds. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Each year, an average of 14 million gallons of oil from more than 10,000 accidental spills flow into fresh and saltwater environments in and around the United States. Most accidental oil spills occur when oil is transported by tankers or barges, but oil is also spilled during highway, rail, and pipeline transport, and by nontransportation-related facilities, such as refinery, bulk storage, and marine and land facilities (Fig. 42.1). Accidental releases, however, account for only a small percentage of all oil entering the environment; in heavily used urban estuaries, the total petroleum hydrocarbon contributions due to transportation activities may be 10 percent or less. Most oil is introduced to the environment by intentional discharges from normal transport and refining operations, industrial and municipal discharges, used lubricant and other waste oil disposal, urban runoff, river runoff, atmospheric deposition, and natural seeps. Oil-laden wastewater is often released into settling ponds and wetlands (Fig. 42.2). Discharges of oil field brines are a major source of the petroleum crude oil that enters estuaries in Texas.

  1. Glutathione Preservation during Storage of Rat Lenses in Optisol-GS and Castor Oil

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif; Kessel, Line

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. Methodology/Principal Findings Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. Conclusions/Significance It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours. PMID:24260265

  2. CO2 storage resources, reserves, and reserve growth: Toward a methodology for integrated assessment of the storage capacity of oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Geologically based methodologies to assess the possible volumes of subsurface CO2 storage must apply clear and uniform definitions of resource and reserve concepts to each assessment unit (AU). Application of the current state of knowledge of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical parameters (contingencies) that control storage volume and injectivity allows definition of the contingent resource (CR) of storage. The parameters known with the greatest certainty are based on observations on known traps (KTs) within the AU that produced oil, gas, and water. The aggregate volume of KTs within an AU defines the most conservation volume of contingent resource. Application of the concept of reserve growth to CR volume provides a logical path for subsequent reevaluation of the total resource as knowledge of CO2 storage processes increases during implementation of storage projects. Increased knowledge of storage performance over time will probably allow the volume of the contingent resource of storage to grow over time, although negative growth is possible.

  3. Aboveground biomass in Tibetan grasslands

    Treesearch

    Y.H. Yang; J.Y. Fang; Y.D. Pan; C.J. Ji

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated spatial patterns and environmental controls of aboveground biomass (AGB) in alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau by integrating AGB data collected from 135 sites during 2001-2004 and concurrent enhanced vegetation index derived from MODIS data sets. The AGB was estimated at 68.8 gm-2, with a larger value (90.8 gm

  4. A highly resilient mesoporous SiOx lithium storage material engineered by oil-water templating.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjun; Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Ki Jae; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2015-02-01

    Mesoporous silicon-based materials gained considerable attention as high-capacity lithium-storage materials. However, the practical use is still limited by the complexity and limited number of available synthetic routes. Here, we report carbon-coated porous SiOx as high capacity lithium storage material prepared by using a sol-gel reaction of hydrogen silsesquioxane and oil-water templating. A hydrophobic oil is employed as a pore former inside the SiOx matrix and a precursor for carbon coating on the SiOx . The anode exhibits a high capacity of 730 mAh g(-1) and outstanding cycling performance over 100 cycles without significant dimensional changes. Carbon-coated porous SiOx also showed highly stable thermal reliability comparable to that of graphite. These promising properties come from the mesopores in the SiOx matrix, which ensures reliable operation of lithium storage in SiOx . The scalable sol-gel process presented here can open up a new avenue for the versatile preparation of porous SiOx lithium storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Physicochemical Properties and Storage Stability of Microencapsulated DHA-Rich Oil with Different Wall Materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wuxi; Wang, Haijun; Zhang, Ke; Gao, Feng; Chen, Shulin; Li, Demao

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties and storage stability of microencapsulated DHA-rich oil spray dried with different wall materials: model 1 (modified starch, gum arabic, and maltodextrin), model 2 (soy protein isolate, gum arabic, and maltodextrin), and model 3 (casein, glucose, and lactose). The results indicated that model 3 exhibited the highest microencapsulation efficiency (98.66 %) and emulsion stability (>99 %), with a moisture content and mean particle size of 1.663 % and 14.173 μm, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that the Tm of DHA-rich oil microcapsules was high, suggesting that the entire structure of the microcapsules remained stable during thermal processing. A thermogravimetric analysis curve showed that the product lost 5 % of its weight at 172 °C and the wall material started to degrade at 236 °C. The peroxide value of microencapsulated DHA-rich oil remained at one ninth after accelerated oxidation at 45 °C for 8 weeks to that of the unencapsulated DHA-rich oil, thus revealing the promising oxidation stability of DHA-rich oil in microcapsules.

  6. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  7. Efficiency of Castor Oil as a Storage Medium for Avulsed Teeth in Maintaining the Viability of Periodontal Ligament Cells.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Khodabakhsi, Afrooz; Ahzan, Shamseddin; Mehrabani, Davood

    2018-03-01

    Researchers always seek a new storage medium for avulsed teeth. Castor oil is a vegetable oil with several advantages such as antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, low toxicity, and glutathione preservation capability, low cost, and high availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the capacity of castor oil as a new storage medium in preserving the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells compared to Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and milk. Forty freshly extracted human teeth were divided into 3 experimental and 2 control groups. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 30 min and then immersed for 45 min in one of the following media; castor oil, HBSS, and milk. The positive and negative control groups were exposed to 0 min and 2 h of dry time respectively with no immersion in any storage medium. The teeth were then treated with dispase grade II and collagenase and the number of viable PDL cells were counted. Data were analyzed using Kruskal- Wallis test. The percentage of viable cells treated with castor oil, HBSS and milk counted immediately after removal from these media were 46.93, 51.02 and 55.10 % respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that the value for castor oil was significantly lower than HBSS and milk ( p > 0.05). Within the parameters of this study, it appears that castor oil cannot be served as an ideal medium for storage of avulsed tooth. More investigations under in vivo conditions are required to justify the results of this study.

  8. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part I. Effect on olive oils volatiles profile.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Gargouri, Mohamed; Msallem, Monji; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-07-15

    The distinctive aroma of virgin olive oil is mainly attributed to its volatile profile including components responsible for positive attributes and others for sensory defects resulting from chemical oxidation and exogenous enzymes. For this reason, the evolution of volatile compounds from Chétoui and Arbequina virgin olive oils during olive ripening and storage (at 4 and 25 °C during 4 weeks) was investigated. The profile of volatile phenols during olive storage was also studied. Quantitative differences in the volatile compounds during olive storage at 4 and 25 °C according to olive cultivar was determined. Concerning the volatile phenols, the Arbequina olives were the most affected by high storage temperature, as the formation of these compounds, especially 4-ethyl and 4-vinyl derivatives of phenol and guaiacol were more noticeable in Arbequina oils extracted from stored fruits at 25 °C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of essential oils on microbial composition and quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhan; Liu, Xiaochang; Jia, Shiliang; Zhang, Longteng; Luo, Yongkang

    2018-02-02

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of essential oils (oregano, thyme, and star anise) on microbial composition and quality of grass carp fillets were investigated. Essential oils treatment was found to be effective in inhibiting microbial growth, delaying lipid oxidation, and retarding the increase of TVB-N, putrescine, hypoxanthine, and K-value. Based on sensory analysis, shelf-life of grass carp fillets was 6days for control and 8days for treatment groups. Among the essential oils, oregano essential oil exhibited the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. GC-MS analysis of essential oils components revealed that carvacrol (88.64%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. According to the results of high-throughput sequencing, Aeromonas, Glutamicibacter, and Aequorivita were the predominant microbiota in fresh control samples. However, oregano essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Aeromonas, while thyme and star anise essential oils decreased the relative abundance of Glutamicibacter and Aequorivita in fresh treated samples. The microbial composition of both control and treatment groups became less diverse as storage time increased. Aeromonas and Pseudomonas were dominant in spoiled samples and contributed to fish spoilage. Compared to the control, essential oils effectively inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Shewanella in grass carp fillets during chilled storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of sodium caseinate concentration and storage conditions on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    O' Dwyer, Sandra P; O' Beirne, David; Eidhin, Deirdre Ní; O' Kennedy, Brendan T

    2013-06-01

    The oxidative stability of various oils (sunflower, camelina and fish) and 20% oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, were examined. The mean particle size decreased from 1179 to 325 nm as sodium caseinate (emulsifier) concentration was increased from 0.25% to 3% in O/W emulsions (P<0.05). Increasing the microfluidisation pressure from 21 to 138 MPa, resulted in a particle size decrease from 289 to 194 nm (P<0.05). Emulsified oils had lower detectable lipid hydroperoxide and p-Anisidine values than their corresponding bulk oils (P<0.05). The lipid hydroperoxide and p-Anisidine values of emulsions generally decreased as sodium caseinate concentration increased, and similarly decreased as microfluidisation pressure increased (P<0.05). Increasing storage temperature of the emulsions from 5 to 60°C, resulted in lower detectable lipid oxidation products during storage (P<0.05). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil: characteristics and storage stability.

    PubMed

    Takeungwongtrakul, Sirima; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2017-04-01

    Characteristics and storage stability of biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil (MSO) were determined. The addition of MSO increased spread ratio, whilst decreased the thickness of biscuit. The highest hardness of biscuit was obtained with addition of 9 or 12% MSO. Biscuit surface showed higher redness and yellowness when MSO was incorporated ( p  < 0.05). The addition of MSO up to 6% had no adverse effect on biscuit quality and acceptability. When biscuits added with 6% MSO were stored under different illumination conditions (light and dark), lipid oxidation in all samples increased throughout the storage of 12 days. Light accelerated lipid oxidation of biscuits as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values and abundance of volatile compounds. No marked change in EPA, DHA and astaxanthin contents were noticeable in biscuit fortified with MSO after 12 days of storage. Therefore, the biscuit could be fortified with MSO up to 6% and must be stored in dark to assure its oxidative stability.

  12. Fast Synthesis of Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes from Camphor Oil as an Energy Storage Material

    PubMed Central

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs. PMID:25258714

  13. Fast synthesis of multilayer carbon nanotubes from camphor oil as an energy storage material.

    PubMed

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs.

  14. ABOVEGROUND NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Long-term nitrogen (N) fertilization studies suggest shifting dominance from Spartina alterniflora to Distichlis spicata, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. A limitation on our ability to predict changes is a poor understanding of resource use under ambient conditions. The present project compares growth rates and N use dynamics between two emerging salt marsh dominants, S. alterniflora and D. spicata. We hypothesize that under ambient Narragansett Bay nutrient conditions, S. alterniflora is a more efficient user of N than D. spicata. Spartina alterniflora and D. spicata cores were collected from the field and raised in a greenhouse. Heights of all stems were measured weekly to determine growth rates. To understand N movement, a pulse of 15N was added and three cores were sacrificed each subsequent week. Live aboveground biomass was separated into stems and leaves, with leaves categorized based on their position from the top of the stem. Samples were analyzed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry to trace N accumulation in different pools over time. One week after the 15N pulse, most of the aboveground 15N was bound in the stems and the youngest leaves. Efficient nutrient transfer in photosynthetic material likely provides a stronger competitive advantage for taller plants, which are able to compete better for light. Growth rates of S. alterniflora proved to be more variable over time than that of D. spicata. A better understanding of N dynamics under am

  15. Changes in antioxidant and biochemical activities in castor oil-coated Capsicum annuum L. during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Jitendriya; Patel, Mansi; Patel, Niyati; Gheewala, Bhumi; Gantait, Saikat

    2018-06-01

    This study, for the first time, evaluates the efficiency of castor oil when used as an external coating on Capsicum annuum L., to increase postharvest storage-life at 4 ± 1 °C. The castor oil-coated fruits were successfully stored for 36 days, while the non-coated fruits could only sustain for 18 days. Throughout the storage period (at 9-day intervals), different antioxidants and biochemical assays (allied with storage) such as titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, ferrous ion chelating activity, reducing power, DPPH scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total sugar estimation, and enzymatic study of polyphenol oxidase and pectate lyase, were assessed. During storage, the castor oil-coated fruits showed a substantial decrease in titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, total phenolic content, including antioxidant activities such as reducing power and DPPH activity; however, an increase in ferrous ion chelating activity, total soluble sugar content, polyphenol oxidase activity and initial pectate lyase activity was observed, in contrast to that of the non-coated fruits. The application of castor oil proved to be effective in delaying the ripening process of fruits during storage.

  16. Effect of oven drying and storage on essential oil composition of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Toli-Toli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murni, V. W.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Hastuti, L. T.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    The research about post-harvested clove is still limited especially in Indonesia, as the biggest producer of clove in the world. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of drying process and storage on the composition of essential oil of Indonesian clove originated from Toli-Toli. The essential oil of fresh and dried clove was obtained by steam distillation and the composition of the oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In all of the clove oil samples, eugenol was the major component, followed by caryophyllene and acetyleugenol. The drying method used was oven drying at 50°C until clove's moisture content reaches 13±1%. During the drying process, the content of phenylpropanoids such as eugenol, isoeugenol, and chavicol increased, while esters and monoterpenes decreased. The composition of clove oil was studied from dried clove after oven drying, then stored in the laboratory at room temperature for 4 months. There was slightly change on clove oil composition after 4 months of storage. The content of major components of clove like eugenol was higher while acetyleugenol was lower after 4 months of storage.

  17. Changes in Quality Characteristics of Pork Patties Containing Multilayered Fish Oil Emulsion during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yeon-Ji; Kwon, Yun-Joong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of multilayered fish oil (FO) emulsion without or with trans-cinnamaldehyde on pork patties. Multilayered FO (-primary, -secondary, -tertiary) emulsions were prepared using a layer-by-layer deposition technique with Tween 20, chitosan, and low methoxyl pectin, and were added to pork patties at the same concentration. Pork patties were then stored for 20 d in a refrigerator (5℃) to study changes in quality. The results showed that the pH value of all samples significantly decreased but cooking loss increased during storage (p<0.05). However, water-holding capacity and moisture content showed no remarkable difference between treatments and storage periods (p>0.05). All pork patties containing multilayered FO (treated samples) showed higher values for lightness and significantly lower values for yellowness compared to control pork patties (untreated sample). Lipid oxidation was higher in treated pork patties than in control pork patties during storage. In addition, lipid oxidation and total viable bacterial count in pork patties decreased as the number of coating layers increased. However, hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness of all samples showed no significant change during storage (p>0.05) as compared to fresh pork patties. Furthermore, these did not remarkable change with addition of trans-cinnamaldehyde in all pork patties. From our results, we suggest that FO emulsion did not affect the texture characteristics of fresh pork patties, indicating that it could be used to improve the quality of pork patties by contributing high-quality fat such as unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26761802

  18. CO2 storage resources, reserves, and reserve growth: Toward a methodology for integrated assessment of the storage capacity of oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Geologically based methodologies to assess the possible volumes of subsurface CO2 storage must apply clear and uniform definitions of resource and reserve concepts to each assessment unit (AU). Application of the current state of knowledge of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical parameters (contingencies) that control storage volume and injectivity allows definition of the contingent resource (CR) of storage. The parameters known with the greatest certainty are based on observations on known traps (KTs) within the AU that produced oil, gas, and water. The aggregate volume of KTs within an AU defines the most conservation volume of contingent resource. Application of the concept of reserve growth to CR volume provides a logical path for subsequent reevaluation of the total resource as knowledge of CO2 storage processes increases during implementation of storage projects. Increased knowledge of storage performance over time will probably allow the volume of the contingent resource of storage to grow over time, although negative growth is possible. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic Changes during Storage of Brassica napus Seeds under Moist Conditions and the Consequences for the Sensory Quality of the Resulting Virgin Oil.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Anja; Schweiger, Rabea; Pons, Caroline; Wagner, Claudia; Brühl, Ludger; Matthäus, Bertrand; Müller, Caroline

    2017-12-20

    Virgin rapeseed (Brassica napus) oil is a valuable niche product, if delivered with a high quality. In this study, the effects of moist storage of B. napus seeds for 1 to 4 days on the seed metabolome and the chemo-sensory properties of the produced oils were determined. The concentrations of several primary metabolites, including monosaccharides and amino acids, rapidly increased in the seeds, probably indicating the breakdown of storage compounds to support seed germination. Seed concentrations of indole glucosinolates increased with a slight time offset suggesting that amino acids may be used to modify secondary metabolism. The volatile profiles of the oils were pronouncedly influenced by moist seed storage, with the sensory quality of the oils decreasing. This study provides a direct time-resolved link between seed metabolism under moist conditions and the quality of the resulting oils, thereby emphasizing the crucial role of dry seed storage in ensuring high oil quality.

  20. 40 CFR 279.45 - Used oil storage at transfer facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (e) Secondary... into the containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water... system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (g) Labels. (1) Containers and aboveground tanks used...

  1. 40 CFR 279.45 - Used oil storage at transfer facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (e) Secondary... into the containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water... system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (g) Labels. (1) Containers and aboveground tanks used...

  2. 40 CFR 279.45 - Used oil storage at transfer facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (e) Secondary... into the containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water... system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (g) Labels. (1) Containers and aboveground tanks used...

  3. 40 CFR 279.45 - Used oil storage at transfer facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (e) Secondary... into the containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water... system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (g) Labels. (1) Containers and aboveground tanks used...

  4. 40 CFR 279.45 - Used oil storage at transfer facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (e) Secondary... into the containment system from migrating out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water... system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (g) Labels. (1) Containers and aboveground tanks used...

  5. 40 CFR 113.4 - Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000 barrels or less capacity. 113.4 Section 113.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS LIABILITY LIMITS FOR...

  6. 40 CFR 113.4 - Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000 barrels or less capacity. 113.4 Section 113.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS LIABILITY LIMITS FOR...

  7. Heat exchange studies on coconut oil cells as thermal energy storage for room thermal conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutjahja, I. M.; Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Z.; Wonorahardjo, S.; Kurnia, D.

    2017-07-01

    As reported by many thermal environment experts, room air conditioning might be controlled by thermal mass system. In this paper we discuss the performance of coconut oil cells as room thermal energy storage. The heat exchange mechanism of coconut oil (CO) which is one of potential organic Phase Change Material (PCM) is studied based on the results of temperature measurements in the perimeter and core parts of cells. We found that the heat exchange performance, i.e. heat absorption and heat release processes of CO cells are dominated by heat conduction in the sensible solid from the higher temperature perimeter part to the lower temperature core part and heat convection during the solid-liquid phase transition and sensible liquid phase. The capability of heat absorption as measured by the reduction of air temperature is not influenced by CO cell size. Besides that, the application of CO as the thermal mass has to be accompanied by air circulation to get the cool sensation of the room’s occupants.

  8. Storage stability of light cycle oil: Studies for the root substance of insoluble sediment formation

    SciTech Connect

    Motohashi, Katsunori; Nakazono, Kingo; Oki, Masami

    1995-04-01

    The storage stabilities of a raw and pretreated light cycle oils (LCOs) have been studied under the condition of ASTM D2274-88. The raw LCO was pretreated by five methods; 10% sulfuric acid-extraction, 10% sodium hydroxide-extraction, methanol-extraction, active clay- treatment, and catalytic hydrotreating. The raw and pretreated LCOs were aged at 95{degrees}C for 144 hours while oxygen was bubbled. The pretreatment except 10% sulfuric acid-extraction showed the decreasing sediments. After removing the sediments by filtration, the changes of component of the residual oils before and after aging, were analyzed by GUMS, GC/AED and GC/NPD. Remarkable changes were observed in nitrogen compoundsmore » such as anilines and indoles, sulfur compounds such as thiophenols, and oxygen compounds such as phenol and its derivatives. It was clarified that the sediment formation was caused by the mutual interactions among heteroatom-containing compounds mentioned above. In addition, unstable hydrocarbons were suggested to behave as key-compounds for sediment formation.« less

  9. Local and Global Impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage Combined with Enhanced Oil Recovery in Four Depleted Oil Fields, Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, J.; Jordan, P. D.; Goodell, J. A.; Harrington, K.; Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil reservoirs are attractive targets for geologic carbon storage (GCS) because they possess proven trapping mechanisms and large amounts of data pertaining to production and reservoir geometry. In addition, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can improve recovery of the remaining oil at recovery factors of 6 to 20% of original oil in place in appropriate reservoirs. CO2 EOR increases the attractiveness of depleted oil and gas reservoirs as a starting point for CCS because the CO2 becomes a commodity that can be purchased by field operators for EOR purposes thereby offsetting the costs of CO2 capture at the power plant. In California, Kern County contains the largest oil reservoirs and produces 76% of California's oil. Most of the production at depths suitable for CCS combined with CO2 EOR comes from three reservoirs: the Vedder and Temblor formations and the Stevens Sandstone of the Monterey Formation. These formations were evaluated for GCS and CO2 EOR potential at the North and South Coles Levee (Stevens Sandstone), Greeley (Vedder) and McKittrick (Temblor) fields. CO2 EOR could be expected to produce an additional 150 million bbls of oil. The total storage space created by pre- and post-EOR fluid production for all three reservoirs is approximately 104 million metric tons (MMT). Large fixed sources in California produce 156 MMT/yr of CO2, and sources in Kern County produce 26 MMT/yr (WESTCARB, 2012). Therefore, the fields could store about four years of local large fixed source emissions and about two thirds of statewide emissions. However, from a global perspective, burning the additional oil produced by CO2 EOR would generate an additional 65 MMT of CO2 if not captured. This would result in a net reduction of greenhouse gas of only 39 MMT rather than the full 104 MMT. If the water produced along with the oil recovered during CO2 EOR operations is not reinjected into the reservoir, the storage space could be much higher.

  10. Effect of nitrite on a thermophilic, methanogenic consortium from an oil storage tank.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Krista M; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2006-10-01

    Samples from an oil storage tank (resident temperature 40 to 60 degrees C), which experienced unwanted periodic odorous gas emissions, contained up to 2,400/ml of thermophilic, lactate-utilizing, sulfate-reducing bacteria. Significant methane production was also evident. Enrichments on acetate gave sheathed filaments characteristic of the acetotrophic methanogen Methanosaeta thermophila of which the presence was confirmed by determining the PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequence. 16S rDNA analysis of enrichments, grown on lactate- and sulfate-containing media, indicated the presence of bacteria related to Garciella nitratireducens, Clostridium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. These sulfidogenic enrichments typically produced sulfide to a maximum concentration of 5-7 mM in media containing excess lactate and 10 mM sulfate or thiosulfate. Both the production of sulfide and the consumption of acetate by the enrichment cultures were inhibited by low concentrations of nitrite (0.5-1.0 mM). Hence, addition of nitrite may be an effective way to prevent odorous gas emissions from the storage tank.

  11. Effect of storage on the essential oil composition of Piper nigrum L. fruits of different ripening states.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Stulova, Irina; Kailas, Tiiu; Müürisepp, Mati

    2004-05-05

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil from black, green, and white pepper was determined by using a simultaneous distillation and extraction micromethod for oil isolation and gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detection (FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analysis techniques. The most abundant compounds in pepper oils were (E)-beta-caryophyllene (1.4-70.4%), limonene (2.9-38.4%), beta-pinene (0.7-25.6%), Delta-3-carene (1.7-19.0%), sabinene (0-12.2%), alpha-pinene (0.3-10.4%), eugenol (0.1-41.0%), terpinen-4-ol (0-13.2%), hedycaryol (0-9.1%), beta-eudesmol (0-9.7%), and caryophyllene oxide (0.1-7.2%). Green pepper corn obtained by a sublimation drying method gave more oil (12.1 mg/g) and a much higher content of monoterpenes (84.2%) in the oil than air-dried green pepper corn (0.8 mg/g and 26.8%, respectively). The oil from ground black pepper contained more monoterpenes and less sesquiterprnes and oxygenated terpenoids as compared to green and white pepper oils. After 1 year of storage of pepper samples in a glass vessel at room temperature, the amount of the oils isolated decreased, the content of terpenes decreased, and the amount of oxygenated terpenoids increased. Differently from other pepper samples, 1 year storage of green pepper corn raised the oil amount more than twice of both drying methods.

  12. Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota.

    PubMed

    Wardle, David A; Bardgett, Richard D; Klironomos, John N; Setälä, Heikki; van der Putten, Wim H; Wall, Diana H

    2004-06-11

    All terrestrial ecosystems consist of aboveground and belowground components that interact to influence community- and ecosystem-level processes and properties. Here we show how these components are closely interlinked at the community level, reinforced by a greater degree of specificity between plants and soil organisms than has been previously supposed. As such, aboveground and belowground communities can be powerful mutual drivers, with both positive and negative feedbacks. A combined aboveground-belowground approach to community and ecosystem ecology is enhancing our understanding of the regulation and functional significance of biodiversity and of the environmental impacts of human-induced global change phenomena.

  13. Changes in oxidation indices and minor components of low free fatty acid and freshly extracted crude palm oils under two different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Choon-Hui; Ariffin, Abdul A; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Tan, Chin-Ping; Kuntom, Ainie; Choo, Adrian Cheng-Yong

    2017-06-01

    This article reports on the changes of oxidation indices and minor components of low free fatty acid (FFA) and freshly extracted crude palm oils after storage at ambient (28 ± 1 C) and 60 C for 77 days. The changes in peroxide value (PV), FFA, extinction coefficient at 233 and 269 nm ( K 233 and K 269 ), bleachability index (DOBI), carotene and vitamin E contents were monitored. PV, FFA, K 233 and K 269 of both oil samples increased as storage progressed while the values of carotene and vitamin E contents decreased. At the end of storage period at 60 °C, the carotene content of low FFA crude palm oil was 4.24 ppm. The storage conditions used led to the loss of entire vitamin E fractions of both oil samples as well as a reduction in DOBI values except for freshly extracted crude palm oil stored at ambient temperature.

  14. Assessment of the antioxidant activity of Bifurcaria bifurcata aqueous extract on canola oil. Effect of extract concentration on the oxidation stability and volatile compound generation during oil storage.

    PubMed

    Agregán, Rubén; Lorenzo, José M; Munekata, Paulo E S; Dominguez, Ruben; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    In this research the antioxidant activity of water extracts of Bifurcaria bifurcata (BBE) at different dose against butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was evaluated in canola oil. Water extracts were firstly characterized in terms of total solid and polyphenolic compound contents, and their antioxidant activity together with that of BHT was evaluated using several in vitro tests (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC and FRAP). Next, the progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in canola oil added with five BBE concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000ppm) and two BHT concentrations (50 and 200ppm) using an accelerated oxidation test. The progress in lipid oxidation was monitored by assessing some chemical indices (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and conjugated dienes) during oil storage and some volatile compounds at the end of the storage period. BBE showed a significant antioxidant effect, being this ability concentration-dependent. The extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to BBE dose, specially with regard to primary oxidation products. At the highest level of BBE, significant decreases of primary and secondary oxidation products, with respect to the control, were obtained with reduction percentages of 71.53%, 72.78%, 68.17% and 71.3% for peroxides, conjugated dienes, p-anisidine and TOTOX values, respectively. A level of 600ppm or higher concentration of the extract inhibits the lipid oxidation in a similar way than BHT at 200ppm. Regarding the inhibition of the formation of volatile compounds, both BBE and BHT strongly inhibited the formation of volatiles during oil storage, being this inhibition similar for all the concentrations of BBE and BHT essayed. Overall, results indicated that BBE can be used as a potential natural additive for improving oxidative stability of canola oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Micro-organisms growing on rapeseed during storage affect the profile of volatile compounds of virgin rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Claudia; Bonte, Anja; Brühl, Ludger; Niehaus, Karsten; Bednarz, Hanna; Matthäus, Bertrand

    2018-04-01

    Micro-organisms populate on rapeseed after harvest during storage depending on the growing conditions. The composition of the bacterial colonization is unknown, although its contribution to the profile of volatile aroma-active compounds determines the sensory quality of virgin cold-pressed rapeseed oil. From four rapeseed samples, 46 bacterial strains were isolated. By DNA-sequencing, the identification of four bacteria species and 17 bacteria genera was possible. In total, 22 strains were selected, based on their typical off-flavors resembling those of virgin sensory bad cold-pressed rapeseed oils. The cultivation of these strains on rapeseed meal agar and examination of volatile compounds by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the identification of 29 different compounds, mainly degradation products of fatty acids such as alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols and, in addition, sulfur-containing compounds, including one terpene and three pyrazines. From these compounds, 19 are described as aroma-active in the literature. Micro-organisms populating on rapeseed during storage may strongly influence the sensory quality of virgin rapeseed oil as a result of the development of volatile aroma-active metabolic products. It can be assumed that occurrence of off-flavor of virgin rapeseed oils on the market are the result of metabolic degradation products produced by micro-organisms populating on rapeseed during storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Aboveground vs. Belowground Carbon Stocks in African Tropical Lowland Rainforest: Drivers and Implications.

    PubMed

    Doetterl, Sebastian; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Bauters, Marijn; Hufkens, Koen; Lisingo, Janvier; Baert, Geert; Verbeeck, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    African tropical rainforests are one of the most important hotspots to look for changes in the upcoming decades when it comes to C storage and release. The focus of studying C dynamics in these systems lies traditionally on living aboveground biomass. Belowground soil organic carbon stocks have received little attention and estimates of the size, controls and distribution of soil organic carbon stocks are highly uncertain. In our study on lowland rainforest in the central Congo basin, we combine both an assessment of the aboveground C stock with an assessment of the belowground C stock and analyze the latter in terms of functional pools and controlling factors. Our study shows that despite similar vegetation, soil and climatic conditions, soil organic carbon stocks in an area with greater tree height (= larger aboveground carbon stock) were only half compared to an area with lower tree height (= smaller aboveground carbon stock). This suggests that substantial variability in the aboveground vs. belowground C allocation strategy and/or C turnover in two similar tropical forest systems can lead to significant differences in total soil organic C content and C fractions with important consequences for the assessment of the total C stock of the system. We suggest nutrient limitation, especially potassium, as the driver for aboveground versus belowground C allocation. However, other drivers such as C turnover, tree functional traits or demographic considerations cannot be excluded. We argue that large and unaccounted variability in C stocks is to be expected in African tropical rain-forests. Currently, these differences in aboveground and belowground C stocks are not adequately verified and implemented mechanistically into Earth System Models. This will, hence, introduce additional uncertainty to models and predictions of the response of C storage of the Congo basin forest to climate change and its contribution to the terrestrial C budget.

  17. Aboveground vs. Belowground Carbon Stocks in African Tropical Lowland Rainforest: Drivers and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bauters, Marijn; Hufkens, Koen; Lisingo, Janvier; Baert, Geert; Verbeeck, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background African tropical rainforests are one of the most important hotspots to look for changes in the upcoming decades when it comes to C storage and release. The focus of studying C dynamics in these systems lies traditionally on living aboveground biomass. Belowground soil organic carbon stocks have received little attention and estimates of the size, controls and distribution of soil organic carbon stocks are highly uncertain. In our study on lowland rainforest in the central Congo basin, we combine both an assessment of the aboveground C stock with an assessment of the belowground C stock and analyze the latter in terms of functional pools and controlling factors. Principal Findings Our study shows that despite similar vegetation, soil and climatic conditions, soil organic carbon stocks in an area with greater tree height (= larger aboveground carbon stock) were only half compared to an area with lower tree height (= smaller aboveground carbon stock). This suggests that substantial variability in the aboveground vs. belowground C allocation strategy and/or C turnover in two similar tropical forest systems can lead to significant differences in total soil organic C content and C fractions with important consequences for the assessment of the total C stock of the system. Conclusions/Significance We suggest nutrient limitation, especially potassium, as the driver for aboveground versus belowground C allocation. However, other drivers such as C turnover, tree functional traits or demographic considerations cannot be excluded. We argue that large and unaccounted variability in C stocks is to be expected in African tropical rain-forests. Currently, these differences in aboveground and belowground C stocks are not adequately verified and implemented mechanistically into Earth System Models. This will, hence, introduce additional uncertainty to models and predictions of the response of C storage of the Congo basin forest to climate change and its contribution to

  18. Guidelines for sampling aboveground biomass and carbon in mature central hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley

    2017-01-01

    As impacts of climate change expand, determining accurate measures of forest biomass and associated carbon storage in forests is critical. We present sampling guidance for 12 combinations of percent error, plot size, and alpha levels by disturbance regime to help determine the optimal size of plots to estimate aboveground biomass and carbon in an old-growth Central...

  19. Preservation Mechanism of Chitosan-Based Coating with Cinnamon Oil for Fruits Storage Based on Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yage; Xu, Qinglian; Yang, Simon X.; Chen, Cunkun; Tang, Yong; Sun, Shumin; Zhang, Liang; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2016-01-01

    The chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agent has been developed recently to control the decay of fruits. However, its fresh keeping and antimicrobial mechanism is still not very clear. The preservation mechanism of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil for fruits storage is investigated in this paper. Results in the atomic force microscopy sensor images show that many micropores exist in the chitosan coating film. The roughness of coating film is affected by the concentration of chitosan. The antifungal activity of cinnamon oil should be mainly due to its main consistent trans-cinnamaldehyde, which is proportional to the trans-cinnamaldehyde concentration and improves with increasing the attachment time of oil. The exosmosis ratios of Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus flavus could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of cinnamon oil. Morphological observation indicates that, compared to the normal cell, the wizened mycelium of A. flavus is observed around the inhibition zone, and the growth of spores is also inhibited. Moreover, the analysis of gas sensors indicate that the chitosan-oil coating could decrease the level of O2 and increase the level of CO2 in the package of cherry fruits, which also control the fruit decay. These results indicate that its preservation mechanism might be partly due to the micropores structure of coating film as a barrier for gas and a carrier for oil, and partly due to the activity of cinnamon oil on the cell disruption. PMID:27438841

  20. Preservation Mechanism of Chitosan-Based Coating with Cinnamon Oil for Fruits Storage Based on Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yage; Xu, Qinglian; Yang, Simon X; Chen, Cunkun; Tang, Yong; Sun, Shumin; Zhang, Liang; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2016-07-18

    The chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agent has been developed recently to control the decay of fruits. However, its fresh keeping and antimicrobial mechanism is still not very clear. The preservation mechanism of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil for fruits storage is investigated in this paper. Results in the atomic force microscopy sensor images show that many micropores exist in the chitosan coating film. The roughness of coating film is affected by the concentration of chitosan. The antifungal activity of cinnamon oil should be mainly due to its main consistent trans-cinnamaldehyde, which is proportional to the trans-cinnamaldehyde concentration and improves with increasing the attachment time of oil. The exosmosis ratios of Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus flavus could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of cinnamon oil. Morphological observation indicates that, compared to the normal cell, the wizened mycelium of A. flavus is observed around the inhibition zone, and the growth of spores is also inhibited. Moreover, the analysis of gas sensors indicate that the chitosan-oil coating could decrease the level of O₂ and increase the level of CO₂ in the package of cherry fruits, which also control the fruit decay. These results indicate that its preservation mechanism might be partly due to the micropores structure of coating film as a barrier for gas and a carrier for oil, and partly due to the activity of cinnamon oil on the cell disruption.

  1. Volatiles formation in gelled emulsions enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids during storage: type of oil and antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Gayoso, Lucía; Poyato, Candelaria; Calvo, María Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2017-08-01

    Gelled emulsions with carrageenan are a novel type of emulsion that could be used as a carrier of unsaturated fatty acids in functional foods formulations. Lipid degradation through volatile compounds was studied in gelled emulsions which were high in polyunsaturated oils (sunflower or algae oil) after 49 days of storage. Aqueous Lavandula latifolia extract was tested as a natural antioxidant. Analysis of the complete volatile profile of the samples resulted in a total of 40 compounds, classified in alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones, acids, alcohols, furans, terpenes and aromatic hydrocarbons. During storage, the formation of the volatile compounds was mostly related to the oxidation of the main fatty acids of the sunflower oil (linolenic acid) and the algae oil (docosahexaenoic acid). Despite the antioxidant capacity shown by the L. latifolia extract, its influence in the oxidative stability in terms of total volatiles was only noticed in sunflower oil gels ( p  < 0.05), where a significant decrease in the aldehydes fraction was found.

  2. Aboveground tree biomass statistics for Maine: 1982

    Treesearch

    Eric H. Wharton; Thomas S. Frieswyk; Anne M. Malley

    1985-01-01

    Traditional measures of volume inadequately describe the total aboveground wood resource. The 1980-82 inventory of Maine included estimates of aboveground tree biomass on timberland. There are nearly 1,504.4 million green tons of wood and bark in all trees above the ground level, or 88.2 green tons per acre of timberland. Most of the biomass is in growing stock, but 49...

  3. Iron-Corroding Methanogen Isolated from a Crude-Oil Storage Tank ▿

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Taku; Ito, Kimio; Mori, Koji; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion of steel in anaerobic environments has been attributed to hydrogenotrophic microorganisms. A sludge sample collected from the bottom plate of a crude-oil storage tank was used to inoculate a medium containing iron (Fe0) granules, which was then incubated anaerobically at 37°C under an N2-CO2 atmosphere to enrich for microorganisms capable of using iron as the sole source of electrons. A methanogen, designated strain KA1, was isolated from the enrichment culture. An analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain KA1 is a Methanococcus maripaludis strain. Strain KA1 produced methane and oxidized iron much faster than did the type strain of M. maripaludis, strain JJT, which produced methane at a rate expected from the abiotic H2 production rate from iron. Scanning electron micrographs of iron coupons that had been immersed in either a KA1 culture, a JJT culture, or an aseptic medium showed that only coupons from the KA1 culture had corroded substantially, and these were covered with crystalline deposits that consisted mainly of FeCO3. PMID:20118376

  4. Effect of black pepper essential oil on the quality of fresh pork during storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ying; Pan, Dao-Dong; Cao, Jin-Xuan; Shao, Xing-Feng; Chen, Yin-Ji; Sun, Yang-Ying; Ou, Chang-Rong

    2016-07-01

    The effect of different concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.5%, v/v) of black pepper essential oil (BPEO) on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), meat color, the percentage of metmyoglobin (MetMb%), microbiological parameters and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) of pork loins stored at 4°C for 9days was evaluated. BPEO treatments showed lower TBARS, MetMb%, yellowness (b*) values, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae count and TVB-N values and higher lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values than the control during storage; the effectiveness of BPEO was dose-dependent. The retardation of the formation of MetMb by adding BPEO ensured higher L* and a* values and lower b* values than the control at 6 and 9days; the MetMb content has a similar trend to the lipid oxidation. The lower TVB-N value of BPEO treatments than the control could be attributed to the inhibition of Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. Gram-negative bacteria were more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to BPEO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Iron-corroding methanogen isolated from a crude-oil storage tank.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Taku; Ito, Kimio; Mori, Koji; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2010-03-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion of steel in anaerobic environments has been attributed to hydrogenotrophic microorganisms. A sludge sample collected from the bottom plate of a crude-oil storage tank was used to inoculate a medium containing iron (Fe(0)) granules, which was then incubated anaerobically at 37 degrees C under an N(2)-CO(2) atmosphere to enrich for microorganisms capable of using iron as the sole source of electrons. A methanogen, designated strain KA1, was isolated from the enrichment culture. An analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain KA1 is a Methanococcus maripaludis strain. Strain KA1 produced methane and oxidized iron much faster than did the type strain of M. maripaludis, strain JJ(T), which produced methane at a rate expected from the abiotic H(2) production rate from iron. Scanning electron micrographs of iron coupons that had been immersed in either a KA1 culture, a JJ(T) culture, or an aseptic medium showed that only coupons from the KA1 culture had corroded substantially, and these were covered with crystalline deposits that consisted mainly of FeCO(3).

  6. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  7. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-05-04

    This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus). The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%), caryophyllene (12.7%), β-cubebene (7.9%), 4-terpineol (7.5%) and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%), while humulene epoxide II (29.4%), caryophyllene oxide (24.0%), diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7%) and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7%) were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.

  8. Development of High Heat Input Welding High Strength Steel Plate for Oil Storage Tank in Xinyu Steel Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hemin; Dong, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xiong

    This essay introduces the developed high-heat input welding quenched and tempered pressure vessel steel 12MnNiVR for oil storage tank by Xinyu Steel, which passed the review by the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Technical Committee in 2009. The review comments that compared to the domestic and foreign similar steel standard, the key technical index of enterprise standard were in advanced level. After the heat input of 100kJ/cm electro-gas welding, welded points were still with excellent low temperature toughness at -20°C. The steel plate may be constructed for oil storage tank, which has been permitted by thickness range from 10 to 40mm, and design temperature among -20°C-100°C. It studied microstructure genetic effects mechanical properties of the steel. Many production practices indicated that the mechanical properties of products and the steel by stress relief heat treatment of steel were excellent, with pretreatment of hot metal, converter refining, external refining, protective casting, TMCP and heat treatment process measurements. The stability of performance and matured technology of Xinyu Steel support the products could completely service the demand of steel constructed for 10-15 million cubic meters large oil storage tank.

  9. Effect of 6-gingerol on physicochemical properties of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) surimi fortified with perilla oil during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hongbo; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Cong; Yi, Shumin; Xu, Yongxia; Li, Jianrong

    2017-11-01

    Surimi is produced from deboned fish muscle through washing to remove blood, lipids, sarcoplasmic proteins and other impurities. There is an increasing interest in the fortification of surimi with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids because of their health benefits. However, lipid oxidation should be considered as an important factor during storage. Hence, in this study, the quality properties and oxidative stability of surimi fortified with 30 g kg -1 perilla oil (PO), or 5 g kg -1 6-gingerol (GI) or their combination (PO+GI) was investigated. Perilla oil significantly improved whiteness of surimi gel, but negatively influenced its gel strength, water holding capacity (WHC) and texture. However, there was no significant difference in texture properties among GI, PO+GI and control groups. During the whole storage period, GI and PO+GI groups had higher gel strength and WHC than control and PO groups. Moreover, lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), carbonyl content and total plate count (TPC) were observed in GI group compared with other groups. Perilla oil and 6-gingerol could be applied together to effectively fortify surimi qualities. Additionally, 6-gingerol could prevent lipid and protein oxidation and microbial growth of surimi during refrigerated storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Shelf Life Extension of Tomato Paste Through Organoleptically Acceptable Concentration of Betel Leaf Essential Oil Under Accelerated Storage Environment.

    PubMed

    Basak, Suradeep

    2018-05-01

    This study was attempted with two objectives: (1) to find an acceptable concentration of betel leaf essential oil (BLEO) based on sensory evaluation that can be employed in tomato paste; (2) to evaluate the effect of the acceptable concentration of BLEO in the paste during accelerated storage under 89 ± 1.2% RH at 39 ± 1 °C. Linguistic data obtained from sensory evaluation of tomato paste treated with 4 different concentrations of BLEO were analyzed using fuzzy logic approach. The organoleptically acceptable concentration was determined to be 0.25 mg/g of BLEO in tomato paste. The effect of the selected concentration of BLEO on different physicochemical and microbial attributes of tomato paste during accelerated storage was studied. Untreated tomato paste was found to have 12% less total antioxidant capacity than treated paste at the end of storage. Based on a * /b * value in CIELAB color space, the BLEO treated paste efficiently extended the shelf life by 14 days with respect to untreated paste samples under accelerated storage conditions. BLEO comes with a tag contributing to green consumerism, and its application as food preservative is no less than a value addition to the product. Essential oil is considered to have promising potential as an alternative food preservative, and its use is practically possible if they could overcome the sensory barrier, while retaining the preservative potency. The importance of identifying the sensory attributes for commercial success of essential oil treated food product was considered in this study. It contributes to the potency of organoleptically acceptable concentration of BLEO in shelf life extension of tomato paste under accelerated storage conditions. At industrial level, the estimated shelf life of treated tomato paste can be increased by incorporating more hurdles alongside BLEO. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 204: STORAGE BUNKERS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. CAU 330 consists of the following CASs: CAS 06-02-04, Underground Storage Tank (UST) and Piping CAS 22-99-06, Fuel Spill CAS 23-01-02, Large Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) Farm CAS 23-25-05, Asphalt Oil Spill/Tar Release

  12. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage

    PubMed Central

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p < 0.05) than CZEO incorporated samples, while fat, ash and protein content were not affected by adding essential oil. At days 0 and 40, Lightness (L*) and whiteness index (WI) were significantly decreased and total color difference (ΔE) significantly increased (p < 0.05) by adding CZEO. With the exception of first day of storage, redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively during the rest of storage (p < 0.05). The pH values were not differing between the control samples and samples containing CZEO (p > 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages. PMID:25992249

  13. Effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage.

    PubMed

    Lu, F S H; Bruheim, I; Haugsgjerd, B O; Jacobsen, C

    2014-08-15

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage. Krill oil was incubated at two different temperatures (20 and 40 °C) for 28 or 42 days. The oxidative stability of krill oil was assessed by peroxide value and anisidine value, measurement of lipid derived volatiles, lipid classes and antioxidants. The non-enzymatic browning reactions were assessed through the measurement of pyrroles, free amino acids content and Strecker-derived volatiles. The increase of incubation temperature firstly increased the lipid oxidation in krill oil and subsequently the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The occurrence of these reactions was most likely due to the reaction between α-dicarbonyl or carbonyl compounds with amino acids or ammonia. In addition to tocopherol and astaxanthin esters, the formation of pyrroles might help to protect the krill oil against lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of olive maturation and stoning on quality indices and antioxidant content of extra virgin oils (cv. Coratina) during storage.

    PubMed

    Gambacorta, G; Faccia, M; Previtali, M A; Pati, S; La Notte, E; Baiano, A

    2010-04-01

    Quality indices, antioxidant compounds, and antioxidant activities of extra-virgin oils from Coratina olives were evaluated during a 12-mo storage. Whole and stoned olives, picked at 2 different maturation index (MI), were submitted to malaxation for 45 min and extracted by a 3-phase continuous system. A 90-min malaxation trial was also performed for the stoned olives. The following parameters were monitored: free acidity, peroxide value, K(232) and K(270) indices, sensory profile, total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic profiles, tocopherol compounds, and antioxidant activity (AA). The highest TPC, AA, and sensory score were found for the oils obtained by olives picked at low MI and by stoned olives. After 12 mo, all the oils were still included into the "extra-virgin" category, and those deriving from whole olives picked at the lowest MI showed the best sensory characteristics due to high fruity and well-balanced pungent and bitter tastes. This study could represent a helpful tool for oil-makers to improve the marketing of extra-virgin olive oils produced from cultivars with very high phenolic contents, such as Coratina, generally not adequately appreciated by consumers because of their excessive bitterness and pungent taste. These oils, when extracted from whole olives, are generally consumed after a certain period of time (at least 6 mo) during which a decrease in the phenolic content occurs. The results of the present work demonstrate that oils extracted from olives picked at low maturation index can be marketed immediately after production if subjected to stoning and malaxed for a short time. This procedure allows to adjust the phenolic content and to obtain a high flavor and a well-balanced taste.

  15. Oil Bodies Extracted from High-Fat and Low-Fat Soybeans: Stability and Composition During Storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiu Ling; Li Cui, Chun; Jiang, Lian Zhou; Liu, Yue; Liang, Xin Ting; Hou, Jun Cai

    2017-06-01

    Soybeans contain oil bodies (OBs) that encapsulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a phospholipid monolayer carrying scattered proteins. In nature, soybean OBs can form natural emulsions in aqueous media and may serve as natural, minimally processed, stable, and pre-emulsified oil for addition into appropriate food systems. In this study, OBs were obtained by aqueous extraction from the mature seeds of 2 soybean crop cultivars, high-fat soybean and low-fat soybeans. The compositions of the extracted OBs were analyzed during storage at room temperature up to 14 d (pH = 7). The oxidative stability of these OBs, stored at 60 °C, was evaluated by measuring the presence of primary (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde) by determining the standard peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value. During storage, the contents of unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and tocopherols declined in both OBs, while their mean particle diameters (d 32 ) and ζ-potentials increased. The changes in PV and TBARS values exhibited a similar trend for both OBs, but the OBs from low-fat soybeans had significantly lower PV and higher TBARS values than the OBs from high-fat soybean cultivars (P < 0.05). Overall, the OBs from both soybean cultivars had good stability during storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Influence of the addition and storage time of crude extract of tea leaves (camellia sinensis l.) toward value of free fatty acid in crude palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin; Wahifiyah, E.; Hairani, R.; Panggabean, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the crude extract of tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.) and storage time on the content of free fatty acid in palm oil. The dried tea leaves were macerated and concentrated by rotary evaporator. The extract obtained was added to crude palm oil with various added mass of the extract and various storage times. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, phenolics and flavonoids. The ANOVA test showed a decrease in free fatty acid content in crude palm oil with the addition of tea leaves extract. The LSD (Least Significant Difference) test showed the best influence on ALB of palm oil is on the total extract mass of 2 grams and the storage time of 20 days.

  17. Aboveground and belowground net primary production

    Treesearch

    Hal O. Liechty; Mark H. Eisenbies

    2000-01-01

    The relationship among net primary productivity (NPP), hydroperiod, and fertility in forested wetlands is poorly understood (Burke and others 1999), particularly with respect to belowground NPP (Megonigal and others 1997). Although some researchers have studied aboveground and belowground primary production in depressional, forested wetland systems, e.g., Day and...

  18. Changes during storage of quality parameters and in vitro antioxidant activity of extra virgin monovarietal oils obtained with two extraction technologies.

    PubMed

    Fadda, C; Del Caro, A; Sanguinetti, A M; Urgeghe, P P; Vacca, V; Arca, P P; Piga, A

    2012-10-01

    Extraction technology has a great effect on quality of olive oils. This paper studied 18 months of storage of two Sardinian extra virgin monovarietal oils obtained with a traditional and with a low oxidative stress technology. Oil samples were subjected to the following chemical analyses: acidity, peroxide value, ultraviolet light absorption K₂₃₂ and K₂₇₀, carotenoids, chlorophylls, tocopherols and total polyphenols. The antioxidant capacity of oils, polyphenol extract and oil extract (remaining after polyphenol extraction) was also determined as radical scavenging activity. The results show that both extraction technologies resulted in minor changes in legal and quality indices during storage, due surely to the high quality of the oils as well as to the very good storage conditions used. Oils obtained with the low oxidative stress technology showed lower peroxide value and acidity and resulted in up to 103% higher total polyphenol content as well as increased radical-scavenging activity, with respect to oils obtained with the traditional technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aboveground breakout tanks. (a) For aboveground breakout tanks built into API Specification 12F and first placed in service after October 2, 2000, pneumatic testing must be in accordance with section 5.3 of API Specification 12 F (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (b) For aboveground breakout tanks built to API...

  20. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aboveground breakout tanks. (a) For aboveground breakout tanks built into API Specification 12F and first placed in service after October 2, 2000, pneumatic testing must be in accordance with section 5.3 of API Specification 12 F (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (b) For aboveground breakout tanks built to API...

  1. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aboveground breakout tanks. (a) For aboveground breakout tanks built into API Specification 12F and first placed in service after October 2, 2000, pneumatic testing must be in accordance with section 5.3 of API Specification 12 F (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (b) For aboveground breakout tanks built to API...

  2. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... aboveground breakout tanks. (a) For aboveground breakout tanks built into API Specification 12F and first placed in service after October 2, 2000, pneumatic testing must be in accordance with section 5.3 of API Specification 12 F (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (b) For aboveground breakout tanks built to API...

  3. Spatial Persistence of Macropores and Authigenic Clays in a Reservoir Sandstone: Implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow in clay-rich sandstone reservoirs is important to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the geologic storage of CO2. Understanding geologic controls on pore structure allows for better identification of lithofacies that can contain, storage, and/or transmit hydrocarbons and CO2, and may result in better designs for EOR-CO2 storage. We examine three-dimensional pore structure and connectivity of sandstone samples from the Farnsworth Unit, Texas, the site of a combined EOR-CO2 storage project by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP). We employ a unique set of methods, including: robotic serial polishing and reflected-light imaging for digital pore-structure reconstruction; electron microscopy; laser scanning confocal microscopy; mercury intrusion-extrusion porosimetry; and relative permeability and capillary pressure measurements using CO2 and synthetic formation fluid. Our results link pore size distributions, topology of porosity and clay-rich phases, and spatial persistence of connected flow paths to multiphase flow behavior. The authors gratefully acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory for sponsoring this project through the SWP under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Regioisomeric distribution of 9‐ and 13‐hydroperoxy linoleic acid in vegetable oils during storage and heating

    PubMed Central

    Zaunschirm, Mathias; Lach, Judith; Unterberger, Laura; Kopic, Antonio; Keßler, Claudia; Kienesberger, Julia; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Riegger, Christoph; Somoza, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND The oxidative deterioration of vegetable oils is commonly measured by the peroxide value, thereby not considering the contribution of individual lipid hydroperoxide isomers, which might have different bioactive effects. Thus, the formation of 9‐ and 13‐hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9‐HpODE and 13‐ HpODE), was quantified after short‐term heating and conditions representative of long‐term domestic storage in samples of linoleic acid, canola, sunflower and soybean oil, by means of stable isotope dilution analysis–liquid chromatography‐mass spectroscopy. RESULTS Although heating of pure linoleic acid at 180 °C for 30 min led to an almost complete loss of 9‐HpODE and 13‐HpODE, heating of canola, sunflower and soybean oil resulted in the formation of 5.74 ± 3.32, 2.00 ± 1.09, 16.0 ± 2.44 mmol L–1 13‐HpODE and 13.8 ± 8.21, 10.0 ± 6.74 and 45.2 ± 6.23 mmol L–1 9‐HpODE. An almost equimolar distribution of the 9‐ and 13‐HpODE was obtained during household‐representative storage conditions after 56 days, whereas, under heating conditions, an approximately 2.4‐, 2.8‐ and 5.0‐fold (P ≤ 0.001) higher concentration of 9‐HpODE than 13‐HpODE was detected in canola, soybean and sunflower oil, respectively. CONCLUSION A temperature‐dependent distribution of HpODE regioisomers could be shown in vegetable oils, suggesting their application as markers of lipid oxidation in oils used for short‐term heating. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:29095495

  5. Degradation rates of phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas L. oil and pressed seeds under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Phasukarratchai, Naphatsarnan; Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2017-03-01

    Phorbol esters (PEs), found in Jatropha curcas crude oil (JCO) and J. curcas pressed seeds (JPS), are known as bioactive compounds in agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. The degradation rates of PEs in JCO and JPS under various conditions is important for the utilisation of PEs. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the PE degradation rates in JCO and JPS under different storage conditions. PE degradation rates were found to be first-order reactions. The slowest degradation rate was at 0.9 × 10 -3 d -1 for both JCO and JPS unexposed to light at 4 °C. Light intensity (1097 lx and 4690 lx, representing diffused sunlight and fluorescent lighting, respectively) and temperature (25 to 35 °C) were the significant degradation factors. Light exposure led to 280% to 380% higher degradation rates in JCO than in JPS due to light penetration through the transparent oil. Dried and sterilised JPS showed an 80% to 90% lower PE degradation rate than untreated JPS under all storage conditions since biodegradation was assembly limited. The PEs were unstable under the studied conditions, especially when exposed to light and room temperature. To protect against PE degradation, a material should be stored in a light-protected container and below 4 °C. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Fuzzy fault tree assessment based on improved AHP for fire and explosion accidents for steel oil storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Shuai, Jian; Xu, Kui

    2014-08-15

    Fire and explosion accidents of steel oil storage tanks (FEASOST) occur occasionally during the petroleum and chemical industry production and storage processes and often have devastating impact on lives, the environment and property. To contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing the occurrence probability of FEASOST, a fault tree of FEASOST is constructed that identifies various potential causes. Traditional fault tree analysis (FTA) can achieve quantitative evaluation if the failure data of all of the basic events (BEs) are available, which is almost impossible due to the lack of detailed data, as well as other uncertainties. This paper makes an attempt to perform FTA of FEASOST by a hybrid application between an expert elicitation based improved analysis hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy set theory, and the occurrence possibility of FEASOST is estimated for an oil depot in China. A comparison between statistical data and calculated data using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) based on traditional and improved AHP is also made. Sensitivity and importance analysis has been performed to identify the most crucial BEs leading to FEASOST that will provide insights into how managers should focus effective mitigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of Some Essential Oils Against Aspergillus flavus with Special Reference to Lippia alba Oil an Inhibitor of Fungal Proliferation and Aflatoxin B1 Production in Green Gram Seeds during Storage.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhay K; Sonker, Nivedita; Singh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    During mycofloral analysis of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) seed samples taken from different grocery stores by agar and standard blotter paper methods, 5 fungal species were identified, of which Aspergillus flavus exhibited higher relative frequency (75.20% to 80.60%) and was found to produce aflatoxin B1 . On screening of 11 plant essential oils against this mycotoxigenic fungi, Lippia alba essential oil was found to be most effective and showed absolute inhibition of mycelia growth at 0.28 μL/mL. The oil of L. alba was fungistatic and fungicidal at 0.14 and 0.28 μL/mL, respectively. Oil had broad range of fungitoxicity at its MIC value and was absolutely inhibited the AFB1 production level at 2.0 μL/mL. Chemical analysis of this oil revealed geranial (36.9%) and neral (29.3%) as major components followed by myrcene (18.6%). Application of a dose of 80 μL/0.25 L air of Lippia oil in the storage system significantly inhibited the fungal proliferation and aflatoxin production without affecting the seed germination rate. By the virtue of fungicidal, antiaflatoxigenic nature and potent efficacy in storage food system, L. alba oil can be commercialized as botanical fungicide for the protection of green gram seeds during storage. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Dielectric, ferroelectric, and thermodynamic properties of silicone oil modified PVDF films for energy storage application

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Bingcheng; Wang, Xiaohui, E-mail: wxh@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: llt-dms@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Li, Longtu, E-mail: wxh@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: llt-dms@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    Silicone oil modified poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) films were fabricated by the blending, casting, and hot-molding methods. The dielectric constant was increased for the 7.4 wt. % and 17.0 wt. % silicone oil modified P(VDF-HFP) films, while the dielectric loss for all blend films are decreased. D-E loops of 7.4 wt. % and 17.0 wt. % silicone oil modified P(VDF-HFP) films become slimmer than the pristine P(VDF-HFP) films. The maximum discharged energy density of 10.3 J/cm{sup 3} was obtained in 7.4 wt. % silicone oil modified P(VDF-HFP) films at the external electric field of 398 kV/mm. The Gibbs energy, miscibility, and phase behavior of binary mixture of P(VDF-HFP) silicone oil were investigated usingmore » molecular simulations and the extended Flory–Huggins model revealing favorable interactions and compatibility between P(VDF-HFP) and silicone oil.« less

  9. Activity of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) essential oils against the grain storage pest Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Lilian R; Sánchez Chopa, Carolina; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2011-06-01

    Essential oils extracted from leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) were tested for their repellent, toxic and feeding deterrent properties against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and adults. A topical application assay was employed for the contact toxicity study and filter paper impregnation for the fumigant assay. A treated diet was also used to evaluate the repellent activity and a flour disk bioassay for the feeding deterrent action and nutritional index alteration. The essential oil of the leaves contained mainly monoterpenoids, with alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and camphene predominant, whereas that from the fruits contained mainly alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and beta-myrcene. The leaf essential oil showed repellent effects, whereas that from the fruit was an attractant. Both oils produced mortality against larvae in topical and fumigant bioassays, but fumigant toxicity was not found against adults. Moreover, both essential oils produced some alterations in nutritional index. These results show that the essential oils from S. areira could be applicable to the management of populations of Tribolium castaneum.

  10. Combining LIDAR estimates of aboveground biomass and Landsat estimates of stand age for spatially extensive validation of modeled forest productivity.

    Treesearch

    M.A. Lefsky; D.P. Turner; M. Guzy; W.B. Cohen

    2005-01-01

    Extensive estimates of forest productivity are required to understand the relationships between shifting land use, changing climate and carbon storage and fluxes. Aboveground net primary production of wood (NPPAw) is a major component of total NPP and of net ecosystem production (NEP). Remote sensing of NPP and NPPAw is...

  11. Quality, stability and radical scavenging activity of olive oils after Chétoui olives (Olea europaea L.) storage under modified atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Ben Yahia, L; Baccouri, B; Ouni, Y; Hamdi, S

    2012-08-01

    At the industrial scale, the major source of olive oil deterioration is the poor handling of the raw material during the time separating harvesting from processing. The objective of this work was to verify the effect of modified atmospheres and cold storage in relation to quality parameters of the extracted oils. Olives (cv Chétoui) intended for oil extraction, were stored for 21 days at two different temperatures (ambient temperature 14 ± 2 °C and 5 °C) and under two different modified atmospheres 21% O₂ - 0% CO₂ and 2% O₂ - 5% CO₂. Oils quality was ascertained with analytical parameters: free fatty acids, peroxide value, K₂₃₂, K₂₇₀ as suggested by European regulation. Oxidative stability, total phenols content, radical scavenging activity and fatty acids composition were carried out in order to measure the hydrolytic and oxidative degradation of oils. Olive oils quality parameters were significantly affected by treatments with especially a beneficial effect on primary oxidation indicators and free acidity. Most efficient treatments, with regard to oils phenolic content and involved parameters, were 21% O₂ - 0% CO₂ at ambient temperature (636.25 mg ca/kg) and 2% O₂ - 5% CO₂ under 5 °C (637.50 mg ca/kg). Those two treatments improved individually oil samples phenolic content of 25% but not at the same storage period.

  12. Effects of Rosemary Oil (Rosmarinus officinalis) On The Shelf-Life of Minced Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Gai, Francesco; Ortoffi, Marco; Aigotti, Riccardo; Medana, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The effects of three concentrations (0.2%, 1% and 3%) of rosemary oil (RO) on the freshness indicators, oxidative stability, fatty acid and biogenic amine (BA) contents of minced rainbow trout muscle (MTM) were investigated after different periods of storage (three and nine days) at 4 ± 1 °C. Moreover, the terpene and sesquiterpene contents in the treated MTM were also measured. RO treatment improves the pH, oxidative stability of the lipids and the FA profile, which resulted in a significant extension of MTM shelf-life. Storage time influenced all freshness indicators, with the exception of yellowness and chroma. Treatment with RO had a positive effect, leading to low BA content, especially putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and histamine. Differences in BA were also found to be due to storage time, with the exception of spermidine, which was not influenced by time. Moreover, the presence of the terpenoid fraction of RO in MTM improved the quality of this ready-to-cook fish food. PMID:28239089

  13. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Karin; Maghenzani, Marco; Chiabrando, Valentina; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2018-01-01

    The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO), was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v/v in the diffusor) significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola, but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea. Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines. PMID:29303966

  14. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Karin; Maghenzani, Marco; Chiabrando, Valentina; Bosio, Pietro; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2018-01-05

    The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO), was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v / v in the diffusor) significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola , but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea . In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea . Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines.

  15. (Chemotaxonomic) Implications of Postharvest/Storage-Induced Changes in Plant Volatile Profiles--the Case of Artemisia absinthium L. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Blagojević, Polina D; Radulović, Niko S; Skropeta, Danielle

    2015-08-01

    The plant volatile profile and the essential-oil chemical composition change during the storage of plant material. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model able to predict, explain, and quantify these changes. Mathematical equations, derived under the assumption that the essential oil contained within plant material could be treated as an ideal solution (Raoult's law), were applied for tracking of postharvest changes in the volatile profile of Artemisia absinthium L. (the essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS). Starting from a specific chemical composition of an essential-oil sample obtained from plant material after a short drying period (typically 5-10 d), and by using the equations derived from this model, one could easily predict evaporation-induced changes in the volatile profile of the plant material. Based on the composition of the essential-oil sample obtained after a given storage time t, it is possible to identify those components that were involved in chemical reactions, both as reactants and possible products. The established model even allowed the recognition of pairs of transformation, i.e., 'daughter' products and their 'parent' compounds. The obtained results highlight that the essential-oil composition is highly dependent on the storage period of any plant material and urges caution in different types of phytochemical studies, especially chemotaxonomic ones, or practical application. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 μl/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), α-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts.

  17. Stabilization of Neem Oil Biodiesel with Corn Silk Extract during Long-term Storage.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rehab Farouk M; El-Anany, Ayman M

    2017-02-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of different extracts of corn silk. In addition, the impact of corn silk extract on oxidative stability of neem biodiesel during storage was studied. The highest phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities were recorded for methanol-water extract. The longest oxidation stability (10 h) was observed for biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of corn silk extract (CSE). At the end of storage period the induction time of biodiesel samples mixed with 1000 ppm of CSE or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were about 6.72 and 5.63 times as high as in biodiesel samples without antioxidants. Biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of CSE had the lowest acidity at the end of storage period. Peroxide value of biodiesel samples containing 1000 ppm of CSE was about 4.28 times as low as in control sample without antioxidants.

  18. 3D simulation of floral oil storage in the scopa of South American insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruettgers, Alexander; Griebel, Michael; Pastrik, Lars; Schmied, Heiko; Wittmann, Dieter; Scherrieble, Andreas; Dinkelmann, Albrecht; Stegmaier, Thomas; InstituteNumerical Simulation Team; Institute of Crop Science; Resource Conservation Team; Institute of Textile Technology; Process Engineering Team

    2014-11-01

    Several species of bees in South America possess structures to store and transport floral oils. By using closely spaced hairs at their back legs, the so called scopa, these bees can absorb and release oil droplets without loss. The high efficiency of this process is a matter of ongoing research. Basing on recent x-ray microtomography scans from the scopa of these bees at the Institute of Textile Technology and Process Engineering Denkendorf, we build a three-dimensional computer model. Using NaSt3DGPF, a two-phase flow solver developed at the Institute for Numerical Simulation of the University of Bonn, we perform massively parallel flow simulations with the complex micro-CT data. In this talk, we discuss the results of our simulations and the transfer of the x-ray measurement into a computer model. This research was funded under GR 1144/18-1 by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  19. Antibacterial activity of oregano oil against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens at varying exposure times and storage temperatures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oregano oil on four organic leafy greens (iceberg and romaine lettuces and mature and baby spinaches) inoculated with Salmonella Newport as a function of treatment exposure times as well as storage temperatures. Leaf samples were wash...

  20. Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Aboveground carbon sequestration in dry temperate forests varies with climate not fire regime.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher E; Bendall, Eli R; Stares, Mitchell G; Collins, Luke; Bradstock, Ross A

    2018-06-01

    The storage of carbon in plant tissues and debris has been proposed as a method to offset anthropogenic increases in atmospheric [CO 2 ]. Temperate forests represent significant above-ground carbon (AGC) "sinks" because their relatively fast growth and slow decay rates optimise carbon assimilation. Fire is a common disturbance event in temperate forests globally that should strongly influence AGC because: discrete fires consume above-ground biomass releasing carbon to the atmosphere, and the long-term application of different fire-regimes select for specific plant communities that sequester carbon at different rates. We investigated the latter process by quantifying AGC storage at 104 sites in the Sydney Basin Bioregion, Australia, relative to differences in components of the fire regime: frequency, severity and interfire interval. To predict the potential impacts of future climate change on fire/AGC interactions, we stratified our field sites across gradients of mean annual temperature and precipitation and quantified within- and between-factor interactions between the fire and climate variables. In agreement with previous studies, large trees were the primary AGC sink, accounting for ~70% of carbon at sites. Generalised additive models showed that mean annual temperature was the strongest predictor of AGC storage, with a 54% near-linear decrease predicted across the 6.1°C temperature range experienced at sites. Mean annual precipitation, fire frequency, fire severity and interfire interval were consistently poor predictors of total above-ground storage, although there were some significant relationships with component stocks. Our results show resilience of AGC to frequent and severe wildfire and suggest temperature mediated decreases in forest carbon storage under future climate change predictions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Assessment of the Available Drawdowns for Oil Storage Caverns at the West Hackberry SPR Site

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolik, Steven R.

    The Department of Energy, in response to requests from the U.S. Congress, wishes to maintain an up-to-date table documenting the number of available full drawdowns of each of the caverns owned by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This information is important for assessing the SPR’s ability to deliver oil to domestic oil companies expeditiously if national or world events dictate a rapid sale and deployment of the oil reserves. What factors go into assessing available drawdowns? The evaluation of drawdown risks require the consideration of several factors regarding cavern and wellbore integrity and stability, including stress states caused by cavern geometrymore » and operations, salt damage caused by dilatant and tensile stresses, the effect on enhanced creep on wellbore integrity, the sympathetic stress effect of operations on neighboring caverns. Based on the work over the past several months, a consensus has been built regarding the assessment of drawdown capabilities and risks for the SPR caverns. This paper draws upon the recently West Hackberry model upgrade and analyses to reevaluate and update the available drawdowns for each of those caverns. Similar papers for the Bryan Mound, Big Hill, and Bayou Choctaw papers will be developed as the upgrades to those analyses are completed. The rationale and documentation of the methodology is described in the remainder of this report, as are the updated estimates of available drawdowns for the West Hackberry caverns.« less

  3. Influence of light exposure and oxidative status on the stability of vitamins A and D₃ during the storage of fortified soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Hemery, Youna M; Fontan, Laura; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Laillou, Arnaud; Berger, Jacques; Renaud, Cécile; Avallone, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Food fortification is implemented to address vitamins A and D deficiencies in numerous countries. The stability of vitamins A and D3 was assessed during a two-month period reproducing the usual oil storage conditions before sale to consumers. Soybean oils with different oxidative status and vitamin E contents were stored in the dark, semi-dark, or exposed to natural light. Lipid peroxidation took place after 3 weeks of storage in dark conditions. After 2 months, the vitamin A and D3 losses reached 60-68% and 61-68%, respectively, for oils exposed to natural light, and 32-39% and 24-44% in semi-dark conditions. The determining factors of vitamin A and D3 losses were (in decreasing order) the storage time, the exposure to light and the oxidative status of the oil, whereas vitamin E content had a protective role. Improving these parameters is thus essential to make vitamins A and D fortification in oils more efficient. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Pore Structure and Diagenetic Controls on Relative Permeability: Implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, J.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Cather, M.; Mozley, P.

    2016-12-01

    Multiphase flow in clay-bearing sandstones of the Morrow Sandstone governs the efficiency of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery at the Farnsworth Unit, Texas. This formation is the target for enhanced oil recovery and injection of one million metric ton of anthropogenically-sourced CO2. The sandstone hosts eight major flow units that exhibit distinct microstructural characteristics due to diagenesis, including: "clean" macro-porosity; quartz overgrowths constricting some pores; ghost grains; intergranular porosity filled by microporous authigenic clay; and feldspar dissolution. We examine the microstructural controls on macroscale (core scale) relative permeability and capillary pressure behavior through: X-ray computed tomography, Robomet.3d, and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy imaging of the pore structure of the major flow units of the Morrow Sandstone; relative permeability and capillary pressure in the laboratory using CO2, brine, and oil at reservoir pressure and effective stress conditions. The combined data sets inform links between patterns of diagenesis and multiphase flow. These data support multiphase reservoir simulation and performance assessment by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP). Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory through the SWP under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. APA-style human milk fat analogue from silkworm pupae oil: Enzymatic production and improving storage stability using alkyl caffeates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xudong; Pang, Na; Zhu, Weijie; Zhao, Xingyu; Wang, Fangqin; Wu, Fuan; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-08

    Silkworm pupae oil derived from reeling waste is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which has multipal applications. ALAs were added in sn-1, 3 positions in a triacylglycerol (TAG) to produce an APA-human milk fat analogues (APA-HMFAs, A: α-linolenic acid, P: palmitic acid). The optimum condition is that tripalmitin to free fatty acids of 1:12 (mole ratio) at 65 °C for 48 h using lipase Lipozyme RM IM. Results show that, the major TAG species that comprised APA-HMFAs were rich in ALA and palmitic acid, which contained 64.52% total unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and 97.05% PA at the sn-2 position. The melting point of APA was -27.5 °C which is much lower than tripalmitin (40.5 °C) indicating more plastic character. In addition, the practical application of alkyl caffeates as liposoluble antioxidants in APA was developed. Alkyl caffeate showed a superior IC50 (1.25-1.66 μg/mL) compared to butyl hydroxy anisd (1.67 μg/mL) and L-ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (L-AP) (1.87 μg/mL) in DPPH analysis. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil achieved a higher UFAs content (73.58%) at high temperatures. Overall, APA was obtained from silkworm pupae oil successfully, and the addition of caffeates extended storage ranges for APA-HMFAs.

  6. APA-style human milk fat analogue from silkworm pupae oil: Enzymatic production and improving storage stability using alkyl caffeates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xudong; Pang, Na; Zhu, Weijie; Zhao, Xingyu; Wang, Fangqin; Wu, Fuan; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Silkworm pupae oil derived from reeling waste is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which has multipal applications. ALAs were added in sn-1, 3 positions in a triacylglycerol (TAG) to produce an APA-human milk fat analogues (APA-HMFAs, A: α-linolenic acid, P: palmitic acid). The optimum condition is that tripalmitin to free fatty acids of 1:12 (mole ratio) at 65 °C for 48 h using lipase Lipozyme RM IM. Results show that, the major TAG species that comprised APA-HMFAs were rich in ALA and palmitic acid, which contained 64.52% total unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and 97.05% PA at the sn-2 position. The melting point of APA was −27.5 °C which is much lower than tripalmitin (40.5 °C) indicating more plastic character. In addition, the practical application of alkyl caffeates as liposoluble antioxidants in APA was developed. Alkyl caffeate showed a superior IC50 (1.25–1.66 μg/mL) compared to butyl hydroxy anisd (1.67 μg/mL) and L-ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (L-AP) (1.87 μg/mL) in DPPH analysis. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil achieved a higher UFAs content (73.58%) at high temperatures. Overall, APA was obtained from silkworm pupae oil successfully, and the addition of caffeates extended storage ranges for APA-HMFAs. PMID:26643045

  7. Thermophysical parameters of coconut oil and its potential application as the thermal energy storage system in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Zulfikar; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2016-08-01

    The high consumption of electric energy for room air conditioning (AC) system in Indonesia has driven the research of potential thermal energy storage system as a passive temperature controller. The application of coconut oil (CO) as the potential candidate for this purpose has been motivated since its working temperature just around the human thermal comfort zone in the tropical area as Indonesia. In this research we report the time-dependent temperature data of CO, which is adopting the T-history method. The analysis of the data revealed a set of thermophysical parameters, consist of the mean specific heats of the solid and liquid, as well as the latent heat of fusion for the phase change transition. The performance of CO to decrease the air temperature was measured in the thermal chamber. From the results it is shown that the latent phase of CO related to the solid-liquid phase transition show the highest capability in heat absorption, directly showing the potential application of CO as thermal energy storage system in Indonesia.

  8. The effect of chitosan coatings enriched with clove oil on sensory changes of rainbow trout at refrigerated storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2017-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of chitosan coating enriched with clove oil on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sensory changes during refrigerated storage at 4°C was done for a period of 15 days. Three different treatments were tested: C1 (control samples), C2 (chitosan coating) and C3 (chitosan + 1 % [v/w] clove EO added). Five experienced panelists, academic staff who were trained in sensory descriptors for cooked fishes, were employed to evaluate the quality of trout fillets during storage. Rainbow trout fillets were assessed on the basis of appearance, taste, texture and odour characteristics using a nine point descriptive scale. Panelists were asked to evaluate on a 5-point hedonic scale ranging from very poor (1) to very good (5) where: 1-very poor, 2-poor, 3-normal, 4-good and 5-very good. Sensory scores of each sample were at "good quality" after processing. Group C3 samples were assessed as the most acceptable products by the panellists.

  9. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength

    PubMed Central

    DERCELI, Juliana dos Reis; FAIS, Laiza Maria Grassi; PINELLI, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength. PMID:25591018

  10. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter D.; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  11. Effects of Accelerated Storage on the Quality of Kenaf Seed Oil in Chitosan-Coated High Methoxyl Pectin-Alginate Microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Leong, Mei-Huan; Tan, Chin-Ping; Nyam, Kar-Lin

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research was to study the oxidative stability and antioxidant properties of microencapsulated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil (MKSO) produced by co-extrusion technology upon accelerated storage. The combination of sodium alginate, high methoxyl pectin, and chitosan were used as shell materials. The oxidative stability of the kenaf seed oil was determined by iodine value, peroxide value, p-Anisidine value, total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, and free fatty acid content. Total phenolic content, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical-scavenging assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay were used to examine the antioxidant properties of oils. Oxidative stability tests showed that bulk kenaf seed oil (BKSO) was oxidized significantly higher (P < 0.05) than MKSO. The total increment of TOTOX value of BKSO was 165.93% significantly higher (P < 0.05) than MKSO. Co-extrusion technology has shown to be able to protect kenaf seed oil against lipid oxidation and delay the degradation of natural antioxidants that present in oil during storage. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Phenolic extracts from Sorbus aucuparia (L.) and Malus baccata (L.) berries: antioxidant activity and performance in rapeseed oil during frying and storage.

    PubMed

    Aladedunye, Felix; Matthäus, Bertrand

    2014-09-15

    In the present study, phenolic extracts and fractions from Canadian rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia) and crabapple (Malus baccata) were screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Furthermore, rapeseed oil was supplemented with extracts/fractions and performance was assessed during accelerated storage at 65°C, under Rancimat at 120°C, and during frying at 180°C. A number of phenolic fractions showed significantly higher radical scavenging and antioxidant activity in the oil than the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). At the end of the 7-day storage, the peroxide value was reduced by up to 42% in the presence of extracts. The extent of thermooxidative degradation was significantly lower in oils fortified with the fruit extracts, with fractions from Sorbus species being more effective. Results from the present study suggested that polyphenolic extracts from these fruits can offer effective alternative to synthetic antioxidants during frying and storage of vegetable oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-05-15

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was viamore » thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.« less

  14. Alginate edible films containing microencapsulated lemongrass oil or citral: effect of encapsulating agent and storage time on physical and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Moyano, Jessica K; Bustos, Rubén O; Herrera, María Lidia; Matiacevich, Silvia B

    2017-08-01

    Active edible films have been proposed as an alternative to extend shelf life of fresh foods. Most essential oils have antimicrobial properties; however, storage conditions could reduce their activity. To avoid this effect the essential oil (EO) can be microencapsulated prior to film casting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the type of encapsulating agent (EA), type of EO and storage time on physical properties and antimicrobial activity of alginate-based films against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Trehalose (TH), Capsul ® (CAP) and Tween 20 (Tw20) were used as EA. Lemongrass essential oil (LMO) and citral were used as active agents. The results showed that the type of EA affected the stability of the film forming-emulsions as well as the changes in opacity and colour of the films during storage but not the antimicrobial activity of them. Both microencapsulated EOs showed a prolonged release from the alginate films during the 28 days of storage. Trehalose was selected to encapsulate both active compounds because the films made with this microencapsulated EA showed the greatest physical stability and the lowest color variation among all the films studied.

  15. Tropical Soil Carbon Stocks do not Reflect Aboveground Forest Biomass Across Geological and Rainfall Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, D. F.; Markesteijn, L.; Turner, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (C) dynamics present a large source of uncertainty in global C cycle models, and inhibit our ability to predict effects of climate change. Tropical wet and seasonal forests exert a disproportionate influence on the global C cycle relative to their land area because they are the most C-rich ecosystems on Earth, containing 25-40% of global terrestrial C stocks. While significant advances have been made to map aboveground C stocks in tropical forests, determining soil C stocks using remote sensing technology is still not possible for closed-canopy forests. It is unclear to what extent aboveground C stocks can be used to predict soil C stocks across tropical forests. Here we present 1-m-deep soil organic C stocks for 42 tropical forest sites across rainfall and geological gradients in Panama. We show that soil C stocks do not correspond to aboveground plant biomass or to litterfall productivity in these humid tropical forests. Rather, soil C stocks were strongly and positively predicted by fine root biomass, soil clay content, and rainfall (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.05). Fine root biomass, in turn, was most strongly predicted by total extractable soil base cations (R2 = 0.24, p < 0.05, negative relationship). Our measures of tropical soil C and its relationships with climatic and soil chemical characteristics form an important basis for improving model estimates of soil C stocks and predictions of climate change effects on tropical C storage.

  16. Impact of savanna conversion to oil palm plantations on C stocks dynamics and soil fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Guillaume, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Ruegg, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale expansion of oil palm cultivation on forested land in South-East Asia during the last decades lead to high negative environmental impacts. Because rainforests store high amount of C, their conversion to oil palm plantations results in large net CO2 emissions. Oil palm cultivation in tropical ecosystems such as savanna that store less C than forests is seen as an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of future oil palm development. While this option is more and more frequently mentioned, few data are available on the effective gain in C storage. Furthermore negative impact on soil organic carbon and soil fertility could offset gains of C storage in oil palm biomass. Here, we present results on aboveground and belowground C stocks and soil nutrient dynamics over a full rotation cycle of oil palm plantations established on tropical savanna grasslands. Three natural savanna grasslands as reference sites and 9 oil palm plantations ranging from two to twenty-seven years old were selected in the Llanos in Colombia. Oxisols were sampled down to 70 cm in each management zones of oil palm plantations (weeded circle, interrow, frond piles and harvesting path). Taking advantages of a shift from C4 to C3 vegetation, we quantified savanna-derived soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates and how they were affected by management practices (mineral fertilization, organic amendments, etc.). Results show that, in opposite to forest conversion, C storage increases when savannas are converted to oil palm plantations. Because soil C storage was very low in natural conditions, SOC changes had little effects on overall C storage. Substitution of savanna-derived SOC by oil palm-derived SOC was very fast in the topsoil and highest under frond pile and weeded circle where C and nutrients inputs are highest. However, stabilization of oil palm-derived SOC compensated loss of savanna-derived SOC rather than increased SOC stocks

  17. Jumpstarting commercial-scale CO 2 capture and storage with ethylene production and enhanced oil recovery in the US Gulf

    DOE PAGES

    Middleton, Richard S.; Levine, Jonathan S.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; ...

    2015-04-27

    CO 2 capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technology has yet to be widely deployed at a commercial scale despite multiple high-profile demonstration projects. We suggest that developing a large-scale, visible, and financially viable CCUS network could potentially overcome many barriers to deployment and jumpstart commercial-scale CCUS. To date, substantial effort has focused on technology development to reduce the costs of CO 2 capture from coal-fired power plants. Here, we propose that near-term investment could focus on implementing CO 2 capture on facilities that produce high-value chemicals/products. These facilities can absorb the expected impact of the marginal increase in the costmore » of production on the price of their product, due to the addition of CO 2 capture, more than coal-fired power plants. A financially viable demonstration of a large-scale CCUS network requires offsetting the costs of CO 2 capture by using the CO 2 as an input to the production of market-viable products. As a result, we demonstrate this alternative development path with the example of an integrated CCUS system where CO 2 is captured from ethylene producers and used for enhanced oil recovery in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.« less

  18. Listeria monocytogenes behaviour and quality attributes during sausage storage affected by sodium nitrite, sodium lactate and thyme essential oil.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Lizarazo, Carla María; Betancourt-Cortés, Rubén; Lombana, Angélica; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Sotelo-Díaz, Indira

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the addition of nitrite at 200 ppm (N), sodium lactate 1.5% (L) and thyme essential oil at 100 ppm (T1) on Listeria monocytogenes behaviour and ATPase activity inhibition were evaluated, as well as lipid oxidation through the quantification of malonaldehydes, in sausage stored at 8 ℃ for 41 days and at 30 ℃ for 14 days. The changes in the colour profile were performed during storage time at 8 ℃. Quantitative descriptive sensory analyses were performed after two days at 4 ℃. At 8 ℃, the treatments with the highest inhibition on L. monocytogenes were L and N, without significant differences. In turn, at 30 ℃, the bacterium was most inhibited with treatment L, followed by T1 and N, without significant differences. A 44.1% and 19% inhibition of ATPase activity was detected in L and T1 treatments, respectively. At 8 ℃ and 30 ℃, malonaldehydes content was not different between the treatments. N presented the highest values of a* and concentration of metmyoglobin after 41 days at 8 ℃. The panel detected differences between T1 and N for the aroma in the descriptors spices and herbal.

  19. A Noninvasive Platform for Imaging and Quantifying Oil Storage in Submillimeter Tobacco Seed1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Johannes; Neuberger, Thomas; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schiebold, Silke; Nguyen, Thuy Ha; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Börner, Andreas; Melkus, Gerd; Jakob, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2013-01-01

    While often thought of as a smoking drug, tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) is now considered as a plant of choice for molecular farming and biofuel production. Here, we describe a noninvasive means of deriving both the distribution of lipid and the microtopology of the submillimeter tobacco seed, founded on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. Our platform enables counting of seeds inside the intact tobacco capsule to measure seed sizes, to model the seed interior in three dimensions, to quantify the lipid content, and to visualize lipid gradients. Hundreds of seeds can be simultaneously imaged at an isotropic resolution of 25 µm, sufficient to assess each individual seed. The relative contributions of the embryo and the endosperm to both seed size and total lipid content could be assessed. The extension of the platform to a range of wild and cultivated Nicotiana species demonstrated certain evolutionary trends in both seed topology and pattern of lipid storage. The NMR analysis of transgenic tobacco plants with seed-specific ectopic expression of the plastidial phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator, displayed a trade off between seed size and oil concentration. The NMR-based assay of seed lipid content and topology has a number of potential applications, in particular providing a means to test and optimize transgenic strategies aimed at the manipulation of seed size, seed number, and lipid content in tobacco and other species with submillimeter seeds. PMID:23232144

  20. Motions and crew responses on an offshore oil production and storage vessel.

    PubMed

    Haward, Barbara M; Lewis, Christopher H; Griffin, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    The motions of vessels may interfere with crew activities and well-being, but the relationships between motion and the experiences of crew are not well-established. Crew responses to motions of a floating production and storage offshore vessel at a fixed location in the North Sea were studied over a 5-month period to identify any changes in crew difficulties and symptoms associated with changes in vessel motion. Ship motions in all six axes (fore-aft, lateral, vertical, roll, pitch, and yaw) were recorded continuously over the 5-month period while 47 crew completed a total of 1704 daily diary entries, a participation rate of 66-78% of the crew complement. The dominant oscillations had frequencies of around 0.1 Hz, producing magnitudes of translational oscillation in accommodation areas of up to about 0.7 ms(-2)r.m.s., depending on the weather, and magnitudes up to three times greater in some other areas. The daily diaries gave ratings of difficulties with tasks, effort level, motion sickness, health symptoms, fatigue, and sleep. Problems most strongly associated with vessel motions were difficulties with physical tasks (balancing, moving and carrying), and sleep problems. Physical and mental tiredness, cognitive aspects of task performance, and stomach awareness and dizziness were also strongly associated with motion magnitude. There was a vomiting incidence of 3.1%, compared with a predicted mean vomiting incidence of 9.3% for a mixed population of unadapted adults. It is concluded that crew difficulties increase on days when vessel motions increase, with some activities and responses particularly influenced by vessel motions.

  1. Effect of cinnamon essential oil on bacterial diversity and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Dongping; Lv, Jian; Li, Qingzheng; Kong, Chunli; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-05-16

    The present study investigated the effect of cinnamon essential oil on the quality of vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets stored at 4±1°C in terms of sensory scores, physicochemical characteristics (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), biogenic amines, and color), and presence of spoilage microbiota. A total of 290,753 bacterial sequences and 162 different genera belonging to 14 phyla were observed by a high-throughput sequencing technique targeting the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA, which showed a more comprehensive estimate of microbial diversity in carp samples compared with microbial enumeration. Before storage, Macrococcus and Aeromonas were the prevalent populations in the control samples, but cinnamon essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Macrococcus in the treated samples. Variability in the predominant microbiota in different samples during chilled storage was observed. Aeromonas followed by Lactococcus were the major contaminants in the spoiled control samples. Microbial enumeration also observed relatively higher counts of Aeromonas than other spoilage microorganisms. Compared with the control samples, cinnamon essential oil inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Lactococcus were the predominant components in the treated samples on day 10; plate counts also revealed a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria during refrigerated storage. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the composition of dominant microbiota between these two treatments at the end of the shelf-life. Furthermore, cinnamon essential oil treatment was more effective in inhibiting the increase of TVB-N and the accumulation of biogenic amines (especially for putrescine and cadaverine levels). Based primarily on sensory analysis, the use of cinnamon essential oil extended the shelf-life of vacuum-packaged common carp fillets by about 2days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical Safety Alert: Catastrophic Failure of Storage Tanks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Aboveground, atmospheric storage tanks can fail when flammable vapors in the tank explode and break either the shell-to-bottom or side seam, resulting in hazardous release accidents. Proper maintenance practices can help prevent accidents.

  3. The Effect of Edible Coating Enriched With Kaffir Lime Leaf Essential Oil (Citrus hystrix DC) on Beef Sausage Quality During Frozen Storage (-18°±2°C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, R.; Kawiji; Khasanah, L. U.; Solikhah, R.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of edible coating enriched with kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) leaves essential oil at various concentration on beef sausage quality during frozen storage (-18°±2°C). The concentration of kaffir lime leaves essential oil enriched in edible coating were varied at 0%; 0.2%; 1.4%. Microbiological, physical and chemical characteristics (TPC, color, TBA, TVB, and pH) were investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of storage. The result showed that edible coating with the addition of kaffir lime leaves essential oils decreased the microbial growth, TVB value, and TBA value of beef sausage. The color and pH of samples can be stabilized during storage. The selected kaffir lime leaves essential oil concentrations based on microbial, physical, and chemical characteristics of beef sausages during frozen storage at -18°C was 0.2%.

  4. Subsoil TPH and other petroleum fractions-contamination levels in an oil storage and distribution station in north-central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Flores, Rosa Ma; Torres, Luis G

    2005-12-01

    Many oil industry related sites have become contaminated due to the activities characteristic of this industry, such as oil exploration and production, refining, and petro-chemistry. In Mexico, reported hydrocarbon spills for the year 2000 amounted to 185203, equivalent to 6252 tons (PEMEX, 2000). The first step for the remediation of these polluted sites is to assess the size and intensity of the oil contamination affecting the subsoil and groundwater, followed by a health risk assessment to establish clean up levels. The aim of this work was to characterize the soil and water in a north-central Mexico Oil Storage and Distribution Station (ODSS), in terms of TPHs, gasoline and diesel fractions, BTEX, PAHs, MTBE, and some metals. Besides, measurements of the explosivity index along the ODSS were made and we describe and discuss the risk health assessment analysis performed at the ODSS, as well as the recommendations arising from it. Considering soils with TPH concentrations higher than 2000 mg kg(-1), the contaminated areas corresponding to the railway zone is about 12776.5 m2, to the south of the storage tanks is about 6558 m2, and to the south of the filling tanks is about 783 m2. Total area to be treated is about 20107 m2 (volume of 20107 m3), considering 1m depth.

  5. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-06-07

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p < 0.05) lipid and protein oxidation, and improved color stability of raw and cooked meat. However, oregano oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) by oregano oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100-400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat.

  6. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p < 0.05) lipid and protein oxidation, and improved color stability of raw and cooked meat. However, oregano oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) by oregano oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100–400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat. PMID:27338486

  7. NORTH ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. ABOVEGROUND PORTION IS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. ABOVE-GROUND PORTION IS ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Elicitors aboveground: an alternative for control of a belowground pest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation ...

  9. Evaluation and Validation of Aboveground Techniques for Coating Condition Assessment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-02-28

    The overall objective was to determine the accuracy, resolution, and limitations of equipment typically used for modern aboveground ECDA work with respect to locating holidays and disbondments with commonly used coatings with varying spatial relation...

  10. Eliciting maize defense pathways aboveground attracts belowground biocontrol agents.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S; Pereira, Ramom Vasconcelos; Moino Junior, Alcides; Pareja, Martin; Duncan, Larry W

    2016-11-04

    Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation of plant defense pathways on the interactions between corn, the aboveground herbivore adult Diabrotica speciosa, the belowground herbivore larval D. speciosa, and the subterranean ento-mopathogenic nematode natural enemy Heterorhabditis amazonensis. We show that adult D. speciosa recruit to aboveground herbivory and methyl salicylate treatment, that larval D. speciosa are relatively indiscriminate, and that H. amazonensis en-tomopathogenic nematodes recruit to corn fed upon by adult D. speciosa. These results suggest that entomopathogenicnematodes belowground can be highly attuned to changes in the aboveground parts of plants and that biological control can be enhanced with induced plant defense in this and similar systems.

  11. Proven Alternatives for Aboveground Treatment of Arsenic in Groundwater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper, developed for EPA's Engineering Forum, identifies and summarizes experiences with proven aboveground treatment alternatives for arsenic in groundwater, and provides information on their relative effectiveness and cost.

  12. Timber volume and aboveground live tree biomass estimations for landscape analyses in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Xiaoping Zhou; Miles A. Hemstrom

    2010-01-01

    Timber availability, aboveground tree biomass, and changes in aboveground carbon pools are important consequences of landscape management. There are several models available for calculating tree volume and aboveground tree biomass pools. This paper documents species-specific regional equations for tree volume and aboveground live tree biomass estimation that might be...

  13. Quantitative study of lipase secretion, extracellular lipolysis, and lipid storage in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica grown in the presence of olive oil: analogies with lipolysis in humans.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Amal; Robert, Sylvie; Guérin, Clémence; Violet-Asther, Michèle; Carrière, Frédéric

    2011-03-01

    Lipase secretion, extracellular lipolysis, and fatty acid uptake were quantified in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica grown in the presence of olive oil and/or glucose. Specific lipase assays, Western blot analysis, and ELISA indicated that most of the lipase activity measured in Y. lipolytica cultures resulted from the YLLIP2 lipase. Lipase production was triggered by olive oil and, during the first hours of culture, most of the lipase activity and YLLIP2 immunodetection remained associated with the yeast cells. YLLIP2 was then released in the culture medium before it was totally degraded by proteases. Olive oil triglycerides were largely degraded when the lipase was still attached to the cell wall. The fate of lipolysis products in the culture medium and inside the yeast cell, as well as lipid storage, was investigated simultaneously by quantitative TLC-FID and GC analysis. The intracellular levels of free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides increased transiently and were dependent on the carbon sources. A maximum fat storage of 37.8% w/w of yeast dry mass was observed with olive oil alone. A transient accumulation of saturated FFA was observed whereas intracellular triglycerides became enriched in unsaturated fatty acids. So far, yeasts have been mainly used for studying the intracellular synthesis, storage, and mobilization of neutral lipids. The present study shows that yeasts are also interesting models for studying extracellular lipolysis and fat uptake by the cell. The quantitative data obtained here allow for the first time to establish interesting analogies with gastrointestinal and vascular lipolysis in humans.

  14. Results for the Aboveground Configuration of the Boiling Water Reactor Dry Cask Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric R.

    The thermal performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks is evaluated through detailed numerical analysis. These modeling efforts are completed by the vendor to demonstrate performance and regulatory compliance. The calculations are then independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full-sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask, in part by increasing the efficiency of internal conduction pathways, and also by increasing the internalmore » convection through greater canister helium pressure. These same canistered cask systems rely on ventilation between the canister and the overpack to convect heat away from the canister to the environment for both above- and below-ground configurations. While several testing programs have been previously conducted, these earlier validation attempts did not capture the effects of elevated helium pressures or accurately portray the external convection of above-ground and below-ground canistered dry cask systems. The purpose of the current investigation was to produce data sets that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern dry casks that utilize elevated helium pressure in the sealed canister in an above-ground configuration.« less

  15. Influence of Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei extracts on the prevention of oxidation and retention of tocopherols in soybean oil in an accelerated storage test.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Carolina; Jorge, Neuza

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the methanol extracts of mushrooms Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei on the retention of tocopherols in soybean oil, when subjected to an accelerated storage test. The following treatments were subjected to an accelerated storage test in an oven at 60 °C for 15 days: Control (soybean oil without antioxidants), TBHQ (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of TBHQ), BHT (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of BHT), L. edodes (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of L. edodes extract) and A. blazei (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of A. blazei extract). The samples were analyzed for tocopherols naturally present in soybean oil and mass gain. The results showed, the time required to reach a 0.5% increase in mass was 13 days for TBHQ and 15 days for A. blazei. The content of tocopherols for TBHQ was 457.50 mg/kg and the A. blazei, 477.20 mg/kg.

  16. A chitosan-based coating with or without clove oil extends the shelf life of cooked pork sausages in refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Lekjing, Somwang

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan coatings, with and without clove oil, were investigated for effects on quality and shelf life of cooked pork sausages stored at a refrigerated temperature (4±2°C). The various treatments of cooked pork sausages were: untreated (control), coating with 2% chitosan (CS), and coating with a mixture having 2% chitosan and 1.5% clove oil (CS+CO). Various microbiological, physical, chemical and sensory properties were monitored over 25 days of storage. The total viable count, the psychrotrophic bacteria count, the L* value, peroxide value and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased, while the a* value, the b* value, the pH and the sensory scores decreased with storage time, across all treatments. However, these changes were slowest with the CS+CO treatment. Based on sensory evaluation and microbiological quality, the shelf lives were 14 days for control, 20 days for CS, and 20 days for CS+CO treated samples, under refrigerated storage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Results for the Aboveground Configuration of the Boiling Water Reactor Dry Cask Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    The thermal performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks are evaluated through detailed numerical analysis. These modeling efforts are completed by the vendor to demonstrate performance and regulatory compliance. The calculations are then independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask in part by increasing the efficiency of internal conduction pathways and also by increasing themore » internal convection through greater canister helium pressure. These same canistered cask systems rely on ventilation between the canister and the overpack to convect heat away from the canister to the environment for both above and belowground configurations. While several testing programs have been previously conducted, these earlier validation attempts did not capture the effects of elevated helium pressures or accurately portray the external convection of aboveground and belowground canistered dry cask systems. The purpose of the current investigation was to produce data sets that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern dry casks that utilize elevated helium pressure in the sealed canister in an aboveground configuration. An existing electrically heated but otherwise prototypic BWR Incoloy-clad test assembly was deployed inside of a representative storage basket and cylindrical pressure vessel that represents a vertical canister system. The symmetric single assembly geometry with well-controlled boundary conditions simplifies interpretation of results. The arrangement of ducting was used to mimic conditions for an aboveground storage configuration in a vertical, dry

  18. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests.

  19. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha−1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y−1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y−1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y−1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests. PMID:26115195

  20. Justification of parameters and selection of equipment for laboratory researches of a rammer's operating element dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The development of technology for a directional soil compaction of tank foundations for oil and oil products storage is a relevant problem which solution will enable simultaneously provide required operational characteristics of a soil foundation and reduce time and material costs to prepare the foundation. The impact dynamics of rammers' operating elements on the soil foundation is planned to specify in the course of laboratory studies. A specialized technique is developed to justify the parameters and select the equipment for laboratory researches. The usage of this technique enabled us to calculate dimensions of the models, of a test bench and specifications of the recording equipment, and a lighting system. The necessary equipment for laboratory studies was selected. Preliminary laboratory tests were carried out. The estimate of accuracy for planned laboratory studies was given.

  1. Biodegradable Chitosan Coating Incorporated with Black Pepper Essential Oil for Shelf Life Extension of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh; Shad, Ehsan; Ziaee, Esmaeil; Yousefabad, Seyyed Hossein Asadi; Golmakani, Mohammad Taghi; Azizinia, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    Chitosan (Ch) coating incorporated with black pepper essential oil (Ch+BPEO) was studied to extend the shelf life of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during refrigerated storage at 4 ± 1°C. The chemical composition of BPEO was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antibacterial properties of BPEO were determined by disk diffusion agar, MIC, and MBC. Ch (2% [wt/vol]) and Ch+BPEO (2% [wt/vol] Ch with 1.5% [vol/vol] BPEO) were used for common carp fillet coating. The samples were analyzed periodically for chemical (pH, total volatile basic nitrogen) and microbiological (aerobic plate count, psychrophilic bacteria count, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae bacterial counts) characteristics during 16 days. The GC-MS results indicated that main components in BPEO were carene, caryophyllene, limonene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The samples coated with Ch and Ch+BPEO resulted in lower pH and total volatile basic nitrogen values in comparison with the control. The microbiological analysis of fish fillets during refrigerated storage clearly indicated that Ch+BPEO coating significantly reduced the fish fillet microbial load. The aerobic plate count, psychrophilic bacteria count, lactic acid bacteria count, and Enterobacteriaceae bacterial count of samples coated with Ch+BPEO were reduced approximately 4.1, 3.9, 2.3, and 2.8 log CFU/g, respectively, at the end of the storage period. Finally, Ch and Ch+BPEO effectively improved the quality of fish fillet during refrigerated storage and extended the shelf life of fish fillets from 8 to 16 days. Black pepper; Chitosan; Common carp; Essential oil.

  2. Antimicrobial Activities of the Combined Use of Cuminum Cyminum L. Essential Oil, Nisin and Storage Temperature Against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Hamid Reza; Mashak, Zohreh; Moradi, Bizhan; Sodagari, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Foodborne diseases are considered as major health problems in different countries. Concerns over the safety of some chemical preservatives and negative consumer reactions to them have prompted interest in natural alternatives for the maintenance or extension of food shelf life. In this respect, the combination of a plant essential oil and nisin has used for controlling the growth of foodborne pathogens as natural food preservative using the mathematical model. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil (0, 15, 30 and 45 µL/100 mL) and nisin (0, 0.5 and 1.5 µg/mL) combination at different temperatures (10, 25 and 35°C) on growth of Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in the Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) broth model. The concentrations of 0 µL/100 mL for essential oil and 0 µg/mL for nisin imply the negative control. Materials and Methods: A multivariate variance experiment was performed. To assess the effect of essential oil, nisin and the incubation temperature on growth probability (log P%) of S. typhimurium and S. aureus, four concentrations of C. cyminum L. essential oil (0, 15, 30 and 45 µL/100 mL), three concentrations of nisin (0, 0.5 and 1.5 µg/mL) and three storage temperatures (10, 25 and 35°C) were considered. Results: The growth of S. typhimurium was significantly decreased by the concentration of essential oil ≥ 30 µL/100 mL in combination with nisin ≥ 0.5 µg/mL at temperature = 10°C (P < 0.05). Also, in combination of the essential oil ≥ 15 µL/100 mL and nisin ≥ 0.5 µg/mL at temperature ≤ 25°C, the growth of S. aureus was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results indicate that the combination of essential oil and nisin inhibits the growth of S. typhimurium and S. aureus bacteria and there is the possibility of using them as substitutes for chemical food preservatives. Moreover, the model (log P%) in

  3. Antimicrobial Activities of the Combined Use of Cuminum Cyminum L. Essential Oil, Nisin and Storage Temperature Against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Hamid Reza; Mashak, Zohreh; Moradi, Bizhan; Sodagari, Hamid Reza

    2015-04-01

    Foodborne diseases are considered as major health problems in different countries. Concerns over the safety of some chemical preservatives and negative consumer reactions to them have prompted interest in natural alternatives for the maintenance or extension of food shelf life. In this respect, the combination of a plant essential oil and nisin has used for controlling the growth of foodborne pathogens as natural food preservative using the mathematical model. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil (0, 15, 30 and 45 µL/100 mL) and nisin (0, 0.5 and 1.5 µg/mL) combination at different temperatures (10, 25 and 35°C) on growth of Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in the Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) broth model. The concentrations of 0 µL/100 mL for essential oil and 0 µg/mL for nisin imply the negative control. A multivariate variance experiment was performed. To assess the effect of essential oil, nisin and the incubation temperature on growth probability (log P%) of S. typhimurium and S. aureus, four concentrations of C. cyminum L. essential oil (0, 15, 30 and 45 µL/100 mL), three concentrations of nisin (0, 0.5 and 1.5 µg/mL) and three storage temperatures (10, 25 and 35°C) were considered. The growth of S. typhimurium was significantly decreased by the concentration of essential oil ≥ 30 µL/100 mL in combination with nisin ≥ 0.5 µg/mL at temperature = 10°C (P < 0.05). Also, in combination of the essential oil ≥ 15 µL/100 mL and nisin ≥ 0.5 µg/mL at temperature ≤ 25°C, the growth of S. aureus was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the combination of essential oil and nisin inhibits the growth of S. typhimurium and S. aureus bacteria and there is the possibility of using them as substitutes for chemical food preservatives. Moreover, the model (log P%) in this study can be a good tool for the reduction of microbiological

  4. Interactions between aboveground herbivores and the mycorrhizal mutualists of plants.

    PubMed

    Gehring, C A; Whitham, T G

    1994-07-01

    Plant growth, reproduction and survival can be affected both by mycorrhizal fungi and aboveground herbivores, but few studies have examined the interactive effects of these factors on plants. Most of the available data suggest that severe herbivory reduces root colonization by vesicular-arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, the reverse interaction has also been documented - mycorrhizal fungi deter herbivores and interact with fungal endophytes to influence herbivory. Although consistent patterns and mechanistic explanations are yet to emerge, it is likely that aboveground herbivore-mycorrhiza interactions have important implications for plant populations and communities. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Efficacy of chemically characterized Foeniculum vulgare Mill seed essential oil in protection of raw tobacco leaves during storage against fungal and aflatoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Kedia, A; Dwivedy, A K; Pandey, A K; Kumar, R R; Regmi, P; Dubey, N K

    2015-10-01

    To report fungal and aflatoxin contamination in stored tobacco leaves and the potential of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seed essential oil (EO) as a plant-based preservative in protection of tobacco during storage. Mycological analysis of tobacco samples was done by surface sterilization and serial dilution tests. The Aspergillus flavus isolates were screened for their toxigenicity. Both in vivo and in vitro tests were done to evaluate antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of chemically characterized EO. The mycoflora analysis revealed 108 fungal colonies belonging to five genera and nine species. All A. flavus isolates were found aflatoxigenic during screening. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of EO identified 19 components (99·66%); estragole being the major component (47·49%). The EO showed broad fungitoxicity at 1·25 μl ml(-1) and 100% inhibition to AFB1 production as well as ergosterol synthesis at 1·0 μl ml(-1) concentration. EO showed 100% protection of stored tobacco samples from aflatoxin B1 contamination. The fennel EO can thus be formulated as a plant-based preservative for food items. The present investigation comprises the first report on antiaflatoxin efficacy of fennel oil and its potency in the protection of tobacco leaves from fungal and aflatoxin contamination during storage. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Linking aboveground net primary productivity to soil carbon and dissolved organic carbon in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Fox S.; Lajtha, Kate J.

    2013-07-01

    Factors influencing soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content in complex terrain, where vegetation, climate, and topography vary over the scale of a few meters, are not well understood. We examined the spatial correlations of lidar and geographic information system-derived landscape topography, empirically measured soil characteristics, and current and historical vegetation composition and structure versus SOM fractions and DOC pools and leaching on a small catchment (WS1) in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, located in the western Cascades Range of Oregon, USA. We predicted that aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), litter fall, and nitrogen mineralization would be positively correlated with SOM, DOC, and carbon (C) content of the soil based on the principle that increased C inputs cause C stores in and losses from in the soil. We expected that in tandem, certain microtopographical and microclimatic characteristics might be associated with elevated C inputs and correspondingly, soil C stores and losses. We confirmed that on this site, positive relationships exist between ANPP, C inputs (litter fall), and losses (exportable DOC), but we did not find that these relationships between ANPP, inputs, and exports were translated to SOM stores (mg C/g soil), C content of the soil (% C/g soil), or DOC pools (determined with salt and water extractions). We suggest that the biogeochemical processes controlling C storage and lability in soil may relate to longer-term variability in aboveground inputs that result from a heterogeneous and evolving forest stand.

  7. 49 CFR 192.735 - Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance... buildings, must be stored a safe distance from the compressor building. (b) Aboveground oil or gasoline...

  8. Studies on the effects of storage stability of bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum deoiled seed cake on the performance and emission characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Rajamohan, Sakthivel; Kasimani, Ramesh

    2018-04-19

    The highly unbalanced nature of bio-oil composition poses a serious threat in terms of storage and utilization of bio-oil as a viable fuel in engines. So it becomes inevitable to study the variations in physicochemical properties of the bio-oil during storage to value its chemical instability, for designing stabilization methodologies. The present study aims to investigate the effects of storage stability of bio-oil extracted from pyrolyzing Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) deoiled seed cake on the engine operating characteristics. The bio-oil is produced in a fixed bed reactor at 500 °C under the constant heating rate of 30 °C/min. All the stability analysis methods involve an accelerated aging procedure based on standards established by ASTM (D5304 and E2009) and European standard (EN 14112). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to analytically characterize the unaged and aged bio-oil samples. The results clearly depict that stabilizing Calophyllum inophyllum bio-oil with 10% (w/w) methanol improved its stability than that of the unstabilized sample thereby reducing the aging rate of bio-oil to 0.04 and 0.13 cst/h for thermal and oxidative aging respectively. Engine testing of the bio-oil sample revealed that aged bio-oil samples deteriorated engine performance and increased emission levels at the exhaust. The oxidatively aged sample showed the lowest BTE (24.41%), the highest BSEC (20.14 MJ/kWh), CO (1.51%), HC (132 ppm), NOx (1098 ppm) and smoke opacity (34.8%).

  9. Prooxidant effect of α-tocopherol on soybean oil. Global monitoring of its oxidation process under accelerated storage conditions by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Martin-Rubio, A S; Sopelana, P; Ibargoitia, M L; Guillén, María D

    2018-04-15

    The effect of adding α-tocopherol in proportions ranging from 0.002 to 5% in weight on the oxidative stability of soybean oil was studied. For the first time, the oxidation process under accelerated storage conditions including evolution of the molar percentages of the several types of oil acyl groups, and formation and evolution of various kinds of oxidation products comprising hydroperoxides, hydroxy-dienes and other alcohols, epoxides, aldehydes and keto-dienes, was followed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance. It is proved that, except in the lowest proportion, α-tocopherol not only exerts a prooxidant effect on soybean oil but also modifies its oxidation pathway, affecting the oxidation products generation rate, their nature, relative proportions and concentrations. It is noticeable that the highest α-tocopherol concentrations induce the generation of some toxic compounds at earlier stages of the thermoxidation process and sometimes in higher concentration, such as certain oxygenated α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and monoepoxides derived from linoleic groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... placed in service after October 2, 2000, pneumatic testing must be in accordance with section 5.3 of API Specification 12 F (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (b) For aboveground breakout tanks built to API Standard 620 and first placed in service after October 2, 2000, hydrostatic and pneumatic testing must be...

  11. Family Differences in Aboveground Biomass Allocation in Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Scott D. Roberts

    2002-01-01

    The proportion of tree growth allocated to stemwood is an important economic component of growth efficiency. Differences in growth efficiency between species, or between families within species, may therefore be related to how growth is proportionally allocated between the stem and other aboveground biomass components. This study examines genetically related...

  12. Identifying aboveground wood fiber potentials in New York State

    Treesearch

    Eric H. Wharton

    1984-01-01

    New York forests are made up of more than just the growing stock that is measured during conventional forest inventories. A biomass inventory, completed in 1980, showed that New York commercial forest lands contain nearly 1,164.4 million green tons of aboveground tree biomass, or an average of 75.6 green tons per acre. Conventional growing stock accounted for 57...

  13. Estimating aboveground live understory vegetation carbon in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kristofer D.; Domke, Grant M.; Russell, Matthew B.; Walters, Brian; Hom, John; Peduzzi, Alicia; Birdsey, Richard; Dolan, Katelyn; Huang, Wenli

    2017-12-01

    Despite the key role that understory vegetation plays in ecosystems and the terrestrial carbon cycle, it is often overlooked and has few quantitative measurements, especially at national scales. To understand the contribution of understory carbon to the United States (US) carbon budget, we developed an approach that relies on field measurements of understory vegetation cover and height on US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) subplots. Allometric models were developed to estimate aboveground understory carbon. A spatial model based on stand characteristics and remotely sensed data was also applied to estimate understory carbon on all FIA plots. We found that most understory carbon was comprised of woody shrub species (64%), followed by nonwoody forbs and graminoid species (35%) and seedlings (1%). The largest estimates were found in temperate or warm humid locations such as the Pacific Northwest and southeastern US, thus following the same broad trend as aboveground tree biomass. The average understory aboveground carbon density was estimated to be 0.977 Mg ha-1, for a total estimate of 272 Tg carbon across all managed forest land in the US (approximately 2% of the total aboveground live tree carbon pool). This estimate is more than twice as low as previous FIA modeled estimates that did not rely on understory measurements, suggesting that this pool may currently be overestimated in US National Greenhouse Gas reporting.

  14. Aboveground growth interactions of paired conifer seedlings in close proximity

    Treesearch

    Warren D. Devine; Timothy B. Harrington

    2011-01-01

    Where belowground resources are relatively abundant, naturally established trees sometimes occur in very close proximity to one another. We conducted a two-year study to assess the aboveground interactions between Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), grand fir (Abies grandis) and noble fir (Abies procera)...

  15. Family Differences Influence the Aboveground Biomass of Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Treesearch

    P.E. Pope; D.L. Graney

    1979-01-01

    We compared the aboveground biomass of 4 half-sib families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) 11 years after planting. Total dry weights differed significantly among families in plantations on the same soil type with the same site index. Differences in biomass resulted from differences in stem form and branch size. Distribution of growth -the proportion of tree weight...

  16. Forecasting annual aboveground net primary production in the intermountain west

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For many land manager’s annual aboveground net primary production, or plant growth, is a key factor affecting business success, profitability and each land manager's ability to successfully meet land management objectives. The strategy often utilized for forecasting plant growth is to assume every y...

  17. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  18. Novel technologies for monitoring the in-line quality of virgin olive oil during manufacturing and storage.

    PubMed

    Beltrán Ortega, Julio; Martínez Gila, Diego M; Aguilera Puerto, Daniel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2016-11-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil is related to the agronomic conditions of the olive fruits and the process variables of the production process. Nowadays, food markets demand better products in terms of safety, health and organoleptic properties with competitive prices. Innovative techniques for process control, inspection and classification have been developed in order to to achieve these requirements. This paper presents a review of the most significant sensing technologies which are increasingly used in the olive oil industry to supervise and control the virgin olive oil production process. Throughout the present work, the main research studies in the literature that employ non-invasive technologies such as infrared spectroscopy, computer vision, machine olfaction technology, electronic tongues and dielectric spectroscopy are analysed and their main results and conclusions are presented. These technologies are used on olive fruit, olive slurry and olive oil to determine parameters such as acidity, peroxide indexes, ripening indexes, organoleptic properties and minor components, among others. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A

    1980-02-29

    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impactmore » of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.« less

  20. Oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune Fr.:Fr. extract during accelerated storage.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Heng, Pei Ying; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    The oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune's crude extract (CE), the formic acid (FA) fraction and semipurified subfractions (SF) II and IV were tested, compared to BHA and alpha-tocopherol, by measuring their peroxide value, iodine value, p-anisidine value, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and free fatty acid content. Their total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were also evaluated. FA and CE exhibited highest DPPH* scavenging, while FA and SFIV showed the highest FRAP; TPC was found to be highest in CE, FA, and SFIV. BHA and alpha-tocopherol are more protective in stabilizing the sunflower oil; SFII and SFIV had short-term protective effect in secondary oxidation for 1 year, while CE and FA retarded secondary oxidation and extended the shelf life 1 1/2 years and 2 years, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis found (+)-catechin in Sch. commune's extracts. Sch. commune's extracts did not show similar retardation of lipid oxidation in sunflower oil as compared to alpha-tocopherol and BHA at the 200 ppm level. However, the higher concentration of Sch. commune's extract that provided the protective effect in stabilizing sunflower oil can be further studied.

  1. Pragmatic consideration of geologic carbon storage design based upon historic pressure response to oil and gas production in the southern San Joaquin basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Annual CO2 emissions from large fixed sources in the southern San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in California are about 20 million metric tons per year (MMT/Y). Cumulative net fluid production due to oil and gas extracted from below the minimum depth for geologic carbon storage (taken as 1,500 m) was 1.4 billion m3 at reservoir conditions as of 2010. At an average CO2 storage density of 0.5 metric tons per m3, this implies 35 years of storage capacity at current emission rates just to refill the vacated volume, neglecting possible reservoir consolidation. However, the production occurred from over 300 pools. The production rate relative to average pressure decline in the more productive pools analyzed suggests they could receive about 2 MMT/Y raising the field average pressure to nearly the fracturing pressure. This would require well fields as extensive as those used for production, instead of the single to few wells per project typically envisioned. Even then, the actual allowable injection rate to the larger pools would be less than 2 MMT/Y in order to keep pressures at the injection well below the fracture pressure. This implies storing 20 MMT/Y would require developing storage operations in tens of pools with hundreds, if not over a thousand, wells. This utilization of one of the basins with the most storage capacity in the state would result in reducing the state's fixed source emissions by only one eighth relative to current emissions. The number of fields and wells involved in achieving this suggests a different strategy might provide more capacity at similar cost. Specifically, staging wells that initially produce water in the vicinity of fewer injection wells could result in both more storage. This water could be directed to a shallower zone, or supplied to the surface at a similar cost. The commencement of ocean water desalination in the state indicates the economics of water supply might support treating this water for beneficial use, particularly if it

  2. Determination of 1,2/1,3-diglycerides in Sicilian extra-virgin olive oils by 1H-NMR over a one-year storage period.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Andrea; Rotondo, Archimede; La Torre, Giovanna Loredana; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    This study is aimed to monitor by 1 H NMR spectroscopy the effect of a 12-month storage period on the 1,2-diglycerides over 1,3-diglycerides ratio for five mono-cultivar 'extra virgin olive oils' (EVOO) (Arbequina, Arbosana, Cerasuola, Nocellara and FS17) and one blend of two different cultivars (Nocellara + Biancolilla) preserved in the dark and at room temperature. These quantifications, at 500 MHz, are readily extracted through a specific and original integration difference method. Albeit it was known that the isomerisation rate is affected by the free acidity, we here demonstrate that it also depends on the presence of specific macromolecules (lipases), indeed, different EVOO cultivars with similar free acidity, show different isomerisation rate. Our results are consistent with similar diglyceride monitoring performed on Greek and Spanish EVOOs by 31 P NMR.

  3. Aboveground tree biomass on productive forest land in Alaska.

    Treesearch

    John Yarie; Delbert Mead

    1982-01-01

    Total aboveground woody biomass of trees on forest land that can produce 1.4 cubic m eters per hectare per year of industrial wood in Alaska is 1.33 billion metric tons green weight. The estimated energy value of the standing woody biomass is 11.9 x 10'5 Btu's. Statewide tables of biomass and energy values for softwoods, hardwoods, and species groups are...

  4. Proven Alternatives for Aboveground Treatment of Arsenic in Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Contaminant of Concern by Mediaa Media Number of Sites Groundwater 380 Soil 372 Sediment 154 Surface Water 86 Debris 77 Sludge 45 Solid Waste 30 Leachate ...issue paper does not address three technologies that have been used to treat water containing arsenic: • Biological treatment • Phytoremediation ...arsenic in water, and no aboveground treatments of groundwater conducted at full scale were found. Phytoremediation and electrokinetics are not

  5. Effectiveness of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil and grape seed extract impregnated chitosan film on ready-to-eat mortadella-type sausages during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mehran; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Oromiehie, Abdul Rasoul

    2011-12-01

    The effectiveness of chitosan films containing Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (ZEO) (5 and 10 g kg(-1) ) and grape seed extract (GSE) (10 g kg(-1) ) on lipid oxidation and microbial (lactic acid bacteria, aerobic mesophiles and inoculated Listeria monocytogenes) characteristics of mortadella sausage at 4 °C for 21 days was evaluated. The release of total phenolics (TPs) into sausage was also assessed. All films exhibited antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes on agar culture media. Chitosan films containing ZEO were the most effective on the growth of bacteria. The growth of L. monocytogenes was significantly inhibited by ZEO-GSE containing films especially during storage of the sausages for 6 days. Aerobic mesophiles and lactic acid bacteria were the most sensitive and resistant groups to films by 0.1-1.1 and 0.1-0.7 log cycles reduction, respectively. Sausages wrapped by 10 g kg(-1) GSE + 10 g kg(-1) ZEO films had the lowest degrees of lipid oxidation, which was 23% lower than the control. The TPs of ZEO films decreased to zero after 6 days, whereas TPs of GSE films followed a slight decrease during the storage. Antimicrobial/antioxidant chitosan film could be developed by incorporating GSE and ZEO for extending the shelf life of mortadella sausage. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. A Weibull model to describe antimicrobial kinetics of oregano and lemongrass essential oils against Salmonella Enteritidis in ground beef during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; Soares, Rodrigo de Araújo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-03-01

    The antimicrobial effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in in vitro experiments, and inoculated in ground bovine meat during refrigerated storage (4±2 °C) for 6 days was evaluated. The Weibull model was tested to fit survival/inactivation bacterial curves (estimating of p and δ parameters). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for both EOs on S. Enteritidis was 3.90 μl/ml. The EO concentrations applied in the ground beef were 3.90, 7.80 and 15.60 μl/g, based on MIC levels and possible activity reduction by food constituents. Both evaluated EOs in all tested levels, showed antimicrobial effects, with microbial populations reducing (p≤0.05) along time storage. Evaluating fit-quality parameters (RSS and RSE) Weibull models are able to describe the inactivation curves of EOs against S. Enteritidis. The application of EOs in processed meats can be used to control pathogens during refrigerated shelf-life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uncertainty Analysis in Large Area Aboveground Biomass Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccini, A.; Carvalho, L.; Dubayah, R.; Goetz, S. J.; Friedl, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite and aircraft-based remote sensing observations are being more frequently used to generate spatially explicit estimates of aboveground carbon stock of forest ecosystems. Because deforestation and forest degradation account for circa 10% of anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere, policy mechanisms are increasingly recognized as a low-cost mitigation option to reduce carbon emission. They are, however, contingent upon the capacity to accurately measures carbon stored in the forests. Here we examine the sources of uncertainty and error propagation in generating maps of aboveground biomass. We focus on characterizing uncertainties associated with maps at the pixel and spatially aggregated national scales. We pursue three strategies to describe the error and uncertainty properties of aboveground biomass maps, including: (1) model-based assessment using confidence intervals derived from linear regression methods; (2) data-mining algorithms such as regression trees and ensembles of these; (3) empirical assessments using independently collected data sets.. The latter effort explores error propagation using field data acquired within satellite-based lidar (GLAS) acquisitions versus alternative in situ methods that rely upon field measurements that have not been systematically collected for this purpose (e.g. from forest inventory data sets). A key goal of our effort is to provide multi-level characterizations that provide both pixel and biome-level estimates of uncertainties at different scales.

  8. Application of petroleum demulsification technology to shale oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Demulsification, the process of emulsion separation, of water-in-oil shale oil emulsions produced by several methods was accomplished using commercial chemical demulsifiers which are used typically for petroleum demulsification. The shale oil emulsions were produced from Green River shale by one in situ and three different above-ground retorts, an in situ high pressure/high temperature steam process, and by washing both retort-produced and hydrotreated shale oils.

  9. Fire recurrence effects on aboveground plant and soil carbon stocks in Mediterranean shrublands with Aleppo pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J.; den Ouden, J.; Mohren, G. M. J.; Retana, J.; Serrasolses, I.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in fire regime due to intensification of human influence during the last decades led to changes in vegetation structure and composition, productivity and carbon sink strength of Mediterranean shrublands and forests. It is anticipated that further climate warming and lower precipitation will enhance fire frequency, having consequences for the carbon budget and carbon storage in Mediterranean ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fire recurrence modifies aboveground plant and soil carbon stocks, soil organic carbon content and total soil nitrogen content in shrublands with Aleppo pine on the Garraf Massif in Catalonia (Spain). Stands differing in fire frequency (1, 2 and 3 fires since 1957) were examined 13 years after the stand-replacing fire of 1994 and compared with control stands which were free of fire since 1957. Recurrent fires led to a decrease in total ecosystem carbon stocks. Control sites stored 12203 g m-2C which was 3.5, 5.0 and 5.5 times more than sites that burned 1, 2 and 3 times respectively. Carbon stored in the aboveground biomass exceeded soil carbon stocks in control plots, while soils were the dominant carbon pool in burned plots. An increasing fire frequency from 1 to 2 fires decreased total soil carbon stock. Control soils stored 3551 g m-2C, of which 70 % was recovered over 13 years in once burned soils and approximately 50 % in soils that had 2 or 3 fires. The soil litter (LF) layer carbon stock decreased with increasing fire frequency from 1 to 2 fires, whereas humus (H) layer and upper mineral soil carbon stocks did not change consistently with fire frequency. Fire decreased the organic carbon content in LF and H horizons, however no significant effect of fire frequency was found. Increasing fire frequency from 1 to 2 fires caused a decrease in the organic carbon content in the upper mineral soil. Total soil N content and C/N ratios were not significantly impacted by fire frequency. Recurrent fires had the

  10. A 400,000 lb crude oil storage tank was moved on an 11 in. air blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1979-03-01

    The British patented-system used to move the 55,000 bbl tank at the Cushing, Okla., tank farm of Getty Oil Co. uses the same airlift principle employed by various hovercraft. Representatives from 20 pipeline and oil companies watched the move, which placed the tank 22 ft higher and 600 ft away from its former location, to improve its gravity flow rate, an improvement spurred by greater crude demands placed on Cushing Terminal. Two 425 hp air compressors were attached to the tank's shell and produced 130,000 cu ft/min of air. The airflow was directed beneath the tank through a segmented skirtmore » fixed to the circumference of the tank's base. Less than 0.5 psi air pressure across the tank floor was needed to lift the tank. Four large D-7 tractors pulled and guided the tank up the incline onto its new pad, where the vessel was rotated into alignment for piping connections. Preliminary rig-up, grading, and pad preparation took six days, but actual tank relocation required only two hours. Getty's Cushing terminal feeds to the 20 in. dia Osage pipeline that serves Getty's El Dorado, Kans., refinery as well as other carriers.« less

  11. Numerical study on criteria for design and operation of water curtain system in underground oil storage cavern using site descriptive fracture networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jiwon; Yeo, In Wook

    2013-04-01

    Underground unlined caverns have been constructed in fractured rocks to stockpile oil and petroleum products, where they are hydraulically contained by natural groundwater pressure. However, for the case that natural groundwater pressure is not maintained at the required level, water curtain boreholes, through which water is injected, are often constructed above the cavern as engineering barrier to secure water pressure enough to overwhelm the operational pressure of the cavern. For secure containment of oil and petroleum products inside the cavern, it is essential to keep water pressure around the cavern higher than operational pressure of the cavern using either natural groundwater pressure or engineering barrier. In the Republic of Korea, a number of underground stockpile bases are being operated by Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) and private companies, most of which have water curtain system. The criterion that KNOC adopts for water curtain system design and operation such as the vertical distance from the cavern and operational injection rate is based on the Åberg hypothesis that the vertical hydraulic gradient should be larger than one. The criterion has been used for maintaining oil storage cavern without its thorough review. In this study, systematic numerical works have been done for reviewing the Åberg criterion. As groundwater predominantly takes places through fractures in underground caverns, discrete fracture modeling approach is essential for this study. Fracture data, obtained from boreholes drilled at the stage of site investigation at the Yeosu stockpile base in Korea, were statistically analyzed in terms of orientation and intensity, which were used to generate the site descriptive three dimensional fracture networks. Then, groundwater flow modeling has been carried out for the fracture networks. Constant head boundaries were applied along the circumference of the cavern and water curtain boreholes. Main flow channel and hydraulic

  12. Controls over aboveground forest carbon density on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaro, J.; Asner, G. P.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; van Breugel, M.; Hall, J.; Dahlin, K.

    2011-06-01

    Despite the importance of tropical forests to the global carbon cycle, ecological controls over landscape-level variation in live aboveground carbon density (ACD) in tropical forests are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a spatially comprehensive analysis of ACD variation for a continental tropical forest - Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI) - and tested site factors that may control such variation. We mapped ACD over 1256 ha of BCI using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), which was well-correlated with ground-based measurements of ACD in Panamanian forests of various ages (r2 = 0.84, RMSE = 17 Mg C ha-1, P < 0.0001). We used multiple regression to examine controls over LiDAR-derived ACD, including slope angle, forest age, bedrock, and soil texture. Collectively, these variables explained 14 % of the variation in ACD at 30-m resolution, and explained 33 % at 100-m resolution. At all resolutions, slope (linked to underlying bedrock variation) was the strongest driving factor; standing carbon stocks were generally higher on steeper slopes. This result suggests that physiography may be more important in controlling ACD variation in Neotropical forests than currently thought. Although BCI has been largely undisturbed by humans for a century, past land-use over approximately half of the island still influences ACD variation, with younger forests (80-130 years old) averaging ~15 % less carbon storage than old-growth forests (>400 years old). If other regions of relatively old tropical secondary forests also store less carbon aboveground than primary forests, the effects on the global carbon cycle could be substantial and difficult to detect with traditional satellite monitoring.

  13. Controls over aboveground forest carbon density on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaro, J.; Asner, G. P.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; van Breugel, M.; Hall, J.; Dahlin, K.

    2010-12-01

    Despite the importance of tropical forests to the global carbon cycle, ecological controls over landscape-level variation in live aboveground carbon density (ACD) in tropical forests are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a spatially comprehensive analysis of ACD variation for a mainland tropical forest - Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI) - and tested site factors that may control such variation. We mapped ACD over 98% of BCI (~1500 ha) using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), which was well-correlated with ground-based measurements of ACD in Panamanian forests of various ages (r2 = 0.77, RMSE = 29 Mg C ha-1, P < 0.0001). We used multiple regression to examine controls over LiDAR-derived ACD, including slope angle, bedrock, soil texture, and forest age. Collectively, these variables explained 14% of the variation in ACD at 30-m resolution, and explained 33% at 100-m resolution. At all resolutions, slope (linked to underlying bedrock variation) was the strongest driving factor; standing carbon stocks were generally higher on steeper slopes, where erosion rates tend to exceed weathering rates, compared to gentle slopes, where weathering in place produces deep, oxic soils. This result suggests that physiography may be more important in controlling ACD variation in Neotropical forests than currently thought. Although BCI has been largely undisturbed by humans for a century, past land-use over approximately half of the island still influences ACD variation, with younger forests (80-130 years old) averaging ~15% less carbon storage than old-growth forests (>400 years old). If other regions of relatively old tropical secondary forests also store less carbon aboveground than primary forests, the effects on the global carbon cycle could be substantial and difficult to detect with satellite monitoring.

  14. Terrestrial laser scanning to quantify above-ground biomass of structurally complex coastal wetland vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owers, Christopher J.; Rogers, Kerrylee; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2018-05-01

    Above-ground biomass represents a small yet significant contributor to carbon storage in coastal wetlands. Despite this, above-ground biomass is often poorly quantified, particularly in areas where vegetation structure is complex. Traditional methods for providing accurate estimates involve harvesting vegetation to develop mangrove allometric equations and quantify saltmarsh biomass in quadrats. However broad scale application of these methods may not capture structural variability in vegetation resulting in a loss of detail and estimates with considerable uncertainty. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) collects high resolution three-dimensional point clouds capable of providing detailed structural morphology of vegetation. This study demonstrates that TLS is a suitable non-destructive method for estimating biomass of structurally complex coastal wetland vegetation. We compare volumetric models, 3-D surface reconstruction and rasterised volume, and point cloud elevation histogram modelling techniques to estimate biomass. Our results show that current volumetric modelling approaches for estimating TLS-derived biomass are comparable to traditional mangrove allometrics and saltmarsh harvesting. However, volumetric modelling approaches oversimplify vegetation structure by under-utilising the large amount of structural information provided by the point cloud. The point cloud elevation histogram model presented in this study, as an alternative to volumetric modelling, utilises all of the information within the point cloud, as opposed to sub-sampling based on specific criteria. This method is simple but highly effective for both mangrove (r2 = 0.95) and saltmarsh (r2 > 0.92) vegetation. Our results provide evidence that application of TLS in coastal wetlands is an effective non-destructive method to accurately quantify biomass for structurally complex vegetation.

  15. Silicone Oil Microdroplets and Protein Aggregates in Repackaged Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab: Effects of Long-term Storage and Product Mishandling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Ammar, David A.; Ross, Lindsey A.; Mandava, Naresh; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify levels of subvisible particles and protein aggregates in repackaged bevacizumab obtained from compounding pharmacies, as well as in samples of bevacizumab and ranibizumab tested in controlled laboratory experiments. Methods. Repackaged bevacizumab was purchased from four external compounding pharmacies. For controlled laboratory studies, bevacizumab and placebo were drawn into plastic syringes and incubated at −20°C, 4°C, and room temperature (with and without exposure to light) for 12 weeks. In addition, mechanical shock occurring during shipping was mimicked with syringes containing bevacizumab. Particle counts and size distributions were quantified by particle characterization technology. Levels of monomer and soluble aggregates of bevacizumab were determined with size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC). Results. Repackaged bevacizumab from the compounding pharmacies had a wide range of particle counts (89,006 ± 56,406 to 602,062 ± 18,349/mL). Bevacizumab sampled directly from the original glass vial had particle counts of 63,839 ± 349/mL. There was up to a 10% monomer loss in the repackaged bevacizumab. Laboratory samples of repackaged bevacizumab and placebo had initial particle counts, respectively, of 283,675 ± 60,494/mL and 492,314 ± 389,361/mL. Freeze-thawing of both bevacizumab and placebo samples led to >1.2 million particles/mL. In all repackaged samples, most of the particles were due to silicone oil. SE-HPLC showed no significant differences for repackaged samples incubated in the laboratory under various conditions, compared with bevacizumab directly from vial. However, repeated freeze-thawing caused a more than 10% monomer loss. Conclusions. Bevacizumab repackaged in plastic syringes could contain protein aggregates and is contaminated by silicone oil microdroplets. Freeze-thawing or other mishandling can further increase levels of particle contaminants. PMID:21051703

  16. Impact of CO 2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO 2 Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliver, Djuna; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Lowry, Gregorgy V.

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO 2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO 2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO 2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO 2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO 22 concentration and will create CO 2 concentration gradients that drivemore » changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO 2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO 2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO 2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO 2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO 2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO 2 injection/leakage plume where CO 2 concentrations are highest. At CO 2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO 2 plume, selected microorganisms emerged as dominant in the CO 2 exposed conditions. Results suggest that the altered microbial community was site specific and highly dependent on pH. The site

  17. Impact of CO 2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO 2 Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliver, Djuna M.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Lowry, Gregory V.

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO 2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO 2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO 2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO 2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO 2 concentration and will create CO 2 concentration gradients that drivemore » changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO 2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO 2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO 2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO 2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO 2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO 2 injection/leakage plume where CO 2 concentrations are highest. At CO 2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO 2 plume, selected microorganisms emerged as dominant in the CO 2 exposed conditions. Results suggest that the altered microbial community was site specific and highly dependent on pH. The site

  18. [Aboveground biomass of three conifers in Qianyanzhou plantation].

    PubMed

    Li, Xuanran; Liu, Qijing; Chen, Yongrui; Hu, Lile; Yang, Fengting

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the regressive models of the aboveground biomass of Pinus elliottii, P. massoniana and Cunninghamia lanceolata in Qianyanzhou of subtropical China were established, and the regression analysis on the dry weight of leaf biomass and total biomass against branch diameter (d), branch length (L), d3 and d2L was conducted with linear, power and exponent functions. Power equation with single parameter (d) was proved to be better than the rests for P. massoniana and C. lanceolata, and linear equation with parameter (d3) was better for P. elliottii. The canopy biomass was derived by the regression equations for all branches. These equations were also used to fit the relationships of total tree biomass, branch biomass and foliage biomass with tree diameter at breast height (D), tree height (H), D3 and D2H, respectively. D2H was found to be the best parameter for estimating total biomass. For foliage-and branch biomass, both parameters and equation forms showed some differences among species. Correlations were highly significant (P <0.001) for foliage-, branch-and total biomass, with the highest for total biomass. By these equations, the aboveground biomass and its allocation were estimated, with the aboveground biomass of P. massoniana, P. elliottii, and C. lanceolata forests being 83.6, 72. 1 and 59 t x hm(-2), respectively, and more stem biomass than foliage-and branch biomass. According to the previous studies, the underground biomass of these three forests was estimated to be 10.44, 9.42 and 11.48 t x hm(-2), and the amount of fixed carbon was 47.94, 45.14 and 37.52 t x hm(-2), respectively.

  19. Potential of oregano essential oil and MAP to extend the shelf life of fresh swordfish: a comparative study with ice storage.

    PubMed

    Giatrakou, V; Kykkidou, S; Papavergou, A; Kontominas, M G; Savvaidis, I N

    2008-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 5% O(2)/50% CO(2)/45% N(2); treatment M), the addition of oregano oil (0.1%, v/w; treatment AO) as a natural preservative, as well as their combination (treatment MO) on the quality and shelf life extension of fresh Mediterranean swordfish fillets during a refrigerated storage (4 degrees C) period of 18 d. Simultaneously, swordfish fillets were stored under aerobic conditions (control treatment A, 4 degrees C) and on ice (usual commercial method of preservation, treatment I, 0 degrees C). Among the 5 treatments examined in the present study, the most effective one to inhibit the microbial and sensory spoilage proved to be the MO treatment, achieving a shelf life extension of 8 to 9 d. The dominant bacteria in the microflora of swordfish, irrespective of treatment, were the Pseudomonads and the H(2)S-producing bacteria, while both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the Enterobacteriaceae produced the lowest populations in swordfish samples kept on ice. Among the chemical indices examined, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values showed no specific trend of lipid oxidation for swordfish, irrespective of treatment. Final trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values for treatments, A, AO, M, and MO ranged between 1.33 and 14.29 mg N/100 g and 14.11 to 55.52 mg N/100 g, respectively, whereas for I samples they remained almost unchanged during storage. Sensory analysis (taste attribute) correlated well with microbiological analysis, indicating a shelf life of approximately 5 to 6 d for control, 10 to 11 d for AO, 12 d for I, 13 d for M, and 14 d for MO samples.

  20. Response of aboveground carbon balance to long-term, experimental enhancements in precipitation seasonality is contingent on plant community type in cold-desert rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAbee, Kathryn; Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew; Bosworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Semi-arid rangelands are important carbon (C) pools at global scales. However, the degree of net C storage or release in water-limited systems is a function of precipitation amount and timing, as well as plant community composition. In northern latitudes of western North America, C storage in cold-desert ecosystems could increase with boosts in wintertime precipitation, in which climate models predict, due to increases in wintertime soil water storage that enhance summertime productivity. However, there are few long-term, manipulative field-based studies investigating how rangelands will respond to altered precipitation amount or timing. We measured aboveground C pools and fluxes at leaf, soil, and ecosystem scales over a single growing season in plots that had 200 mm of supplemental precipitation added in either winter or summer for the past 21 years, in shrub- and exotic-bunchgrass-dominated garden plots. At our cold-desert site (298 mm precipitation during the study year), we hypothesized that increased winter precipitation would stimulate the aboveground C uptake and storage relative to ambient conditions, especially in plots containing shrubs. Our hypotheses were generally supported: ecosystem C uptake and long-term biomass accumulation were greater in winter- and summer-irrigated plots compared to control plots in both vegetation communities. However, substantial increases in the aboveground biomass occurred only in winter-irrigated plots that contained shrubs. Our findings suggest that increases in winter precipitation will enhance C storage of this widespread ecosystem, and moreso in shrub- compared to grass-dominated communities.

  1. Response of aboveground carbon balance to long-term, experimental enhancements in precipitation seasonality is contingent on plant community type in cold-desert rangelands.

    PubMed

    McAbee, Kathryn; Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J; Bosworth, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Semi-arid rangelands are important carbon (C) pools at global scales. However, the degree of net C storage or release in water-limited systems is a function of precipitation amount and timing, as well as plant community composition. In northern latitudes of western North America, C storage in cold-desert ecosystems could increase with boosts in wintertime precipitation, in which climate models predict, due to increases in wintertime soil water storage that enhance summertime productivity. However, there are few long-term, manipulative field-based studies investigating how rangelands will respond to altered precipitation amount or timing. We measured aboveground C pools and fluxes at leaf, soil, and ecosystem scales over a single growing season in plots that had 200 mm of supplemental precipitation added in either winter or summer for the past 21 years, in shrub- and exotic-bunchgrass-dominated garden plots. At our cold-desert site (298 mm precipitation during the study year), we hypothesized that increased winter precipitation would stimulate the aboveground C uptake and storage relative to ambient conditions, especially in plots containing shrubs. Our hypotheses were generally supported: ecosystem C uptake and long-term biomass accumulation were greater in winter- and summer-irrigated plots compared to control plots in both vegetation communities. However, substantial increases in the aboveground biomass occurred only in winter-irrigated plots that contained shrubs. Our findings suggest that increases in winter precipitation will enhance C storage of this widespread ecosystem, and moreso in shrub- compared to grass-dominated communities.

  2. Influence of dietary canola oil and palm oil blend and refrigerated storage on fatty acids, myofibrillar proteins, chemical composition, antioxidant profile and quality attributes of semimembranosus muscle in goats.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Kazeem D; Sabow, Azad B; Shittu, Rafiat M; Karim, Roselina; Sazili, Awis Q

    2015-01-01

    Improving the unsaturated fatty acid content of ruminant meat is essential due to the generally saturated nature of fatty acids in ruminant meat and the negative effects this can have on human health. Nonetheless, enhancing the unsaturated fatty acid content of ruminant meat can have adverse effects on the shelf life and quality attributes of the meat. This study assessed the effects of dietary 80 % canola oil and 20 % palm oil blend (CPOB) on fatty acid composition, antioxidants, oxidative spoilage, cholesterol and physicochemical properties of semimembranosus (SM) muscle from goats. Twenty four Boer bucks were randomly assigned to diets containing on dry matter basis 0, 4 and 8 % CPOB, fed for 100 d and slaughtered. The carcasses were subjected to a 7 d postmortem refrigerated storage. All analyses were conducted on the SM muscle. Diet had no effect (P > 0.05) on the concentration of free thiol and carbonyl and the band intensity of myosin heavy chain, actin and troponin T. The muscle glycogen, pH, water holding capacity, tenderness, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, total carotenoid, δ-tocopherol, cholesterol and proximate composition did not differ (P > 0.05) between diets. The SM muscle from goats fed 4 and 8 % CPOB had lower (P < 0.05) concentration of C14:0 and C16:0 and higher (P < 0.05) concentration of C18:1 trans-11, C18:1ω-9, C18:3ω-3, C20:5ω-3 and C22:5ω-3 than the SM muscle from the control goats. Dietary CPOB increased (P < 0.05) the concentration of α and γ tocopherol and meat redness (a*) on d 1 and 4 postmortem. Regardless of diet, antioxidant vitamins, and shear force decreased (P < 0.05) while drip loss, lipid and protein oxidation increased (P < 0.05) as postmortem storage progressed. Results evince that dietary CPOB can be used as a management tool to enhance the beneficial fatty acids and antioxidant contents of chevon without deleterious effects on its physicochemical properties and shelf life.

  3. Linkages between below and aboveground communities: Decomposer responses to simulated tree species loss are largely additive.

    Treesearch

    Becky A. Ball; Mark A. Bradford; Dave C. Coleman; Mark D. Hunter

    2009-01-01

    Inputs of aboveground plant litter influence the abundance and activities of belowground decomposer biota. Litter-mixing studies have examined whether the diversity and heterogeneity of litter inputs...

  4. The antimicrobial effect of oregano essential oil, nisin and their combination against Salmonella Enteritidis in minced sheep meat during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Govaris, A; Solomakos, N; Pexara, A; Chatzopoulou, P S

    2010-02-28

    The antimicrobial effect of oregano essential oil (EO) at 0.6 or 0.9%, nisin at 500 or 1000 IU/g, and their combination against Salmonella Enteritidis was studied in minced sheep meat during storage at 4 degrees or 10 degrees C for 12 days. Sensory evaluation showed that the addition of oregano EO at 0.6 or 0.9% in minced sheep meat was organoleptically acceptable, and attribute scores were higher for the EO at 0.6 than 0.9%. According to compositional analysis of the oregano EO, the phenols carvacrol (80.15%) and thymol (4.82%) were the predominant components. Treatment of minced sheep meat with nisin at 500 or 1000 IU/g, proved insufficient to act against S. Enteritidis. The combination of the oregano EO at 0.6% with nisin at 500 IU/g showed stronger antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis than the oregano EO at 0.6% but lower than the combination with nisin at 1000 IU/g, which in turn was lower than that of the oregano EO at 0.9%. In its turn, oregano EO at 0.9% showed lower antimicrobial activity than its combinations with nisin at 500 or 1000 IU/g, which showed a bactericidal effect against the pathogen. The inhibition percentages of all treatments against S. Enteritidis at 10 degrees C were higher than those at 4 degrees C. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aboveground Allometric Models for Freeze-Affected Black Mangroves (Avicennia germinans): Equations for a Climate Sensitive Mangrove-Marsh Ecotone

    PubMed Central

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Larriviere, Jack C.; From, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1) total aboveground biomass; (2) leaf biomass; (3) stem plus branch biomass; and (4) leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height) was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone. PMID:24971938

  6. Aboveground allometric models for freeze-affected black mangroves (Avicennia germinans): equations for a climate sensitive mangrove-marsh ecotone.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; Day, Richard H; Larriviere, Jack C; From, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1) total aboveground biomass; (2) leaf biomass; (3) stem plus branch biomass; and (4) leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height) was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone.

  7. Aboveground allometric models for freeze-affected black mangroves (Avicennia germinans): equations for a climate sensitive mangrove-marsh ecotone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Larriviere, Jack C.; From, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1) total aboveground biomass; (2) leaf biomass; (3) stem plus branch biomass; and (4) leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height) was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone.

  8. Atmospheric contribution to boron enrichment in aboveground wheat tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Ji, Junfeng; Chen, Mindong; Zhong, Cong; Yang, Zhongfang; Browne, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Boron is an essential trace element for all organisms and has both beneficial and harmful biological functions. A particular amount of boron is discharged into the environment every year because of industrial activities; however, the effects of environmental boron emissions on boron accumulation in cereals has not yet been estimated. The present study characterized the accumulation of boron in wheat under different ecological conditions in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) area. This study aimed to estimate the effects of atmospheric boron that is associated with industrial activities on boron accumulation in wheat. The results showed that the concentrations of boron in aboveground wheat tissues from the highly industrialized region were significantly higher than those from the agriculture-dominated region, even though there was no significant difference in boron content in soils. Using the model based on the translocation coefficients of boron in the soil-wheat system, we estimated that the contribution of atmosphere to boron accumulation in wheat straw in the highly industrialized region exceeded that in the agriculture-dominated region by 36%. In addition, from the environmental implication of the model, it was estimated that the development of boron-utilizing industries had elevated the concentration of boron in aboveground wheat tissues by 28-53%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Louis; Houle, Daniel; Ouimet, Rock; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Logan, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m) of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km(2) of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha(-1), which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC) were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec's managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041-2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec's forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests.

  10. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Daniel; Ouimet, Rock; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Logan, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m) of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km2 of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha−1, which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC) were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec’s managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041–2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec’s forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests. PMID:26966680

  11. Integrated Geophysical Monitoring Program to Study Flood Performance and Incidental CO2 Storage Associated with a CO2 EOR Project in the Bell Creek Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnison, S. A.; Ditty, P.; Gorecki, C. D.; Hamling, J. A.; Steadman, E. N.; Harju, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center, is working with Denbury Onshore LLC to determine the effect of a large-scale injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep clastic reservoir for the purpose of simultaneous CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and to study incidental CO2 storage at the Bell Creek oil field located in southeastern Montana. This project will reduce CO2 emissions by more than 1 million tons a year while simultaneously recovering an anticipated 30 million barrels of incremental oil. The Bell Creek project provides a unique opportunity to use and evaluate a comprehensive suite of technologies for monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of CO2 on a large-scale. The plan incorporates multiple geophysical technologies in the presence of complementary and sometimes overlapping data to create a comprehensive data set that will facilitate evaluation and comparison. The MVA plan has been divided into shallow and deep subsurface monitoring. The deep subsurface monitoring plan includes 4-D surface seismic, time-lapse 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) surveys incorporating a permanent borehole array, and baseline and subsequent carbon-oxygen logging and other well-based measurements. The goal is to track the movement of CO2 in the reservoir, evaluate the recovery/storage efficiency of the CO2 EOR program, identify fluid migration pathways, and determine the ultimate fate of injected CO2. CO2 injection at Bell Creek began in late May 2013. Prior to injection, a monitoring and characterization well near the field center was drilled and outfitted with a distributed temperature-monitoring system and three down-hole pressure gauges to provide continuous real-time data of the reservoir and overlying strata. The monitoring well allows on-demand access for time-lapse well-based measurements and borehole seismic instrumentation. A 50-level permanent borehole array of 3-component geophones was installed in a

  12. Impact of deforestation and climate on the Amazon Basin's above-ground biomass during 1993-2012.

    PubMed

    Exbrayat, Jean-François; Liu, Yi Y; Williams, Mathew

    2017-11-15

    Since the 1960s, large-scale deforestation in the Amazon Basin has contributed to rising global CO 2 concentrations and to climate change. Recent advances in satellite observations enable estimates of gross losses of above-ground biomass (AGB) stocks due to deforestation. However, because of simultaneous regrowth, the net contribution of deforestation emissions to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations is poorly quantified. Climate change may also reduce the potential for forest regeneration in previously disturbed regions. Here, we address these points of uncertainty with a machine-learning approach that combines satellite observations of AGB with climate data across the Amazon Basin to reconstruct annual maps of potential AGB during 1993-2012, the above-ground C storage potential of the undisturbed landscape. We derive a 2.2 Pg C loss of AGB over the study period, and, for the regions where these losses occur, we estimate a 0.7 Pg C reduction in potential AGB. Thus, climate change has led to a decline of ~1/3 in the capacity of these disturbed forests to recover and recapture the C lost in disturbances during 1993-2012. Our approach further shows that annual variations in land use change mask the natural relationship between the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and AGB stocks in disturbed regions.

  13. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part II. Effect on olive endogenous enzymes and virgin olive oil secoiridoid profile determined by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Cortes-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Gargouri, Mohamed; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Several factors affect virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of this study was to monitor olive hydrolytic (β-glucosidase) and oxidative (peroxydase, POX, and polyphenoloxydase, PPO) enzymes during olive ripening and storage and to determine their capacity to shape VOO phenolic profile. To this end, olives from the cultivars Chétoui and Arbequina were stored at 4°C or 25°C for 4weeks and their enzymatic activities and oil phenolic profiles were compared to those of ripening olives. We observed different trends in enzymes activities according to cultivar and storage temperature. Secoiridoid compounds, determined by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and their deacetoxylated, oxygenated, and deacetoxy-oxygenated derivatives were identified and their contents differed between the cultivars according to olive ripening degree and storage conditions. These differences could be due to β-glucosidase, POX and PPO activities changes during olive ripening and storage. Results also show that oxidised phenolic compounds could be a marker of VOO ''freshness". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according tomore » the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and

  15. Methods for estimating aboveground biomass and its components for Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine trees

    Treesearch

    K.P. Poudel; H. Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    Estimating aboveground biomass and its components requires sound statistical formulation and evaluation. Using data collected from 55 destructively sampled trees in different parts of Oregon, we evaluated the performance of three groups of methods to estimate total aboveground biomass and (or) its components based on the bias and root mean squared error (RMSE) that...

  16. Using environmental chemistry technologies for the removal of arsenic from drinking water, and fat and oil based phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutterlin, William R.

    The first four chapters of this dissertation involve the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Various forms of a macroporous char prepared by partial gasification of subbituminous coal were studied for removal of arsenic(V) and arsenic(III) from water. In increasing order of effectiveness for arsenic(V) removal were untreated char < acid-washed char < char impregnated with iron(III) and gasified < char impregnated with FeS < char impregnated with iron(III) hydroxide < char coated with zerovalent iron < char impregnated with iron(III) oxide. A mass of 10 g of iron(III) oxide char removed arsenic(V) and arsenic(III) from 10,000 mL of water containing 500 micrograms/L of arsenic to levels below 10 micrograms/L. The capacity of the solid to remove arsenic was significantly diminished in water containing 4 mg/L of phosphate. An electrical current passed over 4 g of iron(III) oxide char in a column enabled removal of arsenic(III) from 14,000 mL of 500 micrograms/L arsenic(III) to below 10 micrograms/liter and at significantly higher flow rates than could be employed without electrolysis. The fifth chapter in this dissertation focused on the retention of organics onto a char/concrete pellet. A mixture of naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, biphenyl, toluene, tetrachloroethane, and chlorobenzene were impregnated into a loose granular char, a char/concrete pellet and a sand/concrete pellet. The results showed that the char/concrete pellet had significant advantages over the other forms. Chapters 6--9 focus on phase change materials (PCMs). These PCMs are made from fats and oils. PCMs are perhaps the only proven method that can provide near 100% thermal energy storage. In chapter 7 a novel HPLC method was developed that could provide quantification and qualification of the resulting products formed after PCM synthesis. In chapter 8 thermal cycling studies were conducted on the fat and oil based PCMs. These thermal cycle demonstrated that these PCMs were capable of going

  17. Badak field's oil flowing; gas is ready

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1975-03-24

    Within about 5 y after discovery of the Badak field in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, first deliveries are scheduled to be made from a new LNG plant fed over 530 million CF/day by the field. Badak is also flowing about 13,000 bbl/day of oil, which is piped to the Santan terminal. Other promising gas reserves found in the area could boost production to a level that - when coupled with Badak - would support an LNG-plant input of up to 1 billion CF/day. Indeed, the plant is being built with provisions for adding 2 more trains later. The plant will usemore » an Air Products Co. propane-precooled liquefaction process. The storage system will include four 600,000-bbl aboveground double-wall insulated tanks. Seven 4.4 million cu ft (125,000 cu m) tankers will be constructed to move the LNG from Bontang Bay to market in Japan, where 4 receiving terminals will be built - Chubu, Himeji, Kitakyushu, and Semboku II.« less

  18. Evaluating lidar point densities for effective estimation of aboveground biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Stoker, Jason M.; Vogel, John M.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) was recently established to provide airborne lidar data coverage on a national scale. As part of a broader research effort of the USGS to develop an effective remote sensing-based methodology for the creation of an operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (Biomass ECV) data product, we evaluated the performance of airborne lidar data at various pulse densities against Landsat 8 satellite imagery in estimating above ground biomass for forests and woodlands in a study area in east-central Arizona, U.S. High point density airborne lidar data, were randomly sampled to produce five lidar datasets with reduced densities ranging from 0.5 to 8 point(s)/m2, corresponding to the point density range of 3DEP to provide national lidar coverage over time. Lidar-derived aboveground biomass estimate errors showed an overall decreasing trend as lidar point density increased from 0.5 to 8 points/m2. Landsat 8-based aboveground biomass estimates produced errors larger than the lowest lidar point density of 0.5 point/m2, and therefore Landsat 8 observations alone were ineffective relative to airborne lidar for generating a Biomass ECV product, at least for the forest and woodland vegetation types of the Southwestern U.S. While a national Biomass ECV product with optimal accuracy could potentially be achieved with 3DEP data at 8 points/m2, our results indicate that even lower density lidar data could be sufficient to provide a national Biomass ECV product with accuracies significantly higher than that from Landsat observations alone.

  19. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses

    PubMed Central

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1–1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity. PMID:26927428

  20. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    PubMed

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  1. Optimization of combined in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation for remediation of bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Koolivand, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Saeedi, Reza

    2017-07-31

    In this research, removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated under the optimized conditions of in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 and Fenton. After determining the optimum conditions, the sludge was pre-treated with the optimum state of the oxidation process. Then, the determined optimum ratios of the sludge to immature compost were composted at a C:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 and moisture content of 55% for a period of 10 weeks. Finally, both pre-treated and composted mixtures were again oxidized with the optimum conditions of the oxidants. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of the 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with H 2 O 2 were 88.34% and 90.4%, respectively. In addition, reduction of TPH in 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with Fenton were 83.90% and 84.40%, respectively. Without applying the pre-treatment step, the composting reactors had a removal rate of about 80%. Therefore, pre-treatment of the reactors increased the TPH removal. However, post-oxidation of both pre-treated and composted mixtures reduced only 13-16% of TPH. Based on the results, remarkable overall removal of TPH (about 99%) was achieved by using chemical oxidation and subsequent composting process. The study showed that chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 followed by in-vessel composting is a viable choice for the remediation of the sludge.

  2. Coarse woody debris carbon storage across a mean annual temperature gradient in tropical montane wet forest

    Treesearch

    Darcey K. Iwashita; Creighton M. Litton; Christian P. Giardina

    2013-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD; defined here as fallen and standing dead trees and tree ferns) is a critical structural and functional component of forest ecosystems that typically comprises a large proportion of total aboveground carbon (C) storage. However, CWD estimates for the tropics are uncommon, and little is known about how C storage in CWD will respond to climate...

  3. Effect of alginate/carboxyl methyl cellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on the quality of silver carp fillet and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inhibition during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Nastaran; Ariiai, Peiman; Fattahi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on quality of silver carp fillet chilled storage (4 + 1 °C) were examined over a period of 16 days. The control samples (c), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose coating (C-A), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil (with different concentration 1 and 1.5 %) (C-A + CEO1 % and C-A + CEO 15 % respectively) were analyzed by bacteriological (total viable counts (TVC) and total psychrotrophic counts (TPC)), biochemical (Peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), and pH) and sensory characteristics. Also, the efficacy of these treatments was investigated in control of the population of Eschershia coli O157:H7 inoculated in silver carp fillet. According to the obtained results, C-A + CEO 1.5 % showed lowest (p < 0.05) and acceptable biochemical, bacteriological and sensory characteristics attributes up to 16 days storage at 4 °C compared to the others. Also, this treated sample was acceptable even at the end of the 16-day storage and it could reduce the population of E. coli O157:H7 below the acceptable level (<2) from day 4 until the end of the storage period. The results indicate Alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating with clove essential oil might be recommended as a preservative in the meat products.

  4. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... storage at the Sun Oil Company refinery at Duncan, Oklahoma, shall be in compliance with section 15.211 no... later than September 1, 1979. (f) Action on the part of Sun Oil Company, Apco Oil Corporation...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... storage at the Sun Oil Company refinery at Duncan, Oklahoma, shall be in compliance with section 15.211 no... later than September 1, 1979. (f) Action on the part of Sun Oil Company, Apco Oil Corporation...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... storage at the Sun Oil Company refinery at Duncan, Oklahoma, shall be in compliance with section 15.211 no... later than September 1, 1979. (f) Action on the part of Sun Oil Company, Apco Oil Corporation...

  7. Proximate composition, phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of the seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum, Bifurcaria bifurcata and Fucus vesiculosus. Effect of addition of the extracts on the oxidative stability of canola oil under accelerated storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Agregán, Rubén; Munekata, Paulo E; Domínguez, Ruben; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Daniel; Lorenzo, José M

    2017-09-01

    Extracts from three macroalgae species (Ascophyllum nodosum (ANE), Bifurcaria bifurcata (BBE) and Fucus vesiculosus (FVE)) were tested for proximate composition (total solid, protein and total carbohydrate contents), total phenols content (TPC), and for their antioxidant activities in vitro in comparison to that of BHT compound by using four different assays (ABTS radical cation decolouration, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)). The inclusion of the extracts as oil stabilizers in canola oil in substitution of the synthetic antioxidant (BHT) was also evaluated by assessing lipid oxidation parameters (peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (AV), TBARS value, conjugated dienes (CD) and TOTOX index) under accelerated storage conditions (16days, 60°C). There was an inverse relationship between total solid content and total polyphenols content in the seaweed extracts. FVE showed an intermediate TPC (1.15g PGE/100g extract), but it presented the highest in vitro antioxidant activity when measured using the ABTS, DPPH and FRAP tests. BBE, that displayed the highest TPC (1.99g PGE/100g extract), only showed the highest in vitro antioxidant activity when measured using the ORAC test. ANE showed the lowest TPC and the lowest antioxidant activity in all the tests performed. The seaweed extracts added in a 500ppm concentration significantly reduced the oxidation during canola oil storage at 60°C, being this antioxidant effect significantly higher than that of BHT added at 50ppm. Results indicate that seaweed extracts can effectively inhibit the oxidation of canola oil and they can be a healthier alternative to the synthetic antioxidants in the oil industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling aboveground biomass of Tamarix ramosissima in the Arkansas River Basin of Southeastern Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evangelista, P.; Kumar, S.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Crall, A.W.; Newman, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Predictive models of aboveground biomass of nonnative Tamarix ramosissima of various sizes were developed using destructive sampling techniques on 50 individuals and four 100-m2 plots. Each sample was measured for average height (m) of stems and canopy area (m2) prior to cutting, drying, and weighing. Five competing regression models (P < 0.05) were developed to estimate aboveground biomass of T. ramosissima using average height and/or canopy area measurements and were evaluated using Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc). Our best model (AICc = -148.69, ??AICc = 0) successfully predicted T. ramosissima aboveground biomass (R2 = 0.97) and used average height and canopy area as predictors. Our 2nd-best model, using the same predictors, was also successful in predicting aboveground biomass (R2 = 0.97, AICc = -131.71, ??AICc = 16.98). A 3rd model demonstrated high correlation between only aboveground biomass and canopy area (R2 = 0.95), while 2 additional models found high correlations between aboveground biomass and average height measurements only (R2 = 0.90 and 0.70, respectively). These models illustrate how simple field measurements, such as height and canopy area, can be used in allometric relationships to accurately predict aboveground biomass of T. ramosissima. Although a correction factor may be necessary for predictions at larger scales, the models presented will prove useful for many research and management initiatives.

  9. Management trade-off between aboveground carbon storage and understory plant species richness in temperate forests

    Treesearch

    Julia I. Burton; Adrian Ares; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Because forest ecosystems have the capacity to store large quantities of carbon (C), there is interest in managing forests to mitigate elevated CO2 concentrations and associated effects on the global climate. However, some mitigation techniques may contrast with management strategies for other goals, such as maintaining and restoring biodiversity...

  10. Extraction and textural characterization of above-ground areas from aerial stereo pairs: a quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillard, C.; Dissard, O.; Jamet, O.; Maître, H.

    Above-ground analysis is a key point to the reconstruction of urban scenes, but it is a difficult task because of the diversity of the involved objects. We propose a new method to above-ground extraction from an aerial stereo pair, which does not require any assumption about object shape or nature. A Digital Surface Model is first produced by a stereoscopic matching stage preserving discontinuities, and then processed by a region-based Markovian classification algorithm. The produced above-ground areas are finally characterized as man-made or natural according to the grey level information. The quality of the results is assessed and discussed.

  11. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  12. Aboveground mechanical stimuli affect belowground plant-plant communication.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Ali; Markovic, Dimitrije; Broberg, Anders; Anten, Niels P R; Ninkovic, Velemir

    2018-01-01

    Plants can detect the presence of their neighbours and modify their growth behaviour accordingly. But the extent to which this neighbour detection is mediated by abiotic stressors is not well known. In this study we tested the acclimation response of Zea mays L. seedlings through belowground interactions to the presence of their siblings exposed to brief mechano stimuli. Maize seedling simultaneously shared the growth solution of touched plants or they were transferred to the growth solution of previously touched plants. We tested the growth preferences of newly germinated seedlings toward the growth solution of touched (T_solution) or untouched plants (C_solution). The primary root of the newly germinated seedlings grew significantly less towards T_solution than to C_solution. Plants transferred to T_solution allocated more biomass to shoots and less to roots. While plants that simultaneously shared their growth solution with the touched plants produced more biomass. Results show that plant responses to neighbours can be modified by aboveground abiotic stress to those neighbours and suggest that these modifications are mediated by belowground interactions.

  13. Literature Survey on Long-Term Storage of Petroleum Products, Artillery Storage Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-05-31

    Oil .... . o . . . 70 ADDITION AGENTS . •• . ....... ....... 72 Oxidation Inhibitors 73 Oxidation Inhibitors in Turbine Oils • . . 73 Oxidation...also been considered. The oils found qost suitable for storage media should probably be closely related to transformer or turbine oils. In addition to...from those who have been using transformer anid turbine oils, and there are reports on these oils aind the changes which liave occurred over a period

  14. 40 CFR 279.54 - Used oil management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Used oil management. 279.54 Section 279.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... the soil, groundwater, or surface water. (d) Secondary containment for existing aboveground tanks...

  15. [Spatial distribution of aboveground biomass of shrubs in Tianlaochi catchment of the Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Liang, Bei; Di, Li; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Peng, Shou-Zhang; Peng, Huan-Hua; Wang, Chao

    2014-02-01

    This study estimated the spatial distribution of the aboveground biomass of shrubs in the Tianlaochi catchment of Qilian Mountains based on the field survey and remote sensing data. A relationship model of the aboveground biomass and its feasibly measured factors (i. e. , canopy perimeter and plant height) was built. The land use was classified by object-oriented technique with the high resolution image (GeoEye-1) of the study area, and the distribution of shrub coverage was extracted. Then the total aboveground biomass of shrubs in the study area was estimated by the relationship model with the distribution of shrub coverage. The results showed that the aboveground biomass of shrubs in the study area was 1.8 x 10(3) t and the aboveground biomass per unit area was 1598.45 kg x m(-2). The distribution of shrubs mainly was at altitudes of 3000-3700 m, and the aboveground biomass of shrubs on the sunny slope (1.15 x 10(3) t) was higher than that on the shady slope (0.65 x 10(3) t).

  16. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape

    PubMed Central

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J.; Turton, Stephen M.; Pert, Petina L.; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m2 of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity. PMID:27435389

  17. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J; Turton, Stephen M; Pert, Petina L; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F

    2016-07-20

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m(2) of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity.

  18. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J.; Turton, Stephen M.; Pert, Petina L.; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F.

    2016-07-01

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m2 of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity.

  19. Thermophysical Parameters of Organic PCM Coconut Oil from T-History Method and Its Potential as Thermal Energy Storage in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silalahi, Alfriska O.; Sukmawati, Nissa; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2017-07-01

    The thermophysical parameters of organic phase change material (PCM) of coconut oil (co_oil) have been studied by analyzing the temperature vs time data during liquid-solid phase transition (solidification process) based on T-history method, adopting the original version and its modified form to extract the values of mean specific heats of the solid and liquid co_oil and the heat of fusion related to phase transition of co_oil. We found that the liquid-solid phase transition occurs rather gradually, which might be due to the fact that co_oil consists of many kinds of fatty acids with the largest amount of lauric acid (about 50%), with relatively small supercooling degree. For this reason, the end of phase transition region become smeared out, although the inflection point in the temperature derivative is clearly observed signifying the drastic temperature variation between the phase transition and solid phase periods. The data have led to the values of mean specific heat of the solid and liquid co_oil that are comparable to the pure lauric acid, while the value for heat of fusion is resemble to those of the DSC result, both from references data. The advantage of co_oil as the potential sensible and latent TES for room-temperature conditioning application in Indonesia is discussed in terms of its rather broad working temperature range due to its mixture composition characteristic.

  20. Sensitivity of tropical forest aboveground productivity to climate anomalies in SW Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofhansl, Florian; Kobler, Johannes; Ofner, Joachim; Drage, Sigrid; Pölz, Eva-Maria; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of tropical forests is driven by climate (precipitation, temperature, and light) and soil fertility (geology and topography). While large-scale drivers of tropical productivity are well established, knowledge on the sensitivity of tropical lowland net primary production to climate anomalies remains scarce. We here analyze seven consecutive years of monthly recorded tropical forest aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in response to a recent El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) anomaly. The ENSO transition period resulted in increased temperatures and decreased precipitation during the El Niño dry period, causing a decrease in ANPP. However, the subsequent La Niña wet period caused strong increases in ANPP such that drought-induced reductions were overcompensated. Most strikingly, the climatic controls differed between canopy production (CP) and wood production (WP). Whereas CP showed strong seasonal variation but was not affected by ENSO, WP decreased significantly in response to a 3°C increase in annual maximum temperatures during the El Niño period but subsequently recovered to above predrought levels during the La Niña period. Moreover, the climate sensitivity of tropical forest ANPP components was affected by local topography (water availability) and disturbance history (species composition). Our results suggest that projected increases in temperature and dry season length could impact tropical carbon sequestration by shifting ANPP partitioning toward decreased WP, thus decreasing the carbon storage of highly productive lowland forests. We conclude that the impact of climate anomalies on tropical forest productivity is strongly related to local site characteristics and will therefore likely prevent uniform responses of tropical lowland forests to projected global changes.

  1. Partial replacement of pork back-fat by vegetable oils in burger patties: effect on oxidative stability and texture and color changes during cooking and chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carpena, J G; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M

    2011-09-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the impact of partial back-fat replacement (50%) by avocado (A), sunflower (S), and olive (O) oil on the chemical composition, oxidative stability, color, and texture of porcine burger patties (10% fat) subjected to oven cooking (170 °C/18 min) and chilling (+ 4 °C/15 d). The addition of vegetable oils caused a significant reduction of saturated fatty acids and a concomitant enrichment in unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of vegetable oils to porcine patties caused a significant reduction of TBARS formed as a result of cooking and the subsequent chilling. The usage of vegetable oils as back-fat replacers had no impact on the formation of protein carbonyls. Porcine patties with A- and O-patties displayed a more favorable ratio between volatiles contributing to rancidity and those contributing pleasant odor notes. Treated and control patties underwent similar discoloration during processing. The usage of vegetable oils and particularly, avocado and olive oils, as back-fat replacers, could be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and technological properties of porcine patties. The present study highlights the potential nutritional and technological benefits of replacing animal fat by vegetable oils in porcine patties subjected to cooking and chilling. The industrial application of vegetable oils in processed meat products would meet the current consumers' interest towards healthier food products. In addition, the usage of avocado oil would contribute to boost the avocado industry by providing an additional value to a by-product of great biological significance. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Citizen Scientists Provide Critical Data to Refine Aboveground Carbon Estimates in Restored Riparian Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Integrating citizen scientists into ecological informatics research can be difficult due to limited opportunities for meaningful engagement given vast data streams. This is particularly true for analysis of remotely sensed data, which are increasingly being used to quantify ecosystem services over space and time, and to understand how land uses deliver differing values to humans and thus inform choices about future human actions. Carbon storage and sequestration are such ecosystem services, and recent environmental policy advances in California (i.e., AB 32) have resulted in a nascent carbon market that is helping fuel the restoration of riparian forests in agricultural landscapes. Methods to inventory and monitor aboveground carbon for market accounting are increasingly relying on hyperspatial remotely sensed data, particularly the use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technologies, to estimate biomass. Because airborne discrete return LiDAR can inexpensively capture vegetation structural differences at high spatial resolution (< 1 m) over large areas (> 1000 ha), its use is rapidly increasing, resulting in vast stores of point cloud and derived surface raster data. While established algorithms can quantify forest canopy structure efficiently, the highly complex nature of native riparian forests can result in highly uncertain estimates of biomass due to differences in composition (e.g., species richness, age class) and structure (e.g., stem density). This study presents the comparative results of standing carbon estimates refined with field data collected by citizen scientists at three different sites, each capturing a range of agricultural, remnant forest, and restored forest cover types. These citizen science data resolve uncertainty in composition and structure, and improve allometric scaling models of biomass and thus estimates of aboveground carbon. Results indicate that agricultural land and horticulturally restored riparian forests store similar

  3. Seasonal availability of edible underground and aboveground carbohydrate resources to human foragers on the Cape south coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    De Vynck, Jan C; Cowling, Richard M; Potts, Alastair J; Marean, Curtis W

    2016-01-01

    The coastal environments of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR) provide some of the earliest and most abundant evidence for the emergence of cognitively modern humans. In particular, the south coast of the CFR provided a uniquely diverse resource base for hunter-gatherers, which included marine shellfish, game, and carbohydrate-bearing plants, especially those with Underground Storage Organs (USOs). It has been hypothesized that these resources underpinned the continuity of human occupation in the region since the Middle Pleistocene. Very little research has been conducted on the foraging potential of carbohydrate resources in the CFR. This study focuses on the seasonal availability of plants with edible carbohydrates at six-weekly intervals over a two-year period in four vegetation types on South Africa's Cape south coast. Different plant species were considered available to foragers if the edible carbohydrate was directly (i.e. above-ground edible portions) or indirectly (above-ground indications to below-ground edible portions) visible to an expert botanist familiar with this landscape. A total of 52 edible plant species were recorded across all vegetation types. Of these, 33 species were geophytes with edible USOs and 21 species had aboveground edible carbohydrates. Limestone Fynbos had the richest flora, followed by Strandveld, Renosterveld and lastly, Sand Fynbos. The availability of plant species differed across vegetation types and between survey years. The number of available USO species was highest for a six-month period from winter to early summer (Jul-Dec) across all vegetation types. Months of lowest species' availability were in mid-summer to early autumn (Jan-Apr); the early winter (May-Jun) values were variable, being highest in Limestone Fynbos. However, even during the late summer carbohydrate "crunch," 25 carbohydrate bearing species were visible across the four vegetation types. To establish a robust resource landscape will require

  4. Seasonal availability of edible underground and aboveground carbohydrate resources to human foragers on the Cape south coast, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Richard M.; Potts, Alastair J.; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-01-01

    The coastal environments of South Africa’s Cape Floristic Region (CFR) provide some of the earliest and most abundant evidence for the emergence of cognitively modern humans. In particular, the south coast of the CFR provided a uniquely diverse resource base for hunter-gatherers, which included marine shellfish, game, and carbohydrate-bearing plants, especially those with Underground Storage Organs (USOs). It has been hypothesized that these resources underpinned the continuity of human occupation in the region since the Middle Pleistocene. Very little research has been conducted on the foraging potential of carbohydrate resources in the CFR. This study focuses on the seasonal availability of plants with edible carbohydrates at six-weekly intervals over a two-year period in four vegetation types on South Africa’s Cape south coast. Different plant species were considered available to foragers if the edible carbohydrate was directly (i.e. above-ground edible portions) or indirectly (above-ground indications to below-ground edible portions) visible to an expert botanist familiar with this landscape. A total of 52 edible plant species were recorded across all vegetation types. Of these, 33 species were geophytes with edible USOs and 21 species had aboveground edible carbohydrates. Limestone Fynbos had the richest flora, followed by Strandveld, Renosterveld and lastly, Sand Fynbos. The availability of plant species differed across vegetation types and between survey years. The number of available USO species was highest for a six-month period from winter to early summer (Jul–Dec) across all vegetation types. Months of lowest species’ availability were in mid-summer to early autumn (Jan–Apr); the early winter (May–Jun) values were variable, being highest in Limestone Fynbos. However, even during the late summer carbohydrate “crunch,” 25 carbohydrate bearing species were visible across the four vegetation types. To establish a robust resource landscape

  5. Fires in storages of LFO: Analysis of hazard of structural collapse of steel-aluminium containers.

    PubMed

    Rebec, A; Kolšek, J; Plešec, P

    2016-04-05

    Pool fires of light fuel oil (LFO) in above-ground storages with steel-aluminium containers are discussed. A model is developed for assessments of risks of between-tank fire spread. Radiative effects of the flame body are accounted for by a solid flame radiation model. Thermal profiles evolved due to fire in the adjacent tanks and their consequential structural response is pursued in an exact (materially and geometrically non-linear) manner. The model's derivation is demonstrated on the LFO tank storage located near the Port of Koper (Slovenia). In support of the model, data from literature are adopted where appropriate. Analytical expressions are derived correspondingly for calculations of emissive characteristics of LFO pool fires. Additional data are collected from experiments. Fire experiments conducted on 300cm diameter LFO pans and at different wind speeds and high-temperature uniaxial tension tests of the analysed aluminium alloys types 3xxx and 6xxx are presented. The model is of an immediate fire engineering practical value (risk analyses) or can be used for further research purposes (e.g. sensitivity and parametric studies). The latter use is demonstrated in the final part of the paper discussing possible effects of high-temperature creep of 3xxx aluminium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Houghton, R. A.; DosSantos Alvala, R. C.; Soares, J. V.; Yu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The amount and spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon basin is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the flux of carbon released from land-cover and land-use change. Direct measurements of aboveground live biomass (AGLB) are limited to small areas of forest inventory plots and site-specific allometric equations that cannot be readily generalized for the entire basin. Furthermore, there is no spaceborne remote sensing instrument that can measure tropical forest biomass directly. To determine the spatial distribution of forest biomass of the Amazon basin, we report a method based on remote sensing metrics representing various forest structural parameters and environmental variables, and more than 500 plot measurements of forest biomass distributed over the basin. A decision tree approach was used to develop the spatial distribution of AGLB for seven distinct biomass classes of lowland old-growth forests with more than 80% accuracy. AGLB for other vegetation types, such as the woody and herbaceous savanna and secondary forests, was directly estimated with a regression based on satellite data. Results show that AGLB is highest in Central Amazonia and in regions to the east and north, including the Guyanas. Biomass is generally above 300Mgha(sup 1) here except in areas of intense logging or open floodplains. In Western Amazonia, from the lowlands of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia to the Andean mountains, biomass ranges from 150 to 300Mgha(sup 1). Most transitional and seasonal forests at the southern and northwestern edges of the basin have biomass ranging from 100 to 200Mgha(sup 1). The AGLB distribution has a significant correlation with the length of the dry season. We estimate that the total carbon in forest biomass of the Amazon basin, including the dead and below ground biomass, is 86 PgC with +/- 20% uncertainty.

  7. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyun G; Kim, Byung K; Song, Geun C; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    study provides a new framework for investigating how aboveground insect feeding modulates the belowground microbiome.

  8. Below and above-ground carbon distribution along a rainfall gradient. A case of the Zambezi teak forests, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoma, Justine; Moors, Eddy; Kruijt, Bart; Speer, James H.; Vinya, Royd; Chidumayo, Emmanuel N.; Leemans, Rik

    2018-02-01

    Understanding carbon (C) stocks or biomass in forests is important to examine how forests mitigate climate change. To estimate biomass in stems, branches and roots takes intensive fieldwork to uproot, cut and weigh the mass of each component. Different models or equations are also required. Our research focussed on the dry tropical Zambezi teak forests and we studied their structure at three sites following a rainfall gradient in Zambia. We sampled 3558 trees at 42 plots covering a combined area of 15ha. Using data from destructive tree samples, we developed mixed-species biomass models to estimate above ground biomass for small (<5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH, 1.3 m above-ground)) and large (≥5 cm DBH) trees involving 90 and 104 trees respectively, that belonged to 12 species. A below-ground biomass model was developed from seven trees of three species (16-44 cm DBH) whose complete root systems were excavated. Three stump models were also derived from these uprooted trees. Finally, we determined the C fractions from 194 trees that belonged to 12 species. The analysis revealed that DBH was the only predictor that significantly correlated to both above-ground and below-ground biomass. We found a mean root-to-shoot ratio of 0.38:0.62. The C fraction in leaves ranged from 39% to 42%, while it varied between 41% and 46% in wood. The C fraction was highest at the Kabompo site that received the highest rainfall, and lowest at the intermediate Namwala site. The C stocks varied between 15 and 36 ton C ha-1 and these stocks where highest at the wetter Kabompo site and lowest at the drier Sesheke site. Our results indicate that the projected future rainfall decrease for southern Africa, will likely reduce the C storage potential of the Zambezi teak forests, thereby adversely affecting their mitigating role in climate change.

  9. Effect of UV-C radiation and vapor released from a water hyacinth root absorbent containing bergamot oil to control mold on storage of brown rice.

    PubMed

    Songsamoe, Sumethee; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to develop absorbent material from a water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil and to improve its antifungal activity by using ultraviolet C (UV-C) against the growth of A. flavus on the brown rice. Process optimization was studied by the immersion of a water hyacinth root into a water and bergamot oil (300, 500 and 700 μl ml(-1)). The root (absorbent material) was dried at 50, 70, and 90 °C for 10 min. Then, ultraviolet C (UV-C) was used for enhancing the antifungal activity of bergamot oil for 10, 15, and 20 min. The shelf-life of the brown rice with the absorbent after incubation at 25 ° C with 100 % RH for 12 weeks was also investigated. A microscope and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to find out possible mode of action. Results indicated that the absorbent material produced from the water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil at 500 μl ml(-1) in the water solution, dried at 70 ° C and UV for 15 min showed the highest antifungal activity in a vapor phase against A. flavus on the brown rice. A microscopy investigation confirmed that the water hyacinth root could absorb bergamot oil from an outside water solution into root cells. Limonene in vapor phase was shown to be a stronger inhibitor than essential oil after UV-C radiation and should be the key factor in boosting bergamot oil antifungal activity. A vapor phase of bergamot oil could be released and inhibit natural mold on the surface of the brown rice for up to 12 weeks; without the absorbent, mold covered the brown rice in only 4 weeks.

  10. Thermal Energy Storage: Fourth Annual Review Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The development of low cost thermal energy storage technologies is discussed in terms of near term oil savings, solar energy applications, and dispersed energy systems for energy conservation policies. Program definition and assessment and research and technology development are considered along with industrial storage, solar thermal power storage, building heating and cooling, and seasonal thermal storage. A bibliography on seasonal thermal energy storage emphasizing aquifer thermal energy is included.

  11. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect

    PubMed Central

    Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  12. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect.

    PubMed

    Borgström, Pernilla; Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  13. Aquifer thermal energy storage program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Demonstration Program is to stimulate the interest of industry by demonstrating the feasibility of using a geological formation for seasonal thermal energy storage, thereby, reducing crude oil consumption, minimizing thermal pollution, and significantly reducing utility capital investments required to account for peak power requirements. This purpose will be served if several diverse projects can be operated which will demonstrate the technical, economic, environmental, and institutional feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage systems.

  14. Citronelle Dome: A giant opportunity for multizone carbon storage and enhanced oil recovery in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esposito, R.A.; Pashin, J.C.; Walsh, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Citronelle Dome is a giant, salt-cored anticline in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of southern Alabama that is located near several large-scale, stationary, carbon-emitting sources in the greater Mobile area. The dome forms an elliptical, four-way structural closure containing opportunities for CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and large-capacity saline reservoir CO2 sequestration. The Citronelle oil field, located on the crest of the dome, has produced more than 169 million bbl of 42-46?? API gravity oil from sandstone bodies in the Lower Cretaceous Rodessa Formation. The top seal for the oil accumulation is a thick succession of shale and anhydrite, and the reservoir is underfilled such that oil-water contacts are typically elevated 30-60 m (100-200 ft) above the structural spill point. Approximately 31-34% of the original oil in place has been recovered by primary and secondary methods, and CO2-EOR has the potential to increase reserves by up to 20%. Structural contour maps of the dome demonstrate that the area of structural closure increases upward in section. Sandstone units providing prospective carbon sinks include the Massive and Pilot sands of the lower Tuscaloosa Group, as well as several sandstone units in the upper Tuscaloosa Group and the Eutaw Formation. Many of these sandstone units are characterized by high porosity and permeability with low heterogeneity. The Tuscaloosa-Eutaw interval is capped by up to 610 m (2000 ft) of chalk and marine shale that are proven reservoir seals in nearby oil fields. Therefore, the Citronelle Dome can be considered a major geologic sink where CO2 can be safely stored while realizing the economic benefits associated with CO2-EOR. Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  15. Annual measurements of gain and loss in aboveground carbon density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccini, A.; Walker, W. S.; Carvalho, L.; Farina, M.; Sulla-menashe, D. J.; Houghton, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests hold large stores of carbon, but their net carbon balance is uncertain. Land use and land-cover change (LULCC) are believed to release between 0.81 and 1.14 PgC yr-1, while intact native forests are thought to be a net carbon sink of approximately the same magnitude. Reducing the uncertainty of these estimates is not only fundamental to the advancement of carbon cycle science but is also of increasing relevance to national and international policies designed to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (e.g., REDD+). Contemporary approaches to estimating the net carbon balance of tropical forests rely on changes in forest area between two periods, typically derived from satellite data, together with information on average biomass density. These approaches tend to capture losses in biomass due to deforestation (i.e., wholesale stand removals) but are limited in their sensitivity to forest degradation (e.g., selective logging or single-tree removals), which can account for additional biomass losses on the order of 47-75% of deforestation. Furthermore, while satellite-based estimates of forest area loss have been used successfully to estimate associated carbon losses, few such analyses have endeavored to determine the rate of carbon sequestration in growing forests. Here we use 12 years (2003-2014) of pantropical satellite data to quantify net annual changes in the aboveground carbon density of woody vegetation (MgC ha-1yr-1), providing direct, measurement-based evidence that the world's tropical forests are a net carbon source of 425.2 ± 92.0 Tg C yr-1. This net release of carbon consists of losses of 861.7 ± 80.2 Tg C yr-1 and gains of -436.5 ± 31.0 Tg C yr-1 . Gains result from forest growth; losses result from reductions in forest area due to deforestation and from reductions in biomass density within standing forests (degradation), with the latter accounting for 68.9% of overall losses. Our findings advance previous research

  16. Developing a generalized allometric equation for aboveground biomass estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Balamuta, J. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Li, B.; Man, A.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A key potential uncertainty in estimating carbon stocks across multiple scales stems from the use of empirically calibrated allometric equations, which estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) from plant characteristics such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and/or height (H). The equations themselves contain significant and, at times, poorly characterized errors. Species-specific equations may be missing. Plant responses to their local biophysical environment may lead to spatially varying allometric relationships. The structural predictor may be difficult or impossible to measure accurately, particularly when derived from remote sensing data. All of these issues may lead to significant and spatially varying uncertainties in the estimation of AGB that are unexplored in the literature. We sought to quantify the errors in predicting AGB at the tree and plot level for vegetation plots in California. To accomplish this, we derived a generalized allometric equation (GAE) which we used to model the AGB on a full set of tree information such as DBH, H, taxonomy, and biophysical environment. The GAE was derived using published allometric equations in the GlobAllomeTree database. The equations were sparse in details about the error since authors provide the coefficient of determination (R2) and the sample size. A more realistic simulation of tree AGB should also contain the noise that was not captured by the allometric equation. We derived an empirically corrected variance estimate for the amount of noise to represent the errors in the real biomass. Also, we accounted for the hierarchical relationship between different species by treating each taxonomic level as a covariate nested within a higher taxonomic level (e.g. species < genus). This approach provides estimation under incomplete tree information (e.g. missing species) or blurred information (e.g. conjecture of species), plus the biophysical environment. The GAE allowed us to quantify contribution of each different

  17. Estimating forest and woodland aboveground biomass using active and passive remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Aboveground biomass was estimated from active and passive remote sensing sources, including airborne lidar and Landsat-8 satellites, in an eastern Arizona (USA) study area comprised of forest and woodland ecosystems. Compared to field measurements, airborne lidar enabled direct estimation of individual tree height with a slope of 0.98 (R2 = 0.98). At the plot-level, lidar-derived height and intensity metrics provided the most robust estimate for aboveground biomass, producing dominant species-based aboveground models with errors ranging from 4 to 14Mg ha –1 across all woodland and forest species. Landsat-8 imagery produced dominant species-based aboveground biomass models with errors ranging from 10 to 28 Mg ha –1. Thus, airborne lidar allowed for estimates for fine-scale aboveground biomass mapping with low uncertainty, while Landsat-8 seems best suited for broader spatial scale products such as a national biomass essential climate variable (ECV) based on land cover types for the United States.

  18. Phenology, growth and physiological adjustments of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) to sink limitation induced by fruit pruning

    PubMed Central

    Legros, S.; Mialet-Serra, I.; Caliman, J.-P.; Siregar, F. A.; Clement-Vidal, A.; Fabre, D.; Dingkuhn, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite its simple architecture and small phenotypic plasticity, oil palm has complex phenology and source–sink interactions. Phytomers appear in regular succession but their development takes years, involving long lag periods between environmental influences and their effects on sinks. Plant adjustments to resulting source–sink imbalances are poorly understood. This study investigated oil palm adjustments to imbalances caused by severe fruit pruning. Methods An experiment with two treatments (control and complete fruit pruning) during 22 months in 2006–2008) and six replications per treatment was conducted in Indonesia. Phenology, growth of above-ground vegetative and reproductive organs, leaf morphology, inflorescence sex differentiation, dynamics of non-structural carbohydrate reserves and light-saturated net photosynthesis (Amax) were monitored. Key Results Artificial sink limitation by complete fruit pruning accelerated development rate, resulting in higher phytomer, leaf and inflorescence numbers. Leaf size and morphology remained unchanged. Complete fruit pruning also suppressed the abortion of male inflorescences, estimated to be triggered at about 16 months before bunch maturity. The number of female inflorescences increased after an estimated lag of 24–26 months, corresponding to time from sex differentiation to bunch maturity. The most important adjustment process was increased assimilate storage in the stem, attaining nearly 50 % of dry weight in the stem top, mainly as starch, whereas glucose, which in controls was the most abundant non-structural carbohydrate stored in oil palm, decreased. Conclusions The development rate of oil palm is in part controlled by source–sink relationships. Although increased rate of development and proportion of female inflorescences constituted observed adjustments to sink limitation, the low plasticity of plant architecture (constant leaf size, absence of branching) limited compensatory

  19. Melting, crystallization and storage stability of virgin coconut oil and its blends by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Yashi; Semwal, Anil Dutt; Sajeevkumar, Vallayil Appukuttan; Sharma, G K

    2017-01-01

    The blends were prepared of virgin coconut oil with refined soyabean oil (VCO-RSOY) and refined safflower oil (VCO-RSAFF). Blending with VCO improved the fatty acid composition which increased the shelf stability of 20:80 VCO-RSOY and VCO-RSAFF up to 12 months in different packaging systems such as low density polyethylene, linear low density polyethylene, metalized polyester pouches, polyethylene teteraphthalate, high density polyethylene (HDPE), Amber HDPE bottle. The specific spectral regions of FTIR proved to be very useful for the determination of adulteration as well as for the study of oxidation process. Band shifts observed at 3008, 1652, 1397, 1097, 912 and 845 cm -1 have been used to differentiate RSAFF from VCO. VCO spectrums did not have these chemical shifts. Further the spectrum of RSOY showed same band shifts as RSAFF except 1652, 1397, 869.6 and 845 cm -1 . Differential Scanning Calorimetry provided useful information regarding the nature of thermodynamic changes related to physical state of vegetable oil. The physical state changes included melting and crystallization events which require the intake and release of energy.

  20. Aboveground predation by an American badger (Taxidea taxus) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    During research on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), we repeatedly observed a female American badger (Taxidea taxus) hunting prairie dogs on a colony in southern Phillips County, Montana. During 1-14 June 2006, we observed 7 aboveground attacks (2 successful) and 3 successful excavations of prairie dogs. The locations and circumstances of aboveground attacks suggested that the badger improved her probability of capturing prairie dogs by planning the aboveground attacks based on perceptions of speeds, angles, distances, and predicted escape responses of prey. Our observations add to previous reports on the complex and varied predatory methods and cognitive capacities of badgers. These observations also underscore the individuality of predators and support the concept that predators are active participants in predator-prey interactions.

  1. Interrelated effects of mycorrhiza and free-living nitrogen fixers cascade up to aboveground herbivores.

    PubMed

    Khaitov, Botir; Patiño-Ruiz, José David; Pina, Tatiana; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Aboveground plant performance is strongly influenced by belowground microorganisms, some of which are pathogenic and have negative effects, while others, such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, usually have positive effects. Recent research revealed that belowground interactions between plants and functionally distinct groups of microorganisms cascade up to aboveground plant associates such as herbivores and their natural enemies. However, while functionally distinct belowground microorganisms commonly co-occur in the rhizosphere, their combined effects, and relative contributions, respectively, on performance of aboveground plant-associated organisms are virtually unexplored. Here, we scrutinized and disentangled the effects of free-living nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum (DB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae (AMF) on host plant choice and reproduction of the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on common bean plants Phaseolus vulgaris. Additionally, we assessed plant growth, and AMF and DB occurrence and density as affected by each other. Both AMF alone and DB alone increased spider mite reproduction to similar levels, as compared to the control, and exerted additive effects under co-occurrence. These effects were similarly apparent in host plant choice, that is, the mites preferred leaves from plants with both AMF and DB to plants with AMF or DB to plants grown without AMF and DB. DB, which also act as AMF helper bacteria, enhanced root colonization by AMF, whereas AMF did not affect DB abundance. AMF but not DB increased growth of reproductive plant tissue and seed production, respectively. Both AMF and DB increased the biomass of vegetative aboveground plant tissue. Our study breaks new ground in multitrophic belowground-aboveground research by providing first insights into the fitness implications of plant-mediated interactions between interrelated belowground fungi

  2. Below-ground herbivory limits induction of extrafloral nectar by above-ground herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Siemann, Evan; Carrillo, Juli; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Many plants produce extrafloral nectar (EFN), and increase production following above-ground herbivory, presumably to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Below-ground herbivores, alone or in combination with those above ground, may also alter EFN production depending on the specificity of this defence response and the interactions among herbivores mediated through plant defences. To date, however, a lack of manipulative experiments investigating EFN production induced by above- and below-ground herbivory has limited our understanding of how below-ground herbivory mediates indirect plant defences to affect above-ground herbivores and their natural enemies. Methods In a greenhouse experiment, seedlings of tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) were subjected to herbivory by a specialist flea beetle (Bikasha collaris) that naturally co-occurs as foliage-feeding adults and root-feeding larvae. Seedlings were subjected to above-ground adults and/or below-ground larvae herbivory, and EFN production was monitored. Key Results Above- and/or below-ground herbivory significantly increased the percentage of leaves with active nectaries, the volume of EFN and the mass of soluble solids within the nectar. Simultaneous above- and below-ground herbivory induced a higher volume of EFN and mass of soluble solids than below-ground herbivory alone, but highest EFN production was induced by above-ground herbivory when below-ground herbivores were absent. Conclusions The induction of EFN production by below-ground damage suggests that systemic induction underlies some of the EFN response. The strong induction by above-ground herbivory in the absence of below-ground herbivory points to specific induction based on above- and below-ground signals that may be adaptive for this above-ground indirect defence. PMID:25681822

  3. Below-ground herbivory limits induction of extrafloral nectar by above-ground herbivores.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Siemann, Evan; Carrillo, Juli; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-04-01

    Many plants produce extrafloral nectar (EFN), and increase production following above-ground herbivory, presumably to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Below-ground herbivores, alone or in combination with those above ground, may also alter EFN production depending on the specificity of this defence response and the interactions among herbivores mediated through plant defences. To date, however, a lack of manipulative experiments investigating EFN production induced by above- and below-ground herbivory has limited our understanding of how below-ground herbivory mediates indirect plant defences to affect above-ground herbivores and their natural enemies. In a greenhouse experiment, seedlings of tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) were subjected to herbivory by a specialist flea beetle (Bikasha collaris) that naturally co-occurs as foliage-feeding adults and root-feeding larvae. Seedlings were subjected to above-ground adults and/or below-ground larvae herbivory, and EFN production was monitored. Above- and/or below-ground herbivory significantly increased the percentage of leaves with active nectaries, the volume of EFN and the mass of soluble solids within the nectar. Simultaneous above- and below-ground herbivory induced a higher volume of EFN and mass of soluble solids than below-ground herbivory alone, but highest EFN production was induced by above-ground herbivory when below-ground herbivores were absent. The induction of EFN production by below-ground damage suggests that systemic induction underlies some of the EFN response. The strong induction by above-ground herbivory in the absence of below-ground herbivory points to specific induction based on above- and below-ground signals that may be adaptive for this above-ground indirect defence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass in a primary Pinus kesiya forest of Yunnan, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuaifeng; Lang, Xuedong; Liu, Wande; Ou, Guanglong; Xu, Hui; Su, Jianrong

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and biomass is an essential element of the natural ecosystem functioning. Our research aims at assessing the effects of species richness on the aboveground biomass and the ecological driver of this relationship in a primary Pinus kesiya forest. We sampled 112 plots of the primary P. kesiya forests in Yunnan Province. The general linear model and the structural equation model were used to estimate relative effects of multivariate factors among aboveground biomass, species richness and the other explanatory variables, including climate moisture index, soil nutrient regime and stand age. We found a positive linear regression relationship between the species richness and aboveground biomass using ordinary least squares regressions. The species richness and soil nutrient regime had no direct significant effect on aboveground biomass. However, the climate moisture index and stand age had direct effects on aboveground biomass. The climate moisture index could be a better link to mediate the relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass. The species richness affected aboveground biomass which was mediated by the climate moisture index. Stand age had direct and indirect effects on aboveground biomass through the climate moisture index. Our results revealed that climate moisture index had a positive feedback in the relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass, which played an important role in a link between biodiversity maintenance and ecosystem functioning. Meanwhile, climate moisture index not only affected positively on aboveground biomass, but also indirectly through species richness. The information would be helpful in understanding the biodiversity-aboveground biomass relationship of a primary P. kesiya forest and for forest management.

  5. The relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass in a primary Pinus kesiya forest of Yunnan, southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuaifeng; Lang, Xuedong; Liu, Wande; Ou, Guanglong; Xu, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and biomass is an essential element of the natural ecosystem functioning. Our research aims at assessing the effects of species richness on the aboveground biomass and the ecological driver of this relationship in a primary Pinus kesiya forest. We sampled 112 plots of the primary P. kesiya forests in Yunnan Province. The general linear model and the structural equation model were used to estimate relative effects of multivariate factors among aboveground biomass, species richness and the other explanatory variables, including climate moisture index, soil nutrient regime and stand age. We found a positive linear regression relationship between the species richness and aboveground biomass using ordinary least squares regressions. The species richness and soil nutrient regime had no direct significant effect on aboveground biomass. However, the climate moisture index and stand age had direct effects on aboveground biomass. The climate moisture index could be a better link to mediate the relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass. The species richness affected aboveground biomass which was mediated by the climate moisture index. Stand age had direct and indirect effects on aboveground biomass through the climate moisture index. Our results revealed that climate moisture index had a positive feedback in the relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass, which played an important role in a link between biodiversity maintenance and ecosystem functioning. Meanwhile, climate moisture index not only affected positively on aboveground biomass, but also indirectly through species richness. The information would be helpful in understanding the biodiversity-aboveground biomass relationship of a primary P. kesiya forest and for forest management. PMID:29324901

  6. Performance of Oil Infrastructure during Hurricane Harvey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, C.; Kameshwar, S.; Padgett, J.

    2017-12-01

    Three major refining centers - Corpus Christi, Houston, and Beaumont/Port Arthur - were affected during Hurricane Harvey. Damage to oil infrastructure, especially aboveground storage tanks (ASTs), caused the release of more than a million gallons of hazardous chemicals in the environment. The objective of this presentation is to identify and gain a better understanding of the different damage mechanisms that occurred during Harvey in order to avoid similar failures during future hurricane events. First, a qualitative description of the damage suffered by ASTs during Hurricane Harvey is presented. Analysis of aerial imagery and incident reports indicate that almost all spills were caused by rainfall and the associated flooding. The largest spill was caused by two large ASTs that floated due to flooding in the Houston Ship Channel releasing 500,000 gallons of gasoline. The vulnerability of ASTs subjected to flooding was already well known and documented from previous storm events. In addition to flooding, Harvey also exposed the vulnerability of ASTs with external floating roof to extreme rainfall; more than 15 floating roofs sank or tilted due to rain water accumulation on them, releasing pollutants in the atmosphere. Secondly, recent fragility models developed by the authors are presented which allow structural vulnerability assessment of floating roofs during rainfall events and ASTs during flood events. The fragility models are then coupled with Harvey rainfall and flood empirical data to identify the conditions (i.e.: internal liquid height or density, drainage system design and efficiency, etc.) that could have led to the observed failures during Hurricane Harvey. Finally, the conditions causing tank failures are studied to propose mitigation measures to prevent future AST failures during severe storm, flood, or rainfall events.

  7. Effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition on oil and gas storage tap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawe, P. A. L.; Fayomi, O. S. I.; Ayoola, A. A.; Popoola, A. P. I.

    2018-06-01

    The effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex zinc multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition is studied. The degradation behaviour in term of wear and chemical corrosion activities were considered as a major factor in service. The wear mass loss was carried out with the help of reciprocating tester. The electrochemical corrosion characteristics were investigated using linear polarization technique in 3.5% simulated sodium chloride media. The outcome of the analysis shows that the developed coating was seen to provide a sound anti wear characteristics in its multidoped state. The corrosion resistance properties were observed to be massive compared to the binary based sample. It is expected that this characteristic will impact on the performance life span of storage tap in oil and gas.

  8. Afforestation effects on soil carbon storage in the United States: a synthesis

    Treesearch

    L.E. Nave; C.W. Swanston; U. Mishra; K.J. Nadelhoffer

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation (tree establishment on nonforested land) is a management option for increasing terrestrial C sequestration and mitigating rising atmospheric carbon dioxide because, compared to nonforested land uses, afforestation increases C storage in aboveground pools. However, because terrestrial ecosystems typically store most of their C in soils, afforestation...

  9. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  10. Long-term effects of fuel treatments on aboveground biomass accumulation in ponderosa pine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Kate A. Clyatt; Christopher R. Keyes; Sharon M. Hood

    2017-01-01

    Fuel treatments in ponderosa pine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains are commonly used to modify fire behavior, but it is unclear how different fuel treatments impact the subsequent production and distribution of aboveground biomass, especially in the long term. This research evaluated aboveground biomass responses 23 years after treatment in two silvicultural...

  11. Airborne laser scanner-assisted estimation of aboveground biomass change in a temperate oak-pine forest

    Treesearch

    Nicholas S. Skowronski; Kenneth L. Clark; Michael Gallagher; Richard A. Birdsey; John L. Hom

    2014-01-01

    We estimated aboveground tree biomass and change in aboveground tree biomass using repeated airborne laser scanner (ALS) acquisitions and temporally coincident ground observations of forest biomass, for a relatively undisturbed period (2004-2007; ∇07-04), a contrasting period of disturbance (2007-2009; ∇09-07...

  12. Changes in aboveground primary production and carbon and nitrogen pools accompanying woody plant encroachment in a temperate savanna

    Treesearch

    R. Flint Hughes; Seeven R. Archer; Gegory P. Asner; Carol A. Wessman; Chad McMurtry; Jim Nelson; R. James. Ansley

    2006-01-01

    When woody plant abundance increases in grasslands and savannas, a phenomenon widely observed worldwide, there is considerable uncertainty as to whether aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools increase, decrease, or remain the same. We estimated ANPP and C and N pools in aboveground vegetation and surface soils on...

  13. Final Record of Decision for the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office Yard (AOC 32) and Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants Storage Area (AOC 43A) Devens, Massachusetts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    decision document presents the U.S. Army’s (Army’s) selected remedial actions for AOCs 32 DRMO Yard, including Underground Storage Tank (UST) #13...of commencing the remedial action to ensure that the remedy at each AOC continues to provide adequate protection of human health and the environment... Devens , Massachusetts RAO remedial action objective RBC risk-based concentration RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RI remedial

  14. 24. Station Oil Tanks, view to the south. The four ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Station Oil Tanks, view to the south. The four oil storage tanks located along the east wall (left side of photograph) are, from foreground to background: dirty transformer oil tank, clean transformer oil tank, dirty lubricating oil tank, and clean lubricating oil tank. An oil filter system is also visible in background along the far wall. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  15. Impact of logging on aboveground biomass stocks in lowland rain forest, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Jane; Shearman, Phil; Ash, Julian; Kirkpatrick, J B

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse-gas emissions resulting from logging are poorly quantified across the tropics. There is a need for robust measurement of rain forest biomass and the impacts of logging from which carbon losses can be reliably estimated at regional and global scales. We used a modified Bitterlich plotless technique to measure aboveground live biomass at six unlogged and six logged rain forest areas (coupes) across two approximately 3000-ha regions at the Makapa concession in lowland Papua New Guinea. "Reduced-impact logging" is practiced at Makapa. We found the mean unlogged aboveground biomass in the two regions to be 192.96 +/- 4.44 Mg/ha and 252.92 +/- 7.00 Mg/ha (mean +/- SE), which was reduced by logging to 146.92 +/- 4.58 Mg/ha and 158.84 +/- 4.16, respectively. Killed biomass was not a fixed proportion, but varied with unlogged biomass, with 24% killed in the lower-biomass region, and 37% in the higher-biomass region. Across the two regions logging resulted in a mean aboveground carbon loss of 35 +/- 2.8 Mg/ha. The plotless technique proved efficient at estimating mean aboveground biomass and logging damage. We conclude that substantial bias is likely to occur within biomass estimates derived from single unreplicated plots.

  16. Methods for estimating aboveground biomass and its components for five Pacific Northwest tree species

    Treesearch

    Krishna P. Poudel; Temesgen. Hailemariam

    2015-01-01

    Performance of three groups of methods to estimate total and/or component aboveground biomass was evaluated using the data collected from destructively sampled trees in different parts of Oregon. First group of methods used analytical approach to estimate total and component biomass using existing equations, and produced biased estimates for our dataset. The second...

  17. Does the aboveground herbivore assemblage influence soil bacterial community composition and richness in subalpine grasslands?

    Treesearch

    Melanie Hodel; Martin Schütz; Martijn L. Vandegehuchte; Beat Frey; Matthias Albrecht; Matt D. Busse; Anita C. Risch

    2014-01-01

    Grassland ecosystems support large communities of aboveground herbivores that can alter ecosystem processes. Thus, grazing by herbivores can directly and indirectly affect belowground properties such as the microbial community structure and diversity. Even though multiple species of functionally different herbivores coexist in grassland ecosystems, most studies have...

  18. Relationship between aboveground biomass and multiple measures of biodiversity in subtropical forest of Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Heather D. Vance-Chalcraft; Michael R. Willig; Stephen B. Cox; Ariel E. Lugo; Frederick N. Scatena

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have accelerated the rate of global loss of biodiversity, making it more important than ever to understand the structure of biodiversity hotspots. One current focus is the relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass (AGB) in a variety of ecosystems. Nonetheless, species diversity, evenness, rarity, or dominance represent other...

  19. Long-term above-ground biomass production in a red oak-pecan agroforestry system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agroforestry systems have widely been recognized for their potential to foster long-term carbon sequestration in woody perennials. This study aims to determine the above-ground biomass in a 16-year-old red oak (Quercus rubra) - pecan (Carya illinoinensis) silvopastoral planting (141 and 53 trees ha-...

  20. Quantifying aboveground forest carbon pools and fluxes from repeat LiDAR surveys

    Treesearch

    Andrew T. Hudak; Eva K. Strand; Lee A. Vierling; John C. Byrne; Jan U. H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Michael J. Falkowski

    2012-01-01

    Sound forest policy and management decisions to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 depend upon accurate methodologies to quantify forest carbon pools and fluxes over large tracts of land. LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, little work has evaluated the efficacy of repeat LiDAR...

  1. Modeling loblolly pine aboveground live biomass in a mature pine-hardwood stand: a cautionary tale

    Treesearch

    D. C. Bragg

    2011-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in forests is a growing area of interest for researchers and land managers. Calculating the quantity of carbon stored in forest biomass seems to be a straightforward task, but it is highly dependent on the function(s) used to construct the stand. For instance, there are a number of possible equations to predict aboveground live biomass for loblolly...

  2. Characteristics of train noise in above-ground and underground stations with side and island platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokura, Ryota; Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2011-04-01

    Railway stations can be principally classified by their locations, i.e., above-ground or underground stations, and by their platform styles, i.e., side or island platforms. However, the effect of the architectural elements on the train noise in stations is not well understood. The aim of the present study is to determine the different acoustical characteristics of the train noise for each station style. The train noise was evaluated by (1) the A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure level ( LAeq), (2) the amplitude of the maximum peak of the interaural cross-correlation function (IACC), (3) the delay time ( τ1) and amplitude ( ϕ1) of the first maximum peak of the autocorrelation function. The IACC, τ1 and ϕ1 are related to the subjective diffuseness, pitch and pitch strength, respectively. Regarding the locations, the LAeq in the underground stations was 6.4 dB higher than that in the above-ground stations, and the pitch in the underground stations was higher and stronger. Regarding the platform styles, the LAeq on the side platforms was 3.3 dB higher than on the island platforms of the above-ground stations. For the underground stations, the LAeq on the island platforms was 3.3 dB higher than that on the side platforms when a train entered the station. The IACC on the island platforms of the above-ground stations was higher than that in the other stations.

  3. Estimating aboveground tree biomass on forest land in the Pacific Northwest: a comparison of approaches

    Treesearch

    Xiaoping Zhou; Miles A. Hemstrom

    2009-01-01

    Live tree biomass estimates are essential for carbon accounting, bioenergy feasibility studies, and other analyses. Several models are currently used for estimating tree biomass. Each of these incorporates different calculation methods that may significantly impact the estimates of total aboveground tree biomass, merchantable biomass, and carbon pools. Consequently,...

  4. Using landsat time-series and lidar to inform aboveground carbon baseline estimation in Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Ram K. Deo; Grant M. Domke; Matthew B. Russell; Christopher W. Woodall; Michael J. Falkowski

    2015-01-01

    Landsat data has long been used to support forest monitoring and management decisions despite the limited success of passive optical remote sensing for accurate estimation of structural attributes such as aboveground biomass. The archive of publicly available Landsat images dating back to the 1970s can be used to predict historic forest biomass dynamics. In addition,...

  5. Tradeoffs in overstory and understory aboveground net primary productivity in southwestern ponderosa pine stands

    Treesearch

    Kyla E. Sabo; Stephen C. Hart; Carolyn Hull Sieg; John Duff Bailey

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies in ponderosa pine forests have quantified the relationship between overstory stand characteristics and understory production using tree measurements such as basal area. We built on these past studies by evaluating the tradeoff between overstory and understory aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in southwestern ponderosa pine forests at the...

  6. Aboveground biomass variability across intact and degraded forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Treesearch

    Marcos Longo; Michael Keller; Maiza N. dos-Santos; Veronika Leitold; Ekena R. Pinagé; Alessandro Baccini; Sassan Saatchi; Euler M. Nogueira; Mateus Batistella; Douglas C. Morton

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation rates have declined in the Brazilian Amazon since 2005, yet degradation from logging, fire, and fragmentation has continued in frontier forests. In this study we quantified the aboveground carbon density (ACD) in intact and degraded forests using the largest data set of integrated forest inventory plots (n = 359) and airborne lidar data (18,000 ha)...

  7. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    Treesearch

    Benjamin Bright; J. A. Hicke; A. T. Hudak

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field...

  8. Statistical rigor in LiDAR-assisted estimation of aboveground forest biomass

    Treesearch

    Timothy G. Gregoire; Erik Næsset; Ronald E. McRoberts; Göran Ståhl; Hans Andersen; Terje Gobakken; Liviu Ene; Ross Nelson

    2016-01-01

    For many decades remotely sensed data have been used as a source of auxiliary information when conducting regional or national surveys of forest resources. In the past decade, airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has emerged as a promising tool for sample surveys aimed at improving estimation of aboveground forest biomass. This technology is now...

  9. Loss of aboveground forest biomass and landscape biomass variability in Missouri, US

    Treesearch

    Brice B. Hanberry; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance regimes and forests have changed over time in the eastern United States. We examined effects of historical disturbance (circa 1813 to 1850) compared to current disturbance (circa 2004 to 2008) on aboveground, live tree biomass (for trees with diameters ≥13 cm) and landscape variation of biomass in forests of the Ozarks and Plains landscapes in Missouri, USA...

  10. Aboveground biomass and nutrient accumulation 20 years after clear-cutting a southern Appalachian watershed

    Treesearch

    Katherine J. Elliott; Lindsay R. Boring; Wayne T. Swank

    2002-01-01

    In 1975, we initiated a long-term interdisciplinary study of forest watershed ecosystem response to clear- cutting and cable logging in watershed 7 at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. This paper describes ~20 years of change in species composition, aboveground biomass, leaf area index (LAI),...

  11. Below- and above-ground effects of deadwood and termites in plantation forests

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard Shefferson; Scott Horn; Melanie K. Taylor; Bryana Bush; Cavell Brownie; Sebastian Seibold; Michael S. Strickland

    2017-01-01

    Deadwood is an important legacy structure in managed forests, providing continuity in shelter and resource availability for many organisms and acting as a vehicle by which nutrients can be passed from one stand to the next following a harvest. Despite existing at the interface between below- and above-ground systems, however, much remains unknown about the role woody...

  12. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impacts on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands

    Treesearch

    Anita C. Risch; Martin Schutz; Martijn L. Vandegehuchte; Wim H. van der Putten; Henk Duyts; Ursina Raschein; Dariusz J. Gwiazdowicz; Matt D. Busse; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Stephan Zimmerman

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate...

  13. Regional contingencies in the relationship between aboveground biomass and litter in the world’s grasslands

    Treesearch

    L.R. O' Halloran; E.T. Borer; E.W. Seabloom; A.S. MacDougall; E.E. Cleland; R.L. McCulley; S. Hobbie; S. Harpole; N.M. DeCrappeo; C.-J. Chu; J.D. Bakker; K.F. Davies; G. Du; J. Firn; N. Hagenah; K.S. Hofmockel; J.M.H. Knops; W. Li; B.A. Melbourne; J.W. Morgan; J.L. Orrock; S.M. Prober; C.J. Stevens

    2013-01-01

    Based on regional-scale studies, aboveground production and litter decomposition are thought to positively covary, because they are driven by shared biotic and climatic factors. Until now we have been unable to test whether production and decomposition are generally coupled across climatically dissimilar regions, because we lacked replicated data collected within a...

  14. Aboveground net primary production responses to water availability in the Chihuhuan Desert: importance of legacy effects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In arid ecosystems, current year precipitation explains a small proportion of annual aboveground net primary production (ANPP). Precipitation that occurred in previous years may be responsible for the observed difference between actual and expected ANPP, a concept that we called legacy. Thus, previo...

  15. Effects of precipitation changes on aboveground net primary production and soil respiration in a switchgrass field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study attempted to test whether switchgrass aboveground net primary production (ANPP) responds to precipitation (PPT) changes in a double asymmetry pattern as framed by Knapp et al. (2016), and whether it is held true for other ecosystem processes such as soil respiration (SR). Data were colle...

  16. Aboveground tree growth varies with belowground carbon allocation in a tropical rainforest environment

    Treesearch

    J.W. Raich; D.A. Clark; L. Schwendenmann; Tana Wood

    2014-01-01

    Young secondary forests and plantations in the moist tropics often have rapid rates of biomass accumulation and thus sequester large amounts of carbon. Here, we compare results from mature forest and nearby 15–20 year old tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica to evaluate differences in allocation of carbon to aboveground production and root systems. We found that the...

  17. Effect of thinning on partitioning of aboveground biomass in naturally regenerated shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata mill.)

    Treesearch

    Charles O. Sabatia; Rodney E. Will; Thomas B. Lynch

    2010-01-01

    In traditional harvesting systems, yield of forest stands may increase if a greater proportion of net primary production is allocated to bole wood. However, for management related to whole-tree harvesting, carbon sequestration, biofuels, and wildland fire avoidance, assessments of biomass partitioning to all aboveground components is needed. Thinning increases bole...

  18. Modeling and Mapping Agroforestry Aboveground Biomass in the Brazilian Amazon Using Airborne Lidar Data

    Treesearch

    Qi Chen; Dengsheng Lu; Michael Keller; Maiza dos-Santos; Edson Bolfe; Yunyun Feng; Changwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Agroforestry has large potential for carbon (C) sequestration while providing many economical, social, and ecological benefits via its diversified products. Airborne lidar is considered as the most accurate technology for mapping aboveground biomass (AGB) over landscape levels. However, little research in the past has been done to study AGB of agroforestry systems...

  19. Weight and Nutrient Content of the Aboveground Parts of Some Loblolly Pines

    Treesearch

    Louis J. Metz; Carol G. Wells

    1965-01-01

    During the course of a study on the nutrient content of foliage of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), weight determinations and nutrient analyses were made on all aboveground parts of 10 trees. The data, although limited in scope, are being presented because of the scarcity of such information in the literature, and should be helpful to those interested in...

  20. Aboveground production and nutrient circulation along a flooding gradient in a South Carolina Coastal Plain forest

    Treesearch

    B. Graeme Lockaby; William H. Conner

    1999-01-01

    Relative to effects of flooding, little is known about the influence of hydrology-nutrient interactions on aboveground net primary production (NPP) in forested wetlands. The authors found that nutrient circulation and NPP were closely related along a complex physical, chemical, and hydrologic gradient in a bottomland hardwood forest with four distinct communities....

  1. Environmental and biotic controls over aboveground biomass throughout a tropical rainforest

    Treesearch

    G.P. Asner; R.F. Hughes; T.A. Varga; D.E. Knapp; T. Kennedy-Bowdoin

    2009-01-01

    The environmental and biotic factors affecting spatial variation in canopy three-dimensional (3-D) structure and aboveground tree biomass (AGB) are poorly understood in tropical rain forests. We combined field measurements and airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) to quantify 3-D structure and AGB across a 5,016 ha rain forest reserve on the...

  2. Satellite detection of land-use change and effects on regional forest aboveground biomass estimates

    Treesearch

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    We used remote-sensing-driven models to detect land-cover change effects on forest aboveground biomass (AGB) density (Mg·ha−1, dry weight) and total AGB (Tg) in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan USA, between the years 1992-2001, and conducted an evaluation of the approach. Inputs included remotely-sensed 1992 reflectance data...

  3. Future forest aboveground carbon dynamics in the central United States: the importance of forest demographic processes

    Treesearch

    Wenchi Jin; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Wen J. Wang; Jacob S. Fraser; Stephen R. Shifley; Brice B. Hanberry; William D. Dijak

    2017-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) in the United States is currently a major carbon sink, there are uncertainties in how long the current carbon sink will persist and if the CHF will eventually become a carbon source. We used a multi-model ensemble to investigate aboveground carbon density of the CHF from 2010 to 2300 under current climate. Simulations were done using...

  4. Maize (Zea mays) seeds can detect above-ground weeds; thiamethoxam alters the view.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Maha; Lee, Elizabeth; Lukens, Lewis; Swanton, Clarence

    2015-09-01

    Far red light is known to penetrate soil and delay seed germination. Thiamethoxam as a seed treatment has been observed to enhance seed germination. No previous work has explored the effect of thiamethoxam on the physiological response of buried maize seed when germinating in the presence of above-ground weeds. We hypothesised that the changes in red:far red reflected from above-ground weeds would be detected by maize seed phytochrome and delay seed germination by decreasing the level of GA and increasing ABA. We further hypothesised that thiamethoxam would overcome this delay in germination. Thiamethoxam enhanced seed germination in the presence of above-ground weeds by increasing GA signalling and downregulating DELLA protein and ABA signalling genes. An increase in amylase activity and a degradation of starch were also observed. Far red reflected from the above-ground weeds was capable of penetrating below the soil surface and was detected by maize seed phytochrome. Thiamethoxam altered the effect of far red on seed germination by stimulating GA and inhibiting ABA synthesis. This is the first study to suggest that the mode of action of thiamethoxam involves both GA synthesis and ABA inhibition. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Early forest thinning changes aboveground carbon distribution among pools, but not total amount

    Treesearch

    Michael S. Schaedel; Andrew J. Larson; David L. R. Affleck; Travis Belote; John M. Goodburn; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2017-01-01

    Mounting concerns about global climate change have increased interest in the potential to use common forest management practices, such as forest density management with thinning, in climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts. Long-term effects of forest density management on total aboveground C are not well understood, especially for precommercial thinning (PCT)...

  6. Regional applicability of forest height and aboveground biomass models for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

    Treesearch

    Dirk Pflugmacher; Warren B. Cohen; Robert E. Kennedy; Michael. Lefsky

    2008-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest aboveground biomass are needed to reduce uncertainties in global and regional terrestrial carbon fluxes. In this study we investigated the utility of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite for large-scale biomass inventories. GLAS is the first spaceborne lidar sensor that will...

  7. Above-ground biomass of mangrove species. I. Analysis of models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Mário Luiz Gomes; Schaeffer-Novelli, Yara

    2005-10-01

    This study analyzes the above-ground biomass of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa located in the mangroves of Bertioga (SP) and Guaratiba (RJ), Southeast Brazil. Its purpose is to determine the best regression model to estimate the total above-ground biomass and compartment (leaves, reproductive parts, twigs, branches, trunk and prop roots) biomass, indirectly. To do this, we used structural measurements such as height, diameter at breast-height (DBH), and crown area. A combination of regression types with several compositions of independent variables generated 2.272 models that were later tested. Subsequent analysis of the models indicated that the biomass of reproductive parts, branches, and prop roots yielded great variability, probably because of environmental factors and seasonality (in the case of reproductive parts). It also indicated the superiority of multiple regression to estimate above-ground biomass as it allows researchers to consider several aspects that affect above-ground biomass, specially the influence of environmental factors. This fact has been attested to the models that estimated the biomass of crown compartments.

  8. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mark E. Kubiske

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with themore » below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.« less

  9. The effects of crude oil and the effectiveness of cleaner application following oiling on US Gulf of Mexico coastal marsh plants.

    PubMed

    Pezeshki, S R; DeLaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2001-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in two different marsh habitats in Louisiana coastal wetlands to evaluate the effects of oiling (using South Louisiana Crude oil, SLC) and the effectiveness of a shoreline cleaner (COREXIT 9580) in removing oil from plant canopies. The study sites represented two major marsh habitats; the brackish marsh site was covered by Spartina patens and the freshwater marsh was covered by Sagittaria lancifolia. Field studies were conducted in each habitat using replicated 5.8 m2 plots that were subjected to three treatments; oiled only, oiled + cleaner (cleaner was used 2 days after oiling), and a control. Plant gas exchange responses, survival, growth, and biomass accumulation were measured. Results indicated that oiling led to rapid reductions in leaf gas exchange rates in both species. However, both species in 'oiled + cleaned' plots displayed improved leaf conductance and CO2 fixation rates. Twelve weeks after treatment initiation, photosynthetic carbon fixation in both species had recovered to normal levels. Over the short-term, S. patens showed more sensitivity to oiling with SLC than S. lancifolia as was evident from the data of the number of live shoots and above-ground biomass. Above-ground biomass remained significantly lower than control in S. patens under 'oiled' and 'oiled + cleaned' treatments while it was comparable to controls in S. lancifolia. These studies indicated that the cleaner removed oil from marsh grasses and alleviated the short-term impact of oil on gas exchange function of the study plants. However, use of cleaner had no detectable effects on above-ground biomass production or regeneration at the end of the first growing season in S. patens. Similarly, no beneficial effects of cleaner on carbon fixation and number of live shoots were apparent beyond 12 weeks in S. lancifolia.

  10. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC 50 , FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional Contingencies in the Relationship between Aboveground Biomass and Litter in the World’s Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Lydia R.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Cleland, Elsa E.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Hobbie, Sarah; Harpole, W. Stan; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Chu, Chengjin; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Davies, Kendi F.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hagenah, Nicole; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Li, Wei; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Stevens, Carly J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on regional-scale studies, aboveground production and litter decomposition are thought to positively covary, because they are driven by shared biotic and climatic factors. Until now we have been unable to test whether production and decomposition are generally coupled across climatically dissimilar regions, because we lacked replicated data collected within a single vegetation type across multiple regions, obfuscating the drivers and generality of the association between production and decomposition. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationships between production and decomposition rests heavily on separate meta-analyses of each response, because no studies have simultaneously measured production and the accumulation or decomposition of litter using consistent methods at globally relevant scales. Here, we use a multi-country grassland dataset collected using a standardized protocol to show that live plant biomass (an estimate of aboveground net primary production) and litter disappearance (represented by mass loss of aboveground litter) do not strongly covary. Live biomass and litter disappearance varied at different spatial scales. There was substantial variation in live biomass among continents, sites and plots whereas among continent differences accounted for most of the variation in litter disappearance rates. Although there were strong associations among aboveground biomass, litter disappearance and climatic factors in some regions (e.g. U.S. Great Plains), these relationships were inconsistent within and among the regions represented by this study. These results highlight the importance of replication among regions and continents when characterizing the correlations between ecosystem processes and interpreting their global-scale implications for carbon flux. We must exercise caution in parameterizing litter decomposition and aboveground production in future regional and global carbon models as their relationship is complex. PMID:23405103

  12. Regional contingencies in the relationship between aboveground Bbomass and litter in the world’s grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O’Halloran, Lydia R.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Cleland, Elsa E.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Hobbie, Sarah; Harpole, W. Stan; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Davies, Kendi F.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hagenah, Nicole; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Li, Wei; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Stevens, Carly J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on regional-scale studies, aboveground production and litter decomposition are thought to positively covary, because they are driven by shared biotic and climatic factors. Until now we have been unable to test whether production and decomposition are generally coupled across climatically dissimilar regions, because we lacked replicated data collected within a single vegetation type across multiple regions, obfuscating the drivers and generality of the association between production and decomposition. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationships between production and decomposition rests heavily on separate meta-analyses of each response, because no studies have simultaneously measured production and the accumulation or decomposition of litter using consistent methods at globally relevant scales. Here, we use a multi-country grassland dataset collected using a standardized protocol to show that live plant biomass (an estimate of aboveground net primary production) and litter disappearance (represented by mass loss of aboveground litter) do not strongly covary. Live biomass and litter disappearance varied at different spatial scales. There was substantial variation in live biomass among continents, sites and plots whereas among continent differences accounted for most of the variation in litter disappearance rates. Although there were strong associations among aboveground biomass, litter disappearance and climatic factors in some regions (e.g. U.S. Great Plains), these relationships were inconsistent within and among the regions represented by this study. These results highlight the importance of replication among regions and continents when characterizing the correlations between ecosystem processes and interpreting their global-scale implications for carbon flux. We must exercise caution in parameterizing litter decomposition and aboveground production in future regional and global carbon models as their relationship is complex.

  13. Standing crop and aboveground biomass partitioning of a dwarf mangrove forest in Taylor River Slough, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coronado-Molina, C.; Day, J.W.; Reyes, E.; Perez, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    The structure and standing crop biomass of a dwarf mangrove forest, located in the salinity transition zone ofTaylor River Slough in the Everglades National Park, were studied. Although the four mangrove species reported for Florida occurred at the study site, dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees dominated the forest. The structural characteristics of the mangrove forest were relatively simple: tree height varied from 0.9 to 1.2 meters, and tree density ranged from 7062 to 23 778 stems haa??1. An allometric relationship was developed to estimate leaf, branch, prop root, and total aboveground biomass of dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees. Total aboveground biomass and their components were best estimated as a power function of the crown area times number of prop roots as an independent variable (Y = B ?? Xa??0.5083). The allometric equation for each tree component was highly significant (p<0.0001), with all r2 values greater than 0.90. The allometric relationship was used to estimate total aboveground biomass that ranged from 7.9 to 23.2 ton haa??1. Rhizophora mangle contributed 85% of total standing crop biomass. Conocarpus erectus, Laguncularia racemosa, and Avicennia germinans contributed the remaining biomass. Average aboveground biomass allocation was 69% for prop roots, 25% for stem and branches, and 6% for leaves. This aboveground biomass partitioning pattern, which gives a major role to prop roots that have the potential to produce an extensive root system, may be an important biological strategy in response to low phosphorus availability and relatively reduced soils that characterize mangrove forests in South Florida.

  14. Estimating Above-Ground Carbon Biomass in a Newly Restored Coastal Plain Wetland Using Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, Joseph B.; Bernhardt, Emily; Swenson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Developing accurate but inexpensive methods for estimating above-ground carbon biomass is an important technical challenge that must be overcome before a carbon offset market can be successfully implemented in the United States. Previous studies have shown that LiDAR (light detection and ranging) is well-suited for modeling above-ground biomass in mature forests; however, there has been little previous research on the ability of LiDAR to model above-ground biomass in areas with young, aggrading vegetation. This study compared the abilities of discrete-return LiDAR and high resolution optical imagery to model above-ground carbon biomass at a young restored forested wetland site in eastern North Carolina. We found that the optical imagery model explained more of the observed variation in carbon biomass than the LiDAR model (adj-R2 values of 0.34 and 0.18 respectively; root mean squared errors of 0.14 Mg C/ha and 0.17 Mg C/ha respectively). Optical imagery was also better able to predict high and low biomass extremes than the LiDAR model. Combining both the optical and LiDAR improved upon the optical model but only marginally (adj-R2 of 0.37). These results suggest that the ability of discrete-return LiDAR to model above-ground biomass may be rather limited in areas with young, small trees and that high spatial resolution optical imagery may be the better tool in such areas. PMID:23840837

  15. Cadmium uptake in above-ground parts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiwang; Pang, Yan; Ji, Puhui; Gao, Pengcheng; Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Tong, Yan'an

    2016-03-01

    Because of its high Cd uptake and translocation, lettuce is often used in Cd contamination studies. However, there is a lack of information on Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of lettuce during the entire growing season. In this study, a field experiment was carried out in a Cd-contaminated area. Above-ground lettuce parts were sampled, and the Cd content was measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the Cd concentration in the above-ground parts of lettuce increased from 2.70 to 3.62mgkg(-1) during the seedling stage, but decreased from 3.62 to 2.40mgkg(-1) during organogenesis and from 2.40 to 1.64mgkg(-1) during bolting. The mean Cd concentration during the seedling stage was significantly higher than that during organogenesis (a=0.05) and bolting (a=0.01). The Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of an individual lettuce plant could be described by a sigmoidal curve. Cadmium uptake during organogenesis was highest (80% of the total), whereas that during bolting was only 4.34%. This research further reveals that for Rome lettuce: (1) the highest Cd content of above-ground parts occurred at the end of the seedling phase; (2) the best harvest time with respect to Cd phytoaccumulation is at the end of the organogenesis stage; and (3) the organogenesis stage is the most suitable time to enhance phytoaccumulation efficiency by adjusting the root:shoot ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial effects of aboveground biomass on soil ecological parameters and trace gas fluxes in a savannah ecosystem of Mount Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Joscha; Gütlein, Adrian; Sierra Cornejo, Natalia; Kiese, Ralf; Hertel, Dietrich; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    The savannah biome is a hotspot for biodiversity and wildlife conservation in Africa and recently got in the focus of research on carbon sequestration. Savannah ecosystems are under strong pressure from climate and land-use change, especially around populous areas like the Mt. Kilimanjaro region. Savannah vegetation in this area consists of grassland with isolated trees and is therefore characterized by high spatial variation of canopy cover, aboveground biomass and root structure. Canopy structure is known to affect microclimate, throughfall and evapotranspiration and thereby controls soil moisture conditions. Consequently, the canopy structure is a major regulator for soil ecological parameters and soil-atmospheric trace gas exchange (CO2, N2O, CH4) in water limited environments. The spatial distribution of these parameters and the connection between above and belowground processes are important to understand and predict ecosystem changes and estimate its vulnerability. Our objective was to determine trends and changes of soil parameters and relate their spatial variability to the vegetation structure. We chose three trees from each of the two most dominant species (Acacia nilotica and Balanites aegyptiaca) in our research area. For each tree, we selected transects with nine sampling points of the same relative distances to the stem. Distances were calculated in relation to the crown radius. At these each sampling point a soil core was taken and separated in 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm depth. We measured soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage, microbial biomass carbon C and N, soil respiration as well as root biomass and -density, soil temperature and soil water content. Each tree was characterized by crown spread, leaf area index and basal area. Preliminary results show that C and N stocks decreased about 50% with depth independently of distance to the tree. Soil water content under the tree crown increased with depth while it decreased under grass cover. Microbial

  17. The effect of diets supplemented with thyme essential oils and rosemary extract on the deterioration of farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) during storage on ice.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, A; García García, B; Jordán, M J; Martínez-Conesa, C; Hernández, M D

    2012-06-01

    The effect on quality were assessed for gilthead seabream fed five different diets: control (basal diet); BHT (basal diet with 200mgkg -1 of butylated hydroxytoluene); rosemary (basal diet with 600mgkg -1 of rosemary extract -Rosmarinus officinalis); carvacrol (basal diet with 500mgkg -1 of essential oil of Thymbra capitata, carvacrol chemotype); and thymol (basal diet with 500mgg -1 of essential oil of Thymus zygis, subspecies gracilis, thymol chemotype). After 18weeks of experimentation, the animals were stored on ice at 4°C for 0, 7, 14, and 21days. Physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at each sampling point to determine the degree of deterioration in the gilthead seabream. Lower indices of oxidation were observed in animals who were administered feeds supplemented with BHT, carvacrol and (to a lesser degree) rosemary. Lower bacteria counts were observed for the BHT and thymol groups, in addition to a slower deterioration in terms of sensory perception. Accordingly, the addition of natural antioxidants to the diet may have an added effect on fish quality, delaying post mortem deterioration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety profile assessment and efficacy of chemically characterized Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil against storage fungi, insect, aflatoxin secretion and as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Yadav, Shilpee; Singh, S C; Dubey, N K

    2013-03-01

    The study explores the efficacy of Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil (EO) as insecticidal, antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant agent so as to recommend its application as plant based preservatives for food commodities. The study reports the chemical characterization of C. glaucescens oil and its 100% insecticidal activity against insect pest Callosobruchus chinensis on 12 h exposure and 98.74% oviposition deterrency at 0.15 μl/ml. The EO significantly inhibited growth and aflatoxin production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus LHP-10 at 4.5 and 3.5 μl/ml respectively. EO also showed appreciable antioxidant activity (IC(50) value=15.1 μl/ml), non phytotoxic nature on chickpea seed germination and in vivo potential as fumigant in food system providing 71.07% protection of chickpea samples from fungal contamination and 100% antifeedant activity against the insect invasion. The EO exhibited non-mammalian toxicity showing high LD(50) (3971.34 μl/kg) during oral toxicity on mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative stability of refined olive and sunflower oils supplemented with lycopene-rich oleoresin from tomato peels industrial by-product, during accelerated shelf-life storage.

    PubMed

    Kehili, Mouna; Choura, Sirine; Zammel, Ayachi; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2018-04-25

    Tomato peels by-product from a Tunisian industry was used for the extraction of lycopene-rich oleoresin using hexane solvent maceration. Tomato peels oleoresin, TPO, exhibited competitive free radicals scavenging activity with synthetic antioxidants. The efficacy of TPO in stabilizing refined olive (ROO) and sunflower (RSO) oils was investigated for five months, under accelerated shelf-life, compared to the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). TPO was added to ROO and RSO at four different concentrations, namely 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/g and BHT standard at 200 µg/g. Lipid oxidation was tracked by measuring the peroxide value, acidity, conjugated dienes and trienes. Results suggested the highest efficiency of 250 µg/g and 2000 µg/g of TPO, referring to 5 µg/g and 40 µg/g of lycopene, for the oxidative stabilization of ROO and RSO, respectively. The protective effect of TPO against the primary oxidation of these refined oils was significantly correlated to their lycopene contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fuel Temperature Fluctuations During Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitin, R. E.; Zemenkov, Yu D.

    2016-10-01

    When oil and petroleum products are stored, their temperature significantly impacts how their properties change. The paper covers the problem of determining temperature fluctuations of hydrocarbons during storage. It provides results of the authors’ investigations of the stored product temperature variations relative to the ambient temperature. Closeness and correlation coefficients between these values are given. Temperature variations equations for oil and petroleum products stored in tanks are deduced.

  1. World oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. L.

    1982-06-01

    Results obtained through the application of 10 prominent world oil or world energy models to 12 scenarios are reported. These scenarios were designed to bound the range of likely future world oil market outcomes. Conclusions relate to oil market trends, impacts of policies on oil prices, security of oil supplies, impacts of policies on oil security problems, use of the oil import premium in policymaking, the transition to oil substitutes, and the state of the art of world oil modeling.

  2. Estimating soil organic and aboveground woody carbon stock in a protected dry Miombo ecosystem, Zimbabwe: Landsat 8 OLI data applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, Timothy; Muchena, Richard; Masocha, Mhosisi; Shoko, Cletah

    2018-06-01

    Accurate and reliable soil organic carbon stock estimation is critical in understanding forest role to regional carbon cycles. So far, the total carbon pool in dry Miombo ecosystems is often under-estimated. In that regard this study sought to model the relationship between the aboveground woody carbon pool and the soil carbon pool, using both ground-based and remote sensing methods. To achieve this objective, the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) computed from the newly launched Landsat 8 OLI satellite data were used. Correlation and regression analysis were used to relate Soil Organic Carbon (S.O.C), aboveground woody carbon and remotely sensed vegetation indices. Results showed a soil organic carbon in the upper soil layer (0-15 cm) was positively correlated with aboveground woody carbon and this relationship was significant (r = 0.678; P < 0.05) aboveground carbon. However, there were no significant correlations (r = -0.11, P > 0.05) between SOC in the deeper soil layer (15-30 cm) and aboveground woody carbon. These findings imply that (relationship between aboveground woody carbon and S.O.C) aboveground woody carbon stocks can be used as a proxy to estimate S.O.C in the top soil layer (0-15 cm) in dry Miombo ecosystems. Overall, these findings underscore the potential and significance of remote sensing data in understanding savanna ecosystems contribution to the global carbon cycle.

  3. Individual tree size inequality enhances aboveground biomass in homegarden agroforestry systems in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ali, Arshad; Mattsson, Eskil

    2017-01-01

    Individual tree size variation, which is generally quantified by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and height in isolation or conjunction, plays a central role in ecosystem functioning in both controlled and natural environments, including forests. However, none of the studies have been conducted in homegarden agroforestry systems. In this study, aboveground biomass, stand quality, cation exchange capacity (CEC), DBH variation, and species diversity were determined across 45 homegardens in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand quality and CEC, via tree size inequality and species diversity, on aboveground biomass. The SEM accounted for 26, 8, and 1% of the variation in aboveground biomass, species diversity and DBH variation, respectively. DBH variation had the strongest positive direct effect on aboveground biomass (β=0.49), followed by the non-significant direct effect of species diversity (β=0.17), stand quality (β=0.17) and CEC (β=-0.05). There were non-significant direct effects of CEC and stand quality on DBH variation and species diversity. Stand quality and CEC had also non-significant indirect effects, via DBH variation and species diversity, on aboveground biomass. Our study revealed that aboveground biomass substantially increased with individual tree size variation only, which supports the niche complementarity mechanism. However, aboveground biomass was not considerably increased with species diversity, stand quality and soil fertility, which might be attributable to the adaptation of certain productive species to the local site conditions. Stand structure shaped by few productive species or independent of species diversity is a main determinant for the variation in aboveground biomass in the studied homegardens. Maintaining stand structure through management practices could be an effective approach for enhancing aboveground biomass in these dry

  4. Community-weighted mean of leaf traits and divergence of wood traits predict aboveground biomass in secondary subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong; Chang, Scott X; Cheng, Jun-Yang; Liu, Xiang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Subtropical forests are globally important in providing ecological goods and services, but it is not clear whether functional diversity and composition can predict aboveground biomass in such forests. We hypothesized that high aboveground biomass is associated with high functional divergence (FDvar, i.e., niche complementarity) and community-weighted mean (CWM, i.e., mass ratio; communities dominated by a single plant strategy) of trait values. Structural equation modeling was employed to determine the direct and indirect effects of stand age and the residual effects of CWM and FDvar on aboveground biomass across 31 plots in secondary forests in subtropical China. The CWM model accounted for 78, 20, 6 and 2% of the variation in aboveground biomass, nitrogen concentration in young leaf, plant height and specific leaf area of young leaf, respectively. The FDvar model explained 74, 13, 7 and 0% of the variation in aboveground biomass, plant height, twig wood density and nitrogen concentration in young leaf, respectively. The variation in aboveground biomass, CWM of leaf nitrogen concentration and specific leaf area, and FDvar of plant height, twig wood density and nitrogen concentration in young leaf explained by the joint model was 86, 20, 13, 7, 2 and 0%, respectively. Stand age had a strong positive direct effect but low indirect positive effects on aboveground biomass. Aboveground biomass was negatively related to CWM of nitrogen concentration in young leaf, but positively related to CWM of specific leaf area of young leaf and plant height, and FDvar of plant height, twig wood density and nitrogen concentration in young leaf. Leaf and wood economics spectra are decoupled in regulating the functionality of forests, communities with diverse species but high nitrogen conservative and light acquisitive strategies result in high aboveground biomass, and hence, supporting both the mass ratio and niche complementarity hypotheses in secondary subtropical forests

  5. Contribution of aboveground plant respiration to carbon cycling in a Bornean tropical rainforet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Tanaka, Kenzo; Ichie, Tomoaki; Kume, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ohashi, Mizue; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2014-05-01

    Bornean tropical rainforests have a different characteristic from Amazonian tropical rainforests, that is, larger aboveground biomass caused by higher stand density of large trees. Larger biomass may cause different carbon cycling and allocation pattern. However, there are fewer studies on carbon allocation and each component in Bornean tropical rainforests, especially for aboveground plant respiration, compared to Amazonian forests. In this study, we measured woody tissue respiration and leaf respiration, and estimated those in ecosystem scale in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Then, we examined carbon allocation using the data of soil respiration and aboveground net primary production obtained from our previous studies. Woody tissue respiration rate was positively correlated with diameter at breast height (dbh) and stem growth rate. Using the relationships and biomass data, we estimated woody tissue respiration in ecosystem scale though methods of scaling resulted in different estimates values (4.52 - 9.33 MgC ha-1 yr-1). Woody tissue respiration based on surface area (8.88 MgC ha-1 yr-1) was larger than those in Amazon because of large aboveground biomass (563.0 Mg ha-1). Leaf respiration rate was positively correlated with height. Using the relationship and leaf area density data at each 5-m height, leaf respiration in ecosystem scale was estimated (9.46 MgC ha-1 yr-1), which was similar to those in Amazon because of comparable LAI (5.8 m2 m-2). Gross primary production estimated from biometric measurements (44.81 MgC ha-1 yr-1) was much higher than those in Amazon, and more carbon was allocated to woody tissue respiration and total belowground carbon flux. Large tree with dbh > 60cm accounted for about half of aboveground biomass and aboveground biomass increment. Soil respiration was also related to position of large trees, resulting in high soil respiration rate in this study site. Photosynthesis ability of top canopy for large trees was high and leaves for

  6. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) report containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an important crude oil market center. Data are released twice each year near the end of May (data for March 31) and near the end of November (data for September 30).

  7. Shifts in Aboveground Biomass Allocation Patterns of Dominant Shrub Species across a Strong Environmental Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Kumordzi, Bright B.; Gundale, Michael J.; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Most plant biomass allocation studies have focused on allocation to shoots versus roots, and little is known about drivers of allocation for aboveground plant organs. We explored the drivers of within-and between-species variation of aboveground biomass allocation across a strong environmental resource gradient, i.e., a long-term chronosequence of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden across which soil fertility and plant productivity declines while light availability increases. For each of the three coexisting dominant understory dwarf shrub species on each island, we estimated the fraction of the total aboveground biomass produced year of sampling that was allocated to sexual reproduction (i.e., fruits), leaves and stems for each of two growing seasons, to determine how biomass allocation responded to the chronosequence at both the within-species and whole community levels. Against expectations, within-species allocation to fruits was least on less fertile islands, and allocation to leaves at the whole community level was greatest on intermediate islands. Consistent with expectations, different coexisting species showed contrasting allocation patterns, with the species that was best adapted for more fertile conditions allocating the most to vegetative organs, and with its allocation pattern showing the strongest response to the gradient. Our study suggests that co-existing dominant plant species can display highly contrasting biomass allocations to different aboveground organs within and across species in response to limiting environmental resources within the same plant community. Such knowledge is important for understanding how community assembly, trait spectra, and ecological processes driven by the plant community vary across environmental gradients and among contrasting ecosystems. PMID:27270445

  8. Storage and flux of carbon in live trees, snags, and logs in the Chugach and Tongass national forests

    Treesearch

    Tara Barrett

    2014-01-01

    Carbon storage and flux estimates for the two national forests in Alaska are provided using inventory data from permanent plots established in 1995–2003 and remeasured in 2004–2010. Estimates of change are reported separately for growth, sapling recruitment, harvest, mortality, snag recruitment, salvage, snag falldown, and decay. Although overall aboveground carbon...

  9. Changes in carbon storage and net carbon exchange one year after an initial shelterwood harvest at Howland Forest, ME

    Treesearch

    Neal A. Scott; Charles A. Rodrigues; Holly Hughes; John T. Lee; Eric A. Davidson; D Bryan Dail; Phil Malerba; David Y. Hollinger

    2004-01-01

    Although many forests are actively sequestering carbon, little research has examined the direct effects of forest management practices on carbon sequestration. At the Howland Forest in Maine, USA, we are using eddy covariance and biometric techniques to evaluate changes in carbon storage following a shelterwood cut that removed just under 30% of aboveground biomass....

  10. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Vu Thanh; van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB) and root biomass (RB) based on 300 (of 45 species) and 40 (of 25 species) sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H), wood density (WD) was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam. PMID:27309718

  11. Stimulation of the Salicylic Acid Pathway Aboveground Recruits Entomopathogenic Nematodes Belowground

    PubMed Central

    Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S.; Junior, Alcides Moino; Pareja, Martin; Borai, Fahiem El; Dickson, Donald W.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.; Duncan, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Plant defense pathways play a critical role in mediating tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. While the impact of plant defense pathway stimulation on natural enemies has been extensively explored aboveground, belowground ramifications of plant defense pathway stimulation are equally important in regulating subterranean pests and still require more attention. Here we investigate the effect of aboveground stimulation of the salicylic acid pathway through foliar application of the elicitor methyl salicylate on belowground recruitment of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema diaprepesi. Also, we implicate a specific root-derived volatile that attracts S. diaprepesi belowground following aboveground plant stimulation by an elicitor. In four-choice olfactometer assays, citrus plants treated with foliar applications of methyl salicylate recruited S. diaprepesi in the absence of weevil feeding as compared with negative controls. Additionally, analysis of root volatile profiles of citrus plants receiving foliar application of methyl salicylate revealed production of d-limonene, which was absent in negative controls. The entomopathogenic nematode S. diaprepesi was recruited to d-limonene in two-choice olfactometer trials. These results reinforce the critical role of plant defense pathways in mediating tritrophic interactions, suggest a broad role for plant defense pathway signaling belowground, and hint at sophisticated plant responses to pest complexes. PMID:27136916

  12. Modeling Aboveground Biomass in Hulunber Grassland Ecosystem by Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Discrete Lidar

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongliang; Xin, Xiaoping; Shao, Quanqin; Brolly, Matthew; Zhu, Zhiliang; Chen, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Accurate canopy structure datasets, including canopy height and fractional cover, are required to monitor aboveground biomass as well as to provide validation data for satellite remote sensing products. In this study, the ability of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) discrete light detection and ranging (lidar) was investigated for modeling both the canopy height and fractional cover in Hulunber grassland ecosystem. The extracted mean canopy height, maximum canopy height, and fractional cover were used to estimate the aboveground biomass. The influences of flight height on lidar estimates were also analyzed. The main findings are: (1) the lidar-derived mean canopy height is the most reasonable predictor of aboveground biomass (R2 = 0.340, root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 81.89 g·m−2, and relative error of 14.1%). The improvement of multiple regressions to the R2 and RMSE values is unobvious when adding fractional cover in the regression since the correlation between mean canopy height and fractional cover is high; (2) Flight height has a pronounced effect on the derived fractional cover and details of the lidar data, but the effect is insignificant on the derived canopy height when the flight height is within the range (<100 m). These findings are helpful for modeling stable regressions to estimate grassland biomass using lidar returns. PMID:28106819

  13. Modeling Aboveground Biomass in Hulunber Grassland Ecosystem by Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Discrete Lidar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongliang; Xin, Xiaoping; Shao, Quanqin; Brolly, Matthew; Zhu, Zhiliang; Chen, Jin

    2017-01-19

    Accurate canopy structure datasets, including canopy height and fractional cover, are required to monitor aboveground biomass as well as to provide validation data for satellite remote sensing products. In this study, the ability of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) discrete light detection and ranging (lidar) was investigated for modeling both the canopy height and fractional cover in Hulunber grassland ecosystem. The extracted mean canopy height, maximum canopy height, and fractional cover were used to estimate the aboveground biomass. The influences of flight height on lidar estimates were also analyzed. The main findings are: (1) the lidar-derived mean canopy height is the most reasonable predictor of aboveground biomass ( R ² = 0.340, root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 81.89 g·m -2 , and relative error of 14.1%). The improvement of multiple regressions to the R ² and RMSE values is unobvious when adding fractional cover in the regression since the correlation between mean canopy height and fractional cover is high; (2) Flight height has a pronounced effect on the derived fractional cover and details of the lidar data, but the effect is insignificant on the derived canopy height when the flight height is within the range (<100 m). These findings are helpful for modeling stable regressions to estimate grassland biomass using lidar returns.

  14. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nam, Vu Thanh; van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB) and root biomass (RB) based on 300 (of 45 species) and 40 (of 25 species) sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H), wood density (WD) was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam.

  15. Dynamics of Aboveground Phytomass of the Circumpolar Arctic Tundra During the Past Three Decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, Howard E.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.; Bhatt, Uma S.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the dynamics of Arctic tundra vegetation throughout the past few decades, using remotely sensed proxies of vegetation, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). While extremely useful, these coarse-scale satellite-derived measurements give us minimal information with regard to how these changes are being expressed on the ground, in terms of tundra structure and function. In this analysis, we used a strong regression model between NDVI and aboveground tundra phytomass, developed from extensive field-harvested measurements of vegetation biomass, to estimate the biomass dynamics of the circumpolar Arctic tundra over the period of continuous satellite records (1982-2010). We found that the southernmost tundra subzones (C-E) dominate the increases in biomass, ranging from 20 to 26%, although there was a high degree of heterogeneity across regions, floristic provinces, and vegetation types. The estimated increase in carbon of the aboveground live vegetation of 0.40 Pg C over the past three decades is substantial, although quite small relative to anthropogenic C emissions. However, a 19.8% average increase in aboveground biomass has major implications for nearly all aspects of tundra ecosystems including hydrology, active layer depths, permafrost regimes, wildlife and human use of Arctic landscapes. While spatially extensive on-the-ground measurements of tundra biomass were conducted in the development of this analysis, validation is still impossible without more repeated, long-term monitoring of Arctic tundra biomass in the field.

  16. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5)more » rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed

  17. The effectiveness of organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2o as latent heat energy storage system in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U, Sri Rahayu A.; Putri, Widya A.; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2016-08-01

    A latent heat energy storage system utilizing phase change materials (PCM) is an alternative strategy to reduce the use of Air Conditioning (AC) system in big cities in Indonesia in order for energy conservation in the future. In this research we used two kinds of materials, namely organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil (CO) and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2O, because they have thermophysical parameters suitable for human's thermal comfort application in the building. The CO which contained more than 50% lauric acid has the melting temperature (Tm ) of about 26 °C and heat entalphy (ΔH) around 103 kJ/kg, while CaCl2.6H2O has the melting point of 29 °C and heat entalphy of 190 kJ/kg. In this paper we report the effectiveness of those two kinds of PCM in reducing the air temperature as one of some criteria for human's thermal comfort. The experiments were performed in a close and adiabatic room and the time-temperature measurements were done automatically using Arduino microcontroller and LM35 temperature sensor connected to the PC.

  18. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  19. Landsat phenological metrics and their relation to aboveground carbon in the Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Schwieder, M; Leitão, P J; Pinto, J R R; Teixeira, A M C; Pedroni, F; Sanchez, M; Bustamante, M M; Hostert, P

    2018-05-15

    The quantification and spatially explicit mapping of carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems is important to better understand the global carbon cycle and to monitor and report change processes, especially in the context of international policy mechanisms such as REDD+ or the implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Especially in heterogeneous ecosystems, such as Savannas, accurate carbon quantifications are still lacking, where highly variable vegetation densities occur and a strong seasonality hinders consistent data acquisition. In order to account for these challenges we analyzed the potential of land surface phenological metrics derived from gap-filled 8-day Landsat time series for carbon mapping. We selected three areas located in different subregions in the central Brazil region, which is a prominent example of a Savanna with significant carbon stocks that has been undergoing extensive land cover conversions. Here phenological metrics from the season 2014/2015 were combined with aboveground carbon field samples of cerrado sensu stricto vegetation using Random Forest regression models to map the regional carbon distribution and to analyze the relation between phenological metrics and aboveground carbon. The gap filling approach enabled to accurately approximate the original Landsat ETM+ and OLI EVI values and the subsequent derivation of annual phenological metrics. Random Forest model performances varied between the three study areas with RMSE values of 1.64 t/ha (mean relative RMSE 30%), 2.35 t/ha (46%) and 2.18 t/ha (45%). Comparable relationships between remote sensing based land surface phenological metrics and aboveground carbon were observed in all study areas. Aboveground carbon distributions could be mapped and revealed comprehensible spatial patterns. Phenological metrics were derived from 8-day Landsat time series with a spatial resolution that is sufficient to capture gradual

  20. Temperate forest fragments maintain aboveground carbon stocks out to the forest edge despite changes in community composition.

    PubMed

    Ziter, Carly; Bennett, Elena M; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Edge effects are among the primary mechanisms by which forest fragmentation can influence the link between biodiversity and ecosystem processes, but relatively few studies have quantified these mechanisms in temperate regions. Carbon storage is an important ecosystem function altered by edge effects, with implications for climate change mitigation. Two opposing hypotheses suggest that aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks at the forest edge will (a) decrease due to increased tree mortality and compositional shifts towards smaller, lower wood density species (e.g., as seen in tropical systems) or, less often, (b) increase due to light/temperature-induced increases in diversity and productivity. We used field-based measurements, allometry, and mixed models to investigate the effects of proximity to the forest edge on AGC stocks, species richness, and community composition in 24 forest fragments in southern Quebec. We also asked whether fragment size or connectivity with surrounding forests altered these edge effects. AGC stocks remained constant across a 100 m edge-to-interior gradient in all fragment types, despite changes in tree community composition and stem density consistent with expectations of forest edge effects. We attribute this constancy primarily to compensatory effects of small trees at the forest edge; however, it is due in some cases to the retention of large trees at forest edges, likely a result of forest management. Our results suggest important differences between temperate and tropical fragments with respect to mechanisms linking biodiversity and AGC dynamics. Small temperate forest fragments may be valuable in conservation efforts based on maintaining biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services.

  1. Tree-Level Hydrodynamic Approach for Modeling Aboveground Water Storage and Stomatal Conductance Highlights the Effects of Tree Hydraulic Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirfenderesgi, G.; Bohrer, G.; Matheny, A. M.; Fatichi, S.; Frasson, R. P. M.; Schafer, K. V.

    2016-12-01

    The Finite-difference Ecosystem-scale Tree-Crown Hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) is a novel tree-scale hydrodynamic model of transpiration. The FETCH2 model employs a finite difference numerical methodology and a simplified single-beam conduit system and simulates water flow through the tree as a continuum of porous media conduits. It explicitly resolves xylem water potential throughout the tree's vertical extent. Empirical equations relate water potential within the stem to stomatal conductance of the leaves at each height throughout the crown. While highly simplified, this approach brings additional realism to the simulation of transpiration by linking stomatal responses to stem water potential rather than directly to soil moisture, as is currently the case in the majority of land-surface models. FETCH2 accounts for plant hydraulic traits, such as the degree of anisohydric/isohydric response of stomata, maximal xylem conductivity, vertical distribution of leaf area, and maximal and minimal stemwater content. We used FETCH2 along with sap flow and eddy covariance data sets collected from a mixed plot of two genera (oak/pine) in Silas Little Experimental Forest, NJ, USA, to conduct an analysis of the inter-genera variation of hydraulic strategies and their effects on diurnal and seasonal transpiration dynamics. We define these strategies through the parameters that describe the genus-level transpiration and xylem conductivity responses to changes in stem water potential. A virtual experiment showed that the model was able to capture the effect of hydraulic strategies such as isohydric/anisohydric behavior on stomatal conductance under different soil-water availability conditions. Our evaluation revealed that FETCH2 considerably improved the simulation of ecosystem transpiration and latent heat flux than more conventional models.

  2. Tree level hydrodynamic approach for resolving aboveground water storage and stomatal conductance and modeling the effects of tree hydraulic strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirfenderesgi, Golnazalsadat; Bohrer, Gil; Matheny, Ashley M.; Fatichi, Simone; de Moraes Frasson, Renato Prata; Schäfer, Karina V. R.

    2016-07-01

    The finite difference ecosystem-scale tree crown hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) is a tree-scale hydrodynamic model of transpiration. The FETCH2 model employs a finite difference numerical methodology and a simplified single-beam conduit system to explicitly resolve xylem water potentials throughout the vertical extent of a tree. Empirical equations relate water potential within the stem to stomatal conductance of the leaves at each height throughout the crown. While highly simplified, this approach brings additional realism to the simulation of transpiration by linking stomatal responses to stem water potential rather than directly to soil moisture, as is currently the case in the majority of land surface models. FETCH2 accounts for plant hydraulic traits, such as the degree of anisohydric/isohydric response of stomata, maximal xylem conductivity, vertical distribution of leaf area, and maximal and minimal xylem water content. We used FETCH2 along with sap flow and eddy covariance data sets collected from a mixed plot of two genera (oak/pine) in Silas Little Experimental Forest, NJ, USA, to conduct an analysis of the intergeneric variation of hydraulic strategies and their effects on diurnal and seasonal transpiration dynamics. We define these strategies through the parameters that describe the genus level transpiration and xylem conductivity responses to changes in stem water potential. Our evaluation revealed that FETCH2 considerably improved the simulation of ecosystem transpiration and latent heat flux in comparison to more conventional models. A virtual experiment showed that the model was able to capture the effect of hydraulic strategies such as isohydric/anisohydric behavior on stomatal conductance under different soil-water availability conditions.

  3. Tree level hydrodynamic approach for resolving aboveground water storage and stomatal conductance and modeling the effects of tree hydraulic strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Mirfenderesgi, Golnazalsadat; Bohrer, Gil; Matheny, Ashley M.

    The finite difference ecosystem-scale tree crown hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) is a tree-scale hydrodynamic model of transpiration. The FETCH2 model employs a finite difference numerical methodology and a simplified single-beam conduit system to explicitly resolve xylem water potentials throughout the vertical extent of a tree. Empirical equations relate water potential within the stem to stomatal conductance of the leaves at each height throughout the crown. While highly simplified, this approach brings additional realism to the simulation of transpiration by linking stomatal responses to stem water potential rather than directly to soil moisture, as is currently the case in themore » majority of land surface models. FETCH2 accounts for plant hydraulic traits, such as the degree of anisohydric/isohydric response of stomata, maximal xylem conductivity, vertical distribution of leaf area, and maximal and minimal xylem water content. We used FETCH2 along with sap flow and eddy covariance data sets collected from a mixed plot of two genera (oak/pine) in Silas Little Experimental Forest, NJ, USA, to conduct an analysis of the intergeneric variation of hydraulic strategies and their effects on diurnal and seasonal transpiration dynamics. We define these strategies through the parameters that describe the genus level transpiration and xylem conductivity responses to changes in stem water potential. Here, our evaluation revealed that FETCH2 considerably improved the simulation of ecosystem transpiration and latent heat flux in comparison to more conventional models. In conclusion, a virtual experiment showed that the model was able to capture the effect of hydraulic strategies such as isohydric/anisohydric behavior on stomatal conductance under different soil-water availability conditions.« less

  4. Tree level hydrodynamic approach for resolving aboveground water storage and stomatal conductance and modeling the effects of tree hydraulic strategy

    DOE PAGES

    Mirfenderesgi, Golnazalsadat; Bohrer, Gil; Matheny, Ashley M.; ...

    2016-06-21

    The finite difference ecosystem-scale tree crown hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) is a tree-scale hydrodynamic model of transpiration. The FETCH2 model employs a finite difference numerical methodology and a simplified single-beam conduit system to explicitly resolve xylem water potentials throughout the vertical extent of a tree. Empirical equations relate water potential within the stem to stomatal conductance of the leaves at each height throughout the crown. While highly simplified, this approach brings additional realism to the simulation of transpiration by linking stomatal responses to stem water potential rather than directly to soil moisture, as is currently the case in themore » majority of land surface models. FETCH2 accounts for plant hydraulic traits, such as the degree of anisohydric/isohydric response of stomata, maximal xylem conductivity, vertical distribution of leaf area, and maximal and minimal xylem water content. We used FETCH2 along with sap flow and eddy covariance data sets collected from a mixed plot of two genera (oak/pine) in Silas Little Experimental Forest, NJ, USA, to conduct an analysis of the intergeneric variation of hydraulic strategies and their effects on diurnal and seasonal transpiration dynamics. We define these strategies through the parameters that describe the genus level transpiration and xylem conductivity responses to changes in stem water potential. Here, our evaluation revealed that FETCH2 considerably improved the simulation of ecosystem transpiration and latent heat flux in comparison to more conventional models. In conclusion, a virtual experiment showed that the model was able to capture the effect of hydraulic strategies such as isohydric/anisohydric behavior on stomatal conductance under different soil-water availability conditions.« less

  5. Diesel oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... oil is a heavy oil used in diesel engines. Diesel oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows diesel ... people trying to suck (siphon) gas from an automobile tank using their mouth and a garden hose ( ...

  6. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  7. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands.

  8. Potential aboveground biomass in drought-prone forest used for rangeland pastoralism.

    PubMed

    Fensham, R J; Fairfax, R J; Dwyer, J M

    2012-04-01

    The restoration of cleared dry forest represents an important opportunity to sequester atmospheric carbon. In order to account for this potential, the influences of climate, soils, and disturbance need to be deciphered. A data set spanning a region defined the aboveground biomass of mulga (Acacia aneura) dry forest and was analyzed in relation to climate and soil variables using a Bayesian model averaging procedure. Mean annual rainfall had an overwhelmingly strong positive effect, with mean maximum temperature (negative) and soil depth (positive) also important. The data were collected after a recent drought, and the amount of recent tree mortality was weakly positively related to a measure of three-year rainfall deficit, and maximum temperature (positive), soil depth (negative), and coarse sand (negative). A grazing index represented by the distance of sites to watering points was not incorporated by the models. Stark management contrasts, including grazing exclosures, can represent a substantial part of the variance in the model predicting biomass, but the impact of management was unpredictable and was insignificant in the regional data set. There was no evidence of density-dependent effects on tree mortality. Climate change scenarios represented by the coincidence of historical extreme rainfall deficit with extreme temperature suggest mortality of 30.1% of aboveground biomass, compared to 21.6% after the recent (2003-2007) drought. Projections for recovery of forest using a mapping base of cleared areas revealed that the greatest opportunities for restoration of aboveground biomass are in the higher-rainfall areas, where biomass accumulation will be greatest and droughts are less intense. These areas are probably the most productive for rangeland pastoralism, and the trade-off between pastoral production and carbon sequestration will be determined by market forces and carbon-trading rules.

  9. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands.

    PubMed

    Risch, Anita C; Schotz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Busse, Matt D; Page-dumroese, Deborah S; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore species or guilds. We assessed how a diverse herbivore community affects net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands. By using size-selective fences, we progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals, as well as invertebrates from two vegetation types, and assessed how the exclosure types (ET) affected net N mineralization. The two vegetation types differed in long-term management (centuries), forage quality, and grazing history and intensity. To gain a more mechanistic understanding of how herbivores affect net N mineralization, we linked mineralization to soil abiotic (temperature; moisture; NO3-, NH4+, and total inorganic N concentrations/pools; C, N, P concentrations; pH; bulk density), soil biotic (microbial biomass; abundance of collembolans, mites, and nematodes) and plant (shoot and root biomass; consumption; plant C, N, and fiber content; plant N pool) properties. Net N mineralization differed between ET, but not between vegetation types. Thus, short-term changes in herbivore community composition and, therefore, in grazing intensity had a stronger effect on net N mineralization than long-term management and grazing history. We found highest N mineralization values when only invertebrates were present, suggesting that mammals had a negative effect on net N mineralization. Of the variables included in our analyses, only mite abundance and aboveground plant biomass explained variation in net N mineralization among ET. Abundances of both mites and leaf-sucking invertebrates were positively correlated with aboveground plant biomass, and biomass increased with progressive exclusion

  10. Nighttime aboveground movements by prairie dogs on colonies inhabited by black-footed ferrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David A.; Chipault, Jennifer G.; Biggins, Dean E.; Livieri, Travis M.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

    2010-01-01

    We describe observations of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) emerging aboveground at night, apparently in response to wild-born and captive-born black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) in South Dakota and New Mexico, respectively. We also discuss other similar observations accumulated on black-tailed prairie dog colonies as well as observations of white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) making nighttime movements, apparently in response to pre-reintroduction ferrets in Wyoming. Our observations suggest that, in addition to documented daytime defenses against ferrets, prairie dogs reduce vulnerability to predation by ferrets by using evasive movements at night.

  11. Oil body biogenesis during Brassica napus embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Qing; Wu, Yan

    2009-08-01

    Although the oil body is known to be an important membrane enclosed compartment for oil storage in seeds, we have little understanding about its biogenesis during embryogenesis. In the present study we investigated the oil body emergence and variations in Brassica napus cv. Topas. The results demonstrate that the oil bodies could be detected already at the heart stage, at the same time as the embryos began to turn green, and the starch grains accumulated in the chloroplast stroma. In comparison, we have studied the development of oil bodies between Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col) and the low-seed-oil mutant wrinkled1-3. We observed that the oil body development in the embryos of Col is similar to that of B. napus cv. Topas, and that the size of the oil bodies was obviously smaller in the embryos of wrinkled1-3. Our results suggest that the oil body biogenesis might be coupled with the embryo chloroplast.

  12. Shoreline oiling effects and recovery of salt marsh macroinvertebrates from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Deis, Donald R; Fleeger, John W; Bourgoin, Stefan M; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Lin, Qianxin; Hou, Aixin

    2017-01-01

    Salt marshes in northern Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA were oiled, sometimes heavily, in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Previous studies indicate that fiddler crabs (in the genus Uca ) and the salt marsh periwinkle ( Littoraria irrorata) were negatively impacted in the short term by the spill. Here, we detail longer-term effects and recovery from moderate and heavy oiling over a 3-year span, beginning 30 months after the spill. Although neither fiddler crab burrow density nor diameter differed between oiled and reference sites when combined across all sampling events, these traits differed among some individual sampling periods consistent with a pattern of lingering oiling impacts. Periwinkle density, however, increased in all oiling categories and shell-length groups during our sampling period, and periwinkle densities were consistently highest at moderately oiled sites where Spartina alterniflora aboveground biomass was highest. Periwinkle shell length linearly increased from a mean of 16.5 to 19.2 mm over the study period at reference sites. In contrast, shell lengths at moderately oiled and heavily oiled sites increased through month 48 after the spill, but then decreased. This decrease was associated with a decline in the relative abundance of large adults (shell length 21-26 mm) at oiled sites which was likely caused by chronic hydrocarbon toxicity or oil-induced effects on habitat quality or food resources. Overall, the recovery of S. alterniflora facilitated the recovery of fiddler crabs and periwinkles. However, our long-term record not only indicates that variation in periwinkle mean shell length and length-frequency distributions are sensitive indicators of the health and recovery of the marsh, but agrees with synoptic studies of vegetation and infaunal communities that full recovery of heavily oiled sites will take longer than 66 months.

  13. Shoreline oiling effects and recovery of salt marsh macroinvertebrates from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Fleeger, John W.; Bourgoin, Stefan M.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.; Lin, Qianxin; Hou, Aixin

    2017-01-01

    Salt marshes in northern Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA were oiled, sometimes heavily, in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Previous studies indicate that fiddler crabs (in the genus Uca) and the salt marsh periwinkle (Littoraria irrorata) were negatively impacted in the short term by the spill. Here, we detail longer-term effects and recovery from moderate and heavy oiling over a 3-year span, beginning 30 months after the spill. Although neither fiddler crab burrow density nor diameter differed between oiled and reference sites when combined across all sampling events, these traits differed among some individual sampling periods consistent with a pattern of lingering oiling impacts. Periwinkle density, however, increased in all oiling categories and shell-length groups during our sampling period, and periwinkle densities were consistently highest at moderately oiled sites where Spartina alterniflora aboveground biomass was highest. Periwinkle shell length linearly increased from a mean of 16.5 to 19.2 mm over the study period at reference sites. In contrast, shell lengths at moderately oiled and heavily oiled sites increased through month 48 after the spill, but then decreased. This decrease was associated with a decline in the relative abundance of large adults (shell length 21–26 mm) at oiled sites which was likely caused by chronic hydrocarbon toxicity or oil-induced effects on habitat quality or food resources. Overall, the recovery of S. alterniflora facilitated the recovery of fiddler crabs and periwinkles. However, our long-term record not only indicates that variation in periwinkle mean shell length and length-frequency distributions are sensitive indicators of the health and recovery of the marsh, but agrees with synoptic studies of vegetation and infaunal communities that full recovery of heavily oiled sites will take longer than 66 months. PMID:28828273

  14. Model analysis of grazing effect on above-ground biomass and above-ground net primary production of a Mongolian grassland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Lee, Gilzae; Lee, Pilzae; Oikawa, Takehisa

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the productivity of a grassland ecosystem in Kherlenbayan-Ulaan (KBU), Mongolia under non-grazing and grazing conditions using a new simulation model, Sim-CYCLE grazing. The model was obtained by integrating the Sim-CYCLE [Ito, A., Oikawa, T., 2002. A simulation model of carbon cycle in land ecosystems (Sim-CYCLE): a description based on dry-matter production theory and plot-scale validation. Ecological Modeling, 151, pp. 143-176] and a defoliation formulation [Seligman, N.G., Cavagnaro, J.B., Horno, M.E., 1992. Simulation of defoliation effects on primary production of warm-season, semiarid perennial- species grassland. Ecological Modelling, 60, pp. 45-61]. The results from the model have been validated against a set of field data obtained at KBU showing that both above-ground biomass (AB) and above-ground net primary production ( Np,a) decrease with increasing grazing intensity. The simulated maximum AB for a year maintains a nearly constant value of 1.15 Mg DM ha -1 under non-grazing conditions. The AB decreases and then reaches equilibrium under a stocking rate ( Sr) of 0.4 sheep ha -1 and 0.7 sheep ha -1. The AB decreases all the time if Sr is greater than 0.7 sheep ha -1. These results suggest that the maximum sustainable Sr is 0.7 sheep ha -1. A similar trend is also observed for the simulated Np,a. The annual Np,a is about 1.25 Mg DM ha -1 year -1 and this value is also constant under non-grazing conditions. The annual Np,a decreases and then reaches equilibrium under an Sr of 0.4 sheep ha -1 and 0.7 sheep ha -1, but the Np,a decreases all the time when Sr is greater than 0.7 sheep ha -1. It also indicates that the maximum sustainable Sr is 0.7 sheep ha -1. Transpiration ( ET) and evaporation ( EE) rates were determined by the Penman-Monteith method. Simulated results show that ET decreases with increasing Sr, while EE increases with increasing Sr. At equilibrium, the annual mean evapotranspiration ( E) is 189.11 mm year -1

  15. Persisting responses of salt marsh fungal communities to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Lumibao, Candice Y; Formel, Stephen; Elango, Vijaikrishnah; Pardue, John H; Blum, Michael; Van Bael, Sunshine A

    2018-06-18

    The plant microbiome, composed of diverse interacting microorganisms, is thought to undergird host integrity and well-being. Though it is well understood that environmental perturbations like oil pollution can alter the diversity and composition of microbiomes, remarkably little is known about how disturbance alters plant-fungal associations. Using Next-Generation sequencing of the 18S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region, we examined outcomes of enduring oil exposure on aboveground leaf and belowground endophytic root and rhizosphere fungal communities of Spartina alterniflora, a highly valued ecosystem engineer in southeastern Louisiana marshes affected by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon accident. We found that aboveground foliar fungal communities exhibited site-dependent compositional turnover with consequent loss in diversity according to oiling history. Rhizosphere soil communities also exhibited shifts in community composition associated with oiling history, whereas root endophytic communities did not. Oiling did not increase or decrease similarities among aboveground and belowground communities within an individual host, indicating that host plant characteristics exert stronger control than external factors on fungal community composition. These results show that fungal community responses to oiling vary within tissues of the same host plant, and that differences in the local environment, or alternatively, site-specific differences in residual oil constrain the magnitude of exposure responses. Our study offers novel perspectives on how environmental contaminants and perturbations can influence plant microbiomes, highlighting the importance of assessing long-term ecological outcomes of oil pollution to better understand how shifts in microbial communities influence plant performance and ecosystem function. Our findings are relevant to coastal management programs tasked with responding to oil spills and increasing pressures arising from intensifying

  16. Long-term simulations of forest management impacts on carbon storage from loblolly pine plantations in the Southern U.S.

    Treesearch

    Huei-Jin Wang; Philip J. Radtke; Stephen P. Prisley

    2012-01-01

    Accounting for forest components in carbon accounting systems may be insufficient when substantial amounts of sequestered carbon are harvested and converted to wood products in use and in landfill. The potential of forest offset – in-woods aboveground carbon storage, carbon stored in harvested wood, and energy offset by burning harvested wood – from loblolly pine...

  17. Plant Diversity Impacts Decomposition and Herbivory via Changes in Aboveground Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Anne; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Abbas, Maike; Eisenhauer, Nico; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lange, Markus; Scherber, Christoph; Vogel, Anja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of plant diversity influences essential ecosystem processes as aboveground productivity, and can have cascading effects on the arthropod communities in adjacent trophic levels. However, few studies have examined how those changes in arthropod communities can have additional impacts on ecosystem processes caused by them (e.g. pollination, bioturbation, predation, decomposition, herbivory). Therefore, including arthropod effects in predictions of the impact of plant diversity loss on such ecosystem processes is an important but little studied piece of information. In a grassland biodiversity experiment, we addressed this gap by assessing aboveground decomposer and herbivore communities and linking their abundance and diversity to rates of decomposition and herbivory. Path analyses showed that increasing plant diversity led to higher abundance and diversity of decomposing arthropods through higher plant biomass. Higher species richness of decomposers, in turn, enhanced decomposition. Similarly, species-rich plant communities hosted a higher abundance and diversity of herbivores through elevated plant biomass and C:N ratio, leading to higher herbivory rates. Integrating trophic interactions into the study of biodiversity effects is required to understand the multiple pathways by which biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning. PMID:25226237

  18. Linking belowground and aboveground phenology in two boreal forests in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Du, Enzai; Fang, Jingyun

    2014-11-01

    The functional equilibrium between roots and shoots suggests an intrinsic linkage between belowground and aboveground phenology. However, much less understanding of belowground phenology hinders integrating belowground and aboveground phenology. We measured root respiration (Ra) as a surrogate for root phenology and integrated it with observed leaf phenology and radial growth in a birch (Betula platyphylla)-aspen (Populus davidiana) forest and an adjacent larch (Larix gmelinii) forest in Northeast China. A log-normal model successfully described the seasonal variations of Ra and indicated the initiation, termination and peak date of root phenology. Both root phenology and leaf phenology were highly specific, with a later onset, earlier termination, and shorter period of growing season for the pioneer tree species (birch and aspen) than the dominant tree species (larch). Root phenology showed later initiation, later peak and later termination dates than leaf phenology. An asynchronous correlation of Ra and radial growth was identified with a time lag of approximately 1 month, indicating aprioritization of shoot growth. Furthermore, we found that Ra was strongly correlated with soil temperature and air temperature, while radial growth was only significantly correlated with air temperature, implying a down-regulating effect of temperature. Our results indicate different phenologies between pioneer and dominant species and support a down-regulation hypothesis of plant phenology which can be helpful in understanding forest dynamics in the context of climate change.

  19. An analysis of using entomopathogenic nematodes against above-ground pests.

    PubMed

    Arthurs, S; Heinz, K M; Prasifka, J R

    2004-08-01

    Applications of entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae have traditionally been targeted against soil insects. Nonetheless, research over the last two decades highlights the potential of such agents against above-ground pests under certain circumstances. A general linear model was used to test for patterns in efficacy among 136 published trials with Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, the most common species applied against foliar and other above-ground pests. The focus was on field and greenhouse assessments, rather than laboratory assays where relevant ecological barriers to infection are typically removed. The model showed differences in nematode treatment efficacy depending on the pests' target habitat (bore holes > cryptic foliage > exposed foliage) and trial location (greenhouse > field studies). Relative humidity and temperature during and up to 8 h post-application were also predicted to influence rates of nematode infection obtained. Conversely, spray adjuvants (both wetting agents and anti-desiccants) and nematode dosage applied (both concentration and use of consecutive applications 3-4 days apart) did not explain a significant amount of variance in nematode performance. With reference to case studies the model is used to discuss the relative importance of different factors on nematode efficacy and highlight priorities for workers considering using entomopathogenic nematodes to target pests in novel environments.

  20. Study on forest above-ground biomass synergy inversion from GLAS and HJ-1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhou; Cao, Chunxiang; Ji, Wei; Xu, Min; Chen, Wei

    2012-10-01

    The need exists to develop a systematic approach to inventory and monitor global forests, both for carbon stock evaluation and for land use change analysis. The use of freely available satellite-based data for carbon stock estimation mitigates both the cost and the spatial limitations of field-based techniques. Spaceborne lidar data have been demonstrated as useful for forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation over a wide range of biomass values and forest types. However, the application of these data is limited because of their spatially discrete nature. Spaceborne multispectral sensors have been used extensively to estimate AGB, but these methods have been demonstrated as inappropriate for forest structure characterization in high-biomass mature forests. This study uses an integration of ICESat Geospatial Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) lidar and HJ-1 satellites data to develop methods to estimate AGB in an area of Qilian Mountains, Northwest China. Considering the study area belongs to mountainous terrain, the difficulties of this article are how to extract canopy height from GLAS waveform metrics. Combining with HJ-1 data and ground survey data of the study area, we establish forest biomass estimation model for the GLAS data based on BP neural network model. In order to estimate AGB, the training sample data includes the canopy height extracted from GLAS, LAI, vegetation coverage and several kinds of vegetation indices from HJ-1 data. The results of forest aboveground biomass are very close to the fields measured results, and are consistent with land cover data in the spatial distribution.

  1. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial α-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial α-diversity is not always linked to high plant α-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial β-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession. PMID:26184121

  2. Aboveground Tree Growth Varies with Belowground Carbon Allocation in a Tropical Rainforest Environment

    PubMed Central

    Raich, James W.; Clark, Deborah A.; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Wood, Tana E.

    2014-01-01

    Young secondary forests and plantations in the moist tropics often have rapid rates of biomass accumulation and thus sequester large amounts of carbon. Here, we compare results from mature forest and nearby 15–20 year old tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica to evaluate differences in allocation of carbon to aboveground production and root systems. We found that the tree plantations, which had fully developed, closed canopies, allocated more carbon belowground - to their root systems - than did mature forest. This increase in belowground carbon allocation correlated significantly with aboveground tree growth but not with canopy production (i.e., leaf fall or fine litter production). In contrast, there were no correlations between canopy production and either tree growth or belowground carbon allocation. Enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can enhance plant nutrient uptake, providing nutrients beyond those required for the production of short-lived tissues such as leaves and fine roots, and thus enabling biomass accumulation. Our analyses support this deduction at our site, showing that enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can be an important mechanism promoting biomass accumulation during forest growth in the moist tropics. Identifying factors that control when, where and for how long this occurs would help us to improve models of forest growth and nutrient cycling, and to ascertain the role that young forests play in mitigating increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. PMID:24945351

  3. Conventional tree height-diameter relationships significantly overestimate aboveground carbon stocks in the Central Congo Basin.

    PubMed

    Kearsley, Elizabeth; de Haulleville, Thales; Hufkens, Koen; Kidimbu, Alidé; Toirambe, Benjamin; Baert, Geert; Huygens, Dries; Kebede, Yodit; Defourny, Pierre; Bogaert, Jan; Beeckman, Hans; Steppe, Kathy; Boeckx, Pascal; Verbeeck, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Policies to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation largely depend on accurate estimates of tropical forest carbon stocks. Here we present the first field-based carbon stock data for the Central Congo Basin in Yangambi, Democratic Republic of Congo. We find an average aboveground carbon stock of 162 ± 20  Mg  C  ha(-1) for intact old-growth forest, which is significantly lower than stocks recorded in the outer regions of the Congo Basin. The best available tree height-diameter relationships derived for Central Africa do not render accurate canopy height estimates for our study area. Aboveground carbon stocks would be overestimated by 24% if these inaccurate relationships were used. The studied forests have a lower stature compared with forests in the outer regions of the basin, which confirms remotely sensed patterns. Additionally, we find an average soil carbon stock of 111 ± 24  Mg  C  ha(-1), slightly influenced by the current land-use change.

  4. MS-Based Metabolite Profiling of Aboveground and Root Components of Zingiber mioga and Officinale.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji Soo; Lee, Sunmin; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-09-03

    Zingiber species are members of the Zingiberaceae family, and are widely used for medicinal and food purposes. In this study aboveground and root parts of Zingiber mioga and Zingiber officinale were subjected to metabolite profiling by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) in order to characterize them by species and parts and also to measure bioactivities. Both primary and secondary metabolites showed clear discrimination in the PCA score plot and PLS-DA by species and parts. Tetrahydrocurcumin, diarylheptanoid, 8-gingerol, and 8-paradol were discriminating metabolites between Z. mioga and Z. officinale that were present in different quantities. Eleven flavonoids, six amino acids, six organic acids, four fatty acids, and gingerenone A were higher in the aboveground parts than the root parts. Antioxidant activities were measured and were highest in the root part of Z. officinale. The relatively high contents of tetrahydrocurcumin, diarylheptanoid, and galanganol C in the root part of Z. officinale showed highly positive correlation with bioactivities based on correlation assay. On the basis of these results, we can suggest different usages of structurally different parts of Zingiber species as food plants.

  5. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  6. Bulk Fuel Storage Facility Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Potential DESC Fuel Depot Locations............................................2-7 Figure 2-5: Proposed Action Area Soils Map ... Area (FSA) #4, as the location is required to provide secure office space. 4) Maintain fuel operations in compliance with federal, state, and local...at the CCAFS fueling station(s) to Aboveground Storage Tanks (ASTs). Six alternative sites (five locations in the CCAFS Industrial Area and one

  7. Time resolved thermal lens in edible oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, T. A. S.; Pedreira, P. R. B.; Medina, A. N.; Pereira, J. R. D.; Bento, A. C.; Baesso, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    In this work time resolved thermal lens spectrometry is applied to investigate the optical properties of the following edible oils: soya, sunflower, canola, and corn oils. The experiments were performed at room temperature using the mode mismatched thermal lens configuration. The results showed that when the time resolved procedure is adopted the technique can be applied to investigate the photosensitivity of edible oils. Soya oil presented a stronger photochemical reaction as compared to the other investigated samples. This observation may be relevant for future studies evaluating edible oils storage conditions and also may contribute to a better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of this important foodstuff.

  8. Urban Land Use Change Effects on Below and Aboveground Carbon Stocks—a Global Perspective and Future Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouyat, R. V.; Chen, Y.; Yesilonis, I.; Day, S.

    2014-12-01

    Land use change (LUC) has a significant impact on both above- and below-ground carbon (C) stocks; however, little is known about the net effects of urban LUC on the C cycle and climate system. Moreover, as climate change becomes an increasingly pressing concern, there is growing evidence that urban policy and management decisions can have significant regional impacts on C dynamics. Soil organic carbon (SOC) varies significantly across ecoregions at global and continental scales due to differential sensitivity of primary production, substrate quality, and organic matter decay to changes in temperature and soil moisture. These factors are highly modified by urban LUC due to vegetation removal, soil relocation and disruption, pollution, urban heat island effects, and increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. As a result, on a global scale urban LUC differentially affects the C cycle from ecoregion to ecoregion. For urban ecosystems, the data collected thus far suggests urbanization can lead to both an increase and decrease in soil C pools and fluxes, depending on the native ecosystem being impacted by urban development. For example, in drier climates, urban landscapes accumulate higher C densities than the native ecosystems they replaced. Results suggest also that soil C storage in urban ecosystems is highly variable with very high (> 20.0) and low (< 2.0) C densities (kg m-2 to a 1 m depth) present in the landscape at any one time. Moreover, similar to non-urban soils, total SOC densities are consistently 2-fold greater than aboveground stocks. For those soils with low SOC densities, there is potential to increase C sequestration through management, but specific urban related management practices need to be evaluated. In addition, urban LUC is a human-driven process and thus can be modified or adjusted to reduce its impacts on the C cycle. For example, policies that influence development patterns, population density, management practices, and other human factors can

  9. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Kai; Yuan, Mengting M.; Xie, Jianping

    Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. Withmore » less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened. IMPORTANCE Global change involves simultaneous alterations, including those caused by climate warming and land management practices (e.g., clipping). Data on the

  10. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Kai; Yuan, Mengting M.; Xie, Jianping; ...

    2016-09-27

    Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. Withmore » less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened. IMPORTANCE Global change involves simultaneous alterations, including those caused by climate warming and land management practices (e.g., clipping). Data on the

  11. Continuous monitoring of a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps by above-ground neutron sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattan, Paul; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.; Schöber, Johannes; Fey, Christine; Francke, Till; Huttenlau, Matthias; Achleitner, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    In alpine catchments the knowledge of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous dynamics of snow accumulation and depletion is crucial for modelling and managing water resources. While snow covered area can be retrieved operationally from remote sensing data, continuous measurements of other snow state variables like snow depth (SD) or snow water equivalent (SWE) remain challenging. Existing methods of retrieving both variables in alpine terrain face severe issues like a lack of spatial representativeness, labour-intensity or discontinuity in time. Recently, promising new measurement techniques combining a larger support with low maintenance cost like above-ground gamma-ray scintillators, GPS interferometric reflectometry or above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) have been suggested. While CRNS has proven its potential for monitoring soil moisture in a wide range of environments and applications, the empirical knowledge of using CRNS for snowpack monitoring is still very limited and restricted to shallow snowpacks with rather uniform evolution. The characteristics of an above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensor (CRNS) were therefore evaluated for monitoring a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps (Kaunertal, Tyrol) during three winter seasons. The measurement campaign included a number of measurements during the period from 03/2014 to 06/2016: (i) neutron count measurements by CRNS, (ii) continuous point-scale SD and SWE measurements from an automatic weather station and (iii) 17 Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) with simultaneous SD and SWE surveys. The highest accumulation in terms of SWE was found in 04/2014 with 600 mm. Neutron counts were compared to all available snow data. While previous studies suggested a signal saturation at around 100 mm of SWE, no complete signal saturation was found. A strong non-linear relation was found for both SD and SWE with best fits for spatially distributed TLS based snow data. Initially slightly different shapes were

  12. 75 FR 78986 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ..., East Cheyenne planned to do enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of petroleum reserves remaining in the storage... primarily involves redeveloping a number of existing oil production wells in the West Peetz and Lewis Creek... of construction and operation of a natural gas storage facility in two nearly depleted oil production...

  13. Assimilating satellite-based canopy height within an ecosystem model to estimate aboveground forest biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joetzjer, E.; Pillet, M.; Ciais, P.; Barbier, N.; Chave, J.; Schlund, M.; Maignan, F.; Barichivich, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Hérault, B.; von Poncet, F.; Poulter, B.

    2017-07-01

    Despite advances in Earth observation and modeling, estimating tropical biomass remains a challenge. Recent work suggests that integrating satellite measurements of canopy height within ecosystem models is a promising approach to infer biomass. We tested the feasibility of this approach to retrieve aboveground biomass (AGB) at three tropical forest sites by assimilating remotely sensed canopy height derived from a texture analysis algorithm applied to the high-resolution Pleiades imager in the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems Canopy (ORCHIDEE-CAN) ecosystem model. While mean AGB could be estimated within 10% of AGB derived from census data in average across sites, canopy height derived from Pleiades product was spatially too smooth, thus unable to accurately resolve large height (and biomass) variations within the site considered. The error budget was evaluated in details, and systematic errors related to the ORCHIDEE-CAN structure contribute as a secondary source of error and could be overcome by using improved allometric equations.

  14. Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation in the Greater Mekong, Subregion and Russian Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yong; Li, Zengyuan; Sun, Gouqing; Zhang, Zhiyu; Schmullius, Christiane; Meng, Shili; Ma, Zhenyu; Lu, Hao; Li, Shiming; Liu, Qingwang; Bai, Lina; Tian, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Forests play a vital role in sustainable development and provide a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. We summarized works in forest aboveground biomass estimation in Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and Russian Siberia (RuS). Both regions are rich in forest resources. These mapping and estimation works were based on multiple-source remote sensing data and some field measurements. Biomass maps were generated at 500 m and 30 m pixel size for RuS and GMS respectively. With the available of the 2015 PALSAR-2 mosaic at 25 m spacing, Sentinel-2 data at 20 m, we will work on the biomass mapping and dynamic study at higher spatial resolution.

  15. Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on aboveground measurements of gain and loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccini, A.; Walker, W.; Carvalho, L.; Farina, M.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Houghton, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    The carbon balance of tropical ecosystems remains uncertain, with top-down atmospheric studies suggesting an overall sink and bottom-up ecological approaches indicating a modest net source. Here we use 12 years (2003 to 2014) of MODIS pantropical satellite data to quantify net annual changes in the aboveground carbon density of tropical woody live vegetation, providing direct, measurement-based evidence that the world’s tropical forests are a net carbon source of 425.2 ± 92.0 teragrams of carbon per year (Tg C year-1). This net release of carbon consists of losses of 861.7 ± 80.2 Tg C year-1 and gains of 436.5 ± 31.0 Tg C year-1. Gains result from forest growth; losses result from deforestation and from reductions in carbon density within standing forests (degradation or disturbance), with the latter accounting for 68.9% of overall losses.

  16. Effects on soils from hot storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K. C.

    1982-02-01

    Behavioral characteristics of foundation soils for hot storage tanks were investigated on two soil models representative of the soils in the Continental U.S. The changes in the engineering properties of the foundation soils due to heating and the effects of four storage media liquids; hydrocarbon oil, silicon oil, molten nitrate salt and liquid sodium into the foundation were investigated. The remedial measures such as soil preconditioning to alleviate the detrimental effects of the heat on soils are presented and the areas for further research are delineated.

  17. Oil-in-Ice Demonstration 4: Quick Look Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    infrastructure, increase the potential for accidental discharges of oil . To address these concerns, responders in the northern climate regions are...It is suggested that improvements to the new equipment can be used on a buoy tender in Alaska for an oil spill response in the Bering Straits or off...to be simplified for better storage in the ship’s hold, easy assembly and deployment. Suggestions such as using the hold for oil storage may be

  18. Plant diversity enhances productivity and soil carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiping; Wang, Wantong; Xu, Wenting; Wang, Yang; Wan, Hongwei; Chen, Dima; Tang, Zhiyao; Tang, Xuli; Zhou, Guoyi; Xie, Zongqiang; Zhou, Daowei; Shangguan, Zhouping; Huang, Jianhui; He, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Yanfen; Sheng, Jiandong; Tang, Lisong; Li, Xinrong; Dong, Ming; Wu, Yan; Wang, Qiufeng; Wang, Zhiheng; Wu, Jianguo; Chapin, F Stuart; Bai, Yongfei

    2018-04-17

    Despite evidence from experimental grasslands that plant diversity increases biomass production and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage, it remains unclear whether this is true in natural ecosystems, especially under climatic variations and human disturbances. Based on field observations from 6,098 forest, shrubland, and grassland sites across China and predictions from an integrative model combining multiple theories, we systematically examined the direct effects of climate, soils, and human impacts on SOC storage versus the indirect effects mediated by species richness (SR), aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and belowground biomass (BB). We found that favorable climates (high temperature and precipitation) had a consistent negative effect on SOC storage in forests and shrublands, but not in grasslands. Climate favorability, particularly high precipitation, was associated with both higher SR and higher BB, which had consistent positive effects on SOC storage, thus offsetting the direct negative effect of favorable climate on SOC. The indirect effects of climate on SOC storage depended on the relationships of SR with ANPP and BB, which were consistently positive in all biome types. In addition, human disturbance and soil pH had both direct and indirect effects on SOC storage, with the indirect effects mediated by changes in SR, ANPP, and BB. High soil pH had a consistently negative effect on SOC storage. Our findings have important implications for improving global carbon cycling models and ecosystem management: Maintaining high levels of diversity can enhance soil carbon sequestration and help sustain the benefits of plant diversity and productivity.

  19. Plant diversity enhances productivity and soil carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shiping; Wang, Wantong; Xu, Wenting; Wang, Yang; Wan, Hongwei; Tang, Xuli; Zhou, Guoyi; Xie, Zongqiang; Zhou, Daowei; Shangguan, Zhouping; Huang, Jianhui; Wang, Yanfen; Sheng, Jiandong; Tang, Lisong; Li, Xinrong; Dong, Ming; Wu, Yan; Wang, Qiufeng; Wu, Jianguo; Chapin, F. Stuart; Bai, Yongfei

    2018-01-01

    Despite evidence from experimental grasslands that plant diversity increases biomass production and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage, it remains unclear whether this is true in natural ecosystems, especially under climatic variations and human disturbances. Based on field observations from 6,098 forest, shrubland, and grassland sites across China and predictions from an integrative model combining multiple theories, we systematically examined the direct effects of climate, soils, and human impacts on SOC storage versus the indirect effects mediated by species richness (SR), aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and belowground biomass (BB). We found that favorable climates (high temperature and precipitation) had a consistent negative effect on SOC storage in forests and shrublands, but not in grasslands. Climate favorability, particularly high precipitation, was associated with both higher SR and higher BB, which had consistent positive effects on SOC storage, thus offsetting the direct negative effect of favorable climate on SOC. The indirect effects of climate on SOC storage depended on the relationships of SR with ANPP and BB, which were consistently positive in all biome types. In addition, human disturbance and soil pH had both direct and indirect effects on SOC storage, with the indirect effects mediated by changes in SR, ANPP, and BB. High soil pH had a consistently negative effect on SOC storage. Our findings have important implications for improving global carbon cycling models and ecosystem management: Maintaining high levels of diversity can enhance soil carbon sequestration and help sustain the benefits of plant diversity and productivity. PMID:29666315

  20. Estimating Forest Canopy Heights and Aboveground Biomass with Simulated ICESat-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malambo, L.; Narine, L.; Popescu, S. C.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Sheridan, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) 2 is scheduled for launch in 2017 and one of its overall science objectives will be to measure vegetation heights, which can be used to estimate and monitor aboveground biomass (AGB) over large spatial scales. This study serves to develop a methodology for utilizing vegetation data collected by ICESat-2 that will be on a five-year mission from 2017, for mapping forest canopy heights and estimating aboveground forest biomass (AGB). The specific objectives are to, (1) simulate ICESat-2 photon-counting lidar (PCL) data, (2) utilize simulated PCL data to estimate forest canopy heights and propose a methodology for upscaling PCL height measurements to obtain spatially contiguous coverage and, (3) estimate and map AGB using simulated PCL data. The laser pulse from ICESat-2 will be divided into three pairs of beams spaced approximately 3 km apart, with footprints measuring approximately 14 m in diameter and with 70 cm along-track intervals. Using existing airborne lidar data (ALS) for Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) and known ICESat-2 beam locations, footprints are generated along beam locations and PCL data are then simulated from discrete return lidar points within each footprint. By applying data processing algorithms, photons are classified into top of canopy points and ground surface elevation points to yield tree canopy height values within each ICESat-2 footprint. AGB is then estimated using simple linear regression that utilizes AGB from a biomass map generated with ALS data for SHNF and simulated PCL height metrics for 100 m segments along ICESat-2 tracks. Two approaches also investigated for upscaling AGB estimates to provide wall-to-wall coverage of AGB are (1) co-kriging and (2) Random Forest. Height and AGB maps, which are the outcomes of this study, will demonstrate how data acquired by ICESat-2 can be used to measure forest parameters and in extension, estimate forest carbon for climate change

  1. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Kai; Yuan, Mengting M.; Xie, Jianping; Li, Dejun; Qin, Yujia; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened. PMID:27677789

  2. Elk browsing increases aboveground growth of water-stressed willows by modifying plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Danielle B; Cooper, David J; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2007-12-01

    In the northern elk wintering range of Yellowstone National Park, USA, wolf (Canis lupus) removal allowed elk (Cervus elaphus) to overbrowse riparian woody plants, leading to the exclusion of beaver (Castor canadensis) and a subsequent water table decline in many small stream valleys. Reduced elk browsing following wolf reintroduction may or may not facilitate willow (Salix sp.) recovery in these areas. To determine if the effect of elk browsing on willow interacts with that of beaver abandonment, we manipulated elk browsing and the water table in a factorial experiment. Under the condition of an ambient (low) water table, elk browsing increased shoot water potential (Psis), photosynthesis per unit leaf area (A), stomatal conductance per unit leaf area (gs), and aboveground current annual growth (CAG) by 50%. Elk browsing occurred entirely during dormancy and did not affect total plant leaf area (L). Improved water balance, photosynthetic rate, and annual aboveground productivity in browsed willows appeared to be due to morphological changes, such as increased shoot diameter and decreased branching, which typically increase plant hydraulic conductivity. An elevated water table increased Psis, A, gs, CAG, and L, and eliminated or lessened the positive effect of browsing on CAG for most species. Because low water tables create conditions whereby high willow productivity depends on the morphological effects of annual elk browsing, removing elk browsing in areas of water table decline is unlikely to result in vigorous willow stands. As large willow standing crops are required by beaver, a positive feedback between water-stressed willow and beaver absence may preclude the reestablishment of historical conditions. In areas with low water table, willow restoration may depend on actions to promote the re-establishment of beaver in addition to reducing elk browsing.

  3. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  4. Assessment of forest management influences on total live aboveground tree biomass in William B Bankhead National Forest, Alabama

    Treesearch

    Callie Schweitzer; Dawn Lemke; Wubishet Tadesse; Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Forests contain a large amount of carbon (C) stored as tree biomass (above and below ground), detritus, and soil organic material. The aboveground tree biomass is the most rapid change component in this forest C pool. Thus, management of forest resources can influence the net C exchange with the atmosphere by changing the amount of C stored, particularly in landscapes...

  5. Evaluating Naturally Durable Wood Species for Repair and Rehabilitation of Above-Ground Components of Covered Bridges

    Treesearch

    Grant T. Kirker; Carol A. Clausen; A. B Blodgett; Stan T. Lebow

    2013-01-01

    More than 1,500 covered bridges remain in the United States. They are a unique part of our history; thus, replacement of bridge components is an equally important part of preserving this uncommon style of craftsmanship. The goal of this project was to evaluate seven wood species for their durability in above-ground field exposure. Chemical analysis was also conducted...

  6. Shifts in Aboveground and Forest Floor Carbon and Nitrogen Pools After Felling and Burning in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank

    1996-01-01

    Changes in aboveground and forest floor mass, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) pools were quantified on three sites in the southern Appalachians 2 yr after felling and burning. Before felling and burning, stands were characterized by sparse overstories and dense Kalmia latifolia L. understories. Two years after burning, foliar C and N pools had reached 25% and 29% of...

  7. Mapping aboveground carbon stocks using LiDAR data in Eucalyptus spp. plantations in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Treesearch

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Samuel de Padua Chaves e Carvalho; Andrew T. Hudak; e Luiz Carlos Estraviz Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Fast growing plantation forests provide a low-cost means to sequester carbon for greenhouse gas abatement. The aim of this study was to evaluate airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) to predict aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks in Eucalyptus spp. plantations. Biometric parameters (tree height (Ht) and diameter at breast height (DBH)) were collected from...

  8. Shading aboveground L-joint and lap-joint tests : comparison of white pine and sugar maple test assemblies

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Daniel L. Lindner

    2011-01-01

    Five-year performance ratings are presented for two types of untreated, uncoated wood joints (L and lap) in aboveground tests under shaded conditions. The effect of shading on moisture entrapment in pine and maple L and lap joints was evaluated in a moderate decay zone (Madison, Wisconsin). Variations were observed between wood species, visual ratings, joint type,...

  9. Does biodiversity make a difference? Relationships between species richness, evolutionary diversity, and aboveground live tree biomass across US forests

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Christopher W. Woodall

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity conveys numerous functional benefits to forested ecosystems, including community stability and resilience. In the context of managing forests for climate change mitigation/adaptation, maximizing and/or maintaining aboveground biomass will require understanding the interactions between tree biodiversity, site productivity, and the stocking of live trees....

  10. Drivers of variation in aboveground net primary productivity and plant community composition differe across a broad precipitation gradient

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has long been a goal of ecology to determine what factors drive variation in aboveground net primary production (ANPP). Total annual precipitation has been shown to be a strong predictor of ANPP across broad spatial scales, but a poor predictor at local scales. Here we aim to determine the amount...

  11. Validation databases for simulation models: aboveground biomass and net primary productive, (NPP) estimation using eastwide FIA data

    Treesearch

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; Richard A. Birdsey

    2000-01-01

    As interest grows in the role of forest growth in the carbon cycle, and as simulation models are applied to predict future forest productivity at large spatial scales, the need for reliable and field-based data for evaluation of model estimates is clear. We created estimates of potential forest biomass and annual aboveground production for the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  12. A comparison of above-ground dry-biomass estimators for trees in the Northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    James A. Westfall

    2012-01-01

    In the northeastern United States, both component and total aboveground tree dry-biomass estimates are available from several sources. In this study, comparisons were made among four methods to promote understanding of the similarities and differences in live-tree biomass estimators. The methods use various equations developed from biomass data collected in the United...

  13. Using Landsat Time-Series and LiDAR to Inform Aboveground Forest Biomass Baselines in Northern Minnesota, USA

    Treesearch

    Ram K. Deo; Matthew B. Russell; Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; Michael J. Falkowski; Warren B. Cohen

    2017-01-01

    The publicly accessible archive of Landsat imagery and increasing regional-scale LiDAR acquisitions offer an opportunity to periodically estimate aboveground forest biomass (AGB) from 1990 to the present to alignwith the reporting needs ofNationalGreenhouseGas Inventories (NGHGIs). This study integrated Landsat time-series data, a state-wide LiDAR dataset, and a recent...

  14. Plants as green phones: Novel insights into plant-mediated communication between below- and above-ground insects.

    PubMed

    Soler, Roxina; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Bezemer, T Martijn; Stuefer, Josef F

    2008-08-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or 'green phones' linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The protection of the plant shoot elicited by root damage can impair the survival, growth and development of aboveground insect herbivores, thereby creating plant-based functional links between soil-dwelling insects and insects that develop in the aboveground ecosystem. The interactions between spatially separated insects below- and aboveground are not restricted to root and foliar plant-feeding insects, but can be extended to higher trophic levels such as insect parasitoids. Here we discuss some implications of plants acting as communication channels or 'green phones' between root and foliar-feeding insects and their parasitoids, focusing on recent findings that plants attacked by root-feeding insects are significantly less attractive for the parasitoids of foliar-feeding insects.

  15. Methods and equations for estimating aboveground volume, biomass, and carbon for trees in the U.S. forest inventory, 2010

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Linda S. Heath; Grant M. Domke; Michael C. Nichols

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program uses numerous models and associated coefficients to estimate aboveground volume, biomass, and carbon for live and standing dead trees for most tree species in forests of the United States. The tree attribute models are coupled with FIA's national inventory of sampled trees to produce estimates of...

  16. Spatial distribution of forest aboveground biomass estimated from remote sensing and forest inventory data in New England, USA

    Treesearch

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    We combined satellite (Landsat 7 and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) and U.S. Department of Agriculture forest inventory and analysis (FIA) data to estimate forest aboveground biomass (AGB) across New England, USA. This is practical for large-scale carbon studies and may reduce uncertainty of AGB estimates. We estimate that total regional forest AGB was 1,867...

  17. Spatial relationships among species, above-ground biomass, N, and P in degraded grasslands in Ordus Plateau, northwestern China

    Treesearch

    X. Cheng; S. An; J. chen; B. Li; Y. Liu; S. Liu

    2007-01-01

    We chose five communities, representing a mild to severe gradient of grassland desertification in a semi-arid area of Ordos Plateau, northwestern China, to explore the spatial relationships among plant species, above-ground biomass (AGB), and plant nutrients (N and P). Community 1 (Cl) was dominated by Stipa bungeana; community 2 (C2) by a mix of S...

  18. Effects of thinning on aboveground carbon sequestration by a 45-year-old eastern white pine plantation: A case study

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab

    2012-01-01

    Aboveground carbon sequestration by a 45-year-old plantation of eastern white pines was determined in response to thinning to three levels of residual basal area: (1) Control (no thinning), (2) light thinning to 120 feet2/acre and (3) heavy thinning to 80 feet2/acre. After 11 years carbon stocks were lowest on the heavily...

  19. Observations and modeling of aboveground tree carbon stocks and fluxes following a bark beetle outbreak in the western United States

    Treesearch

    Eric M. Pfeifer; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Arjan J.H. Meddens

    2011-01-01

    Bark beetle epidemics result in tree mortality across millions of hectares in North America. However, few studies have quantified impacts on carbon (C) cycling. In this study, we quantified the immediate response and subsequent trajectories of stand-level aboveground tree C stocks and fluxes using field measurements and modeling for a location in central Idaho, USA...

  20. Lidar-based estimates of aboveground biomass in the continental US and Mexico using ground, airborne, and satellite observations

    Treesearch

    Ross Nelson; Hank Margolis; Paul Montesano; Guoqing Sun; Bruce Cook; Larry Corp; Hans-Erik Andersen; Ben deJong; Fernando Paz Pellat; Thaddeus Fickel; Jobriath Kauffman; Stephen Prisley

    2017-01-01

    Existing national forest inventory plots, an airborne lidar scanning (ALS) system, and a space profiling lidar system (ICESat-GLAS) are used to generate circa 2005 estimates of total aboveground dry biomass (AGB) in forest strata, by state, in the continental United States (CONUS) and Mexico. The airborne lidar is used to link ground observations of AGB to space lidar...

  1. THE OHIO RIVER OIL SPILL: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spill of diesel oil fuel from an Ashland Oil storage tank in January 1988 on the Monongahela River raised a number of technical, legislative, and administrative issues. These include as assessing long- and short-term environmental damage, evaluating regulations regarding oil ...

  2. Archive Storage Media Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    Reviews requirements for a data archive system and describes storage media alternatives that are currently available. Topics discussed include data storage; data distribution; hierarchical storage architecture, including inline storage, online storage, nearline storage, and offline storage; magnetic disks; optical disks; conventional magnetic…

  3. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  4. Peppermint Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other problems. Peppermint leaf is available in teas, capsules, and as a liquid extract. Peppermint oil ... the oil. No harmful effects of peppermint leaf tea have been reported. However, the long-term safety ...

  5. Palm Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... A deficiency, cancer, brain disease, aging; and treating malaria, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. ... oils, such as soybean, canola, or sunflower oil. Malaria. Some research suggests that dietary consumption of palm ...

  6. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... oil, assessing shoreline impact, and evaluating accepted cleanup technologies. Students and teachers can find a variety of oil spill-related educational resources in our Education section . For stories, news, and updates about current, notable, and historical ...

  7. Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  8. Peanut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rectally, peanut oil is used in ointments and medicinal oils for treating constipation. Pharmaceutical companies use peanut ... applied to the skin, or used rectally in medicinal amounts. Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: ...

  9. Oil Shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  10. Application of synthetic fire-resistant oils in oil systems of turbine equipment for NPPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimova, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Results of the investigation of the synthetic fire-resistant turbine oil Fyrquel-L state in oil systems of turbosets under their operation in the equipment and oil supply facilities of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are presented. On the basis of the analysis of the operating experience, it is established that, for reliable and safe operation of the turbine equipment, at which oil systems synthetic fire-resistant oils on the phosphoric acid esters basis are used, special attention should be paid to two main factors, namely, both the guarantee of the normalized oil water content under the operation and storage and temperature regime of the operation. Methods of the acid number maintenance and reduction are shown. Results of the analysis and investigation of influence of temperature and of the variation of the qualitative state of the synthetic fair-resistant oil on its water content are reported. It is shown that the fire-resistant turbine oils are characterized by high hydrophilicity, and, in distinction to the mineral turbine oils, are capable to contain a significant amount of dissolved water, which is not extracted under the use of separation technologies. It is shown that the more degradation products are contained in oil and higher acid number, the more amount of dissolved water it is capable to retain. It is demonstrated that the organization of chemical control of the total water content of fireresistant oils with the use of the coulometric method is an important element to support the reliable operation of oil systems. It is recommended to use automatic controls of water content for organization of daily monitoring of oil state in the oil system. Recommendations and measures for improvement of oil operation on the NPP, the water content control, the use of oil cleaning plants, and the oil transfer for storage during repair works are developed.

  11. Analysis of biophysical and anthropogenic variables and their relation to the regional spatial variation of aboveground biomass illustrated for North and East Kalimantan, Borneo.

    PubMed

    Van der Laan, Carina; Verweij, Pita A; Quiñones, Marcela J; Faaij, André Pc

    2014-12-01

    Land use and land cover change occurring in tropical forest landscapes contributes substantially to carbon emissions. Better insights into the spatial variation of aboveground biomass is therefore needed. By means of multiple statistical tests, including geographically weighted regression, we analysed the effects of eight variables on the regional spatial variation of aboveground biomass. North and East Kalimantan were selected as the case study region; the third largest carbon emitting Indonesian provinces. Strong positive relationships were found between aboveground biomass and the tested variables; altitude, slope, land allocation zoning, soil type, and distance to the nearest fire, road, river and city. Furthermore, the results suggest that the regional spatial variation of aboveground biomass can be largely attributed to altitude, distance to nearest fire and land allocation zoning. Our study showed that in this landscape, aboveground biomass could not be explained by one single variable; the variables were interrelated, with altitude as the dominant variable. Spatial analyses should therefore integrate a variety of biophysical and anthropogenic variables to provide a better understanding of spatial variation in aboveground biomass. Efforts to minimise carbon emissions should incorporate the identified factors, by 1) the maintenance of lands with high AGB or carbon stocks, namely in the identified zones at the higher altitudes; and 2) regeneration or sustainable utilisation of lands with low AGB or carbon stocks, dependent on the regeneration capacity of the vegetation. Low aboveground biomass densities can be found in the lowlands in burned areas, and in non-forest zones and production forests.

  12. Gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil to maintain fish quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Qianqian; Gao, Fei; Ding, Yuting; Liu, Shulai

    2017-12-01

    Effects of gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil on quality of Northern Snakehead fish fillets were observed during storage at 4 °C. Fish fillets were treated with 1-5 kGy gamma radiation, 0.05-0.5% cinnamon oil or the combination of radiation and cinnamon oil. The antimicrobial activity increased with radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration. During storage, the combination of 1 kGy radiation and 0.5% cinnamon oil displayed better inhibiting activities on aerobic plate counts, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reaction substances than 1 kGy radiation or 0.5% cinnamon oil used alone. Moreover, the combination could arrive at the similar inhibiting activities of cinnamon oil with higher concentration of 0.5% or radiation with higher dose of 5 kGy. Thus, the combination could decrease the radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration without decreasing the effect of them on maintaining fish quality.

  13. Roasting pumpkin seeds and changes in the composition and oxidative stability of cold-pressed oils.

    PubMed

    Raczyk, Marianna; Siger, Aleksander; Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is valuable oil for its distinctive taste and aroma, as well as supposed health- promoting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate how roasting pumpkin seeds influences the physicochemical properties of cold-pressed oils. The fatty acid composition, content of phytosterols, carotenoids and tocopherols, oxidative stability and colour were determined in oils after cold pressing and storage for 3 months using GC-FID, GCxGC-ToFMS, HPLC, Rancimat and spectrophotometric methods. The results of this study indicate that the seed-roasting and storage process have no effect on the fatty acid composition of pumpkin seed oils, but does affect phytosterols and tocopherols. The carotenoid content decreased after storage. The colour of the roasted oil was darker and changed significantly during storage. Pumpkin oil obtained from roasted seeds shows better physicochemical properties and oxidative stability than oil from unroasted seeds.

  14. 40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Oil-water separators. 60.692... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards: Oil-water separators. (a) Each oil-water separator tank, slop oil tank, storage vessel, or other auxiliary equipment subject to the...

  15. 40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Oil-water separators. 60.692... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards: Oil-water separators. (a) Each oil-water separator tank, slop oil tank, storage vessel, or other auxiliary equipment subject to the...

  16. 40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Oil-water separators. 60.692... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards: Oil-water separators. (a) Each oil-water separator tank, slop oil tank, storage vessel, or other auxiliary equipment subject to the...

  17. Strategic oil reserves catch fire too

    SciTech Connect

    Crull, A.W.

    The Federal strategic oil storage site at West Hackberry Dome in Louisiana caught fire in spite of DOE assurances that this is the safest way to store oil. Most of the oil was recovered, although confusion at the site aggravated the problem in getting the fire under control. DOE called the incident an industrial accident, but has not acknowledged the risks involved in all aspects of petroleum drilling or handling -- and the drastic limits of personnel able to handle resulting accidents. Inteviews with Boots and Coots, a team of fire fighters in Houston, provided the author with details ofmore » oil fires and ways to deal with them. The oil fire fighters point out that all energy source development and storage involves some risk and that steps should be taken to train personnel to deal with the negative aspects of petroleum.« less

  18. Ability of LANDSAT-8 Oli Derived Texture Metrics in Estimating Aboveground Carbon Stocks of Coppice Oak Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, A.; Sohrabi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The role of forests as a reservoir for carbon has prompted the need for timely and reliable estimation of aboveground carbon stocks. Since measurement of aboveground carbon stocks of forests is a destructive, costly and time-consuming activity, aerial and satellite remote sensing techniques have gained many attentions in this field. Despite the fact that using aerial data for predicting aboveground carbon stocks has been proved as a highly accurate method, there are challenges related to high acquisition costs, small area coverage, and limited availability of these data. These challenges are more critical for non-commercial forests located in low-income countries. Landsat program provides repetitive acquisition of high-resolution multispectral data, which are freely available. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of multispectral Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) derived texture metrics in quantifying aboveground carbon stocks of coppice Oak forests in Zagros Mountains, Iran. We used four different window sizes (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, and 9×9), and four different offsets ([0,1], [1,1], [1,0], and [1,-1]) to derive nine texture metrics (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, dissimilar, entropy, homogeneity, inverse difference, mean, and variance) from four bands (blue, green, red, and infrared). Totally, 124 sample plots in two different forests were measured and carbon was calculated using species-specific allometric models. Stepwise regression analysis was applied to estimate biomass from derived metrics. Results showed that, in general, larger size of window for deriving texture metrics resulted models with better fitting parameters. In addition, the correlation of the spectral bands for deriving texture metrics in regression models was ranked as b4>b3>b2>b5. The best offset was [1,-1]. Amongst the different metrics, mean and entropy were entered in most of the regression models. Overall, different models based on derived texture metrics

  19. A remote sensing-based model of tidal marsh aboveground carbon stocks for the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Kristin B.; Ballanti, Laurel; Thomas, Nathan; Nguyen, Dung; Holmquist, James R.; Simard, Marc; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2018-05-01

    Remote sensing based maps of tidal marshes, both of their extents and carbon stocks, have the potential to play a key role in conducting greenhouse gas inventories and implementing climate mitigation policies. Our objective was to generate a single remote sensing model of tidal marsh aboveground biomass and carbon that represents nationally diverse tidal marshes within the conterminous United States (CONUS). We developed the first calibration-grade, national-scale dataset of aboveground tidal marsh biomass, species composition, and aboveground plant carbon content (%C) from six CONUS regions: Cape Cod, MA, Chesapeake Bay, MD, Everglades, FL, Mississippi Delta, LA, San Francisco Bay, CA, and Puget Sound, WA. Using the random forest machine learning algorithm, we tested whether imagery from multiple sensors, Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic aperture radar, Landsat, and the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP), can improve model performance. The final model, driven by six Landsat vegetation indices and with the soil adjusted vegetation index as the most important (n = 409, RMSE = 310 g/m2, 10.3% normalized RMSE), successfully predicted biomass for a range of marsh plant functional types defined by height, leaf angle and growth form. Model results were improved by scaling field-measured biomass calibration data by NAIP-derived 30 m fraction green vegetation. With a mean plant carbon content of 44.1% (n = 1384, 95% C.I. = 43.99%-44.37%), we generated regional 30 m aboveground carbon density maps for estuarine and palustrine emergent tidal marshes as indicated by a modified NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program map. We applied a multivariate delta method to calculate uncertainties in regional carbon densities and stocks that considered standard error in map area, mean biomass and mean %C. Louisiana palustrine emergent marshes had the highest C density (2.67 ± 0.004 Mg/ha) of all regions, while San Francisco Bay brackish/saline marshes had the highest C density of all

  20. An Integrated Functional Genomics Consortium to Increase Carbon Sequestration in Poplars: Optimizing Aboveground Carbon Gain

    SciTech Connect

    Karnosky, David F; Podila, G Krishna; Burton, Andrew J

    2009-02-17

    This project used gene expression patterns from two forest Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments (Aspen FACE in northern Wisconsin and POPFACE in Italy) to examine ways to increase the aboveground carbon sequestration potential of poplars (Populus). The aim was to use patterns of global gene expression to identify candidate genes for increased carbon sequestration. Gene expression studies were linked to physiological measurements in order to elucidate bottlenecks in carbon acquisition in trees grown in elevated CO2 conditions. Delayed senescence allowing additional carbon uptake late in the growing season, was also examined, and expression of target genes was tested in elitemore » P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids. In Populus euramericana, gene expression was sensitive to elevated CO2, but the response depended on the developmental age of the leaves. Most differentially expressed genes were upregulated in elevated CO2 in young leaves, while most were downregulated in elevated CO2 in semi-mature leaves. In P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids, leaf development and leaf quality traits, including leaf area, leaf shape, epidermal cell area, stomatal number, specific leaf area, and canopy senescence were sensitive to elevated CO2. Significant increases under elevated CO2 occurred for both above- and belowground growth in the F-2 generation. Three areas of the genome played a role in determining aboveground growth response to elevated CO2, with three additional areas of the genome important in determining belowground growth responses to elevated CO2. In Populus tremuloides, CO2-responsive genes in leaves were found to differ between two aspen clones that showed different growth responses, despite similarity in many physiological parameters (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf area index). The CO2-responsive clone shunted C into pathways associated with active defense/response to stress, carbohydrate/starch biosynthesis and subsequent growth. The CO

  1. 46 CFR 108.127 - Storage lockers for combustibles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage lockers for combustibles. 108.127 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Fire Protection: General § 108.127 Storage lockers for combustibles. Each oil and paint locker must be made of steel or an equivalent material or be completely lined...

  2. 46 CFR 108.127 - Storage lockers for combustibles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storage lockers for combustibles. 108.127 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Fire Protection: General § 108.127 Storage lockers for combustibles. Each oil and paint locker must be made of steel or an equivalent material or be completely lined...

  3. 46 CFR 108.127 - Storage lockers for combustibles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storage lockers for combustibles. 108.127 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Fire Protection: General § 108.127 Storage lockers for combustibles. Each oil and paint locker must be made of steel or an equivalent material or be completely lined...

  4. 46 CFR 108.127 - Storage lockers for combustibles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storage lockers for combustibles. 108.127 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Fire Protection: General § 108.127 Storage lockers for combustibles. Each oil and paint locker must be made of steel or an equivalent material or be completely lined...

  5. 46 CFR 108.127 - Storage lockers for combustibles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storage lockers for combustibles. 108.127 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Fire Protection: General § 108.127 Storage lockers for combustibles. Each oil and paint locker must be made of steel or an equivalent material or be completely lined...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of...) Combustible liquids, including oil or grease, shall be stored in non-glass containers or storage tanks. The... one inch of shotcrete, one-half inch of gunite, or other noncombustible material with equivalent fire...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of...) Combustible liquids, including oil or grease, shall be stored in non-glass containers or storage tanks. The... one inch of shotcrete, one-half inch of gunite, or other noncombustible material with equivalent fire...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of...) Combustible liquids, including oil or grease, shall be stored in non-glass containers or storage tanks. The... one inch of shotcrete, one-half inch of gunite, or other noncombustible material with equivalent fire...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of...) Combustible liquids, including oil or grease, shall be stored in non-glass containers or storage tanks. The... one inch of shotcrete, one-half inch of gunite, or other noncombustible material with equivalent fire...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of...) Combustible liquids, including oil or grease, shall be stored in non-glass containers or storage tanks. The... one inch of shotcrete, one-half inch of gunite, or other noncombustible material with equivalent fire...

  11. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  12. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  13. Compatible above-ground biomass equations and carbon stock estimation for small diameter Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.).

    PubMed

    Sakici, Oytun Emre; Kucuk, Omer; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan

    2018-04-15

    Small trees and saplings are important for forest management, carbon stock estimation, ecological modeling, and fire management planning. Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) is a common coniferous species and comprises 25.1% of total forest area of Turkey. Turkish pine is also important due to its flammable fuel characteristics. In this study, compatible above-ground biomass equations were developed to predict needle, branch, stem wood, and above-ground total biomass, and carbon stock assessment was also described for Turkish pine which is smaller than 8 cm diameter at breast height or shorter than breast height. Compatible biomass equations are useful for biomass prediction of small diameter individuals of Turkish pine. These equations will also be helpful in determining fire behavior characteristics and calculating their carbon stock. Overall, present study will be useful for developing ecological models, forest management plans, silvicultural plans, and fire management plans.

  14. Improving Lidar-based Aboveground Biomass Estimation with Site Productivity for Central Hardwood Forests, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, G.; Gallion, J.; Fei, S.

    2016-12-01

    Sound forest aboveground biomass estimation is required to monitor diverse forest ecosystems and their impacts on the changing climate. Lidar-based regression models provided promised biomass estimations in most forest ecosystems. However, considerable uncertainties of biomass estimations have been reported in the temperate hardwood and hardwood-dominated mixed forests. Varied site productivities in temperate hardwood forests largely diversified height and diameter growth rates, which significantly reduced the correlation between tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) in mature and complex forests. It is, therefore, difficult to utilize height-based lidar metrics to predict DBH-based field-measured biomass through a simple regression model regardless the variation of site productivity. In this study, we established a multi-dimension nonlinear regression model incorporating lidar metrics and site productivity classes derived from soil features. In the regression model, lidar metrics provided horizontal and vertical structural information and productivity classes differentiated good and poor forest sites. The selection and combination of lidar metrics were discussed. Multiple regression models were employed and compared. Uncertainty analysis was applied to the best fit model. The effects of site productivity on the lidar-based biomass model were addressed.

  15. Do soil organisms affect aboveground litter decomposition in the semiarid Patagonian steppe, Argentina?

    PubMed

    Araujo, Patricia I; Yahdjian, Laura; Austin, Amy T

    2012-01-01

    Surface litter decomposition in arid and semiarid ecosystems is often faster than predicted by climatic parameters such as annual precipitation or evapotranspiration, or based on standard indices of litter quality such as lignin or nitrogen concentrations. Abiotic photodegradation has been demonstrated to be an important factor controlling aboveground litter decomposition in aridland ecosystems, but soil fauna, particularly macrofauna such as termites and ants, have also been identified as key players affecting litter mass loss in warm deserts. Our objective was to quantify the importance of soil organisms on surface litter decomposition in the Patagonian steppe in the absence of photodegradative effects, to establish the relative importance of soil organisms on rates of mass loss and nitrogen release. We estimated the relative contribution of soil fauna and microbes to litter decomposition of a dominant grass using litterboxes with variable mesh sizes that excluded groups of soil fauna based on size class (10, 2, and 0.01 mm), which were placed beneath shrub canopies. We also employed chemical repellents (naphthalene and fungicide). The exclusion of macro- and mesofauna had no effect on litter mass loss over 3 years (P = 0.36), as litter decomposition was similar in all soil fauna exclusions and naphthalene-treated litter. In contrast, reduction of fungal activity significantly inhibited litter decomposition (P < 0.001). Although soil fauna have been mentioned as a key control of litter decomposition in warm deserts, biogeographic legacies and temperature limitation may constrain the importance of these organisms in temperate aridlands, particularly in the southern hemisphere.

  16. Salinity influences on aboveground and belowground net primary productivity in tidal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierfelice, Kathryn N.; Graeme Lockaby, B.; Krauss, Ken W.; Conner, William H.; Noe, Gregory; Ricker, Matthew C.

    2017-01-01

    Tidal freshwater wetlands are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change and rising sea levels. However salinification within these systems is poorly understood, therefore, productivity (litterfall, woody biomass, and fine roots) were investigated on three forested tidal wetlands [(1) freshwater, (2) moderately saline, and (3) heavily salt-impacted] and a marsh along the Waccamaw and Turkey Creek in South Carolina. Mean aboveground (litterfall and woody biomass) production on the freshwater, moderately saline, heavily salt-impacted, and marsh, respectively, was 1,061, 492, 79, and 0  g m−2 year−1 versus belowground (fine roots) 860, 490, 620, and 2,128  g m−2 year−1. Litterfall and woody biomass displayed an inverse relationship with salinity. Shifts in productivity across saline sites is of concern because sea level is predicted to continue rising. Results from the research reported in this paper provide baseline data upon which coupled hydrologic/wetland models can be created to quantify future changes in tidal forest functions.

  17. Genetic basis of aboveground productivity in two native Populus species and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Lojewski, Nathan R; Fischer, Dylan G; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Whitham, Thomas G; Hart, Stephen C

    2009-09-01

    Demonstration of genetic control over riparian tree productivity has major implications for responses of riparian systems to shifting environmental conditions and effects of genetics on ecosystems in general. We used field studies and common gardens, applying both molecular and quantitative techniques, to compare plot-level tree aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP(tree)) and individual tree growth rate constants in relation to plant genetic identity in two naturally occurring Populus tree species and their hybrids. In field comparisons of four cross types (Populus fremontii S. Wats., Populus angustifolia James, F(1) hybrids and backcross hybrids) across 11 natural stands, productivity was greatest for P. fremontii trees, followed by hybrids and lowest in P. angustifolia. A similar pattern was observed in four common gardens across a 290 m elevation and 100 km environmental gradient. Despite a doubling in productivity across the common gardens, the relative differences among the cross types remained constant. Using clonal replicates in a common garden, we found ANPP(tree) to be a heritable plant trait (i.e., broad-sense heritability), such that plant genetic factors explained between 38% and 82% of the variation in ANPP(tree). Furthermore, analysis of the genetic composition among individual tree genotypes using restriction fragment length polymorphism molecular markers showed that genetically similar trees also exhibited similar ANPP(tree). These findings indicate strong genetic contributions to natural variation in ANPP with important ecological implications.

  18. 40K/137Cs discrimination ratios to the aboveground organs of tropical plants.

    PubMed

    Sanches, N; Anjos, R M; Mosquera, B

    2008-07-01

    In the present work, the accumulation of caesium and potassium in aboveground plant parts was studied in order to improve the understanding on the behaviour of monovalent cations in several compartments of tropical plants. We present the results for activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K, measured by gamma spectrometry, from five tropical plant species: guava (Psidium guajava), mango (Mangifera indica), papaya (Carica papaya), banana (Musa paradisíaca), and manioc (Manihot esculenta). Caesium and potassium have shown a high level of mobility within the plants, exhibiting the highest values of concentration in the growing parts (fruits, leaves, twigs, and barks) of the woody fruit and large herbaceous shrub (such as manioc) species. In contrast, the banana and papaya plants exhibited the lowest levels of (137)Cs and (40)K in their growing parts. However, a significant correlation between activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K was observed in these tropical plants. The (40)K/(137)Cs discrimination ratios were approximately equal to unity in different compartments of each individual plant, suggesting the possibility of using caesium to predict the behaviour of potassium in several tropical species.

  19. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M; Mestre, Luiz A M; Andrade, Rafael B; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions.

  20. The response of aboveground plant productivity to earlier snowmelt and summer warming in an Arctic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livensperger, C.; Steltzer, H.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Sullivan, P.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Weintraub, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Plant communities in the Arctic are undergoing changes in structure and function due to shifts in seasonality from changing winters and summer warming. These changes will impact biogeochemical cycling, surface energy balance, and functioning of vertebrate and invertebrate communities. To examine seasonal controls on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in a moist acidic tundra ecosystem in northern Alaska, we shifted the growing season by accelerating snowmelt (using radiation absorbing shadecloth) and warming air and soil temperature (using 1 m2 open-top chambers), individually and in combination. After three years, we measured ANPP by harvesting up to 16 individual ramets, tillers and rhizomes for each of 7 plant species, including two deciduous shrubs, two graminoids, two evergreen shrubs and one forb during peak season. Our results show that ANPP per stem summed across the 7 species increased when snow melt occurred earlier. However, standing biomass, excluding current year growth, was also greater. The ratio of ANPP/standing biomass decreased in all treatments compared to the control. ANPP per unit standing biomass summed for the four shrub species decreases due to summer warming alone or in combination with early snowmelt; however early snowmelt alone did not lead to lower ANPP for the shrubs. ANPP per tiller or rhizome summed for the three herbaceous species increased in response to summer warming. Understanding the differential response of plants to changing seasonality will inform predictions of future Arctic plant community structure and function.

  1. Plant genotypes affect aboveground and belowground herbivore interactions by changing chemical defense.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Guo, Wenfeng; Siemann, Evan; Wen, Yuanguang; Huang, Wei; Ding, Jianqing

    2016-12-01

    Spatially separated aboveground (AG) and belowground (BG) herbivores are closely linked through shared host plants, and both patterns of AG-BG interactions and plant responses may vary among plant genotypes. We subjected invasive (USA) and native (China) genotypes of tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) to herbivory by the AG specialist leaf-rolling weevil Heterapoderopsis bicallosicollis and/or the root-feeding larvae of flea beetle Bikasha collaris. We measured leaf damage and leaves rolled by weevils, quantified beetle survival, and analyzed flavonoid and tannin concentrations in leaves and roots. AG and BG herbivores formed negative feedbacks on both native and invasive genotypes. Leaf damage by weevils and the number of beetle larvae emerging as adults were higher on invasive genotypes. Beetles reduced weevil damage and weevils reduced beetle larval emergence more strongly for invasive genotypes. Invasive genotypes had lower leaf and root tannins than native genotypes. BG beetles decreased leaf tannins of native genotypes but increased root tannins of invasive genotypes. AG herbivory increased root flavonoids of invasive genotypes while BG herbivory decreased leaf flavonoids. Invasive genotypes had lower AG and BG herbivore resistance, and negative AG-BG herbivore feedbacks were much stronger for invasive genotypes. Lower tannin concentrations explained overall better AG and BG herbivore performances on invasive genotypes. However, changes in tannins and flavonoids affected AG and BG herbivores differently. These results suggest that divergent selection on chemical production in invasive plants may be critical in regulating herbivore performances and novel AG and BG herbivore communities in new environments.

  2. The effect of topography on arctic-alpine aboveground biomass and NDVI patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihimäki, Henri; Heiskanen, Janne; Luoto, Miska

    2017-04-01

    Topography is a key factor affecting numerous environmental phenomena, including Arctic and alpine aboveground biomass (AGB) distribution. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a source of topographic information which can be linked to local growing conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of DEM derived variables, namely elevation, topographic position, radiation and wetness on AGB and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in a Fennoscandian forest-alpine tundra ecotone. Boosted regression trees were used to derive non-parametric response curves and relative influences of the explanatory variables. Elevation and potential incoming solar radiation were the most important explanatory variables for both AGB and NDVI. In the NDVI models, the response curves were smooth compared with AGB models. This might be caused by large contribution of field and shrub layer to NDVI, especially at the treeline. Furthermore, radiation and elevation had a significant interaction, showing that the highest NDVI and biomass values are found from low-elevation, high-radiation sites, typically on the south-southwest facing valley slopes. Topographic wetness had minor influence on AGB and NDVI. Topographic position had generally weak effects on AGB and NDVI, although protected topographic position seemed to be more favorable below the treeline. The explanatory power of the topographic variables, particularly elevation and radiation demonstrates that DEM-derived land surface parameters can be used for exploring biomass distribution resulting from landform control on local growing conditions.

  3. Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Simon L.; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Begne, Serge K.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Baker, Timothy R.; Banin, Lindsay; Bastin, Jean-François; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Collins, Murray; Djagbletey, Gloria; Djuikouo, Marie Noël K.; Droissart, Vincent; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Ewango, Cornielle E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Foli, Ernest G.; Gillet, Jean-François; Hamilton, Alan C.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; de Haulleville, Thales; Hladik, Annette; Hufkens, Koen; Huygens, Dries; Jeanmart, Philippe; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Leal, Miguel E.; Lloyd, Jon; Lovett, Jon C.; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marshall, Andrew R.; Ojo, Lucas; Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Pickavance, Georgia; Poulsen, John R.; Reitsma, Jan M.; Sheil, Douglas; Simo, Murielle; Steppe, Kathy; Taedoumg, Hermann E.; Talbot, Joey; Taplin, James R. D.; Taylor, David; Thomas, Sean C.; Toirambe, Benjamin; Verbeeck, Hans; Vleminckx, Jason; White, Lee J. T.; Willcock, Simon; Woell, Hannsjorg; Zemagho, Lise

    2013-01-01

    We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stem density and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha−1 (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha−1) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo- compared with neotropical forests. However, mean stem density is low (426 ± 11 stems ha−1 greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationships with C : N ratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus–AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes. PMID:23878327

  4. Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on aboveground measurements of gain and loss.

    PubMed

    Baccini, A; Walker, W; Carvalho, L; Farina, M; Sulla-Menashe, D; Houghton, R A

    2017-10-13

    The carbon balance of tropical ecosystems remains uncertain, with top-down atmospheric studies suggesting an overall sink and bottom-up ecological approaches indicating a modest net source. Here we use 12 years (2003 to 2014) of MODIS pantropical satellite data to quantify net annual changes in the aboveground carbon density of tropical woody live vegetation, providing direct, measurement-based evidence that the world's tropical forests are a net carbon source of 425.2 ± 92.0 teragrams of carbon per year (Tg C year -1 ). This net release of carbon consists of losses of 861.7 ± 80.2 Tg C year -1 and gains of 436.5 ± 31.0 Tg C year -1 Gains result from forest growth; losses result from deforestation and from reductions in carbon density within standing forests (degradation or disturbance), with the latter accounting for 68.9% of overall losses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. Wildfires in Bamboo-Dominated Amazonian Forest: Impacts on Above-Ground Biomass and Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M.; Mestre, Luiz A. M.; Andrade, Rafael B.; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z.; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions. PMID:22428035

  6. Species richness alters spatial nutrient heterogeneity effects on above-ground plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Xi, Nianxun; Zhang, Chunhui; Bloor, Juliette M G

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that spatial nutrient heterogeneity promotes plant nutrient capture and growth. However, little is known about how spatial nutrient heterogeneity interacts with key community attributes to affect plant community production. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate how nitrogen heterogeneity effects vary with species richness and plant density. Effect size was calculated using the natural log of the ratio in plant biomass between heterogeneous and homogeneous conditions. Effect sizes were significantly above zero, reflecting positive effects of spatial nutrient heterogeneity on community production. However, species richness decreased the magnitude of heterogeneity effects on above-ground biomass. The magnitude of heterogeneity effects on below-ground biomass did not vary with species richness. Moreover, we detected no modification in heterogeneity effects with plant density. Our results highlight the importance of species richness for ecosystem function. Asynchrony between above- and below-ground responses to spatial nutrient heterogeneity and species richness could have significant implications for biotic interactions and biogeochemical cycling in the long term. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Taxonomic and Functional Responses of Soil Microbial Communities to Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xue; Zhou, Xishu; Hale, Lauren; Yuan, Mengting; Feng, Jiajie; Ning, Daliang; Shi, Zhou; Qin, Yujia; Liu, Feifei; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Liu, Xueduan; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2018-01-01

    Clipping, removal of aboveground plant biomass, is an important issue in grassland ecology. However, few studies have focused on the effect of clipping on belowground microbial communities. Using integrated metagenomic technologies, we examined the taxonomic and functional responses of soil microbial communities to annual clipping (2010–2014) in a grassland ecosystem of the Great Plains of North America. Our results indicated that clipping significantly (P < 0.05) increased root and microbial respiration rates. Annual temporal variation within the microbial communities was much greater than the significant changes introduced by clipping, but cumulative effects of clipping were still observed in the long-term scale. The abundances of some bacterial and fungal lineages including Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were significantly (P < 0.05) changed by clipping. Clipping significantly (P < 0.05) increased the abundances of labile carbon (C) degrading genes. More importantly, the abundances of recalcitrant C degrading genes were consistently and significantly (P < 0.05) increased by clipping in the last 2 years, which could accelerate recalcitrant C degradation and weaken long-term soil carbon stability. Furthermore, genes involved in nutrient-cycling processes including nitrogen cycling and phosphorus utilization were also significantly increased by clipping. The shifts of microbial communities were significantly correlated with soil respiration and plant productivity. Intriguingly, clipping effects on microbial function may be highly regulated by precipitation at the interannual scale. Altogether, our results illustrated the potential of soil microbial communities for increased soil organic matter decomposition under clipping land-use practices. PMID:29904372

  8. Estimating aboveground biomass in interior Alaska with Landsat data and field measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, Lei; Wylie, Bruce K.; Nossov, Dana R.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McFarland, Jack W.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial plant biomass is a key biophysical parameter required for understanding ecological systems in Alaska. An accurate estimation of biomass at a regional scale provides an important data input for ecological modeling in this region. In this study, we created an aboveground biomass (AGB) map at 30-m resolution for the Yukon Flats ecoregion of interior Alaska using Landsat data and field measurements. Tree, shrub, and herbaceous AGB data in both live and dead forms were collected in summers and autumns of 2009 and 2010. Using the Landsat-derived spectral variables and the field AGB data, we generated a regression model and applied this model to map AGB for the ecoregion. A 3-fold cross-validation indicated that the AGB estimates had a mean absolute error of 21.8 Mg/ha and a mean bias error of 5.2 Mg/ha. Additionally, we validated the mapping results using an airborne lidar dataset acquired for a portion of the ecoregion. We found a significant relationship between the lidar-derived canopy height and the Landsat-derived AGB (R2 = 0.40). The AGB map showed that 90% of the ecoregion had AGB values ranging from 10 Mg/ha to 134 Mg/ha. Vegetation types and fires were the primary factors controlling the spatial AGB patterns in this ecoregion.

  9. Successful range-expanding plants experience less above-ground and below-ground enemy impact.

    PubMed

    Engelkes, Tim; Morriën, Elly; Verhoeven, Koen J F; Bezemer, T Martijn; Biere, Arjen; Harvey, Jeffrey A; McIntyre, Lauren M; Tamis, Wil L M; van der Putten, Wim H

    2008-12-18

    Many species are currently moving to higher latitudes and altitudes. However, little is known about the factors that influence the future performance of range-expanding species in their new habitats. Here we show that range-expanding plant species from a riverine area were better defended against shoot and root enemies than were related native plant species growing in the same area. We grew fifteen plant species with and without non-coevolved polyphagous locusts and cosmopolitan, polyphagous aphids. Contrary to our expectations, the locusts performed more poorly on the range-expanding plant species than on the congeneric native plant species, whereas the aphids showed no difference. The shoot herbivores reduced the biomass of the native plants more than they did that of the congeneric range expanders. Also, the range-expanding plants developed fewer pathogenic effects in their root-zone soil than did the related native species. Current predictions forecast biodiversity loss due to limitations in the ability of species to adjust to climate warming conditions in their range. Our results strongly suggest that the plants that shift ranges towards higher latitudes and altitudes may include potential invaders, as the successful range expanders may experience less control by above-ground or below-ground enemies than the natives.

  10. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  11. Predicting above-ground density and distribution of small mammal prey species at large spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Grassland and shrub-steppe ecosystems are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities. Loss of native habitats may negatively impact important small mammal prey species. Little information, however, is available on the impact of habitat variability on density of small mammal prey species at broad spatial scales. We examined the relationship between small mammal density and remotely-sensed environmental covariates in shrub-steppe and grassland ecosystems in Wyoming, USA. We sampled four sciurid and leporid species groups using line transect methods, and used hierarchical distance-sampling to model density in response to variation in vegetation, climate, topographic, and anthropogenic variables, while accounting for variation in detection probability. We created spatial predictions of each species’ density and distribution. Sciurid and leporid species exhibited mixed responses to vegetation, such that changes to native habitat will likely affect prey species differently. Density of white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans), and leporids correlated negatively with proportion of shrub or sagebrush cover and positively with herbaceous cover or bare ground, whereas least chipmunks showed a positive correlation with shrub cover and a negative correlation with herbaceous cover. Spatial predictions from our models provide a landscape-scale metric of above-ground prey density, which will facilitate the development of conservation plans for these taxa and their predators at spatial scales relevant to management. PMID:28520757

  12. Comparison of machine-learning methods for above-ground biomass estimation based on Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chaofan; Shen, Huanhuan; Shen, Aihua; Deng, Jinsong; Gan, Muye; Zhu, Jinxia; Xu, Hongwei; Wang, Ke

    2016-07-01

    Biomass is one significant biophysical parameter of a forest ecosystem, and accurate biomass estimation on the regional scale provides important information for carbon-cycle investigation and sustainable forest management. In this study, Landsat satellite imagery data combined with field-based measurements were integrated through comparisons of five regression approaches [stepwise linear regression, K-nearest neighbor, support vector regression, random forest (RF), and stochastic gradient boosting] with two different candidate variable strategies to implement the optimal spatial above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation. The results suggested that RF algorithm exhibited the best performance by 10-fold cross-validation with respect to R2 (0.63) and root-mean-square error (26.44 ton/ha). Consequently, the map of estimated AGB was generated with a mean value of 89.34 ton/ha in northwestern Zhejiang Province, China, with a similar pattern to the distribution mode of local forest species. This research indicates that machine-learning approaches associated with Landsat imagery provide an economical way for biomass estimation. Moreover, ensemble methods using all candidate variables, especially for Landsat images, provide an alternative for regional biomass simulation.

  13. Spatially explicit estimation of aboveground boreal forest biomass in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, Lei; Wylie, Bruce K.; Brown, Dana R. N.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Alexander, Heather D.; Mack, Michelle C.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McFarland, Jack W.; Chen, Xuexia; Pastick, Neal J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of aboveground biomass (AGB) in Alaska’s boreal forest is essential to the accurate evaluation of terrestrial carbon stocks and dynamics in northern high-latitude ecosystems. Our goal was to map AGB at 30 m resolution for the boreal forest in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska using Landsat data and ground measurements. We acquired Landsat images to generate a 3-year (2008–2010) composite of top-of-atmosphere reflectance for six bands as well as the brightness temperature (BT). We constructed a multiple regression model using field-observed AGB and Landsat-derived reflectance, BT, and vegetation indices. A basin-wide boreal forest AGB map at 30 m resolution was generated by applying the regression model to the Landsat composite. The fivefold cross-validation with field measurements had a mean absolute error (MAE) of 25.7 Mg ha−1 (relative MAE 47.5%) and a mean bias error (MBE) of 4.3 Mg ha−1(relative MBE 7.9%). The boreal forest AGB product was compared with lidar-based vegetation height data; the comparison indicated that there was a significant correlation between the two data sets.

  14. Modeling aboveground tree woody biomass using national-scale allometric methods and airborne lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Estimating tree aboveground biomass (AGB) and carbon (C) stocks using remote sensing is a critical component for understanding the global C cycle and mitigating climate change. However, the importance of allometry for remote sensing of AGB has not been recognized until recently. The overarching goals of this study are to understand the differences and relationships among three national-scale allometric methods (CRM, Jenkins, and the regional models) of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program in the U.S. and to examine the impacts of using alternative allometry on the fitting statistics of remote sensing-based woody AGB models. Airborne lidar data from three study sites in the Pacific Northwest, USA were used to predict woody AGB estimated from the different allometric methods. It was found that the CRM and Jenkins estimates of woody AGB are related via the CRM adjustment factor. In terms of lidar-biomass modeling, CRM had the smallest model errors, while the Jenkins method had the largest ones and the regional method was between. The best model fitting from CRM is attributed to its inclusion of tree height in calculating merchantable stem volume and the strong dependence of non-merchantable stem biomass on merchantable stem biomass. This study also argues that it is important to characterize the allometric model errors for gaining a complete understanding of the remotely-sensed AGB prediction errors.

  15. Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of warming and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David

    2016-02-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of environmental change, including climate warming and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of warming on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and warming, and, in concert, warming (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground warming over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground warming effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of warming-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of warming-induced environmental conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with warming in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity warming had no detectable effect. This may be because warming increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative warming × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of warming on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that warming and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both

  16. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  17. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  18. Non-pulp utilization of above-ground biomass of mixed-species forests of small trees

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1982-01-01

    This soulution propose to rehabilitate annually- by clear felling, site preparation, and planting- 25,000 acres of level to rolling land averaging about490 cubic feet per acre of stemwood in small hardwood trees 5 inches in diameter at breast height (dbh) and larger, and of many species, plus all equal volume of above-ground biomass in stembark and tops, and in trees...

  19. 77 FR 57037 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to Administrative Rules Regarding the Transfer and Storage of... Committee or its designees for storage from November 1 to December 1. This action would also change the date... such oil to the Committee or its designees for storage from November 1 to December 1. This rule would...

  20. 78 FR 9575 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Administrative Rules Regarding the Transfer and Storage of Excess Spearmint Oil AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... such oil to the Committee or its designees for storage, from November 1 to December 1. This rule also... storage, from November 1 to December 1. This rule also changes the date that the Committee must pool...