Science.gov

Sample records for aboveground roofed design

  1. Aboveground roofed design for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    The conceptual designs proposed in this report resulted from a study for the Maine Low-level Radioactive Waste Authority to develop conceptual designs for a safe and reliable disposal facility for Maine`s low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Freezing temperatures, heavy rainfall, high groundwater tables, and very complex and shallow glaciated soils found in Maine place severe constraints on the design. The fundamental idea behind the study was to consider Maine`s climatic and geological conditions at the beginning of conceptual design rather than starting with a design for another location and adapting it for Maine`s conditions. The conceptual designs recommended are entirely above ground and consist of an inner vault designed to provide shielding and protection against inadvertent intrusion and an outer building to protect the inner vault from water. The air dry conditions within the outer building should lead to almost indefinite service life for the concrete inner vault and the waste containers. This concept differs sharply from the usual aboveground vault in its reliance on at least two independent, but more or less conventional, roofing systems for primary and secondary protection against leakage of radioisotopes from the facility. Features include disposal of waste in air dry environment, waste loading and visual inspection by remote-controlled overhead cranes, and reliance on engineered soils for tertiary protection against release of radioactive materials.

  2. Roof structural system, similar in design to peaked roofs of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof structural system, similar in design to peaked roofs of rolling mill, yet note abandonment of phoenix columns for compression members. - Phoenix Iron Company, Girder Shop No. 6, North of French Creek, west of Gay Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  3. A user`s perspective on aluminum dome roofs for aboveground tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, P.E.

    1995-12-31

    There is a trend in the petroleum industry to install aluminum dome roofs on storage tanks of all kinds. Although most dome roofs have been installed on floating roof tanks, there is a trend to install them on fixed roof tanks as well, substituting the familiar shallow fixed cone roof with a geodesic dome. In part, this trend has been caused by EPA requirements causing a greater number of closed tanks to be vented to vapor recovery or vapor destruction systems. Both the aluminum roof manufacturing community and the user have moved into a whole new set of problems associated with the change in dome roof applications from atmospheric to those requiring internal pressure. New problems are just now being dealt with and solved because cost factors tend to make the aluminum dome an economic solution for many cases where sealed tank systems must be used. Because of the increased numbers of geodesic domes as either an alternative to a fixed cone roof tank or as a way to convert an external floating roof tank to an internal floating roof tank or as their potential to serve as tools in the environmental arena, it is the intent of this paper to examine them from the user`s perspective. In addition, some areas of research that should resolve some reliability and safety issues are presented for consideration and research by not only manufacturers but the users as well.

  4. Field Evaluation of Four Novel Roof Designs for Energy-Efficient Manufactured Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.; Barker, G.; Rath, P.; Dadia, D.

    2015-12-01

    A five-bay roof test structure was built, instrumented and monitored in an effort to determine through field testing and analysis the relative contributions of select technologies toward reducing energy use in new manufactured homes. The roof structure in Jamestown, California was designed to examine how differences in roof construction impact space conditioning loads, wood moisture content and attic humidity levels. Conclusions are drawn from the data on the relative energy and moisture performance of various configurations of vented and sealed attics.

  5. The design, effectiveness and construction of passive-thermal-control roofing shingles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, L., Jr.

    1982-09-01

    The concept of a passive thermal control roofing shingle, which is a shingle that reflects the summer sun and absorbs the winter sun, is discussed. It is indicated that it is possible to design shingles for particular latitudes and styles of roof which absorb nearly all of the winter solar energy and reflect nearly all of the summer solar energy. Calculations of the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle indicate that it is most cost effective on all south facing pitched roofs regardless of heating fuel type, and on flat or east or west facing roofs that are heated with costly fuels such as electricity or heating oil. The shingle is most effective on poorly insulated structures. The feasibility of using the passive thermal control roofing shingle in conjunction with a heat pump to pump heat absorbed by the shingle into a well insulated structure is demonstrated. Construction of a variety of models of the passive thermal control roofing shingle illustrate numerous alternate methods of manufacture. A profile extruded, plastic, glazed shingle appears to be the most promising approach. Use of a glazed shingle can increase the effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle by reducing convective heat losses.

  6. Field Evaluation of Four Novel Roof Designs for Energy-Efficient Manufactured Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.; Barker, G.; Rath, P.; Dadia, D.

    2015-12-03

    "9A five-bay roof test structure was built, instrumented and monitored in an effort to determine through field testing and analysis the relative contributions of select technologies toward reducing energy use in new manufactured homes. The roof structure in Jamestown, California was designed to examine how differences in roof construction impact space conditioning loads, wood moisture content and attic humidity levels. Conclusions are drawn from the data on the relative energy and moisture performance of various configurations of vented and sealed attics.

  7. Design, effectiveness, and construction of passive-thermal-control roofing shingles. Technical final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, L. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    The concept of a passive thermal control roofing shingle, which is a shingle that reflects the summer sun and absorbs the winter sun, is discussed. Such a shingle will reduce summer cooling and winter heating costs and conserve electricity and natural gas or heating oil. Design calculations indicate that it is possible to design shingles for particular latitudes and styles of roof which absorb nearly all of the winter solar energy and reflect nearly all of the summer solar energy. Calculations of the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle indicate that it is most cost effective on all south facing pitched roofs regardless of heating fuel type, and on flat or east or west facing roofs that are heated with costly fuels such as electricity or heating oil. The shingle is most effective on poorly insulated structures. If the cost of the shingle is about one dollar per square foot it will be cost effective in these applications. Additional calculations demonstrate the feasibility of using the passive thermal control roofing shingle in conjunction with a heat pump to pump heat absorbed by the shingle into a well insulated structure. Construction of a variety of models of the passive thermal control roofing shingle illustrate numerous alternate methods of manufacture. A profile extruded, plastic, glazed shingle appears to be the most promising approach. Additionally, extruded plastic reflector assemblies of various kinds could be added to existing shingled roofs. Use of a glazed shingle can increase the effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle by reducing convective heat losses.

  8. A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A

    2011-01-01

    A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce its peak day heat transfer by almost 85 percent of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibits attic air temperatures that do not exceed the maximum daily outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the roof deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to gauge the cost of energy savings and potential payback.

  9. A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A

    2011-01-01

    A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce the heat transfer penetrating its roof deck by almost 85% of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit home constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to access economics for the assembly.

  10. Investigating Appropriate Sampling Design for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Bruneian Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, D.; Abu Salim, K.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S.; Lee, W. K.; Davies, S. J.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed tropical forest structure is highly heterogeneous unlike plantation or mixed temperate forest structure, and therefore, different sampling approaches are required. However, the appropriate sampling design for estimating the above-ground biomass (AGB) in Bruneian lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to provide supportive information in sampling design for Bruneian forest carbon inventory. The study site was located at Kuala Belalong lowland MDF, which is part of the Ulu Tembulong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Six 60 m × 60 m quadrats were established, separated by a distance of approximately 100 m and each was subdivided into quadrats of 10 m × 10 m, at an elevation between 200 and 300 m above sea level. At each plot all free-standing trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 1 cm were measured. The AGB for all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm was estimated by allometric models. In order to analyze changes in the diameter-dependent parameters used for estimating the AGB, different quadrat areas, ranging from 10 m × 10 m to 60 m × 60 m, were used across the study area, starting at the South-West end and moving towards the North-East end. The derived result was as follows: (a) Big trees (dbh ≥ 70 cm) with sparse distribution have remarkable contribution to the total AGB in Bruneian lowland MDF, and therefore, special consideration is required when estimating the AGB of big trees. Stem number of trees with dbh ≥ 70 cm comprised only 2.7% of all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm, but 38.5% of the total AGB. (b) For estimating the AGB of big trees at the given acceptable limit of precision (p), it is more efficient to use large quadrats than to use small quadrats, because the total sampling area decreases with the former. Our result showed that 239 20 m × 20 m quadrats (9.6 ha in total) were required, while 15 60 m × 60 m quadrats (5.4 ha in total) were required when estimating the AGB of the trees

  11. What's Up with Your Roof?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinger, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explains the importance of knowing what condition the school's roof(s) is in and how to design a preventive maintenance program that is cost effective and will help extend the roof's lifecycle. Cost calculation techniques to value a roof maintenance program, maintenance documentation requirements, and roof surveying are discussed. (GR)

  12. Characterization and design of tuned liquid dampers with floating roof considering arbitrary tank cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, R. O.; Taflanidis, A. A.; Lopez-Garcia, D.

    2016-04-01

    A recently proposed new type of liquid mass damper, called Tuned Liquid Damper with Floating Roof (TLD-FR), is the focus of this paper. The TLD-FR consists of a traditional TLD (tank filled with liquid) with the addition of a floating roof. The sloshing of the liquid within the tank counteracts the motion of the primary structure it is placed on, offering the desired energy dissipation in the vibration of the latter, while the roof prevents wave breaking phenomena and introduces an essentially linear response. This creates a dynamic behavior that resembles other types of linear Tuned Mass dampers (TMDs). This investigation extends previous work of the authors to consider TLDs-FR with arbitrary tank cross-sections, whereas it additionally offers new insights on a variety of topics. In particular, the relationship between the tank geometry and the resultant vibratory characteristics is examined in detail, including the impact of the roof on these characteristics. An efficient mapping between these two is also developed, utilizing Kriging metamodeling concepts, to support the TLD-FR design. It is demonstrated that the overall behavior can be modeled through introduction of only four variables: the liquid mass, the frequency and damping ratio of the fundamental sloshing mode of the TLD-FR, and the efficiency index, which is related to the portion of the total mass that participates in this mode. Comparisons between TLDs-FR and other types of mass dampers are established through the use of the latter index. A design example is presented considering the dynamic response of a structure under stationary excitation. It is illustrated in this example that for complex tank cross-sectional geometries there exists a manifold of tank configurations leading to the same primary vibratory characteristics and therefore same efficiency of the TLD-FR. Considerations about excessive displacements of the roof can be then incorporated to indicate preference towards some of these

  13. Stormwater runoff mitigation and nutrient leaching from a green roof designed to attract native pollinating insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, S.; Grogan, D. S.; Hale, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A green roof is typically installed for one of two reasons: to mitigate the 'urban heat island' effect, reducing ambient temperatures and creating energy savings, or to reduce both the quantity and intensity of stormwater runoff, which is a major cause of river erosion and eutrophication. The study of green roofs in the United States has focused on commercial systems that use a proprietary expanded shale or clay substrate, along with succulent desert plants (mainly Sedum species). The green roof has the potential not only to provide thermal insulation and reduce storm runoff, but also to reclaim some of the natural habitat that has been lost to the built environment. Of special importance is the loss of habitat for pollinating insects, particularly native bees, which have been in decline for at least two decades. These pollinators are essential for crop production and for the reproduction of at least 65% of wild plants globally. Our study involves the installation of a small (4ft by 4ft), self-designed green roof system built with readily available components from a hardware store. The garden will be filled with a soilless potting mix, combined with 15% compost, and planted with grasses and wildflowers native to the Seacoast, New Hampshire region. Some of the plant species are used by bees for nesting materials, while others provide food in the form of nectar, pollen, and seeds for bees, butterflies, hummingbirds, and granivorous birds. We monitor precipitation on the roof and runoff from the garden on a per storm basis, and test grab samples of runoff for dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorous. Runoff and nutrient concentration results are compared to a non-vegetated roof surface, and a proprietary Green Grid green roof system. This project is designed to address three main questions of interest: 1) Can these native plant species, which potentially provide greater ecosystem services than Sedum spp. in the form of food and habitat, survive in the conditions on

  14. Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dell; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

  15. Aircraft-crash-protected roof design for the European SBWR

    SciTech Connect

    Posta, B.A.; Kadar, I.; Rao, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    The European utility requirement document (EURD) places significant emphasis on aircraft crash protection of the reactor building - Alternative concepts were evaluated for protecting the dry-well head and the fuel pool from the effect of the spalling concrete for the General Electric Company`s European simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR) designs.

  16. The case for using a sacrificial layer of absorbent insulation in the design of flat and low-sloped roofing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Gregory R.

    2013-05-01

    Beginning about twenty-five years ago, there was a marked increase in the number of single-ply membrane roof designs used to cover and waterproof flat and low-sloped building roofs. Over the past ten years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of installations of white and more reflective single-ply roof systems, mostly using high density cellular foam insulation in the substrate for insulation. A major factor in the increase in the popularity of these highly insulated and more reflective roof systems is the fact that many governments began offering incentives for building owners to use reflective coverings and better insulated roofs. Now, owing to the energy efficient requirements for the design and construction of new buildings put forth in ASHRAE Standard 90.1, "Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings" and the world's apparent desire to be "green" (or at least appear to be), more and more roof designs will include these reflective single-ply membranes, which use the cellular foam insulation boards to meet these requirements. Using a lower density traditional insulation will mean that the roof will have to be very thick to comply, increasing the costs of installation. High density cellular foams do not absorb water until time, vapor pressure drive, UV and thermal shock break down the foam and it becomes more absorbent. This could be 5-7 years or longer, depending on the roof construction and other factors. This means that any water that enters the roof through a breach (leak) in the membrane goes straight into the building. This is not a good consequence since the failure mode of any roof is water entering the building. Keeping the water out of the building is the purpose of the waterproofing layer. This paper reviews the techniques of moisture testing on building roofs and infrared (IR) thermography, and puts forth the idea and reasoning behind having a sacrificial layer of very absorbent insulation installed in every

  17. Design and development of green roof substrate to improve runoff water quality: plant growth experiments and adsorption.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Raja, Franklin D

    2014-10-15

    Many studies worldwide have investigated the potential benefits achievable by transforming brown roofs of buildings to green roofs. However, little literature examined the runoff quality/sorption ability of green roofs. As the green roof substrate is the main component to alter the quality of runoff, this investigation raises the possibility of using a mixture of low-cost inorganic materials to develop a green roof substrate. The tested materials include exfoliated vermiculite, expanded perlite, crushed brick and sand along with organic component (coco-peat). Detailed physical and chemical analyses revealed that each of these materials possesses different characteristics and hence a mix of these materials was desirable to develop an optimal green roof substrate. Using factorial design, 18 different substrate mixes were prepared and detailed examination indicated that mix-12 exhibited desirable characteristics of green roof substrate with low bulk density (431 kg/m(3)), high water holding capacity (39.4%), air filled porosity (19.5%), and hydraulic conductivity (4570 mm/h). The substrate mix also provided maximum support to Portulaca grandiflora (380% total biomass increment) over one month of growth. To explore the leaching characteristics and sorption capacity of developed green roof substrate, a down-flow packed column arrangement was employed. High conductivity and total dissolved solids along with light metal ions (Na, K, Ca and Mg) were observed in the leachates during initial stages of column operation; however the concentration of ions ceased during the final stages of operation (600 min). Experiments with metal-spiked deionized water revealed that green roof substrate possess high sorption capacity towards various heavy metal ions (Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd). Thus the developed growth substrate possesses desirable characteristics for green roofs along with high sorption capacity.

  18. Interdisciplinary design study of a high-rise integrated roof wind energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, R. W. A.; Ferraro, R. M.; Suma, A. B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Today's market in micro-wind turbines is in constant development introducing more efficient solutions for the future. Besides the private use of tower supported turbines, opportunities to integrate wind turbines in the built environment arise. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System (IRWES) presented in this work is a modular roof structure integrated on top of existing or new buildings. IRWES is build up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels used for both wind inlet and outlet. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) in the center-top of the roof unit for the generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The scope of this research aims to make an optimized structural design of IRWES to be placed on top of the Vertigo building in Eindhoven; analysis of the structural performance; and impact to the existing structure by means of Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Results show that the obvious impact of wind pressure to the structural design is easily supported in different configurations of fairly simple lightweight structures. In particular, the weight addition to existing buildings remains minimal.

  19. 49 CFR 195.132 - Design and construction of aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) and with internal vapor space pressures that are approximately atmospheric must be designed and... approximating atmospheric pressures (i.e., internal vapor space pressures not greater than 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa... to withstand the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be stored therein and...

  20. 49 CFR 195.132 - Design and construction of aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) and with internal vapor space pressures that are approximately atmospheric must be designed and... approximating atmospheric pressures (i.e., internal vapor space pressures not greater than 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa... to withstand the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be stored therein and...

  1. 49 CFR 195.132 - Design and construction of aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) and with internal vapor space pressures that are approximately atmospheric must be designed and... approximating atmospheric pressures (i.e., internal vapor space pressures not greater than 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa... to withstand the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be stored therein and...

  2. 49 CFR 195.132 - Design and construction of aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) and with internal vapor space pressures that are approximately atmospheric must be designed and... approximating atmospheric pressures (i.e., internal vapor space pressures not greater than 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa... to withstand the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be stored therein and...

  3. 49 CFR 195.132 - Design and construction of aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) and with internal vapor space pressures that are approximately atmospheric must be designed and... approximating atmospheric pressures (i.e., internal vapor space pressures not greater than 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa... to withstand the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be stored therein and...

  4. Design of self-cleaning TiO2 coating on clay roofing tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadnadjev, Milica; Ranogajec, Jonjaua; Petrovic, Snezana; Markov, Sinisa; Ducman, Vilma; Marinkovic-Neducin, Radmila

    2010-07-01

    The phenomenon of heterogeneous photocatalysis takes place in the degradation process of many organic contaminants on solid surfaces. Photocatalysis is based on the excitation of the semiconductor by irradiation with supraband gap photons and the migration of electron-hole pairs to the surface of the photocatalysts, leading to the reaction of the holes with adsorbed H2O and OH- to form hydroxyl radicals. Due to the stability and photosensitivity of TiO2 semiconductors, this system is well studied and is of great interest from an ecological and industrial point of view for use in the field of building materials. Clay roofing tiles, due to their long-term exploitation, are subject to physical, chemical and biological degradation that leads to deterioration. Ceramic systems have a high percentage of total porosity and considering their non-tolerance of organic coating, the use of surface active materials (SAM) that induce porosity in TiO2 coatings is of vital significance. Photocatalytic coatings applied on clay roofing tiles under industrial conditions were designed by varying the quantity of TiO2 (mass/cm2) on the tile surface (thin and thick TiO2 layer). The positive changes in specific surface area and mesopore structure of the designed coatings were made by the addition of PEG 600 as a surface active material. It was shown that a thin photocatalytic layer (0.399 mg suspension/cm2 tile surface), applied onto ceramic tiles under industrial conditions, had better photocatalytic activity in methylene blue decomposition, hydrophilicity and antimicrobial activity than a thick photocatalytic coating (0.885 mg suspension/cm2).

  5. Moisture design to improve durability of low-slope roofing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, A.; Byars, N.

    1996-12-31

    The roofing industry has traditionally held that moisture control in low-slope roofing comprises two independent elements: (1) provide a waterproof exterior covering (or membrane) to protect the low-slope roof from external sources of moisture and (2) perform a condensation calculation to determine if a vapor retarder is required to protect a roof system from internal moisture sources. The first criterion is assumed to be satisfied if a membrane system is specified; in reality, all membrane systems eventually fail, and existing moisture control strategies offer no mechanism for analyzing the inevitable failure. The means of assessing the second criterion, the need for a vapor retarder, has evolved in recent years. The criteria have become more liberal with time because it has been observed that roofing systems installed in a geographic area in which the old criteria required a vapor retarder, have performed well without one.

  6. Roofing: Workbook and Tests. Built-up Roofing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingensmith, Robert, Ed.

    Designed for use in roofing apprenticeship classes, this workbook contains eight units on skills used in built-up roofing, a listing of instructional materials, a glossary, and the text of Labor Code Article 30, Construction Safety Orders, "Roofing Operations and Equipment." Each instructional unit includes a listing of performance statements and…

  7. Case study: design, operation, maintenance and water quality management of sustainable storm water ponds for roof runoff.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Miklas

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this case study was to optimise design, operation and maintenance guidelines, and to assess the water treatment potential of a storm water pond system after 15 months of operation. The system was based on a combined silt trap, attenuation pond and vegetated infiltration basin. This combination was used as the basis for construction of a roof water runoff system from a single domestic property. United Kingdom Building Research Establishment and Construction Industry Research and Information Association, and German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste design guidelines were tested. These design guidelines failed because they did not consider local conditions. The infiltration function for the infiltration basin was logarithmic. Algal control techniques were successfully applied, and treatment of rainwater runoff from roofs was found to be largely unnecessary for recycling (e.g., watering plants). However, seasonal and diurnal variations of biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen and pH were recorded.

  8. Seismic design repair and retrofit strategies for steel roof deck diaphragms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franquet, John-Edward

    Structural engineers will often rely on the roof diaphragm to transfer lateral seismic loads to the bracing system of single-storey structures. The implementation of capacity-based design in the NBCC 2005 has caused an increase in the diaphragm design load due to the need to use the probable capacity of the bracing system, thus resulting in thicker decks, closer connector patterns and higher construction costs. Previous studies have shown that accounting for the in-plane flexibility of the diaphragm when calculating the overall building period can result in lower seismic forces and a more cost-efficient design. However, recent studies estimating the fundamental period of single storey structures using ambient vibration testing showed that the in-situ approximation was much shorter than that obtained using analytical means. The difference lies partially in the diaphragm stiffness characteristics which have been shown to decrease under increasing excitation amplitude. Using the diaphragm as the energy-dissipating element in the seismic force resisting system has also been investigated as this would take advantage of the diaphragm's ductility and limited overstrength; thus, lower capacity based seismic forces would result. An experimental program on 21.0m by 7.31m diaphragm test specimens was carried out so as to investigate the dynamic properties of diaphragms including the stiffness, ductility and capacity. The specimens consisted of 20 and 22 gauge panels with nailed frame fasteners and screwed sidelap connections as well a welded and button-punch specimen. Repair strategies for diaphragms that have previously undergone inelastic deformations were devised in an attempt to restitute the original stiffness and strength and were then experimentally evaluated. Strength and stiffness experimental estimations are compared with those predicted with the Steel Deck Institute (SDI) method. A building design comparative study was also completed. This study looks at the

  9. Sustainable roofs with real energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Prolong Your Roof's Performance: Roof Asset Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitsma, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the roof asset management process for maintaining a roof system's integrity and value in a cost-effective manner. Included is a breakdown of roofing surface characteristics for multiply and single ply roofing systems. (GR)

  11. Carbon sequestration potential of extensive green roofs.

    PubMed

    Getter, Kristin L; Rowe, D Bradley; Robertson, G Philip; Cregg, Bert M; Andresen, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-01

    Two studies were conducted with the objective of quantifying the carbon storage potential of extensive green roofs. The first was performed on eight roofs in Michigan and four roofs in Maryland, ranging from 1 to 6 years in age. All 12 green roofs were composed primarily of Sedum species, and substrate depths ranged from 2.5 to 12.7 cm. Aboveground plant material was harvested in the fall of 2006. On average, these roofs stored 162 g C x m(-2) in aboveground biomass. The second study was conducted on a roof in East Lansing, MI. Twenty plots were established on 21 April 2007 with a substrate depth of 6.0 cm. In addition to a substrate only control, the other plots were sown with a single species of Sedum (S. acre, S. album, S. kamtshaticum, or S. spurium). Species and substrate depth represent typical extensive green roofs in the United States. Plant material and substrate were harvested seven times across two growing seasons. Results at the end of the second year showed that aboveground plant material storage varied by species, ranging from 64 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 239 g C x m(-2) (S. album), with an average of 168 g C x m(-2). Belowground biomass ranged from 37 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 185 g C x m(-2) (S. kamtschaticum) and averaged 107 g C x m(-2). Substrate carbon content averaged 913 g C x m(-2), with no species effect, which represents a sequestration rate of 100 g C x m(-2) over the 2 years of this study. The entire extensive green roof system sequestered 375 g C x m(-2) in above- and belowground biomass and substrate organic matter.

  12. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  13. Photovoltaic Roofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

  14. Contributions to the design of rainwater harvesting systems in buildings with green roofs in a Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cristina M; Calheiros, Cristina S C; Pimentel-Rodrigues, Carla; Silva-Afonso, Armando; Castro, Paula M L

    2016-01-01

    Green roofs (GRs) are becoming a trend in urban areas, favouring thermal performance of buildings, promoting removal of atmospheric pollutants, and acting as possible water collection spots. Rainwater harvesting systems in buildings can also contribute to the management of stormwater runoff reducing flood peaks. These technologies should be enhanced in Mediterranean countries where water scarcity is increasing and the occurrence of extreme events is becoming very significant, as a result of climate change. An extensive pilot GR with three aromatic plant species, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and Thymus pseudolanuginosus, designed to study several parameters affecting rainwater runoff, has been in operation for 12 months. Physico-chemical analyses of roof water runoff (turbidity, pH, conductivity, NH4(+), NO3(-), PO4(3-), chemical oxygen demand) have shown that water was of sufficient quality for non-potable uses in buildings, such as toilet flushing. An innovative approach allowed for the development of an expression to predict a 'monthly runoff coefficient' of the GR system. This parameter is essential when planning and designing GRs combined with rainwater harvesting systems in a Mediterranean climate. This study is a contribution to improving the basis for the design of rainwater harvesting systems in buildings with extensive GRs under a Mediterranean climate. PMID:27120638

  15. Contributions to the design of rainwater harvesting systems in buildings with green roofs in a Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cristina M; Calheiros, Cristina S C; Pimentel-Rodrigues, Carla; Silva-Afonso, Armando; Castro, Paula M L

    2016-01-01

    Green roofs (GRs) are becoming a trend in urban areas, favouring thermal performance of buildings, promoting removal of atmospheric pollutants, and acting as possible water collection spots. Rainwater harvesting systems in buildings can also contribute to the management of stormwater runoff reducing flood peaks. These technologies should be enhanced in Mediterranean countries where water scarcity is increasing and the occurrence of extreme events is becoming very significant, as a result of climate change. An extensive pilot GR with three aromatic plant species, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and Thymus pseudolanuginosus, designed to study several parameters affecting rainwater runoff, has been in operation for 12 months. Physico-chemical analyses of roof water runoff (turbidity, pH, conductivity, NH4(+), NO3(-), PO4(3-), chemical oxygen demand) have shown that water was of sufficient quality for non-potable uses in buildings, such as toilet flushing. An innovative approach allowed for the development of an expression to predict a 'monthly runoff coefficient' of the GR system. This parameter is essential when planning and designing GRs combined with rainwater harvesting systems in a Mediterranean climate. This study is a contribution to improving the basis for the design of rainwater harvesting systems in buildings with extensive GRs under a Mediterranean climate.

  16. Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2005-10-01

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on this information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. For the prediction of roof geology and stability condition in real time, a micro processor was used and a program developed to monitor and record the drilling parameters of roof bolter. These parameters include feed pressure, feed flow (penetration rate), rotation pressure, rotation rate, vacuum pressure, oil temperature of hydraulic circuit, and signals for controlling machine. From the results of a series of laboratory and underground tests so far, feed pressure is found to be a good indicator for identifying the voids/fractures and estimating the roof rock strength. The method for determining quantitatively the location and the size of void/fracture and estimating the roof rock strength from the drilling parameters of roof bolter was developed. Also, a set of computational rules has been developed for in-mine roof using measured roof drilling parameters and implemented in MRGIS (Mine Roof Geology Information System), a software package developed to allow mine engineers to make use of the large amount of roof drilling parameters for predicting roof geology properties automatically. For the development of roof bolting criteria, finite element models were developed for tensioned and fully grouted bolting

  17. Roof Plans: Section "CC", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof Plans: Section "C-C", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section "C-C", Section "D-D"; Roof Framing Sections: Cross Section "G-G", Cross Section "H-H" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  18. Roof Rockmass Characterization in an Illinois Underground Coal Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osouli, Abdolreza; Shafii, Iman

    2016-08-01

    Among all United States underground coal fields, those in Illinois have the highest rate of roof fall events due to their weak and severely moisture sensitive roof rock units. Rockmass characterization is the key initial step in designing safe and economical roof control measures in underground coal mines. In this study, a performance-based roof rockmass characterization is investigated. The geologic conditions as well as underground mine geographic specifications, roof fall analysis, mining method, utilized supplemental roof control measures, and geotechnical properties of roof rock units were considered to link the roof performance to rockmass characterization. The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) rockmass characterization method was used to evaluate the roof conditions and roof support design for an underground coal mine located in the Illinois Coal Basin. The results of several mine visit mappings, laboratory test results, and geotechnical issues and concerns are presented and discussed. The roof support designs are analyzed based on the rockmass characterization and are compared with the observed performance. This study shows that (1) CMRR index is a reasonable method for characterizing roof rockmass; (2) moisture sensitivity and bedding strengths in the horizontal direction are essential parameters for roof support design in mines with weak roof conditions; and (3) the applicability of the analysis of roof bolt system for roof support design of the studied mine is questionable.

  19. Choosing the Right Roof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Jeff

    1999-01-01

    Offers tips for selecting roofing products for new or renovated buildings. Examines various site-specific design parameters such as building life, climatic exposure, water drainage, traffic resistance, and insurer's requirements. Notes points to address in preparing clear, detailed, and well-conceived specifications. (GR)

  20. Separating drought effects from roof artifacts on ecosystem processes in a grassland drought experiment.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Anja; Fester, Thomas; Eisenhauer, Nico; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Schmid, Bernhard; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Weigelt, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    1: Given the predictions of increased drought probabilities under various climate change scenarios, there have been numerous experimental field studies simulating drought using transparent roofs in different ecosystems and regions. Such roofs may, however, have unknown side effects, called artifacts, on the measured variables potentially confounding the experimental results. A roofed control allows the quantification of potential artifacts, which is lacking in most experiments. 2: We conducted a drought experiment in experimental grasslands to study artifacts of transparent roofs and the resulting effects of artifacts on ecosystems relative to drought on three response variables (aboveground biomass, litter decomposition and plant metabolite profiles). We established three drought treatments, using (1) transparent roofs to exclude rainfall, (2) an unroofed control treatment receiving natural rainfall and (3) a roofed control, nested in the drought treatment but with rain water reapplied according to ambient conditions. 3: Roofs had a slight impact on air (+0.14°C during night) and soil temperatures (-0.45°C on warm days, +0.25°C on cold nights), while photosynthetically active radiation was decreased significantly (-16%). Aboveground plant community biomass was reduced in the drought treatment (-41%), but there was no significant difference between the roofed and unroofed control, i.e., there were no measurable roof artifact effects. 4: Compared to the unroofed control, litter decomposition was decreased significantly both in the drought treatment (-26%) and in the roofed control treatment (-18%), suggesting artifact effects of the transparent roofs. Moreover, aboveground metabolite profiles in the model plant species Medicago x varia were different from the unroofed control in both the drought and roofed control treatments, and roof artifact effects were of comparable magnitude as drought effects. 5: Our results stress the need for roofed control treatments

  1. Separating Drought Effects from Roof Artifacts on Ecosystem Processes in a Grassland Drought Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Anja; Fester, Thomas; Eisenhauer, Nico; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Schmid, Bernhard; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Weigelt, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    1 Given the predictions of increased drought probabilities under various climate change scenarios, there have been numerous experimental field studies simulating drought using transparent roofs in different ecosystems and regions. Such roofs may, however, have unknown side effects, called artifacts, on the measured variables potentially confounding the experimental results. A roofed control allows the quantification of potential artifacts, which is lacking in most experiments. 2 We conducted a drought experiment in experimental grasslands to study artifacts of transparent roofs and the resulting effects of artifacts on ecosystems relative to drought on three response variables (aboveground biomass, litter decomposition and plant metabolite profiles). We established three drought treatments, using (1) transparent roofs to exclude rainfall, (2) an unroofed control treatment receiving natural rainfall and (3) a roofed control, nested in the drought treatment but with rain water reapplied according to ambient conditions. 3 Roofs had a slight impact on air (+0.14°C during night) and soil temperatures (−0.45°C on warm days, +0.25°C on cold nights), while photosynthetically active radiation was decreased significantly (−16%). Aboveground plant community biomass was reduced in the drought treatment (−41%), but there was no significant difference between the roofed and unroofed control, i.e., there were no measurable roof artifact effects. 4 Compared to the unroofed control, litter decomposition was decreased significantly both in the drought treatment (−26%) and in the roofed control treatment (−18%), suggesting artifact effects of the transparent roofs. Moreover, aboveground metabolite profiles in the model plant species Medicago x varia were different from the unroofed control in both the drought and roofed control treatments, and roof artifact effects were of comparable magnitude as drought effects. 5 Our results stress the need for roofed control

  2. Understanding Roofing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsen, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the various types of multi- and single-ply roofing commonly used today in educational facilities. Roofing types described involve built-up systems, modified bitumen systems; ethylene propylene diene terpolymer roofs; and roofs of thermoplastic, metal, and foam. A description of the Roofing Industry Educational Institute is included. (GR)

  3. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, Elena M

    2009-01-01

    strokes, heat exhaustion, and pollution that can agitate the respiratory system. The most significant savings associated with green roofs is in the reduction of cooling demands due to the green roof's thermal mass and their insulating properties. Unlike a conventional roof system, a green roof does not absorb solar radiation and transfer that heat into the interior of a building. Instead the vegetation acts as a shade barrier and stabilizes the roof temperature so that interior temperatures remain comfortable for the occupants. Consequently there is less of a demand for air conditioning, and thus less money spent on energy. At LANL the potential of green roof systems has already been realized with the construction of the accessible green roof on the Otowi building. To further explore the possibilities and prospective benefits of green roofs though, the initial capital costs must be invested. Three buildings, TA-03-1698, TA-03-0502, and TA-53-0031 have all been identified as sound candidates for a green roof retrofit project. It is recommended that LANL proceed with further analysis of these projects and implementation of the green roofs. Furthermore, it is recommended that an urban forestry program be initiated to provide supplemental support to the environmental goals of green roofs. The obstacles barring green roof construction are most often budgetary and structural concerns. Given proper resources, however, the engineers and design professionals at LANL would surely succeed in the proper implementation of green roof systems so as to optimize their ecological and monetary benefits for the entire organization.

  4. Rules To Roof By.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Olivia

    2002-01-01

    Advises schools on keeping roofs healthy, thereby saving costly repairs to both the roof and the entire building. Discusses inspections, preventive-maintenance programs, weather, and when to re-roof. (EV)

  5. Roof and Attic Design Guidelines for new and retrofit Construction of Homes in Hot and Coild Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer; LaFrance, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Some guidelines for improving the energy efficiency of roofs and attics are presented and are based on the research of the DOE Building Technology. The results of combined analytical and experimental studies were used to benchmark computer tools, which in turn, were used to simulate homes in hot and cold climates. Adding floor and roof insulation, above deck ventilation, radiant barriers, cool color shingle, metal or tile roofs, sealing the attic floor, sealing the duct system and sealing the attic were simulated to compute the cost of energy savings. Results are prioritized to help building owners make an informed economic decision when contemplating roof and attic retrofits. Sealing the attic floor is a top retrofit option. The sealed attic approach and a new prototype roof assembly an insulated and ventilated roof are good options for retrofit work but have paybacks ranging from 15 to 25 years. A new sealed attic concept was simulated and computations show its simple payback is about 10 to 12 years in hot and cold climates; its first cost is significantly reduced from that of a spray foam approach. For new construction the best option is to keep the ducts out of the attic, make sure the attic floor is sealed and add at least code level of insulation to the ceiling.

  6. Design, Development, and Performance Evaluation of Solar Heating System for Disinfection of Domestic Roof-Harvested Rainwater

    PubMed Central

    Sangodoyin, A. Y.

    2015-01-01

    A box-type solar heater was designed, constructed, and used to determine the effect of solar heating on quality of domestic roof-harvested rainwater (DRHRW). During testing, naturally contaminated DRHRW was harvested in Ibadan, Nigeria, and released into the system at 93.96 Lh−1 (2.61 × 10−5 m3 s−1) in a continuous flow process. Water temperatures at inlet, within the heating chamber, and at outlet from the heating chamber and solar radiation were monitored at 10 min interval. Samples were collected at both inlet to and outlet from the heating chamber at 10 min interval for microbiological analysis. The highest plate stagnation temperature, under no-load condition, was 100°C. The solar water heater attained a maximum operational temperature of 75°C with 89.6 and 94.4% reduction in total viable count and total coliform count, respectively, while Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were completely eradicated at this temperature. The solar heater developed proved to be effective in enhancing potability of DRHRW in Ibadan, Nigeria. This may be an appropriate household water treatment technology for developing countries, hence, a way of resolving problem of low quality water for potable uses. PMID:27347529

  7. Design, Development, and Performance Evaluation of Solar Heating System for Disinfection of Domestic Roof-Harvested Rainwater.

    PubMed

    Akintola, O A; Sangodoyin, A Y

    2015-01-01

    A box-type solar heater was designed, constructed, and used to determine the effect of solar heating on quality of domestic roof-harvested rainwater (DRHRW). During testing, naturally contaminated DRHRW was harvested in Ibadan, Nigeria, and released into the system at 93.96 Lh(-1) (2.61 × 10(-5) m(3) s(-1)) in a continuous flow process. Water temperatures at inlet, within the heating chamber, and at outlet from the heating chamber and solar radiation were monitored at 10 min interval. Samples were collected at both inlet to and outlet from the heating chamber at 10 min interval for microbiological analysis. The highest plate stagnation temperature, under no-load condition, was 100°C. The solar water heater attained a maximum operational temperature of 75°C with 89.6 and 94.4% reduction in total viable count and total coliform count, respectively, while Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were completely eradicated at this temperature. The solar heater developed proved to be effective in enhancing potability of DRHRW in Ibadan, Nigeria. This may be an appropriate household water treatment technology for developing countries, hence, a way of resolving problem of low quality water for potable uses.

  8. Elicitors aboveground: an alternative for control of a belowground pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation ...

  9. The Effects of Roof Membrane Color on Moisture Accumulation in Low-slope Commercial Roof Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly reflective roof membrane systems is being promoted and in some cases required in energy codes and green building codes and standards. Highly reflective membranes, which typically are light in color, have demonstrated reduced overall energy consumption in cooling dominated climate. These membranes also are theorized to reduce the heat island effect. Concern has been expressed about using highly reflective roof membrane systems in cool to cold climate zones because they potentially increase moisture accumulation in roof systems. Roof membranes are vapor retarders. The theory is that highly reflective membranes reflect the heat that could enter the roof assembly, potentially providing a condensing surface on the cold side of the roof assembly during winter months. The other concern is that roof systems using highly reflective membranes will not get hot enough during the summer months to dry out moisture that may have condensed or otherwise entered the roof assembly. This study focuses on mechanically attached, highly reflective, single-ply roof systems installed on low-slope (less than 2:12) structures in cool to cold climate zones. Three sources of data are considered when determining the moisture accumulation potential of these systems. 1.Test roof cuts taken during the winter months 2.Modeling data from a building envelope model specifically designed to evaluate moisture accumulation 3.Data from previous studies to determine the effects of roof membrane color on the drying rate of low-slope roof assemblies

  10. 7 CFR 3201.11 - Roof coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roof coatings. 3201.11 Section 3201.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.11 Roof coatings....

  11. Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Gartland, L.; Akbari, H.; Rainer, L.

    1998-06-01

    Dark roofs raise the summertime air-conditioning demand of buildings. For highly-absorptive roofs, the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures can be as high as 90 F, while for highly-reflective roofs with similar insulative properties, the difference is only about 20 F. For this reason, cool roofs are effective in reducing cooling energy use. Several experiments on individual residential buildings in California and Florida show that coating roofs white reduces summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use from 2--63%. This demonstration project was carried out to address some of the practical issues regarding the implementation of reflective roofs in a few commercial buildings. The authors monitored air-conditioning electricity use, roof surface temperature, plenum, indoor, and outdoor air temperatures, and other environmental variables in three buildings in California: two medical office buildings in Gilroy and Davis and a retail store in San Jose. Coating the roofs of these buildings with a reflective coating increased the roof albedo from an average of 0.20--0.60. The roof surface temperature on hot sunny summer afternoons fell from 175 F--120 F after the coating was applied. Summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use was reduced by 18% (6.3 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Davis building, 13% (3.6 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Gilroy building, and 2% (0.4 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the San Jose store. In each building, a kiosk was installed to display information from the project in order to educate and inform the general public about the environmental and energy-saving benefits of cool roofs. They were designed to explain cool-roof coating theory and to display real-time measurements of weather conditions, roof surface temperature, and air-conditioning electricity use. 55 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. 40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The separator shall be equipped with a floating roof designed to meet the following specifications: (1) The floating roof shall be designed to float on the liquid surface during normal operations. (2) The floating roof shall be equipped with two continuous seals, one above the other, between the wall of...

  13. Green roof systems: a study of public attitudes and preferences in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Cañero, Rafael; Emilsson, Tobias; Fernandez-Barba, Carolina; Herrera Machuca, Miguel Ángel

    2013-10-15

    This study investigates people's preconceptions of green roofs and their visual preference for different green roof design alternatives in relation to behavioral, social and demographical variables. The investigation was performed as a visual preference study using digital images created to represent eight different alternatives: gravel roof, extensive green roof with Sedums not in flower, extensive green roof with sedums in bloom, semi-intensive green roof with sedums and ornamental grasses, semi-intensive green roof with shrubs, intensive green roof planted with a lawn, intensive green roof with succulent and trees and intensive green roof with shrubs and trees. Using a Likert-type scale, 450 respondents were asked to indicate their preference for each digital image. Results indicated that respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and childhood environmental background influenced their preferences toward different green roof types. Results also showed that green roofs with a more careful design, greater variety of vegetation structure, and more variety of colors were preferred over alternatives.

  14. Metal Roofing in a "Class" by Itself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimtz, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    The structural standing seam roof has the advantages of ease of application, low maintenance, and low life-cycle costs. Explains and illustrates how the system's concealed clip attachments are designed so that the roof panels can expand and contract independently of the insulation. (MLF)

  15. Economic and environmental evaluation model for selecting the optimum design of green roof systems in elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Kim, JiMin; Hong, TaeHoon; Koo, Choong-Wan

    2012-08-01

    Green-roof systems offer various benefits to man and nature, such as establishing ecological environments, improving landscape and air quality, and offering pleasant living environments. This study aimed to develop an optimal-scenario selection model that considers both the economic and the environmental effect in applying GRSs to educational facilities. The following process was carried out: (i) 15 GRSs scenarios were established by combining three soil and five plant types and (ii) the results of the life cycle CO(2) analyses with the GRSs scenarios were converted to an economic value using certified emission reductions (CERs) carbon credits. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed based on these results. The results showed that when considering only the currently realized economic value, the conventional roof system is superior to the GRSs. However, the LCC analysis that included the environmental value, revealed that compared to the conventional roof system, the following six GRSs scenarios are superior (cost reduction; reduction ratio; in descending order): scenarios 13 ($195,229; 11.0%), 3 ($188,178; 10.6%), 8 ($181,558; 10.3%), 12 ($130,464; 7.4%), 2 ($124,566; 7.0%), and 7 ($113,931; 6.4%). Although the effect is relatively small in terms of cost reduction, environmental value attributes cannot be ignored in terms of the reduction ratio.

  16. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  17. Selecting a Roof Membrane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Larry W.

    1990-01-01

    Offers a brief synopsis of the unique characteristics of the following roof membranes: (1) built-up roofing; (2) elastoplastic membranes; (3) modified bitumen membranes; (4) liquid applied membranes; and (5) metal roofing. A chart compares the characteristics of the raw membranes only. (MLF)

  18. Roof System EPDM Shrinkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betker, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Looks at Ethylene Propylene Diene Terpolymer rubber roof membranes and the potential problems associated with this material's shrinkage. Discusses how long such a roof should perform and issues affecting repair or replacement. Recommends that a building's function be considered in any roofing decision. (RJM)

  19. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance,more » roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.« less

  20. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of

  1. 7 CFR 3201.11 - Roof coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... coating products within this designated item can compete with similar roofing material products. Under the... Guideline, 40 CFR 247.12. ... systems to provide a single-coat monolith coating system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  2. 7 CFR 3201.11 - Roof coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... coating products within this designated item can compete with similar roofing material products. Under the... Guideline, 40 CFR 247.12. ... systems to provide a single-coat monolith coating system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  3. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Zaltash, Abdolreza; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Ennis, Mike J

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have helped to fuel their resurgence in industrial and urban settings. There are many environmental and economical benefits that can be realized by incorporating a vegetative roof into the design of a building. These include storm-water retention, energy conservation, reduction in the urban heat island effect, increased longevity of the roofing membrane, the ability of plants to create biodiversity and filter air contaminants, and beautification of the surroundings by incorporating green space. The vegetative roof research project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was initiated to quantify the thermal performance of various vegetative roofing systems relative to black and white roofs. Single Ply Roofing Institute (SPRI) continued its long-term commitment to cooperative research with ORNL in this project. Low-slope roof systems for this study were constructed and instrumented for continuous monitoring in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. This report summarizes the results of the annual cooling and heating loads per unit area of three vegetative roofing systems with side-by-side comparison to black and white roofing systems as well as a test section with just the growing media without plants. Results showed vegetative roofs reduced heat gain (reduced cooling loads) compared to the white control system due to the thermal mass, extra insulation, and evapo-transpiration associated with the vegetative roofing systems. The 4-inch and tray systems reduced the heat gain by approximately 61%, while the reduction with the 8-inch vegetative roof was found to be approximately 67%. The vegetative roofing systems were more effective in reducing heat gain than in reducing heat losses (heating loads). The reduction in heat losses for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 40

  4. IMPROVED ROOF STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remediation sites have performed roof repair and roof replacement to stabilize facilities prior to performing deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities. This project will review the decision criteria used by these DOE sites, along with the type of repair system used for each different roof type. Based on this information, along with that compiled from roofing experts, a decision-making tool will be generated to aid in selecting the proper roof repair systems. Where appropriate, innovative technologies will be reviewed and applied to the decision-making tool to determine their applicability. Based on the results, applied research and development will be conducted to develop a method to repair these existing roofing systems, while providing protection for the D and D worker in a cost-efficient manner.

  5. Decision Guide for Roof Slope Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    This decision guide has been written for personnel who are responsible for the design, construction, and replacement of Air Force roofs. It provides the necessary information and analytical tools for making prudent and cost-effective decisions regarding the amount of slope to provide in various roofing situations. Because the expertise and experience of the decision makers will vary, the guide contains both basic slope-related concepts as well as more sophisticated technical data. This breadth of information enables the less experienced user to develop an understanding of roof slope issues before applying the more sophisticated analytical tools, while the experienced user can proceed directly to the technical sections. Although much of this guide is devoted to the analysis of costs, it is not a cost-estimating document. It does, however, provide the reader with the relative costs of a variety of roof slope options; and it shows how to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of different options. The selection of the proper roof slope coupled with good roof design, a quality installation, periodic inspection, and appropriate maintenance and repair will achieve the Air Force's objective of obtaining the best possible roofing value for its buildings.

  6. Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

    2008-07-11

    Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally high solar reflectance can also stay cool in the sun. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof decreases cooling-electricity use, cooling-power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating-energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywide ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. Provisions for cool roofs in energy-efficiency standards can promote the building- and climate-appropriate use of cool roofing technologies. Cool-roof requirements are designed to reduce building energy use, while energy-neutral cool-roof credits permit the use of less energy-efficient components (e.g., larger windows) in a building that has energy-saving cool roofs. Both types of measures can reduce the life-cycle cost of a building (initial cost plus lifetime energy cost). Since 1999, several widely used building energy-efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool-roof credits or requirements. This paper reviews the technical development of cool-roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discusses the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool-roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standards worldwide.

  7. Roofing Source File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Provides guidelines for school administrators to aid in the selection of school-roofing systems, and information required to make specification and purchasing decisions. Low-slope roofing systems are examined, as are multiply systems such as modified bitumen, EPDM, thermoplastic, metal, and foam. (GR)

  8. Guide to Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb sunlight, making them warm in the sun and increasing the need for air conditioning. White or special "cool color" roofs absorb less sunlight, stay cooler in the sun and transmit less heat into the building.

  9. ROOFING, PART 2. WORKBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOLTJES, WILLIAM; AND OTHERS

    THE TECHNICAL INFORMATION IN THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS PLANNED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR THE ROOFING TRADE AND WRITTEN BY AN APPRENTICE TRAINING SPECIALIST AND OTHERS TO BE USED AS RELATED CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION IN THE APPRENTICE TRAINING PROGRAM FOR ROOFERS. THE UNITS INCLUDE (1) BUILT-UP ROOFING, DAMPPROOFING,…

  10. Why Cool Roofs?

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2016-07-12

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  11. Why Cool Roofs?

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steven

    2010-01-01

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  12. Million Solar Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    Since its announcement in June 1997, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative has generated a major buzz in communities, states, and throughout the nation. With more than 300,000 installations, the buzz is getting louder. This brochure describes Million Solar Roofs activities and partnerships.

  13. Selection and use of seals and sealants at building roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.G.

    1998-12-31

    In general, the roofing industry has performed reasonably well in providing seals and sealants which are adequate for various roof membranes or other roofing systems. However, the seal and sealant conditions created by exposures, and the interfaces of various systems, components, and materials, is not generally well understood. This may result in a design, and its subsequent construction, which is subject to leakage, damage, premature deterioration, and disruption to building occupancy. To date, the roofing industry has not addressed this issue of seals and sealants at a detail level. This paper addresses the primary considerations for selecting and installing building seals and sealants at low slope roofs, and provides a methodology and a checklist to be used in the selection, detailing and application of these roofing seals and sealants. The three basic types of seal conditions normally found at building roofs, and the basic causes of construction problems and criteria for evaluating roof seals and sealants are identified. The drawing examples, methodology, and checklists provide information to assist designers and others in avoiding problematic conditions associated with seals and sealants, in both new and remedial roof design and construction. This paper addresses technical as well as non-technical issues such as compatibilities, movement capabilities, ultra violet resistance, quality assurance, and workmanship and maintenance. Steep roof systems such as asphaltic shingles, clay tile, slate, and sheet metal are excluded from consideration in this paper.

  14. Protected Membrane Roofs: A Sustainable Roofing Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the benefits of protected membrane roofing (PMR) for school buildings. PMR uses an upside-down approach, where the insulation is placed on top of the waterproofing membrane to improve membrane effectiveness, reduce ultraviolet degradation, and improve insulation efficiency. The article explains what makes PMR sustainable, focusing on…

  15. Roofing Workbook and Tests: Rigid Roofing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingensmith, Robert, Ed.

    This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test. Eight topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives and information sheets are provided. Information sheets are…

  16. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  17. Solar power roof shingle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G.

    1975-01-01

    Silicon solar cell module provides both all-weather protection and electrical power. Module consists of array of circular silicon solar cells bonded to fiberglass substrate roof shingle with fluorinated ethylene propylene encapsulant.

  18. Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

    2004-09-01

    In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

  19. Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste burning of asphalt roofing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnick, E.L.; Markus, A.R.; Seigfried, J.N.; Powers, T.J.; Shepherd, P.B.; Graziano, G.J.; Battles, R.L.

    1986-09-15

    The research described in this report was designed to determine the general feasibility and specific requirements for burning asphalt roofing waste and recovering the energy resource as steam. The study combined technical market research with test burning in a three-task program to identify how to use burning as a means for reocvering the 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu in roofing waste landfilled annually.

  20. ROOF, A view looking north from the stair tower roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ROOF, A view looking north from the stair tower roof at the external piping - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  1. Up on the Roof: A Systematic Approach to Roof Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, William

    1979-01-01

    A systematic roof maintenance program is characterized by carefully prepared long- and short-range plans. An essential feature of a systematic approach to roof maintenance is the stress on preventive measures rather than the patching of leaks. (Author)

  2. Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof truss, newer pratt truss, and longitudinal, truss for overhead traveling crane - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  3. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  4. 24. Roof detail from liftbed truck, showing pan roof above ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Roof detail from lift-bed truck, showing pan roof above breezeway, with sawn redwood trim, tube-type drains; note missing rain gutter at roof edge, deteriorated condition of slates; view to south, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  5. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Moon, H J; Kim, T I; Kim, H W; Han, M Y

    2013-10-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design.

  6. Integrated roof wind energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suma, A. B.; Ferraro, R. M.; Dano, B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  7. High-Tech Roof Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzie, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a computerized roof management system (CRMS) for school districts to foster multiple roof maintenance efficiency and cost effectiveness. Highlights CRMS software manufacturer choices, as well as the types of nondestructive testing equipment tools that can be used to evaluate roof conditions. (GR)

  8. Green roof hydrologic performance and modeling: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanling; Babcock, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Green roofs reduce runoff from impervious surfaces in urban development. This paper reviews the technical literature on green roof hydrology. Laboratory experiments and field measurements have shown that green roofs can reduce stormwater runoff volume by 30 to 86%, reduce peak flow rate by 22 to 93% and delay the peak flow by 0 to 30 min and thereby decrease pollution, flooding and erosion during precipitation events. However, the effectiveness can vary substantially due to design characteristics making performance predictions difficult. Evaluation of the most recently published study findings indicates that the major factors affecting green roof hydrology are precipitation volume, precipitation dynamics, antecedent conditions, growth medium, plant species, and roof slope. This paper also evaluates the computer models commonly used to simulate hydrologic processes for green roofs, including stormwater management model, soil water atmosphere and plant, SWMS-2D, HYDRUS, and other models that are shown to be effective for predicting precipitation response and economic benefits. The review findings indicate that green roofs are effective for reduction of runoff volume and peak flow, and delay of peak flow, however, no tool or model is available to predict expected performance for any given anticipated system based on design parameters that directly affect green roof hydrology. PMID:24569270

  9. Green roof hydrologic performance and modeling: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanling; Babcock, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Green roofs reduce runoff from impervious surfaces in urban development. This paper reviews the technical literature on green roof hydrology. Laboratory experiments and field measurements have shown that green roofs can reduce stormwater runoff volume by 30 to 86%, reduce peak flow rate by 22 to 93% and delay the peak flow by 0 to 30 min and thereby decrease pollution, flooding and erosion during precipitation events. However, the effectiveness can vary substantially due to design characteristics making performance predictions difficult. Evaluation of the most recently published study findings indicates that the major factors affecting green roof hydrology are precipitation volume, precipitation dynamics, antecedent conditions, growth medium, plant species, and roof slope. This paper also evaluates the computer models commonly used to simulate hydrologic processes for green roofs, including stormwater management model, soil water atmosphere and plant, SWMS-2D, HYDRUS, and other models that are shown to be effective for predicting precipitation response and economic benefits. The review findings indicate that green roofs are effective for reduction of runoff volume and peak flow, and delay of peak flow, however, no tool or model is available to predict expected performance for any given anticipated system based on design parameters that directly affect green roof hydrology.

  10. Solar heating shingle roof structure

    SciTech Connect

    Straza, G.T.

    1984-01-31

    A solar heating roof shingle roof structure which combines the functions of a roof and a fluid conducting solar heating panel. Each shingle is a hollow body of the general size and configuration of a conventional shingle, and is provided with a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. Shingles are assembled in a normal overlapping array to cover a roof structure, with interconnections between the inlets and outlets of successive shingles to provide a fluid path through the complete array. An inlet manifold is contained in a cap used at the peak of the roof and an outlet manifold is connected to the lowest row of shingles.

  11. The wind resistance of asphalt roofing shingles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Craig Robert

    Asphalt shingle roofing is the leading cause of hurricane wind-related insured losses in residential buildings. Damage statistics generated from recent hurricanes indicate shingle roofs sustain damage in wind velocities below design-level with damage frequency increasing with shingle roof age. The objective of this dissertation is the identification of primary mechanisms triggering the failure of shingle roof systems in wind. The research goal is to reduce future shingle roof wind damage and improve our ability to predict asphalt shingle wind resistance. Five studies comprising this dissertation addressed the adhesive consistency and strength of aged asphalt shingles, system-level wind resistance, and the load model underpinning the ASTM D7158 wind test standard. The most significant and unexpected finding was partially unsealed shingles on field, hip, and ridge locations on Florida and Texas homes. Location on the shingle's sealant strip where unsealed and failure mode were consistent at each location. Total quantity of partially unsealed shingles in the field of the roof significantly increased with age, aligning with damage statistics. Full-scale wind tunnel tests demonstrate partially unsealed shingles are more vulnerable than fully sealed due to increased distributed force on sealant strip and concentrated force at the adhered and non-adhered interface. Uplift resistance was measured in artificially and naturally aged shingles. For artificially aged shingles, one of three products evaluated had statistically significant decreases in mean uplift resistance as exposure time increased. However, resistance was above design-level at all exposure test intervals. Naturally aged shingles also had resistance above design-level. Combined results demonstrate that reduced uplift capacity can occur, but high initial bond strength promotes long-term uplift resistance. Wind loads exerted on the shingles sealant strip load path were directly measured on fully sealed and

  12. The influence of extensive vegetated roofs on runoff water quality.

    PubMed

    Berndtsson, Justyna Czemiel; Emilsson, Tobias; Bengtsson, Lars

    2006-02-15

    The influence of extensive sedum-moss vegetated roofs on runoff water quality was studied for four full scale installations located in southern Sweden. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether the vegetated roof behaves as a sink or a source of pollutants and whether the age of a vegetated roof influences runoff quality. The runoff quality from vegetated roofs was also compared with the runoff quality from non-vegetated roofs located in study areas. The following metals and nutrients were investigated: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Zn, NO3-N, NH4-N, Tot-N, PO4-P, and Tot-P. The results show that, with the exception of nitrogen, vegetated roofs behave as source of contaminants. While in lower concentrations than normally found in urban runoff, some metals appear in concentrations that would correspond to moderately polluted natural water. Nitrate nitrogen is retained by the vegetation or soil or both. Apart from the oldest, the studied vegetated roofs contribute phosphate phosphorus to the runoff. The maintenance of the vegetation systems on the roofs has to be carefully designed in order to avoid storm-water contamination; for instance, the use of easily dissolvable fertilizers should be avoided.

  13. Steel Roofing Systems Have School Districts Looking Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Michael F.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the leading benefits of choosing steel roofing for educational facilities. Benefits examined are durability, energy efficiency, aesthetics and design flexibility, and construction efficiency and low life cycle cost. (GR)

  14. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a 'green' product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  15. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  16. Structural testing of corrugated asbestos-cement roof panels at the Hanford Facilities, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Moustafa, S.E.; Rodehaver, S.M.; Frier, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes a roof testing program that was carried out at the 105KE/KW Spent Fuel Storage Basins and their surrounding facilities at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The roof panels were constructed in the mid 1950`s of corrugated asbestos-cement (A/C), which showed common signs of aging. Based on the construction specifications, the panels capacity to meet current design standards was questioned. Both laboratory and in-situ load testing of the corrugated A/C panels was conducted. The objective of the complete test program was to determine the structural integrity of the existing A/C roof panels installed in the 105KE and 105KW facilities. The data from these tests indicated that the roofs are capable of resisting the design loads and are considered safe. A second phase test to address the roof resistance to personnel and roof removal/roofing system installation equipment was recommended and is underway.

  17. The Benefits of Preventive Roof Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinger, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explains how to convince school administration of the importance of roof-maintenance programs as a way of extending roof life and saving money, even in the presence of roof warranties. Discusses techniques for evaluating the cost benefits of roof maintenance and the importance of creating a roof historical file. (GR)

  18. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  19. 30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205 Section 75.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Roof Support § 75.205 Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When roof bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting equipment:...

  20. 30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205 Section 75.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Roof Support § 75.205 Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When roof bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting equipment:...

  1. 30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205 Section 75.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Roof Support § 75.205 Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When roof bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting equipment:...

  2. 30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205 Section 75.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Roof Support § 75.205 Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When roof bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting equipment:...

  3. Development of a Roof Savings Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Huang, Joe; Erdem, Ender

    2011-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of thermal mass, ceiling insulation and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate energy/cost savings between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft Irwin, CA.

  4. Development of a Roof Savings Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Erdem, Ender; Huang, Joe

    2011-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide estimated annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of building materials, ceiling and deck insulation, and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate an energy/cost savings estimate between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, CA.

  5. 13. ONE OF TWO LATERAL ROOF TRUSSES AND ROOF SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. ONE OF TWO LATERAL ROOF TRUSSES AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA GAS LIGHT COMPANY GASHOLDER NO. 2 HOUSE LOOKING WEST. THE WIRES AND BEAM AT RIGHT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH HAVE BEEN ADDED TO STABILIZE TRUSS SYSTEM - Saratoga Gas Light Company, Gasholder No. 2, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Substation Facility, intersection of Excelsior & East Avenues, Saratoga Springs, NY

  6. 12. CENTRAL ROOF TRUSS AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CENTRAL ROOF TRUSS AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA GAS LIGHT COMPANY GASHOLDER NO. 2 HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. THE WIRES AND BEAM AT RIGHT OF PHOTOGRAPH HAVE BEEN ADDED TO STABILIZE TRUSS SYSTEM. - Saratoga Gas Light Company, Gasholder No. 2, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Substation Facility, intersection of Excelsior & East Avenues, Saratoga Springs, NY

  7. Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This book is one of a series of 10 units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. It covers the following 14 topics and provides tests for them: the nature of the roofing and waterproofing industry; the apprenticeship program; apprenticeship and the public schools; collective bargaining, wages, and benefits; safety in the…

  8. EXTERIOR, ROOF, A view looking southeast from the roof toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, ROOF, A view looking southeast from the roof toward a low wall and the west facade of a penthouse with two stacks located in the southern courtyard - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  9. Exterior view of roof. Looking at eastern half of roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of roof. Looking at eastern half of roof with three elevations/gun mount towers. Clerestory structures also in view. View facing southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, General Storehouse, Eighth Street at Avenue D, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Green roofs for a drier world: effects of hydrogel amendment on substrate and plant water status.

    PubMed

    Savi, Tadeja; Marin, Maria; Boldrin, David; Incerti, Guido; Andri, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-08-15

    Climate features of the Mediterranean area make plant survival over green roofs challenging, thus calling for research work to improve water holding capacities of green roof systems. We assessed the effects of polymer hydrogel amendment on the water holding capacity of a green roof substrate, as well as on water status and growth of Salvia officinalis. Plants were grown in green roof experimental modules containing 8 cm or 12 cm deep substrate (control) or substrate mixed with hydrogel at two different concentrations: 0.3 or 0.6%. Hydrogel significantly increased the substrate's water content at saturation, as well as water available to vegetation. Plants grown in 8 cm deep substrate mixed with 0.6% of hydrogel showed the best performance in terms of water status and membrane integrity under drought stress, associated to the lowest above-ground biomass. Our results provide experimental evidence that polymer hydrogel amendments enhance water supply to vegetation at the establishment phase of a green roof. In particular, the water status of plants is most effectively improved when reduced substrate depths are used to limit the biomass accumulation during early growth stages. A significant loss of water holding capacity of substrate-hydrogel blends was observed after 5 months from establishment of the experimental modules. We suggest that cross-optimization of physical-chemical characteristics of hydrogels and green roof substrates is needed to improve long term effectiveness of polymer-hydrogel blends.

  11. How Cool Is Your Roof?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Explains a concept called cool roof that is used to reduce electricity costs for air conditioning, and also reduce the price of air conditioning units. Discusses the light reflecting capabilities of metal roofing as well as coatings that can stop leaks. (GR)

  12. Solar heating shingle roof structure

    SciTech Connect

    Straza, G.T.

    1981-01-13

    A solar heating roof shingle roof structure which combines the functions of a roof and a fluid conducting solar heating panel. Each shingle is a hollow body of the general size and configuration of a conventional shingle, and is provided with a fluid inlet socket at the upper end and a fluid outlet plug at the lower end with a skirt at the lower end overlapping the plug. Shingles are assembled in an overlapping array to cover a roof structure, with interconnections between the inlets and outlets of successive longitudinally positioned shingles to provide fluid paths through the complete array. An inlet manifold is positioned at the upper end of the array or in the alternative contained in a cap used at the peak of the roof and an outlet manifold is connected to the outlet of the lowest row of shingles.

  13. Measuring mine roof bolt strains

    DOEpatents

    Steblay, Bernard J.

    1986-01-01

    A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

  14. Storm Water Retention on Three Green Roofs with Distinct Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breach, P. A.; Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.; Powers, B. S. C.

    2014-12-01

    As urbanization continues to increase the impact of cities on their surrounding environments, the feasibility of implementing low-impact development such as green roofs is of increasing interest. Green roofs retain and attenuate storm water thereby reducing the load on urban sewer systems. In addition, green roofs can provide insulation and lower roof surface temperature leading to a decrease in building energy load. Green roof technology in North American urban environments remains underused, in part due to a lack of climate appropriate green roof design guidelines. The capacity of a green roof to moderate runoff depends on the storage capacity of the growing medium at the start of a rainfall event. Storage capacity is finite, which makes rapid drainage and evapotranspiration loss critical for maximizing storage capacity between subsequent storms. Here the retention and attenuation of storm events are quantified for experimental green roof sites located in three representative Canadian climates corresponding to; semiarid conditions in Calgary, Alberta, moderate conditions in London, Ontario, and cool and humid conditions in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The storage recovery and storm water retention at each site is modelled using a modified water balance approach. Components of the water balance including evapotranspiration are predicted using climate data collected from 2012 to 2014 at each of the experimental sites. During the measurement period there were over 300 precipitation events ranging from small, frequent events (< 2 mm) to a storm with a 250 year return period. The modeling approach adopted provides a tool for planners to assess the feasibility of implementing green roofs in their respective climates.

  15. Reliability Analysis of a Green Roof Under Different Storm Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William, R. K.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Urban environments continue to face the challenges of localized flooding and decreased water quality brought on by the increasing amount of impervious area in the built environment. Green infrastructure provides an alternative to conventional storm sewer design by using natural processes to filter and store stormwater at its source. However, there are currently few consistent standards available in North America to ensure that installed green infrastructure is performing as expected. This analysis offers a method for characterizing green roof failure using a visual aid commonly used in earthquake engineering: fragility curves. We adapted the concept of the fragility curve based on the efficiency in runoff reduction provided by a green roof compared to a conventional roof under different storm scenarios. We then used the 2D distributed surface water-groundwater coupled model MIKE SHE to model the impact that a real green roof might have on runoff in different storm events. We then employed a multiple regression analysis to generate an algebraic demand model that was input into the Matlab-based reliability analysis model FERUM, which was then used to calculate the probability of failure. The use of reliability analysis as a part of green infrastructure design code can provide insights into green roof weaknesses and areas for improvement. It also supports the design of code that is more resilient than current standards and is easily testable for failure. Finally, the understanding of reliability of a single green roof module under different scenarios can support holistic testing of system reliability.

  16. The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Carolina B; Klenzendorf, J Brandon; Afshar, Brigit R; Simmons, Mark T; Barrett, Michael E; Kinney, Kerry A; Kirisits, Mary Jo

    2011-02-01

    Due to decreases in the availability and quality of traditional water resources, harvested rainwater is increasingly used for potable and non-potable purposes. In this study, we examined the effect of conventional roofing materials (i.e., asphalt fiberglass shingle, Galvalume(®) metal, and concrete tile) and alternative roofing materials (i.e., cool and green) on the quality of harvested rainwater. Results from pilot-scale and full-scale roofs demonstrated that rainwater harvested from any of these roofing materials would require treatment if the consumer wanted to meet United States Environmental Protection Agency primary and secondary drinking water standards or non-potable water reuse guidelines; at a minimum, first-flush diversion, filtration, and disinfection are recommended. Metal roofs are commonly recommended for rainwater harvesting applications, and this study showed that rainwater harvested from metal roofs tends to have lower concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria as compared to other roofing materials. However, concrete tile and cool roofs produced harvested rainwater quality similar to that from the metal roofs, indicating that these roofing materials also are suitable for rainwater harvesting applications. Although the shingle and green roofs produced water quality comparable in many respects to that from the other roofing materials, their dissolved organic carbon concentrations were very high (approximately one order of magnitude higher than what is typical for a finished drinking water in the United States), which might lead to high concentrations of disinfection byproducts after chlorination. Furthermore the concentrations of some metals (e.g., arsenic) in rainwater harvested from the green roof suggest that the quality of commercial growing media should be carefully examined if the harvested rainwater is being considered for domestic use. Hence, roofing material is an important consideration when designing a rainwater catchment. PMID

  17. The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Carolina B; Klenzendorf, J Brandon; Afshar, Brigit R; Simmons, Mark T; Barrett, Michael E; Kinney, Kerry A; Kirisits, Mary Jo

    2011-02-01

    Due to decreases in the availability and quality of traditional water resources, harvested rainwater is increasingly used for potable and non-potable purposes. In this study, we examined the effect of conventional roofing materials (i.e., asphalt fiberglass shingle, Galvalume(®) metal, and concrete tile) and alternative roofing materials (i.e., cool and green) on the quality of harvested rainwater. Results from pilot-scale and full-scale roofs demonstrated that rainwater harvested from any of these roofing materials would require treatment if the consumer wanted to meet United States Environmental Protection Agency primary and secondary drinking water standards or non-potable water reuse guidelines; at a minimum, first-flush diversion, filtration, and disinfection are recommended. Metal roofs are commonly recommended for rainwater harvesting applications, and this study showed that rainwater harvested from metal roofs tends to have lower concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria as compared to other roofing materials. However, concrete tile and cool roofs produced harvested rainwater quality similar to that from the metal roofs, indicating that these roofing materials also are suitable for rainwater harvesting applications. Although the shingle and green roofs produced water quality comparable in many respects to that from the other roofing materials, their dissolved organic carbon concentrations were very high (approximately one order of magnitude higher than what is typical for a finished drinking water in the United States), which might lead to high concentrations of disinfection byproducts after chlorination. Furthermore the concentrations of some metals (e.g., arsenic) in rainwater harvested from the green roof suggest that the quality of commercial growing media should be carefully examined if the harvested rainwater is being considered for domestic use. Hence, roofing material is an important consideration when designing a rainwater catchment.

  18. Energy Performance Impacts from Competing Low-slope Roofing Choices and Photovoltaic Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagengast, Amy L.

    With such a vast quantity of space, commercial low-slope roofs offer significant potential for sustainable roofing technology deployment. Specifically, building energy performance can be improved by installing rooftop energy technologies such as photovoltaic (PV) panels, and/or including designs such as white or green roofs instead of traditional black. This research aims to inform and support roof decisions through quantified energy performance impacts across roof choices and photovoltaic technologies. The primary dataset for this research was measured over a 16 month period (May 24, 2011 to October 13, 2012) from a large field experiment in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on top of a commercial warehouse with white, black and green roof sections, each with portions covered by polycrystalline photovoltaic panels. Results from the Pittsburgh experiment were extended to three different cities (San Diego, CA; Huntsville, AL; and Phoenix, AZ) chosen to represent a wide range of irradiance and temperature values. First, this research evaluated the difference in electricity production from a green-moss roof and black roof underneath photovoltaic panels to determine if the green roof's cooler air increases the panel efficiency. Second, separate studies examine 1) average hourly heat flux by month for unobstructed and shaded roof membranes 2) heat flux peak time delay, and 3) air temperature across roof types. Results of this research show green roofs slightly increased (0.8-1.5%) PV panel efficiency in temperatures approximately at or above 25° C (77°F) compared to black roofs. However in cool climates, like Pittsburgh, the roof type under the PV panels had little overall impact on PV performance when considering year round temperatures. Instead, roof decisions should place a stronger emphasis on heat flux impacts. The green roof outperformed both black and white roofs at minimizing total conductive heat flux. These heat flow values were used to develop a new, straight

  19. A Roof for ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    On 10 March, an official ceremony took place on the 2,900m high site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Operations Support Facility, from where the ALMA antennas will be remotely controlled. The ceremony marked the completion of the structural works, while the building itself will be finished by the end of the year. This will become the operational centre of one of the most important ground-based astronomical facilities on Earth. ESO PR Photo 13a/07 ESO PR Photo 13a/07 Cutting the Red Ribbon The ceremony, known as 'Tijerales' in Chile, is the equivalent to the 'roof-topping ceremony' that takes place worldwide, in one form or another, to celebrate reaching the highest level of a construction. It this case, the construction is the unique ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF), located near the town of San Pedro de Atacama. "The end of this first stage represents an historic moment for ALMA," said Hans Rykaczewski, the European ALMA Project Manager. "Once completed in December 2007, this monumental building of 7,000 square metres will be one of the largest and most important astronomical operation centres in the world." ALMA, located at an elevation of 5,000m in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, will provide astronomers with the world's most advanced tool for exploring the Universe at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA will detect fainter objects and be able to produce much higher-quality images at these wavelengths than any previous telescope system. The OSF buildings are designed to suit the requirements of this exceptional observatory in a remote, desert location. The facility, which will host about 100 people during operations, consists of three main buildings: the technical building, hosting the control centre of the observatory, the antenna assembly building, including four antenna foundations for testing and maintenance purposes, and the warehouse building, including mechanical workshops. Further secondary buildings are

  20. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  1. 30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accessories addressed in ASTM F432-95, “Standard Specification for Roof and Rock Bolts and Accessories,” the.... (4) In each roof bolting cycle, the actual torque or tension of the first tensioned roof bolt... during each roof bolting cycle shall be tested during or immediately after the first row of bolts...

  2. 30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accessories addressed in ASTM F432-95, “Standard Specification for Roof and Rock Bolts and Accessories,” the.... (4) In each roof bolting cycle, the actual torque or tension of the first tensioned roof bolt... during each roof bolting cycle shall be tested during or immediately after the first row of bolts...

  3. 30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accessories addressed in ASTM F432-95, “Standard Specification for Roof and Rock Bolts and Accessories,” the.... (4) In each roof bolting cycle, the actual torque or tension of the first tensioned roof bolt... during each roof bolting cycle shall be tested during or immediately after the first row of bolts...

  4. 30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accessories addressed in ASTM F432-95, “Standard Specification for Roof and Rock Bolts and Accessories,” the.... (4) In each roof bolting cycle, the actual torque or tension of the first tensioned roof bolt... during each roof bolting cycle shall be tested during or immediately after the first row of bolts...

  5. 30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.204 Roof bolting. (a) For roof bolts and... successfully supported the roof in an area of a coal mine with similar strata, opening dimensions and...

  6. The impact of roofing material on building energy performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badiee, Ali

    The last decade has seen an increase in the efficient use of energy sources such as water, electricity, and natural gas as well as a variety of roofing materials, in the heating and cooling of both residential and commercial infrastructure. Oil costs, coal and natural gas prices remain high and unstable. All of these instabilities and increased costs have resulted in higher heating and cooling costs, and engineers are making an effort to keep them under control by using energy efficient building materials. The building envelope (that which separates the indoor and outdoor environments of a building) plays a significant role in the rate of building energy consumption. An appropriate architectural design of a building envelope can considerably lower the energy consumption during hot summers and cold winters, resulting in reduced HVAC loads. Several building components (walls, roofs, fenestration, foundations, thermal insulation, external shading devices, thermal mass, etc.) make up this essential part of a building. However, thermal insulation of a building's rooftop is the most essential part of a building envelope in that it reduces the incoming "heat flux" (defined as the amount of heat transferred per unit area per unit time from or to a surface) (Sadineni et al., 2011). Moreover, more than 60% of heat transfer occurs through the roof regardless of weather, since a roof is often the building surface that receives the largest amount of solar radiation per square annually (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). Hence, an argument can be made that the emphasis on building energy efficiency has influenced roofing manufacturing more than any other building envelope component. This research project will address roofing energy performance as the source of nearly 60% of the building heat transfer (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). We will also rank different roofing materials in terms of their energy performance. Other parts of the building envelope such as walls, foundation

  7. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-01

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat, wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls, using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat, wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  8. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-29

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  9. Impact of green roofs on stormwater quality in a South Australian urban environment.

    PubMed

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Kazemi, F

    2014-02-01

    Green roofs are an increasingly important component of water sensitive urban design systems and can potentially improve the quality of urban runoff. However, there is evidence that they can occasionally act as a source rather than a sink for pollutants. In this study, the water quality of the outflow from both intensive and extensive green roof systems were studied in the city of Adelaide, South Australia over a period of nine months. The aim was to examine the effects of different green roof configurations on stormwater quality and to compare this with runoff from aluminium and asphalt roofs as control surfaces. The contaminant concentrations in runoff from both intensive and extensive green roofs generally decreased during the study period. A comparison between the two types of green roof showed that except for some events for EC, TDS and chloride, the values of the parameters such as pH, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate and potassium in intensive green roof outflows were higher than in the outflows from the extensive green roofs. These concentrations were compared to local, state, national and international water quality guidelines in order to investigate the potential for outflow runoff from green roofs to be reused for potable and non-potable purposes. The study found that green roof outflow can provide an alternative water source for non-potable purposes such as urban landscape irrigation and toilet flushing.

  10. [A review of green roof performance towards management of roof runoff].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-ping; Huang, Pei; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Gao, Chi

    2015-08-01

    Green roof has a significant influence on reducing runoff volume, delaying runoff-yielding time, reducing the peak flow and improving runoff quality. This paper addressed the related research around the world and concluded from several aspects, i.e., the definition of green roof of different types, the mechanism how green roof manages runoff quantity and quality, the ability how green roof controls roof runoff, and the influence factors of green roof toward runoff quantity and quality. Afterwards, there was a need for more future work on research of green roof toward roof runoff, i.e., vegetation selection of green roof, efficient construction model selection of green roof, the regulating characteristics of green roof on roof runoff, the value assessment of green roof on roof runoff, analysis of source-sink function of green roof on the water pollutants of roof runoff and the research on the mitigation measures of roof runoff pollution. This paper provided a guideline to develop green roofs aiming to regulating roof runoff.

  11. Soil-water fluxes modelling in a green roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamera, Carlotta; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Becciu, Gianfranco; Rosso, Renzo

    2014-05-01

    Green roofs differ from a natural environment as they are on top of a building and are not connected to the natural ground; therefore it is critical that soils can drain and retain water simultaneously and that they work even in very shallow systems. The soil or growing medium used for green roofs is specifically engineered to provide the vegetation with nutrients, discharging any excess water into the drainage layer, and releasing stored water back into the substrate. In this way, medium depth and porosity plays an important role in stormwater retention and plant growth in a green roof. Due to the lack of a good understanding about the hydraulic efficiency of each green roof's layer in rainwater management, a detailed analysis of the hydrological dynamics, connected with the green roof technical design is essential in order to obtain a full characterization of the hydrologic behavior of a green roof system and its effects on the urban water cycle components. The purpose of this research is analyzing the soil-water dynamics through the different components of a green roof and modeling these processes though a detailed but clear subsurface hydrology module, based on green roof vertical soil water movement reproduction, in relation to climate forcing, basic technology components and geometric characteristics of green roof systems (thickness of the stratigraphy, soil layers and materials, vegetation typology and density). A multi-layer bucket model has been applied to examine the hydrological response of the green roof system under a temperate maritime climate, by varying the physical and geometric parameters that characterize the different components of the vegetated cover. Following a stage of validation and calibration, results confirm the suitability of the model to describe the hydrologic response of the green roof during the observed rainfall events: the discharge hydrograph profile, volume and timing, predicted by the model, matched experimental measurements

  12. A Study of the Energy-Saving Potential of Metal Roofs Incorporating Dynamic Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Miller, William A; Kriner, Scott; Manlove, Gary

    2013-01-01

    This article presents various metal roof configurations that were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, U.S. between 2009 and 2013, and describes their potential for reducing the attic-generated space-conditioning loads. These roofs contained different combinations of phase-change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface, and above-sheathing ventilation with standing-seam metal panels on top. These roofs were designed to be installed on existing roofs decks, or on top of asphalt shingles for retrofit construction. All the tested roofs showed the potential for substantial energy savings compared to an asphalt shingle roof, which was used as a control for comparison. The roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. The attics were built on top of a conditioned room. All attics were vented at the soffit and ridge. The test roofs and attics were instrumented with an array of thermocouples. Heat flux transducers were installed in the roof deck and attic floor (ceiling) to measure the heat flows through the roof and between the attic and conditioned space below. Temperature and heat flux data were collected during the heating, cooling and swing seasons over a three-year period. Data from previous years of testing have been published. Here, data from the latest roof configurations being tested in year three of the project are presented. All test roofs were highly effective in reducing the heat flows through the roof and ceiling, and in reducing the diurnal attic-temperature fluctuations.

  13. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles, Orlando, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    This research is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, FL; Zone 2A), insulated with air permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass). Given the localized moisture accumulation and failures seen in previous unvented roof field work, it was theorized that a 'diffusion vent' (water vapor open, but air barrier 'closed') at the highest points in the roof assembly might allow for the wintertime release of moisture, to safe levels. The 'diffusion vent' is an open slot at the ridge and hips, covered with a water-resistant but vapor open (500+ perm) air barrier membrane. As a control comparison, one portion of the roof was constructed as a typical unvented roof (self-adhered membrane at ridge). The data collected to date indicate that the diffusion vent roof shows greater moisture safety than the conventional, unvented roof design. The unvented roof had extended winter periods of 95-100% RH, and wafer (wood surrogate RH sensor) measurements indicating possible condensation; high moisture levels were concentrated at the roof ridge. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions, with most peak MCs (sheathing) below 20%. In the spring, as outdoor temperatures warmed, all roofs dried well into the safe range (10% MC or less). Some roof-wall interfaces showed moderately high MCs; this might be due to moisture accumulation at the highest point in the lower attic, and/or shading of the roof by the adjacent second story. Monitoring will be continued at least through spring 2016 (another winter and spring).

  14. Developing resilient green roofs in a dry climate.

    PubMed

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Brien, C J

    2014-08-15

    Living roofs are an emerging green infrastructure technology that can potentially be used to ameliorate both climate change and urban heat island effects. There is not much information regarding the design of green roofs for dry climates and so the aim of this study was to develop low maintenance and unfertilized green roofs for a dry climate. This paper describes the effects of four important elements of green roofs namely slope, depth, growing media and plant species and their possible interactions in terms of plant growth responses in a dry climate. Sixteen medium-scale green roofs were set up and monitored during a one year period. This experiment consisted of twelve vegetated platforms and four non-vegetated platforms as controls. The design for the experiment was a split-split-plot design in which the factors Slope (1° and 25°) and Depth (100mm, 300 mm) were randomized to the platforms (main plots). Root depth and volume, average height of plants, final dry biomass and ground cover, relative growth rate, final dry shoot-root ratio, water use efficiency and leaf succulence were studied during a twelve month period. The results showed little growth of the plants in media type A, whilst the growth was significant in both media types B and C. On average, a 90% survival rate of plants was observed. Also the growth indices indicated that some plants can grow efficiently in the harsh environment created by green roofs in a dry climate. The root growth pattern showed that retained water in the drainage layer is an alternative source of water for plants. It was also shown that stormwater can be used as a source of irrigation water for green roofs during six months of the year at the study site. In summary, mild sloping intensive systems containing media type C and planted with either Chrysocephalum apiculatum or Disphyma crassifolium showed the best performance.

  15. Aboveground pipeline response to random ground motion

    SciTech Connect

    Banerji, P.; Ghosh, A.

    1995-12-31

    Response of two types of aboveground pipelines--rigid, segmented pipelines, and flexible, continuous pipelines--to random ground motion are studied in this paper. The emphasis is on studying the effect of pipeline system parameters on its response. It is seen that pipe parameters, except for the pipe span, affect system response negligibly. Pier height and flexibility, and foundation-soil flexibility, however, affect response significantly. Furthermore, for practical situations, pipe and pier responses are decoupled, and the pier, therefore, behaves essentially as a point structure that is not affected by spatial variation of ground motion.

  16. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Jeremy; MacIvor, J. Scott; MacDougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Conclusions/Significance Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms

  17. 29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including painting and coating of existing roofs; the construction of the sheathing or base of roofs (wood... pitch, asphalt prepared paper, tile, composite roofing materials, slate, metal, translucent...

  18. 29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., including painting and coating of existing roofs; the construction of the sheathing or base of roofs (wood... pitch, asphalt prepared paper, tile, composite roofing materials, slate, metal, translucent...

  19. Empirically Derived Strength of Residential Roof Structures for Solar Installations.

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Sanchez, Alfred; Campos, Ivan A.; Gerstle, Walter H.

    2014-12-01

    Engineering certification for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules on wood roofs is often denied because existing wood roofs do not meet structural design codes. This work is intended to show that many roofs are actually sufficiently strong given the conservatism in codes, documented allowable strengths, roof structure system effects, and beam composite action produced by joist-sheathing interaction. This report provides results from a testing program to provide actual load carrying capacity of residential rooftops. The results reveal that the actual load carrying capacity of structural members and systems tested are significantly stronger than allowable loads provided by the International Residential Code (IRC 2009) and the national structural code found in Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Engineering analysis of residential rooftops typically ignores the system affects and beam composite action in determining rooftop stresses given a potential PV installation. This extreme conservatism combined with conservatism in codes and published allowable stress values for roof building materials (NDS 2012) lead to the perception that well built homes may not have adequate load bearing capacity to enable a rooftop PV installation. However, based on the test results presented in this report of residential rooftop structural systems, the actual load bearing capacity is several times higher than published values (NDS 2012).

  20. Roof selection for rainwater harvesting: quantity and quality assessments in Spain.

    PubMed

    Farreny, Ramon; Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Guisasola, Albert; Tayà, Carlota; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2011-05-01

    Roofs are the first candidates for rainwater harvesting in urban areas. This research integrates quantitative and qualitative data of rooftop stormwater runoff in an urban Mediterranean-weather environment. The objective of this paper is to provide criteria for the roof selection in order to maximise the availability and quality of rainwater. Four roofs have been selected and monitored over a period of 2 years (2008-2010): three sloping roofs - clay tiles, metal sheet and polycarbonate plastic - and one flat gravel roof. The authors offer a model for the estimation of the runoff volume and the initial abstraction of each roof, and assess the physicochemical contamination of roof runoff. Great differences in the runoff coefficient (RC) are observed, depending mostly on the slope and the roughness of the roof. Thus, sloping smooth roofs (RC>0.90) may harvest up to about 50% more rainwater than flat rough roofs (RC=0.62). Physicochemical runoff quality appears to be generally better than the average quality found in the literature review (conductivity: 85.0 ± 10.0 μS/cm, total suspended solids: 5.98 ± 0.95 mg/L, total organic carbon: 11.6 ± 1.7 mg/L, pH: 7.59 ± 0.07 upH). However, statistically significant differences are found between sloping and flat rough roofs for some parameters (conductivity, total organic carbon, total carbonates system and ammonium), with the former presenting better quality in all parameters (except for ammonium). The results have an important significance for local governments and urban planners in the (re)design of buildings and cities from the perspective of sustainable rainwater management. The inclusion of criteria related to the roof's slope and roughness in city planning may be useful to promote rainwater as an alternative water supply while preventing flooding and water scarcity.

  1. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  2. Learning-based roof style classification in 2D satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Andi; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Xin; Agam, Gady

    2015-05-01

    Accurately recognizing building roof style leads to a much more realistic 3D building modeling and rendering. In this paper, we propose a novel system for image based roof style classification using machine learning technique. Our system is capable of accurately recognizing four individual roof styles and a complex roof which is composed of multiple parts. We make several novel contributions in this paper. First, we propose an algorithm that segments a complex roof to parts which enable our system to recognize the entire roof based on recognition of each part. Second, to better characterize a roof image, we design a new feature extracted from a roof edge image. We demonstrate that this feature has much better performance compared to recognition results generated by Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG), Scale-invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Local Binary Patterns (LBP). Finally, to generate a classifier, we propose a learning scheme that trains the classifier using both synthetic and real roof images. Experiment results show that our classifier performs well on several test collections.

  3. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  4. Development of photovoltaic modules integrated with roofing materials (heat insulated roof panel)

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, Y.; Hatukaiwa, T.; Yamawaki, T.; Matumura, Y.; Mizukami, S.

    1994-12-31

    The authors have started to develop low cost photovoltaic modules integrated with roofing materials for wooden houses. They made a concept of the design for the modules using amorphous silicon solar cells and produced test modules that consist of untempered surface glass, solar cells, waterproof sheet, heat insulating materials and base frames. They have primarily tested the distributed pressure resistance as a building component. When applying a load from the front surface side of the modules, a 3.6 mm deflection at the center of the specimen under 300 kg/m{sup 2} load was observed, which is equivalent to a snowfall of 1.2 meters. As a result, they have finally confirmed that modules have enough structural strength to be used as a roof panel. They also tested the impact resistance of untempered surface glass by the testing method in JIS3212. In this test, cracks could not be seen from a height of 75 cm.

  5. IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-22

    Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

  6. Self advancing mine roof supports

    SciTech Connect

    Seddon, J.; Jones, F.

    1985-03-19

    A self-advancing mine-roof-support for use in or aligned with a main roadway or gate has a floor-engaging part and a roof engaging part spaced apart by extensible load-bearing prop or jack means, and engagement means for a face-conveyor and a transversely acting transfer conveyor whereby their relative positions are constrained to facilitate discharge of mineral from one conveyor to the other. The engagement means for the face conveyor comprises sliding anchor beams that assure maintenance of the relative attitudes of the support and the face conveyor and the transfer conveyor is held fore and aft of the support.

  7. Roofing: Workbook and Tests. Common Roofing and Waterproofing Materials and Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This workbook on materials and equipment is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The workbook covers eight topics: production of bitumens and asphaltic roofing materials; built-up roofing materials and adhesives; asphaltic products and rigid roofing materials; elastomeric and…

  8. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects...

  9. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects...

  10. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects...

  11. Common Roofing and Waterproofing Materials and Equipment. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This publication on common roofing and waterproofing materials and equipment is one of a series of units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes. The workbook portion is divided into eight topics: production of bitumens and asphalt roofing materials, built-up materials and adhesives, asphalt products and rigid roofing materials,…

  12. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure testing... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed...

  13. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure...

  14. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure...

  15. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure...

  16. 49 CFR 195.307 - Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). (d) For aboveground atmospheric pressure breakout tanks constructed of... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure testing aboveground breakout tanks. 195... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.307 Pressure...

  17. The Effects of Infrared-Blocking Pigments and Deck Venting on Stone-Coated Metal Residential Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A

    2006-01-01

    Field data show that stone-coated metal shakes and S-mission tile, which exploit the use of infraredblocking color pigments (IrBCPs), along with underside venting reduce the heat flow penetrating the conditioned space of a residence by 70% compared with the amount of heat flow penetrating roofs with conventional asphalt shingles. Stone-coated metal roof products are typically placed on battens and counter-battens and nailed through the battens to the roof deck. The design provides venting on the underside of the metal roof that reduces the heat flow penetrating a home. The Metal Construction Association (MCA) and its affiliate members installed stone-coated metal roofs with shake and S-mission tile profiles and a painted metal shake roof on a fully instrumented attic test assembly at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Measurements of roof, deck, attic, and ceiling temperatures; heat flows; solar reflectance; thermal emittance; and ambient weather were recorded for each of the test roofs and also for an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and direct nailed asphalt shingle roof. All attic assemblies had ridge and soffit venting; the ridge was open to the underside of the stone-coated metal roofs. A control assembly with a conventional asphalt shingle roof was used for comparing deck and ceiling heat transfer rates.

  18. Roofing Workbook and Tests: Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

    This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test, perforated for student use. Fourteen topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives, information sheets, and study…

  19. Roofing Materials Assessment: Investigation of Five Metals in Runoff from Roofing Materials.

    PubMed

    Winters, Nancy; Granuke, Kyle; McCall, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    To assess the contribution of five toxic metals from new roofing materials to stormwater, runoff was collected from 14 types of roofing materials and controls during 20 rain events and analyzed for metals. Many of the new roofing materials evaluated did not show elevated metals concentrations in the runoff. Runoff from several other roofing materials was significantly higher than the controls for arsenic, copper, and zinc. Notably, treated wood shakes released arsenic and copper, copper roofing released copper, PVC roofing released arsenic, and Zincalume® and EPDM roofing released zinc. For the runoff from some of the roofing materials, metals concentrations decreased significantly over an approximately one-year period of aging. Metals concentrations in runoff were demonstrated to depend on a number of factors, such as roofing materials, age of the materials, and climatic conditions. Thus, application of runoff concentrations from roofing materials to estimate basin-wide releases should be undertaken cautiously. PMID:26961477

  20. Roofing shingle assembly having solar capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.

    1982-03-16

    A roofing shingle assembly having solar capabilities comprising a flat main portion having upper and lower surfaces, and curved segments integral with the upper and lower edges of said shingle. The roofing shingles are mounted in overlapping parallel array with the curved segments interconnected to define a fluid conduit enclosure. Mounting brackets for the shingles are secured on the roof rafters.

  1. GREEN ROOFS — A GROWING TREND

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most interesting stormwater control systems under evaluation by EPA are “green roofs”. Green roofs are vegetative covers applied to building roofs to slow, or totally absorb, rainfall runoff during storms. While the concept of over-planted roofs is very ancient, the go...

  2. 7 CFR 2902.11 - Roof coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 247.12. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roof coatings. 2902.11 Section 2902.11 Agriculture... Roof coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings formulated for use in commercial roof deck systems to provide...

  3. 7 CFR 2902.11 - Roof coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR 247.12. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Roof coatings. 2902.11 Section 2902.11 Agriculture... Roof coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings formulated for use in commercial roof deck systems to provide...

  4. Guidelines for Inspecting Your Roof Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daniel L.

    2003-01-01

    Provides guidelines for inspecting the roof of a facility. Suggests that periodic roof inspections should be performed on a quarterly or semi-annual basis and after severe storms. Proactively identifying potential problem areas is the best defense against roof leaks. (SLD)

  5. The green roof dilemma - discussion of Francis and Lorimer (2011).

    PubMed

    Henry, Alexandre; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

    2012-08-15

    Urban ecosystems are the most complex mosaics of vegetative land cover that can be found. In a recent paper, Francis and Lorimer (2011) evaluated the reconciliation potential of living roofs and walls. For these authors, these two techniques for habitat improvement have strong potential for urban reconciliation ecology. However they have some ecological and societal limitations such as the physical extreme environmental characteristics, the monetary investment and the cultural perceptions of urban nature. We are interested in their results and support their conclusions. However, for a considerable time, green roofs have been designed to provide urban greenery for buildings and the green roof market has only focused on extensive roof at a restricted scale within cities. Thus, we have strong doubts about the relevance of their use as possible integrated elements of the network. Furthermore, without dynamic progress in research and the implementation of well-thought-out policies, what will be the real capital gain from green roofs with respect to land-use complementation in cities? If we agree with Francis and Lorimer (2011) considering that urban reconciliation ecology between nature and citizens is a current major challenge, then "adaptive collaborative management" is a fundamental requirement.

  6. A parametric study of the thermal performance of green roofs in different climates through energy modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sananda

    In recent years, there has been great interest in the potential of green roofs as an alternative roofing option to reduce the energy consumed by individual buildings as well as mitigate large scale urban environmental problems such as the heat island effect. There is a widespread recognition and a growing literature of measured data that suggest green roofs can reduce building energy consumption. This thesis investigates the potential of green roofs in reducing the building energy loads and focuses on how the different parameters of a green roof assembly affect the thermal performance of a building. A green roof assembly is modeled in Design Builder- a 3D graphical design modeling and energy use simulation program (interface) that uses the EnergyPlus simulation engine, and the simulated data set thus obtained is compared to field experiment data to validate the roof assembly model on the basis of how accurately it simulates the behavior of a green roof. Then the software is used to evaluate the thermal performance of several green roof assemblies under three different climate types, looking at the whole building energy consumption. For the purpose of this parametric simulation study, a prototypical single story small office building is considered and one parameter of the green roof is altered for each simulation run in order to understand its effect on building's energy loads. These parameters include different insulation thicknesses, leaf area indices (LAI) and growing medium or soil depth, each of which are tested under the three different climate types. The energy use intensities (EUIs), the peak and annual heating and cooling loads resulting from the use of these green roof assemblies are compared with each other and to a cool roof base case to determine the energy load reductions, if any. The heat flux through the roof is also evaluated and compared. The simulation results are then organized and finally presented as a decision support tool that would

  7. Asphalt and Wood Shingling. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Arthur

    This combination workbook and set of tests contains materials on asphalt and wood shingling that have been designed to be used by those studying to enter the roofing and waterproofing trade. It consists of seven instructional units and seven accompanying objective tests. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: shingling…

  8. Life-cycle cost-benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems.

    PubMed

    Carter, Timothy; Keeler, Andrew

    2008-05-01

    The built environment has been a significant cause of environmental degradation in the previously undeveloped landscape. As public and private interest in restoring the environmental integrity of urban areas continues to increase, new construction practices are being developed that explicitly value beneficial environmental characteristics. The use of vegetation on a rooftop--commonly called a green roof--as an alternative to traditional roofing materials is an increasingly utilized example of such practices. The vegetation and growing media perform a number of functions that improve environmental performance, including: absorption of rainfall, reduction of roof temperatures, improvement in ambient air quality, and provision of urban habitat. A better accounting of the green roof's total costs and benefits to society and to the private sector will aid in the design of policy instruments and educational materials that affect individual decisions about green roof construction. This study uses data collected from an experimental green roof plot to develop a benefit cost analysis (BCA) for the life cycle of extensive (thin layer) green roof systems in an urban watershed. The results from this analysis are compared with a traditional roofing scenario. The net present value (NPV) of this type of green roof currently ranges from 10% to 14% more expensive than its conventional counterpart. A reduction of 20% in green roof construction cost would make the social NPV of the practice less than traditional roof NPV. Considering the positive social benefits and relatively novel nature of the practice, incentives encouraging the use of this practice in highly urbanized watersheds are strongly recommended.

  9. Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs.

    PubMed

    Braaker, S; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Moretti, M

    2014-04-01

    that eventually even communities of low-mobility species become connected. Furthermore, improving the design of green roofs (composition and configuration of vegetation and soil types) could enhance the ecological value, particularly for low-mobility species.

  10. Thermal and Energy Performance of Conditioned Building Due To Insulated Sloped Roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwan, Suhandi Syiful; Ahmed, Azni Zain; Zakaria, Nor Zaini; Ibrahim, Norhati

    2010-07-01

    For low-rise buildings in equatorial region, the roof is exposed to solar radiation longer than other parts of the envelope. Roofs are to be designed to reject heat and moderate the thermal impact. These are determined by the design and construction of the roofing system. The pitch of roof and the properties of construction affect the heat gain into the attic and subsequently the indoor temperature of the living spaces underneath. This finally influences the thermal comfort conditions of naturally ventilated buildings and cooling load of conditioned buildings. This study investigated the effect of insulated sloping roof on thermal energy performance of the building. A whole-building thermal energy computer simulation tool, Integrated Environmental Solution (IES), was used for the modelling and analyses. A building model with dimension of 4.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m was designed with insulated roof and conventional construction for other parts of the envelope. A 75 mm conductive insulation material with thermal conductivity (k-value) of 0.034 Wm-1K-1 was installed underneath the roof tiles. The building was modelled with roof pitch angles of 0° , 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and simulated for the month of August in Malaysian climate conditions. The profile for attic temperature, indoor temperature and cooling load were downloaded and evaluated. The optimum roof pitch angle for best thermal performance and energy saving was identified. The results show the pitch angle of 0° is able to mitigate the thermal impact to provide the best thermal condition with optimum energy savings. The maximum temperature difference between insulated and non-insulted roof for attic (AtticA-B) and indoor condition (IndoorA-B) is +7.8 °C and 0.4 °C respectively with an average energy monthly savings of 3.9 %.

  11. Wind tunnel tests for wind pressure distribution on gable roof buildings.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiao-kun; Li, Yuan-qi

    2013-01-01

    Gable roof buildings are widely used in industrial buildings. Based on wind tunnel tests with rigid models, wind pressure distributions on gable roof buildings with different aspect ratios were measured simultaneously. Some characteristics of the measured wind pressure field on the surfaces of the models were analyzed, including mean wind pressure, fluctuating wind pressure, peak negative wind pressure, and characteristics of proper orthogonal decomposition results of the measured wind pressure field. The results show that extremely high local suctions often occur in the leading edges of longitudinal wall and windward roof, roof corner, and roof ridge which are the severe damaged locations under strong wind. The aspect ratio of building has a certain effect on the mean wind pressure coefficients, and the effect relates to wind attack angle. Compared with experimental results, the region division of roof corner and roof ridge from AIJ2004 is more reasonable than those from CECS102:2002 and MBMA2006.The contributions of the first several eigenvectors to the overall wind pressure distributions become much bigger. The investigation can offer some basic understanding for estimating wind load distribution on gable roof buildings and facilitate wind-resistant design of cladding components and their connections considering wind load path.

  12. Wind Tunnel Tests for Wind Pressure Distribution on Gable Roof Buildings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Gable roof buildings are widely used in industrial buildings. Based on wind tunnel tests with rigid models, wind pressure distributions on gable roof buildings with different aspect ratios were measured simultaneously. Some characteristics of the measured wind pressure field on the surfaces of the models were analyzed, including mean wind pressure, fluctuating wind pressure, peak negative wind pressure, and characteristics of proper orthogonal decomposition results of the measured wind pressure field. The results show that extremely high local suctions often occur in the leading edges of longitudinal wall and windward roof, roof corner, and roof ridge which are the severe damaged locations under strong wind. The aspect ratio of building has a certain effect on the mean wind pressure coefficients, and the effect relates to wind attack angle. Compared with experimental results, the region division of roof corner and roof ridge from AIJ2004 is more reasonable than those from CECS102:2002 and MBMA2006.The contributions of the first several eigenvectors to the overall wind pressure distributions become much bigger. The investigation can offer some basic understanding for estimating wind load distribution on gable roof buildings and facilitate wind-resistant design of cladding components and their connections considering wind load path. PMID:24082851

  13. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 5, 0.05 Roofing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; and system work breakdown structure. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are presented for built-up membrane; single- ply membrane; metal roofing systems; coated foam membrane; shingles; tiles; parapets; roof drainage system; roof specialties; and skylights.

  14. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  15. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  16. Evaluating convex roof entanglement measures.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Géza; Moroder, Tobias; Gühne, Otfried

    2015-04-24

    We show a powerful method to compute entanglement measures based on convex roof constructions. In particular, our method is applicable to measures that, for pure states, can be written as low order polynomials of operator expectation values. We show how to compute the linear entropy of entanglement, the linear entanglement of assistance, and a bound on the dimension of the entanglement for bipartite systems. We discuss how to obtain the convex roof of the three-tangle for three-qubit states. We also show how to calculate the linear entropy of entanglement and the quantum Fisher information based on partial information or device independent information. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method by concrete examples.

  17. 30 CFR 75.212 - Rehabilitation of areas with unsupported roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... missing roof support at the edge of the area to be rehabilitated shall be replaced or other equivalent... they shall be supervised by a person experienced in rehabilitation work who is designated by the...

  18. 78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, drawing number AW30-02-09, dated 15 October, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. NORTH ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. ABOVEGROUND PORTION IS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. ABOVE-GROUND PORTION IS ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVEGROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVE-GROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. The Trade-off between Solar Reflectance and Above-Sheathing Ventilation for Metal Roofs on Residential and Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Kriner, Scott; Miller, William A

    2013-01-01

    An alternative to white and cool-color roofs that meets prescriptive requirements for steep-slope (residential and non-residential) and low-slope (non-residential) roofing has been documented. Roofs fitted with an inclined air space above the sheathing (herein termed above-sheathing ventilation, or ASV), performed as well as if not better than high-reflectance, high-emittance roofs fastened directly to the deck. Field measurements demonstrated the benefit of roofs designed with ASV. A computer tool was benchmarked against the field data. Testing and benchmarks were conducted at roofs inclined at 18.34 ; the roof span from soffit to ridge was 18.7 ft (5.7 m). The tool was then exercised to compute the solar reflectance needed by a roof equipped with ASV to exhibit the same annual cooling load as that for a direct-to-deck cool-color roof. A painted metal roof with an air space height of 0.75 in. (0.019 m) and spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) up the roof incline of 18.34 needed only a 0.10 solar reflectance to exhibit the same annual cooling load as a direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof (solar reflectance of 0.25). This held for all eight ASHRAE climate zones complying with ASHRAE 90.1 (2007a). A dark heat-absorbing roof fitted with 1.5 in. (0.038 m) air space spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) and inclined at 18.34 was shown to have a seasonal cooling load equivalent to that of a conventional direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof. Computations for retrofit application based on ASHRAE 90.1 (1980) showed that ASV air spaces of either 0.75 or 1.5 in. (0.019 and 0.038 m) would permit black roofs to have annual cooling loads equivalent to the direct-to-deck cool roof. Results are encouraging, and a parametric study of roof slope and ASV aspect ratio is needed for developing guidelines applicable to all steep- and low-slope roof applications.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Advanced Retrofit Roof Technologies Using Field-Test Data Phase Three Final Report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2014-05-01

    This article presents various metal roof configurations that were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, U.S.A. between 2009 and 2013, and describes their potential for reducing the attic-generated space conditioning loads. These roofs contained different combinations of phase change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface and above-sheathing ventilation, with standing-seam metal panels on top. These roofs were designed to be installed on existing roofs decks, or on top of asphalt shingles for retrofit construction. All the tested roofs showed the potential for substantial energy savings compared to an asphalt shingle roof, which was used as a control for comparison. The roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. The attics were built on top of a conditioned room. All attics were vented at the soffit and ridge. The test roofs and attics were instrumented with an array of thermocouples. Heat flux transducers were installed in the roof deck and attic floor (ceiling) to measure the heat flows through the roof and between the attic and conditioned space below. Temperature and heat flux data were collected during the heating, cooling and swing seasons over a 3 year period. Data from previous years of testing have been published. Here, data from the latest roof configurations being tested in year 3 of the project are presented. All test roofs were highly effective in reducing the heat flows through the roof and ceiling, and in reducing the diurnal attic temperature fluctuations.

  3. Aboveground and belowground competition between willow Salix caprea its understory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Hermová, Markéta; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The effects of aboveground and belowground competition with the willow S. caprea on its understory plant community were studied in unreclaimed post-mining sites. Belowground competition was evaluated by comparing (i) frames inserted into the soil that excluded woody roots (frame treatment), (ii) frames that initially excluded woody root growth but then allowed regrowth of the roots (open-frame treatment), and (iii) undisturbed soil (no-frame treatment). These treatments were combined with S. caprea thinning to assess the effect of aboveground competition. Three years after the start of the experiment, aboveground competition from S. caprea (as modified by thinning of the S. caprea canopy) had not affected understory biomass or species number but had affected species composition. In contrast, belowground competition significantly affected both the aboveground and belowground biomass of the understory. The aboveground biomass of the understory was greater in the frame treatment (which excluded woody roots) than in the other two treatments. The belowground biomass of the understory was greater in the frame than in the open-frame treatment. Unlike aboveground competition (light availability), belowground competition did not affect understory species composition. Our results suggest that S. caprea is an important component during plant succession on post-mining sites because it considerably modifies its understory plant community. Belowground competition is a major reason for the low cover and biomass of the herbaceous understory in S. caprea stands on post-mining sites.

  4. Thermal Infrared Inspection of Roof Insulation Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Jung, J.; Sohn, G.; Cohen, M.

    2015-08-01

    UAVs equipped with high-resolution thermal cameras provide an excellent investigative tool used for a multitude of building-specific applications, including roof insulation inspection. We have presented in this study a relative thermographic calibration algorithm and a superpixel Markov Random Field model to address problems in thermal infrared inspection of roof insulation using UAVs. The relative thermographic radiometric calibration algorithm is designed to address the autogain problem of the thermal camera. Results show the algorithm can enhance the contrast between warm and cool areas on the roof surface in thermal images, and produces more constant thermal signatures of different roof insulations or surfaces, which could facilitate both visual interpretation and computer-based thermal anomaly detection. An automatic thermal anomaly detection algorithm based on superpixel Markov Random Field is proposed, which is more computationally efficient than pixel based MRF, and can potentially improve the production throughput capacity and increase the detection accuracy for thermal anomaly detection. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. 40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). 65.43 Section 65.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Storage Vessels § 65.43 Fixed roof with...

  6. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  7. Nutrient subsidies to belowground microbes impact aboveground food web interactions.

    PubMed

    Hines, Jes; Megonigal, J Patrick; Denno, Robert F

    2006-06-01

    Historically, terrestrial food web theory has been compartmentalized into interactions among aboveground or belowground communities. In this study we took a more synthetic approach to understanding food web interactions by simultaneously examining four trophic levels and investigating how nutrient (nitrogen and carbon) and detrital subsidies impact the ability of the belowground microbial community to alter the abundance of aboveground arthropods (herbivores and predators) associated with the intertidal cord grass Spartina alterniflora. We manipulated carbon, nitrogen, and detrital resources in a field experiment and measured decomposition rate, soil nitrogen pools, plant biomass and quality, herbivore density, and arthropod predator abundance. Because carbon subsidies impact plant growth only indirectly (microbial pathways), whereas nitrogen additions both directly (plant uptake) and indirectly (microbial pathways) impact plant primary productivity, we were able to assess the effect of both belowground soil microbes and nutrient availability on aboveground herbivores and their predators. Herbivore density in the field was suppressed by carbon supplements. Carbon addition altered soil microbial dynamics (net potential ammonification, litter decomposition rate, DON [dissolved organic N] concentration), which limited inorganic soil nitrogen availability and reduced plant size as well as predator abundance. Nitrogen addition enhanced herbivore density by increasing plant size and quality directly by increasing inorganic soil nitrogen pools, and indirectly by enhancing microbial nitrification. Detritus adversely affected aboveground herbivores mainly by promoting predator aggregation. To date, the effects of carbon and nitrogen subsidies on salt marshes have been examined as isolated effects on either the aboveground or the belowground community. Our results emphasize the importance of directly addressing the soil microbial community as a factor that influences

  8. Mobile mine roof support system

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.

    1981-12-29

    A description is given of a mobile self-propelled mine roof support system employing pairs of individually self-propelled roof support units movable along opposite ribs of a mine room to follow an advancing mine face. Each support unit comprises an elongated, wheel-mounted frame positioned along the adjacent rib. Pairs of vertical jacks are connected to opposite sides of the frame, being positioned loosely, and vertically movable, within oversize openings in brackets attached to the frame. A foot plate is universally pivotally attached to the lower ends of each pair of jacks and extends across the underside of the frame. A top-supporting canopy is universally pivotally attached across the upper ends of each pair of jacks and has an overhanging portion extending cantileverly into the room toward the opposite support unit. The jacks have external flanges engagable with the brackets. When the jacks fully retract the foot plate from the mine bottom upwardly against the underside of the frame, the entire assembly including the canopies is clamped rigidly between the brackets and the underside of the frame to lock the canopies to the frame for tramming. After the pairs of jacks press the foot plates downwardly against the bottom, the jacks shift upwardly to disengage their external flanges from the brackets and to press the canopies against the mine top. In an alternate embodiment, the ends of the canopies of the opposite roof support units are interconnected by wire ropes or chains and tensioned by hydraulic cylinders to support the top at the center of the room. A horizontally swingable inbye section of the frame has at least one canopy to continuously support the top when the mining operation changes direction, as when it makes a breakthrough from one room to another.

  9. 4 Living roofs in 3 locations: Does configuration affect runoff mitigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassman-Beck, Elizabeth; Voyde, Emily; Simcock, Robyn; Hong, Yit Sing

    2013-05-01

    Four extensive living roofs and three conventional (control) roofs in Auckland, New Zealand have been evaluated over periods of 8 months to over 2 yrs for stormwater runoff mitigation. Up to 56% cumulative retention was measured from living roofs with 50-150 mm depth substrates installed over synthetic drainage layers, and with >80% plant coverage. Variation in cumulative %-retention amongst sites is attributed to different durations of monitoring, rather than actual performance. At all sites, runoff rarely occurred at all from storms with less than 25 mm of precipitation, from the combined effects of substrates designed to maximize moisture storage and because >90% of individual events were less than 25 mm. Living roof runoff depth per event is predicted well by a 2nd order polynomial model (R2 = 0.81), again demonstrating that small storms are well managed. Peak flow per event from the living roofs was 62-90% less than a corresponding conventional roof's runoff. Seasonal retention performance decreased slightly in winter, but was nonetheless substantial, maintaining 66% retention at one site compared to 45-93% in spring-autumn at two sites. Peak flow mitigation did not vary seasonally. During a 4-month period of concurrent monitoring at all sites, varied substrate depth did not influence runoff depth (volume), %-retention, or %-peak flow mitigation compared to a control roof at the same site. The magnitude of peak flow was greater from garden shed-scale living roofs compared to the full-scale living roofs. Two design aspects that could be manipulated to increase peak flow mitigation include lengthening the flow path through the drainage layer to vertical gutters and use of flow-retarding drainage layer materials.

  10. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha−1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y−1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y−1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y−1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests. PMID:26115195

  11. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests. PMID:26115195

  12. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests.

  13. Sloshing roof impact tests of a rectangular tank

    SciTech Connect

    Minowa, C.; Ogawa, N.; Harada, I.; Ma, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    Some tanks have been damaged at the roofs due to sloshing impact caused by strong earthquakes. It is, therefore, necessary to consider the impact force in the aseismic design code for tank roofs. However, there are few studies on the earthquake responses of storage and process tank roofs. As a first step to investigate the effects of sloshing impact a series of the shaking table tests of a rectangular tank have been conducted at the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). The results of these shaking table tests are presented in the paper. The test tank is rectangular in shape having dimensions of 5 m {times} 3 m {times} 2 m length {times} width {times} height). The tank was constructed of glass-fiber reinforced plastic panels. Every panel had a flange on four edges, and each panel was connected by bolts along the flange. The test tank was set on the NIED shaking table (15 m by 15 m). Two types of liquid were used, water and a viscous liquid (water mixed with polymeric powders). The roof impact pressures and other quantities were measured. During the tests using the 400 pi El-Centro excitation, the roof deformation sensor steel beam was damaged. The response of side walls with different rigidity were measured in the wall bulging tests. The measured vibrations within the panel plates were larger than those in the panel flanges. The viscous liquid of 100 cp had little influence on wall bulging responses. However, the viscous effects on sloshing responses were observed in the sloshing tests. Approximate analyses of rectangular tanks, considering the influence of static water pressure, are also presented in this paper.

  14. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2006-02-28

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the pre-formed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  15. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, T.L.

    1998-05-05

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  16. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  17. Stratified aboveground forest biomass estimation by remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifi, Hooman; Fassnacht, Fabian E.; Hartig, Florian; Berger, Christian; Hernández, Jaime; Corvalán, Patricio; Koch, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing-assisted estimates of aboveground forest biomass are essential for modeling carbon budgets. It has been suggested that estimates can be improved by building species- or strata-specific biomass models. However, few studies have attempted a systematic analysis of the benefits of such stratification, especially in combination with other factors such as sensor type, statistical prediction method and sampling design of the reference inventory data. We addressed this topic by analyzing the impact of stratifying forest data into three classes (broadleaved, coniferous and mixed forest). We compare predictive accuracy (a) between the strata (b) to a case without stratification for a set of pre-selected predictors from airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral data obtained in a managed mixed forest site in southwestern Germany. We used 5 commonly applied algorithms for biomass predictions on bootstrapped subsamples of the data to obtain cross validated RMSE and r2 diagnostics. Those values were analyzed in a factorial design by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to rank the relative importance of each factor. Selected models were used for wall-to-wall mapping of biomass estimates and their associated uncertainty. The results revealed marginal advantages for the strata-specific prediction models over the unstratified ones, which were more obvious on the wall-to-wall mapped area-based predictions. Yet further tests are necessary to establish the generality of these results. Input data type and statistical prediction method are concluded to remain the two most crucial factors for the quality of remote sensing-assisted biomass models.

  18. Experimental polyurethane foam roof systems, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alumbaugh, R. L.; Keeton, J. R.; Humm, E. F.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental roofing installation is described in which polyurethane foam (PUF) was spray-applied directly to metal Butlerib-type metal decks, the roof divided into five approximately equal areas, and the PUF protected with five different elastomeric coating systems. Three of the coating systems were damaged by hailstones about a year after installation; these systems were recoated within 3 years of the initial installation. The current coatings include two of the original coating systems - a plural component silicone and a single component silicone - and those applied over the three systems damaged by hail - a single component silicone, an aluminum filled, hydrocarbon-extended catalyzed urethane, and a catalyzed urethane. The performance of these five PUF systems over a 7-year period is reported. The temperature distributions throughout the roof systems are described. The decay in the thermal conductivity of the PUF roof over a 5-year period is presented, and the energy savings realized by foaming the roof are presented.

  19. Performance of dryland and wetland plant species on extensive green roofs

    PubMed Central

    MacIvor, J. Scott; Ranalli, Melissa A.; Lundholm, Jeremy T.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Green roofs are constructed ecosystems where plants perform valuable services, ameliorating the urban environment through roof temperature reductions and stormwater interception. Plant species differ in functional characteristics that alter ecosystem properties. Plant performance research on extensive green roofs has so far indicated that species adapted to dry conditions perform optimally. However, in moist, humid climates, species typical of wetter soils might have advantages over dryland species. In this study, survival, growth and the performance of thermal and stormwater capture functions of three pairs of dryland and wetland plant species were quantified using an extensive modular green roof system. Methods Seedlings of all six species were germinated in a greenhouse and planted into green roof modules with 6 cm of growing medium. There were 34 treatments consisting of each species in monoculture and all combinations of wet- and dryland species in a randomized block design. Performance measures were survival, vegetation cover and roof surface temperature recorded for each module over two growing seasons, water loss (an estimate of evapotranspiration) in 2007, and albedo and water capture in 2008. Key Results Over two seasons, dryland plants performed better than wetland plants, and increasing the number of dryland species in mixtures tended to improve functioning, although there was no clear effect of species or habitat group diversity. All species had survival rates >75 % after the first winter; however, dryland species had much greater cover, an important indicator of green roof performance. Sibbaldiopsis tridentata was the top performing species in monoculture, and was included in the best treatments. Conclusions Although dryland species outperformed wetland species, planting extensive green roofs with both groups decreased performance only slightly, while increasing diversity and possibly habitat value. This study provides further

  20. Green roof impact on the hydrological cycle components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamera, Carlotta; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Becciu, Gianfranco; Rosso, Renzo

    2013-04-01

    In the last decades the importance of storm water management in urban areas has increased considerably, due to both urbanization extension and to a greater concern for environment pollution. Traditional storm water control practices, based on the "all to the sewer" attitude, rely on conveyance to route storm water runoff from urban impervious surfaces towards the nearby natural water bodies. In recent years, infiltration facilities are receiving an increasing attention, due to their particular efficiency in restoring a balance in hydrological cycle quite equal to quite pre-urbanization condition. In particular, such techniques are designed to capture, temporarily retain and infiltrate storm water, promote evapotranspiration and harvest water at the source, encouraging in general evaporation, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the re-use of storm water. Green roofs are emerging as an increasingly popular Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) technique for urban storm water management. Indeed, they are able to operate hydrologic control over storm water runoff: they allow a significant reduction of peak flows and runoff volumes collected by drainage system, with a consequent reduction of flooding events and pollution masses discharges by CSO. Furthermore green roofs have a positive influence on the microclimate in urban areas by helping in lower urban air temperatures and mitigate the heat island effect. Last but not least, they have the advantage of improving the thermal insulation of buildings, with significant energy savings. A detailed analysis of the hydrological dynamics, connected both with the characteristics of the climatic context and with the green roof technical design, is essential in order to obtain a full characterization of the hydrologic behavior of a green roof system and its effects on the urban water cycle components. The purpose of this paper is to analysis the hydrological effects and urban benefits of the vegetation cover of a

  1. Unique Roll-Off Roof for Housing 1.3 m Telescope at Devasthal, Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangia, Tarun

    2016-05-01

    Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) had set up a 1.3 m telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India in the year 2010. Country's largest roll-off roof was indigenously designed, fabricated and installed on top of a building (17 × 8 m) for housing 1.3 m telescope. Telescope was supplied by M/s DFM Engineering Inc., USA to ARIES and was installed in the building with unique roll-off roof to protect it from external environment. Roll-off roof was designed and fabricated considering various parameters and available manpower and resources at ARIES. This paper presents mechanical development work, simple but distinct design approach and innovative selection of materials to economically manufacture roll-off roof of large size (8 × 8 × 4 m) at hilly remote site of Devasthal situated in Central Himalayan region. All operations in the roof viz. opening of shutters and rolling of roof were motorized to facilitate observers during night observations.

  2. Cathodic protection of aboveground storage tanks in an Arctic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, T.; Bayle, R.; Kennelley, K.

    1996-05-01

    The Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) is one of the largest pipeline systems in the world. Fifty eight major aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) are a critical part of the daily operation of the pipeline. A variety of cathodic protection (CP) retrofit systems are available for aboveground storage tanks. The presence of secondary containment liners, refrigeration systems, and an Arctic environment necessitates the use of a CP system in which the anodes are located in close proximity to the tank bottom. Impressed current CP retrofit systems were evaluated.

  3. Green roof stormwater retention: effects of roof surface, slope, and media depth.

    PubMed

    VanWoert, Nicholaus D; Rowe, D Bradley; Andresen, Jeffrey A; Rugh, Clayton L; Fernandez, R Thomas; Xiao, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Urban areas generate considerably more stormwater runoff than natural areas of the same size due to a greater percentage of impervious surfaces that impede water infiltration. Roof surfaces account for a large portion of this impervious cover. Establishing vegetation on rooftops, known as green roofs, is one method of recovering lost green space that can aid in mitigating stormwater runoff. Two studies were performed using several roof platforms to quantify the effects of various treatments on stormwater retention. The first study used three different roof surface treatments to quantify differences in stormwater retention of a standard commercial roof with gravel ballast, an extensive green roof system without vegetation, and a typical extensive green roof with vegetation. Overall, mean percent rainfall retention ranged from 48.7% (gravel) to 82.8% (vegetated). The second study tested the influence of roof slope (2 and 6.5%) and green roof media depth (2.5, 4.0, and 6.0 cm) on stormwater retention. For all combined rain events, platforms at 2% slope with a 4-cm media depth had the greatest mean retention, 87%, although the difference from the other treatments was minimal. The combination of reduced slope and deeper media clearly reduced the total quantity of runoff. For both studies, vegetated green roof systems not only reduced the amount of stormwater runoff, they also extended its duration over a period of time beyond the actual rain event.

  4. Modelling runoff on ceramic tile roofs using the kinematic wave equations.

    PubMed

    Silveira, A; Abrantes, J R C B; de Lima, J L M P; Lira, L C

    2016-01-01

    Generally, roofs are the best candidates for rainwater harvesting. In this context, the correct evaluation of the quantity and quality of runoff from roofs is essential to effectively design rainwater harvesting systems. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a kinematic wave based numerical model in simulating runoff on sloping roofs, by comparing the numerical results with the ones obtained from laboratory rainfall simulations on a real-scale Lusa ceramic tile roof. For all studied slopes, simulated discharge hydrographs had a good adjust to observed ones. Coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values were close to 1.0. Particularly, peak discharges, times to peak, peak durations and runoff volumes were very well simulated. PMID:27232420

  5. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  6. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyun G; Kim, Byung K; Song, Geun C; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1-V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  7. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  8. A two-stage storage routing model for green roof runoff detention.

    PubMed

    Vesuviano, Gianni; Sonnenwald, Fred; Stovin, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Green roofs have been adopted in urban drainage systems to control the total quantity and volumetric flow rate of runoff. Modern green roof designs are multi-layered, their main components being vegetation, substrate and, in almost all cases, a separate drainage layer. Most current hydrological models of green roofs combine the modelling of the separate layers into a single process; these models have limited predictive capability for roofs not sharing the same design. An adaptable, generic, two-stage model for a system consisting of a granular substrate over a hard plastic 'egg box'-style drainage layer and fibrous protection mat is presented. The substrate and drainage layer/protection mat are modelled separately by previously verified sub-models. Controlled storm events are applied to a green roof system in a rainfall simulator. The time-series modelled runoff is compared to the monitored runoff for each storm event. The modelled runoff profiles are accurate (mean Rt(2) = 0.971), but further characterization of the substrate component is required for the model to be generically applicable to other roof configurations with different substrate.

  9. A two-stage storage routing model for green roof runoff detention.

    PubMed

    Vesuviano, Gianni; Sonnenwald, Fred; Stovin, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Green roofs have been adopted in urban drainage systems to control the total quantity and volumetric flow rate of runoff. Modern green roof designs are multi-layered, their main components being vegetation, substrate and, in almost all cases, a separate drainage layer. Most current hydrological models of green roofs combine the modelling of the separate layers into a single process; these models have limited predictive capability for roofs not sharing the same design. An adaptable, generic, two-stage model for a system consisting of a granular substrate over a hard plastic 'egg box'-style drainage layer and fibrous protection mat is presented. The substrate and drainage layer/protection mat are modelled separately by previously verified sub-models. Controlled storm events are applied to a green roof system in a rainfall simulator. The time-series modelled runoff is compared to the monitored runoff for each storm event. The modelled runoff profiles are accurate (mean Rt(2) = 0.971), but further characterization of the substrate component is required for the model to be generically applicable to other roof configurations with different substrate. PMID:24647183

  10. Modeling the effects of reflective roofing

    SciTech Connect

    Gartland, L.M.; Konopacki, S.J.; Akbari, H.

    1996-08-01

    Roofing materials which are highly reflective to sunlight are currently being developed. Reflective roofing is an effective summertime energy saver in warm and sunny climates. It has been demonstrated to save up to 40% of the energy needed to cool a building during the summer months. Buildings without air conditioning can reduce their indoor temperatures and improve occupant comfort during the summer if highly reflective roofing materials are used. But there are questions about the tradeoff between summer energy savings and extra wintertime energy use due to reduced heat collection by the roof. These questions are being answered by simulating buildings in various climates using the DOE-2 program (version 2.1E). Unfortunately, DOE-2 does not accurately model radiative, convective and conductive processes in the roof-attic. Radiative heat transfer from the underside of a reflective roof is much smaller than that of a roof which absorbs heat from sunlight, and must be accounted for in the building energy model. Convection correlations for the attic and the roof surface must be fine tuned. An equation to model the insulation`s conductivity dependence on temperature must also be added. A function was written to incorporate the attic heat transfer processes into the DOE-2 building energy simulation. This function adds radiative, convective and conductive equations to the energy balance of the roof. Results of the enhanced DOE-2 model were compared to measured data collected from a school bungalow in a Sacramento Municipal Utility District monitoring project, with particular attention paid to the year-round energy effects.

  11. Mapping Aboveground Biomass in the Amazon Basin: Exploring Sensors, Scales, and Strategies for Optimal Data Linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W. S.; Baccini, A.

    2013-05-01

    Information on the distribution and density of carbon in tropical forests is critical to decision-making on a host of globally significant issues ranging from climate stabilization and biodiversity conservation to poverty reduction and human health. Encouraged by recent progress at both the international and jurisdictional levels on the design of incentive-based policy mechanisms to compensate tropical nations for maintaining their forests intact, governments throughout the tropics are moving with urgency to implement robust national and sub-national forest monitoring systems for operationally tracking and reporting on changes in forest cover and associated carbon stocks. Monitoring systems will be required to produce results that are accurate, consistent, complete, transparent, and comparable at sub-national to pantropical scales, and satellite-based remote sensing supported by field observations is widely-accepted as the most objective and cost-effective solution. The effectiveness of any system for large-area forest monitoring will necessarily depend on the capacity of current and near-future Earth observation satellites to provide information that meets the requirements of developing monitoring protocols. However, important questions remain regarding the role that spatially explicit maps of aboveground biomass and carbon can play in IPCC-compliant forest monitoring systems, with the majority of these questions stemming from doubts about the inherit sensitivity of satellite data to aboveground forest biomass, confusion about the relationship between accuracy and resolution, and a general lack of guidance on optimal strategies for linking field reference and remote sensing data sources. Here we demonstrate the ability of a state-of-the-art satellite radar sensor, the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR, and a venerable optical platform, Landsat 5, to support large-area mapping of aboveground tropical woody biomass across a 153,000-km2 region in the southwestern Amazon

  12. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Richard T.

    2015-01-23

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  13. WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 3568), SPARES INERT STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3570), MISSILE ASSEMBLY SHOP (BUILDING 3578) AND SEGREGATED MAGAZINE STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3572). VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  14. Forecasting annual aboveground net primary production in the intermountain west

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many land manager’s annual aboveground net primary production, or plant growth, is a key factor affecting business success, profitability and each land manager's ability to successfully meet land management objectives. The strategy often utilized for forecasting plant growth is to assume every y...

  15. 30 CFR 75.220 - Roof control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... effectiveness be demonstrated by experimental installations. (c) No proposed roof control plan or revision to a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Roof control plan. 75.220 Section 75.220... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.220 Roof control plan. (a)(1) Each...

  16. 30 CFR 75.220 - Roof control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... effectiveness be demonstrated by experimental installations. (c) No proposed roof control plan or revision to a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Roof control plan. 75.220 Section 75.220... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.220 Roof control plan. (a)(1) Each...

  17. 30 CFR 75.220 - Roof control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... effectiveness be demonstrated by experimental installations. (c) No proposed roof control plan or revision to a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Roof control plan. 75.220 Section 75.220... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.220 Roof control plan. (a)(1) Each...

  18. 40 CFR 63.902 - Standards-Tank fixed roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards-Tank fixed roof. 63.902...) National Emission Standards for Tanks-Level 1 § 63.902 Standards—Tank fixed roof. (a) This section applies... fixed roof. This section does not apply to a fixed-roof tank that is also equipped with an...

  19. 40 CFR 63.902 - Standards-Tank fixed roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards-Tank fixed roof. 63.902...) National Emission Standards for Tanks-Level 1 § 63.902 Standards—Tank fixed roof. (a) This section applies... fixed roof. This section does not apply to a fixed-roof tank that is also equipped with an...

  20. 40 CFR 63.902 - Standards-Tank fixed roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards-Tank fixed roof. 63.902...) National Emission Standards for Tanks-Level 1 § 63.902 Standards—Tank fixed roof. (a) This section applies... fixed roof. This section does not apply to a fixed-roof tank that is also equipped with an...

  1. 40 CFR 63.902 - Standards-Tank fixed roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards-Tank fixed roof. 63.902...) National Emission Standards for Tanks-Level 1 § 63.902 Standards—Tank fixed roof. (a) This section applies... fixed roof. This section does not apply to a fixed-roof tank that is also equipped with an...

  2. 40 CFR 63.902 - Standards-Tank fixed roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards-Tank fixed roof. 63.902...) National Emission Standards for Tanks-Level 1 § 63.902 Standards—Tank fixed roof. (a) This section applies... fixed roof. This section does not apply to a fixed-roof tank that is also equipped with an...

  3. 30 CFR 75.206 - Conventional roof support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.206 Conventional roof support. (a) Except in anthracite mines using non-mechanized mining systems, when conventional roof support... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conventional roof support. 75.206 Section...

  4. Assessing aboveground tropical forest biomass using Google Earth canopy images.

    PubMed

    Ploton, Pierre; Pélissier, Raphaël; Proisy, Christophe; Flavenot, Théo; Barbier, Nicolas; Rai, S N; Couteron, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in efforts to combat climate change requires participating countries to periodically assess their forest resources on a national scale. Such a process is particularly challenging in the tropics because of technical difficulties related to large aboveground forest biomass stocks, restricted availability of affordable, appropriate remote-sensing images, and a lack of accurate forest inventory data. In this paper, we apply the Fourier-based FOTO method of canopy texture analysis to Google Earth's very-high-resolution images of the wet evergreen forests in the Western Ghats of India in order to (1) assess the predictive power of the method on aboveground biomass of tropical forests, (2) test the merits of free Google Earth images relative to their native commercial IKONOS counterparts and (3) highlight further research needs for affordable, accurate regional aboveground biomass estimations. We used the FOTO method to ordinate Fourier spectra of 1436 square canopy images (125 x 125 m) with respect to a canopy grain texture gradient (i.e., a combination of size distribution and spatial pattern of tree crowns), benchmarked against virtual canopy scenes simulated from a set of known forest structure parameters and a 3-D light interception model. We then used 15 1-ha ground plots to demonstrate that both texture gradients provided by Google Earth and IKONOS images strongly correlated with field-observed stand structure parameters such as the density of large trees, total basal area, and aboveground biomass estimated from a regional allometric model. Our results highlight the great potential of the FOTO method applied to Google Earth data for biomass retrieval because the texture-biomass relationship is only subject to 15% relative error, on average, and does not show obvious saturation trends at large biomass values. We also provide the first reliable map of tropical forest aboveground biomass predicted

  5. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  6. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  7. Metal and nutrient dynamics on an aged intensive green roof.

    PubMed

    Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

    2014-01-01

    Runoff and rainfall quality was compared between an aged intensive green roof and an adjacent conventional roof surface. Nutrient concentrations in the runoff were generally below Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) values and the green roof exhibited NO3(-) retention. Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were in excess of EQS values for the protection of surface water. Green roof runoff was also significantly higher in Fe and Pb than on the bare roof and in rainfall. Input-output fluxes revealed the green roof to be a potential source of Pb. High concentrations of Pb within the green roof soil and bare roof dusts provide a potential source of Pb in runoff. The origin of the Pb is likely from historic urban atmospheric deposition. Aged green roofs may therefore act as a source of legacy metal pollution. This needs to be considered when constructing green roofs with the aim of improving pollution remediation.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Advanced Retrofit Roof Technologies Using Field-Test Data Phase Three Final Report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Childs, Phillip W.; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2015-01-01

    This article presents some miscellaneous data from two low-slope and two steep-slope experimental roofs. The low-slope roofs were designed to compare the performance of various roof coatings exposed to natural weatherization. The steep-slope roofs contained different combinations of phase change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface and above-sheathing ventilation, with standing-seam metal panels on top. The steep-slope roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. This article describes phase three (3) of a study that began in 2009 to evaluate the energy benefits of a sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing standing-seam metal roofing panels combined with energy efficient features like above-sheathing-ventilation (ASV), phase change material (PCM) and rigid insulation board. The data from phases 1 and 2 have been previously published and reported [Kosny et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011; Biswas and Childs, 2012; Kosny et al., 2012]. Based on previous data analyses and discussions within the research group, additional test roofs were installed in May 2012, to test new configurations and further investigate different components of the dynamic insulation systems. Some experimental data from phase 3 testing from May 2012 to December 2013 and some EnergyPlus modeling results have been reported in volumes 1 and 3, respectively, of the final report [Biswas et al., 2014; Biswas and Bhandari, 2014].

  9. Cool Roofs Through Time and Space

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen

    2014-10-17

    Ronnen Levinson, from the Lab's Heat Island Group, presents his research on cool roofs and introduces the California Cities Albedo Map at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California

  10. Effects of substrate properties on the hydraulic and thermal behavior of a green roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, V. P.; Suarez, F. I.; Victorero, F.; Bonilla, C.; Gironas, J. A.; Vera, S.; Bustamante, W.; Rojas, V.; Pasten, P.

    2014-12-01

    Green roofs are a sustainable urban development solution that incorporates a growing media (also known as substrate) and vegetation into infrastructures to reach additional benefits such as the reduction of: rooftop runoff peak flows, roof surface temperatures, energy utilized for cooling/heating buildings, and the heat island effect. The substrate is a key component of the green roof that allows achieving these benefits. It is an artificial soil that has an improved behavior compared to natural soils, facilitating vegetation growth, water storage and typically with smaller densities to reduce the loads over the structures. Therefore, it is important to study the effects of substrate properties on green roof performance. The objective of this study is to investigate the physical properties of four substrates designed to improve the behavior of a green roof, and to study their impact on the efficiency of a green roof. The substrates that were investigated are: organic soil; crushed bricks; a mixture of mineral soil with perlite; and a mixture of crushed bricks and organic soil. The thermal properties (thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and thermal diffusivity) were measured using a dual needle probe (Decagon Devices, Inc.) at different saturation levels, and the hydraulic properties were measured with a constant head permeameter (hydraulic conductivity) and a pressure plate extractor (water retention curve). This characterization, combined with numerical models, allows understanding the effect of these properties on the hydraulic and thermal behavior of a green roof. Results show that substrates composed by crushed bricks improve the thermal insulation of infrastructures and at the same time, retain more water in their pores. Simulation results also show that the hydraulic and thermal behavior of a green roof strongly depends on the moisture content prior to a rainstorm.

  11. Personal computer program and spreadsheet for calculating the coal mine roof rating (CMRR). Information circular/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Riefenberg, J.; Wuest, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    A family of personal computer programs that calculate the Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR) have been developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The CMRR, rock mass classification system, was recently developed by Bureau researchers to provide a link between the qualitative geologists' description of coal mine roof and the quantitive mine engineers' needs for mine design, roof support selection, and hazard detection. The program CMRR, is a user-friendly, interactive program into which raw field data are input, and a CMRR is calculated and output along with two graphic displays. The first graphic display is a plan view map with the roof ratings displayed on a color-coded scale, and the second display shows a stratigraphic section of the bolted roof interval and its resultant roof rating. In addition, a Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet, BOM-CMRR.WK3, has been developed for easy storage of field data. The worksheet also includes macros developed for calculation and storage of the CMRR. Production of summary reports for analysis of site-specific information are readily generated using Lotus. These programs help to facilitate the engineer in utilizing the CMRR in ground control studies.

  12. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, K. H.; Sidek, L. M.; Abidin, M. R. Z.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Beddu, S.

    2013-06-01

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  13. Analysis of DOE s Roof Savings Calculator with Comparison to other Simulation Engines

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen; Mellot, Joe; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Childs, Kenneth W

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on national averages and can provide estimated annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance surfaces, HVAC duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple layers of building materials, ceiling and deck insulation levels, and other parameters. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to generate an energy/cost savings estimate between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, CA. However, RSC gives different energy savings estimates than previous cool roof simulation tools so more thorough software and empirical validation proved necessary. This report consolidates much of the preliminary analysis for comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to that from other simulation engines.

  14. The hydrological behaviour of extensive and intensive green roofs in a dry climate.

    PubMed

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S

    2014-11-15

    This paper presents the results of a hydrological investigation of four medium scale green roofs that were set up at the University of South Australia. In this study, the potential of green roofs as a source control device was investigated over a 2 year period using four medium size green roof beds comprised of two growth media types and two media depths. During the term of this study, 226 rainfall events were recorded and these were representative of the Adelaide climate. In general, there were no statistically significant differences between the rainfall and runoff parameters for the intensive and extensive beds except for peak attenuation and peak runoff delay, for which higher values were recorded in the intensive beds. Longer dry periods generally resulted in higher retention coefficients and higher retention was also recorded in warmer seasons. The average retention coefficient for intensive systems (89%) was higher than for extensive systems (74%). It was shown that rainfall depth, intensity, duration and also average dry weather period between events can change the retention performance and runoff volume of the green roofs. Comparison of green and simulated conventional roofs indicated that the former were able to mitigate the peak of runoff and could delay the start of runoff. These characteristics are important for most source control measures. The recorded rainfall and runoff data displayed a non-linear relationship. Also, the results indicated that continuous time series modelling would be a more appropriate technique than using peak rainfall intensity methods for green roof design and simulation.

  15. Next Generation Roofs and Attics for Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; Kosny, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Prototype residential roof and attic assemblies were constructed and field tested in a mixed-humid U.S. climate. Summer field data showed that at peak day irradiance the heat transfer penetrating the roof deck dropped almost 90% compared with heat transfer for a conventional roof and attic assembly. The prototype assemblies use a combination of strategies: infrared reflective cool roofs, radiant barriers, above-sheathing ventilation, low-emittance surfaces, insulation, and thermal mass to reduce the attic air temperature and thus the heat transfer into the home. The prototype assemblies exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor air temperature. Field results were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for the densely populated, hot and dry southeastern and central-basin regions of California. New construction in the central basin could realize a 12% drop in ceiling and air-conditioning annual load compared with a code-compliant roof and attic having solar reflectance of 0.25 and thermal emittance of 0.75. In the hot, dry southeastern region of California, the combined ceiling and duct annual load drops by 23% of that computed for a code-compliant roof and attic assembly. Eliminating air leakage from ducts placed in unconditioned attics yielded savings comparable to the best simulated roof and attic systems. Retrofitting an infrared reflective clay tile roof with 1 -in (0.032-m) of EPS foam above the sheathing and improving existing ductwork by reducing air leakage and wrapping ducts with insulation can yield annual savings of about $200 compared with energy costs for pre-1980 construction.

  16. Re-roofing slashes chain's cooling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1984-03-26

    A re-roofing program to install single-ply synthetic rubber coated with hypalon, a white synthetic rubber, will save each Hardee restaurant an average of $25,000 over a 10-year period. The savings will come from reduced air conditioning costs, which will vary by location. The new roof system tolerates temperatures from -40 to over 150/sup 0/F. Reflection from the white surface makes the material more energy efficient than conventional hot asphalt.

  17. Study of water infiltration in a lightweight green roof substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomankova, Klara; Holeckova, Martina; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Snehota, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs have a positive impact on the environment (e.g. improving microclimate and air quality in cities, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). A laboratory infiltration experiment was conducted on the narrow flume serving as 2D vertical model of a green roof. The lightweight Optigreen substrate Type M was used (depth of 20 cm). The front wall of the flume was transparent and inspected by digital camera. The experiment was designed to measure pressure head, volumetric water content and calculate water retention in the substrate. Experiment comprised three artificial rainfall intensities with different values of initial water content of the substrate. The experimental results confirmed that green roofs have the ability to retain rainwater and thus have a beneficial effect on reducing runoff. In the experiment with the artificial 10 minutes rainfall event (total precipitation of 29 mm), the air dry substrate retained 95.9 % of precipitation. On the other hand for moist initial condition 4.2 % of precipitations amount was captured in the substrate. Additionally, the analysis of images taken during the experiment confirmed preferential flow and uneven advancement of the wetting front. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  18. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Storage Vessels §...

  19. 30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205 Section 75.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL...

  20. Potato tuber herbivory increases resistance to aboveground lepidopteran herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Ortiz, Erandi Vargas; Garrido, Etzel; Poveda, Katja; Jander, Georg

    2016-09-01

    Plants mediate interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores. Although effects of root herbivory on foliar herbivores have been documented in several plant species, interactions between tuber-feeding herbivores and foliar herbivores are rarely investigated. We report that localized tuber damage by Tecia solanivora (Guatemalan tuber moth) larvae reduced aboveground Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) performance on Solanum tuberosum (potato). Conversely, S. exigua leaf damage had no noticeable effect on belowground T. solanivora performance. Tuber infestation by T. solanivora induced systemic plant defenses and elevated resistance to aboveground herbivores. Lipoxygenase 3 (Lox3), which contributes to the synthesis of plant defense signaling molecules, had higher transcript abundance in T. solanivora-infested leaves and tubers than in equivalent control samples. Foliar expression of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase I (HMGR1) genes, which are involved in chlorogenic acid and steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, respectively, also increased in response to tuber herbivory. Leaf metabolite profiling demonstrated the accumulation of unknown metabolites as well as the known potato defense compounds chlorogenic acid, α-solanine, and α-chaconine. When added to insect diet at concentrations similar to those found in potato leaves, chlorogenic acid, α-solanine, and α-chaconine all reduced S. exigua larval growth. Thus, despite the fact that tubers are a metabolic sink tissue, T. solanivora feeding elicits a systemic signal that induces aboveground resistance against S. exigua and S. frugiperda by increasing foliar abundance of defensive metabolites.

  1. Potato tuber herbivory increases resistance to aboveground lepidopteran herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Ortiz, Erandi Vargas; Garrido, Etzel; Poveda, Katja; Jander, Georg

    2016-09-01

    Plants mediate interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores. Although effects of root herbivory on foliar herbivores have been documented in several plant species, interactions between tuber-feeding herbivores and foliar herbivores are rarely investigated. We report that localized tuber damage by Tecia solanivora (Guatemalan tuber moth) larvae reduced aboveground Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) performance on Solanum tuberosum (potato). Conversely, S. exigua leaf damage had no noticeable effect on belowground T. solanivora performance. Tuber infestation by T. solanivora induced systemic plant defenses and elevated resistance to aboveground herbivores. Lipoxygenase 3 (Lox3), which contributes to the synthesis of plant defense signaling molecules, had higher transcript abundance in T. solanivora-infested leaves and tubers than in equivalent control samples. Foliar expression of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase I (HMGR1) genes, which are involved in chlorogenic acid and steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, respectively, also increased in response to tuber herbivory. Leaf metabolite profiling demonstrated the accumulation of unknown metabolites as well as the known potato defense compounds chlorogenic acid, α-solanine, and α-chaconine. When added to insect diet at concentrations similar to those found in potato leaves, chlorogenic acid, α-solanine, and α-chaconine all reduced S. exigua larval growth. Thus, despite the fact that tubers are a metabolic sink tissue, T. solanivora feeding elicits a systemic signal that induces aboveground resistance against S. exigua and S. frugiperda by increasing foliar abundance of defensive metabolites. PMID:27147449

  2. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  3. Plant-mediated links between detritivores and aboveground herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on plant-mediated above–belowground interactions focus on soil biota with direct trophic links to plant roots such as root herbivores, pathogens, and symbionts. Detritivorous soil fauna, though ubiquitous and present in high abundances and biomasses in soil, are under-represented in those studies. Understanding of their impact on plants is mainly restricted to growth and nutrient uptake parameters. Detritivores have been shown to affect secondary metabolites and defense gene expression in aboveground parts of plants, with potential impacts on aboveground plant–herbivore interactions. The proposed mechanisms range from nutrient mobilization effects and impacts on soil microorganisms to defense induction by passive or active ingestion of roots. Since their negative effects (disruption or direct feeding of roots) may be counterbalanced by their overall beneficial effects (nutrient mobilization), detritivores may not harm, but rather enable plants to respond to aboveground herbivore attacks in a more efficient way. Both more mechanistic and holistic approaches are needed to better understand the involvement of detritivores in plant-mediated above–belowground interactions and their potential for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24069027

  4. Water quality and quantity investigation of green roofs in a dry climate.

    PubMed

    Beecham, S; Razzaghmanesh, M

    2015-03-01

    Low-energy pollutant removal strategies are now being sought for water sensitive urban design. This paper describes investigations into the water quality and quantity of sixteen, low-maintenance and unfertilized intensive and extensive green roof beds. The factors of Slope (1° and 25°), Depth (100 mm and 300 mm), Growing media (type A, type B and type C) and Species (P1, P2 and P3) were randomized according to a split-split plot design. This consisted of twelve vegetated green roof beds and four non-vegetated beds as controls. Stormwater runoff was collected from drainage points that were installed in each area. Samples of run-off were collected for five rainfall events and analysed for water retention capacity and the water quality parameters of NO₂, NO₃, NH₄, PO₄, pH, EC, TDS, Turbidity, Na, Ca, Mg and K. The results indicated significant differences in terms of stormwater water quality and quantity between the outflows of vegetated and non-vegetated systems. The water retention was between 51% and 96% and this range was attributed to the green roof configurations in the experiment. Comparing the quality of rainfall as inflow, and the quality of runoff from the systems showed that green roofs generally acted as a source of pollutants in this study. In the vegetated beds, the intensive green roofs performed better than the extensive beds with regard to outflow quality while in the non-vegetated beds, the extensive beds performed better than intensive systems. This highlights the importance of vegetation in improving water retention capacity as well as the role of vegetation in enhancing pollutant removal in green roof systems. In addition growing media with less organic matter had better water quality performance. Comparison of these results with national and international standards for water reuse confirmed that the green roof outflow was suitable for non-potable uses such as landscape irrigation and toilet flushing.

  5. The Development of a Roof Integrated Solar Hot Water System

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.; Moss, Timothy A.; Palomino, G. Ernest

    2006-09-01

    The Salt River Project (SRP), in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Energy Laboratories, Inc. (ELI), collaborated to develop, test, and evaluate an advanced solar water-heating product for new homes. SRP and SNL collaborated under a Department of Energy Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), with ELI as SRP's industry partner. The project has resulted in the design and development of the Roof Integrated Thermal Siphon (RITH) system, an innovative product that features complete roof integration, a storage tank in the back of the collector and below the roofline, easy installation by homebuilders, and a low installed cost. SRP's market research guided the design, and the laboratory tests conducted at SNL provided information used to refine the design of field test units and indicated that the RITH concept is viable. ELI provided design and construction expertise and is currently configured to manufacture the units. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent and available materials connected to the project including market research studies, the design features and development of the system, and the testing and evaluation conducted at SNL and at a model home test site in Phoenix, Arizona.

  6. Prevention of residential roof fires by use of a class "A" fire rated roof system.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Britt, L D

    2004-01-01

    Because residential roof fires remain a life-threatening danger to residential homeowners in the United States, we describe in detail a national fire prevention program for reducing residential roof fires by use of an Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) and National Fire Protection Association Class A fire rated roof system. This Class A system should comply with the test requirements for fire resistance of roof coverings, as outlined in UL 790 or in ASTM International (ASTM) E-108. Both the Asphalt Roofing Manufacturer's Association (ARMA) and the National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA) have set up guidelines for selecting a new roof for the homeowner. Class A, fiber-glass-based asphalt roofing shingles represent an overwhelming share of the United States residential roofing market, and, as such, the Class A rated roofing system remains an excellent alternative to wood shingles and shakes. Fortunately, the Class A fire rating is available for certain wood shingle products that incorporate a factory-applied, fire resistant treatment. However, in this circumstance, wood products labeled as Class B shakes or shingles must be installed over spaced or solid sheathing that have been covered either with one layer of 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) thick noncombustible roof board, or with one layer of minimum 72-lb. fiber-glass-based mineral surfaced cap sheet, or with another specialty roofing sheet to obtain the Class A fire rating. Clay, tile, slate, and metal have been assigned Class A fire ratings in the codes (but often without testing). These alternative roofing materials are often considerably more expensive. Proper application, ventilation, and insulation of roofing systems are required to prevent heat and moisture buildup in the attic, which can damage the roofing system, making it more susceptible to water leakage as well as ignition in the event of a fire. The NRCA has devised excellent recommendations for the homeowner to prequalify the contractor. In addition, a

  7. Prevention of residential roof fires by use of a class "A" fire rated roof system.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Britt, L D

    2004-01-01

    Because residential roof fires remain a life-threatening danger to residential homeowners in the United States, we describe in detail a national fire prevention program for reducing residential roof fires by use of an Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) and National Fire Protection Association Class A fire rated roof system. This Class A system should comply with the test requirements for fire resistance of roof coverings, as outlined in UL 790 or in ASTM International (ASTM) E-108. Both the Asphalt Roofing Manufacturer's Association (ARMA) and the National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA) have set up guidelines for selecting a new roof for the homeowner. Class A, fiber-glass-based asphalt roofing shingles represent an overwhelming share of the United States residential roofing market, and, as such, the Class A rated roofing system remains an excellent alternative to wood shingles and shakes. Fortunately, the Class A fire rating is available for certain wood shingle products that incorporate a factory-applied, fire resistant treatment. However, in this circumstance, wood products labeled as Class B shakes or shingles must be installed over spaced or solid sheathing that have been covered either with one layer of 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) thick noncombustible roof board, or with one layer of minimum 72-lb. fiber-glass-based mineral surfaced cap sheet, or with another specialty roofing sheet to obtain the Class A fire rating. Clay, tile, slate, and metal have been assigned Class A fire ratings in the codes (but often without testing). These alternative roofing materials are often considerably more expensive. Proper application, ventilation, and insulation of roofing systems are required to prevent heat and moisture buildup in the attic, which can damage the roofing system, making it more susceptible to water leakage as well as ignition in the event of a fire. The NRCA has devised excellent recommendations for the homeowner to prequalify the contractor. In addition, a

  8. Comparative summer attic thermal performance of six roof constructions

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.S.; Sherwin, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The summer attic thermal performance of six roofs has been measured at a heavily instrumented test site, the Flexible Roof Facility (FRF), which is a 1,152 ft{sup 2} (107 m{sup 2}) building with six roof adjacent test cells that are heavily insulated from each other. Some 233 channels of data were obtained; this includes 20 temperature measurements per cell, extensive meteorological conditions, surface and tower wind speeds, and attic humidity and roof surface moisture accumulation. The data were collected over the ASHRAE definition of summer (June--September) to compare the cooling season thermal performance of roofing systems. Six different roof types were evaluated, with variations in color, ventilation, roof mass, and the use of radiant barrier systems (RBS). The tests show that roof system reflectivity greatly influences attic summer temperatures. Two white roofing systems outperformed the other options. Another large improvement comes from greater roof mass; tiled roofs performed better than those with asphalt shingled roofs. An increased attic ventilation rate improved the effectiveness of an attic radiant barrier. Of the evaluated options, a white tile roof best controlled attic heat gain.

  9. Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R

    2004-12-01

    Sixteen wooden structures with two roofs each were installed to study runoff quality for four commonly used roofing materials (wood shingle, composition shingle, painted aluminum, and galvanized iron) at Nacogdoches, Texas. Each roof, either facing NW or SE, was 1.22 m wide x 3.66 m long with a 25.8% roof slope. Thus, there were 32 alternatively arranged roofs, consisting of four roof types x two aspects x four replicates, in the study. Runoff from the roofs was collected through galvanized gutters, downspouts, and splitters. The roof runoff was compared to rainwater collected by a wet/dry acid rain collector for the concentrations of eight water quality variables, i.e. Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), EC and pH. Based on 31 storms collected between October 1997 and December 1998, the results showed: (1) concentrations of pH, Cu, and Zn in rainwater already exceed the EPA freshwater quality standards even without pollutant inputs from roofs, (2) Zn and Cu, the two most serious pollutants in roof runoff, exceeded the EPA national freshwater water quality standards in virtually 100% and more than 60% of the samples, respectively, (3) pH, EC, and Zn were the only three variables significantly affected by roofing materials, (4) differences in Zn concentrations were significant among all roof types and between all roof runoff and rainwater samples, (5) although there were no differences in Cu concentrations among all roof types and between roof runoff and rainwater, all means and medians of runoff and rainwater exceeded the national water quality standards, (6) water quality from wood shingles was the worst among the roof types studied, and (7) although SE is the most frequent and NW the least frequent direction for incoming storms, only EC, Mg, Mn, and Zn in wood shingle runoff from the SE were significantly higher than those from the NW; the two aspects affected no other elements in runoff from the other three roof types. Also, Zn concentrations from

  10. Impact of Sustainable Cool Roof Technology on Building Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuppuluri, Prem Kiran

    Highly reflective roofing systems have been analyzed over several decades to evaluate their ability to meet sustainability goals, including reducing building energy consumption and mitigating the urban heat island. Studies have isolated and evaluated the effects of climate, surface reflectivity, and roof insulation on energy savings, thermal load mitigation and also ameliorating the urban heat island. Other sustainable roofing systems, like green-roofs and solar panels have been similarly evaluated. The motivation for the present study is twofold: the first goal is to present a method for simultaneous evaluation and inter-comparison of multiple roofing systems, and the second goal is to quantitatively evaluate the realized heating and cooling energy savings associated with a white roof system compared to the reduction in roof-top heat flux. To address the first research goal a field experiment was conducted at the International Harvester Building located in Portland, OR. Thermal data was collected for a white roof, vegetated roof, and a solar panel shaded vegetated roof, and the heat flux through these roofing systems was compared against a control patch of conventional dark roof membrane. The second research goal was accomplished using a building energy simulation program to determine the impact of roof area and roof insulation on the savings from a white roof, in both Portland and Phoenix. The ratio of cooling energy savings to roof heat flux reduction from replacing a dark roof with a white roof was 1:4 for the month of July, and 1:5 annually in Portland. The COP of the associated chillers ranges from 2.8-4.2, indicating that the ratio of cooling energy savings to heat flux reduction is not accounted for solely by the COP of the chillers. The results of the building simulation indicate that based on energy savings alone, white roofs are not an optimal choice for Portland. The benefits associated with cooling energy savings relative to a black roof are offset by

  11. Weathering of Roofing Materials-An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William A.

    2006-03-30

    An overview of several aspects of the weathering of roofing materials is presented. Degradation of materials initiated by ultraviolet radiation is discussed for plastics used in roofing, as well as wood and asphalt. Elevated temperatures accelerate many deleterious chemical reactions and hasten diffusion of material components. Effects of moisture include decay of wood, acceleration of corrosion of metals, staining of clay, and freeze-thaw damage. Soiling of roofing materials causes objectionable stains and reduces the solar reflectance of reflective materials. (Soiling of non-reflective materials can also increase solar reflectance.) Soiling can be attributed to biological growth (e.g., cyanobacteria, fungi, algae), deposits of organic and mineral particles, and to the accumulation of flyash, hydrocarbons and soot from combustion.

  12. In-situ aging of roof systems containing polyisocyanurate roof insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, A.O.; Christian, J.E.; Graves, R.S.

    1993-10-01

    Experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) foam roof insulations with permeable facers were installed in roofing systems and continuously monitored for thermal performance for four years. The foams were produced using a specific formulation that represented current technology in 1989 and were blown with CFC-11, HCFC-123, and HCFC-141b. These foams were installed in roof systems comprised of loosely-laid insulation boards covered by either a loosely-laid single ply white or black membrane. The in-situ testing was carried out on an outdoor test facility, the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). Additional specimens of these foams were aged in the laboratory and periodically evaluated using laboratory measurement equipment. This paper summarizes the in-situ data compiled to date, compares these data with the laboratory results, and examines whether the proposed laboratory procedure for accelerating the aging of foams by the slicing and scaling method accurately predicts the aging characteristics of these materials installed in roof systems. These experiments are part of a joint industry/government project established to evaluate the technical viability of alternative HCFC blowing agents for rigid closed-cell polyisocyanurate foam roof insulations. Members of the project are the US Department of Energy (DOE)/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Society of the Plastics Industry-Polyurethane Division (SPI), the Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association (PIMA), and the National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA).

  13. WIPP supplementary roof support system Room 1, Panel 1: Geotechnical field data analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The design of the Room 1, Panel 1, supplementary roof support system was finalized in September 1991, and the system successfully installed in the test bin area between the bulkheads by December 1991. Simultaneously with the support system installation, existing monitoring system was upgraded to meet the needs of the installed roof support. This included extensometers, closure stations, rockbolt load cells as well as survey measurements of roof sag and floor lift. A Project Control Group (PCG) was established in order to monitor room and support system performance. Weekly meetings of the PCG were held to review all monitored data against criteria set in the initial design, and to modify these where necessary. Records of these meetings have been kept, with copies of all data summaries and action notes. These data records are maintained in the Engineering data files. After more than ten months of monitoring and reviewing experience, several modifications have been made both to the way data has been reported as well as to the load adjustment criteria. The support system has performed as expected in the design, with no signs of instability developing considering the rates of roof deformation, the rock bolt loads and the observed fracture behavior in the roof. This is particularly true of the horizon in which the rockbolt anchors are located, the most critical part of the design. The distribution of load build-up, throughout the 286 rockbolt load cells installed, in the Room 1 has been found satisfactory, and the load increases as evaluated by the PCG on a weekly basis have been within the acceptable range. The minimum life of the installed support system is estimated at 15 years based on the highest roof expansion rate experienced to date. This report provides analysis of geotechnical field data collected up to December 1992.

  14. 46. C. 1854 BUILDING ATTIC ROOF SPACE, VIEW OF KING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. C. 1854 BUILDING ATTIC ROOF SPACE, VIEW OF KING POST TRUSS ALONG LENGTH OF THE BUILDING. RAILS ON FLOOR FOR MOVEMENT OF GOODS STORED IN ROOF SPACE. - Continental Gin Company, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  15. Thermoplastic Single-Ply Roof Relieves Water Damage and Inconvenience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Assesses use of thermoplastic single-ply roofs by North Carolina's Mars Hill College to prevent leaks, reduce maintenance costs, and enhance the value of their older historic buildings. Administrators comment on the roof's installation efficiency and cleanliness. (GR)

  16. Interior view of the Sheet Metal Shop showing the roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the Sheet Metal Shop showing the roof trusses and corrugated metal roof covering, view facing northwest - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  17. Eastern portal, looking W. Note hipped roof covered with wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Eastern portal, looking W. Note hipped roof covered with wood shingles, added in 1993. The hipped roof is unique in U.S. covered bridges. - Doe River Bridge, Spanning Doe River, Third Avenue, Elizabethton, Carter County, TN

  18. Human and environmental controls over aboveground carbon storage in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate, high-resolution mapping of aboveground carbon density (ACD, Mg C ha-1) could provide insight into human and environmental controls over ecosystem state and functioning, and could support conservation and climate policy development. However, mapping ACD has proven challenging, particularly in spatially complex regions harboring a mosaic of land use activities, or in remote montane areas that are difficult to access and poorly understood ecologically. Using a combination of field measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and satellite data, we present the first large-scale, high-resolution estimates of aboveground carbon stocks in Madagascar. Results We found that elevation and the fraction of photosynthetic vegetation (PV) cover, analyzed throughout forests of widely varying structure and condition, account for 27-67% of the spatial variation in ACD. This finding facilitated spatial extrapolation of LiDAR-based carbon estimates to a total of 2,372,680 ha using satellite data. Remote, humid sub-montane forests harbored the highest carbon densities, while ACD was suppressed in dry spiny forests and in montane humid ecosystems, as well as in most lowland areas with heightened human activity. Independent of human activity, aboveground carbon stocks were subject to strong physiographic controls expressed through variation in tropical forest canopy structure measured using airborne LiDAR. Conclusions High-resolution mapping of carbon stocks is possible in remote regions, with or without human activity, and thus carbon monitoring can be brought to highly endangered Malagasy forests as a climate-change mitigation and biological conservation strategy. PMID:22289685

  19. Study of Falling Roof Vibrations in a Production Face at Roof Support Resistance in the Form of Concentrated Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyalich, G. D.; Buyalich, K. G.; Umrikhina, V. Yu

    2016-08-01

    One of the main reasons of roof support failures in production faces is mismatch of their parameters and parameters of dynamic impact on the metal structure from the falling roof during its secondary convergences. To assess the parameters of vibrational interaction of roof support with the roof, it was suggested to use computational models of forces application and a partial differential equation of fourth order describing this process, its numerical solution allowed to assess frequency, amplitude and speed of roof strata movement depending on physical and mechanical properties of the roof strata as well as on load bearing and geometry parameters of the roof support. To simplify solving of the differential equation, roof support response was taken as the concentrated force.

  20. 40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... breaker vents) and rim space vents, each opening in the noncontact external floating roof shall provide a... they are closed. (iii) Except for automatic bleeder vents, rim space vents, roof drains, and leg... and rim space vents shall be equipped with a gasket. (v) Each roof drain that empties into the...

  1. 40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... breaker vents) and rim space vents, each opening in the noncontact external floating roof shall provide a... they are closed. (iii) Except for automatic bleeder vents, rim space vents, roof drains, and leg... and rim space vents shall be equipped with a gasket. (v) Each roof drain that empties into the...

  2. 40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... breaker vents) and rim space vents, each opening in the noncontact external floating roof shall provide a... they are closed. (iii) Except for automatic bleeder vents, rim space vents, roof drains, and leg... and rim space vents shall be equipped with a gasket. (v) Each roof drain that empties into the...

  3. 40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... breaker vents) and rim space vents, each opening in the noncontact external floating roof shall provide a... they are closed. (iii) Except for automatic bleeder vents, rim space vents, roof drains, and leg... and rim space vents shall be equipped with a gasket. (v) Each roof drain that empties into the...

  4. Computer supplies insulation recipe for Cookie Company Roof

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Roofing contractors no longer have to rely on complicated calculations and educated guesses to determine cost-efficient levels of roof insulation. A simple hand-held calculator and printer offers seven different programs for fast figuring insulation thickness based on job type, roof size, tax rates, and heating and cooling cost factors.

  5. 24 CFR 3280.402 - Test procedure for roof trusses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Testing § 3280.402 Test procedure for roof trusses. (a) Roof load tests. The following is an acceptable test procedure, consistent... loads. Where roof trusses act as support for other members, act as cantilevers, or support...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.402 - Test procedure for roof trusses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Testing § 3280.402 Test procedure for roof trusses. (a) Roof load tests. The following is an acceptable test procedure, consistent... loads. Where roof trusses act as support for other members, act as cantilevers, or support...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1042 - Standards-Separator fixed roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards-Separator fixed roof. 63...—Separator fixed roof. (a) This section applies to owners and operators subject to this subpart and controlling air emissions from an oil-water separator or organic-water separator using a fixed roof. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1042 - Standards-Separator fixed roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards-Separator fixed roof. 63...—Separator fixed roof. (a) This section applies to owners and operators subject to this subpart and controlling air emissions from an oil-water separator or organic-water separator using a fixed roof. (b)...

  9. Introduction to Roofing. Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach a competency-based introductory course in roofing to students who have chosen to explore careers in construction. The following topics are covered in the course's three instructional units: roofing materials, roofing tools, and applied skills. Each unit contains some or all of the…

  10. 30 CFR 75.213 - Roof support removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Roof support removal. 75.213 Section 75.213 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.213 Roof support removal. (a)(1)...

  11. Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, S.; Graziano, G.; Shepherd, P.

    1984-02-02

    Burning of asphalt roofing waste as a fuel and incorporating asphalt roofing waste in bituminous paving were identified as the two outstanding resource recovery concepts out of ten studied. Four additional concepts might be worth considering under different market or technical circumstances. Another four concepts were rated as worth no further consideration at this time. This study of the recovery of the resource represented in asphalt roofing waste has identified the sources and quantities of roofing waste. About six million cubic yards of scrap roofing are generated annually in the United States, about 94% from removal of old roofing at the job site and the remainder from roofing material production at factories. Waste disposal is a growing problem for manufacturers and contractors. Nearly all roofing waste is hauled to landfills at a considerable expense to roofing contractors and manufacturers. Recovery of the roofing waste resource should require only a modest economic incentive. The asphalt contained in roofing waste represents an energy resource of more than 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year. Another 1 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year may be contained in field-applied asphalt on commercial building roofs. The two concepts recommended by this study appear to offer the broadest applicability, the most favorable economics, and the highest potential for near-term implementation to reuse this resource.

  12. Monitoring roof beam lateral displacement at the waste isolation pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Terrill, L.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lateral displacement in the immediate roof beam at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a significant factor in assessment of excavation performance for the design of ground control systems. Information on roof beam lateral displacement, expansion, fracture formation, as well as excavation convergence, is gathered using a variety of manually and remotely read instruments. Visual observations are also used when possible. This paper describes the methods used to measure lateral displacement, or offset, at the WIPP. Offset magnitudes are determined by the degree of occlusion in drillholes that intersect the offset plane. The Borehole Lateral Displacement Sensor (BLDS) was developed for installation at WIPP to monitor offset at a high degree of accuracy at a short reading frequency. Offset measurements have historically been obtained by visual estimation of borehole occlusion. Use of the BLDS will enable relationships between time dependent roof beam lateral displacement and expansion to be established in much shorter periods than is possible using visual observations. The instrument will also allow remote monitoring of roof beam displacement in areas where visual estimations are not possible. Continued monitoring of roof beam displacement, convergence, and expansion, is integral to timely and pertinent assessments of WIPP excavation performance.

  13. The growth and survival of plants in urban green roofs in a dry climate.

    PubMed

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Kazemi, F

    2014-04-01

    Green roofs as one of the components of water-sensitive urban design have become widely used in recent years. This paper describes performance monitoring of four prototype-scale experimental green roofs in a northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, undertaken over a 1-year period. Four species of indigenous Australian ground cover and grass species comprising Carpobrotus rossii, Lomandra longifolia 'Tanika,' Dianella caerula 'Breeze' and Myoporum parvifolium were planted in extensive and intensive green roof configurations using two different growing media. The first medium consisted of crushed brick, scoria, coir fibre and composted organics while the second comprised scoria, composted pine bark and hydro-cell flakes. Plant growth indices including vertical and horizontal growth rate, leaf succulence, shoot and root biomasses, water use efficiency and irrigation regimes were studied during a 12-month period. The results showed that the succulent species, C. rossii, can best tolerate the hot, dry summer conditions of South Australia, and this species showed a 100% survival rate and had the maximum horizontal growth rate, leaf succulence, shoot biomass and water use efficiency. All of the plants in the intensive green roofs with the crushed brick mix media survived during the term of this study. It was shown that stormwater can be used as a source of irrigation water for green roofs during 8 months of the year in Adelaide. However, supplementary irrigation is required for some of the plants over a full annual cycle.

  14. Full-scale tests of wind effects on a long span roof structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiyang; Zheng, Qingxing; Wu, Jiurong; Xu, An

    2015-06-01

    Full-scale measurements are regarded as the most reliable method to evaluate wind effects on large buildings and structures. Some selected results are presented in this paper from the full-scale measurement of wind effects on a long-span steel roof structure during the passage of Typhoon Fanapi. Some field data, including wind speed and direction, acceleration responses, etc., were continuously and simultaneously recorded during the passage of the typhoon. Comprehensive analysis of the measured data is conducted to evaluate the typhoon-generated wind characteristics and its effects on a long-span steel roof. The first four natural frequencies and their vibration mode shapes of the Guangzhou International Sports Arena (GISA) roof are evaluated by the stochastic subspace identification (SSI) method and comparisons with those from finite element (FE) analysis are made. Meanwhile, damping ratios of the roof are also identified by the SSI method and compared with those identified by the random decrement method; the amplitude-dependent damping behaviors are also discussed. The fullscale measurement results are further compared with the corresponding wind tunnel test results to evaluate its reliability. The results obtained from this study are valuable for academic and professional engineers involved in the design of large-span roof structures.

  15. Assessment of a fiber-optic distributed-temperature-sensing system to monitor the thermal dynamics of vegetated roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousiño, J. A.; Hausner, M. B.; Victorero, F.; Bonilla, C.; Gironas, J. A.; Vera, S.; Bustamante, W.; Rojas, V.; Pasten, P.; Suarez, F. I.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs include a growing media and vegetation layer, and offer a range of benefits such as the reduction of: the heat island effect, rooftop runoff peak flows, roof surface temperatures, energy used for cooling or heating buildings, and noise levels inside infrastructures. Vegetated roofs also offer aesthetic benefits and increase the biodiversity of the urban environment, and are increasingly used in sustainable urban development. Understanding the thermal dynamics of vegetated roofs will make it possible to improve their design and to better assess their impacts on energy efficiency. Here, we evaluate the first vertical high-resolution distributed-temperature-sensing (DTS) system installed in a vegetated roof. This system allows a continuous measurement of the thermal profile within a vegetated roof - going from the interior, upward through the drainage layers and soil substrate of the vegetated roof and ending in the air above the vegetation. Temperatures can be observed as frequently as every 30 s at a spatial resolution on the order of centimeters. This DTS system was installed in the "Laboratory of Vegetal Infrastructure of Buildings" (LIVE - its acronym in Spanish), located in the San Joaquín Campus of the Pontifical Catholic University, Santiago, Chile. The laboratory features 18 experimental modules to investigate different configurations of the vegetated roof layers. The LIVE was designed with the installation of the optical fibers in mind, and the DTS system allows simultaneous monitoring of three or four modules of the LIVE. In this work, we describe the design of this DTS deployment, the calibration metrics obtained using the software provided by the manufacturers, and other calibration algorithms previously developed. We compare the results obtained using single- and double-ended measurements, highlighting strengths and weaknesses of DTS methods. Finally, we present the observations obtained from this biophysical environment

  16. Thrust bolting: roof bolt support apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tadolini, Stephen C.; Dolinar, Dennis R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of installing a tensioned roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads by applying thrust to the bolt (19) as the bonding material (7') is curing to compress the strata (3) surrounding the borehole (1), and then relieving the thrust when the bonding material (7') has cured.

  17. Solar heater and roof attachment means

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.L.; Koutavas, S.G.

    1984-02-21

    A solar heater includes an elongated solar collector having two fixedly connected solar panels of highly heat conductive material supported by a roof clamp on a shingled roof. The bottom edges of each of the solar panels include upturned gutter portions. One form of roof clamp for shingled roofs includes a J-shape shingle clamp member having a clamp bolt extending therethrough, and a solar collector clamp member assembled on the bolt and clamped to the bottom gutter portions of the solar panels. A bottom plate of the J-shape clamp member is slid under a shingle of a first shingle course and under a shingle of a second upper shingle course to carry the bolt into the top of the gap between adjacent shingle portions of the first course and to position a top plate of the shingle clamp member over parts of the shank portions of the first course and over a part of the one shingle of the second course. A clamp nut clamps the collector clamp member and the shingle clamp member firmly to the contacted shingles.

  18. Update on the Million Solar Roofs Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Herig, C.

    1999-05-09

    The Million Solar Roofs Initiative, announced by the President in June of 1997, spans a period of twelve years and intends to increase domestic deployment of solar technologies. This paper presents an overview of the development of the initiative and significant activities to date.

  19. Roofing with Urethane: Pro and Con.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Michael; Scott, Gerald P.E.

    1981-01-01

    Gerald Scott's favorable evaluation of the foamed polyurethane roofing system is based on experiences with 55 buildings at Texas A & M. Michael Kinzer, an architect at Colorado State University, disagrees and claims that the system is difficult to install and maintain, and the cost prohibitive. (MLF)

  20. The Potential of Roof Deck Play Spaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report, the fifteenth in a series of twenty completed by the Children's Environments Advisory Service for the International Year of the Child, 1979, presents a guide for planning play spaces on roof decks in high density family housing projects where on-grade land is too scarce or too expensive for development as communal recreation space.…

  1. Practical aspects of mobile roof support usage

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, F.E.; Mark, C.; Barczak, T.M.

    1996-12-01

    Mobile roof supports are shield-type support units mounted on crawler tracks. Mobile roof support (MRS) units are used during retreat mining, and they eliminate the setting of roadway, turn, and crosscut breaker posts which are required during pillar recovery operations. Mobiles are a more effective ground support than timbers, and their usage enhance the safety of section personnel and reduces material handling injuries. MRS usage is rapidly increasing, and approximately 40 U.S. coal mines have successfully employed this relatively new technology. This paper is in response to increasing requests from operators, State and Federal Regulatory Agencies, and others on the practical aspects of MRS usage in underground coal mines. During this investigation, nearly half of the U.S. mines which have utilized mobiles were visited. This report depicts the more common pillar extraction methods which operators have found success. The Christmas tree and outside lift methods are illustrated and discussed. Roof control plans that do not require breaker posts or allow pillar extraction with fewer than four mobiles are also examined. In addition, operators` experiences with setting pressures, loads, and rates of loading during pillar extraction are addressed. Mining and support strategies to more effectively control hillseams, weak roof, and gob overrides which have entrapped equipment are also discussed.

  2. 29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... detrimental to their health. (b) Definitions. On or about a roof includes all work performed upon or in close proximity to a roof, including carpentry and metal work, alterations, additions, maintenance and repair... or metal), including roof trusses or joists; gutter and downspout work; the installation...

  3. 29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... detrimental to their health. (b) Definitions. On or about a roof includes all work performed upon or in close proximity to a roof, including carpentry and metal work, alterations, additions, maintenance and repair... or metal), including roof trusses or joists; gutter and downspout work; the installation...

  4. 29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... detrimental to their health. (b) Definitions. On or about a roof includes all work performed upon or in close proximity to a roof, including carpentry and metal work, alterations, additions, maintenance and repair... or metal), including roof trusses or joists; gutter and downspout work; the installation...

  5. Environmental assessment of extensive green roofs in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Fei

    The advantages of the planted roofs are undoubtedly numerous from both the ecological and the social point of view. They act positively upon the climate of the city and its region, as well as upon the interior climate of the building beneath them. This dissertation, therefore, explores the environmental performance of the extensive green roofs in UK. The investigation was implemented in two phases: during the first phase, detailed introduction of green roofs with the emphasis on their thermal properties and behavior is provided with the support of literature review evidence. During the second phase of the study, the thermal properties of the green roof, as well as, the energy saving were examined, through two computer programs: Wufi and TAS. Two hypothetic models have been developed in these programs to evaluate thermal and energy performances of a building with a green roof, varying different parameters for the green roof or changing different internal condition for the building. The main conclusion of these analyses is that two parameters: vegetation solar absorptivity and water content of green roofs play significant role in the thermal performance of green roofs. Lower vegetation solar absorptivity and higher water content will help green roofs to further reduce the external heat flux and summer inward heat flux which consequently mitigate the urban heat island effect and summer energy consumption. On the other hand, in comparison with the traditional roofs, green roofs appear to have less heating loads but higher cooling loads when internal gain is higher. Finally, when comparing Wufi results to TAS results, both represent that featured as lower solar absorptivity and higher insulation value, green roofs do alleviate the urban heat island effect and reduce the heat flux through the roof. Nevertheless, by taking account of evaporative cooling effect of green roofs, Wufi provides a more accurate approach to simulate the performance of green roofs

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-06-30

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 134 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as “Aboveground Storage Tanks” and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 15, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site: · CAS 03-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank · CAS 03-01-04, Tank · CAS 15-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank · CAS 29-01-01, Hydrocarbon Stain

  7. A field study to evaluate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaochen; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Chenrui; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Jianghai

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff and to provide reference data for the engineering design of dual substrate layer green roofs. The data were collected from eight different trays under three kinds of artificial rains. The results showed that except for total phosphorus, dual substrate layer green roofs behaved as a sink for most of the nutrient pollutants (significant at p < 0.05), and the first-flush effect did not occur during the 27 simulated rain events. The results also revealed that the concentration of these nutrient pollutants in the runoff strongly depended on the features of the nutrient substrates used in the green roof and the depth of the adsorption substrates. Compared with the influence of the substrates, the influence of the plant density and drainage systems was small.

  8. 20. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 1AS, ROOF FRAMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 1A-S, ROOF FRAMING PLAN; 9-9-1940. Assembly Building for Tank Plant for the Chrysler Corporation, Macomb County, Michigan. Design: Miehls. Delineator: W. G. M. - Detroit Arsenal, 6501 East Eleven Mile Road, Warren, Macomb County, MI

  9. Philips and BASF put a new spin on the car roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halper, Mark

    2012-03-01

    At first glance it may look more like a fancy paint job but a new car roof designed by researchers at Philips and chemical giant BASF has the unusual property of giving drivers and passengers a clear view by day before turning into an interior light at night.

  10. [Effect of flooding disturbance on aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis grassland--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengwen; Zhu, Tingcheng

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effect of flooding disturbance on the net primary productivity of Songnen steppe, a comparatively thorough study was conducted on Sanjiadian State-owned Rangeland in Da'an city, Jilin Province, which was partly flooded in 1998. The study site was located in the south Songnen plain of Northeastern China, dominated by Leymus chinensis grassland. An extensively mild slope with flooding gradients (from un-flooded to heavily flooded) was taken as the study site. Two flooded transects coded FL and FH which was respectively subjected to 3 and 9 months of flooding were designed, and an un-flooded one coded CK at a relatively higher elevation was set as a control. Before flooding occurred in 1998, the slope had an almost uniform soil and L. chinensis dominated vegetation. Each transect was 0.2 hm2 (100 m x 20 m) in size, and the two flooded transects were almost paralleled each other, with the longer sides of them perpendicular to the retrieving direction of floodwater. In each transect twenty 1 m2 sized quadrats were randomly chosen to survey the community structure and the aboveground biomass. Comparative analyses were made on the dynamics of soil water, soil N and P, and species composition of grassland communities that occurred in responses to flooding disturbance. The results showed that the lightly and heavily flooded transects had a significantly larger aboveground biomass than the control, with the increase of 89.54% and 113.45%, respectively. The heavily flooded transect had a slightly but insignificantly larger aboveground biomass than the lightly flooded one, indicating that on flooded sites, water was not the limiting factor of the aboveground biomass. The acute changes of soil water caused by flooding led to the changes of soil nutrients and species assemblages, which would impact community biomass. Just as the case for aboveground biomass, the soil water contents of the two flooded transects were significantly larger than that of control

  11. [Effect of flooding disturbance on aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis grassland--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengwen; Zhu, Tingcheng

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effect of flooding disturbance on the net primary productivity of Songnen steppe, a comparatively thorough study was conducted on Sanjiadian State-owned Rangeland in Da'an city, Jilin Province, which was partly flooded in 1998. The study site was located in the south Songnen plain of Northeastern China, dominated by Leymus chinensis grassland. An extensively mild slope with flooding gradients (from un-flooded to heavily flooded) was taken as the study site. Two flooded transects coded FL and FH which was respectively subjected to 3 and 9 months of flooding were designed, and an un-flooded one coded CK at a relatively higher elevation was set as a control. Before flooding occurred in 1998, the slope had an almost uniform soil and L. chinensis dominated vegetation. Each transect was 0.2 hm2 (100 m x 20 m) in size, and the two flooded transects were almost paralleled each other, with the longer sides of them perpendicular to the retrieving direction of floodwater. In each transect twenty 1 m2 sized quadrats were randomly chosen to survey the community structure and the aboveground biomass. Comparative analyses were made on the dynamics of soil water, soil N and P, and species composition of grassland communities that occurred in responses to flooding disturbance. The results showed that the lightly and heavily flooded transects had a significantly larger aboveground biomass than the control, with the increase of 89.54% and 113.45%, respectively. The heavily flooded transect had a slightly but insignificantly larger aboveground biomass than the lightly flooded one, indicating that on flooded sites, water was not the limiting factor of the aboveground biomass. The acute changes of soil water caused by flooding led to the changes of soil nutrients and species assemblages, which would impact community biomass. Just as the case for aboveground biomass, the soil water contents of the two flooded transects were significantly larger than that of control

  12. Structure, Aboveground Biomass, and Soil Characterization of Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park, Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsumaiti, Tareefa Saad Sultan

    Mangrove forests are national treasures of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and other arid countries with limited forested areas. Mangroves form a crucial part of the coastal ecosystem and provide numerous benefits to society, economy, and especially the environment. Mangrove trees, specifically Avicennia marina, are studied in their native habitat in order to characterize their population structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties. This study focused on Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park in Abu Dhabi, which was the first mangrove protected area to be designated in UAE. In situ measurements were collected to estimate Avicennia marina status, mortality rate (%), height (m), crown spread (m), stem number, diameter at breast height (cm), basal area (m), and aboveground biomass (t ha-1 ). Small-footprint aerial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data acquired by UAE were processed to characterize mangrove canopy height and aboveground biomass density. This included extraction of LIDAR-derived height percentile statistics, segmentation of the forest into structurally homogenous units, and development of regression relationships between in situ reference and remote sensing data using a machine learning approach. An in situ soil survey was conducted to examine the soils' physical and chemical properties, fertility status, and organic matter. The data of soil survey were used to create soil maps to evaluate key characteristics of soils, and their influence on Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park. The results of this study provide new insights into Avicennia marina canopy population, structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties in Abu Dhabi, as data in such arid environments is lacking. This valuable information can help in managing and preserving this unique ecosystem.

  13. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. PMID:25676198

  14. Status of cool roof standards in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

    2007-06-01

    Since 1999, several widely used building energy efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool roof credits or requirements. We review the technical development of cool roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discuss the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy standards worldwide.

  15. Green roofs as a means of pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Rowe, D Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Green roofs involve growing vegetation on rooftops and are one tool that can help mitigate the negative effects of pollution. This review encompasses published research to date on how green roofs can help mitigate pollution, how green roof materials influence the magnitude of these benefits, and suggests future research directions. The discussion concentrates on how green roofs influence air pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, carbon sequestration, longevity of roofing membranes that result in fewer roofing materials in landfills, water quality of stormwater runoff, and noise pollution. Suggestions for future directions for research include plant selection, development of improved growing substrates, urban rooftop agriculture, water quality of runoff, supplemental irrigation, the use of grey water, air pollution, carbon sequestration, effects on human health, combining green roofs with complementary related technologies, and economics and policy issues.

  16. Establishing Green Roof Infrastructure Through Environmental Policy Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  17. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    PubMed

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  18. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    PubMed

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  19. Impact of climate and vegetation type on evapotranspiration from green roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sia, M. E.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Voogt, J. A.; Smart, C. C.; Way, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Green roofs are an increasingly popular low impact development tool used to mitigate the adverse effects of urbanization and the loss of vegetated spaces. The benefits of green roofs include reducing stormwater volume and peak flows, reducing building energy loads, and mitigating the urban heat island effect. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key process fundamental to hydrologic and thermal performance of green roofs. For example, ET governs the water storage volume available in the soil medium and thus the ability of the green roof to retain and attenuate stormwater. Green roof design considerations such as soil medium depth and plant type impact ET rates. Additionally, climate has a strong impact on ET rates. To date, the influence between climate and green roof design factors (e.g. vegetation type and soil medium depth) on ET rates have not been well quantified. We performed a field study to evaluate the impact of climate, vegetation type, and soil medium depth on ET rates from extensive modular green roofs over prolonged drying periods. Three Canadian cities with distinct climates were chosen as field sites: London, ON, Calgary, AB, and Halifax, NS. At each site, daily module weights were recorded from May to August in 2013 and 2014 for approximately 40 green roof modules. These modules were divided into four vegetation treatments (three single species and one mixed species), and each treatment was divided into two groups of soil medium depth (10 cm or 15 cm). Daily ET rates and seasonal moisture loss were calculated and compared for the modules to determine which treatment provided the highest ET rates. The root depth profile, leaf area index, and stomatal resistance were also measured. On average, daily ET rates among the vegetation treatments did not vary greatly, however, observations on plant survival indicate which plant types are best suited for each site. In all three sites, mixed species in 15 cm of soil medium had higher seasonal moisture loss compared to

  20. QUANTIFYING FOREST ABOVEGROUND CARBON POOLS AND FLUXES USING MULTI-TEMPORAL LIDAR A report on field monitoring, remote sensing MMV, GIS integration, and modeling results for forestry field validation test to quantify aboveground tree biomass and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Spangler; Lee A. Vierling; Eva K. Stand; Andrew T. Hudak; Jan U.H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2012-04-01

    Sound policy recommendations relating to the role of forest management in mitigating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) depend upon establishing accurate methodologies for quantifying forest carbon pools for large tracts of land that can be dynamically updated over time. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing is a promising technology for achieving accurate estimates of aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, not much is known about the accuracy of estimating biomass change and carbon flux from repeat LiDAR acquisitions containing different data sampling characteristics. In this study, discrete return airborne LiDAR data was collected in 2003 and 2009 across {approx}20,000 hectares (ha) of an actively managed, mixed conifer forest landscape in northern Idaho, USA. Forest inventory plots, established via a random stratified sampling design, were established and sampled in 2003 and 2009. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm was used to establish statistical relationships between inventory data and forest structural metrics derived from the LiDAR acquisitions. Aboveground biomass maps were created for the study area based on statistical relationships developed at the plot level. Over this 6-year period, we found that the mean increase in biomass due to forest growth across the non-harvested portions of the study area was 4.8 metric ton/hectare (Mg/ha). In these non-harvested areas, we found a significant difference in biomass increase among forest successional stages, with a higher biomass increase in mature and old forest compared to stand initiation and young forest. Approximately 20% of the landscape had been disturbed by harvest activities during the six-year time period, representing a biomass loss of >70 Mg/ha in these areas. During the study period, these harvest activities outweighed growth at the landscape scale, resulting in an overall loss in aboveground carbon at this site. The 30-fold increase in sampling density

  1. The current bases for roof fall prediction at WIPP and a preliminary prediction for SPDV Room 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the current bases for roof fall prediction at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and a preliminary prediction of the date of a roof fall in SPDV Test Room 2. The ability to correctly assess the stability of the excavations at the WIPP is necessary to protect the safety of site workers, the environment, and the integrity of in situ experiments that use transuranic mixed waste. Roof fall is the extreme case of instability. Although roof falls have been allowed to occur unused, barricaded rooms so that the pre-collapse behavior of this room could be studied. This document presents a discussion of some deformation mechanisms that can be expected around excavations in bedded salt at the WIPP. The geomechanical instrument data and fracture maps from the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) room area have been analyzed to determine the deformation history of the rooms and to identify precursors to the SPDV Room 1 roof fall. The deformation history of the excavations as recorded by the instruments was then correlated with these proposed deformation mechanisms, providing a basis for prediction of roof falls in other locations. Finally, the means used at the WIPP to identify and monitor unstable ground are discussed. Throughout this document, ``Room 1 `` and ``Room 2`` refer to SPDV Rooms 1 and 2 unless otherwise stated.

  2. PERFORMANCE OF AN EARTHQUAKE EXCITED ROOF DIAPHRAGM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Brady, G.; Safak, E.; Converse, A.; ,

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the earthquake performance of the roof diaphragm of the West Valley College gymnasium in Saratoga, California through a complete set of acceleration records obtained during the 24 April 1984 Morgan Hill Earthquake (M equals 6. 1). The roof diaphragm of the 112 ft. multiplied by 144 ft. rectangular, symmetric gymnasium consists of 3/8 in. plywood over tongue-and-groove sheathing attached to steel trusses supported by reinforced concrete columns and walls. Three sensors placed in the direction of each of the axes of the diaphragm facilitate the evaluation of in-plane deformation of the diaphragm. Other sensors placed at ground level measure vertical and horizontal motion of the building floor, and consequently allow the calculation of the relative motion of the diaphragm with respect to the ground level.

  3. Evaluating lidar point densities for effective estimation of aboveground biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Stoker, Jason; Vogel, John M.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) was recently established to provide airborne lidar data coverage on a national scale. As part of a broader research effort of the USGS to develop an effective remote sensing-based methodology for the creation of an operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (Biomass ECV) data product, we evaluated the performance of airborne lidar data at various pulse densities against Landsat 8 satellite imagery in estimating above ground biomass for forests and woodlands in a study area in east-central Arizona, U.S. High point density airborne lidar data, were randomly sampled to produce five lidar datasets with reduced densities ranging from 0.5 to 8 point(s)/m2, corresponding to the point density range of 3DEP to provide national lidar coverage over time. Lidar-derived aboveground biomass estimate errors showed an overall decreasing trend as lidar point density increased from 0.5 to 8 points/m2. Landsat 8-based aboveground biomass estimates produced errors larger than the lowest lidar point density of 0.5 point/m2, and therefore Landsat 8 observations alone were ineffective relative to airborne lidar for generating a Biomass ECV product, at least for the forest and woodland vegetation types of the Southwestern U.S. While a national Biomass ECV product with optimal accuracy could potentially be achieved with 3DEP data at 8 points/m2, our results indicate that even lower density lidar data could be sufficient to provide a national Biomass ECV product with accuracies significantly higher than that from Landsat observations alone.

  4. Installation of a Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to create a safe and comfortable environment for students to learn, a lot of electricity, which is generated from coal fired power plants, is used. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in Hong Kong with approximately 1,500 students, will be installing a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system with 302 solar panels. Not only will these panels be used to power a classroom, they will also serve as an educational opportunity for students to learn about the importance of renewable energy technology and its uses. There were four different options for the installation of the solar panels, and the final choice was made based on the loading capacity of the roof, considering the fact that overstressing the roof could prove to be a safety hazard. Moreover, due to consideration of the risk of typhoons in Hong Kong, the solar panel PV system will include concrete plinths as counterweights - but not so much that the roof would be severely overstressed. During and after the installation of the PV system, students involved would be able to do multiple calculations, such as determining the reduction of the school's carbon footprint. This can allow students to learn about the impact renewable energy can have on the environment. Another project students can participate in includes measuring the efficiency of the solar panels and how much power can be produced per year, which in turn can help with calculate the amount of money saved per year and when we will achieve economic parity. In short, the installation of the roof mounted PV system will not only be able to help save money for the school but also provide learning opportunities for students studying at the ISF Academy.

  5. Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Gartland, L.; Akbari, H.; Rainer, L.

    1998-06-01

    The use of dark roofs affects cooling and heating energy use in buildings and the urban climate. At the building scale, dark roofs are heated by the summer sun and thus raise the summertime air-conditioning (a/c) demand. For highly-absorptive (low-albedo) roofs the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures may be as high as 90 F on a summer afternoon. While for less absorptive (high-albedo) surfaces with similar insulative properties, such as roofs covered with a white coating, the difference is only about 20 F. For this reason, cool roofs (which absorb little insolation) can be effective in reducing cooling energy use. Earlier studies have suggested that cool roofs incur no additional cost if color changes are incorporated into routine re-roofing and re-surfacing schedules. There is a sizable body of measured data (primarily collected for residential sector) documenting energy-saving effects of cool roofs as shown. Both measured data and simulations clearly demonstrate that increasing the albedo of roofs is an attractive (and cost-effective) way of reducing the net radiative heat gains through the roof and hence, reducing building cooling loads. To change the albedo, the rooftops of buildings may be painted with reflective coatings or covered with a new light-colored material. Since most roofs have regular maintenance schedules or need to be re-roofed or re-coated periodically, the change of the albedo should be done then. In that case, the cost would be limited to the incremental cost associated with the high-albedo material. In buildings and climates with significant air-conditioning use, increasing the albedo of roofs will reduce energy use and produce a stream of savings immediately.

  6. Effect of roof slope and thickness on the performance of a saltstone vault

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, A.D.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Hsu, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    At the Savannah River Site, low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is mixed with slag, flyash, and cement to form a grout-like material called ``Saltstone.`` The Saltstone is poured into concrete vaults constructed at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SDF is designed for the release of contaminants in a slow, controlled manner over thousands of years. The impact of SDF on groundwater has been studied in a radiological performance assessment (PA). Groundwater models were used to predict the fluid flow and contaminant transport at SDF. The models predicted a spatial contaminant concentration distribution in groundwater as a function of time. This study focuses on the roof configuration of Saltstone vault, with special interests in cost-effectiveness. We conducted a study to evaluate the effect of roof slope and thickness on the performance of a Saltstone vault. Four roof configurations were simulated. The tool used for the simulation was ECLIPSE, a finite-difference petroleum reservoir engineering code with an environmental tracer option. Nitrate was used as the ``tracer`` contaminant. In this study, ECLIPSE solves the two-phase two-dimensional flow and transport problem up to 10,000 years. This paper describes a modeling study used to evaluate roof design options for the Saltstone vault.

  7. Aging and weathering of cool roofing membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Levinson, Ronnen; Graveline,Stanley; Foley, Kevin; Delgado, Ana H.; Paroli, Ralph M.

    2005-08-23

    Aging and weathering can reduce the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials. This paper summarizes laboratory measurements of the solar spectral reflectance of unweathered, weathered, and cleaned samples collected from single-ply roofing membranes at various sites across the United States. Fifteen samples were examined in each of the following six conditions: unweathered; weathered; weathered and brushed; weathered, brushed and then rinsed with water; weathered, brushed, rinsed with water, and then washed with soap and water; and weathered, brushed, rinsed with water, washed with soap and water, and then washed with an algaecide. Another 25 samples from 25 roofs across the United States and Canada were measured in their unweathered state, weathered, and weathered and wiped. We document reduction in reflectivity resulted from various soiling mechanisms and provide data on the effectiveness of various cleaning approaches. Results indicate that although the majority of samples after being washed with detergent could be brought to within 90% of their unweathered reflectivity, in some instances an algaecide was required to restore this level of reflectivity.

  8. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2005-01-15

    In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The main accomplishments in this quarter included: (1) one more field test has been conducted in an underground coal mine, (2) optimization studies of the control parameters have been conducted, (3) method to use torque to thrust ratio as indicator of rock relative hardness has also been explored, and (4) about 98% of the development work for the roof geology mapping program, MRGIS, has completed, (5) A real time roof geology mapping system for roof bolters in limestone mine, including a special version of the geology mapping program and hardware, has already been verified to perform very well in underground production condition.

  9. Relationship of roof rat population indices with damage to sugarcane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Engeman, Richard M.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

    1989-01-01

    Roof rats (Rattus rattus) cause substantial damage to sugarcane in South Florida (Samol 1972; Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985). Accurate estimates of roof rat populations in sugarcane fields would be useful for determining when to to treat a field to control roof rats and for assessing the efficacy of control. However, previous studies have indicated that roof rats exhibit trap shyness, which makes capture-recapture population estimates difficult (Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985; Holler et al., 1981). Until trapping methods are sufficiently improved to allow accurate population estimates, indices of population size that relate to damage need to be developed. The objectives of our study were to examine the relationship of several indices of roof rat populations to the percentage of sugarcane stalks damaged at harvest; to determine which population index would be most useful for sugarcane growers; and to report on a test of several types of live traps for roof rats.

  10. An orbital roof and anterior skull base fracture: case report.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, P; Mitro, V; Gabriele, G; Giovannetti, F; Facchini, A

    2012-10-01

    Blow-out fractures usually involve the orbit in the floor or in the medial wall. Anyway, if the roof of the orbit is thin and direct compressive or buckling forces impact the orbit the fracture can involve the upper roof. We describe the case of a blow-out fracture of the orbital roof with enophtalmus and cerebrospinal fluid leak from lacero-contusive subciliar wound

  11. Cool Roof Systems; What is the Condensation Risk?

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Pallin, Simon B

    2014-01-01

    A white roof, or cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with a mechanically attached membrane have shown a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparison with similar constructions with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in northern U.S. climate zones.

  12. Attic floor; view west showing roof structural system North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Attic floor; view west showing roof structural system - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Impact of cutter roof failure on small mine operators

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.R. )

    1993-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines has conducted research to gain a basis for recommending methods to predict and prevent the occurrence of cutter roof failure, a common ground control problem in the Appalachian Coalfields. Cutter roof failure can be difficult to predict and control, and be especially devastating to small miner operators with limited resources and small profit margins. Bureau research has found four distinct factors to be initiators of cutter roof failure: (1) high horizontal roof stress, (2) surface topographic variations, (3) roof rock characteristics and (4) geologic anomalies. Effective control of cutter roof is possible through improved bolting techniques, entry and mine reorientation, and entry and pillar size modifications, all of which may not be economically feasible for small mine operators. The result is that small mine operators are forced to continue mining where less than ideal roof conditions are present. Ultimately, cutter roof failure could result in the closure of some small mine operations. Extensive Bureau cutter roof research can increase small mine operator's awareness of this ground failure, provide insight for predicting its cause, and suggest appropriate methods of controlling its occurrence.

  14. 5. VIEW OF VENTILATION HOUSES AND ROOF MONITOR FROM SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF VENTILATION HOUSES AND ROOF MONITOR FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF ROOF. ROOF MONITOR WINDOWS HAVE BEEN INFILLED WITH BRICK. THE VENTILATION HOUSES ARE PART OF THE ORIGINAL CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND CONTAINED AIR WASHERS, FANS AND OTHER HUMIDFYING EQUIPMENT FROM PARKS-CRAMER COMPANY OF FITCHBURG, MASSACHUSETTS. LOCATING THIS EQUIPMENT ON THE ROOF MADE IT UNNECESSARY TO CONSTRUCT A FULL BASEMENT, AND THEREFORE LOWERED CONSTRUCTION COSTS. THIS ARRANGEMENT ALSO PUT THE AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT CLOSEST TO THE TOP FLOOR SPINNING ROOM, WHICH HAD THE GREATEST COOLING REQUIREMENTS. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  15. 6. DETAIL OF CORNICE, ROOF AND WINDOWS, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF CORNICE, ROOF AND WINDOWS, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Providence Sewage Treatment System, Ernest Street Pumping Station, Boiler House, Ernest Street & Allens Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  16. roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail Chopawamsic Recreational ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  17. Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

    2003-04-07

    We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

  18. Modelling runoff on ceramic tile roofs using the kinematic wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Alexandre; Abrantes, João; de Lima, João; Lira, Lincoln

    2016-04-01

    Rainwater harvesting is a water saving alternative strategy that presents many advantages and can provide solutions to address major water resources problems, such as fresh water scarcity, urban stream degradation and flooding. In recent years, these problems have become global challenges, due to climatic change, population growth and increasing urbanisation. Generally, roofs are the first to come into contact with rainwater; thus, they are the best candidates for rainwater harvesting. In this context, the correct evaluation of roof runoff quantity and quality is essential to effectively design rainwater harvesting systems. Despite this, many studies usually focus on the qualitative aspects in detriment of the quantitative aspects. Laboratory studies using rainfall simulators have been widely used to investigate rainfall-runoff processes. These studies enabled a detailed exploration and systematic replication of a large range of hydrologic conditions, such as rainfall spatial and temporal characteristics, providing for a fast way to obtain precise and consistent data that can be used to calibrate and validate numerical models. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a kinematic wave based numerical model in simulating runoff on sloping roofs, by comparing the numerical results with the ones obtained from laboratory rainfall simulations on a real-scale ceramic tile roof (Lusa tiles). For all studied slopes, simulated discharge hydrographs had a good adjust to observed ones. Coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values were close to 1.0. Particularly, peak discharges, times to peak and peak durations were very well simulated.

  19. Sequential effects of root and foliar herbivory on aboveground and belowground induced plant defense responses and insect performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minggang; Biere, Arjen; Van der Putten, Wim H; Bezemer, T Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Plants are often simultaneously or sequentially attacked by multiple herbivores and changes in host plants induced by one herbivore can influence the performance of other herbivores. We examined how sequential feeding on the plant Plantago lanceolata by the aboveground herbivore Spodoptera exigua and the belowground herbivore Agriotes lineatus influences plant defense and the performance of both insects. Belowground herbivory caused a reduction in the food consumption by the aboveground herbivore independent of whether it was initiated before, at the same time, or after that of the aboveground herbivore. By contrast, aboveground herbivory did not significantly affect belowground herbivore performance, but significantly reduced the performance of later arriving aboveground conspecifics. Interestingly, belowground herbivores negated negative effects of aboveground herbivores on consumption efficiency of their later arriving conspecifics, but only if the belowground herbivores were introduced simultaneously with the early arriving aboveground herbivores. Aboveground-belowground interactions could only partly be explained by induced changes in an important class of defense compounds, iridoid glycosides (IGs). Belowground herbivory caused a reduction in IGs in roots without affecting shoot levels, while aboveground herbivory increased IG levels in roots in the short term (4 days) but only in the shoots in the longer term (17 days). We conclude that the sequence of aboveground and belowground herbivory is important in interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores and that knowledge on the timing of exposure is essential to predict outcomes of aboveground-belowground interactions.

  20. Solar energy collector and associated methods adapted for use with overlapped roof shingles on the roof of a building

    SciTech Connect

    Nevins, R.L.

    1980-04-15

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for collecting solar energy adapted for use with overlapped roof shingles on the roof or side of a building comprising thin flexible metal plates interposed between the overlapped shingles in heat transfer relation therewith such that heat absorbed by the shingles is transferred to the metal plates. The plates extend through the roof via slots provided therein and are affixed in heat transfer relation with pipes containing a fluid.

  1. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  2. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory....

  3. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory....

  4. 40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... supported by the leg supports. (2) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, the internal... rim space vents is to provide a projection below the stored liquid surface. (ii) Except for leg... at all times except when the floating roof must be supported by the leg supports. (2) When...

  5. Optimizing roof-integrated photovoltaics: A case study of the PowerGuard{trademark} roofing tile

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwoodie, T.L.; Shugar, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a building-integrated photovoltaic (PV) roofing tile system that provides grid-connected electric power to buildings. The PV roofing tile system, together with waterproof membrane, insulation, and electrical interconnection, is called PowerGuard{trademark}. PowerGuard is one of the first PV roofing systems for flat and moderately-sloped commercial buildings that replaces conventional roof materials without requiring membrane penetrations and mechanical fastening to building structures. When evaluated as a PV system, the building integration reduces the cost of a PowerGuard system by 14% to 26% rather than incurring a structural mounting cost of 18% to 22 % to conventionally fasten the system. Data are reported from a 3.0 kW PowerGuard prototype operating in Folsom, California. PowerLight Corporation supplied the system using large-area amorphous silicon modules manufactured by Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. Performance data indicates the system is exceeding contractual requirements. Sensitivity analysis, based upon performance, installed costs, and supplier data, indicates (1) a marginal economic advantage to tilting the PV array; (2) a marginal economic impact of increased PV efficiency; and (3) economies-of-scale which make PowerGuard systems economical today for commercial customers in sunny areas who pay high electricity rates.

  6. TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; Cherry, Nigel J; Allen, Richard Lowell; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Ronnen, Levinson; Akbari, Hashem; Berhahl, Paul

    2010-03-01

    counter battens, providing a nailing surface for the concrete tile. This double batten construction forms an inclined air channel running from the soffit to the ridge. The bottom surface of the channel is formed by the roof decking and is relatively flat and smooth. The top surface is created by the underside of the roofing tiles, and is designed to be an air permeable covering to alleviate the underside air pressure and minimize wind uplift on the tiles. The resulting air flows also have a cooling influence which further complicates prediction of the heat penetrating through the deck because an accurate measure of the airflow is required to predict the heat transfer. Measured temperatures and heat flows at the roof surface, within the attic and at the ceiling of the houses are discussed as well as the power usage to help gauge the benefit of cool-pigmented reflective roof products fitted with and without ventilation above the roof deck. Ventilation occurring above the deck is an inherent feature for tile roof assemblies, and is formed by an air space between the exterior face of the roof sheathing and the underside of the tile. The greater the tile s profile the greater is the effect of the ventilation which herein is termed above-sheathing ventilation (ASV). However, because of the complexity of the thermally induced flow, little credit is allowed by state and federal building codes. ASHRAE (2005) provides empirical data for the effective thermal resistance of plane air spaces. A -in. (0.0191-m) plane air space inclined at 45 with the horizontal has an RUS-0.85 (RSI-0.15) . Our intent is to help further deploy cool color pigments in roofs by conducting field experiments to evaluate the new cool-colored roofing materials in the hot climate of Southern California. The collected data will be used to showcase and market the performance of new cool-roof products and also to help formulate and validate computer codes capable of calculating the heat transfer occurring within

  7. Regional Mapping, Modelling, and Monitoring of Tree Aboveground Biomass Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Airborne lidar collections are preferred for mapping aboveground biomass carbon (AGBC), while historical Landsat imagery are preferred for monitoring decadal scale forest cover change. Our modelling approach tracks AGBC change regionally using Landsat time series metrics; training areas are defined by airborne lidar extents within which AGBC is accurately mapped with high confidence. Geospatial topographic and climate layers are also included in the predictive model. Validation is accomplished using systematically sampled Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data that have been independently collected, processed and summarized at the county level. Our goal is to demonstrate that spatially and temporally aggregated annual AGBC map predictions show no bias when compared to annual county-level summaries across the Northwest USA. A prominent source of bias is trees outside forest; much of the more arid portions of our study area meet the FIA definition of non-forest because the tree cover does not exceed their minimum tree cover threshold. We employ detailed tree cover maps derived from high-resolution aerial imagery to extend our AGBC predictions into non-forest areas. We also employ Landsat-derived annual disturbance maps into our mapped AGBC predictions prior to aggregation and validation.

  8. Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Torrence; Zhu, Lixue; Lopéz, Lorena; Pechanova, Olga; Shivaji, Renuka; Ankala, Arunkanth; Williams, W. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Insect pests that attempt to feed on the caterpillar-resistant maize genotype Mp708 encounter a potent, multipronged defense system that thwarts their invasion. First, these plants are on “constant alert” due to constitutively elevated levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid that signals the plant to activate its defenses. The higher jasmonic acid levels trigger the expression of defense genes prior to herbivore attack so the plants are “primed” and respond with a faster and stronger defense. The second defense is the rapid accumulation of a toxic cysteine protease called Mir1-CP in the maize whorl in response to caterpillar feeding. When caterpillars ingest Mir1-CP, it damages the insect's midgut and retards their growth. In this article, we discuss a third possible defense strategy employed by Mp708. We have shown that foliar caterpillar feeding causes Mir1-CP and defense gene transcripts to accumulate in its roots. We propose that caterpillar feeding aboveground sends a signal belowground via the phloem that results in Mir1-CP accumulation in the roots. We also postulate that the roots serve as a reservoir of Mir1-CP that can be mobilized to the whorl in response to caterpillar assault. PMID:21270535

  9. Green roof and storm water management policies: monitoring experiments on the ENPC Blue Green Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Gires, Auguste; Fitton, George; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Currently widespread in new urban projects, green roofs have shown a positive impact on urban runoff at the building/parcel scale. Nevertheless, there is no specific policy promoting their implementation neither in Europe nor in France. Moreover they are not taken into account (and usually considered as an impervious area) in the sizing of a retention basin for instance. An interesting example is located in the heart of the Paris-East Cluster for Science and Technology (Champs-sur-Marne, France). Since 2013 a large (1 ha) wavy-form vegetated roof (called bleu green wave) is implemented. Green roof area and impervious areas are connected to a large retention basin, which has been oversized. The blue green wave represents a pioneering site where an initially amenity (decorative) design project has been transformed into a research oriented one. Several measurement campaigns have been conducted to investigate and better understand the hydrological behaviour of such a structure. Rainfall, humidity, wind velocity, water content and temperature have been particularly studied. The data collected are used for several purposes: (i) characterize the spatio-temporal variability of the green roof response, (ii) calibrate and validate a specific model simulating its hydrological behavior. Based on monitoring and modeling results, green roof performances will be quantified. It will be possible to estimate how they can reduce stormwater runoff and how these performances can vary in space and in time depending on green roof configuration, rainfall event characteristics and antecedent conditions. These quantified impacts will be related to regulation rules established by stormwater managers in order to connect the parcel to the sewer network. In the particular case of the building of a retention basin, the integration of green roof in the sizing of the basin will be studied. This work is funded by the European Blue Green Dream project (http://bgd.org.uk/, funded by Climate

  10. 49 CFR 238.123 - Emergency roof access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency roof access. 238.123 Section 238.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... § 238.123 Emergency roof access. Except as provided in § 238.441 of this chapter— (a) Number...

  11. 49 CFR 238.123 - Emergency roof access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency roof access. 238.123 Section 238.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... § 238.123 Emergency roof access. Except as provided in § 238.441 of this chapter— (a) Number...

  12. 49 CFR 238.123 - Emergency roof access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency roof access. 238.123 Section 238.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... § 238.123 Emergency roof access. Except as provided in § 238.441 of this chapter— (a) Number...

  13. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini

    2014-07-10

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  14. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  15. ROOF, Taken looking southeast from the southeast corner of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ROOF, Taken looking southeast from the southeast corner of the stair tower roof, showing external piping and west facade of Penthouse 201P. The large stack is seen behind the Penthouse - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  16. What You Should Know about Single-Ply Roofing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szcygiel, Tony L.

    1998-01-01

    Explains why a single-ply roofing system is the best choice for educational facilities. It discusses how single-ply roofing systems offer flexibility with ease of application; cause less disruption during installation; and are clean, safe, and energy efficient. (GR)

  17. 23. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF, FACING NORTHEAST. SHOWS GROUND LEVEL USE OF FLOOR SPACE FOR TEMPORARY STORAGE OF CRATES. MOISTURE ON SURFACE IS FROM LEAKY HANGAR ROOF. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. 16. DETAIL OF ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM, FACING EAST, THIRD BAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM, FACING EAST, THIRD BAY Showing bottom chords and diagonal braces of roof trusses, hoist I-beam and pulley. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  19. 14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. Pitched corrugated metal roof marks location of the frame approach connecting the firing pier to the shop (shown in left distance). - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. 49 CFR 238.123 - Emergency roof access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... divided left from right. (See Figure 3 to this subpart.) (d) Obstructions. The ceiling space below each emergency roof access location shall be free from wire, cabling, conduit, and piping. This space shall also..., 2015, each emergency roof access location shall be conspicuously marked with retroreflective...

  1. Getting a Clear Focus on Roof Replacement and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Valerie B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a new generation of X-ray-like vision--the patented INFRARED2k--provides roof-condition reports that help extend roof life, conserve energy, and survey for mold-supporting environments, thereby improving indoor air quality. (EV)

  2. Energy Star{reg{underscore}sign} label for roof products

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeltz, R.S.; Bretz, S.E.

    1998-07-01

    Home and buildings owners can save up to 40% of cooling energy costs by installing reflective roofs, especially in hot and sunny climates. The increase in exterior albedo and subsequent decrease in heat flow across the building envelope reduces the energy requirements to maintain air-conditioned space. Indirectly, the increase in overall albedo of a community as these roofs are installed in a large fraction of the buildings results in lower ambient air temperature and less need for air conditioning. Another indirect effect is a decrease in smog formation due to lower ambient air temperatures and less air pollution from power plants because of minimized electrical demand and use. The US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy are currently developing the Energy Star Roof Products Program to create a vibrant market for energy-efficient, cost-effective roof materials through the widespread availability of products, clear recognition of the benefits by consumers, and active promotion of products by manufacturers. Several activities, including pilot procurements of room materials, and the development of outreach and training materials, will be performed to assist the transformation of the roofing market toward more energy-efficient products. Using the experiences gained in establishing the Energy Star Roof Products Program as an example, this paper will discuss the barriers to the development of energy-efficient roofing practices, program implementation, and program successes. This paper will further describe the specifics of the Energy Star Roof Products Program, its goals, benefits, activities, and timeframe.

  3. Extensive Green Roof Research Program at Colorado State University

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, media blends, and plant interactions on an existing modular extensive green roof in Denver, Colorado. Six plant species were ev...

  4. 30 CFR 75.220 - Roof control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator shall develop and follow a roof control plan, approved by the District Manager, that is suitable... control plan and any revisions to the plan shall be submitted, in writing, to the District Manager. When... the District Manager. (3) Before new support materials, devices or systems other than roof bolts...

  5. 9. Grandstand seating and aisles viewed from roof of north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Grandstand seating and aisles viewed from roof of north addition of Clubhouse (roof of Chinook Pass Room). TV Center is partially visible on far left. Camera pointed N. (July 1993) - Longacres, Original Grandstand, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  6. 30 CFR 75.221 - Roof control plan information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 75.221 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.221 Roof control plan... address of the company. (2) The name, address, mine identification number and location of the mine....

  7. 30 CFR 75.211 - Roof testing and scaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.211 Roof testing and scaling. (a) A..., shall be made where supports are to be installed. When sound and vibration tests are made, they shall...

  8. 30 CFR 75.220 - Roof control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.220 Roof control plan. (a)(1) Each mine... to the prevailing geological conditions, and the mining system to be used at the mine....

  9. Visual Analytics for Roof Savings Calculator Ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Chad; New, Joshua Ryan; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2012-01-01

    The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for DOE as an industry-consensus, web-based tool for easily running complex building energy simulations. These simulations allow both homeowners and experts to determine building-specific cost and energy savings for modern roof and attic technologies. Using a database of over 3 million RSC simulations for different combinations of parameters, we have built a visual analytics tool to assist in the exploration and identification of features in the data. Since the database contains multiple variables, both categorical and continuous, we employ a coordinated multi-view approach that allows coordinated feature exploration through multiple visualizations at once. The main component of our system, a parallel coordinates view, has been adapted to handle large-scale, mixed data types as are found in RSC simulations. Other visualizations include map coordinated plots, high dynamic range (HDR) line plot rendering, and an intuitive user interface. We demonstrate these techniques with several use cases that have helped identify software and parametric simulation issues.

  10. A Roof for the Lion's House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Fans of the National Football League's Detroit Lions don't worry about gameday weather. Their magnificent new Pontiac Stadium has a domed, air-supported, fabric roof that admits light but protects the playing field and patrons from the elements. The 80,000-seat "Silverdome" is the world's largest fabric-covered structure-and aerospace technology played an important part in its construction. The key to economical construction of the Silverdome-and many other types of buildings-is a spinoff of fiber glass Beta yarn coated with Teflon TFE fluorocarbon resin. The big advance it offers is permanency. Fabric structures-tents, for example have been around since the earliest years of human civilization. But their coverings-hides, canvas and more recently plastics-were considered temporary; though tough, these fabrics were subject to weather deterioration. Teflon TFE-coated Beta Fiberglas is virtually impervious to the effects of weather and sunlight and it won't stretch, shrink, mildew or rot, thus has exceptional longevity; it is also very strong, lightweight, flame resistant and requires no periodic cleaning, because dirt will not stick to the surface of Teflon TFE. And to top all that, it costs only 30 to 40 percent as much as conventional roofing.

  11. Analysis of asphalt-based roof systems using thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paroli, R.M.; Delgado, A.H.

    1996-10-01

    Asphalt is used extensively in roofing applications. Traditionally, it is used in a built-up roof system, where four or five plies are applied in conjunction with asphalt. This is labour intensive and requires good quality assurance on the roof top. Alternatively, asphalt can be used in a polymer-modified sheet where styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) or atactic polypropylene (APP) are added to the asphalt shipped in a roll where reinforcement (e.g., glass fibre mat) has been added. Regardless of the system used, the roof must be able to withstand the environmental loads such UV, heat, etc. Thermoanalytical techniques such as DSC, DMA, TMA and TG/DTA are ideally suited to monitor the weathering of asphalt. This paper presents data obtained using these techniques and shows how the performance of asphalt-based roof systems can be followed by thermal analysis.

  12. Analysis of asphalt-based roof systems using thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paroli, R.M.; Delgado, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Asphalt has been used in the construction of roads and houses for thousands of years. The properties of asphalt has rendered it quite useful in roofing and waterproofing applications. The most popular use of asphalt in industrial roofing is in the form of a built-up roof or modified-bituminous sheet. This type of roof consists of asphalt, reinforcement and aggregate which is used to protect the asphalt from ultraviolet rays. All materials have their weaknesses and asphalt is no exception. A good asphalt (e.g., low asphaltene content) must be used to ensure the quality and low-temperature performance of roofing asphalts. Polymer additives can be added. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the utility of termogravimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis in establishing the durability of modified bituminous membranes.

  13. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil).

  14. Experimental analysis of green roof substrate detention characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yio, Marcus H N; Stovin, Virginia; Werdin, Jörg; Vesuviano, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Green roofs may make an important contribution to urban stormwater management. Rainfall-runoff models are required to evaluate green roof responses to specific rainfall inputs. The roof's hydrological response is a function of its configuration, with the substrate - or growing media - providing both retention and detention of rainfall. The objective of the research described here is to quantify the detention effects due to green roof substrates, and to propose a suitable hydrological modelling approach. Laboratory results from experimental detention tests on green roof substrates are presented. It is shown that detention increases with substrate depth and as a result of increasing substrate organic content. Model structures based on reservoir routing are evaluated, and it is found that a one-parameter reservoir routing model coupled with a parameter that describes the delay to start of runoff best fits the observed data. Preliminary findings support the hypothesis that the reservoir routing parameter values can be defined from the substrate's physical characteristics.

  15. Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Houghton, R. A.; DosSantos Alvala, R. C.; Soares, J. V.; Yu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The amount and spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon basin is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the flux of carbon released from land-cover and land-use change. Direct measurements of aboveground live biomass (AGLB) are limited to small areas of forest inventory plots and site-specific allometric equations that cannot be readily generalized for the entire basin. Furthermore, there is no spaceborne remote sensing instrument that can measure tropical forest biomass directly. To determine the spatial distribution of forest biomass of the Amazon basin, we report a method based on remote sensing metrics representing various forest structural parameters and environmental variables, and more than 500 plot measurements of forest biomass distributed over the basin. A decision tree approach was used to develop the spatial distribution of AGLB for seven distinct biomass classes of lowland old-growth forests with more than 80% accuracy. AGLB for other vegetation types, such as the woody and herbaceous savanna and secondary forests, was directly estimated with a regression based on satellite data. Results show that AGLB is highest in Central Amazonia and in regions to the east and north, including the Guyanas. Biomass is generally above 300Mgha(sup 1) here except in areas of intense logging or open floodplains. In Western Amazonia, from the lowlands of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia to the Andean mountains, biomass ranges from 150 to 300Mgha(sup 1). Most transitional and seasonal forests at the southern and northwestern edges of the basin have biomass ranging from 100 to 200Mgha(sup 1). The AGLB distribution has a significant correlation with the length of the dry season. We estimate that the total carbon in forest biomass of the Amazon basin, including the dead and below ground biomass, is 86 PgC with +/- 20% uncertainty.

  16. Mobilization and distribution of lead originating from roof dust and wet deposition in a roof runoff system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianghua; Yu, Haixia; Huang, Xiaogu

    2015-12-01

    In this research, the mobilization and distribution of lead originating in roof dust and wet deposition were investigated within a roof dust-rooftop-runoff system. The results indicated that lead from roof dust and wet deposition showed different transport dynamics in runoff system and that this process was significantly influenced by the rainfall intensity. Lead present in the roof dust could be easily washed off into the runoff, and nearly 60 % of the total lead content was present in particulate form. Most of the lead from the roof dust was transported during the late period of rainfall; however, the lead concentration was higher for several minutes at the rainfall beginning. Even though some of the lead from wet deposition, simulated with a standard isotope substance, was adsorbed onto adhered roof dust and/or retained on rooftop in runoff system, most of it (50-82 %) remained as dissolved lead in the runoff for rainfall events of varying intensity. Regarding the distribution of lead in the runoff system, the results indicated that it could be carried in the runoff in dissolved and particulate form, be adsorbed to adhered roof dust, or remain on the rooftop because of adsorption to the roof material. Lead from the different sources showed different distribution patterns that were also related to the rainfall intensity. Higher rainfall intensity resulted in a higher proportion of lead in the runoff and a lower proportion of lead remaining on the rooftop.

  17. Wind, rain and bacteria: The effect of weather on the microbial composition of roof-harvested rainwater.

    PubMed

    Evans, C A; Coombes, P J; Dunstan, R H

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological and chemical quality of tank-stored rainwater is impacted directly by roof catchment and subsequent run-off contamination, via direct depositions by birds and small mammals, decay of accumulated organic debris, and atmospheric deposition of airborne micro-organisms and chemical pollutants. Previous literature reports on roof water quality have given little consideration to the relative significance of airborne micro-organisms. This study involved analyses of direct roof run-off at an urban housing development in Newcastle, on the east coast of Australia. A total of 77 samples were collected during 11 separate rainfall events, and microbial counts and mean concentrations of several ionic contaminants were matched to climatic data corresponding to each of the monitored events. Conditions both antecedent to, and those prevailing during each event, were examined to investigate the influence of certain meteorological parameters on the bacterial composition of the roof water and indirectly assess the relative contribution of airborne micro-organisms to the total bacterial load. Results indicated that airborne micro-organisms represented a significant contribution to the bacterial load of roof water at this site, and that the overall contaminant load was influenced by wind velocities, while the profile (composition) of the load varied with wind direction. The implications of these findings to the issues of tank water quality and health risk analysis, appropriate usage and system design are discussed.

  18. [Spatial distribution of aboveground biomass of shrubs in Tianlaochi catchment of the Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Liang, Bei; Di, Li; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Peng, Shou-Zhang; Peng, Huan-Hua; Wang, Chao

    2014-02-01

    This study estimated the spatial distribution of the aboveground biomass of shrubs in the Tianlaochi catchment of Qilian Mountains based on the field survey and remote sensing data. A relationship model of the aboveground biomass and its feasibly measured factors (i. e. , canopy perimeter and plant height) was built. The land use was classified by object-oriented technique with the high resolution image (GeoEye-1) of the study area, and the distribution of shrub coverage was extracted. Then the total aboveground biomass of shrubs in the study area was estimated by the relationship model with the distribution of shrub coverage. The results showed that the aboveground biomass of shrubs in the study area was 1.8 x 10(3) t and the aboveground biomass per unit area was 1598.45 kg x m(-2). The distribution of shrubs mainly was at altitudes of 3000-3700 m, and the aboveground biomass of shrubs on the sunny slope (1.15 x 10(3) t) was higher than that on the shady slope (0.65 x 10(3) t).

  19. Stormwater quality from extensive green roofs in a subtropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onis Pessoa, Jonas; Allasia, Daniel; Tassi, Rutineia; Vaz Viega, Juliana; Fensterseifer, Paula

    2016-04-01

    Green roofs have increasingly become an integral part of urban environments, mainly due to their aesthetic benefits, thermal comfort and efficiency in controlling excess runoff. However, the effects of this emerging technology in the qualitative characteristics of rainwater is still poorly understood. In this study was evaluated the effect of two different extensive green roofs (EGRs) and a traditional roof built with corrugated fiber cement sheets (control roof) in the quality of rainwater, in a subtropical climate area in the city of Santa Maria, in southern Brazil. The principal variant between the two EGRs were the type of plant species, time since construction, soil depth and the substrate characteristics. During the monitoring period of the experiment, between the months of April and December of 2015 fourteen rainfall events were selected for qualitative analysis of water from the three roofs and directly from rainfall. It was analyzed physical (turbidity, apparent color, true color, electrical conductivity, total solids, dissolved solids, suspended solids and temperature), chemical (pH, phosphate, total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, sulfate, BOD, iron and total hardness), heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and chromium) and microbiological parameters (total coliforms and E. coli). It was also characterized the substrates used in both extensive green roofs. The results showed that the quality of the water drained from EGR s was directly influenced by their substrates (in turn containing significant levels of nutrients, organic matter and some metals). The passage of rainwater through green roofs and control roof resulted in the elevation of pH, allowing the conversion of the slightly acidic rainfall into basic water. Similarly, on both types of roofs occurred an increase of the values of most of the physical, chemical and microbiological parameters compared to rainwater. This same trend was observed for heavy metals, although with a much smaller degree

  20. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2005-04-15

    In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The main accomplishments in this quarter included: (1) one more field test has been conducted in an underground coal mine, (2) optimization studies of the control parameters have been conducted, (3) the relationship among feed pressure, penetration rate and rotation rate seems to be a good indicator for estimating rock strength when both penetration rate and rotation rate are controlled or kept constant, (4) the empirical equations for eliminating the machine effect on drilling parameters were developed and verified, and (5) a real time roof geology mapping system for roof bolters in limestone mine, including a special version of the geology mapping program and hardware, performs very well in underground production condition.

  1. Flexible shaft and roof drilling system

    DOEpatents

    Blanz, John H.

    1981-01-01

    A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

  2. Adventures on the roof of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    To conduct field biology requires tenacity, grit, and flexibility; to endeavor to achieve conservation success requires patience, persistence, and passion. The essence of field biology and the hope for conservation success are both reflected admirably in George B. Schaller's most recent book, Tibet Wild: A Naturalist's Journeys on the Roof of the World. I can think of no living biologist who embodies these characteristics more than Schaller does. Nearly 80 years old, he still regularly treks in faraway lands, observing and recording the natural history of species that the vast majority of us will never see in the wild. Schaller is a vanguard, and Tibet Wild, like his other books, is a sentinel of urgent conservation need.

  3. Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua; Miller, William A.; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-06-07

    For this study, a web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savings to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC's projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Finally, radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.

  4. Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs

    DOE PAGES

    New, Joshua; Miller, William A.; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-06-07

    For this study, a web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savingsmore » to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC's projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Finally, radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.« less

  5. Comparative life cycle assessment of standard and green roofs.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Susana; Kennedy, Christopher; Bass, Brad; Pressnail, Kim

    2006-07-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate the benefits, primarily from reduced energy consumption, resulting from the addition of a green roof to an eight story residential building in Madrid. Building energy use is simulated and a bottom-up LCA is conducted assuming a 50 year building life. The key property of a green roof is its low solar absorptance, which causes lower surface temperature, thereby reducing the heat flux through the roof. Savings in annual energy use are just over 1%, but summer cooling load is reduced by over 6% and reductions in peak hour cooling load in the upper floors reach 25%. By replacing the common flat roof with a green roof, environmental impacts are reduced by between 1.0 and 5.3%. Similar reductions might be achieved by using a white roof with additional insulation for winter, but more substantial reductions are achieved if common use of green roofs leads to reductions in the urban heat island.

  6. A field study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, U M; Balasubramanian, R

    2012-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs are emerging as practical strategies to improve the environmental quality of cities. However, the impact of green roofs on the storm water quality remains a topic of concern to city planners and environmental policy makers. This study investigated whether green roofs act as a source or a sink of various metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, Li and Co), inorganic anions (NO3-, NO2-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), Cl-, F- and Br-) and cation (NH4+). A series of green roof assemblies were constructed. Four different real rain events and several artificial rain events were considered for the study. Results showed that concentrations of most of the chemical components in runoff were highest during the beginning of rain events and subsided in the subsequent rain events. Some of the important components present in the runoff include Na, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Fe, Al, Cu, NO3-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-). However, the concentration of these chemical components in the roof runoff strongly depends on the nature of substrates used in the green roof and the volume of rain. Based on the USEPA standards for freshwater quality, we conclude that the green roof used in this study is reasonably effective except that the runoff contains significant amounts of NO3- and PO4(3-).

  7. Rainwater runoff retention on an aged intensive green roof.

    PubMed

    Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

    2013-09-01

    Urban areas are characterised by large proportions of impervious surfaces which increases rainwater runoff and the potential for surface water flooding. Increased precipitation is predicted under current climate change projections, which will put further pressure on urban populations and infrastructure. Roof greening can be used within flood mitigation schemes to restore the urban hydrological balance of cities. Intensive green roofs, with their deeper substrates and higher plant biomass, are able to retain greater quantities of runoff, and there is a need for more studies on this less common type of green roof which also investigate the effect of factors such as age and vegetation composition. Runoff quantities from an aged intensive green roof in Manchester, UK, were analysed for 69 rainfall events, and compared to those on an adjacent paved roof. Average retention was 65.7% on the green roof and 33.6% on the bare roof. A comprehensive soil classification revealed the substrate, a mineral soil, to be in good general condition and also high in organic matter content which can increase the water holding capacity of soils. Large variation in the retention data made the use of predictive regression models unfeasible. This variation arose from complex interactions between Antecedant Dry Weather Period (ADWP), season, monthly weather trends, and rainfall duration, quantity and peak intensity. However, significantly lower retention was seen for high rainfall events, and in autumn, which had above average rainfall. The study period only covers one unusually wet year, so a longer study may uncover relationships to factors which can be applied to intensive roofs elsewhere. Annual rainfall retention for Manchester city centre could be increased by 2.3% by a 10% increase in intensive green roof construction. The results of this study will be of particular interest to practitioners implementing greenspace adaptation in temperate and cool maritime climates. PMID:23712113

  8. Rainwater runoff retention on an aged intensive green roof.

    PubMed

    Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

    2013-09-01

    Urban areas are characterised by large proportions of impervious surfaces which increases rainwater runoff and the potential for surface water flooding. Increased precipitation is predicted under current climate change projections, which will put further pressure on urban populations and infrastructure. Roof greening can be used within flood mitigation schemes to restore the urban hydrological balance of cities. Intensive green roofs, with their deeper substrates and higher plant biomass, are able to retain greater quantities of runoff, and there is a need for more studies on this less common type of green roof which also investigate the effect of factors such as age and vegetation composition. Runoff quantities from an aged intensive green roof in Manchester, UK, were analysed for 69 rainfall events, and compared to those on an adjacent paved roof. Average retention was 65.7% on the green roof and 33.6% on the bare roof. A comprehensive soil classification revealed the substrate, a mineral soil, to be in good general condition and also high in organic matter content which can increase the water holding capacity of soils. Large variation in the retention data made the use of predictive regression models unfeasible. This variation arose from complex interactions between Antecedant Dry Weather Period (ADWP), season, monthly weather trends, and rainfall duration, quantity and peak intensity. However, significantly lower retention was seen for high rainfall events, and in autumn, which had above average rainfall. The study period only covers one unusually wet year, so a longer study may uncover relationships to factors which can be applied to intensive roofs elsewhere. Annual rainfall retention for Manchester city centre could be increased by 2.3% by a 10% increase in intensive green roof construction. The results of this study will be of particular interest to practitioners implementing greenspace adaptation in temperate and cool maritime climates.

  9. Developing a generalized allometric equation for aboveground biomass estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Balamuta, J. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Li, B.; Man, A.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A key potential uncertainty in estimating carbon stocks across multiple scales stems from the use of empirically calibrated allometric equations, which estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) from plant characteristics such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and/or height (H). The equations themselves contain significant and, at times, poorly characterized errors. Species-specific equations may be missing. Plant responses to their local biophysical environment may lead to spatially varying allometric relationships. The structural predictor may be difficult or impossible to measure accurately, particularly when derived from remote sensing data. All of these issues may lead to significant and spatially varying uncertainties in the estimation of AGB that are unexplored in the literature. We sought to quantify the errors in predicting AGB at the tree and plot level for vegetation plots in California. To accomplish this, we derived a generalized allometric equation (GAE) which we used to model the AGB on a full set of tree information such as DBH, H, taxonomy, and biophysical environment. The GAE was derived using published allometric equations in the GlobAllomeTree database. The equations were sparse in details about the error since authors provide the coefficient of determination (R2) and the sample size. A more realistic simulation of tree AGB should also contain the noise that was not captured by the allometric equation. We derived an empirically corrected variance estimate for the amount of noise to represent the errors in the real biomass. Also, we accounted for the hierarchical relationship between different species by treating each taxonomic level as a covariate nested within a higher taxonomic level (e.g. species < genus). This approach provides estimation under incomplete tree information (e.g. missing species) or blurred information (e.g. conjecture of species), plus the biophysical environment. The GAE allowed us to quantify contribution of each different

  10. Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, A.; Klessl, J.; Samady, M.; Luvall, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major contributor to urban energy use. In single story buildings with large surface area such as warehouses most of the heat enters through the roof. A rooftop modification that has not been examined experimentally is solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. In California alone, several GW in residential and commercial rooftop PV are approved or in the planning stages. With the PV solar conversion efficiency ranging from 5-20% and a typical installed PV solar reflectance of 16-27%, 53-79% of the solar energy heats the panel. Most of this heat is then either transferred to the atmosphere or the building underneath. Consequently solar PV has indirect effects on roof heat transfer. The effect of rooftop PV systems on the building roof and indoor energy balance as well as their economic impacts on building HVAC costs have not been investigated. Roof calculator models currently do not account for rooftop modifications such as PV arrays. In this study, we report extensive measurements of a building containing a flush mount and a tilted solar PV array as well as exposed reference roof. Exterior air and surface temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation were measured and thermal infrared (TIR) images of the interior ceiling were taken. We found that in daytime the ceiling surface temperature under the PV arrays was significantly cooler than under the exposed roof. The maximum difference of 2.5 C was observed at around 1800h, close to typical time of peak energy demand. Conversely at night, the ceiling temperature under the PV arrays was warmer, especially for the array mounted flat onto the roof. A one dimensional conductive heat flux model was used to calculate the temperature profile through the roof. The heat flux into the bottom layer was used as an estimate of the heat flux into the building. The mean daytime heat flux (1200-2000 PST) under the exposed roof in the model was 14.0 Watts per square meter larger than

  11. Cool Roofs to Save Money and Delay Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2006-04-01

    White roofs, and now cool-colored roofs, with a high reflectivity or `albedo' have a long history (best known around the Mediterranean) of keeping buildings and cities cool. In modern times, cool roofs have been shown to reduce air conditioning (a-c) demand and slow the formation of ozone (smog). Studies establishing a typical 10% reduction in a-c demand and electricity savings due to white roofs in California (CA) resulted in the 2005 CA new building energy efficiency standard prescribing that low-slope roofs be white, but exempting sloping roofs for aesthetic reasons. The advent (thanks to physicists' efforts) of inexpensive colored pigments with high albedo has led to 2008 CA standards requiring that even sloping roofs be cool. Here, I show that cooling the planet by reducing urban albedo through white and other cool roofs is a direct effect, much larger and immediate than the 2nd-order cooling from reduced CO2 from reduced a-c use. I then investigate widespread deployment of cool roof in major tropical and temperate cities, which cover 2% of global land area and have a proportionately higher albedo impact due to lower latitude. Here, cool roofs and cooler pavements can raise urban albedo by 10%. This directly drops the global average temperature by ˜0.05 /deg C. Though small compared to a likely 3 /deg C rise by 2060, an immediate drop of 0.05 /deg C represents a reprieve in global warming of 1 year, and represents avoiding a year's current annual world emissions of CO2, i.e. 25 GT(CO2). At a trading price of 25/tCO2, this is worth ˜625B. Cooling the planet also could save annually hundreds of billions on a-c electric bills. Finally I suggest policies to increase cool roof deployment, for example, developed world Kyoto signatories could use its CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) for cool roof programs in developing countries.

  12. Accessing the Orbital Roof via an Eyelid Incision

    PubMed Central

    Ohjimi, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Yasushi; Tanahashi, Shinji; Era, Kozo; Fukushima, Takeo

    2000-01-01

    This article outlines a new surgical technique for accessing the orbital roof: the transpalpebral approach. It involves making an incision on the double fold of the upper eyelid, then dissecting the orbital septum and the orbicular muscle of the eye. This exposes the orbital roof and enables the surgeon to approach without a coronal incision of the scalp; the direct eyelid incision provides adequate workspace. We use this approach in three orbital roof fractures and one orbital hemangioma. This orbital approach offers a simpler surgical technique, a less invasive one, and still provides excellent exposure of the superior orbital cavity. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171150

  13. 40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30 Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  14. 40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30 Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  15. Specifying, Installing and Maintaining Built-Up and Modified Bitumen Roofing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    Examines built-up, modified bitumen, and hybrid combinations of the two roofing systems and offers advise on how to assure high- quality performance and durability when using them. Included is a glossary of commercial roofing terms and asphalt roofing resources to aid in making decisions on roofing and systems product selection. (GR)

  16. 40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30 Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Determining Roof Widths

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...” subdivisions of irregularly shaped roofs divided into smaller, regularly shaped areas. In all examples, the..., as shown in Example F. Example A: Rectangular Shaped Roofs ER09AU94.000 Example B: Sloped Rectangular Shaped Roofs ER09AU94.001 Example C: Irregularly Shaped Roofs With Rectangular Shaped Sections Such...

  18. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect.

    PubMed

    Borgström, Pernilla; Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  19. Aboveground vs. Belowground Carbon Stocks in African Tropical Lowland Rainforest: Drivers and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bauters, Marijn; Hufkens, Koen; Lisingo, Janvier; Baert, Geert; Verbeeck, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background African tropical rainforests are one of the most important hotspots to look for changes in the upcoming decades when it comes to C storage and release. The focus of studying C dynamics in these systems lies traditionally on living aboveground biomass. Belowground soil organic carbon stocks have received little attention and estimates of the size, controls and distribution of soil organic carbon stocks are highly uncertain. In our study on lowland rainforest in the central Congo basin, we combine both an assessment of the aboveground C stock with an assessment of the belowground C stock and analyze the latter in terms of functional pools and controlling factors. Principal Findings Our study shows that despite similar vegetation, soil and climatic conditions, soil organic carbon stocks in an area with greater tree height (= larger aboveground carbon stock) were only half compared to an area with lower tree height (= smaller aboveground carbon stock). This suggests that substantial variability in the aboveground vs. belowground C allocation strategy and/or C turnover in two similar tropical forest systems can lead to significant differences in total soil organic C content and C fractions with important consequences for the assessment of the total C stock of the system. Conclusions/Significance We suggest nutrient limitation, especially potassium, as the driver for aboveground versus belowground C allocation. However, other drivers such as C turnover, tree functional traits or demographic considerations cannot be excluded. We argue that large and unaccounted variability in C stocks is to be expected in African tropical rain-forests. Currently, these differences in aboveground and belowground C stocks are not adequately verified and implemented mechanistically into Earth System Models. This will, hence, introduce additional uncertainty to models and predictions of the response of C storage of the Congo basin forest to climate change and its contribution to

  20. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect.

    PubMed

    Borgström, Pernilla; Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  1. Aboveground insect herbivory increases plant competitive asymmetry, while belowground herbivory mitigates the effect

    PubMed Central

    Strengbom, Joachim; Viketoft, Maria; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivores can shift the composition of a plant community, but the mechanism underlying such shifts remains largely unexplored. A possibility is that insects alter the competitive symmetry between plant species. The effect of herbivory on competition likely depends on whether the plants are subjected to aboveground or belowground herbivory or both, and also depends on soil nitrogen levels. It is unclear how these biotic and abiotic factors interactively affect competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured competition between two coexisting grass species that respond differently to nitrogen deposition: Dactylis glomerata L., which is competitively favoured by nitrogen addition, and Festuca rubra L., which is competitively favoured on nitrogen-poor soils. We predicted: (1) that aboveground herbivory would reduce competitive asymmetry at high soil nitrogen by reducing the competitive advantage of D. glomerata; and (2), that belowground herbivory would relax competition at low soil nitrogen, by reducing the competitive advantage of F. rubra. Aboveground herbivory caused a 46% decrease in the competitive ability of F. rubra, and a 23% increase in that of D. glomerata, thus increasing competitive asymmetry, independently of soil nitrogen level. Belowground herbivory did not affect competitive symmetry, but the combined influence of above- and belowground herbivory was weaker than predicted from their individual effects. Belowground herbivory thus mitigated the increased competitive asymmetry caused by aboveground herbivory. D. glomerata remained competitively dominant after the cessation of aboveground herbivory, showing that the influence of herbivory continued beyond the feeding period. We showed that insect herbivory can strongly influence plant competitive interactions. In our experimental plant community, aboveground insect herbivory increased the risk of competitive exclusion of F. rubra. Belowground herbivory appeared to mitigate the influence of

  2. Can green roof act as a sink for contaminants? A methodological study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, Umid Man

    2014-11-01

    The present study examines whether green roofs act as a sink or source of contaminants based on various physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids) and metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb). The performance of green roof substrate prepared using perlite, vermiculite, sand, crushed brick, and coco-peat, was compared with local garden soil based on improvement of runoff quality. Portulaca grandiflora was used as green roof vegetation. Four different green roof configurations, with vegetated and non-vegetated systems, were examined for several artificial rain events (un-spiked and metal-spiked). In general, the vegetated green roof assemblies generated better-quality runoff with less conductivity and total metal ion concentration compared to un-vegetated assemblies. Of the different green roof configurations examined, P. grandiflora planted on green roof substrate acted as sink for various metals and showed the potential to generate better runoff.

  3. Can green roof act as a sink for contaminants? A methodological study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, Umid Man

    2014-11-01

    The present study examines whether green roofs act as a sink or source of contaminants based on various physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids) and metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb). The performance of green roof substrate prepared using perlite, vermiculite, sand, crushed brick, and coco-peat, was compared with local garden soil based on improvement of runoff quality. Portulaca grandiflora was used as green roof vegetation. Four different green roof configurations, with vegetated and non-vegetated systems, were examined for several artificial rain events (un-spiked and metal-spiked). In general, the vegetated green roof assemblies generated better-quality runoff with less conductivity and total metal ion concentration compared to un-vegetated assemblies. Of the different green roof configurations examined, P. grandiflora planted on green roof substrate acted as sink for various metals and showed the potential to generate better runoff. PMID:25106048

  4. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Gary D; Curran, Lisa M; Slik, J W F

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the relationship between soil fertility and aboveground biomass in lowland tropical forests have yielded conflicting results, reporting positive, negative and no effect of soil nutrients on aboveground biomass. Here, we quantify the impact of soil variation on the stand structure of mature Bornean forest throughout a lowland watershed (8-196 m a.s.l.) with uniform climate and heterogeneous soils. Categorical and bivariate methods were used to quantify the effects of (1) parent material differing in nutrient content (alluvium > sedimentary > granite) and (2) 27 soil parameters on tree density, size distribution, basal area and aboveground biomass. Trees > or =10 cm (diameter at breast height, dbh) were enumerated in 30 (0.16 ha) plots (sample area = 4.8 ha). Six soil samples (0-20 cm) per plot were analyzed for physiochemical properties. Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Across all plots, stem density averaged 521 +/- 13 stems ha(-1), basal area 39.6 +/- 1.4 m(2) ha(-1) and aboveground biomass 518 +/- 28 Mg ha(-1) (mean +/- SE). Adjusted forest-wide aboveground biomass to account for apparent overestimation of large tree density (based on 69 0.3-ha transects; sample area = 20.7 ha) was 430 +/- 25 Mg ha(-1). Stand structure did not vary significantly among substrates, but it did show a clear trend toward larger stature on nutrient-rich alluvium, with a higher density and larger maximum size of emergent trees. Across all plots, surface soil phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium and percentage sand content were significantly related to stem density and/or aboveground biomass (R (Pearson) = 0.368-0.416). In multiple linear regression, extractable P and percentage sand combined explained 31% of the aboveground biomass variance. Regression analyses on size classes showed that the abundance of emergent trees >120 cm dbh was positively related to soil P and exchangeable bases, whereas trees 60-90 cm dbh were negatively related to these

  5. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Gary D; Curran, Lisa M; Slik, J W F

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the relationship between soil fertility and aboveground biomass in lowland tropical forests have yielded conflicting results, reporting positive, negative and no effect of soil nutrients on aboveground biomass. Here, we quantify the impact of soil variation on the stand structure of mature Bornean forest throughout a lowland watershed (8-196 m a.s.l.) with uniform climate and heterogeneous soils. Categorical and bivariate methods were used to quantify the effects of (1) parent material differing in nutrient content (alluvium > sedimentary > granite) and (2) 27 soil parameters on tree density, size distribution, basal area and aboveground biomass. Trees > or =10 cm (diameter at breast height, dbh) were enumerated in 30 (0.16 ha) plots (sample area = 4.8 ha). Six soil samples (0-20 cm) per plot were analyzed for physiochemical properties. Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Across all plots, stem density averaged 521 +/- 13 stems ha(-1), basal area 39.6 +/- 1.4 m(2) ha(-1) and aboveground biomass 518 +/- 28 Mg ha(-1) (mean +/- SE). Adjusted forest-wide aboveground biomass to account for apparent overestimation of large tree density (based on 69 0.3-ha transects; sample area = 20.7 ha) was 430 +/- 25 Mg ha(-1). Stand structure did not vary significantly among substrates, but it did show a clear trend toward larger stature on nutrient-rich alluvium, with a higher density and larger maximum size of emergent trees. Across all plots, surface soil phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium and percentage sand content were significantly related to stem density and/or aboveground biomass (R (Pearson) = 0.368-0.416). In multiple linear regression, extractable P and percentage sand combined explained 31% of the aboveground biomass variance. Regression analyses on size classes showed that the abundance of emergent trees >120 cm dbh was positively related to soil P and exchangeable bases, whereas trees 60-90 cm dbh were negatively related to these

  6. 46. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1977. SAME SHOWING MORE ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1977. SAME SHOWING MORE ROOF DAMAGE AND NOT QUITE AS WIDE AN ANGLE VIEW. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  7. OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING ORIGINAL BRASS MILL (1906-7,1911) TUBE MILL (1915), COPPER MILL (1921). - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING CASTING SHOP AND BAG HOUSE (CENTER-LEFT) AND PORTION OF REROLL BAY (R). VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  9. Interior detail of south wall with shed roofs showing steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of south wall with shed roofs showing steel structure, paint room on lower right, view facing west-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat Shop, Seventh Street near Avenue E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 1. View southeast of Climatic Chambers Building from roof of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View southeast of Climatic Chambers Building from roof of Research Building. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  11. ROOF, A view looking southeast at the base of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ROOF, A view looking southeast at the base of the large stack located southeast of Penthouse 201P - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  12. 30 CFR 75.211 - Roof testing and scaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... examination does not disclose a hazardous condition, sound and vibration roof tests, or other equivalent tests, shall be made where supports are to be installed. When sound and vibration tests are made, they shall...

  13. 21. DETAIL OF SPRING BLOCK AND BASE OF ROOF TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF SPRING BLOCK AND BASE OF ROOF TRUSS ON WEST WALL OF NORTHEAST TRANSEPT. NOTE REINFORCING ADDED TO TRUSS IN DISTANCE. - Cornell University, Sage Chapel, Central Avenue, Ithaca, Tompkins County, NY

  14. View of North End of Oxide Building Interior Including Roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of North End of Oxide Building Interior Including Roof and Wall Juncture and Crane Trolley - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  15. 2. FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM THE REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM THE REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  16. 9. FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, VIEW TOWARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 3. SOUTH FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM THE REINFORCED CONCRETE ROOF, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM THE REINFORCED CONCRETE ROOF, VIEW TOWARDS EAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  18. 5. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ORIGINAL ROOF. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ORIGINAL ROOF. (photographer unknown, pre-1922) - Cohoes Company, Gate House No. 1, On Mohawk River, North end of Canal abutting East bank, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

  19. Detail East Pier Elevation, Transverse Section, Detail Roof Plan As ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail East Pier Elevation, Transverse Section, Detail Roof Plan As Found - Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former Boston & Maine Railroad (originally Tilton & Franklin Railroad) spanning Winnipesautee River, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

  20. Home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia.

    PubMed

    Romanowich, Paul

    2012-10-01

    This study examined whether the home advantage varies for open-air, domed, or retractable-roof baseball stadia, and whether having the roof open or closed affects the home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia. Data from Major League Baseball (MLB) games played between 2001 and 2009 were analyzed for whether or not the presence of a home-advantage was dependent on the type of home stadium used. Home advantage was robust for all three types of stadia. A significant effect of stadium type on home advantage was found, with a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to open-air stadia, replicating a previous study. There was a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to retractable-roof stadia. No other differences in the home advantage were found; results are discussed in terms of familiarity with the facility.

  1. Interior detail, view to northnortheast showing support system for roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail, view to north-northeast showing support system for roof truss (typical), 90 mm lens plus electronic flash lighting. - Travis Air Force Base, Readiness Maintenance Hangar, W Street, Air Defense Command Readiness Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  2. Interior, building 1205, view to west showing roof truss system, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, building 1205, view to west showing roof truss system, 90 mm lens plus electronic flash fill lighting. - Travis Air Force Base, Readiness Maintenance Hangar, W Street, Air Defense Command Readiness Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  3. 33. ROOF PLAN AND DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106357. FLUOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. ROOF PLAN AND DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106357. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 21. FRAMING DETAIL OF UPPER LEVEL, EAST BUILDING AT ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. FRAMING DETAIL OF UPPER LEVEL, EAST BUILDING AT ROOF RAFTER CONNECTION TO SILL BEAM. NOTE TRUNNEL FASTENERS AT MORTISE AND TENON JOINTS. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  5. Geodesic-dome tank roof cuts water contamination, vapor losses

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, A.E. )

    1989-07-10

    Colonial Pipeline Co. has established an ongoing program for using geodesic-dome roofs on tanks in liquid petroleum-product service. As its standard, Colonial adopted geodesicodone roofs, in conjunction with internal floating decks, to replace worn external floating roofs on existing tanks used in gasoline service and for use on new tanks in all types of product service. Geodesic domes are clear-span structures requiring no internal-support columns. This feature allows the associated use of a floating deck that is as vapor tight as is possible to construct. Further, geodesic domes can practically eliminate rainwater contamination, eliminate wind-generated vapor losses, and greatly reduce filling losses associated with conventional external floating roofs.

  6. 11. Detail view southwest foundation remnants and singlestory flat roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail view southwest foundation remnants and single-story flat roof building associated with the Clark Cotton Mill/Columbia Narrow Fabrics Co. Factory - Shannock Village, Main Street, North Shannock Road, & West Shannock Road, Richmond (historical), Providence County, RI

  7. 22. GENERAL VIEW OF DOCK, TAKEN FROM THE ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. GENERAL VIEW OF DOCK, TAKEN FROM THE ROOF OF THE POWER HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. 20. Detail of lantern roof structure, with revolving lens beneath. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail of lantern roof structure, with revolving lens beneath. (Blurred due to apparatus motion.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  9. 30 CFR 75.211 - Roof testing and scaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... examination does not disclose a hazardous condition, sound and vibration roof tests, or other equivalent tests, shall be made where supports are to be installed. When sound and vibration tests are made, they shall...

  10. 27. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ROOFS OF DENNIS HOTEL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ROOFS OF DENNIS HOTEL AND BLENHEIM HOTEL. MARLBOROUGH HOTEL IS PARTLY VISIBLE TO THE RIGHT - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  11. 12. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROOF FRAMING IN ATTIC, LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROOF FRAMING IN ATTIC, LOOKING SOUTH. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  12. 13. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROOF FRAMING AND DORMER OPENING IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROOF FRAMING AND DORMER OPENING IN ATTIC, LOOKING EAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  13. Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan Bridgeport ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan - Bridgeport Covered Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Yuba River at bypassed section of Pleasant Valley Road (originally Virginia Turnpike) in South Yuba River State Park , Bridgeport, Nevada County, CA

  14. 9. Smoke flue coming through Roundhouse roof. Central of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Smoke flue coming through Roundhouse roof. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  15. 10. Locomotive smoke flue coming through Roundhouse roof with gable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Locomotive smoke flue coming through Roundhouse roof with gable end of Machine Shop in background. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  16. 51. Roof plans, General Services Administration, Construction Management Division, Region ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Roof plans, General Services Administration, Construction Management Division, Region 2, New York, October 29, 1976. Scale 1/31=1. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  17. Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighterthanairhangar roof truss details. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighter-than-air-hangar roof truss details. Drawing no. 212817. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  18. Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighterthanairhangar roof truss details. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighter-than-air-hangar roof truss details. Drawing no. 212817. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  19. 6. VIEW FROM THE ROOF OF GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM THE ROOF OF GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING EAST TO THE FORMER GRAVITY OIL STORAGE BUILDING, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  20. 2. INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF CONNECTION BETWEEN CASTIRON ROOF TRUSSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF CONNECTION BETWEEN CAST-IRON ROOF TRUSSES AND OCTAGONAL, CAST-IRON COLUMNS. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Martinsburg East Roundhouse, East End of Race & Martin Streets, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  1. Detail of roof trusses showing phoenix columns. Note structural phoenix ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of roof trusses showing phoenix columns. Note structural phoenix column in foreground. - Phoenix Iron Company, Rolling Mill, North of French Creek, west of Fairview Avenue, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  2. 9. Roof. A view looking north, showing the elevator bulkheads ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Roof. A view looking north, showing the elevator bulkheads and the retrofit air-conditioning compressors and air handlers. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  3. 14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION STENCILED ON ROOF BEAM, 'RIGGING LOFT' PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION STENCILED ON ROOF BEAM, 'RIGGING LOFT' PORTION OF BUILDING 4. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Public Works Shop, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  4. 7. SANDSORTING BUILDING, VIEW OF ROOF ALONG NORTH FACADE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, VIEW OF ROOF ALONG NORTH FACADE LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS EXCAVATED SAND PIT - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  5. 5. HOUSE No. 16 AND SURGE TANK. ROOF OF POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HOUSE No. 16 AND SURGE TANK. ROOF OF POWERHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  6. INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Interior view of second floor space showing roof trusses; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor space showing roof trusses; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. DETAIL OF SECOND STORY WINDOWS AND ROOF VENT ON SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF SECOND STORY WINDOWS AND ROOF VENT ON SOUTH END OF EAST ELEVATION; CAMERA WEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. DETAIL OF WINDOW AND ROOF VENT AT EAST ELEVATION GABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WINDOW AND ROOF VENT AT EAST ELEVATION GABLE END; CAMERA FACING WEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. 7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  11. North view general left to right; Mechanical Building, roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North view - general left to right; Mechanical Building, roof of Station Building, covered ramp, and Street Car Waiting House - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  13. Side elevation of Building 477 showing the shed roof addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side elevation of Building 477 showing the shed roof addition and horizontal siding at the ends, view facing northwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 33. VIEW OF ROOF TRUSSING SYSTEM OF SAND BLASTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW OF ROOF TRUSSING SYSTEM OF SAND BLASTING AND CLEANING BUILDING. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. 6. ROOF DETAIL OF MIRROR MOUNTS FOR VIEWING LAUNCH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ROOF DETAIL OF MIRROR MOUNTS FOR VIEWING LAUNCH FROM INSIDE BLOCKHOUSE, PAD A IN BACKGROUND; VIEW TO EAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28401, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. 7. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM NORTHWEST EDGE, FLAME DEFLECTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM NORTHWEST EDGE, FLAME DEFLECTOR AT RIGHT, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, CaptiveTest Stand D-3, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, FLAME DEFLECTOR AT RIGHT, CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, FLAME DEFLECTOR AT RIGHT, CONTROL BUILDING B AT FAR CENTER RIGHT. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-4, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Photocopy of longitudinal, cross sections and roof plan of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of longitudinal, cross sections and roof plan of the C.B. & Q. R.R. roundhouse and locomotive shops. June 1980. - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  19. 52. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT ROOF TRUSS DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT ROOF TRUSS DETAILS, SACKING SHED-FLOTATION UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  20. Southwest elevation, roof plan, site plan & main floor plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest elevation, roof plan, site plan & main floor plan, loft plan, section looking east, north window head detail - Richard Buckminster Fuller & Anne Hewlett Fuller Dome Home, 407 South Forest Avenue, Carbondale, Jackson County, IL

  1. Detail of east side, showing roof structure and open racks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of east side, showing roof structure and open racks for building materials storage - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Storage Sheds, Northeast Corner of West Pennington Avenue & North Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. 12. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE, SHOWING COLUMNS AND ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE, SHOWING COLUMNS AND ROOF STRUCTURE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  3. Interior wall, truss, and roof detail. View to northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior wall, truss, and roof detail. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Foundry, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  4. 30 CFR 75.211 - Roof testing and scaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... examination does not disclose a hazardous condition, sound and vibration roof tests, or other equivalent tests, shall be made where supports are to be installed. When sound and vibration tests are made, they shall...

  5. Interior view of garage showing roof, post and beam, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of garage showing roof, post and beam, and stored materials. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 6. General view from roof of Building 12 of interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General view from roof of Building 12 of interior of complex. Building 13/14 stretches from left. View looking SE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. STEEL TRUSS TENSION RING SUPPORTING DOME ROOF. TENSION RING COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEEL TRUSS TENSION RING SUPPORTING DOME ROOF. TENSION RING COVERED BY ARCHITECTURAL FINISH. TENSION RING ROLLER SUPPORT AT COLUMN OBSCURED BY COLUMN COVERINGS. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. 8. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 242, SHOWING STRUCTURAL COLUMNS AND ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 242, SHOWING STRUCTURAL COLUMNS AND ROOF TRUSSES. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. Detail view of the terracotta antefixes that decorate the roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the terra-cotta antefixes that decorate the roof of the Justice Department Building - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF BARREL ROOF STRUCTURE, FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF BARREL ROOF STRUCTURE, FACING NORTHEAST. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  11. 30 CFR 75.211 - Roof testing and scaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... examination does not disclose a hazardous condition, sound and vibration roof tests, or other equivalent tests, shall be made where supports are to be installed. When sound and vibration tests are made, they shall...

  12. Interior of arena, showing roof structure over seating area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of arena, showing roof structure over seating area. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW, TCI TWOROOM HOUSE WITH STEEL ROOF AND ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, TCI TWO-ROOM HOUSE WITH STEEL ROOF AND ORIGINAL SIDING, FRONT PORCH, BRICK CHIMNEY, AND PIER FOUNDATIONS AND A CADILLAC - Edgewater Community, Off New Mulga Loop Road (Junction 80), Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 253. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    253. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives the mill an interesting texture, increasing its photogenic value. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. Detail of southeast side of Facility 283. Compare roof vents ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southeast side of Facility 283. Compare roof vents to those on Facility 226. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Storehouse for Defense Battalion Type, Between Port Royal Street & Fuller Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE BUILDING, SHOWING PINCONNECTED FINK ROOF TRUSSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE BUILDING, SHOWING PIN-CONNECTED FINK ROOF TRUSSES - Chambers Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 1, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. 2. EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT, UPPER LEVELS SHOWING ROOF CORNICE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT, UPPER LEVELS SHOWING ROOF CORNICE AND BAY WINDOW UNIT WITH PRESSED TIN SPANDREL - West Lexington Street, Number 314 (Commercial Building), 314 West Lexington Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. INTERIOR ELEVATION SHOWING THE SLIDING DOORS AND ROOF TRUSSES. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR ELEVATION SHOWING THE SLIDING DOORS AND ROOF TRUSSES. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Hangar, Lexington Boulevard, south of Enterprise Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 49. C. 1854 BUILDING ATTIC ROOF SPACE, VIEW OF CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. C. 1854 BUILDING ATTIC ROOF SPACE, VIEW OF CENTER POST OF TRANSITION OF KING POST TRUSS TO QUEEN POST TRUSS WHERE BUILDING TURNS OR DOGLEGS. NOTE ELEVATOR MACHINERY AT REAR. - Continental Gin Company, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  20. OBLIQUE VIEW, TCI DOUBLE THREEROOM HOUSE WITH STEEL ROOF AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, TCI DOUBLE THREE-ROOM HOUSE WITH STEEL ROOF AND ORIGINAL HEDGING AND CURB AND GUTTER ALONG ENGLAND AVENUE. - Edgewater Community, Off New Mulga Loop Road (Junction 80), Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. 32. View from roof of Hwing, with Ewing on left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. View from roof of H-wing, with E-wing on left, looking southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 33. View from roof of Hwing, with Gwing in background, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. View from roof of H-wing, with G-wing in background, looking southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 30. View from roof of Fwing of front entry to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. View from roof of F-wing of front entry to building 500, looking northwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 16. Power plant roof plan and wall sections, sheet 65 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Power plant roof plan and wall sections, sheet 65 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  5. 3. VIEW FROM EAST. EAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE ROOF INTERSECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW FROM EAST. EAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE ROOF INTERSECTION OF THE EAST AND NORTH WINGS OF THE BUILDING. - Navy Yard, Ordnance Building, Intersection of Paulding & Kennon Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Detail of parachute tower showing integration with main roof form, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of parachute tower showing integration with main roof form, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. 3. Photocopy of BUILDING WITH ORIGINAL ROOF BALUSTRADE, taken ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of BUILDING WITH ORIGINAL ROOF BALUSTRADE, taken ca. 1860, from A History of the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society 1816-1916, page 64. - Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, 306 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE PAINTED RED. HEX SIGNS ARE PAINTED OCHRE, BLACK, RED, WHITE AND BLUE. NOTE PAINTED FLAGS ON SHED - Decorated White Barn, (Maiden Creek Township), Maiden Creek, Berks County, PA

  9. 1. VIEW OF THE ROOFS OF FAMILY HOUSES BUILDINGS 600608 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE ROOFS OF FAMILY HOUSES BUILDINGS 600-608 WITH DOMES IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Military Family Housing, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  10. Roof of reservoir from southeast corner with buildings 20 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof of reservoir from southeast corner with buildings 20 and 21 in background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Water Reservoir, West Bushnell Avenue, South side, 150 feet West of intersection of West Bushnell Avenue & South First Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. INTERIOR OF ROOF STRUCTURE LOOKING FROM TOP OF PROJECTION BOOTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ROOF STRUCTURE LOOKING FROM TOP OF PROJECTION BOOTH, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Theater, Yorktown Avenue between Wasp & Saipan Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 51. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT ROOF TRUSS DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT ROOF TRUSS DETAILS, SACKING SHED-FLOTATION UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  13. Interior view showing the framing for the main roof, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view showing the framing for the main roof, view facing south - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  14. South side elevation, note clerestory above the lowpitch main roof, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side elevation, note clerestory above the low-pitch main roof, view facing north - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  15. INTERIOR, ROOF, A view looking southwest through Room 205 at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR, ROOF, A view looking southwest through Room 205 at the doorway that leads to Room 206P, a shower and clean area in the penthouse - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  16. EXTERIOR, A view from above looking southwest toward the roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view from above looking southwest toward the roof and stacks of B Building with I Building in the background - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  17. INTERIOR, ROOF, A view looking southeast into a penthouse (Room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR, ROOF, A view looking southeast into a penthouse (Room 207P), revealing the building's mechanical apparatus - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  18. Repairing Roofs and Ceilings: How To's for the Handy Homeowner

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-01

    This brochure provides handy homeowners with tips on how to properly repair roofs and ceilings in their homes that sustained damage during a hurricane. This publications is a part of the How To's for the Handy Homeowner Series.

  19. 40. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. ROOF OF POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. ROOF OF POWERHOUSE SHOWING HOPPERS FOR SAWDUST USED TO FIRE STEAM BOILERS. DUCTS AT LEFT LEAD FROM PLANNING MILL AND OTHER MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  20. Oblique perspective of portal, due north. Bridge has gable roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique perspective of portal, due north. Bridge has gable roof clad with wood shingles and has board and batten siding. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

  1. Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in background, view towards the southwest - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  2. 14. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM ROOF OF ENGINE HOUSE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM ROOF OF ENGINE HOUSE, SHOWING CARETAKER'S HOUSE CUPOLA AND PAVILION (4' x 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Photocopy of "sheet 3 of 8" showing roof framing plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of "sheet 3 of 8" showing roof framing plan, ceiling plan, ceiling hangers and wall ties, cross section of rafters, and front elevation. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  4. 21. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 8970 (CREW READINESS BUILDING). - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  5. 40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators § 63.1043 Standards... controlling air emissions from an oil-water separator or organic-water separator using a floating roof....

  6. Estimating forest and woodland aboveground biomass using active and passive remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Aboveground biomass was estimated from active and passive remote sensing sources, including airborne lidar and Landsat-8 satellites, in an eastern Arizona (USA) study area comprised of forest and woodland ecosystems. Compared to field measurements, airborne lidar enabled direct estimation of individual tree height with a slope of 0.98 (R2 = 0.98). At the plot-level, lidar-derived height and intensity metrics provided the most robust estimate for aboveground biomass, producing dominant species-based aboveground models with errors ranging from 4 to 14Mg ha –1 across all woodland and forest species. Landsat-8 imagery produced dominant species-based aboveground biomass models with errors ranging from 10 to 28 Mg ha –1. Thus, airborne lidar allowed for estimates for fine-scale aboveground biomass mapping with low uncertainty, while Landsat-8 seems best suited for broader spatial scale products such as a national biomass essential climate variable (ECV) based on land cover types for the United States.

  7. Stand structural diversity rather than species diversity enhances aboveground carbon storage in secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong; Chen, Han Y. H.; Chang, Scott X.; Zhao, Yan-Tao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ming-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Stand structural diversity, typically characterized by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height, plays a critical role in influencing aboveground carbon (C) storage. However, few studies have considered the multivariate relationships of aboveground C storage with stand age, stand structural diversity, and species diversity in natural forests. In this study, aboveground C storage, stand age, tree species, DBH and height diversity indices, were determined across 80 subtropical forest plots in Eastern China. We employed structural equation modelling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand structural diversity, species diversity, and stand age on aboveground C storage. The three final SEMs with different directions for the path between species diversity and stand structural diversity had a similar goodness of fit to the data. They accounted for 82 % of the variation in aboveground C storage, 55-59 % of the variation in stand structural diversity, and 0.1 to 9 % of the variation in species diversity. Stand age demonstrated strong positive total effects, including a positive direct effect (β = 0.41), and a positive indirect effect via stand structural diversity (β = 0.41) on aboveground C storage. Stand structural diversity had a positive direct effect on aboveground C storage (β = 0.56), whereas there was little total effect of species diversity as it had a negative direct association with, but had a positive indirect effect, via stand structural diversity, on aboveground C storage. The negligible total effect of species diversity on aboveground C storage in the forests under study may have been attributable to competitive exclusion with high aboveground biomass, or a historical logging preference for productive species. Our analyses suggested that stand structural diversity was a major determinant for variations in aboveground C storage in the secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China. Hence, maintaining tree DBH and

  8. 40 CFR 60.470 - Applicability and designation of affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Performance for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.470 Applicability and designation of... mineral handling and storage facility at asphalt roofing plants; and each asphalt storage tank and each blowing still at asphalt processing plants, petroleum refineries, and asphalt roofing plants. (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 60.470 - Applicability and designation of affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.470 Applicability and designation of... mineral handling and storage facility at asphalt roofing plants; and each asphalt storage tank and each blowing still at asphalt processing plants, petroleum refineries, and asphalt roofing plants. (b)...

  10. 40 CFR 60.470 - Applicability and designation of affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Performance for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.470 Applicability and designation of... mineral handling and storage facility at asphalt roofing plants; and each asphalt storage tank and each blowing still at asphalt processing plants, petroleum refineries, and asphalt roofing plants. (b)...

  11. 40 CFR 60.470 - Applicability and designation of affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Performance for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.470 Applicability and designation of... mineral handling and storage facility at asphalt roofing plants; and each asphalt storage tank and each blowing still at asphalt processing plants, petroleum refineries, and asphalt roofing plants. (b)...

  12. 40 CFR 60.470 - Applicability and designation of affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Performance for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.470 Applicability and designation of... mineral handling and storage facility at asphalt roofing plants; and each asphalt storage tank and each blowing still at asphalt processing plants, petroleum refineries, and asphalt roofing plants. (b)...

  13. 42. GARRET, SOUTHWEST CORNER. The roof rafters have been notched ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. GARRET, SOUTHWEST CORNER. The roof rafters have been notched for shingle lath. In some places the notches and lath do not align. Attached to each joist are furring strips for the 1812 ceiling, allowing it to be lowered about one inch below the under surfaces of the joists. Note that the 1851 shingles were left in place when the 1873-74 tin roof was added. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Statistical Building Roof Reconstruction from WORLDVIEW-2 Stereo Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partovi, T.; Huang, H.; Krauß, T.; Mayer, H.; Reinartz, P.

    2015-03-01

    3D building reconstruction from point clouds is an active research topic in remote sensing, photogrammetry and computer vision. Most of the prior research has been done on 3D building reconstruction from LiDAR data which means high resolution and dense data. The interest of this work is 3D building reconstruction from Digital Surface Models (DSM) of stereo image matching of space borne satellite data which cover larger areas than LiDAR datasets in one data acquisition step and can be used also for remote regions. The challenging problem is the noise of this data because of low resolution and matching errors. In this paper, a top-down and bottom-up method is developed to find building roof models which exhibit the optimum fit to the point clouds of the DSM. In the bottom up step of this hybrid method, the building mask and roof components such as ridge lines are extracted. In addition, in order to reduce the computational complexity and search space, roofs are classified to pitched and flat roofs as well. Ridge lines are utilized to estimate the roof primitives from a building library such as width, length, positions and orientation. Thereafter, a topdown approach based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo and simulated annealing is applied to optimize roof parameters in an iterative manner by stochastic sampling and minimizing the average of Euclidean distance between point cloud and model surface as fitness function. Experiments are performed on two areas of Munich city which include three roof types (hipped, gable and flat roofs). The results show the efficiency of this method in even for this type of noisy datasets.

  15. Roof plan, Combat Operations Center, Building No. 2605. (Also includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof plan, Combat Operations Center, Building No. 2605. (Also includes a typical roof section, with new fiberglass and urethane insulation layers.) By Federal Builders, 575 Carreon Drive, Colton, California. Sheet 1 of 1, dated 18 May 1992. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 24x36 inches. ink on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  16. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Swearingin, Ryan M.; Pullins, Craig K.; Rice, Matthew E.

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  17. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Brian E; Swearingin, Ryan M; Pullins, Craig K; Rice, Matthew E

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  18. The gastrocoel roof plate in embryos of different frogs.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Santillana-Ortiz, Juan-Diego; del Pino, Eugenia M

    2012-02-01

    The morphology of the gastrocoel roof plate and the presence of cilia in this structure were examined in embryos of four species of frogs. Embryos of Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae) and Engystomops randi (Leiuperidae) develop rapidly, provide comparison for the analysis of gastrocoel roof plate development in the slow-developing embryos of Epipedobates machalilla (Dendrobatidae) and Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae). Embryos of the analyzed frogs develop from eggs of different sizes, and display different reproductive and developmental strategies. In particular, dorsal convergence and extension and archenteron elongation begin during gastrulation in embryos of rapidly developing frogs, as in Xenopus laevis. In contrast, cells that involute during gastrulation are stored in the large circumblastoporal collar that develops around the closed blastopore in embryos of slow-developing frogs. Dorsal convergence and extension only start after blastopore closure in slow-developing frog embryos. However, in the neurulae, a gastrocoel roof plate develops, despite the accumulation of superficial mesodermal cells in the circumblastoporal collar. Embryos of all four species develop a ciliated gastrocoel roof plate at the beginning of neurulation. Accordingly, fluid-flow across the gastrocoel roof plate is likely the mechanism of left-right asymmetry patterning in these frogs, as in X. laevis and other vertebrates. A ciliated gastrocoel roof plate, with a likely origin as superficial mesoderm, is conserved in frogs belonging to four different families and with different modes of gastrulation.

  19. Modelling of green roofs' hydrologic performance using EPA's SWMM.

    PubMed

    Burszta-Adamiak, E; Mrowiec, M

    2013-01-01

    Green roofs significantly affect the increase in water retention and thus the management of rain water in urban areas. In Poland, as in many other European countries, excess rainwater resulting from snowmelt and heavy rainfall contributes to the development of local flooding in urban areas. Opportunities to reduce surface runoff and reduce flood risks are among the reasons why green roofs are more likely to be used also in this country. However, there are relatively few data on their in situ performance. In this study the storm water performance was simulated for the green roofs experimental plots using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) with Low Impact Development (LID) Controls module (version 5.0.022). The model consists of many parameters for a particular layer of green roofs but simulation results were unsatisfactory considering the hydrologic response of the green roofs. For the majority of the tested rain events, the Nash coefficient had negative values. It indicates a weak fit between observed and measured flow-rates. Therefore complexity of the LID module does not affect the increase of its accuracy. Further research at a technical scale is needed to determine the role of the green roof slope, vegetation cover and drying process during the inter-event periods.

  20. Development of elastomeric isolators to reduce roof bolting machine drilling noise

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Robert; Yantek, David; Johnson, David; Ferro, Ernie; Swope, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Among underground coal miners, hearing loss remains one of the most common occupational illnesses. In response to this problem, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) conducts research to reduce the noise emission of underground coal-mining equipment, an example of which is a roof bolting machine. Field studies show that, on average, drilling noise is the most significant contributor to a roof bolting machine operator’s noise exposure. NIOSH OMSHR has determined that the drill steel and chuck are the dominant sources of drilling noise. NIOSH OMSHR, Corry Rubber Corporation, and Kennametal, Inc. have developed a bit isolator that breaks the steel-to-steel link between the drill bit and drill steel and a chuck isolator that breaks the mechanical connection between the drill steel and the chuck, thus reducing the noise radiated by the drill steel and chuck, and the noise exposure of the roof bolter operator. This paper documents the evolution of the bit isolator and chuck isolator including various alternative designs which may enhance performance. Laboratory testing confirms that production bit and chuck isolators reduce the A-weighted sound level generated during drilling by 3.7 to 6.6 dB. Finally, this paper summarizes results of a finite element analysis used to explore the key parameters of the drill bit isolator and chuck isolator to understand the impact these parameters have on noise. PMID:26568650