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Sample records for aboveground plant parts

  1. Selenium and its species distribution in above-ground plant parts of selenium enriched buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Vogrincic, Maja; Cuderman, Petra; Kreft, Ivan; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2009-11-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was foliarly sprayed with a water solution containing 10 mg Se(VI) L(-1) at the beginning of flowering. The total Se content in plant parts in the untreated group was low, whereas in the Se-sprayed group it was approximately 50- to 500-fold higher, depending on the plant part (708-4231 ng Se g(-1) DM(-1) (DM: dry matter)). We observed a similar distribution of Se in plant parts in both control and treated groups, with the highest difference in Se content being in ripe seeds. Water-soluble Se compounds were extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis with protease XIV, resulting in above 63% of soluble Se from seeds, approximately 14% from stems, leaves and inflorescences and less than 1% from husks. Se-species were determined in enzymatic extracts using HPLC-UV-HG-AFS (HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry with UV treatment). The main Se species found in seeds was SeMet ( approximately 60% according to total Se content), while in stems, leaves and inflorescences the only form of soluble Se present was Se(VI) (up to 10% of total Se). In husks no Se-species were detected. We observed an instability of Se(IV) in seed extracts as a possible consequence of binding to the matrix components. Therefore, special care concerning sample extraction and the storage time of the extracts should be taken.

  2. Plant-mediated links between detritivores and aboveground herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on plant-mediated above–belowground interactions focus on soil biota with direct trophic links to plant roots such as root herbivores, pathogens, and symbionts. Detritivorous soil fauna, though ubiquitous and present in high abundances and biomasses in soil, are under-represented in those studies. Understanding of their impact on plants is mainly restricted to growth and nutrient uptake parameters. Detritivores have been shown to affect secondary metabolites and defense gene expression in aboveground parts of plants, with potential impacts on aboveground plant–herbivore interactions. The proposed mechanisms range from nutrient mobilization effects and impacts on soil microorganisms to defense induction by passive or active ingestion of roots. Since their negative effects (disruption or direct feeding of roots) may be counterbalanced by their overall beneficial effects (nutrient mobilization), detritivores may not harm, but rather enable plants to respond to aboveground herbivore attacks in a more efficient way. Both more mechanistic and holistic approaches are needed to better understand the involvement of detritivores in plant-mediated above–belowground interactions and their potential for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24069027

  3. Sequential effects of root and foliar herbivory on aboveground and belowground induced plant defense responses and insect performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minggang; Biere, Arjen; Van der Putten, Wim H; Bezemer, T Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Plants are often simultaneously or sequentially attacked by multiple herbivores and changes in host plants induced by one herbivore can influence the performance of other herbivores. We examined how sequential feeding on the plant Plantago lanceolata by the aboveground herbivore Spodoptera exigua and the belowground herbivore Agriotes lineatus influences plant defense and the performance of both insects. Belowground herbivory caused a reduction in the food consumption by the aboveground herbivore independent of whether it was initiated before, at the same time, or after that of the aboveground herbivore. By contrast, aboveground herbivory did not significantly affect belowground herbivore performance, but significantly reduced the performance of later arriving aboveground conspecifics. Interestingly, belowground herbivores negated negative effects of aboveground herbivores on consumption efficiency of their later arriving conspecifics, but only if the belowground herbivores were introduced simultaneously with the early arriving aboveground herbivores. Aboveground-belowground interactions could only partly be explained by induced changes in an important class of defense compounds, iridoid glycosides (IGs). Belowground herbivory caused a reduction in IGs in roots without affecting shoot levels, while aboveground herbivory increased IG levels in roots in the short term (4 days) but only in the shoots in the longer term (17 days). We conclude that the sequence of aboveground and belowground herbivory is important in interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores and that knowledge on the timing of exposure is essential to predict outcomes of aboveground-belowground interactions.

  4. Cadmium uptake in above-ground parts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiwang; Pang, Yan; Ji, Puhui; Gao, Pengcheng; Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Tong, Yan'an

    2016-03-01

    Because of its high Cd uptake and translocation, lettuce is often used in Cd contamination studies. However, there is a lack of information on Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of lettuce during the entire growing season. In this study, a field experiment was carried out in a Cd-contaminated area. Above-ground lettuce parts were sampled, and the Cd content was measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the Cd concentration in the above-ground parts of lettuce increased from 2.70 to 3.62mgkg(-1) during the seedling stage, but decreased from 3.62 to 2.40mgkg(-1) during organogenesis and from 2.40 to 1.64mgkg(-1) during bolting. The mean Cd concentration during the seedling stage was significantly higher than that during organogenesis (a=0.05) and bolting (a=0.01). The Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of an individual lettuce plant could be described by a sigmoidal curve. Cadmium uptake during organogenesis was highest (80% of the total), whereas that during bolting was only 4.34%. This research further reveals that for Rome lettuce: (1) the highest Cd content of above-ground parts occurred at the end of the seedling phase; (2) the best harvest time with respect to Cd phytoaccumulation is at the end of the organogenesis stage; and (3) the organogenesis stage is the most suitable time to enhance phytoaccumulation efficiency by adjusting the root:shoot ratio. PMID:26685781

  5. Cadmium uptake in above-ground parts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiwang; Pang, Yan; Ji, Puhui; Gao, Pengcheng; Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Tong, Yan'an

    2016-03-01

    Because of its high Cd uptake and translocation, lettuce is often used in Cd contamination studies. However, there is a lack of information on Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of lettuce during the entire growing season. In this study, a field experiment was carried out in a Cd-contaminated area. Above-ground lettuce parts were sampled, and the Cd content was measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the Cd concentration in the above-ground parts of lettuce increased from 2.70 to 3.62mgkg(-1) during the seedling stage, but decreased from 3.62 to 2.40mgkg(-1) during organogenesis and from 2.40 to 1.64mgkg(-1) during bolting. The mean Cd concentration during the seedling stage was significantly higher than that during organogenesis (a=0.05) and bolting (a=0.01). The Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of an individual lettuce plant could be described by a sigmoidal curve. Cadmium uptake during organogenesis was highest (80% of the total), whereas that during bolting was only 4.34%. This research further reveals that for Rome lettuce: (1) the highest Cd content of above-ground parts occurred at the end of the seedling phase; (2) the best harvest time with respect to Cd phytoaccumulation is at the end of the organogenesis stage; and (3) the organogenesis stage is the most suitable time to enhance phytoaccumulation efficiency by adjusting the root:shoot ratio.

  6. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  7. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment. PMID:22744011

  8. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect.

    PubMed

    Borgström, Pernilla; Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  9. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect.

    PubMed

    Borgström, Pernilla; Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  10. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect

    PubMed Central

    Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  11. Plant genetic variation mediates an indirect ecological effect between belowground earthworms and aboveground aphids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interactions between aboveground and belowground terrestrial communities are often mediated by plants, with soil organisms interacting via the roots and aboveground organisms via the shoots and leaves. Many studies now show that plant genetics can drive changes in the structure of both above and belowground communities; however, the role of plant genetic variation in mediating aboveground-belowground interactions is still unclear. We used an earthworm-plant-aphid model system with two aphid species (Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum) to test the effect of host-plant (Vicia faba) genetic variation on the indirect interaction between the belowground earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the aboveground aphid populations. Results Our data shows that host-plant variety mediated an indirect ecological effect of earthworms on generalist black bean aphids (A. fabae), with earthworms increasing aphid growth rate in three plant varieties but decreasing it in another variety. We found no effect of earthworms on the second aphid species, the pea aphid (A. pisum), and no effect of competition between the aphid species. Plant biomass was increased when earthworms were present, and decreased when A. pisum was feeding on the plant (mediated by plant variety). Although A. fabae aphids were influenced by the plants and worms, they did not, in turn, alter plant biomass. Conclusions Previous work has shown inconsistent effects of earthworms on aphids, but we suggest these differences could be explained by plant genetic variation and variation among aphid species. This study demonstrates that the outcome of belowground-aboveground interactions can be mediated by genetic variation in the host-plant, but depends on the identity of the species involved. PMID:25331082

  12. Estimating aboveground biomass of broadleaved woody plants in the understory of Florida Keys pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Koptur, S.; Snyder, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Species-specific allometric equations that provide estimates of biomass from measured plant attributes are currently unavailable for shrubs common to South Florida pine rocklands, where fire plays an important part in shaping the structure and function of ecosystems. We developed equations to estimate total aboveground biomass and fine fuel of 10 common hardwood species in the shrub layer of pine forests of the lower Florida Keys. Many equations that related biomass categories to crown area and height were significant (p < 0.05), but the form and variables comprising the best model varied among species. We applied the best-fit regression models to structural information from the shrub stratum in 18 plots on Big Pine Key, the most extensive pine forest in the Keys. Estimates based on species-specific equations indicated clearly that total aboveground shrub biomass and shrub fine fuel increased with time since last fire, but the relationships were non-linear. The relative proportion of biomass constituted by the major species also varied with stand age. Estimates based on mixed-species regressions differed slightly from estimates based on species-specific models, but the former could provide useful approximations in similar forests where species-specific regressions are not yet available. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Large grazers modify effects of aboveground-belowground interactions on small-scale plant community composition.

    PubMed

    Veen, G F Ciska; Geuverink, Elzemiek; Olff, Han

    2012-02-01

    Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales interact with small-scale aboveground-belowground interactions on plant community heterogeneity. Here, we investigate how cattle (Bos taurus) modify the effects of interactions between yellow meadow ants (Lasius flavus) and European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) on the formation of small-scale heterogeneity in vegetation composition. In the absence of cattle, hares selectively foraged on ant mounds, while under combined grazing by hares and cattle, vertebrate grazing pressure was similar on and off mounds. Ant mounds that were grazed by only hares had a different plant community composition compared to their surroundings: the cover of the grazing-intolerant grass Elytrigia atherica was reduced on ant mounds, whereas the relative cover of the more grazing-tolerant and palatable grass Festuca rubra was enhanced. Combined grazing by hares and cattle, resulted in homogenization of plant community composition on and off ant mounds, with high overall cover of F. rubra. We conclude that hares can respond to local ant-soil-vegetation interactions, because they are small, selective herbivores that make their foraging decisions on a local scale. This results in small-scale plant patches on mounds of yellow meadow ants. In the presence of cattle, which are less selective aboveground herbivores, local plant community patterns triggered by small-scale aboveground-belowground interactions can disappear. Therefore, cattle modify the consequences of aboveground-belowground interactions for small-scale plant community composition.

  14. Putative linkages between below- and aboveground mutualisms during alien plant invasions

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Traveset, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the fundamental role of below–aboveground links in controlling ecosystem processes is mostly based on studies done with soil herbivores or mutualists and aboveground herbivores. Much less is known about the links between belowground and aboveground mutualisms, which have been studied separately for decades. It has not been until recently that these mutualisms—mycorrhizas and legume–rhizobia on one hand, and pollinators and seed dispersers on the other hand—have been found to influence each other, with potential ecological and evolutionary consequences. Here we review the mechanisms that may link these two-level mutualisms, mostly reported for native plant species, and make predictions about their relevance during alien plant invasions. We propose that alien plants establishing effective mutualisms with belowground microbes might improve their reproductive success through positive interactions between those mutualists and pollinators and seed dispersers. On the other hand, changes in the abundance and diversity of soil mutualists induced by invasion can also interfere with below–aboveground links for native plant species. We conclude that further research on this topic is needed in the field of invasion ecology as it can provide interesting clues on synergistic interactions and invasional meltdowns during alien plant invasions. PMID:26034049

  15. Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity.

    PubMed

    Wagg, Cameron; Jansa, Jan; Schmid, Bernhard; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2011-10-01

    Soil microbes play key roles in ecosystems, yet the impact of their diversity on plant communities is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the diversity of belowground plant-associated soil fungi promotes plant productivity and plant coexistence. Using additive partitioning of biodiversity effects developed in plant biodiversity studies, we demonstrate that this positive relationship can be driven by complementarity effects among soil fungi in one soil type and by a selection effect resulting from the fungal species that stimulated plant productivity the most in another soil type. Selection and complementarity effects among fungal species contributed to improving plant productivity up to 82% and 85%, respectively, above the average of the respective fungal species monocultures depending on the soil in which they were grown. These results also indicate that belowground diversity may act as insurance for maintaining plant productivity under differing environmental conditions.

  16. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands.

  17. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands. PMID:27164912

  18. Temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass decreases as spatial variability increases.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, Devan Allen; Hovick, Torre J; Elmore, R Dwayne; Engle, David M; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Winter, Stephen L; Miller, James R; Debinski, Diane M

    2016-03-01

    Ecological theory predicts that diversity decreases variability in ecosystem function. We predict that, at the landscape scale, spatial variability created by a mosaic of contrasting patches that differ in time since disturbance will decrease temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. Using data from a multi-year study of seven grazed tallgrass prairie landscapes, each experimentally managed for one to eight patches, we show that increased spatial variability driven by spatially patchy fire and herbivory reduces temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. This pattern is associated with statistical evidence for the portfolio effect and a positive relationship between temporal variability and functional group synchrony as predicted by metacommunity variability theory. As disturbance from fire and grazing interact to create a shifting mosaic of spatially heterogeneous patches within a landscape, temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass can be dampened. These results suggest that spatially heterogeneous disturbance regimes contribute to a portfolio of ecosystem functions provided by biodiversity, including wildlife habitat, fuel, and forage. We discuss how spatial patterns of disturbance drive variability within and among patches. PMID:27197382

  19. Temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass decreases as spatial variability increases.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, Devan Allen; Hovick, Torre J; Elmore, R Dwayne; Engle, David M; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Winter, Stephen L; Miller, James R; Debinski, Diane M

    2016-03-01

    Ecological theory predicts that diversity decreases variability in ecosystem function. We predict that, at the landscape scale, spatial variability created by a mosaic of contrasting patches that differ in time since disturbance will decrease temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. Using data from a multi-year study of seven grazed tallgrass prairie landscapes, each experimentally managed for one to eight patches, we show that increased spatial variability driven by spatially patchy fire and herbivory reduces temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. This pattern is associated with statistical evidence for the portfolio effect and a positive relationship between temporal variability and functional group synchrony as predicted by metacommunity variability theory. As disturbance from fire and grazing interact to create a shifting mosaic of spatially heterogeneous patches within a landscape, temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass can be dampened. These results suggest that spatially heterogeneous disturbance regimes contribute to a portfolio of ecosystem functions provided by biodiversity, including wildlife habitat, fuel, and forage. We discuss how spatial patterns of disturbance drive variability within and among patches.

  20. Plant diversity impacts decomposition and herbivory via changes in aboveground arthropods.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Anne; Meyer, Sebastian T; Abbas, Maike; Eisenhauer, Nico; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lange, Markus; Scherber, Christoph; Vogel, Anja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2014-01-01

    Loss of plant diversity influences essential ecosystem processes as aboveground productivity, and can have cascading effects on the arthropod communities in adjacent trophic levels. However, few studies have examined how those changes in arthropod communities can have additional impacts on ecosystem processes caused by them (e.g. pollination, bioturbation, predation, decomposition, herbivory). Therefore, including arthropod effects in predictions of the impact of plant diversity loss on such ecosystem processes is an important but little studied piece of information. In a grassland biodiversity experiment, we addressed this gap by assessing aboveground decomposer and herbivore communities and linking their abundance and diversity to rates of decomposition and herbivory. Path analyses showed that increasing plant diversity led to higher abundance and diversity of decomposing arthropods through higher plant biomass. Higher species richness of decomposers, in turn, enhanced decomposition. Similarly, species-rich plant communities hosted a higher abundance and diversity of herbivores through elevated plant biomass and C:N ratio, leading to higher herbivory rates. Integrating trophic interactions into the study of biodiversity effects is required to understand the multiple pathways by which biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning.

  1. Plant Diversity Impacts Decomposition and Herbivory via Changes in Aboveground Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Anne; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Abbas, Maike; Eisenhauer, Nico; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lange, Markus; Scherber, Christoph; Vogel, Anja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of plant diversity influences essential ecosystem processes as aboveground productivity, and can have cascading effects on the arthropod communities in adjacent trophic levels. However, few studies have examined how those changes in arthropod communities can have additional impacts on ecosystem processes caused by them (e.g. pollination, bioturbation, predation, decomposition, herbivory). Therefore, including arthropod effects in predictions of the impact of plant diversity loss on such ecosystem processes is an important but little studied piece of information. In a grassland biodiversity experiment, we addressed this gap by assessing aboveground decomposer and herbivore communities and linking their abundance and diversity to rates of decomposition and herbivory. Path analyses showed that increasing plant diversity led to higher abundance and diversity of decomposing arthropods through higher plant biomass. Higher species richness of decomposers, in turn, enhanced decomposition. Similarly, species-rich plant communities hosted a higher abundance and diversity of herbivores through elevated plant biomass and C:N ratio, leading to higher herbivory rates. Integrating trophic interactions into the study of biodiversity effects is required to understand the multiple pathways by which biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning. PMID:25226237

  2. Contribution of aboveground plant respiration to carbon cycling in a Bornean tropical rainforet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Tanaka, Kenzo; Ichie, Tomoaki; Kume, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ohashi, Mizue; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2014-05-01

    Bornean tropical rainforests have a different characteristic from Amazonian tropical rainforests, that is, larger aboveground biomass caused by higher stand density of large trees. Larger biomass may cause different carbon cycling and allocation pattern. However, there are fewer studies on carbon allocation and each component in Bornean tropical rainforests, especially for aboveground plant respiration, compared to Amazonian forests. In this study, we measured woody tissue respiration and leaf respiration, and estimated those in ecosystem scale in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Then, we examined carbon allocation using the data of soil respiration and aboveground net primary production obtained from our previous studies. Woody tissue respiration rate was positively correlated with diameter at breast height (dbh) and stem growth rate. Using the relationships and biomass data, we estimated woody tissue respiration in ecosystem scale though methods of scaling resulted in different estimates values (4.52 - 9.33 MgC ha-1 yr-1). Woody tissue respiration based on surface area (8.88 MgC ha-1 yr-1) was larger than those in Amazon because of large aboveground biomass (563.0 Mg ha-1). Leaf respiration rate was positively correlated with height. Using the relationship and leaf area density data at each 5-m height, leaf respiration in ecosystem scale was estimated (9.46 MgC ha-1 yr-1), which was similar to those in Amazon because of comparable LAI (5.8 m2 m-2). Gross primary production estimated from biometric measurements (44.81 MgC ha-1 yr-1) was much higher than those in Amazon, and more carbon was allocated to woody tissue respiration and total belowground carbon flux. Large tree with dbh > 60cm accounted for about half of aboveground biomass and aboveground biomass increment. Soil respiration was also related to position of large trees, resulting in high soil respiration rate in this study site. Photosynthesis ability of top canopy for large trees was high and leaves for

  3. Estimating aboveground biomass for broadleaf woody plants and young conifers in Sierra Nevada, California forests.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Shook, Christine D.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of biomass is fundamental to a wide range of research and natural resource management goals. An accurate estimation of plant biomass is essential to predict potential fire behavior, calculate carbon sequestration for global climate change research, assess critical wildlife habitat, and so forth. Reliable allometric equations from simple field measurements are necessary for efficient evaluation of plant biomass. However, allometric equations are not available for many common woody plant taxa in the Sierra Nevada. In this report, we present more than 200 regression equations for the Sierra Nevada western slope that relate crown diameter, plant height, crown volume, stem diameter, and both crown diameter and height to the dry weight of foliage, branches, and entire aboveground biomass. Destructive sampling methods resulted in regression equations that accurately predict biomass from one or two simple, nondestructive field measurements. The tables presented here will allow researchers and natural resource managers to easily choose the best equations to fit their biomass assessment needs.

  4. Estimating aboveground biomass for broadleaf woody plants and young conifers in Sierra Nevada, California, forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGinnis, T.W.; Shook, C.D.; Keeley, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of biomass is fundamental to a wide range of research and natural resource management goals. An accurate estimation of plant biomass is essential to predict potential fire behavior, calculate carbon sequestration for global climate change research, assess critical wildlife habitat, and so forth. Reliable allometric equations from simple field measurements are necessary for efficient evaluation of plant biomass. However, allometric equations are not available for many common woody plant taxa in the Sierra Nevada. In this report, we present more than 200 regression equations for the Sierra Nevada western slope that relate crown diameter, plant height, crown volume, stem diameter, and both crown diameter and height to the dry weight of foliage, branches, and entire aboveground biomass. Destructive sampling methods resulted in regression equations that accurately predict biomass from one or two simple, nondestructive field measurements. The tables presented here will allow researchers and natural resource managers to easily choose the best equations to fit their biomass assessment needs.

  5. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Kai; Yuan, Mengting M.; Xie, Jianping; Li, Dejun; Qin, Yujia; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened. PMID:27677789

  6. Long-term patterns in tropical reforestation: plant community composition and aboveground biomass accumulation.

    PubMed

    Marín-Spiotta, E; Ostertag, R; Silver, W L

    2007-04-01

    Primary tropical forests are renowned for their high biodiversity and carbon storage, and considerable research has documented both species and carbon losses with deforestation and agricultural land uses. Economic drivers are now leading to the abandonment of agricultural lands, and the area in secondary forests is increasing. We know little about how long it takes for these ecosystems to achieve the structural and compositional characteristics of primary forests. In this study, we examine changes in plant species composition and aboveground biomass during eight decades of tropical secondary succession in Puerto Rico, and compare these patterns with primary forests. Using a well-replicated chronosequence approach, we sampled primary forests and secondary forests established 10, 20, 30, 60, and 80 years ago on abandoned pastures. Tree species composition in all secondary forests was different from that of primary forests and could be divided into early (10-, 20-, and 30-year) vs. late (60- and 80-year) successional phases. The highest rates of aboveground biomass accumulation occurred in the first 20 years, with rates of C sequestration peaking at 6.7 +/- 0.5 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1). Reforestation of pastures resulted in an accumulation of 125 Mg C/ha in aboveground standing live biomass over 80 years. The 80 year-old secondary forests had greater biomass than the primary forests, due to the replacement of woody species by palms in the primary forests. Our results show that these new ecosystems have different species composition, but similar species richness, and significant potential for carbon sequestration, compared to remnant primary forests. PMID:17494400

  7. Plant systemic induced responses mediate interactions between root parasitic nematodes and aboveground herbivorous insects

    PubMed Central

    Wondafrash, Mesfin; Van Dam, Nicole M.; Tytgat, Tom O. G.

    2013-01-01

    Insects and nematodes are the most diverse and abundant groups of multicellular animals feeding on plants on either side of the soil–air interface. Several herbivore-induced responses are systemic, and hence can influence the preference and performance of organisms in other plant organs. Recent studies show that plants mediate interactions between belowground plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) and aboveground herbivorous insects. Based on the knowledge of plant responses to pathogens, we review the emerging insights on plant systemic responses against root-feeding nematodes and shoot-feeding insects. We discuss the potential mechanisms of plant-mediated indirect interactions between both groups of organisms and point to gaps in our knowledge. Root-feeding nematodes can positively or negatively affect shoot herbivorous insects, and vice versa. The outcomes of the interactions between these spatially separated herbivore communities appear to be influenced by the feeding strategy of the nematodes and the insects, as well as by host plant susceptibility to both herbivores. The potential mechanisms for these interactions include systemic induced plant defense, interference with the translocation and dynamics of locally induced secondary metabolites, and reallocation of plant nutritional reserves. During evolution, PPNs as well as herbivorous insects have acquired effectors that modify plant defense responses and resource allocation patterns to their advantage. However, it is also known that plants under herbivore attack change the allocation of their resources, e.g., for compensatory growth responses, which may affect the performance of other organisms feeding on the plant. Studying the chemical and molecular basis of these interactions will reveal the molecular mechanisms that are involved. Moreover, it will lead to a better understanding of the ecological relevance of aboveground–belowground interactions, as well as support the development of sustainable pest

  8. Carbon dynamics in aboveground biomass of co-dominant plant species: related rather to leaf life span than to species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostler, Ulrike; Schleip, Inga; Lattanzi, Fernando A.; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the role of individual organisms in whole ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes. It is currently unknown if different plant community members share the same or different kinetics of C pools in aboveground biomass, thereby adding (or not) variability to the first steps in ecosystem C cycling. We assessed the residence times in metabolic and non-metabolic (or structural) C pools and the allocation pattern of assimilated C in aboveground plant parts of four co-existing, co-dominant species from different functional groups in a temperate grassland community. For this purpose continuous, 14-16 day long 13CO2/12CO2-labeling experiments were performed in Sept. 2006, May 2007 and Sept. 2007, and the tracer kinetics were analysed with compartmental modeling. In all experimental periods, the species shared vastly similar residence times in metabolic C (5-8 d). In contrast, the residence times in non-metabolic C ranged from 20 to 58 d (except one outlier) and the fraction of fixed C allocated to the non-metabolic pool from 7 to 45%. These variations in non-metabolic C kinetics were not systematically associated with species or experimental periods, but exhibited close relationships with (independent estimates of) leaf life span, particularly in the grasses. This adds new meaning to leaf life span as a functional trait in the leaf and plant economics spectrum and its implication for C cycle studies in grassland and also forest systems. As the four co-dominant species accounted for ~80% of total community shoot biomass, we should also expect that the observed similarities in pool kinetics and allocation will scale up to similar relationships at the community level.

  9. Wired to the roots: impact of root-beneficial microbe interactions on aboveground plant physiology and protection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amutha Sampath; Bais, Harsh P

    2012-12-01

    Often, plant-pathogenic microbe interactions are discussed in a host-microbe two-component system, however very little is known about how the diversity of rhizospheric microbes that associate with plants affect host performance against pathogens. There are various studies, which specially direct the importance of induced systemic defense (ISR) response in plants interacting with beneficial rhizobacteria, yet we don't know how rhizobacterial associations modulate plant physiology. In here, we highlight the many dimensions within which plant roots associate with beneficial microbes by regulating aboveground physiology. We review approaches to study the causes and consequences of plant root association with beneficial microbes on aboveground plant-pathogen interactions. The review provides the foundations for future investigations into the impact of the root beneficial microbial associations on plant performance and innate defense responses.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, plant chemistry, and aboveground herbivory on Senecio jacobaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidinger, Stefan; Eschen, René; Gange, Alan C.; Finch, Paul; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect insect herbivores by changing plant growth and chemistry. However, many factors can influence the symbiotic relationship between plant and fungus, potentially obscuring experimental treatments and ecosystem impacts. In a field experiment, we assessed AMF colonization levels of individual ragwort ( Senecio jacobaea) plants growing in grassland plots that were originally sown with 15 or 4 plant species, or were unsown. We measured the concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), and assessed the presence of aboveground insect herbivores on the sampled plants. Total AMF colonization and colonization by arbuscules was lower in plots sown with 15 species than in plots sown with 4 species and unsown plots. AMF colonization was positively related to the cover of oxeye daisy ( Leucanthemum vulgare) and a positive relationship between colonization by arbuscules and the occurrence of a specialist seed-feeding fly ( Pegohylemyia seneciella) was found. The occurrence of stem-boring, leaf-mining and sap-sucking insects was not affected by AMF colonization. Total PA concentrations were negatively related to colonization levels by vesicles, but did not differ among the sowing treatments. No single factor explained the observed differences in AMF colonization among the sowing treatments or insect herbivore occurrence on S. jacobaea. However, correlations across the treatments suggest that some of the variation was due to the abundance of one plant species, which is known to stimulate AMF colonization of neighbouring plants, while AMF colonization was related to the occurrence of a specialist insect herbivore. Our results thus illustrate that in natural systems, the ecosystem impact of AMF through their influence on the occurrence of specialist insects can be recognised, but they also highlight the confounding effect of neighbouring plant species identity. Hence, our results emphasise the importance of field

  11. The response of aboveground plant productivity to earlier snowmelt and summer warming in an Arctic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livensperger, C.; Steltzer, H.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Sullivan, P.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Weintraub, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Plant communities in the Arctic are undergoing changes in structure and function due to shifts in seasonality from changing winters and summer warming. These changes will impact biogeochemical cycling, surface energy balance, and functioning of vertebrate and invertebrate communities. To examine seasonal controls on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in a moist acidic tundra ecosystem in northern Alaska, we shifted the growing season by accelerating snowmelt (using radiation absorbing shadecloth) and warming air and soil temperature (using 1 m2 open-top chambers), individually and in combination. After three years, we measured ANPP by harvesting up to 16 individual ramets, tillers and rhizomes for each of 7 plant species, including two deciduous shrubs, two graminoids, two evergreen shrubs and one forb during peak season. Our results show that ANPP per stem summed across the 7 species increased when snow melt occurred earlier. However, standing biomass, excluding current year growth, was also greater. The ratio of ANPP/standing biomass decreased in all treatments compared to the control. ANPP per unit standing biomass summed for the four shrub species decreases due to summer warming alone or in combination with early snowmelt; however early snowmelt alone did not lead to lower ANPP for the shrubs. ANPP per tiller or rhizome summed for the three herbaceous species increased in response to summer warming. Understanding the differential response of plants to changing seasonality will inform predictions of future Arctic plant community structure and function.

  12. Effects of plant vascular architecture on aboveground-belowground-induced responses to foliar and root herbivores on Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ian; Halitschke, Rayko; Kessler, André; Sardanelli, Sandra; Denno, Robert F

    2008-10-01

    Herbivores induce systemic changes in plant traits, and the strength of these induced responses is often associated with the degree of vascular connectivity that links damaged and undamaged plant tissues. Although this phenomenon is known to occur aboveground in leaves, it is unknown whether or not leaf-root induction similarly follows the vascular architecture of plants. To test for this possibility, we manipulated foliar and root herbivory on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) by the leaf-chewing insect Spodoptera exigua and the root-galling nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Subsequent changes in secondary chemistry (alkaloids and phenolics) were measured in leaves and roots that were orthostichous (vertically aligned) and nonorthostichous (opposite) from the herbivore-damaged tissues. Aboveground caterpillar herbivory elicited stronger secondary chemical responses in orthostichous compared with nonorthostichous plant tissues, although the magnitude of this difference was greater in leaves than roots. However, belowground nematode herbivory did not affect the secondary chemistry of tobacco leaves, despite inducing strong local responses in roots. Thus, plant vascular architecture can mediate the magnitude of systemic induction in roots as well as in leaves, with stronger responses in tissues that are more closely aligned. As a result, herbivores that co-occur on the same sector of plant (both aboveground and belowground) may be more likely to affect one another via induced responses than herbivores that occur on plant tissues sharing fewer resources.

  13. Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of warming and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David

    2016-02-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of environmental change, including climate warming and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of warming on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and warming, and, in concert, warming (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground warming over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground warming effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of warming-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of warming-induced environmental conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with warming in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity warming had no detectable effect. This may be because warming increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative warming × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of warming on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that warming and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both

  14. Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of warming and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David

    2016-02-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of environmental change, including climate warming and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of warming on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and warming, and, in concert, warming (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground warming over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground warming effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of warming-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of warming-induced environmental conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with warming in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity warming had no detectable effect. This may be because warming increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative warming × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of warming on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that warming and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both

  15. Effects of root herbivory on pyrrolizidine alkaloid content and aboveground plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions in Jacobaea vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kostenko, Olga; Mulder, Patrick P J; Bezemer, T Martijn

    2013-01-01

    The importance of root herbivory is increasingly recognized in ecological studies, and the effects of root herbivory on plant growth, chemistry, and performance of aboveground herbivores have been relatively well studied. However, how belowground herbivory by root feeding insects affects aboveground parasitoid development is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of root herbivory by wireworms (Agriotes lineatus) on the expression of primary and secondary compounds in the leaves and roots of ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris). We also studied the effects of root herbivory on the performance of a generalist aboveground herbivore, Mamestra brassicae and its parasitoid Microplitis mediator. In contrast to what most other studies have reported, root herbivory in J. vulgaris had a strong negative effect on the total concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in shoot tissues. The composition of PAs in the shoots also changed after root herbivory. In particular, the concentration of less toxic N-oxide PAs decreased. There was no significant effect of root herbivory on PA composition and concentration in the roots. Although the concentration of PA in the leaves decreased, M. brassicae tended to grow slower on the plants exposed to root herbivory. Parasitoid performance was not affected by root herbivory, but parasitoids developed faster when the concentration of jacobine-type PAs in the foliage was higher. These results point at a putative role of individual PAs in multitrophic interactions and emphasize that generalizations about aboveground-belowground effects should be made with great caution.

  16. [Effects of phosphorus fertilizer on the root system and its relationship with the aboveground part of flue-cured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-li; Liu, Guo-shun; Ding, Song-shuang; Wang, Jing; Li, Yuan-bo; Dong, Xiao-li

    2015-05-01

    Using 'Yuyan 10' as the material, the effects of different phosphorus fertilizer application on root characteristics of tobacco, such as root dry mass and the difference of dry matter distribution and mineral nutrient accumulation between its above and underground parts were investigated. The results showed that the growth of flue-cured tobacco root system and the distribution of dry matter to the aboveground part were significantly promoted by phosphorus fertilizer application. The application of 30 kg P2O5 · hm(-2) led to the maximums of root dry mass, root volume, root activity and the minimum of root to shoot ratio. The maximum nutrient accumulation rates of root and leaf appeared 57-66 days after transplanting and 44-55 days after transplanting, respectively. Phosphorus could not only promote the mineral nutrition absorption of tobacco and the earlier appearance of maximum nutrient accumulation, but significantly promote the nutrient accumulation of the aboveground part. But, the positive effects described above would be weakened when the amount of phosphorus fertilizer was more than 30 kg P2O5 · hm(-2). Therefore, it's necessary to control the amount of phosphorus application to improve the quality of tobacco leaves.

  17. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  18. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  19. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  20. The response of tundra plant biomass, above-ground production, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} flux to experimental warming

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbie, S.E.; Chapin, F.S. III

    1998-07-01

    The authors manipulated air temperature in tussock tundra near Toolik Lake, Alaska, and determined the consequences for total plant biomass, aboveground net primary production (ANPP), ecosystem nitrogen (N) pools and N uptake, and ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux. After 3.5 growing seasons, in situ plastic greenhouses that raised air temperature during the growing season had little effect on total biomass, N content, or growing-season N uptake of the major plant and soil pools. Similarly, vascular ANPP and net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange did not change with warming, although net primary production of mosses decreased with warming. Such general lack of response supports the hypothesis that productivity in tundra is constrained by the indirect effects of cold temperatures rather than by cold growing-season temperatures per se. Despite no effect on net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux, air warming stimulated early-season gross photosynthesis (GP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) throughout the growing season. This increased carbon turnover was probably associated with species-level responses to increased air temperature. Warming increased the aboveground biomass of the overstory shrub, dwarf birch (Betula nana), and caused a significant net redistribution of N from the understory evergreen shrub, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, to B. nana, despite no effects on soil temperature, total plant N, or N availability.

  1. Dissipation kinetics of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin residues in aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.).

    PubMed

    Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Dissipation of simultaneously applied insecticides alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was studied in a minor crop, aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.). A validated gas chromatographic method (GC-ECD/NPD) was used to determine insecticide residues. Analytical performances were very satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties not higher than 14% (coverage factor k = 2, confidence level 95%). Dissipation of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in white mustard followed first-order kinetics (R(2) between 0.953 and 0.995), with half-lives of 3.1-4.6 and 2.9-3.7 days respectively. Based on the results of this two-year study and the relevant residue regulation, alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments can be considered safe for crop protection, feeding animals and the environment.

  2. Carbon dynamics in aboveground biomass of co-dominant plant species in a temperate grassland ecosystem: same or different?

    PubMed

    Ostler, Ulrike; Schleip, Inga; Lattanzi, Fernando A; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of individual organisms in whole-ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes is probably the biggest current challenge in C cycle research. Thus, it is unknown whether different plant community members share the same or different residence times in metabolic (τmetab ) and nonmetabolic (i.e. structural) (τnonmetab ) C pools of aboveground biomass and the fraction of fixed C allocated to aboveground nonmetabolic biomass (Anonmetab ). We assessed τmetab , τnonmetab and Anonmetab of co-dominant species from different functional groups (two bunchgrasses, a stoloniferous legume and a rosette dicot) in a temperate grassland community. Continuous, 14-16-d-long (13) C-labeling experiments were performed in September 2006, May 2007 and September 2007. A two-pool compartmental system, with a well-mixed metabolic and a nonmixed nonmetabolic pool, was the simplest biologically meaningful model that fitted the (13) C tracer kinetics in the whole-shoot biomass of all species. In all experimental periods, the species had similar τmetab (5-8 d), whereas τnonmetab ranged from 20 to 58 d (except for one outlier) and Anonmetab from 7 to 45%. Variations in τnonmetab and Anonmetab were not systematically associated with species or experimental periods, but exhibited relationships with leaf life span, particularly in the grasses. Similar pool kinetics of species suggested similar kinetics at the community level.

  3. Studies on the sources of benzo[a]pyrene in grain and aboveground tissues of rice plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Peijun; Li, Xiaojun; Stagnitti, Frank; Zhang, Hairong; Lin, Xin; Zang, Shuyan; Zhuo, Junchen; Xiong, Xianzhe

    2009-02-15

    Rice plant pot experiments designed to identify benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) sources in plant tissues were conducted in an air-quality controlled greenhouse built to prevent contamination from B[a]P air pollution. Results from quartz sand cultures with control and 50, 100 and 500 microgkg(-1) of B[a]P treatments were compared with those from outdoor field experiments, in which rice plants were exposed to polluted air in the urban area of Shenyang, China. When B[a]P was strictly controlled in both air and quartz sand culture medium, the background values of B[a]P in rice plant tissues were uniformly very low. There was no significant difference of B[a]P contents of rice grain between control and treatments of B[a]P in controlled air quality trials. This indicated that the source of B[a]P in the rice grains is not from any B[a]P in the root culture media. The B[a]P content of rice grain, husk, and stem with leaf sampled from outdoor field was up to 7.33-, 9.21- and 27.10-fold higher than corresponding tissues from air-quality controlled conditions. This indicated that polluted air is the main source of B[a]P in aboveground tissues. Therefore control of B[a]P pollution in ambient air is of prime importance for improving the quality of cereal crops.

  4. Differentiating between effects of invasion and diversity: impacts of aboveground plant communities on belowground fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Hawkes, Christine V

    2011-01-01

    Exotic plant species can affect soil microbial communities with the potential for community and ecosystem feedbacks. Yet, separating the effects of exotics from confounded changes in plant community diversity still remains a challenge. We focused on how plant diversity and native or exotic life history affected root fungi because of their significant roles in community and ecosystem processes. Specifically, we examined how fungi colonizing plant roots were affected by plant richness (one, two or four species) replicated across a range of plant community mixtures (natives, exotics, native-exotic mixtures). Fungal biomass inside roots was affected independently by plant richness and mixture, while root fungal community composition was affected only by plant richness. Extraradical networks also increased in size with plant richness. By contrast, plant biomass was a function of plant mixture, with natives consistently smaller than exotics and native-exotic mixtures intermediate. Plant invasions may have an impact on the belowground community primarily through their effects on diversity, at least in the short-term. Disentangling the effects of diversity and invasion on belowground microbial communities can help us to understand both the controllers of belowground resilience and mechanisms of successful colonization and spread of exotic plants.

  5. Downstairs drivers--root herbivores shape communities of above-ground herbivores and natural enemies via changes in plant nutrients.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Scott N; Mitchell, Carolyn; McNicol, James W; Thompson, Jacqueline; Karley, Alison J

    2013-09-01

    1. Terrestrial food webs are woven from complex interactions, often underpinned by plant-mediated interactions between herbivores and higher trophic groups. Below- and above-ground herbivores can influence one another via induced changes to a shared host plant, potentially shaping the wider community. However, empirical evidence linking laboratory observations to natural field populations has so far been elusive. 2. This study investigated how root-feeding weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) influence different feeding guilds of herbivore (phloem-feeding aphids, Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, and leaf-chewing sawflies, Nematus olfaciens) in both controlled and field conditions. 3. We hypothesized that root herbivore-induced changes in plant nutrients (C, N, P and amino acids) and defensive compounds (phenolics) would underpin the interactions between root and foliar herbivores, and ultimately populations of natural enemies of the foliar herbivores in the field. 4. Weevils increased field populations of aphids by ca. 700%, which was followed by an increase in the abundance of aphid natural enemies. Weevils increased the proportion of foliar essential amino acids, and this change was positively correlated with aphid abundance, which increased by 90% on plants with weevils in controlled experiments. 5. In contrast, sawfly populations were 77% smaller during mid-June and adult emergence delayed by >14 days on plants with weevils. In controlled experiments, weevils impaired sawfly growth by 18%, which correlated with 35% reductions in leaf phosphorus caused by root herbivory, a previously unreported mechanism for above-ground-below-ground herbivore interactions. 6. This represents a clear demonstration of root herbivores affecting foliar herbivore community composition and natural enemy abundance in the field via two distinct plant-mediated nutritional mechanisms. Aphid populations, in particular, were initially driven by bottom-up effects (i.e. plant-mediated effects of root

  6. Fungal endophytes in above-ground tissues of desert plants: infrequent in culture, but highly diverse and distinctive symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Massimo, Nicholas C.; Nandi Devan, MM; Arendt, Kayla R.; Wilch, Margaret H.; Riddle, Jakob M.; Furr, Susan H.; Steen, Cole; U'Ren, Jana M.; Sandberg, Dustin C.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In hot deserts, plants cope with aridity, high temperatures, and nutrient-poor soils with morphological and biochemical adaptations that encompass intimate microbial symbioses. Whereas the root microbiomes of arid-land plants have received increasing attention, factors influencing assemblages of symbionts in above-ground tissues have not been evaluated for many woody plants that flourish in desert environments. We evaluated the diversity, host affiliations, and distributions of endophytic fungi associated with photosynthetic tissues of desert trees and shrubs, focusing on non-succulent woody plants in the species-rich Sonoran Desert. To inform our strength of inference, we evaluated the effects of two different nutrient media, incubation temperatures, and collection seasons on the apparent structure of endophyte assemblages. Analysis of >22,000 tissue segments revealed that endophytes were isolated four times more frequently from photosynthetic stems than leaves. Isolation frequency was lower than expected given the latitude of the study region, and varied among species a function of sampling site and abiotic factors. However, endophytes were very species-rich and phylogenetically diverse, consistent with less-arid sites of a similar latitudinal position. Community composition differed among host species, but not as a function of tissue type, sampling site, sampling month, or exposure. Estimates of abundance, diversity and composition were not influenced by isolation medium or incubation temperature. Phylogenetic analyses of the most commonly isolated genus (Preussia) revealed multiple evolutionary origins of desert-plant endophytism and little phylogenetic structure with regard to seasonality, tissue preference, or optimal temperatures and nutrients for growth in vitro. Together, these results provide insight into endophytic symbioses in desert plant communities, and can be used to optimize strategies for capturing endophyte biodiversity at regional scales. PMID

  7. Fungal endophytes in aboveground tissues of desert plants: infrequent in culture, but highly diverse and distinctive symbionts.

    PubMed

    Massimo, Nicholas C; Nandi Devan, M M; Arendt, Kayla R; Wilch, Margaret H; Riddle, Jakob M; Furr, Susan H; Steen, Cole; U'Ren, Jana M; Sandberg, Dustin C; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    In hot deserts, plants cope with aridity, high temperatures, and nutrient-poor soils with morphological and biochemical adaptations that encompass intimate microbial symbioses. Whereas the root microbiomes of arid-land plants have received increasing attention, factors influencing assemblages of symbionts in aboveground tissues have not been evaluated for many woody plants that flourish in desert environments. We evaluated the diversity, host affiliations, and distributions of endophytic fungi associated with photosynthetic tissues of desert trees and shrubs, focusing on nonsucculent woody plants in the species-rich Sonoran Desert. To inform our strength of inference, we evaluated the effects of two different nutrient media, incubation temperatures, and collection seasons on the apparent structure of endophyte assemblages. Analysis of >22,000 tissue segments revealed that endophytes were isolated four times more frequently from photosynthetic stems than leaves. Isolation frequency was lower than expected given the latitude of the study region and varied among species a function of sampling site and abiotic factors. However, endophytes were very species-rich and phylogenetically diverse, consistent with less arid sites of a similar latitudinal position. Community composition differed among host species, but not as a function of tissue type, sampling site, sampling month, or exposure. Estimates of abundance, diversity, and composition were not influenced by isolation medium or incubation temperature. Phylogenetic analyses of the most commonly isolated genus (Preussia) revealed multiple evolutionary origins of desert-plant endophytism and little phylogenetic structure with regard to seasonality, tissue preference, or optimal temperatures and nutrients for growth in vitro. Together, these results provide insight into endophytic symbioses in desert-plant communities and can be used to optimize strategies for capturing endophyte biodiversity at regional scales.

  8. Experimental Manipulation of Grassland Plant Diversity Induces Complex Shifts in Aboveground Arthropod Diversity.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Lionel R; Meyer, Sebastian T; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Ebeling, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Changes in producer diversity cause multiple changes in consumer communities through various mechanisms. However, past analyses investigating the relationship between plant diversity and arthropod consumers focused only on few aspects of arthropod diversity, e.g. species richness and abundance. Yet, shifts in understudied facets of arthropod diversity like relative abundances or species dominance may have strong effects on arthropod-mediated ecosystem functions. Here we analyze the relationship between plant species richness and arthropod diversity using four complementary diversity indices, namely: abundance, species richness, evenness (equitability of the abundance distribution) and dominance (relative abundance of the dominant species). Along an experimental gradient of plant species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 60 plant species), we sampled herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods using pitfall traps and suction sampling during a whole vegetation period. We tested whether plant species richness affects consumer diversity directly (i), or indirectly through increased productivity (ii). Further, we tested the impact of plant community composition on arthropod diversity by testing for the effects of plant functional groups (iii). Abundance and species richness of both herbivores and carnivores increased with increasing plant species richness, but the underlying mechanisms differed between the two trophic groups. While higher species richness in herbivores was caused by an increase in resource diversity, carnivore richness was driven by plant productivity. Evenness of herbivore communities did not change along the gradient in plant species richness, whereas evenness of carnivores declined. The abundance of dominant herbivore species showed no response to changes in plant species richness, but the dominant carnivores were more abundant in species-rich plant communities. The functional composition of plant communities had small impacts on herbivore communities, whereas

  9. Experimental Manipulation of Grassland Plant Diversity Induces Complex Shifts in Aboveground Arthropod Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hertzog, Lionel R.; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Ebeling, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Changes in producer diversity cause multiple changes in consumer communities through various mechanisms. However, past analyses investigating the relationship between plant diversity and arthropod consumers focused only on few aspects of arthropod diversity, e.g. species richness and abundance. Yet, shifts in understudied facets of arthropod diversity like relative abundances or species dominance may have strong effects on arthropod-mediated ecosystem functions. Here we analyze the relationship between plant species richness and arthropod diversity using four complementary diversity indices, namely: abundance, species richness, evenness (equitability of the abundance distribution) and dominance (relative abundance of the dominant species). Along an experimental gradient of plant species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 60 plant species), we sampled herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods using pitfall traps and suction sampling during a whole vegetation period. We tested whether plant species richness affects consumer diversity directly (i), or indirectly through increased productivity (ii). Further, we tested the impact of plant community composition on arthropod diversity by testing for the effects of plant functional groups (iii). Abundance and species richness of both herbivores and carnivores increased with increasing plant species richness, but the underlying mechanisms differed between the two trophic groups. While higher species richness in herbivores was caused by an increase in resource diversity, carnivore richness was driven by plant productivity. Evenness of herbivore communities did not change along the gradient in plant species richness, whereas evenness of carnivores declined. The abundance of dominant herbivore species showed no response to changes in plant species richness, but the dominant carnivores were more abundant in species-rich plant communities. The functional composition of plant communities had small impacts on herbivore communities, whereas

  10. Experimental Manipulation of Grassland Plant Diversity Induces Complex Shifts in Aboveground Arthropod Diversity.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Lionel R; Meyer, Sebastian T; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Ebeling, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Changes in producer diversity cause multiple changes in consumer communities through various mechanisms. However, past analyses investigating the relationship between plant diversity and arthropod consumers focused only on few aspects of arthropod diversity, e.g. species richness and abundance. Yet, shifts in understudied facets of arthropod diversity like relative abundances or species dominance may have strong effects on arthropod-mediated ecosystem functions. Here we analyze the relationship between plant species richness and arthropod diversity using four complementary diversity indices, namely: abundance, species richness, evenness (equitability of the abundance distribution) and dominance (relative abundance of the dominant species). Along an experimental gradient of plant species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 60 plant species), we sampled herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods using pitfall traps and suction sampling during a whole vegetation period. We tested whether plant species richness affects consumer diversity directly (i), or indirectly through increased productivity (ii). Further, we tested the impact of plant community composition on arthropod diversity by testing for the effects of plant functional groups (iii). Abundance and species richness of both herbivores and carnivores increased with increasing plant species richness, but the underlying mechanisms differed between the two trophic groups. While higher species richness in herbivores was caused by an increase in resource diversity, carnivore richness was driven by plant productivity. Evenness of herbivore communities did not change along the gradient in plant species richness, whereas evenness of carnivores declined. The abundance of dominant herbivore species showed no response to changes in plant species richness, but the dominant carnivores were more abundant in species-rich plant communities. The functional composition of plant communities had small impacts on herbivore communities, whereas

  11. Testing the generality of above-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types at the continent scale.

    PubMed

    Paul, Keryn I; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Chave, Jerome; England, Jacqueline R; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Specht, Alison; Lewis, Tom; Bennett, Lauren T; Baker, Thomas G; Adams, Mark A; Huxtable, Dan; Montagu, Kelvin D; Falster, Daniel S; Feller, Mike; Sochacki, Stan; Ritson, Peter; Bastin, Gary; Bartle, John; Wildy, Dan; Hobbs, Trevor; Larmour, John; Waterworth, Rob; Stewart, Hugh T L; Jonson, Justin; Forrester, David I; Applegate, Grahame; Mendham, Daniel; Bradford, Matt; O'Grady, Anthony; Green, Daryl; Sudmeyer, Rob; Rance, Stan J; Turner, John; Barton, Craig; Wenk, Elizabeth H; Grove, Tim; Attiwill, Peter M; Pinkard, Elizabeth; Butler, Don; Brooksbank, Kim; Spencer, Beren; Snowdon, Peter; O'Brien, Nick; Battaglia, Michael; Cameron, David M; Hamilton, Steve; McAuthur, Geoff; Sinclair, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground-based estimation of the carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems is critical to quantifying the global carbon budget. Allometric models provide cost-effective methods for biomass prediction. But do such models vary with ecoregion or plant functional type? We compiled 15 054 measurements of individual tree or shrub biomass from across Australia to examine the generality of allometric models for above-ground biomass prediction. This provided a robust case study because Australia includes ecoregions ranging from arid shrublands to tropical rainforests, and has a rich history of biomass research, particularly in planted forests. Regardless of ecoregion, for five broad categories of plant functional type (shrubs; multistemmed trees; trees of the genus Eucalyptus and closely related genera; other trees of high wood density; and other trees of low wood density), relationships between biomass and stem diameter were generic. Simple power-law models explained 84-95% of the variation in biomass, with little improvement in model performance when other plant variables (height, bole wood density), or site characteristics (climate, age, management) were included. Predictions of stand-based biomass from allometric models of varying levels of generalization (species-specific, plant functional type) were validated using whole-plot harvest data from 17 contrasting stands (range: 9-356 Mg ha(-1) ). Losses in efficiency of prediction were <1% if generalized models were used in place of species-specific models. Furthermore, application of generalized multispecies models did not introduce significant bias in biomass prediction in 92% of the 53 species tested. Further, overall efficiency of stand-level biomass prediction was 99%, with a mean absolute prediction error of only 13%. Hence, for cost-effective prediction of biomass across a wide range of stands, we recommend use of generic allometric models based on plant functional types. Development of new species

  12. Testing the generality of above-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types at the continent scale.

    PubMed

    Paul, Keryn I; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Chave, Jerome; England, Jacqueline R; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Specht, Alison; Lewis, Tom; Bennett, Lauren T; Baker, Thomas G; Adams, Mark A; Huxtable, Dan; Montagu, Kelvin D; Falster, Daniel S; Feller, Mike; Sochacki, Stan; Ritson, Peter; Bastin, Gary; Bartle, John; Wildy, Dan; Hobbs, Trevor; Larmour, John; Waterworth, Rob; Stewart, Hugh T L; Jonson, Justin; Forrester, David I; Applegate, Grahame; Mendham, Daniel; Bradford, Matt; O'Grady, Anthony; Green, Daryl; Sudmeyer, Rob; Rance, Stan J; Turner, John; Barton, Craig; Wenk, Elizabeth H; Grove, Tim; Attiwill, Peter M; Pinkard, Elizabeth; Butler, Don; Brooksbank, Kim; Spencer, Beren; Snowdon, Peter; O'Brien, Nick; Battaglia, Michael; Cameron, David M; Hamilton, Steve; McAuthur, Geoff; Sinclair, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground-based estimation of the carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems is critical to quantifying the global carbon budget. Allometric models provide cost-effective methods for biomass prediction. But do such models vary with ecoregion or plant functional type? We compiled 15 054 measurements of individual tree or shrub biomass from across Australia to examine the generality of allometric models for above-ground biomass prediction. This provided a robust case study because Australia includes ecoregions ranging from arid shrublands to tropical rainforests, and has a rich history of biomass research, particularly in planted forests. Regardless of ecoregion, for five broad categories of plant functional type (shrubs; multistemmed trees; trees of the genus Eucalyptus and closely related genera; other trees of high wood density; and other trees of low wood density), relationships between biomass and stem diameter were generic. Simple power-law models explained 84-95% of the variation in biomass, with little improvement in model performance when other plant variables (height, bole wood density), or site characteristics (climate, age, management) were included. Predictions of stand-based biomass from allometric models of varying levels of generalization (species-specific, plant functional type) were validated using whole-plot harvest data from 17 contrasting stands (range: 9-356 Mg ha(-1) ). Losses in efficiency of prediction were <1% if generalized models were used in place of species-specific models. Furthermore, application of generalized multispecies models did not introduce significant bias in biomass prediction in 92% of the 53 species tested. Further, overall efficiency of stand-level biomass prediction was 99%, with a mean absolute prediction error of only 13%. Hence, for cost-effective prediction of biomass across a wide range of stands, we recommend use of generic allometric models based on plant functional types. Development of new species

  13. Longevity of contributions to SOC stocks from roots and aboveground plant litter below a Miscanthus plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Andrew; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; Bottoms, Emily; McNamara, Niall

    2013-04-01

    Miscanthus is a lignocellulosic crop that uses the Hatch-Slack (C4) photosynthetic pathway as opposed to most C3 vegetation native to the UK. Miscanthus can be grown for a number of practical end-uses but recently interest has increased in its viability as a bioenergy crop; both providing a renewable source of energy and helping to limit climate change by improving the carbon (C) budgets associated with energy generation. Recent studies have shown that Miscanthus plantations may increase stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), however the longevity and origin of this 'new' SOC must be assessed. Consequently, we combined an input manipulation experiment with physio-chemical soil fractionation to quantify new SOC and CO2 emissions from Miscanthus roots, decomposing plant litter and soil individually. Further, fractionation of SOC from the top 30 cm gave insight into the longevity of that SOC. In January 2009 twenty-five 2 m2 plots were set up in a three-year old 11 hectare Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK; with five replicates of five treatments. These treatments varied plant input to the soil by way of controlled exclusion techniques. Treatments excluded roots only ("No Roots"), surface litter only ("No Litter"), both roots and surface litter ("No Roots or Litter") or had double the litter amount added to the soil surface ("Double Litter"). A fifth treatment was a control with undisturbed roots and an average amount of litter added. Monthly measurements of CO2 emissions were taken at the soil surface from each treatment between March 2009 and March 2013, and soil C from the top 30 cm was monitored in all plots over the same period. Miscanthus-derived SOC was determined using the isotopic discrimination between C4 plant matter and C3 soil, and soil fractionation was then used to establish the longevity of that Miscanthus-derived SOC. Ongoing results for CO2 emissions indicate a strong seasonal variation; litter decomposition forms a large portion of the CO2

  14. Recovery of aboveground plant biomass and productivity after fire in mesic and dry black spruce forests of interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, M.C.; Treseder, K.K.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Vogel, J.G.; Randerson, J.T.; Chapin, F. S.

    2008-01-01

    Plant biomass accumulation and productivity are important determinants of ecosystem carbon (C) balance during post-fire succession. In boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forests near Delta Junction, Alaska, we quantified aboveground plant biomass and net primary productivity (ANPP) for 4 years after a 1999 wildfire in a well-drained (dry) site, and also across a dry and a moderately well-drained (mesic) chronosequence of sites that varied in time since fire (2 to ???116 years). Four years after fire, total biomass at the 1999 burn site had increased exponentially to 160 ?? 21 g m-2 (mean ?? 1SE) and vascular ANPP had recovered to 138 ?? 32 g m-2 y -1, which was not different than that of a nearby unburned stand (160 ?? 48 g m-2 y-1) that had similar pre-fire stand structure and understory composition. Production in the young site was dominated by re-sprouting graminoids, whereas production in the unburned site was dominated by black spruce. On the dry and mesic chronosequences, total biomass pools, including overstory and understory vascular and non-vascular plants, and lichens, increased logarithmically (dry) or linearly (mesic) with increasing site age, reaching a maximum of 2469 ?? 180 (dry) and 4008 ?? 233 g m-2 (mesic) in mature stands. Biomass differences were primarily due to higher tree density in the mesic sites because mass per tree was similar between sites. ANPP of vascular and non-vascular plants increased linearly over time in the mesic chronosequence to 335 ?? 68 g m-2 y -1 in the mature site, but in the dry chronosequence it peaked at 410 ?? 43 g m-2 y-1 in a 15-year-old stand dominated by deciduous trees and shrubs. Key factors regulating biomass accumulation and production in these ecosystems appear to be the abundance and composition of re-sprouting species early in succession, the abundance of deciduous trees and shrubs in intermediate aged stands, and the density of black spruce across all stand ages. A better understanding of the controls

  15. Drivers of variation in aboveground net primary productivity and plant community composition differe across a broad precipitation gradient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has long been a goal of ecology to determine what factors drive variation in aboveground net primary production (ANPP). Total annual precipitation has been shown to be a strong predictor of ANPP across broad spatial scales, but a poor predictor at local scales. Here we aim to determine the amount...

  16. Impacts of cattle grazing on spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and above-ground live plant biomass in mixed grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virk, Ravinder

    Areas with relatively high spatial heterogeneity generally have more biodiversity than spatially homogeneous areas due to increased potential habitat. Management practices such as controlled grazing also affect the biodiversity in grasslands, but the nature of this impact is not well understood. Therefore this thesis studies the impacts of variation in grazing on soil moisture and biomass heterogeneity. These are not only important in terms of management of protected grasslands, but also for designing an effective grazing system from a livestock management point of view. This research is a part of the cattle grazing experiment underway in Grasslands National Park (GNP) of Canada since 2006, as part of the adaptive management process for restoring ecological integrity of the northern mixed-grass prairie region. An experimental approach using field measurements and remote sensing (Landsat) was combined with modelling (CENTURY) to examine and predict the impacts of grazing intensity on the spatial heterogeneity and patterns of above-ground live plant biomass (ALB) in experimental pastures in a mixed grassland ecosystem. The field-based research quantified the temporal patterns and spatial variability in both soil moisture (SM) and ALB, and the influence of local intra-seasonal weather variability and slope location on the spatio-temporal variability of SM and ALB at field plot scales. Significant impacts of intra-seasonal weather variability, slope position and grazing pressure on SM and ALB across a range of scales (plot and local (within pasture)) were found. Grazing intensity significantly affected the ALB even after controlling for the effect of slope position. Satellite-based analysis extended the scale of interest to full pastures and the surrounding region to assess the effects of grazing intensity on the spatio-temporal pattern of ALB in mixed grasslands. Overall, low to moderate grazing intensity showed increase in ALB heterogeneity whereas no change in ALB

  17. Soil water content and patterns of allocation to below- and above-ground biomass in the sexes of the subdioecious plant Honckenya peploides

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Vilas, Julia; Bermúdez, Raimundo; Retuerto, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Dioecious plants often show sex-specific differences in growth and biomass allocation. These differences have been explained as a consequence of the different reproductive functions performed by the sexes. Empirical evidence strongly supports a greater reproductive investment in females. Sex differences in allocation may determine the performance of each sex in different habitats and therefore might explain the spatial segregation of the sexes described in many dimorphic plants. Here, an investigation was made of the sexual dimorphism in seasonal patterns of biomass allocation in the subdioecious perennial herb Honckenya peploides, a species that grows in embryo dunes (i.e. the youngest coastal dune formation) and displays spatial segregation of the sexes at the studied site. The water content in the soil of the male- and female-plant habitats at different times throughout the season was also examined. Methods The seasonal patterns of soil-water availability and biomass allocation were compared in two consecutive years in male and female H. peploides plants by collecting soil and plant samples in natural populations. Vertical profiles of below-ground biomass and water content were studied by sampling soil in male- and female-plant habitats at different soil depths. Key Results The sexes of H. peploides differed in their seasonal patterns of biomass allocation to reproduction. Males invested twice as much in reproduction than females early in the season, but sexual differences became reversed as the season progressed. No differences were found in above-ground biomass between the sexes, but the allocation of biomass to below-ground structures varied differently in depth for males and females, with females usually having greater below-ground biomass than males. In addition, male and female plants of H. peploides had different water-content profiles in the soil where they were growing and, when differences existed (usually in the upper layers of the

  18. Field response of aboveground non-target arthropod community to transgenic Bt-Cry1Ab rice plant residues in postharvest seasons.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yao-Yu; Yan, Rui-Hong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Huang, Fangneng; Wangila, David S; Wang, Jin-Jun; Cheng, Jia-An

    2012-10-01

    Risk assessments of ecological effects of transgenic rice expressing lepidoptera-Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on non-target arthropods have primarily focused on rice plants during cropping season, whereas few studies have investigated the effects in postharvest periods. Harvested rice fallow fields provide a critical over-wintering habitat for arthropods in the Chinese rice ecosystems, particularly in the southern region of the country. During 2006-08, two independent field trials were conducted in Chongqing, China to investigate the effects of transgenic Cry1Ab rice residues on non-target arthropod communities. In each trial, pitfall traps were used to sample arthropods in field plots planted with one non-Bt variety and two Bt rice lines expressing the Cry1Ab protein. Aboveground arthropods in the trial plots during the postharvest season were abundant, while community densities varied significantly between the two trials. A total of 52,386 individual insects and spiders, representing 93 families, was captured in the two trials. Predominant arthropods sampled were detritivores, which accounted for 91.9% of the total captures. Other arthropods sampled included predators (4.2%), herbivores (3.2%), and parasitoids (0.7%). In general, there were no significant differences among non-Bt and Bt rice plots in all arthropod community-specific parameters for both trials, suggesting no adverse impact of the Bt rice plant residues on the aboveground non-target arthropod communities during the postharvest season. The results of this study provide additional evidence that Bt rice is safe to non-target arthropod communities in the Chinese rice ecosystems.

  19. Understanding cross-communication between aboveground and belowground tissues via transcriptome analysis of a sucking insect whitefly-infested pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Plants have developed defensive machinery to protect themselves against herbivore and pathogen attacks. We previously reported that aboveground whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) infestation elicited induced resistance in leaves and roots and influenced the modification of the rhizosphere microflora. In this study, to obtain molecular evidence supporting these plant fitness strategies against whitefly infestation, we performed a 300 K pepper microarray analysis using leaf and root tissues of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) applied with whitefly, benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), and the combination of BTH+whitefly. We defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as genes exhibiting more than 2-fold change (1.0 based on log2 values) in expression in leaves and roots in response to each treatment compared to the control. We identified a total of 16,188 DEGs in leaves and roots. Of these, 6685, 6752, and 4045 DEGs from leaf tissue and 6768, 7705, and 7667 DEGs from root tissue were identified in the BTH, BTH+whitefly, and whitefly treatment groups, respectively. The total number of DEGs was approximately two-times higher in roots than in whitefly-infested leaves subjected to whitefly infestation. Among DEGs, whitefly feeding induced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways in leaves and roots. Several transporters and auxin-responsive genes were upregulated in roots, which can explain why biomass increase is facilitated. Using transcriptome analysis, our study provides new insights into the molecular basis of whitefly-mediated intercommunication between aboveground and belowground plant tissues and provides molecular evidence that may explain the alteration of rhizosphere microflora and root biomass by whitefly infestation.

  20. Plant Parts: Common Scents and Good Taste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Rebecca, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This activity involves elementary students in an investigation of the usefulness of plant parts as a food source. An introduction discusses the dependence of animal life on plants. Materials needed and step-by-step procedure are provided. (LZ)

  1. Effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on aboveground-belowground systems: a case study with plants, their mutualistic bacteria and root/shoot herbivores.

    PubMed

    Ryalls, James M W; Riegler, Markus; Moore, Ben D; Lopaticki, Goran; Johnson, Scott N

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between above- and belowground herbivores have been prominent in the field of aboveground-belowground ecology from the outset, although little is known about how climate change affects these organisms when they share the same plant. Additionally, the interactive effects of multiple factors associated with climate change such as elevated temperature (eT) and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) are untested. We investigated how eT and eCO2 affected larval development of the lucerne weevil (Sitona discoideus) and colonization by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), on three cultivars of a common host plant, lucerne (Medicago sativa). Sitona discoideus larvae feed on root nodules housing N2-fixing rhizobial bacteria, allowing us to test the effects of eT and eCO2 across trophic levels. Moreover, we assessed the influence of these factors on plant growth. eT increased plant growth rate initially (6, 8 and 10 weeks after sowing), with cultivar "Sequel" achieving the greatest height. Inoculation with aphids, however, reduced plant growth at week 14. eT severely reduced root nodulation by 43%, whereas eCO2 promoted nodulation by 56%, but only at ambient temperatures. Weevil presence increased net root biomass and nodulation, by 31 and 45%, respectively, showing an overcompensatory plant growth response. Effects of eT and eCO2 on root nodulation were mirrored by weevil larval development; eT and eCO2 reduced and increased larval development, respectively. Contrary to expectations, aphid colonization was unaffected by eT or eCO2, but there was a near-significant 10% reduction in colonization rates on plants with weevils present belowground. The contrasting effects of eT and eCO2 on weevils potentially occurred through changes in root nodulation patterns.

  2. Aboveground Epichloë coenophiala-Grass Associations Do Not Affect Belowground Fungal Symbionts or Associated Plant, Soil Parameters.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Lindsey C; McCulley, Rebecca L

    2016-10-01

    Cool season grasses host multiple fungal symbionts, such as aboveground Epichloë endophytes and belowground arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSEs). Asexual Epichloë endophytes can influence root colonization by AMF, but the type of interaction-whether antagonistic or beneficial-varies. In Schedonorus arundinaceus (tall fescue), Epichloë coenophiala can negatively affect AMF, which may impact soil properties and ecosystem function. Within field plots of S. arundinaceus that were either E. coenophiala-free (E-), infected with the common, mammal-toxic E. coenophiala strain (CTE+), or infected with one of two novel, non-toxic strains (AR542 NTE+ and AR584 NTE+), we hypothesized that (1) CTE+ would decrease AMF and DSE colonization rates and reduce soil extraradical AMF hyphae compared to E- or NTE+, and (2) this would lead to E- and NTE+ plots having greater water stable soil aggregates and C than CTE+. E. coenophiala presence and strain did not significantly alter AMF or DSE colonization, nor did it affect extraradical AMF hypha length, soil aggregates, or aggregate-associated C and N. Soil extraradical AMF hypha length negatively correlated with root AMF colonization. Our results contrast with previous demonstrations that E. coenophiala symbiosis inhibits belowground AMF communities. In our mesic, relatively nutrient-rich grassland, E. coenophiala symbiosis did not antagonize belowground symbionts, regardless of strain. Manipulating E. coenophiala strains within S. arundinaceus may not significantly alter AMF communities and nutrient cycling, yet we must further explore these relationships under different soils and environmental conditions given that symbiont interactions can be important in determining ecosystem response to global change.

  3. Aboveground Epichloë coenophiala-Grass Associations Do Not Affect Belowground Fungal Symbionts or Associated Plant, Soil Parameters.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Lindsey C; McCulley, Rebecca L

    2016-10-01

    Cool season grasses host multiple fungal symbionts, such as aboveground Epichloë endophytes and belowground arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSEs). Asexual Epichloë endophytes can influence root colonization by AMF, but the type of interaction-whether antagonistic or beneficial-varies. In Schedonorus arundinaceus (tall fescue), Epichloë coenophiala can negatively affect AMF, which may impact soil properties and ecosystem function. Within field plots of S. arundinaceus that were either E. coenophiala-free (E-), infected with the common, mammal-toxic E. coenophiala strain (CTE+), or infected with one of two novel, non-toxic strains (AR542 NTE+ and AR584 NTE+), we hypothesized that (1) CTE+ would decrease AMF and DSE colonization rates and reduce soil extraradical AMF hyphae compared to E- or NTE+, and (2) this would lead to E- and NTE+ plots having greater water stable soil aggregates and C than CTE+. E. coenophiala presence and strain did not significantly alter AMF or DSE colonization, nor did it affect extraradical AMF hypha length, soil aggregates, or aggregate-associated C and N. Soil extraradical AMF hypha length negatively correlated with root AMF colonization. Our results contrast with previous demonstrations that E. coenophiala symbiosis inhibits belowground AMF communities. In our mesic, relatively nutrient-rich grassland, E. coenophiala symbiosis did not antagonize belowground symbionts, regardless of strain. Manipulating E. coenophiala strains within S. arundinaceus may not significantly alter AMF communities and nutrient cycling, yet we must further explore these relationships under different soils and environmental conditions given that symbiont interactions can be important in determining ecosystem response to global change. PMID:27502203

  4. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis - contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments.

  5. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis - contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments. PMID:26635733

  6. Pathways of Leymus chinensis Individual Aboveground Biomass Decline in Natural Semiarid Grassland Induced by Overgrazing: A Study at the Plant Functional Trait Scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiliang; Liu, Zhiying; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xinhong; Li, Xinle; Hu, Jing; Shi, Hongxiao; Guo, Fenghui; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Natural grassland productivity, which is based on an individual plant's aboveground biomass (AB) and its interaction with herbivores, can obviously affect terrestrial ecosystem services and the grassland's agricultural production. As plant traits have been linked to both AB and ecosystem success, they may provide a useful approach to understand the changes in individual plants and grassland productivity in response to grazing on a generic level. Unfortunately, the current lack of studies on how plant traits affect AB affected by herbivores leaves a major gap in our understanding of the mechanism of grassland productivity decline. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the paths of overgrazing-induced decline in the individual AB of Leymus chinensis (the dominant species of meadow-steppe grassland in northern China) on a plant functional trait scale. Using a paired-sampling approach, we compared the differences in the functional traits of L. chinensis in long-term grazing-excluded and experimental grazing grassland plots over a continuous period of approximately 20 years (located in meadow steppe lands in Hailar, Inner Mongolia, China). We found a highly significant decline in the individual height and biomass (leaf, stem, and the whole plant) of L. chinensis as a result of overgrazing. Biomass allocation and leaf mass per unit area were significantly affected by the variation in individual size. Grazing clearly enhanced the sensitivity of the leaf-to-stem biomass ratio in response to variation in individual size. Moreover, using a method of standardized major axis estimation, we found that the biomass in the leaves, stems, and the plant as a whole had highly significant allometric scaling with various functional traits. Also, the slopes of the allometric equations of these relationships were significantly altered by grazing. Therefore, a clear implication of this is that grazing promotes an asymmetrical response of different plant functional traits to variation in

  7. Pathways of Leymus chinensis Individual Aboveground Biomass Decline in Natural Semiarid Grassland Induced by Overgrazing: A Study at the Plant Functional Trait Scale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xinhong; Li, Xinle; Hu, Jing; Shi, Hongxiao; Guo, Fenghui; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Natural grassland productivity, which is based on an individual plant’s aboveground biomass (AB) and its interaction with herbivores, can obviously affect terrestrial ecosystem services and the grassland’s agricultural production. As plant traits have been linked to both AB and ecosystem success, they may provide a useful approach to understand the changes in individual plants and grassland productivity in response to grazing on a generic level. Unfortunately, the current lack of studies on how plant traits affect AB affected by herbivores leaves a major gap in our understanding of the mechanism of grassland productivity decline. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the paths of overgrazing-induced decline in the individual AB of Leymus chinensis (the dominant species of meadow-steppe grassland in northern China) on a plant functional trait scale. Using a paired-sampling approach, we compared the differences in the functional traits of L. chinensis in long-term grazing-excluded and experimental grazing grassland plots over a continuous period of approximately 20 years (located in meadow steppe lands in Hailar, Inner Mongolia, China). We found a highly significant decline in the individual height and biomass (leaf, stem, and the whole plant) of L. chinensis as a result of overgrazing. Biomass allocation and leaf mass per unit area were significantly affected by the variation in individual size. Grazing clearly enhanced the sensitivity of the leaf-to-stem biomass ratio in response to variation in individual size. Moreover, using a method of standardized major axis estimation, we found that the biomass in the leaves, stems, and the plant as a whole had highly significant allometric scaling with various functional traits. Also, the slopes of the allometric equations of these relationships were significantly altered by grazing. Therefore, a clear implication of this is that grazing promotes an asymmetrical response of different plant functional traits to variation

  8. Influence of the Wax Lake Delta sediment diversion on aboveground plant productivity and carbon storage in deltaic island and mainland coastal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLaune, R. D.; Sasser, C. E.; Evers-Hebert, E.; White, J. R.; Roberts, H. H.

    2016-08-01

    Coastal Louisiana is experiencing a significant loss of coastal wetland area due to increasing sea level rise, subsidence, sediment starvation and marsh collapse. The construction of large scale Mississippi River sediment diversions is currently being planned in an effort to help combat coastal wetlands losses at a rate of >50 km-2 y-1. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) is currently being used as a model for evaluating potential land gain from large scale diversions of Mississippi River water and sediment. In this study, we determine the impact of the WLD diversion on plant production at newly formed islands within the delta and adjacent, mainland freshwater marshes. Plant aboveground productivity, sediment nutrient status and short term accretion were measured at three locations on a transect at each of three fresh water marsh sites along Hog Bayou and at six newly formed emerging island sites in the delta. Spring flooding has resulted in a greater increase in plant production and consequently, greater carbon sequestration potential in adjacent mainland marshes compared to the newly formed island sites, which contain less total carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in the sediment. While sediment diversions are predicted to create land, as seen in island formation in the WLD, the greatest benefit of river sediment diversions from a carbon credit perspective might be to the adjacent freshwater mainland marshes for several reasons. Both greater plant production and sediment C accumulation are two important factors for marsh stability, while perhaps even more critical, is the prevention of the loss of stored sediment C in the marsh profile. This stored C would be lost without the introduction of freshwater, nutrients and sediment through river sediment diversion efforts.

  9. Plant Host Species and Geographic Distance Affect the Structure of Aboveground Fungal Symbiont Communities, and Environmental Filtering Affects Belowground Communities in a Coastal Dune Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    David, Aaron S; Seabloom, Eric W; May, Georgiana

    2016-05-01

    Microbial symbionts inhabit tissues of all plants and animals. Their community composition depends largely on two ecological processes: (1) filtering by abiotic conditions and host species determining the environments that symbionts are able to colonize and (2) dispersal-limitation determining the pool of symbionts available to colonize a given host and community spatial structure. In plants, the above- and belowground tissues represent such distinct habitats for symbionts that we expect different effects of filtering and spatial structuring on their symbiont communities. In this study, we characterized above- and belowground communities of fungal endophytes--fungi living asymptomatically within plants--to understand the contributions of filtering and spatial structure to endophyte community composition. We used a culture-based approach to characterize endophytes growing in leaves and roots of three species of coastal beachgrasses in dunes of the USA Pacific Northwest. For leaves, endophyte isolation frequency and OTU richness depended primarily on plant host species. In comparison, for roots, both isolation frequency and OTU richness increased from the nutrient-poor front of the dune to the higher-nutrient backdune. Endophyte community composition in leaves exhibited a distance-decay relationship across the region. In a laboratory assay, faster growth rates and lower spore production were more often associated with leaf- than root-inhabiting endophytes. Overall, our results reveal a greater importance of biotic filtering by host species and dispersal-limitation over regional geographic distances for aboveground leaf endophyte communities and stronger effects of abiotic environmental filtering and locally patchy distributions for belowground root endophyte communities. PMID:26626912

  10. [Distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr and their chemical analogues in the components of an above-ground part of a pine in a quasi-equilibrium condition].

    PubMed

    Mamikhin, S V; Manakhov, D V; Shcheglov, A I

    2014-01-01

    The additional study of the distribution of radioactive isotopes of caesium and strontium and their chemical analogues in the above-ground components of pine in the remote from the accident period was carried out. The results of the research confirmed the existence of analogy in the distribution of these elements on the components of this type of wood vegetation in the quasi-equilibrium (relatively radionuclides) condition. Also shown is the selective possibility of using the data on the ash content of the components of forest stands of pine and oak as an information analogue.

  11. Elicitors aboveground: an alternative for control of a belowground pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation ...

  12. Development Of Software To Recognize Parts Of Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Despain, Ronald R.; Tharpe, Roy, Jr.; Davis, Leon; Hauss, Sharon; Shawaga, Larry; Biro, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Report describes first phase in development of digital image-processing subsystem recognizing parts of plants. Subsystem part of robotic system tending and harvesting plants in automated plant-growth chamber. Initial focus on image-processing software that distinguishes among seed heads, stems, and leaves of wheat plants and further distinguishes between these parts and background. Software adaptable to other types of plants.

  13. Drought and root herbivory interact to alter the response of above-ground parasitoids to aphid infested plants and associated plant volatile signals.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad; Wright, Denis J; Bruce, Toby J A; Staley, Joanna T

    2013-01-01

    Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/below-ground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores), their parasitoids, and a dipteran species (root herbivore).We tested the hypotheses that: (1) high levels of drought stress and below-ground herbivory interact to reduce the performance of parasitoids developing in aphids; (2) drought stress and root herbivory change the profile of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) emitted by the host plant; (3) parasitoids avoid ovipositing in aphids feeding on plants under drought stress and root herbivory. We examined the effect of drought, with and without root herbivory, on the olfactory response of parasitoids (preference), plant volatile emissions, parasitism success (performance), and the effect of drought on root herbivory. Under drought, percentage parasitism of aphids was reduced by about 40-55% compared with well watered plants. There was a significant interaction between drought and root herbivory on the efficacy of the two parasitoid species, drought stress partially reversing the negative effect of root herbivory on percent parasitism. In the absence of drought, root herbivory significantly reduced the performance (e.g. fecundity) of both parasitoid species developing in foliar herbivores. Plant emissions of VOCs were reduced by drought and root herbivores, and in olfactometer experiments parasitoids preferred the odour from well-watered plants compared with other treatments. The present work demonstrates that drought stress can change the outcome of interactions between herbivores feeding above- and below-ground and their parasitoids, mediated by changes in the chemical signals from plants to parasitoids. This provides a new insight into how the structure of terrestrial communities may be

  14. Drought and root herbivory interact to alter the response of above-ground parasitoids to aphid infested plants and associated plant volatile signals.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad; Wright, Denis J; Bruce, Toby J A; Staley, Joanna T

    2013-01-01

    Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/below-ground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores), their parasitoids, and a dipteran species (root herbivore).We tested the hypotheses that: (1) high levels of drought stress and below-ground herbivory interact to reduce the performance of parasitoids developing in aphids; (2) drought stress and root herbivory change the profile of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) emitted by the host plant; (3) parasitoids avoid ovipositing in aphids feeding on plants under drought stress and root herbivory. We examined the effect of drought, with and without root herbivory, on the olfactory response of parasitoids (preference), plant volatile emissions, parasitism success (performance), and the effect of drought on root herbivory. Under drought, percentage parasitism of aphids was reduced by about 40-55% compared with well watered plants. There was a significant interaction between drought and root herbivory on the efficacy of the two parasitoid species, drought stress partially reversing the negative effect of root herbivory on percent parasitism. In the absence of drought, root herbivory significantly reduced the performance (e.g. fecundity) of both parasitoid species developing in foliar herbivores. Plant emissions of VOCs were reduced by drought and root herbivores, and in olfactometer experiments parasitoids preferred the odour from well-watered plants compared with other treatments. The present work demonstrates that drought stress can change the outcome of interactions between herbivores feeding above- and below-ground and their parasitoids, mediated by changes in the chemical signals from plants to parasitoids. This provides a new insight into how the structure of terrestrial communities may be

  15. Drought and Root Herbivory Interact to Alter the Response of Above-Ground Parasitoids to Aphid Infested Plants and Associated Plant Volatile Signals

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Muhammad; Wright, Denis J.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Staley, Joanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/below-ground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores), their parasitoids, and a dipteran species (root herbivore).We tested the hypotheses that: (1) high levels of drought stress and below-ground herbivory interact to reduce the performance of parasitoids developing in aphids; (2) drought stress and root herbivory change the profile of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) emitted by the host plant; (3) parasitoids avoid ovipositing in aphids feeding on plants under drought stress and root herbivory. We examined the effect of drought, with and without root herbivory, on the olfactory response of parasitoids (preference), plant volatile emissions, parasitism success (performance), and the effect of drought on root herbivory. Under drought, percentage parasitism of aphids was reduced by about 40–55% compared with well watered plants. There was a significant interaction between drought and root herbivory on the efficacy of the two parasitoid species, drought stress partially reversing the negative effect of root herbivory on percent parasitism. In the absence of drought, root herbivory significantly reduced the performance (e.g. fecundity) of both parasitoid species developing in foliar herbivores. Plant emissions of VOCs were reduced by drought and root herbivores, and in olfactometer experiments parasitoids preferred the odour from well-watered plants compared with other treatments. The present work demonstrates that drought stress can change the outcome of interactions between herbivores feeding above- and below-ground and their parasitoids, mediated by changes in the chemical signals from plants to parasitoids. This provides a new insight into how the structure of terrestrial communities may

  16. Nutrient subsidies to belowground microbes impact aboveground food web interactions.

    PubMed

    Hines, Jes; Megonigal, J Patrick; Denno, Robert F

    2006-06-01

    Historically, terrestrial food web theory has been compartmentalized into interactions among aboveground or belowground communities. In this study we took a more synthetic approach to understanding food web interactions by simultaneously examining four trophic levels and investigating how nutrient (nitrogen and carbon) and detrital subsidies impact the ability of the belowground microbial community to alter the abundance of aboveground arthropods (herbivores and predators) associated with the intertidal cord grass Spartina alterniflora. We manipulated carbon, nitrogen, and detrital resources in a field experiment and measured decomposition rate, soil nitrogen pools, plant biomass and quality, herbivore density, and arthropod predator abundance. Because carbon subsidies impact plant growth only indirectly (microbial pathways), whereas nitrogen additions both directly (plant uptake) and indirectly (microbial pathways) impact plant primary productivity, we were able to assess the effect of both belowground soil microbes and nutrient availability on aboveground herbivores and their predators. Herbivore density in the field was suppressed by carbon supplements. Carbon addition altered soil microbial dynamics (net potential ammonification, litter decomposition rate, DON [dissolved organic N] concentration), which limited inorganic soil nitrogen availability and reduced plant size as well as predator abundance. Nitrogen addition enhanced herbivore density by increasing plant size and quality directly by increasing inorganic soil nitrogen pools, and indirectly by enhancing microbial nitrification. Detritus adversely affected aboveground herbivores mainly by promoting predator aggregation. To date, the effects of carbon and nitrogen subsidies on salt marshes have been examined as isolated effects on either the aboveground or the belowground community. Our results emphasize the importance of directly addressing the soil microbial community as a factor that influences

  17. Aboveground and belowground competition between willow Salix caprea its understory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Hermová, Markéta; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The effects of aboveground and belowground competition with the willow S. caprea on its understory plant community were studied in unreclaimed post-mining sites. Belowground competition was evaluated by comparing (i) frames inserted into the soil that excluded woody roots (frame treatment), (ii) frames that initially excluded woody root growth but then allowed regrowth of the roots (open-frame treatment), and (iii) undisturbed soil (no-frame treatment). These treatments were combined with S. caprea thinning to assess the effect of aboveground competition. Three years after the start of the experiment, aboveground competition from S. caprea (as modified by thinning of the S. caprea canopy) had not affected understory biomass or species number but had affected species composition. In contrast, belowground competition significantly affected both the aboveground and belowground biomass of the understory. The aboveground biomass of the understory was greater in the frame treatment (which excluded woody roots) than in the other two treatments. The belowground biomass of the understory was greater in the frame than in the open-frame treatment. Unlike aboveground competition (light availability), belowground competition did not affect understory species composition. Our results suggest that S. caprea is an important component during plant succession on post-mining sites because it considerably modifies its understory plant community. Belowground competition is a major reason for the low cover and biomass of the herbaceous understory in S. caprea stands on post-mining sites.

  18. GENERAL VIEW OF WESTERN PART OF PLANT INCLUDING (LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF WESTERN PART OF PLANT INCLUDING (LEFT TO RIGHT) BETHLEHEM RAIL MILL, GENERAL OFFICE BUILDING, MACHINE SHOP, BAR MILL, BLOOMING MILL & OPEN HEARTH PLANT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  19. Forecasting annual aboveground net primary production in the intermountain west

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many land manager’s annual aboveground net primary production, or plant growth, is a key factor affecting business success, profitability and each land manager's ability to successfully meet land management objectives. The strategy often utilized for forecasting plant growth is to assume every y...

  20. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis – contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments. PMID:26635733

  1. MS-Based Metabolite Profiling of Aboveground and Root Components of Zingiber mioga and Officinale.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji Soo; Lee, Sunmin; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Zingiber species are members of the Zingiberaceae family, and are widely used for medicinal and food purposes. In this study aboveground and root parts of Zingiber mioga and Zingiber officinale were subjected to metabolite profiling by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) in order to characterize them by species and parts and also to measure bioactivities. Both primary and secondary metabolites showed clear discrimination in the PCA score plot and PLS-DA by species and parts. Tetrahydrocurcumin, diarylheptanoid, 8-gingerol, and 8-paradol were discriminating metabolites between Z. mioga and Z. officinale that were present in different quantities. Eleven flavonoids, six amino acids, six organic acids, four fatty acids, and gingerenone A were higher in the aboveground parts than the root parts. Antioxidant activities were measured and were highest in the root part of Z. officinale. The relatively high contents of tetrahydrocurcumin, diarylheptanoid, and galanganol C in the root part of Z. officinale showed highly positive correlation with bioactivities based on correlation assay. On the basis of these results, we can suggest different usages of structurally different parts of Zingiber species as food plants.

  2. Parts of Plants. Hawaii Nature Study Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Curriculum Research and Development Group.

    This teaching guide is one of a series developed by the Curriculum Research and Development Group at the University of Hawaii. The program is laboratory and field oriented for elementary students. The focus of study for the project is the plant and animal life and the physical components of the Hawaiian environment, and their ecological…

  3. B Plant/WESF suspect/counterfeit parts identification program

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, D.W.

    1996-01-12

    This document describes a suspect/counterfeit parts inspection program required by DOE conducted in accordance with Internal Memo 16710-94-DWM-048, J.A. O`Brien to J. N. Nansen, B Plant Suspect/ Counterfeit Parts Action Plan, dated May 24, 1994. The program included: physical inspection of all spare parts inventories within the plant; screening of installed B Plant/WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) systems for applications where the use and subsequent potential failure of suspect/counterfeit parts could have critical consequences; and a physical inspection based upon this screening.

  4. Plant and Animal Gravitational Biology. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA2 includes short reports covering: (1) The Interaction of Microgravity and Ethylene on Soybean Growth and Metabolism; (2) Structure and G-Sensitivity of Root Statocytes under Different Mass Acceleration; (3) Extracellular Production of Taxanes on Cell Surfaces in Simulated Microgravity and Hypergravity; (4) Current Problems of Space Cell Phytobiology; (5) Biological Consequences of Microgravity-Induced Alterations in Water Metabolism of Plant Cells; (6) Localization of Calcium Ions in Chlorella Cells Under Clinorotation; (7) Changes of Fatty Acids Content of Plant Cell Plasma Membranes under Altered Gravity; (8) Simulation of Gravity by Non-Symmetrical Vibrations and Ultrasound; and (9) Response to Simulated weightlessness of In Vitro Cultures of Differentiated Epithelial Follicular Cells from Thyroid.

  5. Spare parts inventory risk for decision making in plant maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, Kamal Imran; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Udin, Zulkifli Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Equipment breakdown due to unavailability of spare parts is really disastrous in plant maintenance. The failure increase the cost of repair and production downtime. Therefore, it is important to understand the maintenance and inventory function in order to ensure the plant operate accordingly. Moreover, it is necessary for the plant maintenance to balance the issue of shortage and excess of inventory in plant maintenance. In view of this situation, the spare parts become a critical matters and it is good starting point to tackle the issues from looking at the perspective of spare parts inventory risk. This paper describes the development of risk technique for plant maintenance decision making purposes using the Shortage and Excess Impact Table. It also used the Breakdown Probability Table to quantify the risk for the spare part failure.

  6. Carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species in lower Gangetic plain.

    PubMed

    Jana, Bipal K; Biswas, Soumyajit; Majumder, Mrinmoy; Roy, Pankaj K; Mazumdar, Asis

    2011-07-01

    Carbon is sequestered by the plant photosynthesis and stored as biomass in different parts of the tree. Carbon sequestration rate has been measured for young species (6 years age) of Shorea robusta at Chadra forest in Paschim Medinipur district, Albizzia lebbek in Indian Botanic Garden in Howrah district and Artocarpus integrifolia at Banobitan within Kolkata in the lower Gangetic plain of West Bengal in India by Automated Vaisala Made Instrument GMP343 and aboveground biomass carbon has been analyzed by CHN analyzer. The specific objective of this paper is to measure carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia. The carbon sequestration rate (mean) from the ambient air during winter season as obtained by Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 11.13 g/h, 14.86 g/h and 4.22g/h, respectively. The annual carbon sequestration rate from ambient air were estimated at 8.97 t C ha(-1) by Shorea robusta, 11.97 t C ha(-1) by Albizzia lebbek and 3.33 t C ha(-1) by Artocarpus integrifolia. The percentage of carbon content (except root) in the aboveground biomass of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 47.45, 47.12 and 43.33, respectively. The total aboveground biomass carbon stock per hectare as estimated for Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 5.22 t C ha(-1) , 6.26 t C ha(-1) and 7.28 t C ha(-1), respectively in these forest stands.

  7. Cathodic protection of aboveground storage tanks in an Arctic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, T.; Bayle, R.; Kennelley, K.

    1996-05-01

    The Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) is one of the largest pipeline systems in the world. Fifty eight major aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) are a critical part of the daily operation of the pipeline. A variety of cathodic protection (CP) retrofit systems are available for aboveground storage tanks. The presence of secondary containment liners, refrigeration systems, and an Arctic environment necessitates the use of a CP system in which the anodes are located in close proximity to the tank bottom. Impressed current CP retrofit systems were evaluated.

  8. Effective half-lives of ¹³⁷Cs in giant butterbur and field horsetail, and the distribution differences of potassium and ¹³⁷Cs in aboveground tissue parts.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-03-01

    Concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K in different tissues of edible wild herbaceous plants, that is, leaf blade and petiole for giant butterbur (Petasites japonicas (Siebold et Zucc.) Maxim.), and leaf, stem and strobilus for fertile shoot of field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) were measured in 2012-2014 to clarify the effect in Japan from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The concentrations of (137)Cs decreased with time with effective half-lives of ca. 450 d and 360 d for giant butterbur and field horsetail, respectively. The ANOVA test revealed that (40)K and (137)Cs distributions in leaf blade and petiole for giant butterbur and leaf and stem for field horsetail were different. Therefore, other plants, leaf and stem for Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr.) and Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.), and leaf blade and petiole for gingko (Ginkgo biloba L.) and Someiyoshino cherry (Cerasus × yedoensis (Matsum.) A.V.Vassil. 'Somei-yoshino') were collected from the same sampling field and their (137)Cs and (40)K concentrations were compared to those in the giant butterbur and field horsetail parts. For (137)Cs, concentrations in leaf blade and leaf parts were 1.1-6.0 times higher than those in petiole and stem parts for all six plants. On the other hand, (40)K concentrations in leaf blade and leaf parts were 0.40-0.97 of those observed in petiole and stem parts. Discrimination ratios of (40)K/(137)Cs of leaf blade to petiole or leaf to stem were then calculated and they ranged from 0.09 to 0.57. These results suggested that Cs and K did not behave similarly in these plants. Thus, to understand the radiocesium fate in plants, K measurement results should not be used as an analog for Cs behavior although Cs is known to have a similar chemical reactivity to that of K. PMID:25588954

  9. Recognition of plant parts with problem-specific algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanke, Joerg; Brendel, Thorsten; Jensch, Peter F.; Megnet, Roland

    1994-06-01

    Automatic micropropagation is necessary to produce cost-effective high amounts of biomass. Juvenile plants are dissected in clean- room environment on particular points on the stem or the leaves. A vision-system detects possible cutting points and controls a specialized robot. This contribution is directed to the pattern- recognition algorithms to detect structural parts of the plant.

  10. Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?

    PubMed

    Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    2000-07-01

    Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

  11. Interrelated effects of mycorrhiza and free-living nitrogen fixers cascade up to aboveground herbivores.

    PubMed

    Khaitov, Botir; Patiño-Ruiz, José David; Pina, Tatiana; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Aboveground plant performance is strongly influenced by belowground microorganisms, some of which are pathogenic and have negative effects, while others, such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, usually have positive effects. Recent research revealed that belowground interactions between plants and functionally distinct groups of microorganisms cascade up to aboveground plant associates such as herbivores and their natural enemies. However, while functionally distinct belowground microorganisms commonly co-occur in the rhizosphere, their combined effects, and relative contributions, respectively, on performance of aboveground plant-associated organisms are virtually unexplored. Here, we scrutinized and disentangled the effects of free-living nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum (DB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae (AMF) on host plant choice and reproduction of the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on common bean plants Phaseolus vulgaris. Additionally, we assessed plant growth, and AMF and DB occurrence and density as affected by each other. Both AMF alone and DB alone increased spider mite reproduction to similar levels, as compared to the control, and exerted additive effects under co-occurrence. These effects were similarly apparent in host plant choice, that is, the mites preferred leaves from plants with both AMF and DB to plants with AMF or DB to plants grown without AMF and DB. DB, which also act as AMF helper bacteria, enhanced root colonization by AMF, whereas AMF did not affect DB abundance. AMF but not DB increased growth of reproductive plant tissue and seed production, respectively. Both AMF and DB increased the biomass of vegetative aboveground plant tissue. Our study breaks new ground in multitrophic belowground-aboveground research by providing first insights into the fitness implications of plant-mediated interactions between interrelated belowground fungi

  12. Interrelated effects of mycorrhiza and free-living nitrogen fixers cascade up to aboveground herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Khaitov, Botir; Patiño-Ruiz, José David; Pina, Tatiana; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground plant performance is strongly influenced by belowground microorganisms, some of which are pathogenic and have negative effects, while others, such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, usually have positive effects. Recent research revealed that belowground interactions between plants and functionally distinct groups of microorganisms cascade up to aboveground plant associates such as herbivores and their natural enemies. However, while functionally distinct belowground microorganisms commonly co-occur in the rhizosphere, their combined effects, and relative contributions, respectively, on performance of aboveground plant-associated organisms are virtually unexplored. Here, we scrutinized and disentangled the effects of free-living nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum (DB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae (AMF) on host plant choice and reproduction of the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on common bean plants Phaseolus vulgaris. Additionally, we assessed plant growth, and AMF and DB occurrence and density as affected by each other. Both AMF alone and DB alone increased spider mite reproduction to similar levels, as compared to the control, and exerted additive effects under co-occurrence. These effects were similarly apparent in host plant choice, that is, the mites preferred leaves from plants with both AMF and DB to plants with AMF or DB to plants grown without AMF and DB. DB, which also act as AMF helper bacteria, enhanced root colonization by AMF, whereas AMF did not affect DB abundance. AMF but not DB increased growth of reproductive plant tissue and seed production, respectively. Both AMF and DB increased the biomass of vegetative aboveground plant tissue. Our study breaks new ground in multitrophic belowground–aboveground research by providing first insights into the fitness implications of plant-mediated interactions between interrelated belowground fungi

  13. Potato tuber herbivory increases resistance to aboveground lepidopteran herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Ortiz, Erandi Vargas; Garrido, Etzel; Poveda, Katja; Jander, Georg

    2016-09-01

    Plants mediate interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores. Although effects of root herbivory on foliar herbivores have been documented in several plant species, interactions between tuber-feeding herbivores and foliar herbivores are rarely investigated. We report that localized tuber damage by Tecia solanivora (Guatemalan tuber moth) larvae reduced aboveground Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) performance on Solanum tuberosum (potato). Conversely, S. exigua leaf damage had no noticeable effect on belowground T. solanivora performance. Tuber infestation by T. solanivora induced systemic plant defenses and elevated resistance to aboveground herbivores. Lipoxygenase 3 (Lox3), which contributes to the synthesis of plant defense signaling molecules, had higher transcript abundance in T. solanivora-infested leaves and tubers than in equivalent control samples. Foliar expression of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase I (HMGR1) genes, which are involved in chlorogenic acid and steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, respectively, also increased in response to tuber herbivory. Leaf metabolite profiling demonstrated the accumulation of unknown metabolites as well as the known potato defense compounds chlorogenic acid, α-solanine, and α-chaconine. When added to insect diet at concentrations similar to those found in potato leaves, chlorogenic acid, α-solanine, and α-chaconine all reduced S. exigua larval growth. Thus, despite the fact that tubers are a metabolic sink tissue, T. solanivora feeding elicits a systemic signal that induces aboveground resistance against S. exigua and S. frugiperda by increasing foliar abundance of defensive metabolites.

  14. Potato tuber herbivory increases resistance to aboveground lepidopteran herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Ortiz, Erandi Vargas; Garrido, Etzel; Poveda, Katja; Jander, Georg

    2016-09-01

    Plants mediate interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores. Although effects of root herbivory on foliar herbivores have been documented in several plant species, interactions between tuber-feeding herbivores and foliar herbivores are rarely investigated. We report that localized tuber damage by Tecia solanivora (Guatemalan tuber moth) larvae reduced aboveground Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) performance on Solanum tuberosum (potato). Conversely, S. exigua leaf damage had no noticeable effect on belowground T. solanivora performance. Tuber infestation by T. solanivora induced systemic plant defenses and elevated resistance to aboveground herbivores. Lipoxygenase 3 (Lox3), which contributes to the synthesis of plant defense signaling molecules, had higher transcript abundance in T. solanivora-infested leaves and tubers than in equivalent control samples. Foliar expression of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase I (HMGR1) genes, which are involved in chlorogenic acid and steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, respectively, also increased in response to tuber herbivory. Leaf metabolite profiling demonstrated the accumulation of unknown metabolites as well as the known potato defense compounds chlorogenic acid, α-solanine, and α-chaconine. When added to insect diet at concentrations similar to those found in potato leaves, chlorogenic acid, α-solanine, and α-chaconine all reduced S. exigua larval growth. Thus, despite the fact that tubers are a metabolic sink tissue, T. solanivora feeding elicits a systemic signal that induces aboveground resistance against S. exigua and S. frugiperda by increasing foliar abundance of defensive metabolites. PMID:27147449

  15. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. PMID:25676198

  16. Aboveground allometric models for freeze-affected black mangroves (Avicennia germinans): equations for a climate sensitive mangrove-marsh ecotone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Larriviere, Jack C.; From, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1) total aboveground biomass; (2) leaf biomass; (3) stem plus branch biomass; and (4) leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height) was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone.

  17. Aboveground Allometric Models for Freeze-Affected Black Mangroves (Avicennia germinans): Equations for a Climate Sensitive Mangrove-Marsh Ecotone

    PubMed Central

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Larriviere, Jack C.; From, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1) total aboveground biomass; (2) leaf biomass; (3) stem plus branch biomass; and (4) leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height) was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone. PMID:24971938

  18. Differential allelopathic expression of different plant parts of Achillea biebersteinii.

    PubMed

    Abu-Romman, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Achillea biebersteinii (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal plant and has a wide distributional range in the Mediterranean region. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of different plant parts of A. biebersteinii on germination characteristics and seedling growth of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). Water extracts were prepared by incubating separately five grams of dried powder of roots, stems, leaves and flowers of A. biebersteinii in 100 ml of distilled water for 24 h and distilled water was used as the control. The water extracts from different plant parts of A. biebersteinii differed in their effects on the germination and seedling growth of wild barley. Water extracts prepared from leaves and flowers were more suppressive to germination of wild barley than root and stem extracts. The maximum inhibition in radical and plumule growth of germinating caryopses and in root and shoot growth of greenhouse-grown wild barley was recorded for leaf extract followed by flower extract. The lowest Chl a, Chl b and total chlorophyll and protein contents were resulted after exposure to leaf extracts. According to these results, the inhibitory effects of different A. biebersteinii plant parts can be arranged in the order: leaf > flower > stem > root. PMID:27165527

  19. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial Part 2. Influence on plants.

    PubMed

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Lopareva-Pohu, Alena; Pruvot, Christelle; Garçon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Waterlot, Christophe; Bidar, Géraldine; Shirali, Pirouz; Douay, Francis

    2011-10-01

    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl(2)-extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  20. Operational strategies for dispatchable combined cycle plants, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.P.; Landis, F.P.

    1996-11-01

    The Brush Cogeneration Facility is a dual-unit, combined cycle, cogeneration plant, operating in a dual cycling, automatically-dispatchable mode. Part I of this report described the contract, including automatic generation control (AGC) by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO), and the operation of Unit One. This part of the report covers the operation of Unit Two. Unit two is still in its operating infancy, but is showing that fuel efficiency and low emissions levels are not incompatible with cycling, load-following service. 1 fig.

  1. [Effect of flooding disturbance on aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis grassland--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengwen; Zhu, Tingcheng

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effect of flooding disturbance on the net primary productivity of Songnen steppe, a comparatively thorough study was conducted on Sanjiadian State-owned Rangeland in Da'an city, Jilin Province, which was partly flooded in 1998. The study site was located in the south Songnen plain of Northeastern China, dominated by Leymus chinensis grassland. An extensively mild slope with flooding gradients (from un-flooded to heavily flooded) was taken as the study site. Two flooded transects coded FL and FH which was respectively subjected to 3 and 9 months of flooding were designed, and an un-flooded one coded CK at a relatively higher elevation was set as a control. Before flooding occurred in 1998, the slope had an almost uniform soil and L. chinensis dominated vegetation. Each transect was 0.2 hm2 (100 m x 20 m) in size, and the two flooded transects were almost paralleled each other, with the longer sides of them perpendicular to the retrieving direction of floodwater. In each transect twenty 1 m2 sized quadrats were randomly chosen to survey the community structure and the aboveground biomass. Comparative analyses were made on the dynamics of soil water, soil N and P, and species composition of grassland communities that occurred in responses to flooding disturbance. The results showed that the lightly and heavily flooded transects had a significantly larger aboveground biomass than the control, with the increase of 89.54% and 113.45%, respectively. The heavily flooded transect had a slightly but insignificantly larger aboveground biomass than the lightly flooded one, indicating that on flooded sites, water was not the limiting factor of the aboveground biomass. The acute changes of soil water caused by flooding led to the changes of soil nutrients and species assemblages, which would impact community biomass. Just as the case for aboveground biomass, the soil water contents of the two flooded transects were significantly larger than that of control

  2. [Effect of flooding disturbance on aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis grassland--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengwen; Zhu, Tingcheng

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effect of flooding disturbance on the net primary productivity of Songnen steppe, a comparatively thorough study was conducted on Sanjiadian State-owned Rangeland in Da'an city, Jilin Province, which was partly flooded in 1998. The study site was located in the south Songnen plain of Northeastern China, dominated by Leymus chinensis grassland. An extensively mild slope with flooding gradients (from un-flooded to heavily flooded) was taken as the study site. Two flooded transects coded FL and FH which was respectively subjected to 3 and 9 months of flooding were designed, and an un-flooded one coded CK at a relatively higher elevation was set as a control. Before flooding occurred in 1998, the slope had an almost uniform soil and L. chinensis dominated vegetation. Each transect was 0.2 hm2 (100 m x 20 m) in size, and the two flooded transects were almost paralleled each other, with the longer sides of them perpendicular to the retrieving direction of floodwater. In each transect twenty 1 m2 sized quadrats were randomly chosen to survey the community structure and the aboveground biomass. Comparative analyses were made on the dynamics of soil water, soil N and P, and species composition of grassland communities that occurred in responses to flooding disturbance. The results showed that the lightly and heavily flooded transects had a significantly larger aboveground biomass than the control, with the increase of 89.54% and 113.45%, respectively. The heavily flooded transect had a slightly but insignificantly larger aboveground biomass than the lightly flooded one, indicating that on flooded sites, water was not the limiting factor of the aboveground biomass. The acute changes of soil water caused by flooding led to the changes of soil nutrients and species assemblages, which would impact community biomass. Just as the case for aboveground biomass, the soil water contents of the two flooded transects were significantly larger than that of control

  3. Transport of root-derived CO2 via the transpiration stream affects aboveground tree physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemen, J.; McGuire, M. A.; Aubrey, D. P.; Teskey, R. O.; Steppe, K.

    2012-04-01

    Recent research on soil CO2 efflux has shown that belowground autotrophic respiration is largely underestimated using classical net CO2 flux measurements. Aubrey & Teskey (2009) found that in forest ecosystems a substantial portion of the CO2 released from root respiration remained within the root system and was transported aboveground in the stem via the transpiration stream. The magnitude of this upward movement of CO2 from belowground tissues suggested important implications for how we measure above- and belowground respiration. If a considerable fraction of root-respired CO2 is transported aboveground, where it might be fixed in woody and leaf tissues, then we are routinely underestimating the amount of C needed to sustain belowground tissues. In this study, we infused 13C labeled water into the base of field-grown poplar trees as a surrogate for root-respired CO2 to investigate the possible role of root-derived CO2 as substrate for carbon fixation. The label was transported upwards from the base of the tree toward the top. During its ascent, the 13C label was removed from the transpiration stream and fixed by chlorophyll-containing woody (young bark and xylem) and leaf (petiole) tissues. Moreover, based on 13C analysis of gas samples, we observed that up to 88 ± 0.10 % of the label applied was lost to the atmosphere by stem and branch efflux higher in the trees. Given that one-half of root-respired CO2 may follow this internal flux pathway (Aubrey & Teskey, 2009), we calculated that up to 44% of the root-respired CO2 could diffuse to the atmosphere once transported to the stem and branches. Thus, a large portion of CO2 that diffuses out of aboveground tissues may actually result from root respiration. Our results show that CO2 originating belowground can be transported internally to aboveground parts of trees, where it will have an important impact on tree physiology. Internal transport of CO2 indicates that the gas exchange approach to estimating above- and

  4. Root growth dynamics linked to aboveground growth in walnuts (Juglans regia L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Examination of belowground plant responses to canopy and soil moisture manipulation is scant compared to that aboveground but needed to understand whole plant responses to environmental factors. Plasticity in the seasonal timing and vertical distribution of root growth in respon...

  5. [Spatial distribution of aboveground biomass of shrubs in Tianlaochi catchment of the Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Liang, Bei; Di, Li; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Peng, Shou-Zhang; Peng, Huan-Hua; Wang, Chao

    2014-02-01

    This study estimated the spatial distribution of the aboveground biomass of shrubs in the Tianlaochi catchment of Qilian Mountains based on the field survey and remote sensing data. A relationship model of the aboveground biomass and its feasibly measured factors (i. e. , canopy perimeter and plant height) was built. The land use was classified by object-oriented technique with the high resolution image (GeoEye-1) of the study area, and the distribution of shrub coverage was extracted. Then the total aboveground biomass of shrubs in the study area was estimated by the relationship model with the distribution of shrub coverage. The results showed that the aboveground biomass of shrubs in the study area was 1.8 x 10(3) t and the aboveground biomass per unit area was 1598.45 kg x m(-2). The distribution of shrubs mainly was at altitudes of 3000-3700 m, and the aboveground biomass of shrubs on the sunny slope (1.15 x 10(3) t) was higher than that on the shady slope (0.65 x 10(3) t).

  6. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority J Appendix J to Part 110.... 110, App. J Appendix J to Part 110—Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment...

  7. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 2: Plant distribution.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Arid agricultural regions often turn to using treated wastewater (reclaimed water) to irrigate food crops. Concerns arise, however, when considering the potential for persistent contaminants of emerging concern to accumulate into plants intended for human consumption. The present study examined the accumulation of a suite of 9 contaminants of emerging concern into 2 representative food crops, lettuce and strawberry, following uptake via the roots and subsequent distribution to other plant tissues. Calculating accumulation metrics (concentration factors) allowed for comparison of the compartmental affinity of each chemical for each plant tissue compartment. The root concentration factor was found to exhibit a positive linear correlation with the pH-adjusted octanol-water partition coefficient (DOW ) for the target contaminants of emerging concern. Coupled with the concentration-dependent accumulation observed in the roots, this result implies that accumulation of these contaminants of emerging concern into plant roots is driven by passive partitioning. Of the contaminants of emerging concern examined, nonionizable contaminants, such as triclocarban, carbamazepine, and organophosphate flame retardants displayed the greatest potential for translocation from the roots to above-ground plant compartments. In particular, the organophosphate flame retardants displayed increasing affinity for shoots and fruits with decreasing size/octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ). Cationic diphenhydramine and anionic sulfamethoxazole, once transported to the shoots of the strawberry plant, demonstrated the greatest potential of the contaminants examined to be then carried to the edible fruit portion. PMID:25988579

  8. 40 CFR 63.1562 - What parts of my plant are covered by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... types of sulfur recovery plant units or the tail gas treatment units serving sulfur recovery plants... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant are covered by....1562 What parts of my plant are covered by this subpart? (a) This subpart applies to each...

  9. Stimulation of the Salicylic Acid Pathway Aboveground Recruits Entomopathogenic Nematodes Belowground.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S; Junior, Alcides Moino; Pareja, Martin; Borai, Fahiem El; Dickson, Donald W; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Duncan, Larry W

    2016-01-01

    Plant defense pathways play a critical role in mediating tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. While the impact of plant defense pathway stimulation on natural enemies has been extensively explored aboveground, belowground ramifications of plant defense pathway stimulation are equally important in regulating subterranean pests and still require more attention. Here we investigate the effect of aboveground stimulation of the salicylic acid pathway through foliar application of the elicitor methyl salicylate on belowground recruitment of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema diaprepesi. Also, we implicate a specific root-derived volatile that attracts S. diaprepesi belowground following aboveground plant stimulation by an elicitor. In four-choice olfactometer assays, citrus plants treated with foliar applications of methyl salicylate recruited S. diaprepesi in the absence of weevil feeding as compared with negative controls. Additionally, analysis of root volatile profiles of citrus plants receiving foliar application of methyl salicylate revealed production of d-limonene, which was absent in negative controls. The entomopathogenic nematode S. diaprepesi was recruited to d-limonene in two-choice olfactometer trials. These results reinforce the critical role of plant defense pathways in mediating tritrophic interactions, suggest a broad role for plant defense pathway signaling belowground, and hint at sophisticated plant responses to pest complexes. PMID:27136916

  10. Stimulation of the Salicylic Acid Pathway Aboveground Recruits Entomopathogenic Nematodes Belowground

    PubMed Central

    Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S.; Junior, Alcides Moino; Pareja, Martin; Borai, Fahiem El; Dickson, Donald W.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.; Duncan, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Plant defense pathways play a critical role in mediating tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. While the impact of plant defense pathway stimulation on natural enemies has been extensively explored aboveground, belowground ramifications of plant defense pathway stimulation are equally important in regulating subterranean pests and still require more attention. Here we investigate the effect of aboveground stimulation of the salicylic acid pathway through foliar application of the elicitor methyl salicylate on belowground recruitment of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema diaprepesi. Also, we implicate a specific root-derived volatile that attracts S. diaprepesi belowground following aboveground plant stimulation by an elicitor. In four-choice olfactometer assays, citrus plants treated with foliar applications of methyl salicylate recruited S. diaprepesi in the absence of weevil feeding as compared with negative controls. Additionally, analysis of root volatile profiles of citrus plants receiving foliar application of methyl salicylate revealed production of d-limonene, which was absent in negative controls. The entomopathogenic nematode S. diaprepesi was recruited to d-limonene in two-choice olfactometer trials. These results reinforce the critical role of plant defense pathways in mediating tritrophic interactions, suggest a broad role for plant defense pathway signaling belowground, and hint at sophisticated plant responses to pest complexes. PMID:27136916

  11. Below-ground herbivory limits induction of extrafloral nectar by above-ground herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Siemann, Evan; Carrillo, Juli; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Many plants produce extrafloral nectar (EFN), and increase production following above-ground herbivory, presumably to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Below-ground herbivores, alone or in combination with those above ground, may also alter EFN production depending on the specificity of this defence response and the interactions among herbivores mediated through plant defences. To date, however, a lack of manipulative experiments investigating EFN production induced by above- and below-ground herbivory has limited our understanding of how below-ground herbivory mediates indirect plant defences to affect above-ground herbivores and their natural enemies. Methods In a greenhouse experiment, seedlings of tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) were subjected to herbivory by a specialist flea beetle (Bikasha collaris) that naturally co-occurs as foliage-feeding adults and root-feeding larvae. Seedlings were subjected to above-ground adults and/or below-ground larvae herbivory, and EFN production was monitored. Key Results Above- and/or below-ground herbivory significantly increased the percentage of leaves with active nectaries, the volume of EFN and the mass of soluble solids within the nectar. Simultaneous above- and below-ground herbivory induced a higher volume of EFN and mass of soluble solids than below-ground herbivory alone, but highest EFN production was induced by above-ground herbivory when below-ground herbivores were absent. Conclusions The induction of EFN production by below-ground damage suggests that systemic induction underlies some of the EFN response. The strong induction by above-ground herbivory in the absence of below-ground herbivory points to specific induction based on above- and below-ground signals that may be adaptive for this above-ground indirect defence. PMID:25681822

  12. Modelling utility-scale wind power plants. Part 1: Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Michael R.

    1999-10-01

    As the worldwide use of wind turbine generators continues to increase in utility-scale applications, it will become increasingly important to assess the economic and reliability impact of these intermittent resources. Although the utility industry in the United States appears to be moving towards a restructured environment, basic economic and reliability issues will continue to be relevant to companies involved with electricity generation. This article is the first of two which address modelling approaches and results obtained in several case studies and research projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This first article addresses the basic economic issues associated with electricity production from several generators that include large-scale wind power plants. An important part of this discussion is the role of unit commitment and economic dispatch in production cost models. This paper includes overviews and comparisons of the prevalent production cost modelling methods, including several case studies applied to a variety of electric utilities. The second article discusses various methods of assessing capacity credit and results from several reliability-based studies performed at NREL.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  18. 40 CFR 63.8990 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this... What This Subpart Covers § 63.8990 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart... affected source is the group of one or more HCl production facilities at a plant site that are subject...

  19. 40 CFR 63.8990 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this... What This Subpart Covers § 63.8990 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart... affected source is the group of one or more HCl production facilities at a plant site that are subject...

  20. Deer browsing delays succession by altering aboveground vegetation and belowground seed banks.

    PubMed

    DiTommaso, Antonio; Morris, Scott H; Parker, John D; Cone, Caitlin L; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-01-01

    Soil seed bank composition is important to the recovery of natural and semi-natural areas from disturbance and serves as a safeguard against environmental catastrophe. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations have increased dramatically in eastern North America over the past century and can have strong impacts on aboveground vegetation, but their impacts on seed bank dynamics are less known. To document the long-term effects of deer browsing on plant successional dynamics, we studied the impacts of deer on both aboveground vegetation and seed bank composition in plant communities following agricultural abandonment. In 2005, we established six 15 × 15 m fenced enclosures and paired open plots in recently followed agricultural fields near Ithaca, NY, USA. In late October of each of six years (2005-2010), we collected soil from each plot and conducted seed germination cycles in a greenhouse to document seed bank composition. These data were compared to measurements of aboveground plant cover (2005-2008) and tree density (2005-2012). The impacts of deer browsing on aboveground vegetation were severe and immediate, resulting in significantly more bare soil, reduced plant biomass, reduced recruitment of woody species, and relatively fewer native species. These impacts persisted throughout the experiment. The impacts of browsing were even stronger on seed bank dynamics. Browsing resulted in significantly decreased overall species richness (but higher diversity), reduced seed bank abundance, relatively more short-lived species (annuals and biennials), and fewer native species. Both seed bank richness and the relative abundance of annuals/biennials were mirrored in the aboveground vegetation. Thus, deer browsing has long-term and potentially reinforcing impacts on secondary succession, slowing succession by selectively consuming native perennials and woody species and favoring the persistence of short-lived, introduced species that continually recruit from an

  1. MEDICINAL PLANT WEALTH OF ANDHRA PRADESH – PART I

    PubMed Central

    Hemadri, Koppula; Sarma, C. Raja Rajeswari; Rao, Swahari Sasibushana

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the Medical Plant Wealth of Andhra Pradesh based on the results of Medico – Ethno – Botanical exploration undertaken during the last fourteen years (1971 – 72 till the end of 1984). In all, 117 well known medicinal plants widely used in Ayurveda, Siddha and other systems of Medicine are enumerated here. PMID:22557569

  2. Above-ground biomass of mangrove species. I. Analysis of models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Mário Luiz Gomes; Schaeffer-Novelli, Yara

    2005-10-01

    This study analyzes the above-ground biomass of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa located in the mangroves of Bertioga (SP) and Guaratiba (RJ), Southeast Brazil. Its purpose is to determine the best regression model to estimate the total above-ground biomass and compartment (leaves, reproductive parts, twigs, branches, trunk and prop roots) biomass, indirectly. To do this, we used structural measurements such as height, diameter at breast-height (DBH), and crown area. A combination of regression types with several compositions of independent variables generated 2.272 models that were later tested. Subsequent analysis of the models indicated that the biomass of reproductive parts, branches, and prop roots yielded great variability, probably because of environmental factors and seasonality (in the case of reproductive parts). It also indicated the superiority of multiple regression to estimate above-ground biomass as it allows researchers to consider several aspects that affect above-ground biomass, specially the influence of environmental factors. This fact has been attested to the models that estimated the biomass of crown compartments.

  3. Aboveground pipeline response to random ground motion

    SciTech Connect

    Banerji, P.; Ghosh, A.

    1995-12-31

    Response of two types of aboveground pipelines--rigid, segmented pipelines, and flexible, continuous pipelines--to random ground motion are studied in this paper. The emphasis is on studying the effect of pipeline system parameters on its response. It is seen that pipe parameters, except for the pipe span, affect system response negligibly. Pier height and flexibility, and foundation-soil flexibility, however, affect response significantly. Furthermore, for practical situations, pipe and pier responses are decoupled, and the pier, therefore, behaves essentially as a point structure that is not affected by spatial variation of ground motion.

  4. Conspecific and Heterospecific Aboveground Herbivory Both Reduce Preference by a Belowground Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Milano, N J; Barber, N A; Adler, L S

    2015-04-01

    Insect herbivores damage plants both above- and belowground, and interactions in each realm can influence the other via shared hosts. While effects of leaf damage on aboveground interactions have been well-documented, studies examining leaf damage effects on belowground interactions are limited, and mechanisms for these indirect interactions are poorly understood. We examined how leaf herbivory affects preference of root-feeding larvae [Acalymma vittatum F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)] in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We manipulated leaf herbivory using conspecific adult A. vittatum and heterospecific larval Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) herbivores in the greenhouse and the conspecific only in the field, allowing larvae to choose between roots of damaged and undamaged plants. We also examined whether leaf herbivory induced changes in defensive cucurbitacin C in leaves and roots. We hypothesized that induced changes in roots would deter larvae, and that effects would be stronger for damage by conspecifics than the unrelated caterpillar because the aboveground damage could be a cue to plants indicating future root damage by the same species. In both the greenhouse and field, plants with damaged leaves recruited significantly fewer larvae to their roots than undamaged plants. Effects of conspecific and heterospecific damage did not differ. Leaf damage did not induce changes in leaf or root cucurbitacin C, but did reduce root biomass. While past work has suggested that systemic induction by aboveground herbivory increases resistance in roots, our results suggest that decreased preference by belowground herbivores in this system may be because of reduced root growth.

  5. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and other obnoxious aquatic plant growths, from the navigable waters, tributary streams, connecting... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  6. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and other obnoxious aquatic plant growths, from the navigable waters, tributary streams, connecting... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  7. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and other obnoxious aquatic plant growths, from the navigable waters, tributary streams, connecting... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  8. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and other obnoxious aquatic plant growths, from the navigable waters, tributary streams, connecting... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  9. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and other obnoxious aquatic plant growths, from the navigable waters, tributary streams, connecting... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  10. Shifts in Aboveground Biomass Allocation Patterns of Dominant Shrub Species across a Strong Environmental Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Kumordzi, Bright B.; Gundale, Michael J.; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Most plant biomass allocation studies have focused on allocation to shoots versus roots, and little is known about drivers of allocation for aboveground plant organs. We explored the drivers of within-and between-species variation of aboveground biomass allocation across a strong environmental resource gradient, i.e., a long-term chronosequence of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden across which soil fertility and plant productivity declines while light availability increases. For each of the three coexisting dominant understory dwarf shrub species on each island, we estimated the fraction of the total aboveground biomass produced year of sampling that was allocated to sexual reproduction (i.e., fruits), leaves and stems for each of two growing seasons, to determine how biomass allocation responded to the chronosequence at both the within-species and whole community levels. Against expectations, within-species allocation to fruits was least on less fertile islands, and allocation to leaves at the whole community level was greatest on intermediate islands. Consistent with expectations, different coexisting species showed contrasting allocation patterns, with the species that was best adapted for more fertile conditions allocating the most to vegetative organs, and with its allocation pattern showing the strongest response to the gradient. Our study suggests that co-existing dominant plant species can display highly contrasting biomass allocations to different aboveground organs within and across species in response to limiting environmental resources within the same plant community. Such knowledge is important for understanding how community assembly, trait spectra, and ecological processes driven by the plant community vary across environmental gradients and among contrasting ecosystems. PMID:27270445

  11. Shifts in Aboveground Biomass Allocation Patterns of Dominant Shrub Species across a Strong Environmental Gradient.

    PubMed

    Kumordzi, Bright B; Gundale, Michael J; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A

    2016-01-01

    Most plant biomass allocation studies have focused on allocation to shoots versus roots, and little is known about drivers of allocation for aboveground plant organs. We explored the drivers of within-and between-species variation of aboveground biomass allocation across a strong environmental resource gradient, i.e., a long-term chronosequence of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden across which soil fertility and plant productivity declines while light availability increases. For each of the three coexisting dominant understory dwarf shrub species on each island, we estimated the fraction of the total aboveground biomass produced year of sampling that was allocated to sexual reproduction (i.e., fruits), leaves and stems for each of two growing seasons, to determine how biomass allocation responded to the chronosequence at both the within-species and whole community levels. Against expectations, within-species allocation to fruits was least on less fertile islands, and allocation to leaves at the whole community level was greatest on intermediate islands. Consistent with expectations, different coexisting species showed contrasting allocation patterns, with the species that was best adapted for more fertile conditions allocating the most to vegetative organs, and with its allocation pattern showing the strongest response to the gradient. Our study suggests that co-existing dominant plant species can display highly contrasting biomass allocations to different aboveground organs within and across species in response to limiting environmental resources within the same plant community. Such knowledge is important for understanding how community assembly, trait spectra, and ecological processes driven by the plant community vary across environmental gradients and among contrasting ecosystems. PMID:27270445

  12. 40 CFR 63.6090 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this... Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6090 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This subpart... stationary combustion turbine which burns landfill gas or digester gas equivalent to 10 percent or more...

  13. 40 CFR 63.6090 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this... This Subpart Covers § 63.6090 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This subpart applies to... stationary combustion turbine which burns landfill gas or digester gas equivalent to 10 percent or more...

  14. 40 CFR 63.2232 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this... This Subpart Covers § 63.2232 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies... products, such as resins; onsite wastewater treatment operations specifically associated with plywood...

  15. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.4682 Section 63.4682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Building Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.4682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?...

  16. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.4682 Section 63.4682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Building Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.4682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.4682 Section 63.4682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Building Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.4682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 100 - Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants A Appendix A to Part 100 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR SITE CRITERIA Pt. 100, App. A Appendix A to Part 100—Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants...

  19. 40 CFR 63.6090 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.6090 Section 63.6090 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6090 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This...

  20. 40 CFR 63.6090 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.6090 Section 63.6090 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6090 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This...

  1. 40 CFR 63.6090 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.6090 Section 63.6090 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... This Subpart Covers § 63.6090 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This subpart applies...

  2. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this... and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover..., treat, or dispose of wastewater streams or residuals generated by a coating or printing operation....

  3. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this... Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this..., treat, or dispose of wastewater streams or residuals generated by a coating or printing operation....

  4. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  5. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyun G; Kim, Byung K; Song, Geun C; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1-V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  6. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  7. Trade-offs in plant responses to herbivory influence trophic routes of production in a freshwater wetland.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Julia A; Gough, Laura

    2009-09-01

    Responses of aquatic macrophytes to leaf herbivory may differ from those documented for terrestrial plants, in part, because the potential to maximize growth following herbivory may be limited by the stress of being rooted in flooded, anaerobic sediments. Herbivory on aquatic macrophytes may have ecosystem consequences by altering the allocation of nutrients and production of biomass within individual plants and changing the quality and quantity of aboveground biomass available to consumers or decomposers. To test the effects of leaf herbivory on plant growth and production, herbivory of a dominant macrophyte, Nymphaea odorata, by chrysomelid beetles and crambid moths was controlled during a 2-year field experiment. Plants exposed to herbivory maintained, or tended to increase, biomass and aboveground net primary production relative to controls, which resulted in 1.5 times more aboveground primary production entering the detrital pathway of the wetland. In a complementary greenhouse experiment, the effects of simulated leaf herbivory on total plant responses, including biomass and nutrient allocation, were investigated. Plants in the greenhouse responded to moderate herbivory by maintaining aboveground biomass relative to controls, but this response occurred at the expense of belowground growth. Results of these studies suggest that N. odorata may tolerate moderate levels of herbivory by reallocating biomass and resources aboveground, which in turn influences the quantity, quality and fate of organic matter available to herbivores and decomposers. PMID:19590899

  8. Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Torrence; Zhu, Lixue; Lopéz, Lorena; Pechanova, Olga; Shivaji, Renuka; Ankala, Arunkanth; Williams, W. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Insect pests that attempt to feed on the caterpillar-resistant maize genotype Mp708 encounter a potent, multipronged defense system that thwarts their invasion. First, these plants are on “constant alert” due to constitutively elevated levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid that signals the plant to activate its defenses. The higher jasmonic acid levels trigger the expression of defense genes prior to herbivore attack so the plants are “primed” and respond with a faster and stronger defense. The second defense is the rapid accumulation of a toxic cysteine protease called Mir1-CP in the maize whorl in response to caterpillar feeding. When caterpillars ingest Mir1-CP, it damages the insect's midgut and retards their growth. In this article, we discuss a third possible defense strategy employed by Mp708. We have shown that foliar caterpillar feeding causes Mir1-CP and defense gene transcripts to accumulate in its roots. We propose that caterpillar feeding aboveground sends a signal belowground via the phloem that results in Mir1-CP accumulation in the roots. We also postulate that the roots serve as a reservoir of Mir1-CP that can be mobilized to the whorl in response to caterpillar assault. PMID:21270535

  9. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines. No further requirements apply for such... HAP emissions. (c) Stationary RICE subject to Regulations under 40 CFR Part 60. An affected...

  10. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... subpart IIII, for compression ignition engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines... under 40 CFR Part 60. An affected source that meets any of the criteria in paragraphs (c)(1) through...

  11. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines. No further requirements apply for such.... No initial notification is necessary. (c) Stationary RICE subject to Regulations under 40 CFR Part...

  12. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... subpart IIII, for compression ignition engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines... under 40 CFR Part 60. An affected source that meets any of the criteria in paragraphs (c)(1) through...

  13. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines. No further requirements apply for such... HAP emissions. (c) Stationary RICE subject to Regulations under 40 CFR Part 60. An affected...

  14. Power plant ashes and their utilization. Part 10. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Eerola, M.; Keppo, M.; Korkman, J.; Kukko, H.; Vanhanen, A.

    1980-01-01

    For fine-grained fly ash and coarser-grained bottom ash originating from power plants as combustion residue a profitable use for many purposes has already been found. Many European countries utilize great amounts of ashes they produce. The quality of ash is dependent on the fuel used and the equipment of the power plant in question. The building industry utilizes plenty of fine-grained materials with many features closely resembling fly ash. In lightweight aggregate production it is possible to use fly ash for improving the strength level of a product or lightweight aggregate particles can be sintered from fly ash and water without using clay. For the manufacture of bricks fly and bottom ashes have been used abroad as a material replacing sand and silt or as such mixed together. In road construction, fly ash is suitable for use as an embankment fill and a stabilized structure for subbases and base courses or as a filler for asphalt pavements. For the purposes of fertilization and soil improvement highly nutrient ashes (sulphite liquor, wood, peat) can be utilized. The use of ashes as a raw material e.g. in metal industry has started to attract attention abroad. Practical problems pertaining to the utilization of ashes are: the varying production rate due to the succession of the seasons, transportation and transfer of dry ashes, and arrangement of the quality control. The above mentioned factors result in expenses but also saving is brought about by using ashes.

  15. Belowground induction by Delia radicum or phytohormones affect aboveground herbivore communities on field-grown broccoli

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, S. P.; Dugravot, S.; Hervé, M. R.; Hassan, H. M.; van Dam, N. M.; Cortesero, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Induced plant defence in response to phytophagous insects is a well described phenomenon. However, so far little is known about the effect of induced plant responses on subsequently colonizing herbivores in the field. Broccoli plants were induced in the belowground compartment using (i) infestation by the root-herbivore Delia radicum, (ii) root application of jasmonic acid (JA) or (iii) root application of salicylic acid (SA). The abundance of D. radicum and six aboveground herbivores displaying contrasting levels of host specialization were surveyed for 5 weeks. Our study showed that the response of herbivores was found to differ from one another, depending on the herbivore species, its degree of specialization and the root treatment. The abundance of the root herbivore D. radicum and particularly the number of emerging adults was decreased by both phytohormone treatments, while the number of D. radicum eggs was increased on conspecific infested plants. The root infestation exhibited moderate effects on the aboveground community. The abundance of the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae was strongly increased on D. radicum infested plants, but the other species were not impacted. Root hormone applications exhibited a strong effect on the abundance of specialist foliar herbivores. A higher number of B. brassicae and Pieris brassicae and a lower number of Plutella xylostella were found on JA treated plants. On SA treated plants we observed a decrease of the abundance of B. brassicae, Pi. rapae, and P. xylostella. Surprisingly, generalist species, Mamestra brassicae and Myzus persicae were not affected by root induction treatments. Finally, root treatments had no significant effect on either glucosinolate (GLS) profiles of the heads or on plant quality parameters. These results are discussed from the perspective of below- aboveground interactions and adaptations of phytophagous insects to induced plant responses according to their trophic specialization level. PMID:23970888

  16. Evaluating lidar point densities for effective estimation of aboveground biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Stoker, Jason; Vogel, John M.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) was recently established to provide airborne lidar data coverage on a national scale. As part of a broader research effort of the USGS to develop an effective remote sensing-based methodology for the creation of an operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (Biomass ECV) data product, we evaluated the performance of airborne lidar data at various pulse densities against Landsat 8 satellite imagery in estimating above ground biomass for forests and woodlands in a study area in east-central Arizona, U.S. High point density airborne lidar data, were randomly sampled to produce five lidar datasets with reduced densities ranging from 0.5 to 8 point(s)/m2, corresponding to the point density range of 3DEP to provide national lidar coverage over time. Lidar-derived aboveground biomass estimate errors showed an overall decreasing trend as lidar point density increased from 0.5 to 8 points/m2. Landsat 8-based aboveground biomass estimates produced errors larger than the lowest lidar point density of 0.5 point/m2, and therefore Landsat 8 observations alone were ineffective relative to airborne lidar for generating a Biomass ECV product, at least for the forest and woodland vegetation types of the Southwestern U.S. While a national Biomass ECV product with optimal accuracy could potentially be achieved with 3DEP data at 8 points/m2, our results indicate that even lower density lidar data could be sufficient to provide a national Biomass ECV product with accuracies significantly higher than that from Landsat observations alone.

  17. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure testing... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed...

  18. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure...

  19. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure...

  20. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure...

  1. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure...

  2. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  3. Nuclear material safeguards for enrichments plants: Part 4, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Diversion scenarios and IAEA safeguards activities: Safeguards training course

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This publication is Part 4 of a safeguards training course in Nuclear Material Safeguards for enrichment plants. This part of the course deals with diversion scenarios and safeguards activities at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.

  4. Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Chave, Jérôme; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Búrquez, Alberto; Chidumayo, Emmanuel; Colgan, Matthew S; Delitti, Welington B C; Duque, Alvaro; Eid, Tron; Fearnside, Philip M; Goodman, Rosa C; Henry, Matieu; Martínez-Yrízar, Angelina; Mugasha, Wilson A; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Nelson, Bruce W; Ngomanda, Alfred; Nogueira, Euler M; Ortiz-Malavassi, Edgar; Pélissier, Raphaël; Ploton, Pierre; Ryan, Casey M; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Vieilledent, Ghislain

    2014-10-01

    Terrestrial carbon stock mapping is important for the successful implementation of climate change mitigation policies. Its accuracy depends on the availability of reliable allometric models to infer oven-dry aboveground biomass of trees from census data. The degree of uncertainty associated with previously published pantropical aboveground biomass allometries is large. We analyzed a global database of directly harvested trees at 58 sites, spanning a wide range of climatic conditions and vegetation types (4004 trees ≥ 5 cm trunk diameter). When trunk diameter, total tree height, and wood specific gravity were included in the aboveground biomass model as covariates, a single model was found to hold across tropical vegetation types, with no detectable effect of region or environmental factors. The mean percent bias and variance of this model was only slightly higher than that of locally fitted models. Wood specific gravity was an important predictor of aboveground biomass, especially when including a much broader range of vegetation types than previous studies. The generic tree diameter-height relationship depended linearly on a bioclimatic stress variable E, which compounds indices of temperature variability, precipitation variability, and drought intensity. For cases in which total tree height is unavailable for aboveground biomass estimation, a pantropical model incorporating wood density, trunk diameter, and the variable E outperformed previously published models without height. However, to minimize bias, the development of locally derived diameter-height relationships is advised whenever possible. Both new allometric models should contribute to improve the accuracy of biomass assessment protocols in tropical vegetation types, and to advancing our understanding of architectural and evolutionary constraints on woody plant development. PMID:24817483

  5. Regional contingencies in the relationship between aboveground Bbomass and litter in the world’s grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O’Halloran, Lydia R.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Cleland, Elsa E.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Hobbie, Sarah; Harpole, W. Stan; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Davies, Kendi F.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hagenah, Nicole; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Li, Wei; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Stevens, Carly J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on regional-scale studies, aboveground production and litter decomposition are thought to positively covary, because they are driven by shared biotic and climatic factors. Until now we have been unable to test whether production and decomposition are generally coupled across climatically dissimilar regions, because we lacked replicated data collected within a single vegetation type across multiple regions, obfuscating the drivers and generality of the association between production and decomposition. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationships between production and decomposition rests heavily on separate meta-analyses of each response, because no studies have simultaneously measured production and the accumulation or decomposition of litter using consistent methods at globally relevant scales. Here, we use a multi-country grassland dataset collected using a standardized protocol to show that live plant biomass (an estimate of aboveground net primary production) and litter disappearance (represented by mass loss of aboveground litter) do not strongly covary. Live biomass and litter disappearance varied at different spatial scales. There was substantial variation in live biomass among continents, sites and plots whereas among continent differences accounted for most of the variation in litter disappearance rates. Although there were strong associations among aboveground biomass, litter disappearance and climatic factors in some regions (e.g. U.S. Great Plains), these relationships were inconsistent within and among the regions represented by this study. These results highlight the importance of replication among regions and continents when characterizing the correlations between ecosystem processes and interpreting their global-scale implications for carbon flux. We must exercise caution in parameterizing litter decomposition and aboveground production in future regional and global carbon models as their relationship is complex.

  6. Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Chave, Jérôme; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Búrquez, Alberto; Chidumayo, Emmanuel; Colgan, Matthew S; Delitti, Welington B C; Duque, Alvaro; Eid, Tron; Fearnside, Philip M; Goodman, Rosa C; Henry, Matieu; Martínez-Yrízar, Angelina; Mugasha, Wilson A; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Nelson, Bruce W; Ngomanda, Alfred; Nogueira, Euler M; Ortiz-Malavassi, Edgar; Pélissier, Raphaël; Ploton, Pierre; Ryan, Casey M; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Vieilledent, Ghislain

    2014-10-01

    Terrestrial carbon stock mapping is important for the successful implementation of climate change mitigation policies. Its accuracy depends on the availability of reliable allometric models to infer oven-dry aboveground biomass of trees from census data. The degree of uncertainty associated with previously published pantropical aboveground biomass allometries is large. We analyzed a global database of directly harvested trees at 58 sites, spanning a wide range of climatic conditions and vegetation types (4004 trees ≥ 5 cm trunk diameter). When trunk diameter, total tree height, and wood specific gravity were included in the aboveground biomass model as covariates, a single model was found to hold across tropical vegetation types, with no detectable effect of region or environmental factors. The mean percent bias and variance of this model was only slightly higher than that of locally fitted models. Wood specific gravity was an important predictor of aboveground biomass, especially when including a much broader range of vegetation types than previous studies. The generic tree diameter-height relationship depended linearly on a bioclimatic stress variable E, which compounds indices of temperature variability, precipitation variability, and drought intensity. For cases in which total tree height is unavailable for aboveground biomass estimation, a pantropical model incorporating wood density, trunk diameter, and the variable E outperformed previously published models without height. However, to minimize bias, the development of locally derived diameter-height relationships is advised whenever possible. Both new allometric models should contribute to improve the accuracy of biomass assessment protocols in tropical vegetation types, and to advancing our understanding of architectural and evolutionary constraints on woody plant development.

  7. Regional Contingencies in the Relationship between Aboveground Biomass and Litter in the World’s Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Lydia R.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Cleland, Elsa E.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Hobbie, Sarah; Harpole, W. Stan; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Chu, Chengjin; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Davies, Kendi F.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hagenah, Nicole; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Li, Wei; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Stevens, Carly J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on regional-scale studies, aboveground production and litter decomposition are thought to positively covary, because they are driven by shared biotic and climatic factors. Until now we have been unable to test whether production and decomposition are generally coupled across climatically dissimilar regions, because we lacked replicated data collected within a single vegetation type across multiple regions, obfuscating the drivers and generality of the association between production and decomposition. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationships between production and decomposition rests heavily on separate meta-analyses of each response, because no studies have simultaneously measured production and the accumulation or decomposition of litter using consistent methods at globally relevant scales. Here, we use a multi-country grassland dataset collected using a standardized protocol to show that live plant biomass (an estimate of aboveground net primary production) and litter disappearance (represented by mass loss of aboveground litter) do not strongly covary. Live biomass and litter disappearance varied at different spatial scales. There was substantial variation in live biomass among continents, sites and plots whereas among continent differences accounted for most of the variation in litter disappearance rates. Although there were strong associations among aboveground biomass, litter disappearance and climatic factors in some regions (e.g. U.S. Great Plains), these relationships were inconsistent within and among the regions represented by this study. These results highlight the importance of replication among regions and continents when characterizing the correlations between ecosystem processes and interpreting their global-scale implications for carbon flux. We must exercise caution in parameterizing litter decomposition and aboveground production in future regional and global carbon models as their relationship is complex. PMID:23405103

  8. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Introduction to Aphids - Part 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides visual instruction on important subject areas for aphid examination and identification. Aphid topics such as classification, morphology, plant disease transmission, and references are discussed. This dis...

  9. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... are produced in mercury cells. This subpart applies to two types of affected sources: the mercury...

  10. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... are produced in mercury cells. This subpart applies to two types of affected sources: the mercury...

  11. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... are produced in mercury cells. This subpart applies to two types of affected sources: the mercury...

  12. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... are produced in mercury cells. This subpart applies to two types of affected sources: the mercury...

  13. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  14. A new conceptual model on the fate and controls of fresh and pyrolized plant litter decomposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaching of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from fresh and pyrolyzed aboveground plant inputs to the soil is a major pathway by which decomposing aboveground plant material contributes to soil organic matter formation. Understanding how aboveground plant input chemical traits control the partiti...

  15. Potential for post-closure radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: aboveground biomass, litter production rates, and the distribution of root mass with depth at material disposal area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B; Christensen, Candace; Jennings, Terry L; Jaros, Christopher L; Wykoff, David S; Crowell, Kelly J; Shuman, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) is disposed of at LANL's Technical Area (T A) 54, Material Disposal Area (MDA) G. The ability of MDA G to safely contain radioactive waste during current and post-closure operations is evaluated as part of the facility's ongoing performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA). Due to the potential for uptake and incorporation of radio nuclides into aboveground plant material, the PA and CA project that plant roots penetrating into buried waste may lead to releases of radionuclides into the accessible environment. The potential amount ofcontamination deposited on the ground surface due to plant intrusion into buried waste is a function of the quantity of litter generated by plants, as well as radionuclide concentrations within the litter. Radionuclide concentrations in plant litter is dependent on the distribution of root mass with depth and the efficiency with which radionuclides are extracted from contaminated soils by the plant's roots. In order to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G, surveys are being conducted to assess aboveground biomass, plant litter production rates, and root mass with depth for the four prominent vegetation types (grasses, forbs, shrubs and trees). The collection of aboveground biomass for grasses and forbs began in 2007. Additional sampling was conducted in October 2008 to measure root mass with depth and to collect additional aboveground biomass data for the types of grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees that may become established at MDA G after the facility undergoes final closure, Biomass data will be used to estimate the future potential mass of contaminated plant litter fall, which could act as a latent conduit for radionuclide transport from the closed disposal area. Data collected are expected to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G and ultimately aid in the assessment and subsequent

  16. 40 CFR 63.3082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Automobiles and Light-Duty Trucks What This Subpart Covers § 63.3082 What parts of my plant does this subpart... section that are used for surface coating of new automobile or new light-duty truck bodies, or body parts for new automobiles or new light-duty trucks: (1) All coating operations as defined in § 63.3176....

  17. Pretreatment of plant and soil samples: a problem in boron analysis. Part I. Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wikner, B.

    1986-01-01

    Possible sources of errors in the determination of boron in plant samples were examined. During drying and grinding neither loss nor contamination of boron was observed. It was found that boron was slightly lost when muffling at temperatures higher than 550/sup 0/C. The addition of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ prevented the loss but gave rise to incomplete ashing in many cases. Nitrate salts added in order to enhance oxidation gave rise to boron loss. Wet ashing should be done preferably in a concentrated sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid medium at low temperatures. At higher temperatures the shape of the digestion flask is important - long neck flasks are usually safe enough due to their condensating effects. Very high temperatures with foaming demand additional cooling condensors. Borosilicate glass can not be used. Extraction of plant samples with hydrochloric acid is a convenient alternative but no more than 75-94% of the total boron concentration in plants could be extracted.

  18. Plant nutrients do not covary with soil nutrients under changing climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wentao; Elser, James J.; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Wang, Zhengwen; Bai, Edith; Yan, Caifeng; Wang, Chao; Li, Mai-He; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Han, Xingguo; Xu, Zhuwen; Li, Hui; Wu, Yunna; Jiang, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play vital roles in plant growth and development. Yet how climate regimes and soil fertility influence plant N and P stoichiometry is not well understood, especially in the belowground plant parts. Here we investigated plant aboveground and belowground N and P concentrations ([N] and [P]) and their stoichiometry in three dominant genera along a 2200 km long climatic gradient in northern China. Results showed that temperature explained more variation of [N] and [P] in C4 plants, whereas precipitation exerted a stronger influence on [N] and [P] in C3 plants. Both plant aboveground and belowground [N] and [P] increased with decreasing precipitation, and increasing temperatures yet were negatively correlated with soil [N] and [P]. Plant N:P ratios were unrelated with all climate and soil variables. Plant aboveground and belowground [N] followed an allometric scaling relationship, but the allocation of [P] was isometric. These results imply that internal processes stabilize plant N:P ratios and hence tissue N:P ratios may not be an effective parameter for predicting plant nutrient limitation. Our results also imply that past positive relationships between plant and nutrient stocks may be challenged under changing climatic conditions. While any modeling would need to be able to replicate currently observed relationships, it is conceivable that some relationships, such as those between temperature or rainfall and carbon:nutrient ratios, should be different under changing climatic conditions.

  19. 78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, drawing number AW30-02-09, dated 15 October, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. NORTH ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. ABOVEGROUND PORTION IS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. ABOVE-GROUND PORTION IS ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVEGROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVE-GROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Arctic fungal communities associated with roots of Bistorta vivipara do not respond to the same fine-scale edaphic gradients as the aboveground vegetation.

    PubMed

    Mundra, Sunil; Halvorsen, Rune; Kauserud, Håvard; Müller, Eike; Vik, Unni; Eidesen, Pernille B

    2015-03-01

    Soil conditions and microclimate are important determinants of the fine-scale distribution of plant species in the Arctic, creating locally heterogeneous vegetation. We hypothesize that root-associated fungal (RAF) communities respond to the same fine-scale environmental gradients as the aboveground vegetation, creating a coherent pattern between aboveground vegetation and RAF. We explored how RAF communities of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plant Bistorta vivipara and aboveground vegetation structure of arctic plants were affected by biotic and abiotic variables at 0.3-3.0-m scales. RAF communities were determined using pyrosequencing. Composition and spatial structure of RAF and aboveground vegetation in relation to collected biotic and abiotic variables were analysed by ordination and semi-variance analyses. The vegetation was spatially structured along soil C and N gradients, whereas RAF lacked significant spatial structure. A weak relationship between RAF community composition and the cover of two ECM plants, B. vivipara and S. polaris, was found, and RAF richness increased with host root length and root weight. Results suggest that the fine-scale spatial structure of RAF communities of B. vivipara and the aboveground vegetation are driven by different factors. At fine spatial scales, neighbouring ECM plants may affect RAF community composition, whereas soil nutrients gradients structure the vegetation. PMID:25483568

  3. Arctic fungal communities associated with roots of Bistorta vivipara do not respond to the same fine-scale edaphic gradients as the aboveground vegetation.

    PubMed

    Mundra, Sunil; Halvorsen, Rune; Kauserud, Håvard; Müller, Eike; Vik, Unni; Eidesen, Pernille B

    2015-03-01

    Soil conditions and microclimate are important determinants of the fine-scale distribution of plant species in the Arctic, creating locally heterogeneous vegetation. We hypothesize that root-associated fungal (RAF) communities respond to the same fine-scale environmental gradients as the aboveground vegetation, creating a coherent pattern between aboveground vegetation and RAF. We explored how RAF communities of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plant Bistorta vivipara and aboveground vegetation structure of arctic plants were affected by biotic and abiotic variables at 0.3-3.0-m scales. RAF communities were determined using pyrosequencing. Composition and spatial structure of RAF and aboveground vegetation in relation to collected biotic and abiotic variables were analysed by ordination and semi-variance analyses. The vegetation was spatially structured along soil C and N gradients, whereas RAF lacked significant spatial structure. A weak relationship between RAF community composition and the cover of two ECM plants, B. vivipara and S. polaris, was found, and RAF richness increased with host root length and root weight. Results suggest that the fine-scale spatial structure of RAF communities of B. vivipara and the aboveground vegetation are driven by different factors. At fine spatial scales, neighbouring ECM plants may affect RAF community composition, whereas soil nutrients gradients structure the vegetation.

  4. Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 6. Relationship between cover and aboveground biomass. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmelpfennig, D.K.

    1982-06-01

    Assessment of revegetation success on mined lands is a difficult, time consuming task and has been the subject of a number of controversies. Present regulations require that both plant cover and aboveground plant biomass be measured for use in making that assessment. Of these two variables, biomass is the most time consuming to measure and requires destructive sampling, a most undesirable, requirement on fragile, recently revegetated areas. A study was done to evaluate the predictability of aboveground biomass production on revegetated mined sites and adjacent native prairies using plant cover estimates made with the point frame method. A positive, statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between plant cover and aboveground biomass regardless of the community type, species composition, diversity or level of biomass production. However, the latter did have their effects on the relationship and must be accounted for in any predictive equations.

  5. Spatial Distribution of Aboveground Carbon Stock of the Arboreal Vegetation in Brazilian Biomes of Savanna, Atlantic Forest and Semi-Arid Woodland.

    PubMed

    Scolforo, Henrique Ferraco; Scolforo, Jose Roberto Soares; Mello, Carlos Rogerio; Mello, Jose Marcio; Ferraz Filho, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map the spatial distribution of aboveground carbon stock (using Regression-kriging) of arboreal plants in the Atlantic Forest, Semi-arid woodland, and Savanna Biomes in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The database used in this study was obtained from 163 forest fragments, totaling 4,146 plots of 1,000 m2 distributed in these Biomes. A geographical model for carbon stock estimation was parameterized as a function of Biome, latitude and altitude. This model was applied over the samples and the residuals generated were mapped based on geostatistical procedures, selecting the exponential semivariogram theoretical model for conducting ordinary Kriging. The aboveground carbon stock was found to have a greater concentration in the north of the State, where the largest contingent of native vegetation is located, mainly the Savanna Biome, with Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna phytophysiognomes. The largest weighted averages of carbon stock per hectare were found in the south-center region (48.6 Mg/ha) and in the southern part of the eastern region (48.4 Mg/ha) of Minas Gerais State, due to the greatest predominance of Atlantic Forest Biome forest fragments. The smallest weighted averages per hectare were found in the central (21.2 Mg/ha), northern (20.4 Mg/ha), and northwestern (20.7 Mg/ha) regions of Minas Gerais State, where Savanna Biome fragments are predominant, in the phytophysiognomes Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna.

  6. Spatial Distribution of Aboveground Carbon Stock of the Arboreal Vegetation in Brazilian Biomes of Savanna, Atlantic Forest and Semi-Arid Woodland

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map the spatial distribution of aboveground carbon stock (using Regression-kriging) of arboreal plants in the Atlantic Forest, Semi-arid woodland, and Savanna Biomes in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The database used in this study was obtained from 163 forest fragments, totaling 4,146 plots of 1,000 m2 distributed in these Biomes. A geographical model for carbon stock estimation was parameterized as a function of Biome, latitude and altitude. This model was applied over the samples and the residuals generated were mapped based on geostatistical procedures, selecting the exponential semivariogram theoretical model for conducting ordinary Kriging. The aboveground carbon stock was found to have a greater concentration in the north of the State, where the largest contingent of native vegetation is located, mainly the Savanna Biome, with Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna phytophysiognomes. The largest weighted averages of carbon stock per hectare were found in the south-center region (48.6 Mg/ha) and in the southern part of the eastern region (48.4 Mg/ha) of Minas Gerais State, due to the greatest predominance of Atlantic Forest Biome forest fragments. The smallest weighted averages per hectare were found in the central (21.2 Mg/ha), northern (20.4 Mg/ha), and northwestern (20.7 Mg/ha) regions of Minas Gerais State, where Savanna Biome fragments are predominant, in the phytophysiognomes Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna. PMID:26066508

  7. Modelling of blast loading on aboveground structures - I. General phenomenology and external blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshara, F. B. A.

    1994-06-01

    The paper is concerned with the prediction of dynamic effects of unconfined explosions needed for the structural analysis of blast-loaded aboveground structures. The basic features of the explosion and blast wave phenomena are presented along with a discussion of TNT equivalency and blast scaling laws. The characteristics of incident overpressure loading due to atomic weapons, conventional high explosives and unconfined vapour cloud explosions are addressed and followed by a description of the other blast loading components associated with air flow and reflection process. In the final part, the modelling of external blast loads on the different faces of aboveground rigid structures is considered. A unified approach is followed in the presentation of the governing equations of modelling of blast loads for mathematical and practical applications.

  8. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in part 14 of this subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352..., and synthetically derived DNA as provided in § 23.16. (8) Certain wildlife hybrids as provided in §...

  9. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in part 14 of this subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352..., and synthetically derived DNA as provided in § 23.16. (8) Certain wildlife hybrids as provided in §...

  10. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in part 14 of this subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352..., and synthetically derived DNA as provided in § 23.16. (8) Certain wildlife hybrids as provided in §...

  11. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial α-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial α-diversity is not always linked to high plant α-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial β-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession.

  12. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial α-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial α-diversity is not always linked to high plant α-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial β-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession.

  13. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial α-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial α-diversity is not always linked to high plant α-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial β-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession. PMID:26184121

  14. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial α-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial α-diversity is not always linked to high plant α-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial β-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession. PMID:26184121

  15. Topographically mediated controls on aboveground biomass across a mediterranean-type landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, K.; Asner, G. P.; Field, C. B.

    2009-12-01

    Aboveground biomass accumulation is a useful metric for evaluating habitat restoration and ecosystem services projects, in addition to being a robust measure of carbon sequestration. However, at the landscape scale non-anthropogenic controls on biomass accumulation are poorly understood. In this study we combined field measurements, high resolution data from the NASA JPL Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), and the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) system to create a comprehensive map of aboveground biomass across a patchy mediterranean-type landscape (Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, Stanford, CA). Candidate explanatory variables (e.g. slope, elevation, incident solar radiation) were developed using a geologic map and a digital elevation model derived from the lidar data. Finally, candidate variables were tested, and a model was produced to predict aboveground biomass from environmental data. Though many of the explanatory variables have only indirect effects on plant growth, the model permits inferences to be made about the relative importance of light, water, temperature, and edaphic characteristics on carbon accumulation in mediterranean-type systems.

  16. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands.

    PubMed

    Risch, Anita C; Schotz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Busse, Matt D; Page-dumroese, Deborah S; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore species or guilds. We assessed how a diverse herbivore community affects net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands. By using size-selective fences, we progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals, as well as invertebrates from two vegetation types, and assessed how the exclosure types (ET) affected net N mineralization. The two vegetation types differed in long-term management (centuries), forage quality, and grazing history and intensity. To gain a more mechanistic understanding of how herbivores affect net N mineralization, we linked mineralization to soil abiotic (temperature; moisture; NO3-, NH4+, and total inorganic N concentrations/pools; C, N, P concentrations; pH; bulk density), soil biotic (microbial biomass; abundance of collembolans, mites, and nematodes) and plant (shoot and root biomass; consumption; plant C, N, and fiber content; plant N pool) properties. Net N mineralization differed between ET, but not between vegetation types. Thus, short-term changes in herbivore community composition and, therefore, in grazing intensity had a stronger effect on net N mineralization than long-term management and grazing history. We found highest N mineralization values when only invertebrates were present, suggesting that mammals had a negative effect on net N mineralization. Of the variables included in our analyses, only mite abundance and aboveground plant biomass explained variation in net N mineralization among ET. Abundances of both mites and leaf-sucking invertebrates were positively correlated with aboveground plant biomass, and biomass increased with progressive exclusion

  17. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands.

    PubMed

    Risch, Anita C; Schotz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Busse, Matt D; Page-dumroese, Deborah S; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore species or guilds. We assessed how a diverse herbivore community affects net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands. By using size-selective fences, we progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals, as well as invertebrates from two vegetation types, and assessed how the exclosure types (ET) affected net N mineralization. The two vegetation types differed in long-term management (centuries), forage quality, and grazing history and intensity. To gain a more mechanistic understanding of how herbivores affect net N mineralization, we linked mineralization to soil abiotic (temperature; moisture; NO3-, NH4+, and total inorganic N concentrations/pools; C, N, P concentrations; pH; bulk density), soil biotic (microbial biomass; abundance of collembolans, mites, and nematodes) and plant (shoot and root biomass; consumption; plant C, N, and fiber content; plant N pool) properties. Net N mineralization differed between ET, but not between vegetation types. Thus, short-term changes in herbivore community composition and, therefore, in grazing intensity had a stronger effect on net N mineralization than long-term management and grazing history. We found highest N mineralization values when only invertebrates were present, suggesting that mammals had a negative effect on net N mineralization. Of the variables included in our analyses, only mite abundance and aboveground plant biomass explained variation in net N mineralization among ET. Abundances of both mites and leaf-sucking invertebrates were positively correlated with aboveground plant biomass, and biomass increased with progressive exclusion

  18. Estimating Aboveground Net Primary Productivity of Black Spruce along a Climatic Gradient in the Boreal Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, J.; Varem-Sanders, T.; Bouriaud, O.

    2005-12-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is the difference between carbon assimilation by photosynthesis and plant respiration quantifies the rate at which carbon is accumulated in the living vegetation. The ability to measure net primary productivity (NPP) over a period of years using relatively inexpensive methods can be a tremendous asset when assessing the forest response to climate change. This project investigates and evaluates a new comprehensive method of estimating multi-decadal historical black spruce productivity using biomass stocks and tree ring width measurements along a climatic gradient. Black spruce aboveground NPP was calculated for even aged stands along Boreal Forest Transect Case Study (BFTCS) with similar soil and fertility characteristics. Biomass functions were modified using local DBH-height functions to determine tree level with Dbh as the sole predictor. Above ground net primary productivity was estimated from the stand level change in biomass with measured litter production rate on these sites. Tree biomass increment and litter production increases from Central Saskatchewan at the southern limit of the boreal forest where the climate is warm and dry up to Thompson (Northern Manitoba) where the climate is wetter and colder. Aboveground NPP for mature stands ranges from 671 to 1567 kg C ha-1 yr-1. Both at the southern boreal sites and northern boreal sites, the tree productivity was highly sensitivity to climate variability. The younger mixed black spruce stands are considerably more productive than older pure stands. Litter production is a major component and accounts for 30 to 60% of aboveground NPP. Practical robust estimation of aboveground NPP using tree ring measurement offers the potential for application over large spatial and temporal scale.

  19. 40 CFR 63.5790 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5790 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at reinforced plastic composites...

  20. 40 CFR 63.5790 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5790 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at reinforced plastic...

  1. 40 CFR 63.5790 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5790 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at reinforced plastic...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5790 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5790 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at reinforced plastic composites...

  3. 40 CFR 63.5790 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5790 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at reinforced plastic...

  4. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at...

  5. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at...

  6. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at...

  7. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at...

  8. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at...

  9. 40 CFR 63.2132 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Yeast What This Subpart Covers § 63.2132 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... cerevisiae at a nutritional yeast manufacturing facility. (b) The affected source is the collection of equipment used in the manufacture of the nutritional yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This...

  10. 40 CFR 63.2132 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Yeast What This Subpart Covers § 63.2132 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... cerevisiae at a nutritional yeast manufacturing facility. (b) The affected source is the collection of equipment used in the manufacture of the nutritional yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This...

  11. 40 CFR 63.2132 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Yeast What This Subpart Covers § 63.2132 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... cerevisiae at a nutritional yeast manufacturing facility. (b) The affected source is the collection of equipment used in the manufacture of the nutritional yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.4682 Section 63.4682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.4682 Section 63.4682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this... section that are used in fabric and other textiles web coating and printing operations. The regulated... source for the dyeing and finishing subcategory is the collection of all of the items listed...

  15. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this... section that are used in fabric and other textiles web coating and printing operations. The regulated... source for the dyeing and finishing subcategory is the collection of all of the items listed...

  16. Quantification of uncertainty in aboveground biomass estimates derived from small-footprint LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Greenberg, J. A.; Li, B.; Ramirez, C.; Balamuta, J. J.; Evans, K.; Man, A.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A promising approach to determining aboveground biomass (AGB) in forests comes through the use of individual tree crown delineation (ITCD) techniques applied to small-footprint LiDAR data. These techniques, when combined with allometric equations, can produce per-tree estimates of AGB. At this scale, AGB estimates can be quantified in a manner similar to how ground-based forest inventories are produced. However, these approaches have significant uncertainties that are rarely described in full. Allometric equations are often based on species-specific diameter-at-breast height (DBH) relationships, but neither DBH nor species can be reliably determined using remote sensing analysis. Furthermore, many approaches to ITCD only delineate trees appearing in the upper canopy so subcanopy trees are often missing from the inventories. In this research, we performed a propagation-of-error analysis to determine the spatially varying uncertainties in AGB estimates at the individual plant and stand level for a large collection of LiDAR acquisitions covering a large portion of California. Furthermore, we determined the relative contribution of various aspects of the analysis towards the uncertainty, including errors in the ITCD results, the allometric equations, the taxonomic designation, and the local biophysical environment. Watershed segmentation was used to obtain the preliminary crown segments. Lidar points within the preliminary segments were extracted to form profiling data of the segments, and then mode detection algorithms were applied to identify the tree number and tree heights within each segment. As part of this analysis, we derived novel "remote sensing aware" allometric equations and their uncertainties based on three-dimensional morphological metrics that can be accurately derived from LiDAR data.

  17. Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part I).

    PubMed

    Lemaux, Peggy G

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of the new tools of genetic engineering, genes can be introduced into the same plant or animal species or into plants or animals that are not sexually compatible-the latter is a distinction with classical breeding. This technology has led to the commercial production of genetically engineered (GE) crops on approximately 250 million acres worldwide. These crops generally are herbicide and pest tolerant, but other GE crops in the pipeline focus on other traits. For some farmers and consumers, planting and eating foods from these crops are acceptable; for others they raise issues related to safety of the foods and the environment. In Part I of this review some general and food issues raised regarding GE crops and foods will be addressed. Responses to these issues, where possible, cite peer-reviewed scientific literature. In Part II to appear in 2009, issues related to environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods will be covered.

  18. Are Inventory Based and Remotely Sensed Above-Ground Biomass Estimates Consistent?

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Timothy C.; Williams, Mathew; Bloom, A. Anthony; Mitchard, Edward T. A.; Ryan, Casey M.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation are poorly known at local, national and global scales. In part, this lack of knowledge results from uncertain above-ground biomass estimates. It is generally assumed that using more sophisticated methods of estimating above-ground biomass, which make use of remote sensing, will improve accuracy. We examine this assumption by calculating, and then comparing, above-ground biomass area density (AGBD) estimates from studies with differing levels of methodological sophistication. We consider estimates based on information from nine different studies at the scale of Africa, Mozambique and a 1160 km2 study area within Mozambique. The true AGBD is not known for these scales and so accuracy cannot be determined. Instead we consider the overall precision of estimates by grouping different studies. Since an the accuracy of an estimate cannot exceed its precision, this approach provides an upper limit on the overall accuracy of the group. This reveals poor precision at all scales, even between studies that are based on conceptually similar approaches. Mean AGBD estimates for Africa vary from 19.9 to 44.3 Mg ha−1, for Mozambique from 12.7 to 68.3 Mg ha−1, and for the 1160 km2 study area estimates range from 35.6 to 102.4 Mg ha−1. The original uncertainty estimates for each study, when available, are generally small in comparison with the differences between mean biomass estimates of different studies. We find that increasing methodological sophistication does not appear to result in improved precision of AGBD estimates, and moreover, inadequate estimates of uncertainty obscure any improvements in accuracy. Therefore, despite the clear advantages of remote sensing, there is a need to improve remotely sensed AGBD estimates if they are to provide accurate information on above-ground biomass. In particular, more robust and comprehensive uncertainty estimates are needed. PMID:24069275

  19. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha−1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y−1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y−1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y−1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests. PMID:26115195

  20. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests. PMID:26115195

  1. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests.

  2. Developing a generalized allometric equation for aboveground biomass estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Balamuta, J. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Li, B.; Man, A.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A key potential uncertainty in estimating carbon stocks across multiple scales stems from the use of empirically calibrated allometric equations, which estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) from plant characteristics such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and/or height (H). The equations themselves contain significant and, at times, poorly characterized errors. Species-specific equations may be missing. Plant responses to their local biophysical environment may lead to spatially varying allometric relationships. The structural predictor may be difficult or impossible to measure accurately, particularly when derived from remote sensing data. All of these issues may lead to significant and spatially varying uncertainties in the estimation of AGB that are unexplored in the literature. We sought to quantify the errors in predicting AGB at the tree and plot level for vegetation plots in California. To accomplish this, we derived a generalized allometric equation (GAE) which we used to model the AGB on a full set of tree information such as DBH, H, taxonomy, and biophysical environment. The GAE was derived using published allometric equations in the GlobAllomeTree database. The equations were sparse in details about the error since authors provide the coefficient of determination (R2) and the sample size. A more realistic simulation of tree AGB should also contain the noise that was not captured by the allometric equation. We derived an empirically corrected variance estimate for the amount of noise to represent the errors in the real biomass. Also, we accounted for the hierarchical relationship between different species by treating each taxonomic level as a covariate nested within a higher taxonomic level (e.g. species < genus). This approach provides estimation under incomplete tree information (e.g. missing species) or blurred information (e.g. conjecture of species), plus the biophysical environment. The GAE allowed us to quantify contribution of each different

  3. Influence of the simulated microgravity on biomass and contents of carbohydrates at virus-infected wheat plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, L.; Silayeva, A.; Mishchenko, I.; Boyko, A.

    The effects of clinostating has been studied on the contents of biomass, soluble carbohydrates and starches in Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) infected plants of wheat Donska semidwarf, Albatross Odessky, Kollectivna-3 (summer), and Apogee (early-ripe, superdwarf). Plants in conditions of horizontal and vertical rotation with a frequency 2 min-1 were grown in containers during 35 days. WSMV was accumulated on barley i dicator plants of Ros' variety for then subsequent infestation by this virus of a part of clinostating and motionless wheat plants in a stage of 3 leaves. Researches have shown, that the most suitable for ground experiments with clinostating were Kollectivna-3 and Apogee varieties. At vertical and horizontal rotation of wheat plants of Kollectivna - 3 variety the weight of roots increased and that of above-ground part (leaves and stalks) decreased in comparison with motionless control plants, that resulted in decrease of the ratio of a biomass of an above-ground part to a root system. In Apogee variety the weight of the above-ground part of healthy plants at vertical clinostating decreased by 23 % in comparison with motionless variant, and the biomass of virus-infected plants was reduced on the average by 14 % in comparison with infected motionless control. The weight of above-ground part of infected and healthy motionless plants practically did not differ. Vertical clinorotation of plants caused the reduction of ear weight while in horizontally rotated plants and in the motionless control there were no difference. The number of ears in Apogee variety practically did not change in all variants of the experiment, and plant weight at clinostating decreased in both healthy, and virus infected plants. For the period of cultivation in Kollectivna-3 variety ears were not formed at all. The contents of soluble carbohydrates (reducing and saccharose) in leaves and stalks of healthy and virus infected at clinostating was increased in Apogee in 1,6-2,2 times

  4. Genetically engineered plants and foods: a scientist's analysis of the issues (part II).

    PubMed

    Lemaux, Peggy G

    2009-01-01

    Genetic engineering provides a means to introduce genes into plants via mechanisms that are different in some respects from classical breeding. A number of commercialized, genetically engineered (GE) varieties, most notably canola, cotton, maize and soybean, were created using this technology, and at present the traits introduced are herbicide and/or pest tolerance. In 2007 these GE crops were planted in developed and developing countries on more than 280 million acres (113 million hectares) worldwide, representing nearly 10% of rainfed cropland. Although the United States leads the world in acres planted with GE crops, the majority of this planting is on large acreage farms. In developing countries, adopters are mostly small and resource-poor farmers. For farmers and many consumers worldwide, planting and eating GE crops and products made from them are acceptable and even welcomed; for others GE crops raise food and environmental safety questions, as well as economic and social issues. In Part I of this review, some general and food issues related to GE crops and foods were discussed. In Part II, issues related to certain environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods are addressed, with responses linked to the scientific literature.

  5. Comprehensive compositional analysis of plant cell walls (lignocellulosic biomass) part II: carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Foster, Cliff E; Martin, Tina M; Pauly, Markus

    2010-03-12

    The need for renewable, carbon neutral, and sustainable raw materials for industry and society has become one of the most pressing issues for the 21st century. This has rekindled interest in the use of plant products as industrial raw materials for the production of liquid fuels for transportation(2) and other products such as biocomposite materials(6). Plant biomass remains one of the greatest untapped reserves on the planet(4). It is mostly comprised of cell walls that are composed of energy rich polymers including cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and the polyphenol lignin(5) and thus sometimes termed lignocellulosics. However, plant cell walls have evolved to be recalcitrant to degradation as walls contribute extensively to the strength and structural integrity of the entire plant. Despite its necessary rigidity, the cell wall is a highly dynamic entity that is metabolically active and plays crucial roles in numerous cell activities such as plant growth and differentiation(5). Due to the various functions of walls, there is an immense structural diversity within the walls of different plant species and cell types within a single plant(4). Hence, depending of what crop species, crop variety, or plant tissue is used for a biorefinery, the processing steps for depolymerisation by chemical/enzymatic processes and subsequent fermentation of the various sugars to liquid biofuels need to be adjusted and optimized. This fact underpins the need for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we describe a comprehensive analytical methodology that enables the determination of the composition of lignocellulosics and is amenable to a medium to high-throughput analysis (Figure 1). The method starts of with preparing destarched cell wall material. The resulting lignocellulosics are then split up to determine its monosaccharide composition of the hemicelluloses and other matrix polysaccharides1, and its content of crystalline cellulose(7). The protocol for

  6. Multi-element concentrations in plant parts and fluids of Malaysian nickel hyperaccumulator plants and some economic and ecological considerations.

    PubMed

    van der Ent, Antony; Mulligan, David

    2015-04-01

    Information about multi-elemental concentrations in different plant parts of tropical Ni hyperaccumulator species has the potential to provide insight into their unusual metabolism relative to a range of essential and non-essential elements, but this information is scant in the literature. As Ni hyperaccumulation, and possibly co-accumulation of other toxic elements, has been hypothesized to provide herbivore (insect) protection, there is a need to quantify a range of these elements in plant tissues and transport fluids to at least verify the possibility of this explanation. In this study, multiple elements were analyzed in a range of different plant parts and transport fluids from Ni hyperaccumulator species collected from Sabah (Malaysia). The results show preferential accumulation of Ni in leaves over woody parts, but the highest concentrations were found in the phloem tissue (up to 7.9 % in Rinorea bengalensis) and phloem sap (up to 16.9 % in Phyllanthus balgooyi), visible by a bright green coloration in the field fresh material. The amount of Ni contained in one mature R. bengalensis tree was calculated at 4.77 kg. The high Ni concentration in the flowers of Phyllanthus securinegoides could affect insect floral visitors and pollination. High concentrations of Ni in the seeds of this species also could supply the seedling with Ni and aid in herbivory protection during the first stages of development. Foliar Ca and Ni in P. cf. securinegoides and R. bengalensis are positively correlated. Low accumulation of Ca is desirable for phytomining but concentrations of Ca are high in most Ni hyperaccumulators examined, and this could have consequences for the economic viability of Ni extraction from bio ore if these species were to be used as 'metal crops'. PMID:25921447

  7. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 2: Plant connections with the skyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2015-03-01

    In the recorded mythology of Aboriginal Australia there is frequent mention of the Skyworld as the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. The heavens were perceived as a country with the same species of plants and animals that existed below. In Aboriginal tradition, large trees were seen as connecting terrestrial space with the sky above, while the movements of celestial bodies were linked to seasonal changes observed with plants on Earth. This paper describes the links between the floras of Earth and the Skyworld.

  8. Computer simulation of coal preparation plants. Part 2. User's manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gottfried, B.S.; Tierney, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report describes a comprehensive computer program that allows the user to simulate the performance of realistic coal preparation plants. The program is very flexible in the sense that it can accommodate any particular plant configuration that may be of interest. This allows the user to compare the performance of different plant configurations and to determine the impact of various modes of operation with the same configuration. In addition, the program can be used to assess the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and a given mode of operation. Use of the simulator requires that the user specify the appearance of the plant configuration, the plant operating conditions, and a description of the coal feed. The simulator will then determine the flowrates within the plant, and a description of each flowrate (i.e., the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, and Btu content). The simulation program has been written in modular form using the Fortran language. It can be implemented on a great many different types of computers, ranging from large scientific mainframes to IBM-type personal computers with a fixed disk. Some customization may be required, however, to ensure compatibility with the features of Fortran available on a particular computer. Part I of this report contains a general description of the methods used to carry out the simulation. Each of the major types of units is described separately, in addition to a description of the overall system analysis. Part II is intended as a user's manual. It contains a listing of the mainframe version of the program, instructions for its use (on both a mainframe and a microcomputer), and output for a representative sample problem.

  9. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352, and 355. (1) Appendix-III...) Personal and household effects as provided in § 23.15. (6) Urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA...

  10. Belowground interactions with aboveground consequences: Invasive earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Shishir; Longcore, Travis; MacDonald, Beau; McCormick, Melissa K; Szlavecz, Katalin; Wilson, Gail W T; Loss, Scot R

    2016-03-01

    A mounting body of research suggests that invasive nonnative earthworms substantially alter microbial communities, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These changes to AMF can cascade to affect plant communities and vertebrate populations. Despite these research advances, relatively little is known about (1) the mechanisms behind earthworms' effects on AMF and (2) the factors that determine the outcomes of earthworm-AMF interactions (i.e., whether AMF abundance is increased or decreased and subsequent effects on plants). We predict that AMF-mediated effects of nonnative earthworms on ecosystems are nearly universal because (1) AMF are important components of most terrestrial ecosystems, (2) nonnative earthworms have become established in nearly every type of terrestrial ecosystem, and (3) nonnative earthworms, due to their burrowing and feeding behavior, greatly affect AMF with potentially profound concomitant effects on plant communities. We highlight the multiple direct and indirect effects of nonnative earthworms on plants and review what is currently known about the interaction between earthworms and AMF. We also illustrate how the effects of nonnative earthworms on plant-AMF mutualisms can alter the structure and stability of aboveground plant communities, as well as the vertebrate communities relying on these habitats. Integrative studies that assess the interactive effects of earthworms and AMF can provide new insights into the role that belowground ecosystem engineers play in altering aboveground ecological processes. Understanding these processes may improve our ability to predict the structure of plant and animal communities in earthworm-invaded regions and to develop management strategies that limit the numerous undesired impacts of earthworms.

  11. Belowground interactions with aboveground consequences: Invasive earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Shishir; Longcore, Travis; MacDonald, Beau; McCormick, Melissa K; Szlavecz, Katalin; Wilson, Gail W T; Loss, Scot R

    2016-03-01

    A mounting body of research suggests that invasive nonnative earthworms substantially alter microbial communities, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These changes to AMF can cascade to affect plant communities and vertebrate populations. Despite these research advances, relatively little is known about (1) the mechanisms behind earthworms' effects on AMF and (2) the factors that determine the outcomes of earthworm-AMF interactions (i.e., whether AMF abundance is increased or decreased and subsequent effects on plants). We predict that AMF-mediated effects of nonnative earthworms on ecosystems are nearly universal because (1) AMF are important components of most terrestrial ecosystems, (2) nonnative earthworms have become established in nearly every type of terrestrial ecosystem, and (3) nonnative earthworms, due to their burrowing and feeding behavior, greatly affect AMF with potentially profound concomitant effects on plant communities. We highlight the multiple direct and indirect effects of nonnative earthworms on plants and review what is currently known about the interaction between earthworms and AMF. We also illustrate how the effects of nonnative earthworms on plant-AMF mutualisms can alter the structure and stability of aboveground plant communities, as well as the vertebrate communities relying on these habitats. Integrative studies that assess the interactive effects of earthworms and AMF can provide new insights into the role that belowground ecosystem engineers play in altering aboveground ecological processes. Understanding these processes may improve our ability to predict the structure of plant and animal communities in earthworm-invaded regions and to develop management strategies that limit the numerous undesired impacts of earthworms. PMID:27197388

  12. Effects of perchlorate on growth of four wetland plants and its accumulation in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    He, Hongzhi; Gao, Haishuo; Chen, Guikui; Li, Huashou; Lin, Hai; Shu, Zhenzhen

    2013-10-01

    Perchlorate contamination in water is of concern because of uncertainties about toxicity and health effects, impact on ecosystems, and possible indirect exposure pathways to humans. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the ecotoxicology of perchlorate and to screen plant species for phytoremediation. Effects of perchlorate (20, 200, and 500 mg/L) on the growth of four wetland plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Acorus calamus L., Thalia dealbata, and Canna indica) as well as its accumulation in different plant tissues were investigated through water culture experiments. Twenty milligrams per liter of perchlorate had no significant effects on height, root length, aboveground part weight, root weight, and oxidizing power of roots of four plants, except A. calamus, and increasing concentrations of perchlorate showed that out of the four wetland plants, only A. calamus had a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in these parameters. When treated with 500 mg/L perchlorate, these parameters and chlorophyll content in the leaf of plants showed significant decline contrasted to control groups, except the root length of E. crassipes and C. indica. The order of inhibition rates of perchlorate on root length, aboveground part weight and root weight, and oxidizing power of roots was: A. calamus > C. indica > T. dealbata > E. crassipes and on chlorophyll content in the leaf it was: A. calamus > T. dealbata > C. indica > E. crassipes. The higher the concentration of perchlorate used, the higher the amount of perchlorate accumulation in plants. Perchlorate accumulation in aboveground tissues was much higher than that in underground tissues and leaf was the main tissue for perchlorate accumulation. The order of perchlorate accumulation content and the bioconcentration factor in leaf of four plants was: E. crassipes > C. indica > T. dealbata > A. calamus. Therefore, E. crassipes might be an ideal plant with high tolerance ability and accumulation ability for constructing

  13. Effects of perchlorate on growth of four wetland plants and its accumulation in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    He, Hongzhi; Gao, Haishuo; Chen, Guikui; Li, Huashou; Lin, Hai; Shu, Zhenzhen

    2013-10-01

    Perchlorate contamination in water is of concern because of uncertainties about toxicity and health effects, impact on ecosystems, and possible indirect exposure pathways to humans. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the ecotoxicology of perchlorate and to screen plant species for phytoremediation. Effects of perchlorate (20, 200, and 500 mg/L) on the growth of four wetland plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Acorus calamus L., Thalia dealbata, and Canna indica) as well as its accumulation in different plant tissues were investigated through water culture experiments. Twenty milligrams per liter of perchlorate had no significant effects on height, root length, aboveground part weight, root weight, and oxidizing power of roots of four plants, except A. calamus, and increasing concentrations of perchlorate showed that out of the four wetland plants, only A. calamus had a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in these parameters. When treated with 500 mg/L perchlorate, these parameters and chlorophyll content in the leaf of plants showed significant decline contrasted to control groups, except the root length of E. crassipes and C. indica. The order of inhibition rates of perchlorate on root length, aboveground part weight and root weight, and oxidizing power of roots was: A. calamus > C. indica > T. dealbata > E. crassipes and on chlorophyll content in the leaf it was: A. calamus > T. dealbata > C. indica > E. crassipes. The higher the concentration of perchlorate used, the higher the amount of perchlorate accumulation in plants. Perchlorate accumulation in aboveground tissues was much higher than that in underground tissues and leaf was the main tissue for perchlorate accumulation. The order of perchlorate accumulation content and the bioconcentration factor in leaf of four plants was: E. crassipes > C. indica > T. dealbata > A. calamus. Therefore, E. crassipes might be an ideal plant with high tolerance ability and accumulation ability for constructing

  14. Evaluation of mercury pollution in cultivated and wild plants from two small communities of the Tapajós gold mining reserve, Pará State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Egler, Silvia G; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Villas-Bôas, Roberto C; Beinhoff, Christian

    2006-09-01

    This study examines the total Hg contamination in soil and sediments, and the correlation between the total Hg concentration in soil and vegetables in two small scale gold mining areas, São Chico and Creporizinho, in the State of Para, Brazilian Amazon. Total Hg values for soil samples for both study areas are higher than region background values (ca. 0.15 mg/kg). At São Chico, mean values in soils samples are higher than at Creporizinho, but without significant differences at alpha<0.05 level. São Chico's aboveground produce samples possess significantly higher values for total Hg levels than samples from Creporizinho. Creporizinho's soil-root produce regression model were significant, and the slope negative. Creporizinho's soil-aboveground and root wild plants regression models were also significant, and the slopes positives. Although, aboveground:root ratios were >1 in all of São Chico's produce samples, soil-plant parts regression were not significant, and Hg uptake probably occurs through stomata by atmospheric mercury deposition. Wild plants aboveground:root ratios were <1 at both study areas, and soil-plant parts regressions were significant in samples of Creporizinho, suggesting that they function as an excluder. The average total contents of Hg in edible parts of produces were close to FAO/WHO/JECFA PTWI values in São Chico area, and much lower in Creporizinho. However, Hg inorganic small gastrointestinal absorption reduces its adverse health effects.

  15. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora.

    PubMed

    van Andel, Tinde R; van 't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; Quiroz, Diana; Towns, Alexandra M; Ruysschaert, Sofie; van den Berg, Margot

    2014-12-16

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces the origin of 2,350 Afro-Surinamese (Sranantongo and Maroon) plant names to those plant names used by local Amerindians, Europeans, and related groups in West and Central Africa. We compared vernacular names from herbarium collections, literature, and recent ethnobotanical fieldwork in Suriname, Ghana, Benin, and Gabon. A strong correspondence in sound, structure, and meaning among Afro-Surinamese vernaculars and their equivalents in other languages for botanically related taxa was considered as evidence for a shared origin. Although 65% of the Afro-Surinamese plant names contained European lexical items, enslaved Africans have recognized a substantial part of the neotropical flora. Twenty percent of the Sranantongo and 43% of the Maroon plant names strongly resemble names currently used in diverse African languages for related taxa, represent translations of African ones, or directly refer to an Old World origin. The acquisition of new ethnobotanical knowledge is captured in vernaculars derived from Amerindian languages and the invention of new names for neotropical plants from African lexical terms. Plant names that combine African, Amerindian, and European words reflect a creolization process that merged ethnobotanical skills from diverse geographical and cultural sources into new Afro-American knowledge systems. Our study confirms the role of Africans as significant agents of environmental knowledge in the New World. PMID:25453066

  16. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora

    PubMed Central

    van ‘t Klooster, Charlotte I. E. A.; Towns, Alexandra M.; Ruysschaert, Sofie; van den Berg, Margot

    2014-01-01

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces the origin of 2,350 Afro-Surinamese (Sranantongo and Maroon) plant names to those plant names used by local Amerindians, Europeans, and related groups in West and Central Africa. We compared vernacular names from herbarium collections, literature, and recent ethnobotanical fieldwork in Suriname, Ghana, Benin, and Gabon. A strong correspondence in sound, structure, and meaning among Afro-Surinamese vernaculars and their equivalents in other languages for botanically related taxa was considered as evidence for a shared origin. Although 65% of the Afro-Surinamese plant names contained European lexical items, enslaved Africans have recognized a substantial part of the neotropical flora. Twenty percent of the Sranantongo and 43% of the Maroon plant names strongly resemble names currently used in diverse African languages for related taxa, represent translations of African ones, or directly refer to an Old World origin. The acquisition of new ethnobotanical knowledge is captured in vernaculars derived from Amerindian languages and the invention of new names for neotropical plants from African lexical terms. Plant names that combine African, Amerindian, and European words reflect a creolization process that merged ethnobotanical skills from diverse geographical and cultural sources into new Afro-American knowledge systems. Our study confirms the role of Africans as significant agents of environmental knowledge in the New World. PMID:25453066

  17. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis.

    PubMed

    Acquah, Gifty E; Via, Brian K; Billor, Nedret; Fasina, Oladiran O; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2016-01-01

    As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage). Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC) was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability of forest

  18. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Acquah, Gifty E.; Via, Brian K.; Billor, Nedret; Fasina, Oladiran O.; Eckhardt, Lori G.

    2016-01-01

    As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage). Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC) was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability of forest

  19. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    PubMed

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering.

  20. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    PubMed

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. PMID:26171760

  1. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part II: Alkaloids, Terpenoids and Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Justina N; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stands as second most common cause of disease-related deaths in humans. Resistance of cancer to chemotherapy remains challenging to both scientists and physicians. Medicinal plants are known to contribute significantly to a large population of Africa, which is to a very large extent linked to folkloric claims which is part of their livelihood. In this review paper, the potential of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents from African flora has been explored, with suggested modes of action, where such data is available. Literature search revealed plant-derived compounds from African flora showing anti-cancer and/or cytotoxic activities, which have been tested in vitro and in vivo. This corresponds to 400 compounds (from mildly active to very active) covering various compound classes. However, in this part II, we only discussed the three major compound classes which are: flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids.

  2. Plant parts of the apple tree (Malus spp.) as possible indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Tošić, Snežana; Alagić, Slađana; Dimitrijević, Mile; Pavlović, Aleksandra; Nujkić, Maja

    2016-05-01

    The content of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni was determined by ICP-OES in spatial soil and parts (root, branches, leaves, and fruit) of the apple tree (Malus spp.) from polluted sites near The Mining and Smelting Complex Bor (Serbia). The aim of this study was to examine if the obtained results can be used for biomonitoring purposes. Data recorded in plant parts, especially leaves, gave very useful information about the environmental state of the Bor region. Conveniently, these data described well the capability of investigated plant species to assimilate and tolerate severely high concentrations of heavy metals in its tissues, which may further allow the possibility for utilization of the apple tree for phytostabilization.

  3. Plants absorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

  4. Trends and problems in development of the power plants electrical part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Yu. P.

    2015-03-01

    The article discusses some problems relating to development of the electrical part of modern nuclear and thermal power plants, which are stemming from the use of new process and electrical equipment, such as gas turbine units, power converters, and intellectual microprocessor devices in relay protection and automated control systems. It is pointed out that the failure rates of electrical equipment at Russian and foreign power plants tend to increase. The ongoing power plant technical refitting and innovative development processes generate the need to significantly widen the scope of research works on the electrical part of power plants and rendering scientific support to works on putting in use innovative equipment. It is indicated that one of main factors causing the growth of electrical equipment failures is that some of components of this equipment have insufficiently compatible dynamic characteristics. This, in turn may be due to lack or obsolescence of regulatory documents specifying the requirements for design solutions and operation of electric power equipment that incorporates electronic and microprocessor control and protection devices. It is proposed to restore the system of developing new and updating existing departmental regulatory technical documents that existed in the 1970s, one of the fundamental principles of which was placing long-term responsibility on higher schools and leading design institutions for rendering scientific-technical support to innovative development of components and systems forming the electrical part of power plants. This will make it possible to achieve lower failure rates of electrical equipment and to steadily improve the competitiveness of the Russian electric power industry and energy efficiency of generating companies.

  5. Degradation kinetics and pathways of spirotetramat in different parts of spinach plant and in the soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Meng, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yanyan; Gu, Haotian; Ren, Yajun; Lu, Chunliang

    2016-08-01

    Spirotetramat is a new pesticide against a broad spectrum of sucking insects and exhibits a unique property with a two-way systemicity. In order to formulate a scientific rationale for a reasonable spray dose and the safe interval period of 22.4 % spirotetramat suspension concentrate on controlling vegetable pests, we analyzed degradation dynamics and pathways of spirotetramat in different parts of spinach plant (leaf, stalk, and root) and in the soil. We conducted experimental trials under field conditions and adopted a simple and reliable method (dispersive solid phase extraction) combined with liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry to evaluate the dissipation rates of spirotetramat residue and its metabolites. The results showed that the spirotetramat was degraded into different metabolite residues in different parts of spinach plant (leaf, stalk, and root) and in the soil. Specifically, spirotetramat was degraded into B-keto, B-glu, and B-enol in the leaf; B-glu and B-enol in the stalk; and only B-enol in the root. In the soil where the plants grew, spirotetramat followed a completely different pathway compared to the plant and degraded into B-keto and B-mono. Regardless of different degradation pathways, the dissipation dynamic equations of spirotetramat in different parts of spinach plant and in the soil were all based on the first-order reaction dynamic equations. This work provides guidelines for the safe use of spirotetramat in spinach fields, which would help prevent potential health threats to consumers. PMID:27083908

  6. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  7. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  8. Interactions between herbivory and warming in aboveground biomass production of arctic vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Christian; Post, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Background Many studies investigating the ecosystem effects of global climate change have focused on arctic ecosystems because the Arctic is expected to undergo the earliest and most pronounced changes in response to increasing global temperatures, and arctic ecosystems are considerably limited by low temperatures and permafrost. In these nutrient limited systems, a warmer climate is expected to increase plant biomass production, primarily through increases in shrubs over graminoids and forbs. But, the influence of vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores has been largely absent in studies investigating the effects of vegetation responses to climate change, despite the fact that herbivory can have a major influence on plant community composition, biomass and nutrient cycling. Here, we present results from a multi-annual field experiment investigating the effects of vertebrate herbivory on plant biomass response to simulated climate warming in arctic Greenland. Results The results after four years of treatments did not give any clear evidence of increased biomass of shrubs in response climate warming. Nor did our study indicate that vertebrate grazing mediated any increased domination of shrubs over other functional plant groups in response to warming. However, our results indicate an important role of insect outbreaks on aboveground biomass. Intense caterpillar foraging from a two-year outbreak of the moth Eurois occulta during two growing seasons may have concealed any treatment effects. However, there was some evidence suggesting that vertebrate herbivores constrain the biomass production of shrubs over graminoids and forbs. Conclusion Although inconclusive, our results were likely constrained by the overwhelming influence of an unexpected caterpillar outbreak on aboveground biomass. It is likely that the role of large vertebrate herbivores in vegetation response to warming will become more evident as this experiment proceeds and the plant community recovers from

  9. Comprehensive compositional analysis of plant cell walls (Lignocellulosic biomass) part I: lignin.

    PubMed

    Foster, Cliff E; Martin, Tina M; Pauly, Markus

    2010-03-11

    The need for renewable, carbon neutral, and sustainable raw materials for industry and society has become one of the most pressing issues for the 21st century. This has rekindled interest in the use of plant products as industrial raw materials for the production of liquid fuels for transportation(1) and other products such as biocomposite materials(7). Plant biomass remains one of the greatest untapped reserves on the planet(4). It is mostly comprised of cell walls that are composed of energy rich polymers including cellulose, various hemicelluloses (matrix polysaccharides, and the polyphenol lignin(6) and thus sometimes termed lignocellulosics. However, plant cell walls have evolved to be recalcitrant to degradation as walls provide tensile strength to cells and the entire plants, ward off pathogens, and allow water to be transported throughout the plant; in the case of trees up to more the 100 m above ground level. Due to the various functions of walls, there is an immense structural diversity within the walls of different plant species and cell types within a single plant(4). Hence, depending of what crop species, crop variety, or plant tissue is used for a biorefinery, the processing steps for depolymerization by chemical/enzymatic processes and subsequent fermentation of the various sugars to liquid biofuels need to be adjusted and optimized. This fact underpins the need for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we describe a comprehensive analytical methodology that enables the determination of the composition of lignocellulosics and is amenable to a medium to high-throughput analysis. In this first part we focus on the analysis of the polyphenol lignin (Figure 1). The method starts of with preparing destarched cell wall material. The resulting lignocellulosics are then split up to determine its lignin content by acetylbromide solubilization(3), and its lignin composition in terms of its syringyl, guaiacyl- and p-hydroxyphenyl units(5

  10. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and.... 273, App. C Appendix C to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program... specifically as possible. c. Severity of infestation. Discuss the degree and importance of the pest problem....

  11. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and.... 273, App. C Appendix C to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program... specifically as possible. c. Severity of infestation. Discuss the degree and importance of the pest problem....

  12. WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 3568), SPARES INERT STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3570), MISSILE ASSEMBLY SHOP (BUILDING 3578) AND SEGREGATED MAGAZINE STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3572). VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  13. [Uptake and accumulation characteristics of silicon and other nutritional elements in different age Phyllostachys praecox plants].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhang-Ting; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Song, Zhao-Liang; Meng, Ci-Fu; Wu, Jia-Sen

    2013-05-01

    The samples of different age (1-4 years old) Phyllostachys praecox plants and their organs (leaf, branch, and culm) were collected from their main production area in Lin' an County, Zhejiang Province of East China to study the contents and the uptake and accumulation characteristics of silicon and other nutritional elements, as well as the interrelations between Si and other nutrient elements. In the P. praecox plants, the C content in aboveground part was in the order of culm > branch> leaf, whereas the Si, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe and Mn contents were in the order of leaf > branch > culm. Mn was mainly accumulated in leaf, while the other nine nutrient elements were mainly accumulated in the culm of 1-year old plants. The average Si content in the aboveground part of 3-4 year old plants was 13.66 g x kg(-1), suggesting that P. praecox belonged to Si accumulation plant. The leaf N, P, K, and Mg contents decreased, while the C, Al, and Mn contents increased with increasing plant age. The Si uptake by the aboveground part was mainly occurred in the second year (57.1%), while the N and K uptake was mainly in the first two years (67.7% - 93.7%). Thereafter, the N and K flowed out from the aboveground part, with the outflow rates reached 19.1% - 39.1% of the total accumulated amounts. The Si in P. praecox was significantly correlated with Ca, Al, and Mn, and negatively correlated with N, P, K, and Mg.

  14. Assessing aboveground tropical forest biomass using Google Earth canopy images.

    PubMed

    Ploton, Pierre; Pélissier, Raphaël; Proisy, Christophe; Flavenot, Théo; Barbier, Nicolas; Rai, S N; Couteron, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in efforts to combat climate change requires participating countries to periodically assess their forest resources on a national scale. Such a process is particularly challenging in the tropics because of technical difficulties related to large aboveground forest biomass stocks, restricted availability of affordable, appropriate remote-sensing images, and a lack of accurate forest inventory data. In this paper, we apply the Fourier-based FOTO method of canopy texture analysis to Google Earth's very-high-resolution images of the wet evergreen forests in the Western Ghats of India in order to (1) assess the predictive power of the method on aboveground biomass of tropical forests, (2) test the merits of free Google Earth images relative to their native commercial IKONOS counterparts and (3) highlight further research needs for affordable, accurate regional aboveground biomass estimations. We used the FOTO method to ordinate Fourier spectra of 1436 square canopy images (125 x 125 m) with respect to a canopy grain texture gradient (i.e., a combination of size distribution and spatial pattern of tree crowns), benchmarked against virtual canopy scenes simulated from a set of known forest structure parameters and a 3-D light interception model. We then used 15 1-ha ground plots to demonstrate that both texture gradients provided by Google Earth and IKONOS images strongly correlated with field-observed stand structure parameters such as the density of large trees, total basal area, and aboveground biomass estimated from a regional allometric model. Our results highlight the great potential of the FOTO method applied to Google Earth data for biomass retrieval because the texture-biomass relationship is only subject to 15% relative error, on average, and does not show obvious saturation trends at large biomass values. We also provide the first reliable map of tropical forest aboveground biomass predicted

  15. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  16. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  17. Exploring the possibility of estimating the aboveground biomass of Vallisneria spiralis L. using Landsat TM image in Dahuchi, Jiangxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guofeng; de Leeuw, Jan; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Liu, Yaolin

    2005-10-01

    The provision of food to breeding and migrating waterfowl is one of the major functions of submerged aquatic vegetation in shallow lakes. Vallisneria spiralis L. is a submerged aquatic plant species widely distributed within Jiangxi Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve, China. More than 95% of the world population of the endangered Siberian crane as well as significant numbers of Bewick's swan and swan goose over winter in this area, while foraging on the tubers of Vallisneria. The objective of this paper was to explore the possibility of estimating the aboveground biomass of Vallisneria in Dahuchi Lake using Landsat TM image. The relations between aboveground biomass and the bands of a Landsat TM image and their derived variables were investigated using uni- and multivariate linear and non-linear regression models. The results revealed significant but very weak relations between aboveground biomass and the remotely sensed variables. Hence Landsat TM imagery offered little potential to predict aboveground biomass of Vallisneria in this particular region. Possible reasons which could have caused these results were discussed, including: 1) the possible influence of suspended matter in the water; 2) the less accurate field sampling; 3) the limitations of spatial and spectral resolutions of Landsat TM image; 4) the methods used are not appropriate; 5) the homogeneously spatial distribution of aboveground biomass. We propose considering two alternative methods to improve the estimation of aboveground biomass of Vallisneria. First of all, results might be improved while combining alternative data sources (hyperspectral or high spatial resolution images) with innovative methods and more accurate sampling data; Secondly we propose assessing aboveground biomass while using productivity simulation models of submerged aquatic vegetation integrated with geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing.

  18. Net changes in aboveground woody carbon stock in western juniper woodlands, 1946-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, Eva K.; Vierling, Lee A.; Smith, Alistair M. S.; Bunting, Stephen C.

    2008-03-01

    Although regional increases in woody plant cover in semiarid ecosystems have been identified as a worldwide phenomenon affecting the global carbon budget, quantifying the impact of these vegetation shifts on C pools and fluxes is challenging. Challenges arise because woody encroachment is governed by ecological processes that occur at fine spatial resolutions (1-10 m) and, in many cases, at slow (decadal-scale) temporal rates over large areas. We therefore analyzed time series aerial photography, which exhibits both the necessary spatial precision and temporal extent, to quantify the expansion of western juniper into sagebrush steppe landscapes in southwestern Idaho. We established upper and lower bounds of aboveground woody carbon change across the landscape via two-dimensional spatial wavelet analysis, image texture analysis, and field data collection. Forty-eight 100-ha blocks across a 330,000-ha region were stratified by topography, soil characteristics, and land stewardship for analyses. Across the area we estimate aboveground woody carbon accumulation rates of 3.3 gCm-2yr-1 and 10.0 gCm-2yr-1 using the wavelet and texture method, respectively, during the time period 1946-1998. Carbon accumulation rates were significantly affected by soil properties and were highly dependent on the spatial and temporal scales of analysis. For example, at a 100-ha scale the aboveground carbon accumulation varied from -1.7 to 9.9 gCm-2yr-1, while at the 1-ha scale the range of variability increased to -11 to 22 gCm-2yr-1. These values are an order of magnitude lower than those previously suggested due to woody encroachment, highlighting the need for examining multiple spatial scales when accounting for changes in terrestrial carbon storage.

  19. Aboveground production does not increase after ten years of elevated CO2 in the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newingham, B. A.; Vanier, C. H.; Charlet, D.; Zitzer, S. F.; Smith, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) is assumed to increase primary production, particularly in desert systems through stimulatory effects on plant water-use efficiency. We examined the effects of elevated [CO2] at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-air CO2 Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in an intact Mojave Desert ecosystem. At the NDFF, ambient and elevated [CO2] levels were 360 and 550 μmol mol-1 [CO2], respectively. CO2 treatments were applied continuously from 1997-2007 in intact plots 25 m in diameter. While other studies focused on soil and root responses to elevated [CO2], our study focused on aboveground production of annuals and perennial plants. In 1997, diameters and heights of all perennial individuals were recorded and mapped. In 2007, diameters and heights were re-measured and aboveground biomass was harvested for every mapped perennial individual. Harvest data were used to construct regressions for twenty perennial species to predict starting biomass based on diameters and heights. Annual plants were harvested yearly at peak biomass from permanent transects. We found no significant effect of elevated [CO2] on total perennial plant biomass or cover at the end of the experiment. Regardless of [CO2] treatment, perennial cover increased while total biomass did not change over the ten years of the experiment. Perennial biomass allocation to vegetative, twig and woody biomass was not differentially affected by elevated [CO2], although leaf area index increased under elevated [CO2]. Similarly, there was no consistent elevated [CO2] effect on yearly production of annual (ephemeral) plants, although an exotic grass (Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens) exhibited a higher relative stimulation in production at elevated [CO2] than did native dicot and grass species. Other studies in our research group have shown that increases in production are only seen in wet years during the ten-year period of CO2 treatments at the NDFF, and so future effects of rising [CO2] may primarily

  20. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus): A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat.

    PubMed

    Schai-Braun, Stéphanie C; Reichlin, Thomas S; Ruf, Thomas; Klansek, Erich; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter; Hackländer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy. However, hares also require essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to reproduce and survive. Although hares are able to absorb PUFA selectively in their gastrointestinal tract, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to guarantee PUFA supply. Thus, diet selection may involve a trade-off between a preference for energy versus a preference for crucial nutrients, namely PUFA. We compared plant and nutrient availability and use by hares in an arable landscape in Austria over three years. We found that European hares selected their diet for high energy content (crude fat and crude protein), and avoided crude fibre. There was no evidence of a preference for plants rich in LA and ALA. We conclude that fat is the limiting resource for this herbivorous mammal, whereas levels of LA and ALA in forage are sufficiently high to meet daily requirements, especially since their uptake is enhanced by physiological mechanisms. Animals selected several plant taxa all year round, and preferences did not simply correlate with crude fat content. Hence, European hares might not only select for plant taxa rich in fat, but also for high-fat parts of preferred plant taxa. As hares preferred weeds/grasses and various crop types while avoiding cereals, we suggest that promoting heterogeneous habitats with high crop diversity and set-asides may help stop the decline of European hares throughout Europe.

  1. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus): A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat

    PubMed Central

    Schai-Braun, Stéphanie C.; Reichlin, Thomas S.; Ruf, Thomas; Klansek, Erich; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter; Hackländer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy. However, hares also require essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to reproduce and survive. Although hares are able to absorb PUFA selectively in their gastrointestinal tract, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to guarantee PUFA supply. Thus, diet selection may involve a trade-off between a preference for energy versus a preference for crucial nutrients, namely PUFA. We compared plant and nutrient availability and use by hares in an arable landscape in Austria over three years. We found that European hares selected their diet for high energy content (crude fat and crude protein), and avoided crude fibre. There was no evidence of a preference for plants rich in LA and ALA. We conclude that fat is the limiting resource for this herbivorous mammal, whereas levels of LA and ALA in forage are sufficiently high to meet daily requirements, especially since their uptake is enhanced by physiological mechanisms. Animals selected several plant taxa all year round, and preferences did not simply correlate with crude fat content. Hence, European hares might not only select for plant taxa rich in fat, but also for high-fat parts of preferred plant taxa. As hares preferred weeds/grasses and various crop types while avoiding cereals, we suggest that promoting heterogeneous habitats with high crop diversity and set-asides may help stop the decline of European hares throughout Europe. PMID:26230115

  2. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus): A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat.

    PubMed

    Schai-Braun, Stéphanie C; Reichlin, Thomas S; Ruf, Thomas; Klansek, Erich; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter; Hackländer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy. However, hares also require essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to reproduce and survive. Although hares are able to absorb PUFA selectively in their gastrointestinal tract, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to guarantee PUFA supply. Thus, diet selection may involve a trade-off between a preference for energy versus a preference for crucial nutrients, namely PUFA. We compared plant and nutrient availability and use by hares in an arable landscape in Austria over three years. We found that European hares selected their diet for high energy content (crude fat and crude protein), and avoided crude fibre. There was no evidence of a preference for plants rich in LA and ALA. We conclude that fat is the limiting resource for this herbivorous mammal, whereas levels of LA and ALA in forage are sufficiently high to meet daily requirements, especially since their uptake is enhanced by physiological mechanisms. Animals selected several plant taxa all year round, and preferences did not simply correlate with crude fat content. Hence, European hares might not only select for plant taxa rich in fat, but also for high-fat parts of preferred plant taxa. As hares preferred weeds/grasses and various crop types while avoiding cereals, we suggest that promoting heterogeneous habitats with high crop diversity and set-asides may help stop the decline of European hares throughout Europe. PMID:26230115

  3. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part I. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risk of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, an experiment was conducted using two growth chambers, each offering a different vapour pressure deficit (VPD) for high and low transpiration rates (TR), respectively. One of the two sets of 24 pots planted with 6 week old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was placed in each growth chamber, and irrigated in triplicates for 20 days with 8 Zn and Cu solutions (0 and 25 mg Zn/L combined with 0, 5, 15 and 30 mg Cu/L). Water losses from planted and non-planted pots served to measure evapo-transpiration and evaporation, respectively. Pots were monitored for Cu and Zn uptake by collecting three plants (shoot and grain)/pots after 0, 10 and 20 days, and roots in each pot after 20 days, and analyzing these plant parts for dry mass, and Cu and Zn levels. Transpiration rate was not affected by any Cu/Zn treatment, but Cu and Zn uptake increase with the time, irrigation solution level and higher TR, with the roots retaining most Cu and Zn, compared to the shoot followed by the grain. For the shoot and grain, Cu had a significant synergetic effect on Zn uptake, when Zn had slight but insignificant antagonistic effects on Cu uptake. For the roots, Cu and Zn had significant synergetic effect on each other. Regression equations obtained from the data indicate that Cu and Zn levels normally found in treated wastewater (0.08 mg/L) are 300 times lower than those used for the most concentrated experimental solutions (30 and 25 mg/L, respectively) and may, on a long term basis, be beneficial rather than toxic to wheat plants and do not acidify soil pH.

  4. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  5. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts. PMID:25389662

  6. Preliminary study on the relationships between aboveground storage and remotely sensed data at Pingdong plain afforestation land in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C.; Chen, J. M.; Yu, J.; Cheng, C.; Lai, Y.; Chiang, P.; Hong, C.; Chang, C.; Wey, T.; Tsai, M.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This research aims on the relationships between LAI and five vegetation index (BR, SRBR, BD, NDVI and TNDVI) from remotely sensed images, in situ measurements and aboveground storage for 10-11yr old plain afforestation (14 species) located at Wanlong farm of subtropical-tropical region at the southern part of Taiwan which originally governed by Taiwan Sugar Corporation. The preliminary results show the aboveground storage is 14.19×9.19 m3 ha-1 and the correlation coefficient between aboveground storage and BR, SRBR, BD, NDVI and TNDVI is 0.331 (p=0.211), 0.317 (p=0.232), 0.310 (p=0.244), 0.714 (p=0.002) and 0.706 (p=0.002) while NDVI performs the best correlation. LAI value using Fisheye or Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC) is 0.76×0.37 and 3.89×2.81, respectively. Besides, CI measured by TRAC is 0.83×0.09 and the correlation coefficient with LAI is 0.868 (p<0.001). It shows feasible to estimate aboveground storage using ground investigation incorporating remotely sensed data for young plain afforestation stand. Due to the mixed-plantation and difference between growing and non-growing season at the sample site, the relationship between aboveground storage, LAI and VI is yet to be developed for independent species and may need to modify due to seasonally and inter-annually variation.

  7. Phytoremediation potential of Cd and Zn by wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta L. Schott., Cyperus malaccensis Lam. and Typha angustifolia L. grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc phytoremediation potential of wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta, Cyperus malaccensis, and Typha angustifolia, was investigated. Plants were grown for 15 days in nutrient solutions containing various concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg l(-1)) and Zn (0, 10, 20, 50, 100 mg l(-1)). T angustifolia was tolerant to both metals as indicated by high RGR when grown in 50 mg I(-1) Cd and 100 mg I(-1) Zn solutions. All these plants accumulated more metals in their underground parts and > 100 mg kg(-1) in their aboveground with TF values < 1. Only C. esculenta could be considered a Zn hyperaccumulator because it could concentrate > 10,000 mg kg(-1) in its aboveground parts with TF > 1. T angustifolia exhibited highest biomass production and highest Cd and Zn uptake, confirming that this plant is a suitable candidate for treating of Cd contaminated soil/sediments.

  8. Phytoremediation potential of Cd and Zn by wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta L. Schott., Cyperus malaccensis Lam. and Typha angustifolia L. grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc phytoremediation potential of wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta, Cyperus malaccensis, and Typha angustifolia, was investigated. Plants were grown for 15 days in nutrient solutions containing various concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg l(-1)) and Zn (0, 10, 20, 50, 100 mg l(-1)). T angustifolia was tolerant to both metals as indicated by high RGR when grown in 50 mg I(-1) Cd and 100 mg I(-1) Zn solutions. All these plants accumulated more metals in their underground parts and > 100 mg kg(-1) in their aboveground with TF values < 1. Only C. esculenta could be considered a Zn hyperaccumulator because it could concentrate > 10,000 mg kg(-1) in its aboveground parts with TF > 1. T angustifolia exhibited highest biomass production and highest Cd and Zn uptake, confirming that this plant is a suitable candidate for treating of Cd contaminated soil/sediments. PMID:26521563

  9. Simulation of the part-load behavior of a 30 MWe SEGS plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lippke, F.

    1995-06-01

    The part-load behavior of a typical 30-MWe SEGS (solar electric generating systems) plant was studied using a detailed thermodynamic model. As part of this analysis, a new solar field model was derived, based on measurement results of an LS-2 Collector and accounting for various conditions of receiver tubes, lost mirrors and measured reflectivity. A comparison was made of the model results to real plant conditions for a winter and summer day in order to test the accuracy of the model. The effects of bare tubes, different wind speeds, mirror reflectivity and other factors were studied showing, e.g., that heat losses due to wind are predicted to be very low. The comparison also shows that the model still lacks the capability to fully account for actual solar field conditions. The model was also compared to the SOLERGY model, showing differences between the assumptions used in both models. Finally different operating conditions of the plant were studied for a summer, fall, and winter day to provide a better understanding of how changing solar field outlet temperatures affect gross and net output of the plant. This clearly indicates that the lowest possible superheating temperature maximizes the gross electric output. On a net basis this conclusion is modified due to the high parasitics of the HTF (heat transfer fluid) pumps. It was found that the optimum operating strategy depends on the insolation conditions, e.g., different superheating temperatures should be chosen in summer, fall and winter. If the pressure drop in the solar field is reduced due to replacement of flex hoses with ball joints, increasing the HTF flow is more reasonable, so that at low isolation conditions the lowest possible superheating temperature also leads to the maximum net output.

  10. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Lists of Species § 23.92 Are any... in part 14 of this subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352....64) and that were produced from one or more Appendix-I species or taxa that are not annotated...

  11. Consequences of long-term severe industrial pollution for aboveground carbon and nitrogen pools in northern taiga forests at local and regional scales.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Zverev, Vitali; Bergman, Igor; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2015-12-01

    Boreal coniferous forests act as an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The overall tree carbon (C) sink in the forests of Europe has increased during the past decades, especially due to management and elevated nitrogen (N) deposition; however, industrial atmospheric pollution, primarily sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, still negatively affect forest biomass production at different spatial scales. We report local and regional changes in forest aboveground biomass, C and N concentrations in plant tissues, and C and N pools caused by long-term atmospheric emissions from a large point source, the nickel-copper smelter in Monchegorsk, in north-western Russia. An increase in pollution load (assessed as Cu concentration in forest litter) caused C to increase in foliage but C remained unchanged in wood, while N decreased in foliage and increased in wood, demonstrating strong effects of pollution on resource translocation between green and woody tissues. The aboveground C and N pools were primarily governed by plant biomass, which strongly decreased with an increase in pollution load. In our study sites (located 1.6-39.7 km from the smelter) living aboveground plant biomass was 76 to 4888 gm(-2), and C and N pools ranged 35-2333 g C m(-2) and 0.5-35.1 g N m(-2), respectively. We estimate that the aboveground plant biomass is reduced due to chronic exposure to industrial air pollution over an area of about 107,200 km2, and the total (aboveground and belowground) loss of phytomass C stock amounts to 4.24×10(13) g C. Our results emphasize the need to account for the overall impact of industrial polluters on ecosystem C and N pools when assessing the C and N dynamics in northern boreal forests because of the marked long-term negative effects of their emissions on structure and productivity of plant communities. PMID:26254064

  12. Consequences of long-term severe industrial pollution for aboveground carbon and nitrogen pools in northern taiga forests at local and regional scales.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Zverev, Vitali; Bergman, Igor; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2015-12-01

    Boreal coniferous forests act as an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The overall tree carbon (C) sink in the forests of Europe has increased during the past decades, especially due to management and elevated nitrogen (N) deposition; however, industrial atmospheric pollution, primarily sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, still negatively affect forest biomass production at different spatial scales. We report local and regional changes in forest aboveground biomass, C and N concentrations in plant tissues, and C and N pools caused by long-term atmospheric emissions from a large point source, the nickel-copper smelter in Monchegorsk, in north-western Russia. An increase in pollution load (assessed as Cu concentration in forest litter) caused C to increase in foliage but C remained unchanged in wood, while N decreased in foliage and increased in wood, demonstrating strong effects of pollution on resource translocation between green and woody tissues. The aboveground C and N pools were primarily governed by plant biomass, which strongly decreased with an increase in pollution load. In our study sites (located 1.6-39.7 km from the smelter) living aboveground plant biomass was 76 to 4888 gm(-2), and C and N pools ranged 35-2333 g C m(-2) and 0.5-35.1 g N m(-2), respectively. We estimate that the aboveground plant biomass is reduced due to chronic exposure to industrial air pollution over an area of about 107,200 km2, and the total (aboveground and belowground) loss of phytomass C stock amounts to 4.24×10(13) g C. Our results emphasize the need to account for the overall impact of industrial polluters on ecosystem C and N pools when assessing the C and N dynamics in northern boreal forests because of the marked long-term negative effects of their emissions on structure and productivity of plant communities.

  13. Aboveground Tree Growth Varies with Belowground Carbon Allocation in a Tropical Rainforest Environment

    PubMed Central

    Raich, James W.; Clark, Deborah A.; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Wood, Tana E.

    2014-01-01

    Young secondary forests and plantations in the moist tropics often have rapid rates of biomass accumulation and thus sequester large amounts of carbon. Here, we compare results from mature forest and nearby 15–20 year old tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica to evaluate differences in allocation of carbon to aboveground production and root systems. We found that the tree plantations, which had fully developed, closed canopies, allocated more carbon belowground - to their root systems - than did mature forest. This increase in belowground carbon allocation correlated significantly with aboveground tree growth but not with canopy production (i.e., leaf fall or fine litter production). In contrast, there were no correlations between canopy production and either tree growth or belowground carbon allocation. Enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can enhance plant nutrient uptake, providing nutrients beyond those required for the production of short-lived tissues such as leaves and fine roots, and thus enabling biomass accumulation. Our analyses support this deduction at our site, showing that enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can be an important mechanism promoting biomass accumulation during forest growth in the moist tropics. Identifying factors that control when, where and for how long this occurs would help us to improve models of forest growth and nutrient cycling, and to ascertain the role that young forests play in mitigating increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. PMID:24945351

  14. Linking belowground and aboveground phenology in two boreal forests in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Du, Enzai; Fang, Jingyun

    2014-11-01

    The functional equilibrium between roots and shoots suggests an intrinsic linkage between belowground and aboveground phenology. However, much less understanding of belowground phenology hinders integrating belowground and aboveground phenology. We measured root respiration (Ra) as a surrogate for root phenology and integrated it with observed leaf phenology and radial growth in a birch (Betula platyphylla)-aspen (Populus davidiana) forest and an adjacent larch (Larix gmelinii) forest in Northeast China. A log-normal model successfully described the seasonal variations of Ra and indicated the initiation, termination and peak date of root phenology. Both root phenology and leaf phenology were highly specific, with a later onset, earlier termination, and shorter period of growing season for the pioneer tree species (birch and aspen) than the dominant tree species (larch). Root phenology showed later initiation, later peak and later termination dates than leaf phenology. An asynchronous correlation of Ra and radial growth was identified with a time lag of approximately 1 month, indicating aprioritization of shoot growth. Furthermore, we found that Ra was strongly correlated with soil temperature and air temperature, while radial growth was only significantly correlated with air temperature, implying a down-regulating effect of temperature. Our results indicate different phenologies between pioneer and dominant species and support a down-regulation hypothesis of plant phenology which can be helpful in understanding forest dynamics in the context of climate change.

  15. Aboveground tree growth varies with belowground carbon allocation in a tropical rainforest environment.

    PubMed

    Raich, James W; Clark, Deborah A; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Wood, Tana E

    2014-01-01

    Young secondary forests and plantations in the moist tropics often have rapid rates of biomass accumulation and thus sequester large amounts of carbon. Here, we compare results from mature forest and nearby 15-20 year old tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica to evaluate differences in allocation of carbon to aboveground production and root systems. We found that the tree plantations, which had fully developed, closed canopies, allocated more carbon belowground - to their root systems - than did mature forest. This increase in belowground carbon allocation correlated significantly with aboveground tree growth but not with canopy production (i.e., leaf fall or fine litter production). In contrast, there were no correlations between canopy production and either tree growth or belowground carbon allocation. Enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can enhance plant nutrient uptake, providing nutrients beyond those required for the production of short-lived tissues such as leaves and fine roots, and thus enabling biomass accumulation. Our analyses support this deduction at our site, showing that enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can be an important mechanism promoting biomass accumulation during forest growth in the moist tropics. Identifying factors that control when, where and for how long this occurs would help us to improve models of forest growth and nutrient cycling, and to ascertain the role that young forests play in mitigating increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  16. Below-ground plant–fungus network topology is not congruent with above-ground plant–animal network topology

    PubMed Central

    Toju, Hirokazu; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.; Thompson, John N.

    2015-01-01

    In nature, plants and their pollinating and/or seed-dispersing animals form complex interaction networks. The commonly observed pattern of links between specialists and generalists in these networks has been predicted to promote species coexistence. Plants also build highly species-rich mutualistic networks below ground with root-associated fungi, and the structure of these plant–fungus networks may also affect terrestrial community processes. By compiling high-throughput DNA sequencing data sets of the symbiosis of plants and their root-associated fungi from three localities along a latitudinal gradient, we uncovered the entire network architecture of these interactions under contrasting environmental conditions. Each network included more than 30 plant species and hundreds of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi belonging to diverse phylogenetic groups. The results were consistent with the notion that processes shaping host-plant specialization of fungal species generate a unique linkage pattern that strongly contrasts with the pattern of above-ground plant–partner networks. Specifically, plant–fungus networks lacked a “nested” architecture, which has been considered to promote species coexistence in plant–partner networks. Rather, the below-ground networks had a conspicuous “antinested” topology. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that terrestrial plant community dynamics are likely determined by the balance between above-ground and below-ground webs of interspecific interactions. PMID:26601279

  17. Information system design of inventory control spare parts maintenance (valuation class 5000) (case study: plant kw)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitriana, Rina; Moengin, Parwadi; Riana, Mega

    2016-02-01

    Plat KW hadn't using optimal inventory level planning yet and hadn't have an information system that well computerized. The research objective is to be able to design an information system related inventory control of spare parts maintenance. The study focused on five types of spare parts with the highest application rate during February 2013- March 2015 and included in the classification of fast on FSN analysis Grinding stones Cut 4". Cable Tie 15". Welding RB 26-32MM. Ring Plat ½" and Ring Plate 5/8 ". Inventory calculation used Economic Order Quantity (EOQ). Safety Stock (SS) and Reorder Point (ROP) methods. System analysis conducted using the framework PIECES with the proposed inventory control system. the performance of the plant KW relating to the supply of spare parts maintenance needs can be more efficient as well as problems at the company can be answered and can perform inventory cost savings amounting Rp.267.066. A computerized information system of inventory control spare parts maintenance provides a menu that can be accessed by each departments as the user needed.

  18. Aboveground and belowground effects of single-tree removals in New Zealand rain forest.

    PubMed

    Wardle, David A; Wiser, Susan K; Allen, Robert B; Doherty, James E; Bonner, Karen I; Williamson, Wendy M

    2008-05-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in how human-induced species loss affects community and ecosystem properties. These effects are particularly apparent when a commercially valuable species is harvested from an ecosystem, such as occurs through single-tree harvesting or selective logging of desired timber species in natural forests. In New Zealand mixed-species rain forests, single-tree harvesting of the emergent gymnosperm Dacrydium cupressinum, or rimu, has been widespread. This harvesting has been contentious in part because of possible ecological impacts of Dacrydium removal on the remainder of the forest, but many of these effects remain unexplored. We identified an area where an unintended 40-year "removal experiment" had been set up that involved selective extraction of individual Dacrydium trees. We measured aboveground and belowground variables at set distances from both individual live trees and stumps of trees harvested 40 years ago. Live trees had effects both above and below ground by affecting diversity and cover of several components of the vegetation (usually negatively), promoting soil C sequestration, enhancing ratios of soil C:P and N:P, and affecting community structure of soil microflora. These effects extended to 8 m from the tree base and were likely caused by poor-quality litter and humus produced by the trees. Measurements for the stumps revealed strong legacy effects of prior presence of trees on some properties (e.g., cover by understory herbs and ferns, soil C sequestration, soil C:P and N:P ratios), but not others (e.g., soil fungal biomass, soil N concentration). These results suggest that the legacy of prior presence of Dacrydium may remain for several decades or centuries, and certainly well over 40 years. They also demonstrate that, while large Dacrydium individuals (and their removal) may have important effects in their immediate proximity, within a forest, these effects should only be important in localized patches

  19. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  20. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  1. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  2. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  3. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  4. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note: In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  9. Spider mites adaptively learn recognizing mycorrhiza-induced changes in host plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Schausberger, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Symbiotic root micro-organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi commonly change morphological, physiological and biochemical traits of their host plants and may thus influence the interaction of aboveground plant parts with herbivores and their natural enemies. While quite a few studies tested the effects of mycorrhiza on life history traits, such as growth, development and reproduction, of aboveground herbivores, information on possible effects of mycorrhiza on host plant choice of herbivores via constitutive and/or induced plant volatiles is lacking. Here we assessed whether symbiosis of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae with common bean plants Phaseolus vulgaris influences the response of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae to volatiles of plants that were clean or infested with spider mites. Mycorrhiza-naïve and -experienced spider mites, reared on mycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal bean plants for several days before the experiments, were subjected to Y-tube olfactometer choice tests. Experienced but not naïve spider mites distinguished between constitutive volatiles of clean non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal plants, preferring the latter. Neither naïve nor experienced spider mites distinguished between spider mite-induced volatiles of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Learning the odor of clean mycorrhizal plants, resulting in a subsequent preference for these odors, is adaptive because mycorrhizal plants are more favorable host plants for fitness of the spider mites than are non-mycorrhizal plants.

  10. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%), bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%), malaria (14 plants; 28.6%), gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%), gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%), hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%), viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%), chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%), diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%), cancer (2 plants; 4.1%), inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism), HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%). Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0%) of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system in Kikuku

  11. Above-ground Biomass Investments and Light Interception of Tropical Forest Trees and Lianas Early in Succession

    PubMed Central

    Selaya, N. G.; Anten, N. P. R.; Oomen, R. J.; Matthies, M.; Werger, M. J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Crown structure and above-ground biomass investment was studied in relation to light interception of trees and lianas growing in a 6-month-old regenerating forest. Methods The vertical distribution of total above-ground biomass, height, diameter, stem density, leaf angles and crown depth were measured for individual plants of three short-lived pioneers (SLPs), four long-lived pioneers (LLPs) and three lianas. Daily light interception per individual Φd was calculated with a canopy model. The model was then used to estimate light interception per unit of leaf mass (Φleaf mass), total above-ground mass (Φmass) and crown structure efficiency (Ea, the ratio of absorbed vs. available light). Key Results The SLPs Trema and Ochroma intercepted higher amounts of light per unit leaf mass (Φleaf mass) because they had shallower crowns, resulting in higher crown use efficiency (Ea) than the other species. These SLPs (but not Cecropia) were also taller and intercepted more light per unit leaf area (Φarea). LLPs and lianas had considerably higher amounts of leaf mass and area per unit above-ground mass (LMR and LAR, respectively) and thus attained Φmass values similar to the SLPs (Φmass=Φarea×LAR). Lianas, which were mostly self-supporting, had light interception efficiencies similar to those of the trees. Conclusions These results show how, due to the trade-off between crown structure and biomass allocation, SLPs, and LLPs and lianas intercept similar amount of light per unit mass which may contribute to the ability of the latter two groups to persist. PMID:17210607

  12. Seismic review of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Ma, S.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-11-15

    A limited seismic reassessment of Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The reassessment focused generally on the reactor coolant pressure boundary and on those systems and components necessary to shut down the reactor safety and to maintain it in a safe shutdown condition following a postulated earthquake characterized by a peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.22 g. Unlike a comprehensive design analysis, the reassessment was limited to structures and components deemed representative of generic classes. Conclusions and recommendations about the ability of selected structures, equipment, and piping to withstand the postulated earthquake are presented. 86 refs., 44 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered.

  14. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  15. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  16. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  17. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  18. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  19. Carbohydrate structure database merged from bacterial, archaeal, plant and fungal parts.

    PubMed

    Toukach, Philip V; Egorova, Ksenia S

    2016-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Structure Databases (CSDBs, http://csdb.glycoscience.ru) store structural, bibliographic, taxonomic, NMR spectroscopic, and other data on natural carbohydrates and their derivatives published in the scientific literature. The CSDB project was launched in 2005 for bacterial saccharides (as BCSDB). Currently, it includes two parts, the Bacterial CSDB and the Plant&Fungal CSDB. In March 2015, these databases were merged to the single CSDB. The combined CSDB includes information on bacterial and archaeal glycans and derivatives (the coverage is close to complete), as well as on plant and fungal glycans and glycoconjugates (almost all structures published up to 1998). CSDB is regularly updated via manual expert annotation of original publications. Both newly annotated data and data imported from other databases are manually curated. The CSDB data are exportable in a number of modern formats, such as GlycoRDF. CSDB provides additional services for simulation of (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR spectra of saccharides, NMR-based structure prediction, glycan-based taxon clustering and other.

  20. Carbohydrate structure database merged from bacterial, archaeal, plant and fungal parts

    PubMed Central

    Toukach, Philip V.; Egorova, Ksenia S.

    2016-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Structure Databases (CSDBs, http://csdb.glycoscience.ru) store structural, bibliographic, taxonomic, NMR spectroscopic, and other data on natural carbohydrates and their derivatives published in the scientific literature. The CSDB project was launched in 2005 for bacterial saccharides (as BCSDB). Currently, it includes two parts, the Bacterial CSDB and the Plant&Fungal CSDB. In March 2015, these databases were merged to the single CSDB. The combined CSDB includes information on bacterial and archaeal glycans and derivatives (the coverage is close to complete), as well as on plant and fungal glycans and glycoconjugates (almost all structures published up to 1998). CSDB is regularly updated via manual expert annotation of original publications. Both newly annotated data and data imported from other databases are manually curated. The CSDB data are exportable in a number of modern formats, such as GlycoRDF. CSDB provides additional services for simulation of 1H, 13C and 2D NMR spectra of saccharides, NMR-based structure prediction, glycan-based taxon clustering and other. PMID:26286194

  1. Inconsistent impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions

    PubMed Central

    Schädler, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The intensive discussion on the importance of biodiversity for the stability of essential processes in ecosystems has prompted a multitude of studies since the middle of the last century. Nevertheless, research has been extremely biased by focusing on the producer level, while studies on the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of ecosystem functions are lacking. Here, we investigate the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability (reliability) of three important aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions: primary productivity (shoot and root biomass), litter decomposition, and herbivore infestation. For this, we analyzed the results of three laboratory experiments manipulating decomposer diversity (1–3 species) in comparison to decomposer-free treatments in terms of variability of the measured variables. Decomposer diversity often significantly but inconsistently affected the stability of all aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions investigated in the present study. While primary productivity was mainly destabilized, litter decomposition and aphid infestation were essentially stabilized by increasing decomposer diversity. However, impacts of decomposer diversity varied between plant community and fertility treatments. There was no general effect of the presence of decomposers on stability and no trend toward weaker effects in fertilized communities and legume communities. This indicates that impacts of decomposers are based on more than effects on nutrient availability. Although inconsistent impacts complicate the estimation of consequences of belowground diversity loss, underpinning mechanisms of the observed patterns are discussed. Impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of essential ecosystem functions differed between plant communities of varying composition and fertility, implicating that human-induced changes of biodiversity and land-use management might have unpredictable effects on the processes mankind relies on

  2. Human and environmental controls over aboveground carbon storage in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate, high-resolution mapping of aboveground carbon density (ACD, Mg C ha-1) could provide insight into human and environmental controls over ecosystem state and functioning, and could support conservation and climate policy development. However, mapping ACD has proven challenging, particularly in spatially complex regions harboring a mosaic of land use activities, or in remote montane areas that are difficult to access and poorly understood ecologically. Using a combination of field measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and satellite data, we present the first large-scale, high-resolution estimates of aboveground carbon stocks in Madagascar. Results We found that elevation and the fraction of photosynthetic vegetation (PV) cover, analyzed throughout forests of widely varying structure and condition, account for 27-67% of the spatial variation in ACD. This finding facilitated spatial extrapolation of LiDAR-based carbon estimates to a total of 2,372,680 ha using satellite data. Remote, humid sub-montane forests harbored the highest carbon densities, while ACD was suppressed in dry spiny forests and in montane humid ecosystems, as well as in most lowland areas with heightened human activity. Independent of human activity, aboveground carbon stocks were subject to strong physiographic controls expressed through variation in tropical forest canopy structure measured using airborne LiDAR. Conclusions High-resolution mapping of carbon stocks is possible in remote regions, with or without human activity, and thus carbon monitoring can be brought to highly endangered Malagasy forests as a climate-change mitigation and biological conservation strategy. PMID:22289685

  3. The toxicity of extracts of plant parts of Moringa stenopetala in HEPG2 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Negussu; Houghton, Peter; Timbrell, John

    2005-10-01

    The cytotoxicity of extracts from a widely used species of plant, Moringa stenopetala, was assessed in HEPG2 cells, by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell viability. The functional integrity of extract-exposed cells was determined by measuring intracellular levels of ATP and glutathione (GSH). The ethanol extracts of leaves and seeds increased significantly (p < 0.01) LDH leakage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The water extract of leaves and the ethanol extract of the root did not increase LDH leakage. A highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in HEPG2 viability was found after incubating the cells with the highest concentration (500 microg/mL) of the ethanol leaf and seed extracts. At a concentration of 500 microg/mL, the water extract of leaves increased (p < 0.01), while the ethanol extract of the same plant part decreased (p < 0.01), ATP levels. The root and seed extracts had no significant effect on ATP levels. The ethanol leaf extract decreased GSH levels at a concentration of 500 microg/mL (p < 0.01), as did the ethanol extract of the seeds at 250 microg/mL and 500 microg/mL (p < 0.05). The water extract of the leaves did not alter GSH or LDH levels or affect cell viability, suggesting that it may be non-toxic, and is consistent with its use as a vegetable. The data obtained from the studies with the ethanol extract of the leaves and seeds from Moringa stenopetala show that they contain toxic substances that are extractable with organic solvents or are formed during the process of extraction with these solvents. The significant depletion of ATP and GSH only occurred at concentrations of extract that caused leakage of LDH. Further investigation with this plant in order to identify the constituents extracted and their individual toxic effects both in vivo and in vitro is warranted. This study also illustrates the utility of cell culture for screening plant extracts for potential toxicity.

  4. Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Dong, Yuan; Xu, Hai; Wang, Deke; Xu, Jiakuan

    2007-08-25

    Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1) was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%. Generally, there were tens differences among the 19 plant species in the concentrations and quantity accumulations of the heavy metals in aboveground part, underground part and whole plants. The distribution ratios into aboveground parts for the metals absorbed by plants varied also largely from about 30% to about 90%. All the plants accumulated, in one harvest, 19.85% of Cd, 22.55% of Pb and 23.75% of Zn that were added into the wastewater. Four plant species, e.g. Alternanthera philoxeroides, Zizania latifolia, Echinochloa crus-galli and Polygonum hydropiper, accumulated high amounts of Cd, Pb and Zn. Monochoria vaginalis was capable for accumulating Cd and Pb, Isachne globosa for Cd and Zn, and Digitaria sanguinalis and Fimbristylis miliacea for Zn. The results indicated that the plants, in constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewater polluted by heavy metals, can play important roles for removal of heavy metals through phytoextraction. Selection of plant species for use in constructed wetland will influence considerably removal efficiency and the function duration of the wetland. PMID:17353090

  5. Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Dong, Yuan; Xu, Hai; Wang, Deke; Xu, Jiakuan

    2007-08-25

    Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1) was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%. Generally, there were tens differences among the 19 plant species in the concentrations and quantity accumulations of the heavy metals in aboveground part, underground part and whole plants. The distribution ratios into aboveground parts for the metals absorbed by plants varied also largely from about 30% to about 90%. All the plants accumulated, in one harvest, 19.85% of Cd, 22.55% of Pb and 23.75% of Zn that were added into the wastewater. Four plant species, e.g. Alternanthera philoxeroides, Zizania latifolia, Echinochloa crus-galli and Polygonum hydropiper, accumulated high amounts of Cd, Pb and Zn. Monochoria vaginalis was capable for accumulating Cd and Pb, Isachne globosa for Cd and Zn, and Digitaria sanguinalis and Fimbristylis miliacea for Zn. The results indicated that the plants, in constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewater polluted by heavy metals, can play important roles for removal of heavy metals through phytoextraction. Selection of plant species for use in constructed wetland will influence considerably removal efficiency and the function duration of the wetland.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: conversion of uranium ore concentrates to UO3, conversion of UO3 to UO2, conversion of uranium oxides to UF4... to UO2 conversion is often performed as the first stage of a fuel fabrication plant. (8) Especially... plutonium fuel fabrication facilities. Many of the key equipment items for plutonium conversion plants...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: conversion of uranium ore concentrates to UO3, conversion of UO3 to UO2, conversion of uranium oxides to UF4... to UO2 conversion is often performed as the first stage of a fuel fabrication plant. (8) Especially... plutonium fuel fabrication facilities. Many of the key equipment items for plutonium conversion plants...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: conversion of uranium ore concentrates to UO3, conversion of UO3 to UO2, conversion of uranium oxides to UF4... to UO2 conversion is often performed as the first stage of a fuel fabrication plant. (8) Especially... plutonium fuel fabrication facilities. Many of the key equipment items for plutonium conversion plants...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... oxides to UF4 or UF6, conversion of UF4 to UF6, conversion of UF6 to UF4, conversion of UF4 to uranium... to UO2 conversion is often performed as the first stage of a fuel fabrication plant. (8) Especially... plutonium fuel fabrication facilities. Many of the key equipment items for plutonium conversion plants...

  10. Structure, Aboveground Biomass, and Soil Characterization of Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park, Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsumaiti, Tareefa Saad Sultan

    Mangrove forests are national treasures of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and other arid countries with limited forested areas. Mangroves form a crucial part of the coastal ecosystem and provide numerous benefits to society, economy, and especially the environment. Mangrove trees, specifically Avicennia marina, are studied in their native habitat in order to characterize their population structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties. This study focused on Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park in Abu Dhabi, which was the first mangrove protected area to be designated in UAE. In situ measurements were collected to estimate Avicennia marina status, mortality rate (%), height (m), crown spread (m), stem number, diameter at breast height (cm), basal area (m), and aboveground biomass (t ha-1 ). Small-footprint aerial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data acquired by UAE were processed to characterize mangrove canopy height and aboveground biomass density. This included extraction of LIDAR-derived height percentile statistics, segmentation of the forest into structurally homogenous units, and development of regression relationships between in situ reference and remote sensing data using a machine learning approach. An in situ soil survey was conducted to examine the soils' physical and chemical properties, fertility status, and organic matter. The data of soil survey were used to create soil maps to evaluate key characteristics of soils, and their influence on Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park. The results of this study provide new insights into Avicennia marina canopy population, structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties in Abu Dhabi, as data in such arid environments is lacking. This valuable information can help in managing and preserving this unique ecosystem.

  11. DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE AT PARTS-PER-BILLION LEVELS IN PLANTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the analysis of perchlorate in plants was developed, based on dry weight, and applied to the analysis of plant organs, foodstuffs, and plant products. The method reduced greatly the ionic interferences in water extracts of plant materials. The high background conduct...

  12. DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE AT PARTS-PER-BILLION LEVELS IN PLANTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standardized method for the analysis of perchlorate in plants was developed, based on dry weight, and applied to the analysis of plant organs, foodstuffs, and plant products. The procedure greatly reduced the ionic interferences in water extracts of plant materials. The high ba...

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-06-30

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 134 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as “Aboveground Storage Tanks” and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 15, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site: · CAS 03-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank · CAS 03-01-04, Tank · CAS 15-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank · CAS 29-01-01, Hydrocarbon Stain

  14. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants. PMID:27200071

  15. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  16. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants. PMID:27200071

  17. Greening of the Arctic: Spatial and temporal (1982-2009) variation of circumpolar tundra NDVI and aboveground biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. A.; Epstein, H. E.; Bhatt, U. S.; Raynolds, M. K.; Jia, G.; Comiso, J. C.; Pinzon, J.; Tucker, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Greening of the Arctic project examined the spatial and temporal variability of tundra productivity during field studies along two transects in North America and Russia and in circumpolar remote-sensing studies. Aboveground biomass of zonal vegetation was strongly correlated with summer air temperature along the North America transect (r2 > 0.8), but on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, there was a nearly flat relationship with air temperature in the central part of the climate gradient. The more homogeneous nature of the Russian transect is caused by more consistent soil conditions, warmer than expected temperatures along the central part of the Russian transect, and the homogenizing effect of various landscape-scale disturbances including reindeer grazing and disturbances related to permafrost thawing. We examined the circumpolar spatial variability of the NDVI with respect to land temperatures and a suite of vegetation/terrain variables in a circumpolar geographic information system (GIS). Tests of sensitivity of NDVI to increases in summer temperature showed the largest percentage increases in NDVI will likely occur in northern partially-vegetated areas. A temporal analysis of maximum summer NDVI from 1982-2008 also indicated the ongoing changes have been strongest in the Far North. The percentage changes in the annual maximum NDVI were highest in the Baffin Bay, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago and Davis Strait areas (10-15% changes). The NDVI trends for most Arctic regions were highly positively correlated with the changes in summer land temperatures and negatively correlated with temporal changes in the near-shore early-summer sea-ice concentrations. Trends from these and several other lines of evidence point to a general increase in biomass across the Arctic during the period of satellite observations. The most rapid changes are occurring in the Far North. The impact of shrubification on these trends is probably greatest in the southern parts of the Arctic

  18. Phytoremediation: plant-endophyte partnerships take the challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-04-01

    A promising field to exploit plant-endophyte partnerships is the remediation of contaminated soils and (ground) water. Many plant growth promoting endophytes can assist their host plant to overcome contaminant-induced stress responses, thus providing improved plant growth. During phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants can further benefit from endophytes possessing appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic capabilities, leading to more efficient contaminant degradation and reduction of both phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of volatile contaminants. For phytoremediation of toxic metals, endophytes possessing a metal-resistance/sequestration system can lower metal phytotoxicity and affect metal translocation to the above-ground plant parts. Furthermore, endophytes that can degrade organic contaminants and deal with or, even better, improve extraction of the metals offer promising ways to improve phytoremediation of mixed pollution.

  19. Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution using plant parts and topsoil.

    PubMed

    Serbula, Snezana M; Miljkovic, Dusanka Dj; Kovacevic, Renata M; Ilic, Ana A

    2012-02-01

    Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae) was evaluated as a possible bioindicator of airborne heavy metal pollution, which originates from mining and pyrometallurgical copper production in Bor (Eastern Serbia). Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined in different plant organs (washed/unwashed leaves, branches, roots) and topsoil of R. pseudoacacia by ICP-AES and by AAS. Sampling was carried out during 2008 at ten selected sites distributed in five zones with different levels of pollution. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg did not exceeded the maximum allowed concentration (MAC) in soils at any of the sampling sites. Cu and As were present only at two sites within the MAC, whereas Zn exceeded the MAC at two sampling sites. Although present in the soil, As, Cd and Hg were below limit of detection in all parts of R. pseudoacacia. The rest of the studied elements, collected at the sites closest to the copper smelter or in the directions of the prevailing winds, were found to be at high levels. The higest Cu and Zn concentrations were detected in branches of R. pseudoacacia at the site Krivelj in the rural zone (6418.2±355.4 mg kg⁻¹ and 4699.8±320.8 mg kg⁻¹, respectively). Pb was present in similar amounts in all parts of R. pseudoacacia in the concentration ranging from 4.9 ± 0.3 mg kg⁻¹ (in washed leaves, at tourist zone) to 66.9±5.3 mg kg⁻¹ (in roots, at urban-industrial zone). According to the mobility ratio, leaves and branches of R. pseudoacacia acted as excluders of Cu, Zn and Pb, except for the branches which acted as indicators of Zn. Although As is present in high concentrations in the air and topsoil of the examined area, results show that R. pseudoacacia is not a suitable indicator of environmental pollution with As. PMID:22018546

  20. Genetic basis of aboveground productivity in two native Populus species and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Lojewski, Nathan R; Fischer, Dylan G; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Whitham, Thomas G; Hart, Stephen C

    2009-09-01

    Demonstration of genetic control over riparian tree productivity has major implications for responses of riparian systems to shifting environmental conditions and effects of genetics on ecosystems in general. We used field studies and common gardens, applying both molecular and quantitative techniques, to compare plot-level tree aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP(tree)) and individual tree growth rate constants in relation to plant genetic identity in two naturally occurring Populus tree species and their hybrids. In field comparisons of four cross types (Populus fremontii S. Wats., Populus angustifolia James, F(1) hybrids and backcross hybrids) across 11 natural stands, productivity was greatest for P. fremontii trees, followed by hybrids and lowest in P. angustifolia. A similar pattern was observed in four common gardens across a 290 m elevation and 100 km environmental gradient. Despite a doubling in productivity across the common gardens, the relative differences among the cross types remained constant. Using clonal replicates in a common garden, we found ANPP(tree) to be a heritable plant trait (i.e., broad-sense heritability), such that plant genetic factors explained between 38% and 82% of the variation in ANPP(tree). Furthermore, analysis of the genetic composition among individual tree genotypes using restriction fragment length polymorphism molecular markers showed that genetically similar trees also exhibited similar ANPP(tree). These findings indicate strong genetic contributions to natural variation in ANPP with important ecological implications. PMID:19578030

  1. Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize: a two-way street?

    PubMed

    Luthe, Dawn S; Gill, Torrence; Zhu, Lixue; Lopéz, Lorena; Pechanova, Olga; Shivaji, Renuka; Ankala, Arunkanth; Williams, W Paul

    2011-01-01

    Insect pests that attempt to feed on the caterpillar-resistant maize genotype Mp708 encounter a potent, multipronged defense system that thwarts their invasion. First, these plants are on "constant alert" due to constitutively elevated levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid that signals the plant to activate its defenses. The higher jasmonic acid levels trigger the expression of defense genes prior to herbivore attack so the plants are "primed" and respond with a faster and stronger defense. The second defense is the rapid accumulation of a toxic cysteine protease called Mir1-CP in the maize whorl in response to caterpillar feeding. When caterpillars ingest Mir1-CP, it damages the insect's midgut and retards their growth. In this article, we discuss a third possible defense strategy employed by Mp708. We have shown that foliar caterpillar feeding causes Mir1-CP and defense gene transcripts to accumulate in its roots. We propose that caterpillar feeding aboveground sends a signal belowground via the phloem that results in Mir1-CP accumulation in the roots. We also postulate that the roots serve as a reservoir of Mir1-CP that can be mobilized to the whorl in response to caterpillar assault.

  2. Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This document describes the Department of Energy`s Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program`s objectives, its scope, application, and structure.

  3. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N. M. F.; Aziz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of soil, water, grain, straw, and husk arsenic (As). An arsenic concentration surface was created spatially to describe the distribution of arsenic in soil, water, grain, straw, and husk. Command area map was digitized using Arcview GIS from the “mouza” map. Both arsenic contaminated irrigation water and the soils were responsible for accumulation of arsenic in rice straw, husk, and grain. The accumulation of arsenic was higher in water followed by soil, straw, husk, and grain. Arsenic concentration varied widely within command areas. The extent and propensity of arsenic concentration were higher in areas where high concentration of arsenic existed in groundwater and soils. Spherical model was a relatively better and appropriate model. Kriging method appeared to be more suitable in creating interpolated surface. The average arsenic content in grain was 0.08–0.45 mg/kg while in groundwater arsenic level it ranged from 138.0 to 191.3 ppb. PMID:27747271

  4. Feeding damage to plants increases with plant size across 21 Brassicaceae species.

    PubMed

    Schlinkert, Hella; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Ludwig, Martin; Kabouw, Patrick; Tscharntke, Teja

    2015-10-01

    Plant size is a major predictor of ecological functioning. We tested the hypothesis that feeding damage to plants increases with plant size, as the conspicuousness of large plants makes resource finding and colonisation easier. Further, large plants can be attractive to herbivores, as they offer greater amounts and ranges of resources and niches, but direct evidence from experiments testing size effects on feeding damage and consequently on plant fitness is so far missing. We established a common garden experiment with a plant size gradient (10-130 cm height) using 21 annual Brassicaceae species, and quantified plant size, biomass and number of all aboveground components (flowers, fruits, leaves, stems) and their proportional feeding damage. Plant reproductive fitness was measured using seed number, 1000 seed weight and total seed weight. Feeding damage to the different plant components increased with plant size or component biomass, with mean damage levels being approximately 30 % for flowers, 5 % for fruits and 1 % for leaves and stems. Feeding damage affected plant reproductive fitness depending on feeding damage type, with flower damage having the strongest effect, shown by greatly reduced seed number, 1000 seed weight and total seed weight. Finally, we found an overall negative effect of plant size on 1000 seed weight, but not on seed number and total seed weight. In conclusion, being conspicuous and attractive to herbivores causes greater flower damage leading to higher fitness costs for large plants, which might be partly counterbalanced by benefits such as enhanced competitive/compensatory abilities or more mutualistic pollinator visits.

  5. Seasonal availability of edible underground and aboveground carbohydrate resources to human foragers on the Cape south coast, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Richard M.; Potts, Alastair J.; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-01-01

    The coastal environments of South Africa’s Cape Floristic Region (CFR) provide some of the earliest and most abundant evidence for the emergence of cognitively modern humans. In particular, the south coast of the CFR provided a uniquely diverse resource base for hunter-gatherers, which included marine shellfish, game, and carbohydrate-bearing plants, especially those with Underground Storage Organs (USOs). It has been hypothesized that these resources underpinned the continuity of human occupation in the region since the Middle Pleistocene. Very little research has been conducted on the foraging potential of carbohydrate resources in the CFR. This study focuses on the seasonal availability of plants with edible carbohydrates at six-weekly intervals over a two-year period in four vegetation types on South Africa’s Cape south coast. Different plant species were considered available to foragers if the edible carbohydrate was directly (i.e. above-ground edible portions) or indirectly (above-ground indications to below-ground edible portions) visible to an expert botanist familiar with this landscape. A total of 52 edible plant species were recorded across all vegetation types. Of these, 33 species were geophytes with edible USOs and 21 species had aboveground edible carbohydrates. Limestone Fynbos had the richest flora, followed by Strandveld, Renosterveld and lastly, Sand Fynbos. The availability of plant species differed across vegetation types and between survey years. The number of available USO species was highest for a six-month period from winter to early summer (Jul–Dec) across all vegetation types. Months of lowest species’ availability were in mid-summer to early autumn (Jan–Apr); the early winter (May–Jun) values were variable, being highest in Limestone Fynbos. However, even during the late summer carbohydrate “crunch,” 25 carbohydrate bearing species were visible across the four vegetation types. To establish a robust resource landscape

  6. Seasonal availability of edible underground and aboveground carbohydrate resources to human foragers on the Cape south coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    De Vynck, Jan C; Cowling, Richard M; Potts, Alastair J; Marean, Curtis W

    2016-01-01

    The coastal environments of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR) provide some of the earliest and most abundant evidence for the emergence of cognitively modern humans. In particular, the south coast of the CFR provided a uniquely diverse resource base for hunter-gatherers, which included marine shellfish, game, and carbohydrate-bearing plants, especially those with Underground Storage Organs (USOs). It has been hypothesized that these resources underpinned the continuity of human occupation in the region since the Middle Pleistocene. Very little research has been conducted on the foraging potential of carbohydrate resources in the CFR. This study focuses on the seasonal availability of plants with edible carbohydrates at six-weekly intervals over a two-year period in four vegetation types on South Africa's Cape south coast. Different plant species were considered available to foragers if the edible carbohydrate was directly (i.e. above-ground edible portions) or indirectly (above-ground indications to below-ground edible portions) visible to an expert botanist familiar with this landscape. A total of 52 edible plant species were recorded across all vegetation types. Of these, 33 species were geophytes with edible USOs and 21 species had aboveground edible carbohydrates. Limestone Fynbos had the richest flora, followed by Strandveld, Renosterveld and lastly, Sand Fynbos. The availability of plant species differed across vegetation types and between survey years. The number of available USO species was highest for a six-month period from winter to early summer (Jul-Dec) across all vegetation types. Months of lowest species' availability were in mid-summer to early autumn (Jan-Apr); the early winter (May-Jun) values were variable, being highest in Limestone Fynbos. However, even during the late summer carbohydrate "crunch," 25 carbohydrate bearing species were visible across the four vegetation types. To establish a robust resource landscape will require

  7. Seasonal availability of edible underground and aboveground carbohydrate resources to human foragers on the Cape south coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    De Vynck, Jan C; Cowling, Richard M; Potts, Alastair J; Marean, Curtis W

    2016-01-01

    The coastal environments of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR) provide some of the earliest and most abundant evidence for the emergence of cognitively modern humans. In particular, the south coast of the CFR provided a uniquely diverse resource base for hunter-gatherers, which included marine shellfish, game, and carbohydrate-bearing plants, especially those with Underground Storage Organs (USOs). It has been hypothesized that these resources underpinned the continuity of human occupation in the region since the Middle Pleistocene. Very little research has been conducted on the foraging potential of carbohydrate resources in the CFR. This study focuses on the seasonal availability of plants with edible carbohydrates at six-weekly intervals over a two-year period in four vegetation types on South Africa's Cape south coast. Different plant species were considered available to foragers if the edible carbohydrate was directly (i.e. above-ground edible portions) or indirectly (above-ground indications to below-ground edible portions) visible to an expert botanist familiar with this landscape. A total of 52 edible plant species were recorded across all vegetation types. Of these, 33 species were geophytes with edible USOs and 21 species had aboveground edible carbohydrates. Limestone Fynbos had the richest flora, followed by Strandveld, Renosterveld and lastly, Sand Fynbos. The availability of plant species differed across vegetation types and between survey years. The number of available USO species was highest for a six-month period from winter to early summer (Jul-Dec) across all vegetation types. Months of lowest species' availability were in mid-summer to early autumn (Jan-Apr); the early winter (May-Jun) values were variable, being highest in Limestone Fynbos. However, even during the late summer carbohydrate "crunch," 25 carbohydrate bearing species were visible across the four vegetation types. To establish a robust resource landscape will require

  8. Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Sajem, Albert L; Gosai, Kuldip

    2006-01-01

    The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59%) than the underground plant parts (23.41%). Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species), followed by fruit (4). Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind. PMID:16899114

  9. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J H Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  10. Diversity and Above-Ground Biomass Patterns of Vascular Flora Induced by Flooding in the Drawdown Area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J.H.Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  11. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J H Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  12. Tibetan alpine tundra responses to simulated changes in climate: Aboveground biomass and community responses

    SciTech Connect

    Yanqing Zhang; Welker, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    High-elevation ecosystems are predicted to be some of the terrestrial habitats most sensitive to changing climates. The ecological consequences of changes in alpine tundra environmental conditions are still unclear especially for habitats in Asia. In this study we report findings from a field experiment where an alpine tundra grassland on the Tibetan plateau (37{degrees}N, 101{degrees}E) was exposed to experimental warming, irradiance was lowered, and wind speed reduced to simulate a suite of potential changes in environmental conditions. Our warming treatment increased air temperatures by 5{degrees}C on average and soil temperatures were elevated by 3{degrees}C at 5 cm depth. Aboveground biomass of grasses responded rapidly to the warmer conditions whereby biomass was 25% greater than that of controls after only 5 wk of experimental warming. This increase was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in forb biomass, resulting in almost no net change in community biomass after 5 wk. Lower irradiance reduced grass biomass during the same period. Under ambient conditions total aboveground community biomass increased seasonally from 161 g m{sup -2} in July to a maximum of 351 g m{sup -2} in September, declining to 285 g m{sup -2} in October. However, under warmed conditions, peak community biomass was extended into October due in part to continued growth of grasses and the postponement of senescence. Our finding indicate that while alpine grasses respond favorably to altered conditions, others may not. And, while peak community biomass may actually change very little under warmer summers, the duration of peak biomass may be extended having feedback effects on net ecosystem CO{sub 2} balances, nutrient cycling, and forage availability. 47 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by maize plants.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Tao, S; Zuo, Q; Coveney, R M

    2007-07-01

    Roots and above-ground parts (tops) of maize plants, comprising cuticles, leaves and stems, have been exposed separately to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by means of air-tight bicameral exposure devices. Maize roots and tops of plants directly accumulate PAHs from aqueous solutions and from air in proportion to exposure levels. Root and leaf concentration factors (log RCF and log LCF) are log-linear functions of log-based octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) and log-based octanol-air partition coefficient (log Koa). The PAHs' concentrations among cuticles, leaves and stems display good correlations with each other. PAH concentrations in each part of the plant tested correlated positively with atmospheric PAHs' concentrations. Comparisons between PAHs' concentrations of root epidermis and root tissue showed similar correlations. Bulk concentrations of contaminants in various plant tissues differed greatly, but these differences disappeared after normalization to lipid contents suggesting lipid-based partitioning of PAHs among maize tissues.

  14. Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

    2006-01-01

    The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

  15. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... and equipment to extremely high standards is necessary in order to ensure predictable and safe...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... and equipment to extremely high standards is necessary in order to ensure predictable and safe...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... and equipment to extremely high standards is necessary in order to ensure predictable and safe...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... and equipment to extremely high standards is necessary in order to ensure predictable and safe...

  19. 40 CFR 63.2535 - What compliance options do I have if part of my plant is subject to both this subpart and another...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... For example, provisions of 40 CFR parts 260 through 272 for treatment units that meet the conditions... part of my plant is subject to both this subpart and another subpart? 63.2535 Section 63.2535... § 63.2535 What compliance options do I have if part of my plant is subject to both this subpart...

  20. Conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant. Part I. An integrated facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This study is a new preliminary conceptual design and economic analysis of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plant performed by Bechtel under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of a new conceptual design is to examine alternatives to the LLNL HYLIFE power plant and to incorporate information from the recent liquid metal cooled power plant conceptual design study (CDS) into the reactor system and balance of plant design. A key issue in the design of a laser fusion power plant is the degree of symmetry in the illumination of the target that will be required for a proper burn. Because this matter is expected to remain unresolved for some time, another purpose of this study is to determine the effect of symmetry requirements on the total plant size, layout, and cost.

  1. 40 CFR 63.4482 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and... paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section that are used for surface coating of plastic parts and products... is used to coat plastic parts and products at a source where no plastic parts surface coating...

  2. Grazing effects on aboveground primary production and root biomass of early-seral, mid-seral, and undisturbed semiarid grassland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milchunas, D.G.; Vandever, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Annual/perennial and tall/short plant species differentially dominate early to late successional shortgrass steppe communities. Plant species can have different ratios of above-/below-ground biomass distributions and this can be modified by precipitation and grazing. We compared grazing effects on aboveground production and root biomass in early- and mid-seral fields and undisturbed shortgrass steppe. Production averaged across four years and grazed and ungrazed treatments were 246, 134, and 102 g m−2 yr−1 for the early-, mid-seral, and native sites, respectively, while root biomass averaged 358, 560, and 981 g m−2, respectively. Early- and mid-seral communities provided complimentary forage supplies but at the cost of root biomass. Grazing increased, decreased, or had no effect on aboveground production in early-, mid-seral, and native communities, and had no effect on roots in any. Grazing had some negative effects on early spring forage species, but not in the annual dominated early-seral community. Dominant species increased with grazing in native communities with a long evolutionary history of grazing by large herbivores, but had no effects on the same species in mid-seral communities. Effects of grazing in native communities in a region cannot necessarily be used to predict effects at other seral stages.

  3. Responses of Soil Bacterial Communities to Nitrogen Deposition and Precipitation Increment Are Closely Linked with Aboveground Community Variation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Xu, Zhuwen; Yang, Shan; Li, Xiaobin; Top, Eva M; Wang, Ruzhen; Zhang, Yuge; Cai, Jiangping; Yao, Fei; Han, Xingguo; Jiang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    It has been predicted that precipitation and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition will increase in northern China; yet, ecosystem responses to the interactive effects of water and N remain largely unknown. In particular, responses of belowground microbial community to projected global change and their potential linkages to aboveground macro-organisms are rarely studied. In this study, we examined the responses of soil bacterial diversity and community composition to increased precipitation and multi-level N deposition in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, and explored the diversity linkages between aboveground and belowground communities. It was observed that N addition caused the significant decrease in bacterial alpha-diversity and dramatic changes in community composition. In addition, we documented strong correlations of alpha- and beta-diversity between plant and bacterial communities in response to N addition. It was found that N enriched the so-called copiotrophic bacteria, but reduced the oligotrophic groups, primarily by increasing the soil inorganic N content and carbon availability and decreasing soil pH. We still highlighted that increased precipitation tended to alleviate the effects of N on bacterial diversity and dampen the plant-microbe connections induced by N. The counteractive effects of N addition and increased precipitation imply that even though the ecosystem diversity and function are predicted to be negatively affected by N deposition in the coming decades; the combination with increased precipitation may partially offset this detrimental effect.

  4. Effects of interannual climate variation on aboveground phytomass in alpine vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.D.; Webber, P.J.; Arnold, E.H. ); Ebert-May, D. )

    1994-03-01

    Relationships between peak annual vascular aboveground phytomass and annual climate variation in alpine plant communities located on Niwot Ridge, Colorado, were analyzed using path analysis. The five community types, fellfield, dry meadow, moist meadow, wet meadow, and snowbed, represent a snow depth-soil moisture gradient and broadly represent the most common vegetation types on east-facing slopes of the Front Range alpine zone. using nine successive years of data, this is the first longer term analysis of alpine phytomass and climate and one of the longest nonagricultural production records available. Live phytomass ranged from 97 g/m[sup 2] (snowbed) to 237 g/m[sup 2] (fellfield). Among-community differences in phytomass were greater than differences among years, but there was a significant phytomass variation among years. Path analysis indicated that climate accounted for 15-40% of the variation in phytomass. The dry communities, fellfield (exposed rocky summit areas dominated by cushion and mat plants) and dry meadow, were most sensitive to previous year precipitation, the moist and wet meadow communities were most sensitive to current growing season soil moisture, and the snowbed community was most sensitive to date of snow release. Because of the relatively high amount of variation attributable to variables related to precipitation, changes in precipitation regimes that may occur in alpine ecosystems will likely result in changes in phytomass that are detectable with clip-harvest methods. 62 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  6. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  7. Quantifying variation in forest disturbance, and its effects on aboveground biomass dynamics, across the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Coomes, David A; Purves, Drew W

    2013-05-01

    The role of tree mortality in the global carbon balance is complicated by strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity that arises from the stochastic nature of carbon loss through disturbance. Characterizing spatio-temporal variation in mortality (including disturbance) and its effects on forest and carbon dynamics is thus essential to understanding the current global forest carbon sink, and to predicting how it will change in future. We analyzed forest inventory data from the eastern United States to estimate plot-level variation in mortality (relative to a long-term background rate for individual trees) for nine distinct forest regions. Disturbances that produced at least a fourfold increase in tree mortality over an approximately 5 year interval were observed in 1-5% of plots in each forest region. The frequency of disturbance was lowest in the northeast, and increased southwards along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts as fire and hurricane disturbances became progressively more common. Across the central and northern parts of the region, natural disturbances appeared to reflect a diffuse combination of wind, insects, disease, and ice storms. By linking estimated covariation in tree growth and mortality over time with a data-constrained forest dynamics model, we simulated the implications of stochastic variation in mortality for long-term aboveground biomass changes across the eastern United States. A geographic gradient in disturbance frequency induced notable differences in biomass dynamics between the least- and most-disturbed regions, with variation in mortality causing the latter to undergo considerably stronger fluctuations in aboveground stand biomass over time. Moreover, regional simulations showed that a given long-term increase in mean mortality rates would support greater aboveground biomass when expressed through disturbance effects compared with background mortality, particularly for early-successional species. The effects of increased tree mortality on

  8. Quantifying variation in forest disturbance, and its effects on aboveground biomass dynamics, across the eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Coomes, David A; Purves, Drew W

    2013-01-01

    The role of tree mortality in the global carbon balance is complicated by strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity that arises from the stochastic nature of carbon loss through disturbance. Characterizing spatio-temporal variation in mortality (including disturbance) and its effects on forest and carbon dynamics is thus essential to understanding the current global forest carbon sink, and to predicting how it will change in future. We analyzed forest inventory data from the eastern United States to estimate plot-level variation in mortality (relative to a long-term background rate for individual trees) for nine distinct forest regions. Disturbances that produced at least a fourfold increase in tree mortality over an approximately 5 year interval were observed in 1–5% of plots in each forest region. The frequency of disturbance was lowest in the northeast, and increased southwards along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts as fire and hurricane disturbances became progressively more common. Across the central and northern parts of the region, natural disturbances appeared to reflect a diffuse combination of wind, insects, disease, and ice storms. By linking estimated covariation in tree growth and mortality over time with a data-constrained forest dynamics model, we simulated the implications of stochastic variation in mortality for long-term aboveground biomass changes across the eastern United States. A geographic gradient in disturbance frequency induced notable differences in biomass dynamics between the least- and most-disturbed regions, with variation in mortality causing the latter to undergo considerably stronger fluctuations in aboveground stand biomass over time. Moreover, regional simulations showed that a given long-term increase in mean mortality rates would support greater aboveground biomass when expressed through disturbance effects compared with background mortality, particularly for early-successional species. The effects of increased tree mortality on

  9. Failure mode analysis for lime/limestone FGD systems. Volume 3. Plant profiles. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, S.M.; Rosenberg, H.S.; Nilsson, L.I.O.; Oxley, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Plant profiles are given for the following plants: Tombigbee 2, 3; Apache 2, 3; Cholla 1, 2; Four Corners 1, 2, 3; Laramie River 1; Green 1, 2; Duck Creek 1; Craig 1, 2; Conesville 5, 6; Coal Creek 1, 2; Elrama 1, 2, 3, 4; and Phillips 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. (DLC)

  10. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Peanut Plant Parts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible peanut seed represents approximately forty percent of the total mass of the peanut plant at harvest. Nonseed portions of the plant, including leaves, roots, and shells were extracted using aqueous acetone to remove polar compounds. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using ORAC were de...

  11. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  12. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  13. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  14. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  15. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  16. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... identification by common and scientific name of the plant or plants concerned, origin of infestation and likely... control operations or engineering works, including control methods, materials, equipment and procedures... operation control, the report should include a brief statement of the special problems in control...

  17. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... identification by common and scientific name of the plant or plants concerned, origin of infestation and likely... control operations or engineering works, including control methods, materials, equipment and procedures... operation control, the report should include a brief statement of the special problems in control...

  18. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... identification by common and scientific name of the plant or plants concerned, origin of infestation and likely... control operations or engineering works, including control methods, materials, equipment and procedures... operation control, the report should include a brief statement of the special problems in control...

  19. 40 CFR 63.9582 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... handling operation at your taconite iron ore processing plant is existing if you commenced construction or reconstruction of the affected source before December 18, 2002. (e) An ore crushing and handling operation, ore... plant is new if you commence construction or reconstruction of the affected source on or after...

  20. Plant Parts Snack--A Way to Family Involvement, Science Learning, and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matt, Megan Mason

    2008-01-01

    As a teacher who loves to bring botany into her preschool classroom of 4- and 5-year-olds, the author makes edible plants a regular, popular feature of her students' environment. The author is fascinated when her students become increasingly adventurous in their tastes for vegetables the more they handle and understand plants. The author decided…

  1. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... approval or design certification under part 52 of this chapter is required by the provisions of 10 CFR 52... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approval or design certification under part 52 of this chapter is required by the provisions of 10 CFR 52... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... approval or design certification under part 52 of this chapter is required by the provisions of 10 CFR 52... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... approval or design certification under part 52 of this chapter is required by the provisions of 10 CFR 52... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality... LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. B Appendix B to Part 50—Quality Assurance... report a description of the quality assurance program to be applied to the design,...

  6. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment leak components that are part of an affected source under another 40 CFR part 63 national emission..., such as stormwater management, liquid removal from tanks for inspections and maintenance,...

  7. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment leak components that are part of an affected source under another 40 CFR part 63 national emission..., such as stormwater management, liquid removal from tanks for inspections and maintenance,...

  8. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment leak components that are part of an affected source under another 40 CFR part 63 national emission..., such as stormwater management, liquid removal from tanks for inspections and maintenance,...

  9. Changes in the relationship between tree size and aboveground respiration in field-grown hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) trees over three years.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Taketo; Hagihara, Akio

    1998-01-01

    Respiration measurements of aerial parts of 18-year-old hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.) trees were made under field conditions over three years to study changing relationships with tree age between respiration and phytomass, phytomass increment, and leaf mass. The relationship between annual respiration (r(a)) and phytomass (w(T)) was approximated by a proportional function (r(a) = aw(T)), where the proportional constant (a) decreased year by year. The effect of time on the relationship between annual respiration and phytomass of each sample tree was fitted by a power function. Respiration of the tree suppressed by the canopy decreased year by year, but respiration of the other trees increased slightly with age. The relationship between annual respiration and leaf mass was also approximated by a generalized power function. Excluding the suppressed tree, the relationship between annual respiration (r(a)) and the annual increment of aboveground phytomass (Deltaw(T)) was described by a proportional function (r(a) = 2.27Deltaw(T)), where the proportional constant, 2.27, was independent of sample tree and year, indicating that about 2.3 times of the annual aboveground phytomass increment equivalent was respired annually. For any tree, the time constant relationships between annual respiration and leaf mass and phytomass increment for different-sized trees were similar to the corresponding time continuum relationships. In contrast, the time continuum relationship between annual respiration and phytomass differed from the time constant relationship, indicating that respiration of less active woody tissue contributed significantly to aboveground respiration. Based on the relationship between tree size and annual respiration, annual aboveground stand respiration was estimated to be 25.0, 26.9, and 25.8 Mg(dm) ha(-1) year(-1) for the three consecutive years, respectively, and the corresponding aboveground stand biomass was 60.0, 69.0, and 76.8 Mg

  10. Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

  11. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. B Appendix B to... source of reinfestation; extent of infestation including estimated surface area, depth or density;...

  12. Below-ground plant parts emit herbivore-induced volatiles: olfactory responses of a predatory mite to tulip bulbs infested by rust mites.

    PubMed

    Aratchige, N S; Lesna, I; Sabelis, M W

    2004-01-01

    Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract predatory mites (Neoseiulus cucumeris). Since our aim was to demonstrate such odours and not their relevance under soil conditions, the experiments were carried out using a classic Y-tube olfactometer in which the predators moved on a Y-shaped wire in open air. We found that food-deprived female predators can discriminate between odours from infested bulbs and odours from uninfested bulbs or artificially wounded bulbs. No significant difference in attractiveness to predators was found between clean bulbs and bulbs either wounded 30 min or 3 h before the experiment. These results indicate that it may not be simply the wounding of the bulbs, but rather the feeding by rust mites, which causes the bulb to release odours that attract N. cucumeris. Since bulbs are belowground plant structures, the olfactometer results demonstrate the potential for odour-mediated interactions in the soil. However, their importance in the actual soil medium remains to be demonstrated.

  13. Who's on first? Part I: Influence of plant growth on C association with fresh soil minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neurath, R.; Whitman, T.; Nico, P. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral surfaces provide sites for carbon stabilization in soils, protecting soil organic matter (SOM) from microbial degradation. SOM distributed across mineral surfaces is expected to be patchy and certain minerals undergo re-mineralization under dynamic soil conditions, such that soil minerals surfaces can range from fresh to thickly-coated with SOM. Our research investigates the intersection of microbiology and geochemistry, and aims to build a mechanistic understanding of plant-derived carbon (C) association with mineral surfaces and the factors that determine SOM fate in soil. Plants are the primary source of C in soil, with roots exuding low-molecular weight compounds during growth and contributing more complex litter compounds at senescence. We grew the annual grass, Avena barbata, (wild oat) in a 99 atom% 13CO2 atmosphere in soil microcosms incubated with three mineral types representing a spectrum of reactivity and surface area: quartz, kaolinite, and ferrihydrite. These minerals, isolated in mesh bags to exclude roots but not microorganisms, were extracted and analyzed for total C and 13C at multiple plant growth stages. At plant senescence, the quartz had the least mineral-bound C (0.40 mg-g-1) and ferrihydrite the most (0.78 mg-g-1). Ferrihydrite and kaolinite also accumulated more plant-derived C (3.0 and 3.1% 13C, respectively). The experiment was repeated with partially digested 13C-labled root litter to simulate litter decomposition during plant senescence. Thus, we are able evaluate contributions derived from living and dead root materials on soil minerals using FTIR and 13C-NMR. We find that mineral-associated C bears a distinct microbial signature, with soil microbes not only transforming SOM prior to mineral association, but also populating mineral surfaces over time. Our research shows that both soil mineralogy and the chemical character of plant-derived compounds are important controls of mineral protection of SOM.

  14. Regional Mapping, Modelling, and Monitoring of Tree Aboveground Biomass Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Airborne lidar collections are preferred for mapping aboveground biomass carbon (AGBC), while historical Landsat imagery are preferred for monitoring decadal scale forest cover change. Our modelling approach tracks AGBC change regionally using Landsat time series metrics; training areas are defined by airborne lidar extents within which AGBC is accurately mapped with high confidence. Geospatial topographic and climate layers are also included in the predictive model. Validation is accomplished using systematically sampled Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data that have been independently collected, processed and summarized at the county level. Our goal is to demonstrate that spatially and temporally aggregated annual AGBC map predictions show no bias when compared to annual county-level summaries across the Northwest USA. A prominent source of bias is trees outside forest; much of the more arid portions of our study area meet the FIA definition of non-forest because the tree cover does not exceed their minimum tree cover threshold. We employ detailed tree cover maps derived from high-resolution aerial imagery to extend our AGBC predictions into non-forest areas. We also employ Landsat-derived annual disturbance maps into our mapped AGBC predictions prior to aggregation and validation.

  15. Pyranometers and Reference Cells: Part 2: What Makes the Most Sense for PV Power Plants?; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Meydbray, J.; Riley, E.; Dunn, L.; Emery, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-10-01

    As described in Part 1 of this two-part series, thermopile pyranometers and photovoltaic (PV) reference cells can both be used to measure irradiance; however, there are subtle differences between the data that are obtained. This two-part article explores some implications of uncertainty and subtleties of accurately measuring PV efficiency in the field. Part 2 of the series shows how reference cells can be used to more confidently predict PV performance, but how this could best be accomplished if historic irradiance data could be available in PV-technology-specific formats.

  16. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part II. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.).

    PubMed

    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, a study was undertaken to quantify heavy metal uptake by 4-week old buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.) plants during 18 days of irrigation with 8 different Cu and Zn solutions under two transpiration rates (TR). At 4 weeks, potted buckwheat plants were transferred into one of the two growth chambers, offering either a high or low vapour pressure deficit (VDP) for, respectively, a high or low TR. Triplicate pots received one of the 8 irrigation treatments containing one of two Zn levels (0 and 25 mg/L) combined with one of four Cu levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L). Daily TR were measured by weighing the evapo-transpired water lost from the planted pot, less was the evaporation loss measured from triplicate non-planted pots. After 0, 6, 12 and 18 days of treatment, the stems and leaves of three randomly selected plants were harvested and after 18 days, the roots were harvested to determine Cu and Zn uptake. The treatments did not affect TR in terms of dry plant mass, indicating the absence of toxic effects. Irrigating with Zn, without Cu, increased dry biomass production, whereas the lowest biomass occurred with 15 and 30 mg/L of Cu with and without 25 mg/L of Zn, respectively, because higher applications of heavy metal significantly reduced soil pH. Plant Cu and Zn uptake increased with TR. With higher levels of Cu, Zn uptake by buckwheat was significantly reduced, while Zn had a slight but non-significant impact on Cu uptake. Previously and in a study exposing wheat plants to the same conditions, Cu significantly increased Zn uptake, while Zn had a slight but insignificant negative effect on Cu uptake. The buckwheat roots contained the greatest levels of Cu and Zn, indicating their role in moderating heavy metal uptake. Also, both Cu and Zn had a synergetic effect on each other in terms of root levels, and a similar observation was made in the earlier similar experiment using wheat plants

  17. Whether Plant Responses to Microgravity are Adaptive in Full or in Part.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth

    F1.1 Microgravity is well known to be an unusual factor for plant but plants grow and develop in space flight from seed-to-seed, as it has been perfectly shown in the experiments aboard shut-tle Columbia (STS-87) and ISS. Under the more or less optimal conditions for plant growing, namely temperature, humidity, CO2, light intensity and directivity, in the hardware, high-quality seeds germinate one hundred percent.. Cytological studies of plants developing in real and simulated microgravity made it possible to establish that the processes of mitosis, cytoki-nesis, and tissue differentiation of vegetative and generative organs are largely normal. The patterns of histogenesis and cell differentiation established for root caps in microgravity lead to the conclusion that the graviperceptive apparatus of the intact embryonic roots has formed but does not function in the absence of a gravitational vector. Normal space orientation of plant organs is provided by autotropism and phototropism. At the same time, under micro-gravity, essential reconstruction in the structural and functional organization of cell organelles and cytoskeleton, as well as changes in cell metabolism and homeostasis have been described. In addition, new interesting data concerning the influence of altered gravity on lipid peroxi-dation intensity, the level of reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant system activity, just like on the level of gene expression and synthesis of low-molecular and high-molecular heat shock proteins were recently obtained Available experimental data are discussed in the light of notions on adaptive syndrome in plants. The dynamics of the observable patterns demonstrate that adaptation occurs on the principle of self-regulating systems within the physiological response limits.. However, a delay in synthesis of storage nutrients and the lower level its accumulation in seeds in microgravty, as well as the formation of seeds with anomalous embryos in some cases made it

  18. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment used to distribute organic liquids into, out of, or within a facility that is a major source of... equipment leak components that are part of an affected source under another 40 CFR part 63 national emission..., such as stormwater management, liquid removal from tanks for inspections and maintenance,...

  19. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment used to distribute organic liquids into, out of, or within a facility that is a major source of... equipment leak components that are part of an affected source under another 40 CFR part 63 national emission..., such as stormwater management, liquid removal from tanks for inspections and maintenance,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.3882 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of... parts and products surface coating facility where previously no miscellaneous metal parts and products surface coating facility had existed. (d) An affected source is reconstructed if it meets the criteria...

  1. 40 CFR 63.3082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Automobiles and Light... surface coating of new automobile or new light-duty truck bodies, or body parts for new automobiles or new... Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products (subpart MMMM of...

  2. 40 CFR 63.3882 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of... parts and products surface coating facility where previously no miscellaneous metal parts and products surface coating facility had existed. (d) An affected source is reconstructed if it meets the criteria...

  3. 40 CFR 63.3082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of... section that are used for surface coating of new automobile or new light-duty truck bodies, or body parts... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Miscellaneous Metal Parts...

  4. 40 CFR 63.11449 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compounds of one or more glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials. (3) The furnace is used to produce glass, which contains one or more of the glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials, at a rate of at..., you must obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71....

  5. 40 CFR 63.11449 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compounds of one or more glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials. (3) The furnace is used to produce glass, which contains one or more of the glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials, at a rate of at..., you must obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71....

  6. 40 CFR 63.11449 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compounds of one or more glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials. (3) The furnace is used to produce glass, which contains one or more of the glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials, at a rate of at..., you must obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71....

  7. 40 CFR 63.11449 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compounds of one or more glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials. (3) The furnace is used to produce glass, which contains one or more of the glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials, at a rate of at..., you must obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71....

  8. 40 CFR 63.4482 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and... paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section that are used for surface coating of plastic parts and...

  9. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (<1 degrees C) were recorded when entrainments were conducted in the shade. In a field trial, the profiles of volatiles collected from an apple tree infested with rosy apple aphid using a glass vessel and a polyester bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  10. [Emission of microorganisms from sewage treatment plants depending upon construction differences of single structural parts].

    PubMed

    Eikmann, T; Schröder, S; Pieler, J; Bahr, H; Einbrodt, H J

    1986-04-01

    In order to examine the influence exerted by the differing design of individual water treatment plant units on the emission rate of micro-organisms and the associated degree of exposure to which plant personnel is subjected, measurements were taken at three different types of treatment plants. Measurements were made using "Biotest" RCS Air Samplers. The total count of colonies was determined by means of Agar Strips GK-A (tryptic soy agar). Enterobacteriaceae were quantitatively ascertained using Agar Strips C (MacConkey agar), particular attention being paid to the determination of the coliform bacteria as faeces indicators. Agar Strips S (mannitol salt agar) were used to measure the count of staphylococci using Agar Strips HS (rosa Bengal streptomycin agar). Before taking measurements, the prevailing climatic conditions were recorded. It could be ascertained that the enclosure of the inflow area (screw conveyor pump station and aerated grit removal tank) lead to a considerable increase in the concentration of microorganisms in the air within the housing. The values dropped however, when adequate ventilation was provided. Differing oxygen in the activated sludge tanks - finebubble aeration at the tank bottom or the blowing in of air via centrifugal blowers - lead to large variations in the emission rates. However, the less the waste water is agitated, the lower the emission rates. In the case of fine-bubble aeration, rates which are also normally to be found in the "non-burdened" outside air were even recorded close to the aeration tank. In cases of centrifugal blower, the aeration tank should be covered with a shield. With this type of aeration the waste water is emitted radially towards the walls of the tank. The use of a sprinkler unit on an aeration tank equipped with centrifugal blower - to avoid foam formation on the surface of the water - does not lead to an increase in the already high emission rate. An increase in air pollution through mould fungi from

  11. Dryland Wheat Domestication Changed the Development of Aboveground Architecture for a Well-Structured Canopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pu-Fang; Cheng, Zheng-Guo; Ma, Bao-Luo; Palta, Jairo A.; Kong, Hai-Yan; Mo, Fei; Wang, Jian-Yong; Zhu, Ying; Lv, Guang-Chao; Batool, Asfa; Bai, Xue; Li, Feng-Min; Xiong, You-Cai

    2014-01-01

    We examined three different-ploidy wheat species to elucidate the development of aboveground architecture and its domesticated mechanism under environment-controlled field conditions. Architecture parameters including leaf, stem, spike and canopy morphology were measured together with biomass allocation, leaf net photosynthetic rate and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi). Canopy biomass density was decreased from diploid to tetraploid wheat, but increased to maximum in hexaploid wheat. Population yield in hexaploid wheat was higher than in diploid wheat, but the population fitness and individual competition ability was higher in diploid wheats. Plant architecture was modified from a compact type in diploid wheats to an incompact type in tetraploid wheats, and then to a more compact type of hexaploid wheats. Biomass accumulation, population yield, harvest index and the seed to leaf ratio increased from diploid to tetraploid and hexaploid, associated with heavier specific internode weight and greater canopy biomass density in hexaploid and tetraploid than in diploid wheat. Leaf photosynthetic rate and WUEi were decreased from diploid to tetraploid and increased from tetraploid to hexaploid due to more compact leaf type in hexaploid and diploid than in tetraploid. Grain yield formation and WUEi were closely associated with spatial stance of leaves and stems. We conclude that the ideotype of dryland wheats could be based on spatial reconstruction of leaf type and further exertion of leaf photosynthetic rate. PMID:25181037

  12. Remote sensing of aboveground biomass and annual net aerial primary productivity in tidal wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Hardisky, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A technique was investigated for estimating biomass and net aerial primary productivity (NAPP) in Delaware tidal marshes from spectral data, describing marsh vegetation canopies. Spectral radiance data were collected with hand-held radiometers from the ground and from low altitude aircraft. Spectral wavebands corresponding to Landsat 4 thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 and multispectral scanner bands 5 and 7 were employed. Spectral data, expressed as index values, were substituted into simple regression models to nondestructively compute total aboveground biomass. Dead biomass, salt crystals on plant leaves and soil background reflectance, all attenuated the spectral radiance index values. A large spectral contribution from any one of these canopy components caused an underestimate of live biomass. Biomass and annual NAPP of a S. alterniflora dominated salt marsh was estimated by traditional harvesting techniques and from ground-gathered spectral radiance data. The live and dead standing crop biomass estimates computed from spectral data were usually not significantly different from harvest biomass estimates. Spectral estimates of NAPP were usually within 10% of NAPP estimates calculated from harvest data. August live standing crop biomass estimates computed from ground-gathered spectral data for a tidal brackish marsh were generally within 10% of harvest estimates. Live biomass estimates computed from spectral data gathered from a low altitude aircraft were equally similar to harvest biomass estimates. The remote sensing technique holds much promise for rapid and accurate estimates of biomass and NAPP in tidal marshes.

  13. Relationships between functional diversity and aboveground biomass production in the Northern Tibetan alpine grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Juntao; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Yangjian

    2016-01-01

    Functional diversity, the extent of functional differences among species in a community, drives biodiversity–ecosystem function (BEF) relationships. Here, four species traits and aboveground biomass production (ABP) were considered. We used two community-wide measures of plant functional composition, (1) community weighted means of trait values (CWM) and (2) functional trait diversity based on Rao’s quadratic diversity (FDQ) to evaluate the effects of functional diversity on the ABP in the Northern Tibetan alpine grasslands. Both species and functional diversity were positively related to the ABP. Functional trait composition had a larger predictive power for the ABP than species diversity and FDQ, indicating a primary dependence of ecosystem property on the identity of dominant species in our study system. Multivariate functional diversity was ineffective in predicting ecosystem function due to the trade-offs among different traits or traits selection criterions. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms driving the BEF relationships in stressed ecosystems, and especially emphasizes that abiotic and biotic factors affect the BEF relationships in alpine grasslands. PMID:27666532

  14. Estimating aboveground biomass in interior Alaska with Landsat data and field measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, Lei; Wylie, Bruce K.; Nossov, Dana R.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McFarland, Jack W.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial plant biomass is a key biophysical parameter required for understanding ecological systems in Alaska. An accurate estimation of biomass at a regional scale provides an important data input for ecological modeling in this region. In this study, we created an aboveground biomass (AGB) map at 30-m resolution for the Yukon Flats ecoregion of interior Alaska using Landsat data and field measurements. Tree, shrub, and herbaceous AGB data in both live and dead forms were collected in summers and autumns of 2009 and 2010. Using the Landsat-derived spectral variables and the field AGB data, we generated a regression model and applied this model to map AGB for the ecoregion. A 3-fold cross-validation indicated that the AGB estimates had a mean absolute error of 21.8 Mg/ha and a mean bias error of 5.2 Mg/ha. Additionally, we validated the mapping results using an airborne lidar dataset acquired for a portion of the ecoregion. We found a significant relationship between the lidar-derived canopy height and the Landsat-derived AGB (R2 = 0.40). The AGB map showed that 90% of the ecoregion had AGB values ranging from 10 Mg/ha to 134 Mg/ha. Vegetation types and fires were the primary factors controlling the spatial AGB patterns in this ecoregion.

  15. Conventional tree height-diameter relationships significantly overestimate aboveground carbon stocks in the Central Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearsley, Elizabeth; Hufkens, Koen; Steppe, Kathy; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Verbeeck, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Accurate estimates of the amount of carbon stored in tropical forests represent crucial baseline data for recent climate change mitigation policies. Such data are needed to quantify possible emissions due to deforestation and forest degradation, and to evaluate the potential of these forests to act as carbon sinks. Currently, only rough estimates of the carbon stocks for Central African tropical forests are available due to a lack of field data, and little is known about the response of these stocks to climate change. We present the first field-based carbon stock data for the Central Congo Basin in Yangambi, Democratic Republic of Congo. We found an average aboveground carbon stock of 162 ± 20 Mg C ha-1 for intact old-growth forest, which is significantly lower than stocks recorded in the outer regions of the Congo Basin. The best available tree height-diameter relationships derived for Central Africa do not render accurate canopy height estimates for our study area. Aboveground carbon stocks would be overestimated by 24% if these inaccurate relationships were used. The studied forests have a lower stature compared with forests in the outer regions of the basin, which confirms remotely sensed patterns. We identified a significant difference in height-diameter relations across the Congo Basin as a driver for spatial differences in carbon stocks. The study of a more detailed interaction of the environment and the available tree species pool as drivers for differences in carbon storage could have large implications. The effect of the species pool on carbon storage can be large since species differ in their ability to sequester carbon, and the collective functional characteristics of plant communities could be a major driver of carbon accumulation. Numerous species-specific tree height-diameter relations are established for two sites around Kisangani, central Congo Basin, with differing stand height-diameter relationships. The species-specific relations for the two

  16. Long-term aboveground and belowground consequences of red wood ant exclusion in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Wardle, David A; Hyodo, Fujio; Bardgett, Richard D; Yeates, Gregor W; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2011-03-01

    Despite their ubiquity, the role of ants in driving ecosystem processes both aboveground and belowground has been seldom explored, except within the nest. During 1995 we established 16 ant exclusion plots of approximately 1.1 x 1.1 m, together with paired control plots, in the understory layer of a boreal forest ecosystem in northern Sweden that supports high densities of the mound-forming ant Formica aquilonia, a red wood ant species of the Formica rufa group. Aboveground and belowground measurements were then made on destructively sampled subplots in 2001 and 2008, i.e., 6 and 13 years after set-up. While ant exclusion had no effect on total understory plant biomass, it did greatly increase the relative contribution of herbaceous species, most likely through preventing ants from removing their seeds. This in turn led to higher quality resources entering the belowground subsystem, which in turn stimulated soil microbial biomass and activity and the rates of loss of mass and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from litter in litterbags placed in the plots. This was accompanied by losses of approximately 15% of N and C stored in the humus on a per area basis. Ant exclusion also had some effects on foliar stable isotope ratios for both C and N, most probably as a consequence of greater soil fertility. Further, exclusion of ants had multitrophic effects on a microbe-nematode soil food web with three consumer trophic levels and after six years promoted the bacterial-based relative to the fungal-based energy channel in this food web. Our results point to a major role of red wood ants in determining forest floor vegetation and thereby exerting wide-ranging effects on belowground properties and processes. Given that the boreal forest occupies 11% of the Earth's terrestrial surface and stores more C than any other forest biome, our results suggest that this role of ants could potentially be of widespread significance for biogeochemical nutrient cycling, soil nutrient capital, and

  17. Coupling aboveground and belowground activities using short term fluctuations in 13C composition of soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epron, D.; Parent, F.; Grossiord, C.; Plain, C.; Longdoz, B.; Granier, A.

    2011-12-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence that belowground processes in forest ecosystems are tightly coupled to aboveground activities. Soil CO2 efflux, the largest flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, is dominated by root respiration and by respiration of microorganisms that find the carbohydrates required to fulfil their energetic costs in the rhizosphere. A close coupling between aboveground photosynthetic activity and soil CO2 efflux is therefore expected. The isotopic signature of photosynthates varies with time because photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination is dynamically controlled by environmental factors. This temporal variation of δ13C of photosynthate is thought to be transferred along the tree-soil continuum and it will be retrieved in soil CO2 efflux after a time lag that reflects the velocity of carbon transport from canopy to belowground. However, isotopic signature of soil CO2 efflux is not solely affected by photosynthetic carbon discrimination, bur also by post photosynthetic fractionation, and especially by fractionation processes affecting CO2 during the transport from soil layers to surface. Tunable diode laser spectrometry is a useful tool to quantify short-term variation in δ13C of soil CO2 efflux and of CO2 in the soil atmosphere. We set up hydrophobic tubes to measure the vertical profile of soil CO2 concentration and its δ13C composition in a temperate beech forest, and we monitored simultaneously δ13C of trunk and soil CO2 efflux, δ13C of phloem exudate and δ13C of leaf sugars. We evidenced that temporal changes in δ13C of soil CO2 and soil CO2 efflux reflected changes in environmental conditions that affect photosynthetic discrimination and that soil CO2 was 4.4% enriched compared to soil CO2 efflux according to diffusion fractionation. However, this close coupling can be disrupted when advective transport of CO2 took place. We also reported evidences that temporal variations in the isotopic composition of soil CO2 efflux reflect

  18. 40 CFR 63.7282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing... cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at your coke plant. The affected source is each coke oven battery. (b) This subpart covers emissions from pushing, soaking, quenching,...

  19. 40 CFR 63.7282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing... cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at your coke plant. The affected source is each coke oven battery. (b) This subpart covers emissions from pushing, soaking, quenching,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.7282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing... cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at your coke plant. The affected source is each coke oven battery. (b) This subpart covers emissions from pushing, soaking, quenching,...

  1. 40 CFR 63.7282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing... cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at your coke plant. The affected source is each coke oven battery. (b) This subpart covers emissions from pushing, soaking, quenching,...

  2. 40 CFR 63.7282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing... cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at your coke plant. The affected source is each coke oven battery. (b) This subpart covers emissions from pushing, soaking, quenching,...

  3. Teaching about Animal, Plant, Living. Part 1. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Beverley, Ed.

    Presented is a guide for teaching activities produced as a result of a Learning in Science Project investigation which showed that children often have quite different meanings for the words "animal,""plant," and "living" than do scientists. Included are: (1) focus of instruction at different educational levels; (2) a suggested teaching program;…

  4. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part IV--Property, Plant, & Equipment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This fourth article in a series of theoretical essays intended to supplement the introductory financial accounting course is dedicated to the topic of property, plant, and equipment (PP&E), including both the accounting treatment and its related conceptual connections. The paper also addresses the measurement dilemmas, scandalous accounting…

  5. 40 CFR 63.1340 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... defined in § 63.2. (b) The affected sources subject to this subpart are: (1) Each kiln including alkali bypasses, except for kilns that burn hazardous waste and are subject to and regulated under subpart EEE of... used to convey coal from the mill to the kiln at any portland cement plant; (8) Each bagging and...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1340 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... source as defined in § 63.2. (b) The affected sources subject to this subpart are: (1) Each kiln including alkali bypasses and inline coal mills, except for kilns that burn hazardous waste and are subject... kiln at any portland cement plant that is a major source; (8) Each bagging and bulk loading...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1340 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defined in § 63.2. (b) The affected sources subject to this subpart are: (1) Each kiln including alkali bypasses, except for kilns that burn hazardous waste and are subject to and regulated under subpart EEE of... used to convey coal from the mill to the kiln at any portland cement plant; (8) Each bagging and...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1340 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... source as defined in § 63.2. (b) The affected sources subject to this subpart are: (1) Each kiln including alkali bypasses and inline coal mills, except for kilns that burn hazardous waste and are subject... kiln at any portland cement plant that is a major source; (8) Each bagging and bulk loading...

  9. 40 CFR 63.8784 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Flexible Polyurethane Foam... flexible polyurethane foam fabrication. (b) The affected sources are defined in this section in paragraphs... to bond foam to foam at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication plant site. (2) The flame...

  10. 40 CFR 63.8784 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Flexible Polyurethane Foam... flexible polyurethane foam fabrication. (b) The affected sources are defined in this section in paragraphs... to bond foam to foam at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication plant site. (2) The flame...

  11. 40 CFR 63.8784 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Flexible Polyurethane Foam... flexible polyurethane foam fabrication. (b) The affected sources are defined in this section in paragraphs... to bond foam to foam at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication plant site. (2) The flame...

  12. 40 CFR 63.8784 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Flexible Polyurethane Foam... flexible polyurethane foam fabrication. (b) The affected sources are defined in this section in paragraphs... to bond foam to foam at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication plant site. (2) The flame...

  13. 40 CFR 63.8784 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Flexible Polyurethane Foam... flexible polyurethane foam fabrication. (b) The affected sources are defined in this section in paragraphs... to bond foam to foam at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication plant site. (2) The flame...

  14. 40 CFR 63.9582 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Taconite Iron Ore Processing... applies to each new and existing affected source at your taconite iron ore processing plant. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing ore crushing and handling operation, ore dryer,...

  15. 40 CFR 63.9582 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Taconite Iron Ore Processing... applies to each new and existing affected source at your taconite iron ore processing plant. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing ore crushing and handling operation, ore dryer,...

  16. 40 CFR 63.9582 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Taconite Iron Ore Processing... applies to each new and existing affected source at your taconite iron ore processing plant. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing ore crushing and handling operation, ore dryer,...

  17. 40 CFR 63.9582 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Taconite Iron Ore Processing... applies to each new and existing affected source at your taconite iron ore processing plant. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing ore crushing and handling operation, ore dryer,...

  18. 40 CFR 63.2982 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production... plant covered by this subpart) is each wet-formed fiberglass mat drying and curing oven. (b) An...

  19. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in the manufacture of product chlorine, product caustic, and by-product hydrogen at a plant site. This subpart covers mercury emissions from by-product hydrogen streams, end box ventilation system vents, and fugitive emission sources associated with cell rooms, hydrogen systems, caustic systems,...

  20. Retrofit of Soederberg smelter at Alusaf Bayside plant. Part 2: Start-up and operation of pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Construction, commissioning and the first of operation of twelve 165 kA pointed pilot cells with prebaked anodes at Alusaf works are described. These pilot cells were developed, using VAW technology, to reduce the emission levels and increase productivity of the 14 year old 120 kA VSS lines at Bayside smelter. VAW was contracted to design a cell that utilizes as much of the existing hardware as possible and that fits into the existing floor space. Results of extensive modeling showed that major parts of the existing busbar system could be kept. The amperage of the modernized prebake cells could be increased to 165 kA. Twelve prototype pots were commissioned in July 1994. During the first year of operation excellent production results were achieved. The production of these cells are {approx_equal} 56% higher than for the VSS cells. The pilot pots have a current efficiency in excess of 95%, specific energy consumption of 13.6 kWh/kg Al and a net carbon consumption of 410 kg/ton Al.

  1. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation Modulates Transcriptional Levels of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Jasmonic Acid Signaling-Related Genes and Augments the Cope with Drought Stress of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Bae, Dong-Won; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the potential underlying molecular mechanisms by which maize (Zea mays L.) plants elicit defense responses by infestation with a phloem feeding insect whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] have been barely elucidated against (a)biotic stresses. To fill this gap of current knowledge maize plants were infested with whitefly and these plants were subsequently assessed the levels of water loss. To understand the mode of action, plant hormone contents and the stress-related mRNA expression were evaluated. Whitefly-infested maize plants did not display any significant phenotypic differences in above-ground tissues (infested site) compared with controls. By contrast, root (systemic tissue) biomass was increased by 2-fold by whitefly infestation. The levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were significantly higher in whitefly-infested plants. The biosynthetic or signaling-related genes for JA and anthocyanins were highly up-regulated. Additionally, we found that healthier plants were obtained in whitefly-infested plants under drought conditions. The weight of whitefly-infested plants was approximately 20% higher than that of control plants at 14 d of drought treatment. The drought tolerance-related genes, ZmbZIP72, ZmSNAC1, and ZmABA1, were highly expressed in the whitefly-infected plants. Collectively, our results suggest that IAA/JA-derived maize physiological changes and correlation of H2O2 production and water loss are modulated by above-ground whitefly infestation in maize plants. PMID:26630288

  2. Aboveground and belowground responses to nutrient additions and herbivore exclusion in Arctic tundra ecosystems in northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; Gough, L.; Simpson, R.; Johnson, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic has experienced significant increased regional warming over the past 30 years. Warming generally increases tundra soil nutrient availability by creating a more favorable environment for plant growth, decomposition and nutrient mineralization. Aboveground there has been a "greening" of the Arctic with increased net primary productivity (NPP), and an increase in woody vegetation. Concurrent with the changes aboveground has been an increase in root growth at lower depths and a loss of soil organic C (40 -100 g C m-2 yr-1). Given that arctic soils contain 14% of the global soil C pool, understanding the mechanisms behind shifts of this magnitude that are changing arctic soils from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric C is critical. We took an integrated multi-trophic level approach to examine how altering soil nutrients and mammalian herbivore activity affects vegetation, soil fauna, and microbial communities as well as soil physical characteristics in moist acidic (MAT) and dry heath (DH) tundra. Our work was conducted at the Arctic LTER site in northern Alaska. We sampled the nutrient (controls and annual N+P additions) and herbivore (controls and exclosures) manipulations established in 1996 after 10 years of treatment. Models that incorporated the biomass estimates from the field were used to characterize the trophic structure of the belowground food web and to estimate carbon flux among soil organisms and C-mineralization rates. Both MAT and DH exhibited significant increases in NPP and root growth and changes in vegetation structure with transitions from a mixed community to deciduous shrubs in MAT and from lichens to grasses and shrubs in DH, with nutrient additions and herbivore exclosures. Belowground responses to the treatments were dependent on ecosystem type, but exposed alterations in trophic structure that included changes in microbial biomass, the establishment of microbivorous enchytreaids, increases in root-feeding nematodes, and

  3. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)(1) through (6) of this section. (1) Process units that are subject to the requirements of 40 CFR... are exempt from the obligation to obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71, “Title V,” provided you are not otherwise required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 40 CFR 71.3(a) for...

  4. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)(1) through (6) of this section. (1) Process units that are subject to the requirements of 40 CFR... polish. (e) You are exempt from the obligation to obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71, “Title V,” provided you are not otherwise required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 40 CFR...

  5. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)(1) through (6) of this section. (1) Process units that are subject to the requirements of 40 CFR... polish. (e) You are exempt from the obligation to obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71, “Title V,” provided you are not otherwise required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 40 CFR...

  6. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)(1) through (6) of this section. (1) Process units that are subject to the requirements of 40 CFR... polish. (e) You are exempt from the obligation to obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71, “Title V,” provided you are not otherwise required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 40 CFR...

  7. Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Houghton, R. A.; DosSantos Alvala, R. C.; Soares, J. V.; Yu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The amount and spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon basin is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the flux of carbon released from land-cover and land-use change. Direct measurements of aboveground live biomass (AGLB) are limited to small areas of forest inventory plots and site-specific allometric equations that cannot be readily generalized for the entire basin. Furthermore, there is no spaceborne remote sensing instrument that can measure tropical forest biomass directly. To determine the spatial distribution of forest biomass of the Amazon basin, we report a method based on remote sensing metrics representing various forest structural parameters and environmental variables, and more than 500 plot measurements of forest biomass distributed over the basin. A decision tree approach was used to develop the spatial distribution of AGLB for seven distinct biomass classes of lowland old-growth forests with more than 80% accuracy. AGLB for other vegetation types, such as the woody and herbaceous savanna and secondary forests, was directly estimated with a regression based on satellite data. Results show that AGLB is highest in Central Amazonia and in regions to the east and north, including the Guyanas. Biomass is generally above 300Mgha(sup 1) here except in areas of intense logging or open floodplains. In Western Amazonia, from the lowlands of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia to the Andean mountains, biomass ranges from 150 to 300Mgha(sup 1). Most transitional and seasonal forests at the southern and northwestern edges of the basin have biomass ranging from 100 to 200Mgha(sup 1). The AGLB distribution has a significant correlation with the length of the dry season. We estimate that the total carbon in forest biomass of the Amazon basin, including the dead and below ground biomass, is 86 PgC with +/- 20% uncertainty.

  8. Stratified aboveground forest biomass estimation by remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifi, Hooman; Fassnacht, Fabian E.; Hartig, Florian; Berger, Christian; Hernández, Jaime; Corvalán, Patricio; Koch, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing-assisted estimates of aboveground forest biomass are essential for modeling carbon budgets. It has been suggested that estimates can be improved by building species- or strata-specific biomass models. However, few studies have attempted a systematic analysis of the benefits of such stratification, especially in combination with other factors such as sensor type, statistical prediction method and sampling design of the reference inventory data. We addressed this topic by analyzing the impact of stratifying forest data into three classes (broadleaved, coniferous and mixed forest). We compare predictive accuracy (a) between the strata (b) to a case without stratification for a set of pre-selected predictors from airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral data obtained in a managed mixed forest site in southwestern Germany. We used 5 commonly applied algorithms for biomass predictions on bootstrapped subsamples of the data to obtain cross validated RMSE and r2 diagnostics. Those values were analyzed in a factorial design by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to rank the relative importance of each factor. Selected models were used for wall-to-wall mapping of biomass estimates and their associated uncertainty. The results revealed marginal advantages for the strata-specific prediction models over the unstratified ones, which were more obvious on the wall-to-wall mapped area-based predictions. Yet further tests are necessary to establish the generality of these results. Input data type and statistical prediction method are concluded to remain the two most crucial factors for the quality of remote sensing-assisted biomass models.

  9. State estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) plant as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate estimation of process state variables not only can increase the effectiveness and reliability of process measurement technology, but can also enhance plant efficiency, improve control system performance, and increase plant availability. Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO2 capture will have to satisfy stricter operational and environmental constraints. To operate the IGCC plant without violating stringent environmental emission standards requires accurate estimation of the relevant process state variables, outputs, and disturbances. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured at all, while some of them can be measured, but with low precision, low reliability, or low signal-to-noise ratio. As a result, accurate estimation of the process variables is of great importance to avoid the inherent difficulties associated with the inaccuracy of the data. Motivated by this, the current paper focuses on the state estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) process as part of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture. This process has extensive heat and mass integration and therefore is very suitable for testing the efficiency of the designed estimators in the presence of complex interactions between process variables. The traditional Kalman filter (KF) (Kalman, 1960) algorithm has been used as a state estimator which resembles that of a predictor-corrector algorithm for solving numerical problems. In traditional KF implementation, good guesses for the process noise covariance matrix (Q) and the measurement noise covariance matrix (R) are required to obtain satisfactory filter performance. However, in the real world, these matrices are unknown and it is difficult to generate good guesses for them. In this paper, use of an adaptive KF will be presented that adapts Q and R at every time step of the algorithm. Results show that very accurate estimations of the desired process states, outputs or disturbances can be

  10. [Physiological aspects of lipoxygenase in plant signaling systems part I. Octadecanoid pathway].

    PubMed

    Kollárová, Renáta; Obložinský, Marek; Kováčiková, Veronika

    2013-04-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOX, linoleate: oxygen oxidoreductases, EC 1.13.11.12) constitute a family of dioxygenases, which contain non-heme, non-sulfide iron. These enzymes occur not only in animals, but in plants as well. They have been detected in coral, moss, fungi and also in some bacteria. LOXs catalyse the regiospecific and stereospecific insertion of molecular oxygen into the molecule of polyunsaturated fatty acid with the cis,cis- -1,4-pentadiene system to yield the corresponding hydroperoxides. This step of dioxygenation leads to a cascade of reactions called the lipoxygenase (octadecanoid) pathway. The products of this pathway (called oxylipins) play an important role as signal molecules in wound healing and defence processes in plants. In animals they are involved in inflammation, asthma and heart diseases. PMID:23822569

  11. [Molecular aspects of allergy to plant products. Part III. Panallergens and breeding of hypoallergenic cultivars].

    PubMed

    Bokszczanin, Kamila Ł; Przybyła, Andrzej A

    2012-04-01

    In addition to major allergens, also minor allergens, i.e. panallergens have been shown to be responsible for many IgE cross-reactions even between unrelated pollen and plant food allergen sources. It can be explained also by cross-allergenicity underlying the T cell response to conserved regions of panallergens. In this article, we focus on known panallergens which presently comprise a few protein families, including non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) (PR-14), thaumatin like proteins (TLP) (PR-5), profilins, and polcalcins. Food allergy has an impact on the quality of life of an allergic patient. The way of developing novel plant cultivars with decreased allergenicity and possibility of down-regulating the expression of an allergen by genetic modification are discussed.

  12. Effects of plant species, age and part on the disappearance of sevin, nuvacron and malathion residues.

    PubMed

    Rawash, I A; Gaaboub, I A; El-Gayar, F M; El-Shazli, A Y

    1975-05-01

    Residues as determined by bioassay using Daphnia or mosquito larvae were in agreement with each other in most cases except sevin residues at 1 h and 8 days after treatment of mallow. The mosquito larvae failed to record nuvacron, sevin and malathion on 45-day-old plants on the 8th, 12th and 24th day, respectively, whereas residues on younger plants continued to affect mosquitoes up to the 12th day and disappeared only on the 24th day. Daphnia continued to show toxicity up to the 24th day on younger and older plants. Insecticide residues of nuvacron, malathion and sevin, found on the leaves 30- and 45-day-old plants of cotton, Jew's mallow and kidney beans after 1 h, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 days were estimated biologically by C. pipiens larvae and D. magna. Residues of insecticides disappeared more readily on bean pods than on bean leaves. Residues of sevin, malathion and nuvacron found on the pods 12 days after treatment as indicated by Daphnia were 0.189, 0.055 and 0.059 ppm respectively. They are far less than the corresponding residues on bean leaves. The 1-hour residue was higher on younger bean leaves than on mallow and cotton with very few exceptions (nuvacron, malathion and sevin: 2.125, 11.75 and 95 ppm on cotton leaves; 2.25 and 145 ppm on Jew's mallow and 3.750, 32.500 and 250 ppm on common bean leaves, respectively). These data were obtained with C. pipiens larvae. The picture was completely reversed on 45-day-old plants. 1-h deposits of malathion were higher on mallow than on cotton or beans (nuvacron, malathion and sevin; 2.3, 200 and 140 ppm on cotton leaves, 1.90, 191.15 and 92.86 ppm on mallow leaves, 2.25, 21.5 and 137.5 ppm on common bean leaves, respectively). These data were obtained with C. pipiens larvae. Nuvacron residues on 45-day-old mallow were less on mallow than on cotton or beans. Sevin was higher in 1-h residues on cotton and beans than on mallow. Mallow did not retain insecticides as long as did cotton and beans. The initial concentration

  13. Phytostabilization of gold mine tailings, New Zealand. Part 1: Plant establishment in alkaline saline substrate.

    PubMed

    Mains, D; Craw, D; Rufaut, C G; Smith, C M S

    2006-01-01

    Tailings from the Macraes mine, southern New Zealand, are prone to wind erosion. Use of a vegetation cover for physical stabilization is one potential solution to this environmental problem. This study used field trials contained in lysimeters to 1), test the ability of different plant species to grow in un/amended tailings and 2), provide background information on the nutrient and chemical content of waters in tailings. Barley (Hordeum vulgare), blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and rye corn (Secale cereale) were trialed, using Superphosphate fertilizer and sewage sludge as amendments. Rye corn grew well in fertilizer-amended tailings, but poorly in unamended tailings; barley growth was similar in amended and unamended tailings; blue lupins grew poorly overall The tailings had alkaline pH (7-8.5) and water rapidly (< 1 mo) interacted with the tailings to become strongly saline. Minor acid generation was neutralized by calcite, with associated release of calcium and carbonate ions. Leachate waters were supersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. Dissolved sodium concentrations were up to 1000 mg L(-1), but elevated Ca2+ calcium and Mg2+ ensured that sodicity was lower than plant-toxic levels. Rye corn is a potentially useful plant for rapid phytostabilization of tailings, with only minor phosphate amendment required.

  14. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Three Malian Medicinal Plant Parts

    PubMed Central

    Muanda, François; Koné, Donatien; Dicko, Amadou; Soulimani, Rachid; Younos, Chafique

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in three Malian medicinal plants and determines their antioxidant potential. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of polyphenolics contained in plants extracts were carried out by RP-C18 RP–HPLC using UV detector. The antioxidant activity was determined by three tests. They are phosphomolybdenum, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic)] tests. The total phenolic and the total flavonoid contents varied from 200 to 7600 mg 100 g−1 dry weight (dw), expressed as gallic acid equivalents and from 680 to 12 300 mg 100 g−1 dw expressed as catechin equivalents, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentrations expressed as cyanin-3-glycoside equivalent varied from 1670 to 28 388 mg 100 g−1 dw. The antioxidant capacity was measured by determining concentration of a polyphenolic (in mg ml−1) required to quench the free radicals by 50% (IC50) and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity. The IC50 values were ranked between 2.68 and 8.80 μg ml−1 of a solution of 50% (v/v) methanol in water. The uses of plants are rationalized on the basis of their antioxidant capacity. PMID:19736222

  15. Antioxidant Property of Aerial Parts and Root of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster, an Important Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Richa; Chaurasia, Jitendra Kumar; Tiwari, Kavindra Nath; Singh, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    In present study free radical scavenging potential of aerial parts and root of Phyllanthus fraternus was investigated. Extraction was done in water and ethanol. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH free radical scavenging method; ethanolic extract of aerial part was most potent in activity with 50% inhibition at 258 μg/mL concentration. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) by using egg-yolk homogenates as lipid-rich media with EC50 of aerial part (ethanolic) 1522 μg/mL which was found to be most active. Superoxide (SO) radical scavenging activity was measured using riboflavin-light-nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Ethanolic and aqueous extract of both aerial part and root was almost similar in superoxide radical scavenging activity. Reducing power was determined on the basis of Fe3+-Fe2+ transformation in the presence of extract. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also measured by spectroscopic method. Results showed that the ethanolic fraction of aerial part is most active towards antioxidant potential and this activity is related to its polyphenolic content and reducing potential. Thus, P. fraternus extract can be used as potent natural antioxidant. PMID:24587744

  16. Antioxidant property of aerial parts and root of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster, an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Richa; Chaurasia, Jitendra Kumar; Tiwari, Kavindra Nath; Singh, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    In present study free radical scavenging potential of aerial parts and root of Phyllanthus fraternus was investigated. Extraction was done in water and ethanol. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH free radical scavenging method; ethanolic extract of aerial part was most potent in activity with 50% inhibition at 258 μg/mL concentration. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) by using egg-yolk homogenates as lipid-rich media with EC₅₀ of aerial part (ethanolic) 1522 μg/mL which was found to be most active. Superoxide (SO) radical scavenging activity was measured using riboflavin-light-nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Ethanolic and aqueous extract of both aerial part and root was almost similar in superoxide radical scavenging activity. Reducing power was determined on the basis of Fe³⁺-Fe⁺ transformation in the presence of extract. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also measured by spectroscopic method. Results showed that the ethanolic fraction of aerial part is most active towards antioxidant potential and this activity is related to its polyphenolic content and reducing potential. Thus, P. fraternus extract can be used as potent natural antioxidant.

  17. Temporal and seasonal variations of radiocaesium content in some plants from the western part of Ukrainian Polesye.

    PubMed

    Grabovskyi, V A; Dzendzelyuk, O S; Kushnir, O S

    2013-03-01

    We present measurements of (137)Cs contamination for some of the berry plants and medicinal herbs growing in the western part of Ukrainian Polesye during 1996-2009. Basing on the calculations of the aggregated transfer factors, we classified the medicinal herbs into five groups according to their ability for accumulation of (137)Cs: very weak (T(ag) < 10(-3)), weak (10(-3) < T(ag) < 10(-2)), moderate (10(-2) < T(ag) < 5 × 10(-2)), strong (5 × 10(-2) < T(ag) < 10(-1)) and very strong (T(ag) > 10(-1)). The (137)Cs concentrations in the berry plants significantly decreased during the time of our monitoring and the rate of this decrease was much higher than that typical of the corresponding soils. This is because with time the (137)Cs in the soil was becoming less accessible for uptake by plant roots due to its fixation on micaceous clay minerals. The seasonal variations of the (137)Cs concentrations in the vegetative and generative organs of the plants revealed a good interdependence between the seasonal peculiarities of (137)Cs accumulation by the organs and the features of their vegetation period. PMID:22710256

  18. Temporal and seasonal variations of radiocaesium content in some plants from the western part of Ukrainian Polesye.

    PubMed

    Grabovskyi, V A; Dzendzelyuk, O S; Kushnir, O S

    2013-03-01

    We present measurements of (137)Cs contamination for some of the berry plants and medicinal herbs growing in the western part of Ukrainian Polesye during 1996-2009. Basing on the calculations of the aggregated transfer factors, we classified the medicinal herbs into five groups according to their ability for accumulation of (137)Cs: very weak (T(ag) < 10(-3)), weak (10(-3) < T(ag) < 10(-2)), moderate (10(-2) < T(ag) < 5 × 10(-2)), strong (5 × 10(-2) < T(ag) < 10(-1)) and very strong (T(ag) > 10(-1)). The (137)Cs concentrations in the berry plants significantly decreased during the time of our monitoring and the rate of this decrease was much higher than that typical of the corresponding soils. This is because with time the (137)Cs in the soil was becoming less accessible for uptake by plant roots due to its fixation on micaceous clay minerals. The seasonal variations of the (137)Cs concentrations in the vegetative and generative organs of the plants revealed a good interdependence between the seasonal peculiarities of (137)Cs accumulation by the organs and the features of their vegetation period.

  19. Wildfire Risk to Aboveground Terrestrial Carbon Stocks in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, K. L.; Finney, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire is an important part of the terrestrial carbon cycle, moving carbon stored in wood, leaves, litter, and duff into the black carbon and emissions pools. Here, we utilize a national raster of burn probabilities from wildland fire, a tree list for the western United States, and a national map of fuel loading models to calculate the risk to terrestrial carbon from wildland fires in the western United States. Annual burn probabilities are estimated by the Large Fire Simulator (FSim), based on current static landscape conditions and at least 10,000 years of statistically plausible weather sequences. For fires of varying intensity, forest carbon retained onsite and carbon emissions are estimated by the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator. In grasslands and shrublands, carbon retained and emitted by wildfire is estimated based on current fuel loading and estimated consumption. We summarize expected carbon stocks and expected annual carbon loss at a variety of scales, aggregating values from the 270m pixel to National Forest, ecoregion, state, and regional scales. Our results indicate that following even a high intensity wildland fire in forested areas, the majority of aboveground carbon is retained onsite in the form of tree trunks. Because of the low annual probability of burning, emissions are small relative to carbon stocks. Additional work will be needed to integrate the complex temporal dimension of the carbon cycle, with areas burned in recent years being at first a carbon source and then a carbon sink after less than a decade in most areas.

  20. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  1. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections.

  2. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  3. 40 CFR 63.3082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Automobiles and Light... surface coating of new automobile or new light-duty truck bodies, or body parts for new automobiles or new light-duty trucks: (1) All coating operations as defined in § 63.3176. (2) All storage containers...

  4. 40 CFR 63.9290 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... testing requirements under 40 CFR parts 80, 86, 89, 90, 91, or 92 are not considered a modification or... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands... the collection of all equipment and activities associated with engine test cells/stands used...

  5. 40 CFR 63.9290 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... testing requirements under 40 CFR parts 80, 86, 89, 90, 91, or 92 are not considered a modification or... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands... the collection of all equipment and activities associated with engine test cells/stands used...

  6. 40 CFR 63.9290 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... testing requirements under 40 CFR parts 80, 86, 89, 90, 91, or 92 are not considered a modification or... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands... the collection of all equipment and activities associated with engine test cells/stands used...

  7. 40 CFR 63.9290 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... testing requirements under 40 CFR parts 80, 86, 89, 90, 91, or 92 are not considered a modification or... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands... the collection of all equipment and activities associated with engine test cells/stands used...

  8. 40 CFR 63.3882 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Miscellaneous... items listed in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section that are used for surface coating of... products surface coating facility where previously no miscellaneous metal parts and products...

  9. 40 CFR 63.3882 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Miscellaneous... items listed in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section that are used for surface coating of... products surface coating facility where previously no miscellaneous metal parts and products...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; electropolishing; electroless plating or other non-electrolytic metal coating operations, such as chromate conversion coating, nickel acetate sealing, sodium dichromate sealing, and manganese phosphate coating. (2...) Process units that are subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 63, subpart N (National...

  11. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Introduction to Aphids - Part 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides visual instruction on important subject areas for aphid regulatory issues. Here the subject of aphids as they relate to disease transmission, biology, identification, and pathways is addressed. Aphid topi...

  12. The Diagnostic Method of Inner Parts of Welded Joints at Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarova, O.; Janovec, J.

    2010-06-22

    There is no possibility to check any inner part at real welded joint at nuclear power station (NPS) during operation because any destructive test cannot be used. In practice there is checked surface of weld. There are used four methodical instructions for the check of real welds: 1. The visual inspection, 2. The measurement of hardness, 3. The chemical composition checking and 4. The microstructure replica analysis. It is necessary to know how these information of weld surface are in accordance with characteristics of inner parts of weld. If there is not any difference between surface weld microstructure and internal weld microstructure of experimental weld it is supposed to that there is not any difference in other measured properties of welds. If is changed structural characteristics of microstructure, it is changed also hardness, chemical analysis etc. It was observed that the microstructure of real welds is almost the same with simulated weld and also the surface microstructure of experimental weld is in accordance with microstructure of inner parts of this weld. It can be supposed extension of lifetime of NPS if there is not any difference between replicas microstructure taken after six year operation of NPS and microstructure of inner parts of simulated weld is almost the same with surface microstructure.

  13. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex-Plant part II: Staging

    SciTech Connect

    Knief, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly describes criticality investigations for nuclear weapon dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. The investigations performed were for pit staging, and build on previous criticality calculations for single pits. The KENO and MCNP computer models were used for pit and container combinations. Scenarios were based on administrative limits and actual or potential physical conditions in the facilities. Essentially all of the pit configurations modeled were subcritical by a substantial amount. It was concluded that a critical configuration involving pit/container combinations is not credible.

  14. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex Plant - part I: Bare pits

    SciTech Connect

    Knief, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes criticality investigations for weapon assembly and dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. Results are summarized for calculations performed for safety analyses, radiological hazards assessments, and a study to justify the criticality alarm exemption. Pits and pits in containers were modeled in their most reactive configuration. Criticality calculations were performed with the KENO and MCNP code packages. Configurations involving bare pits were subcritical by a substantial amount even with very conservative model assumptions. Thus, it is concluded that a critical configuration involving the bare pits is not credible.

  15. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  16. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  17. How to renovate a 50-year-old wastewater treating plant: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    How does an existing refinery cost-effectively renovate wastewater/stormwater treating systems to meet today`s environmental regulations and standards? Faced with solving this problem, Amoco`s Whiting Refinery developed a project team consisting of plant and operations engineers, corporate project and design engineers, contractors and vendors to map out a strategy to re-engineer the existing wastewater treating plant (WWTP) and auxiliary functions. This case history shows how an old refinery limited by existing equipment, building space, operation`s availability requirements and costs divided the project into several design phases. The design team used a proactive approach with empowerment responsibilities to solve construction, equipment usage and regulatory problems throughout the project`s lifetime. Focusing on front-end planning and customer service (the refinery), team members applied value-based engineering designs to keep costs down, implemented safe work practices during construction, used HAZOP reviews to scrutinize proposed designs for operating and maintenance procedures, etc. The result has been the renovation of a 50-year-old WWTP completed under budget, ontime and in compliance with federal mandates.

  18. The importance of aboveground–belowground interactions on the evolution and maintenance of variation in plant defense traits

    PubMed Central

    van Geem, Moniek; Gols, Rieta; van Dam, Nicole M.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Fortuna, Taiadjana; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades a growing body of empirical research has shown that many ecological processes are mediated by a complex array of indirect interactions occurring between rhizosphere-inhabiting organisms and those found on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground–belowground studies have thus far focused on elucidating processes and underlying mechanisms that mediate the behavior and performance of invertebrates in opposite ecosystem compartments. Less is known about genetic variation in plant traits such as defense as that may be driven by above- and belowground trophic interactions. For instance, although our understanding of genetic variation in aboveground plant traits and its effects on community-level interactions is well developed, little is known about the importance of aboveground–belowground interactions in driving this variation. Plant traits may have evolved in response to selection pressures from above- and below-ground interactions from antagonists and mutualists. Here, we discuss gaps in our understanding of genetic variation in plant-related traits as they relate to aboveground and belowground multitrophic interactions. When metabolic resources are limiting, multiple attacks by antagonists in both domains may lead to trade-offs. In nature, these trade-offs may critically depend upon their effects on plant fitness. Natural enemies of herbivores may also influence selection for different traits via top–down control. At larger scales these interactions may generate evolutionary “hotspots” where the expression of various plant traits is the result of strong reciprocal selection via direct and indirect interactions. The role of abiotic factors in driving genetic variation in plant traits is also discussed. PMID:24348484

  19. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... criteria in Section VI of appendix A to 10 CFR part 100 continue to apply. Paragraphs IV.a.1.i, IV.a.1.ii... license, design approval, or manufacturing license is required by §§ 50.34(a)(12), 50.34(b)(10), or 10 CFR... final standard design for a nuclear power reactor of the type described in 10 CFR 50.22....

  20. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... criteria in Section VI of appendix A to 10 CFR part 100 continue to apply. Paragraphs IV.a.1.i, IV.a.1.ii... license, design approval, or manufacturing license is required by §§ 50.34(a)(12), 50.34(b)(10), or 10 CFR... final standard design for a nuclear power reactor of the type described in 10 CFR 50.22....

  1. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... criteria in Section VI of appendix A to 10 CFR part 100 continue to apply. Paragraphs IV.a.1.i, IV.a.1.ii... license, design approval, or manufacturing license is required by §§ 50.34(a)(12), 50.34(b)(10), or 10 CFR... final standard design for a nuclear power reactor of the type described in 10 CFR 50.22....

  2. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... criteria in Section VI of appendix A to 10 CFR part 100 continue to apply. Paragraphs IV.a.1.i, IV.a.1.ii... license, design approval, or manufacturing license is required by §§ 50.34(a)(12), 50.34(b)(10), or 10 CFR... final standard design for a nuclear power reactor of the type described in 10 CFR 50.22....

  3. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... criteria in Section VI of appendix A to 10 CFR part 100 continue to apply. Paragraphs IV.a.1.i, IV.a.1.ii... license, design approval, or manufacturing license is required by §§ 50.34(a)(12), 50.34(b)(10), or 10 CFR... final standard design for a nuclear power reactor of the type described in 10 CFR 50.22....

  4. Export Control Guide: Loose Parts Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Langenberg, Donald W.

    2012-12-01

    This report describes a typical LPMS, emphasizing its application to the RCS of a modern NPP. The report also examines the versatility of AE monitoring technology by describing several nuclear applications other than loose parts monitoring, as well as some non-nuclear applications. In addition, LPMS implementation requirements are outlined, and LPMS suppliers are identified. Finally, U.S. export controls applicable to LPMSs are discussed.

  5. Functional soil microbiome: belowground solutions to an aboveground problem.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Selvaraj, Gopinath; Bais, Harsh P

    2014-10-01

    There is considerable evidence in the literature that beneficial rhizospheric microbes can alter plant morphology, enhance plant growth, and increase mineral content. Of late, there is a surge to understand the impact of the microbiome on plant health. Recent research shows the utilization of novel sequencing techniques to identify the microbiome in model systems such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). However, it is not known how the community of microbes identified may play a role to improve plant health and fitness. There are very few detailed studies with isolated beneficial microbes showing the importance of the functional microbiome in plant fitness and disease protection. Some recent work on the cultivated microbiome in rice (Oryza sativa) shows that a wide diversity of bacterial species is associated with the roots of field-grown rice plants. However, the biological significance and potential effects of the microbiome on the host plants are completely unknown. Work performed with isolated strains showed various genetic pathways that are involved in the recognition of host-specific factors that play roles in beneficial host-microbe interactions. The composition of the microbiome in plants is dynamic and controlled by multiple factors. In the case of the rhizosphere, temperature, pH, and the presence of chemical signals from bacteria, plants, and nematodes all shape the environment and influence which organisms will flourish. This provides a basis for plants and their microbiomes to selectively associate with one another. This Update addresses the importance of the functional microbiome to identify phenotypes that may provide a sustainable and effective strategy to increase crop yield and food security.

  6. Aboveground vs. Belowground Carbon Stocks in African Tropical Lowland Rainforest: Drivers and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bauters, Marijn; Hufkens, Koen; Lisingo, Janvier; Baert, Geert; Verbeeck, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background African tropical rainforests are one of the most important hotspots to look for changes in the upcoming decades when it comes to C storage and release. The focus of studying C dynamics in these systems lies traditionally on living aboveground biomass. Belowground soil organic carbon stocks have received little attention and estimates of the size, controls and distribution of soil organic carbon stocks are highly uncertain. In our study on lowland rainforest in the central Congo basin, we combine both an assessment of the aboveground C stock with an assessment of the belowground C stock and analyze the latter in terms of functional pools and controlling factors. Principal Findings Our study shows that despite similar vegetation, soil and climatic conditions, soil organic carbon stocks in an area with greater tree height (= larger aboveground carbon stock) were only half compared to an area with lower tree height (= smaller aboveground carbon stock). This suggests that substantial variability in the aboveground vs. belowground C allocation strategy and/or C turnover in two similar tropical forest systems can lead to significant differences in total soil organic C content and C fractions with important consequences for the assessment of the total C stock of the system. Conclusions/Significance We suggest nutrient limitation, especially potassium, as the driver for aboveground versus belowground C allocation. However, other drivers such as C turnover, tree functional traits or demographic considerations cannot be excluded. We argue that large and unaccounted variability in C stocks is to be expected in African tropical rain-forests. Currently, these differences in aboveground and belowground C stocks are not adequately verified and implemented mechanistically into Earth System Models. This will, hence, introduce additional uncertainty to models and predictions of the response of C storage of the Congo basin forest to climate change and its contribution to

  7. Operation modes of a hydro-generator as a part of the inverter micro hydropower plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Matukhin, D. L.; Makarova, A. F.; Fuks, I. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper dwells on the selection problem of power equipment for a stand-alone inverter micro hydropower plant, in particular a hydro-generator, and evaluation of its operation modes. Numerical experiments included the modes calculation of hydroelectric units of the same type with various nominal power, supplied to the consumer according to the unchanged electric load curve. The studies developed requirements for a hydro-turbine and a synchronous generator in terms of a speed range and installed capacity, depending on the load curve. The possibility of using general industrial hydroelectric units with nominal power equal to half-maximum capacity of a typical daily load curve in rural areas was shown.

  8. Binding of polyphenols to plant cell wall analogues - Part 2: Phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, A; Netzel, G; Netzel, M; Day, L; Zabaras, D; Mikkelsen, D; Gidley, M J

    2012-12-15

    Bacterial cellulose and cellulose-pectin composites were used as well-defined model plant cell wall (PCW) systems to study the interaction between phenolic acids (PA) derived from purple carrot juice concentrate (PCJC) and PCW components. Significant PA depletion from solution occurred, with pure cellulose initially (30s-1h) absorbing more than cellulose-pectin composites in the first hour (ca 20% cf 10-15%), but with all composites absorbing similar levels (ca 30%) after several days. Individual PAs bound to different relative extents with caffeic acid>chlorogenic acid>ferulic acid. Extrapolation of data for these model systems to carrot puree suggests that nutritionally-significant amounts of PAs could bind to cell walls, potentially restricting bioavailability in the small intestine and, as a consequence, delivering PAs to the large intestine for fermentation and metabolism by gut bacteria.

  9. Separate process wastewaters, part A: Contaminated flow collection and treatment system for the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assist the agency in complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 as it applies to modification of ongoing groundwater treatment at DOE`s Kansas City Plant (KCP), located about 19 km (12 miles) south of the central business district of Kansas City, Missouri. The KCP is currently owned by DOE and is operated by the Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal Inc. The plant manufactures nonnuclear components for nuclear weapons. The purpose of and need for the DOE action is to treat identified toxic organic contaminated groundwater at the KCP to ensure that human health and the environment are protected and to comply with groundwater treatment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3008(h) Administrative Order on Consent and the discharge requirements of the Kansas City, Missouri, ordinances for the city sewer system. Four source streams of toxic organic contaminated groundwater have been identified that require treatment prior to discharge to the city sewer system. The toxic organic contaminants of concern consist of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in the groundwater and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) predominantly associated with some soils near the Main Manufacturing Building. The no-action alternative is to continue with the current combination of treatment and nontreatment and to continue operation of the KCP groundwater treatment system in its current configuration at Building 97 (B97). The DOE proposed action is to collect and treat all identified toxic organic contaminated groundwater prior to discharge to the city sewer system. The proposed action includes constructing an Organics Collection System and Organics Treatment Building, moving and expanding the existing groundwater treatment system, and operating the new groundwater treatment facility.

  10. New cytotoxic triterpene acids from aboveground parts of Manihot esculenta from the Suriname rainforest.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, V S; Schilling, Jennifer K; Malone, Stan; Wisse, Jan H; Werkhoven, Marga C; Kingston, David G

    2003-03-01

    Two novel triterpene acids, esculentoic acid A ( 1) and B ( 2) as well as the seven known compounds 3 - 9 were isolated from an EtOAc extract of leaves, stems, and twigs of Manihot esculenta by bioassay-guided fractionation for cytotoxic activity. The structures of the two new compounds were established as 3alpha-hydroxytaraxer-14-en-29-oic acid ( 1) and 3-oxotaraxer-14-en-29-oic acid ( 2) on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data interpretation and chemical conversions. The two new compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from plant parts and corresponding calli of Bixa orellana L.

    PubMed

    Castello, Marie-Claire; Phatak, Anita; Chandra, Naresh; Sharon, Madhuri

    2002-12-01

    Ethanol extracts from the different parts of B. orellana showed differential antimicrobial activity. It was found that the extracts of in vitro leaves showed maximum activity against Bacillus pumilus followed by the extracts from the roots and hypocotyls. The callus derived from different explants too showed antimicrobial activity. The leaf callus showed maximum activity. The zone of inhibition for the diluted extracts of in vitro hypocotyls and roots and their corresponding calli showed minimum zone of inhibition at concentration 24 mg/ml, whereas the diluted extract of in vitro leaves and leaf derived callus showed minimum zone of inhibition at 16 mg/ml. PMID:12974400

  12. CO{sub 2} emission abatement in IGCC power plants by semiclosed cycles: Part A -- With oxygen-blown combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Chiesa, P.; Lozza, G.

    1999-10-01

    This paper analyzes the fundamentals of IGCC power plants where carbon dioxide produced by syngas combustion can be removed, liquefied and eventually disposed, to limit the environmental problems due to the greenhouse effect. To achieve this goal, a semiclosed-loop gas turbine cycle using an highly-enriched CO{sub 2} mixture as working fluid was adopted. As the oxidizer, the syngas combustion utilizes oxygen produced by an air separation unit. Combustion gases mainly consist of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O: after expansion, heat recovery and water condensation, a part of the exhausts, highly concentrated in CO{sub 2}, can be easily extracted, compressed and liquefied for storage or disposal. A detailed discussion about the configuration and the thermodynamic performance of these plants is the aim of the paper. Proper attention was paid to: (i) the modelization of the gasification section and of its integration with the power cycle, (ii) the optimization of pressure ratio due the change of the cycle working fluid, (iii) the calculation of the power consumption of the auxiliary equipment, including the compression train of the separated CO{sub 2} and the air separation unit. The resulting overall efficiency is in the 38--39% range, with status-of-the-art gas turbine technology, but resorting to a substantially higher pressure ratio. The extent of modifications to the gas turbine engine, with respect to commercial units, was therefore discussed. Relevant modifications are needed, but not involving changes in the technology. A second plant scheme will be considered in the second part of the paper, using air for syngas combustion and a physical absorption process to separate CO{sub 2} from nitrogen-rich exhausts. A comparison between the two options will be addressed there.

  13. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Gary D; Curran, Lisa M; Slik, J W F

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the relationship between soil fertility and aboveground biomass in lowland tropical forests have yielded conflicting results, reporting positive, negative and no effect of soil nutrients on aboveground biomass. Here, we quantify the impact of soil variation on the stand structure of mature Bornean forest throughout a lowland watershed (8-196 m a.s.l.) with uniform climate and heterogeneous soils. Categorical and bivariate methods were used to quantify the effects of (1) parent material differing in nutrient content (alluvium > sedimentary > granite) and (2) 27 soil parameters on tree density, size distribution, basal area and aboveground biomass. Trees > or =10 cm (diameter at breast height, dbh) were enumerated in 30 (0.16 ha) plots (sample area = 4.8 ha). Six soil samples (0-20 cm) per plot were analyzed for physiochemical properties. Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Across all plots, stem density averaged 521 +/- 13 stems ha(-1), basal area 39.6 +/- 1.4 m(2) ha(-1) and aboveground biomass 518 +/- 28 Mg ha(-1) (mean +/- SE). Adjusted forest-wide aboveground biomass to account for apparent overestimation of large tree density (based on 69 0.3-ha transects; sample area = 20.7 ha) was 430 +/- 25 Mg ha(-1). Stand structure did not vary significantly among substrates, but it did show a clear trend toward larger stature on nutrient-rich alluvium, with a higher density and larger maximum size of emergent trees. Across all plots, surface soil phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium and percentage sand content were significantly related to stem density and/or aboveground biomass (R (Pearson) = 0.368-0.416). In multiple linear regression, extractable P and percentage sand combined explained 31% of the aboveground biomass variance. Regression analyses on size classes showed that the abundance of emergent trees >120 cm dbh was positively related to soil P and exchangeable bases, whereas trees 60-90 cm dbh were negatively related to these

  14. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Gary D; Curran, Lisa M; Slik, J W F

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the relationship between soil fertility and aboveground biomass in lowland tropical forests have yielded conflicting results, reporting positive, negative and no effect of soil nutrients on aboveground biomass. Here, we quantify the impact of soil variation on the stand structure of mature Bornean forest throughout a lowland watershed (8-196 m a.s.l.) with uniform climate and heterogeneous soils. Categorical and bivariate methods were used to quantify the effects of (1) parent material differing in nutrient content (alluvium > sedimentary > granite) and (2) 27 soil parameters on tree density, size distribution, basal area and aboveground biomass. Trees > or =10 cm (diameter at breast height, dbh) were enumerated in 30 (0.16 ha) plots (sample area = 4.8 ha). Six soil samples (0-20 cm) per plot were analyzed for physiochemical properties. Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Across all plots, stem density averaged 521 +/- 13 stems ha(-1), basal area 39.6 +/- 1.4 m(2) ha(-1) and aboveground biomass 518 +/- 28 Mg ha(-1) (mean +/- SE). Adjusted forest-wide aboveground biomass to account for apparent overestimation of large tree density (based on 69 0.3-ha transects; sample area = 20.7 ha) was 430 +/- 25 Mg ha(-1). Stand structure did not vary significantly among substrates, but it did show a clear trend toward larger stature on nutrient-rich alluvium, with a higher density and larger maximum size of emergent trees. Across all plots, surface soil phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium and percentage sand content were significantly related to stem density and/or aboveground biomass (R (Pearson) = 0.368-0.416). In multiple linear regression, extractable P and percentage sand combined explained 31% of the aboveground biomass variance. Regression analyses on size classes showed that the abundance of emergent trees >120 cm dbh was positively related to soil P and exchangeable bases, whereas trees 60-90 cm dbh were negatively related to these

  15. Estimating forest and woodland aboveground biomass using active and passive remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Aboveground biomass was estimated from active and passive remote sensing sources, including airborne lidar and Landsat-8 satellites, in an eastern Arizona (USA) study area comprised of forest and woodland ecosystems. Compared to field measurements, airborne lidar enabled direct estimation of individual tree height with a slope of 0.98 (R2 = 0.98). At the plot-level, lidar-derived height and intensity metrics provided the most robust estimate for aboveground biomass, producing dominant species-based aboveground models with errors ranging from 4 to 14Mg ha –1 across all woodland and forest species. Landsat-8 imagery produced dominant species-based aboveground biomass models with errors ranging from 10 to 28 Mg ha –1. Thus, airborne lidar allowed for estimates for fine-scale aboveground biomass mapping with low uncertainty, while Landsat-8 seems best suited for broader spatial scale products such as a national biomass essential climate variable (ECV) based on land cover types for the United States.

  16. Stand structural diversity rather than species diversity enhances aboveground carbon storage in secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong; Chen, Han Y. H.; Chang, Scott X.; Zhao, Yan-Tao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ming-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Stand structural diversity, typically characterized by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height, plays a critical role in influencing aboveground carbon (C) storage. However, few studies have considered the multivariate relationships of aboveground C storage with stand age, stand structural diversity, and species diversity in natural forests. In this study, aboveground C storage, stand age, tree species, DBH and height diversity indices, were determined across 80 subtropical forest plots in Eastern China. We employed structural equation modelling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand structural diversity, species diversity, and stand age on aboveground C storage. The three final SEMs with different directions for the path between species diversity and stand structural diversity had a similar goodness of fit to the data. They accounted for 82 % of the variation in aboveground C storage, 55-59 % of the variation in stand structural diversity, and 0.1 to 9 % of the variation in species diversity. Stand age demonstrated strong positive total effects, including a positive direct effect (β = 0.41), and a positive indirect effect via stand structural diversity (β = 0.41) on aboveground C storage. Stand structural diversity had a positive direct effect on aboveground C storage (β = 0.56), whereas there was little total effect of species diversity as it had a negative direct association with, but had a positive indirect effect, via stand structural diversity, on aboveground C storage. The negligible total effect of species diversity on aboveground C storage in the forests under study may have been attributable to competitive exclusion with high aboveground biomass, or a historical logging preference for productive species. Our analyses suggested that stand structural diversity was a major determinant for variations in aboveground C storage in the secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China. Hence, maintaining tree DBH and

  17. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Laser-Based Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Laser-Based Enrichment Plant... Appendix F to Part 110—Illustrative List of Laser-Based Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—Present systems for enrichment processes using lasers fall into...

  18. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    PubMed

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-03-04

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  19. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  20. Aboveground and Belowground Herbivores Synergistically Induce Volatile Organic Sulfur Compound Emissions from Shoots but Not from Roots.

    PubMed

    Danner, Holger; Brown, Phil; Cator, Eric A; Harren, Frans J M; van Dam, Nicole M; Cristescu, Simona M

    2015-07-01

    Studies on aboveground (AG) plant organs have shown that volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions differ between simultaneous attack by herbivores and single herbivore attack. There is growing evidence that interactive effects of simultaneous herbivory also occur across the root-shoot interface. In our study, Brassica rapa roots were infested with root fly larvae (Delia radicum) and the shoots infested with Pieris brassicae, either singly or simultaneously, to study these root-shoot interactions. As an analytical platform, we used Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) to investigate VOCs over a 3 day time period. Our set-up allowed us to monitor root and shoot emissions concurrently on the same plant. Focus was placed on the sulfur-containing compounds; methanethiol, dimethylsulfide (DMS), and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS), because these compounds previously have been shown to be biologically active in the interactions of Brassica plants, herbivores, parasitoids, and predators, yet have received relatively little attention. The shoots of plants simultaneously infested with AG and belowground (BG) herbivores emitted higher levels of sulfur-containing compounds than plants with a single herbivore species present. In contrast, the emission of sulfur VOCs from the plant roots increased as a consequence of root herbivory, independent of the presence of an AG herbivore. The onset of root emissions was more rapid after damage than the onset of shoot emissions. The shoots of double infested plants also emitted higher levels of methanol. Thus, interactive effects of root and shoot herbivores exhibit more strongly in the VOC emissions from the shoots than from the roots, implying the involvement of specific signaling interactions.

  1. Aboveground predation by an American badger (Taxidea taxus) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    During research on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), we repeatedly observed a female American badger (Taxidea taxus) hunting prairie dogs on a colony in southern Phillips County, Montana. During 1-14 June 2006, we observed 7 aboveground attacks (2 successful) and 3 successful excavations of prairie dogs. The locations and circumstances of aboveground attacks suggested that the badger improved her probability of capturing prairie dogs by planning the aboveground attacks based on perceptions of speeds, angles, distances, and predicted escape responses of prey. Our observations add to previous reports on the complex and varied predatory methods and cognitive capacities of badgers. These observations also underscore the individuality of predators and support the concept that predators are active participants in predator-prey interactions.

  2. Fundamentals of the Control of Gas-Turbine Power Plants for Aircraft. Part 2; Principles of Control Common to Jet, Turbine-Propeller Jet, and Ducted-Fan Jet Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehl, H.

    1947-01-01

    After defining the aims and requirements to be set for a control system of gas-turbine power plants for aircraft, the report will deal with devices that prevent the quantity of fuel supplied per unit of time from exceeding the value permissible at a given moment. The general principles of the actuation of the adjustable parts of the power plant are also discussed.

  3. Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: Aboveground biomass study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the closure of Material Disposal Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Beguin, K.; Pressler, R.E.; Christensen, C.; Anderson, T.; French, S.; Schuman, R.

    2008-07-01

    Low-level radioactive waste generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) is disposed of at Technical Area (TA) 54, Material Disposal Area (MDA) G. The ability of MDA G to safely contain radioactive waste was evaluated in the facility's performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA). The PA and CA project that, due to uptake and incorporation of radionuclides into aboveground plant material, plant roots penetrating into buried waste may lead to releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment and potentially lead to the exposure to members of the public. The potential amount of contamination deposited on the ground surface, due to plant intrusion into buried waste, is a function of the quantity of litter generated by plants, as well as radionuclide concentrations within the litter. Radionuclide concentrations in plant litter is dependent on the distribution of root mass with depth and the efficiency with which radionuclides are extracted from contaminated soils by the plants roots. In order to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G, aboveground biomass surveys, plant litter production rates, and root mass with depth analyses for the four prominent vegetation types (grasses, forbs, shrubs and trees) are being conducted. Sampling occurred during the months of August and September of 2007 which measured aboveground biomass for the types of grasses and forbs that may become established at MDA G after the disposal facility undergoes final closure. Biomass data are representative of the future potential for the amount of contaminated plant litter fall, which could act as a latent conduit for radionuclide transport from the closed disposal area. Follow on work will be conducted to evaluate frequency and coverage of all growth forms, litter production rates will be measured, and root mass with depth for grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees will be analyzed. Together, data collected are expected to reduce uncertainties

  4. Range vegetation type mapping and above-ground green biomass estimations using multispectral imagery. [Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Gordon, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Range vegetation types have been successfully mapped on a portion of the 68,000 acre study site located west of Baggs, Wyoming, using ERTS-1 imagery. These types have been ascertained from field transects over a five year period. Comparable studies will be made with EREP imagery. Above-ground biomass estimation studies are being conducted utilizing double sampling techniques on two similar study sites. Information obtained will be correlated with percent relative reflectance measurements obtained on the ground which will be related to image brightness levels. This will provide an estimate of above-ground green biomass with multispectral imagery.

  5. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. F Appendix F to Part 50—Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities 1. Public...

  6. Seismic review of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant as part of the systematic evaluation program. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Ma, S.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1981-04-01

    A limited seismic reassessment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The reassessment focused generally on the reactor coolant pressure boundary and on those systems and components necessary to shut down the reactor safely and to maintain it in a safe shutdown condition following a postulated earthquake characterized by a peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.22 g. Unlike a comprehensive design analysis, the reassessment was limited to structures and components deemed representative of generic classes. Conclusions and recommendations about the ability of selected structures, equipment, and piping to withstand the postulated earthquake are presented.

  7. Non-destructive NIR-FT-Raman analyses in practice. Part I. Analyses of plants and historic textiles.

    PubMed

    Andreev, G N; Schrader, B; Schulz, H; Fuchs, R; Popov, S; Handjieva, N

    2001-12-01

    Non-destructive analysis of natural substances in plants as well as of old dyed textiles by Raman spectroscopy has not been possible using conventional techniques. Exciting lines from the visible part of the spectrum produced photochemical and thermal decomposition of the objects as well as strong fluorescence. Using Nd:YAG laser excitation at 1,064 nm together with a special sample arrangement and interferometric recording, various polyacetylenes in Aethusa cynapium and in chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and the main valuable substances in gentian species (Gentiana lutea and G. punctata), curcuma roots (Curcuma longa), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), and ginger (Zingiber officinale) were analyzed non-destructively and discussed in comparison with the corresponding pure standard compounds. We further analyzed non-destructively the FT Raman spectra of collections of historical textiles and lakes used for dyeing. It is possible to distinguish the main dye component non-destructively by using Raman bands.

  8. Mapping aboveground woody biomass using forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bechu K V; Nandy, S

    2015-05-01

    Mapping forest biomass is fundamental for estimating CO₂ emissions, and planning and monitoring of forests and ecosystem productivity. The present study attempted to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) integrating forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques, viz., direct radiometric relationships (DRR), k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) and cokriging (CoK) and to evaluate their accuracy. A part of the Timli Forest Range of Kalsi Soil and Water Conservation Division, Uttarakhand, India was selected for the present study. Stratified random sampling was used to collect biophysical data from 36 sample plots of 0.1 ha (31.62 m × 31.62 m) size. Species-specific volumetric equations were used for calculating volume and multiplied by specific gravity to get biomass. Three forest-type density classes, viz. 10-40, 40-70 and >70% of Shorea robusta forest and four non-forest classes were delineated using on-screen visual interpretation of IRS P6 LISS-III data of December 2012. The volume in different strata of forest-type density ranged from 189.84 to 484.36 m(3) ha(-1). The total growing stock of the forest was found to be 2,024,652.88 m(3). The AGWB ranged from 143 to 421 Mgha(-1). Spectral bands and vegetation indices were used as independent variables and biomass as dependent variable for DRR, k-NN and CoK. After validation and comparison, k-NN method of Mahalanobis distance (root mean square error (RMSE) = 42.25 Mgha(-1)) was found to be the best method followed by fuzzy distance and Euclidean distance with RMSE of 44.23 and 45.13 Mgha(-1) respectively. DRR was found to be the least accurate method with RMSE of 67.17 Mgha(-1). The study highlighted the potential of integrating of forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques for forest biomass mapping.

  9. Aboveground Biomass Monitoring over Siberian Boreal Forest Using Radar Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmaszczuk-Gorska, M. A.; Thiel, C. J.; Schmullius, C.

    2014-12-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) plays an essential role in ecosystem research, global cycles, and is of vital importance in climate studies. AGB accumulated in the forests is of special monitoring interest as it contains the most of biomass comparing with other land biomes. The largest of the land biomes is boreal forest, which has a substantial carbon accumulation capability; carbon stock estimated to be 272 +/-23 Pg C (32%) [1]. Russian's forests are of particular concern, due to the largest source of uncertainty in global carbon stock calculations [1], and old inventory data that have not been updated in the last 25 years [2]. In this research new empirical models for AGB estimation are proposed. Using radar L-band data for AGB retrieval and optical data for an update of in situ data the processing scheme was developed. The approach was trained and validated in the Asian part of the boreal forest, in southern Russian Central Siberia; two Siberian Federal Districts: Krasnoyarsk Kray and Irkutsk Oblast. Together the training and testing forest territories cover an area of approximately 3,500 km2. ALOS PALSAR L-band single (HH - horizontal transmitted and received) and dual (HH and HV - horizontal transmitted, horizontal and vertical received) polarizations in Single Look Complex format (SLC) were used to calculate backscattering coefficient in gamma nought and coherence. In total more than 150 images acquired between 2006 and 2011 were available. The data were obtained through the ALOS Kyoto and Carbon Initiative Project (K&C). The data were used to calibrate a randomForest algorithm. Additionally, a simple linear and multiple-regression approach was used. The uncertainty of the AGB estimation at pixel and stand level were calculated approximately as 35% by validation against an independent dataset. The previous studies employing ALOS PALSAR data over boreal forests reported uncertainty of 39.4% using randomForest approach [2] or 42.8% using semi-empirical approach [3].

  10. The coal-forming plants of the upper part of the Lower Cretaceous Starosuchan Formation (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugdaeva, E. V.; Markevich, V. S.; Volynets, E. B.

    2014-05-01

    The plant remains and palynological assemblages are studied in detail in the section of the coal-bearing upper part of the Aptian Starosuchan Formation near the village of Molchanovka (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region). On the basis of the light and electron microscopic study of the disperse cuticles, it was established that the coals are mostly composed of remains of taxodialean Elatides asiatica (Yok.) Krassil., subordinate Miroviaceae, rare ginkgoalean Pseudotorellia sp., and bennettite Nilssoniopteris rithidorachis (Krysht.) Krassil. The spores Gleicheniidites and pollen Taxodiaceaepollenites are dominant in the palynospectrum of the coal interlayer. It was found that dominant taxodialeans and gleicheniaceous ferns with less abundant Miroviaceae, ginkgoaleans, and rare bennettites occurred in the Aptian swamp communities of the Partizansk basin. Shoots and leaves of Elatides asiatica, fronds of Birisia onychioides (Vassil. et K.-M.) Samyl., are dominant in the burials of plants from the clastic rocks. The fragments of leaves of Nilssoniopteris, scale-leaved conifers, and Ginkgo ex gr. adiantoides are rare. The disperse cuticle of these layers mostly includes Pseudotorellia sp.; however, its remains in burials were not found. The spores Laevigatosporites are dominant in the palynospectra from the clastic interlayers. Ginkgocycadophytus and taxa close to Pinaceae are plentiful among the pollen of gymnosperms.

  11. [Optimization of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands by using polypropylene pellet as part of substrate].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian-Qiang; Li, Jin-Zhong; Li, Xue-Ju; Liu, Xue-Gong; Huang, Sui-Liang

    2008-05-01

    Constructed wetlands experiments were conducted by using shale and Typha latifolia L. as vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland substrate and plant for eutrophic Jin River water treatment, and part of shale with polypropylene pellet was replaced to investigate its effect on nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, hydraulic loading rate was equal to 800 mm/d, theoretic residence time was equal to 12 h. During the entire running period, maximal monthly mean ammonia-nitrogen (NH(4+) -N), total nitrogen (TN), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) removal rates were observed in August 2006. In contrast to the full shale used wetland, polypropylene pellet enhanced ammonia-nitrogen, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus removal by 13.38%, 8.9%, 9.29% and 8.25% respectively. After finishing the experiment, aboveground plant biomass (stems and leaves) of Typha latifolia L. was harvested, and its weight and nutrient content (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) were measured. Analysis of aboveground plant biomass indicated that polypropylene pellet restrained the increase in biomass but stimulated assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus into stems and leaves. The subsequent harvesting of the plants resulted in the additional removal of total nitrogen and phosphorus of about 29.382 g x m(-2) and 13.469 g x m(-2), respectively.

  12. Hard metal interstitial pulmonary disease associated with a form of welding in a metal parts coating plant

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, S.; Gerstenhaber, B.; Welch, L.; Klimstra, D.; Smith, G.J.; Beckett, W. )

    1992-01-01

    We describe two cases of hard metal pulmonary disease (one fatal) in workers employed in the same area of a metal coating plant using the detonation gun process for applying a durable metal surface to metal parts. In this form of welding, a mixture of powdered metals, including tungsten carbide and cobalt, is heated by ignition of a flammable gas and propelled from the end of the gun' at high temperature and velocity to form a welded metal coating. This process is done in an enclosed chamber and with each application, large volumes of fine aerosols are created. Inhalation exposure to hard metal may occur during the mounting and removal of the metal parts between applications, in spite of engineering controls and industrial hygiene surveillance. One of the cases presented with minimal chest x-ray abnormalities and an obstructive pattern on pulmonary function testing, although subsequent open lung biopsy showed diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. The fact that two cases of hard metal pulmonary interstitial disease occurred where thorough exposure control procedures and a surveillance program for cobalt were in place may indicate the need for revisions of the current technology used when hard metal is applied in the detonation gun process.

  13. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S.; Abrahmson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ``other``. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk.

  14. Hard metal interstitial pulmonary disease associated with a form of welding in a metal parts coating plant.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, S; Gerstenhaber, B; Welch, L; Klimstra, D; Smith, G J; Beckett, W

    1992-01-01

    We describe two cases of hard metal pulmonary disease (one fatal) in workers employed in the same area of a metal coating plant using the detonation gun process for applying a durable metal surface to metal parts. In this form of welding, a mixture of powdered metals, including tungsten carbide and cobalt, is heated by ignition of a flammable gas and propelled from the end of the "gun" at high temperature and velocity to form a welded metal coating. This process is done in an enclosed chamber and with each application, large volumes of fine aerosols are created. Inhalation exposure to hard metal may occur during the mounting and removal of the metal parts between applications, in spite of engineering controls and industrial hygiene surveillance. One of the cases presented with minimal chest x-ray abnormalities and an obstructive pattern on pulmonary function testing, although subsequent open lung biopsy showed diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. The fact that two cases of hard metal pulmonary interstitial disease occurred where thorough exposure control procedures and a surveillance program for cobalt were in place may indicate the need for revisions of the current technology used when hard metal is applied in the detonation gun process.

  15. Anticancer properties and phenolic contents of sequentially prepared extracts from different parts of selected medicinal plants indigenous to Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Maznah; Bagalkotkar, Gururaj; Iqbal, Shahid; Adamu, Hadiza Altine

    2012-01-01

    Different parts of four edible medicinal plants (Casearia capitellata, Baccaurea motleyana, Phyllanthus pulcher and Strobilanthus crispus), indigenous to Malaysia, were extracted in different solvents, sequentially. The obtained 28 extracts were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer properties, using the MTS assay, on four human cancer cell lines: colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145) and lung (H460) cancers. The best anticancer activity was observed for the ethyl acetate (EA) extract of Casearia capitellata leaves on MCF-7 cell lines with IC₅₀ 2.0 μg/mL and its methanolic (MeOH) extract showed an outstanding activity against lung cancer cell lines. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Phyllanthus pulcher aerial parts showed the highest anticancer activity against DU-145 cell lines, while significant activity was exhibited by DCM extract of Phyllanthus pulcher roots on colon cancer cell lines with IC50 value of 8.1 μg/mL. Total phenolic content (TPC) ranged over 1-40 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. For all the samples, highest yields of phenolics were obtained for MeOH extracts. Among all the extracts analyzed, the MeOH extracts of Strobilanthus crispus leaves exhibited the highest TPC than other samples (p < 0.05). This study shows that the nature of phenol determines its anticaner activity and not the number of phenols present. PMID:22628046

  16. The Microbe-Free Plant: Fact or Artifact?

    PubMed Central

    Partida-Martínez, Laila P.; Heil, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Plant–microbe interactions are ubiquitous. Plants are threatened by pathogens, but they are even more commonly engaged in neutral or mutualistic interactions with microbes: belowground microbial plant associates are mycorrhizal fungi, Rhizobia, and plant-growth promoting rhizosphere bacteria, aboveground plant parts are colonized by internally living bacteria and fungi (endophytes) and by microbes in the phyllosphere (epiphytes). We emphasize here that a completely microbe-free plant is an exotic exception rather than the biologically relevant rule. The complex interplay of such microbial communities with the host–plant affects multiple vital parameters such as plant nutrition, growth rate, resistance to biotic and abiotic stressors, and plant survival and distribution. The mechanisms involved reach from direct ones such as nutrient acquisition, the production of plant hormones, or direct antibiosis, to indirect ones that are mediated by effects on host resistance genes or via interactions at higher trophic levels. Plant-associated microbes are heterotrophic and cause costs to their host plant, whereas the benefits depend on the current environment. Thus, the outcome of the interaction for the plant host is highly context dependent. We argue that considering the microbe-free plant as the “normal” or control stage significantly impairs research into important phenomena such as (1) phenotypic and epigenetic plasticity, (2) the “normal” ecological outcome of a given interaction, and (3) the evolution of plants. For the future, we suggest cultivation-independent screening methods using direct PCR from plant tissue of more than one fungal and bacterial gene to collect data on the true microbial diversity in wild plants. The patterns found could be correlated to host species and environmental conditions, in order to formulate testable hypotheses on the biological roles of plant endophytes in nature. Experimental approaches should compare different host

  17. [Spatiotemporal variations of aboveground biomass and leaf area index of typical grassland in tower flux footprint].

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Li, Gui-cai; Wang, Jun-bang

    2011-03-01

    By using cyclic sampling method, the aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) of typical grassland in tower flux footprint were measured at three growth stages, i.e., early July (July 2-7), late July (July 20-26), and late August (Aug. 25-30), with their spatial patterns analyzed by geostatistics. At the three stages, the aboveground biomass of the grassland kept rising, while the LAI decreased after an initial increase. Both the two variables had good spatial autocorrelation, with similar spatial pattern and temporal evolution trend, and changed from stripe to patch. From early July to late August, the C0/(C0+C) of the aboveground biomass and LAI all decreased significantly, indicating that the spatial autocorrelation of the two variables changed from medium to high. The change ranges of the two variables gradually decreased, presenting the decrease of spatial continuity. The fractal dimension (D) also decreased gradually, suggesting the increase of spatial dependence. Topography and field management were the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass and LAI, which induced the spatial variability of water and heat, and further, affected the grass growth. PMID:21657018

  18. Characteristics of train noise in above-ground and underground stations with side and island platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokura, Ryota; Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2011-04-01

    Railway stations can be principally classified by their locations, i.e., above-ground or underground stations, and by their platform styles, i.e., side or island platforms. However, the effect of the architectural elements on the train noise in stations is not well understood. The aim of the present study is to determine the different acoustical characteristics of the train noise for each station style. The train noise was evaluated by (1) the A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure level ( LAeq), (2) the amplitude of the maximum peak of the interaural cross-correlation function (IACC), (3) the delay time ( τ1) and amplitude ( ϕ1) of the first maximum peak of the autocorrelation function. The IACC, τ1 and ϕ1 are related to the subjective diffuseness, pitch and pitch strength, respectively. Regarding the locations, the LAeq in the underground stations was 6.4 dB higher than that in the above-ground stations, and the pitch in the underground stations was higher and stronger. Regarding the platform styles, the LAeq on the side platforms was 3.3 dB higher than on the island platforms of the above-ground stations. For the underground stations, the LAeq on the island platforms was 3.3 dB higher than that on the side platforms when a train entered the station. The IACC on the island platforms of the above-ground stations was higher than that in the other stations.

  19. Impact of logging on aboveground biomass stocks in lowland rain forest, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Jane; Shearman, Phil; Ash, Julian; Kirkpatrick, J B

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse-gas emissions resulting from logging are poorly quantified across the tropics. There is a need for robust measurement of rain forest biomass and the impacts of logging from which carbon losses can be reliably estimated at regional and global scales. We used a modified Bitterlich plotless technique to measure aboveground live biomass at six unlogged and six logged rain forest areas (coupes) across two approximately 3000-ha regions at the Makapa concession in lowland Papua New Guinea. "Reduced-impact logging" is practiced at Makapa. We found the mean unlogged aboveground biomass in the two regions to be 192.96 +/- 4.44 Mg/ha and 252.92 +/- 7.00 Mg/ha (mean +/- SE), which was reduced by logging to 146.92 +/- 4.58 Mg/ha and 158.84 +/- 4.16, respectively. Killed biomass was not a fixed proportion, but varied with unlogged biomass, with 24% killed in the lower-biomass region, and 37% in the higher-biomass region. Across the two regions logging resulted in a mean aboveground carbon loss of 35 +/- 2.8 Mg/ha. The plotless technique proved efficient at estimating mean aboveground biomass and logging damage. We conclude that substantial bias is likely to occur within biomass estimates derived from single unreplicated plots. PMID:21265444

  20. Aboveground total and green biomass of dryland shrub derived from terrestrial laser scanning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of many dryland vegetation species are expected to shift based on predictions of future increases in global temperatures. Quantifying aboveground biomass in dryland systems is important for assessing global carbon storage and monitoring the presence and distribution of these rapidl...