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Sample records for abraham pais prize

  1. Abraham Pais Prize: Physics, History, and Biography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2014-03-01

    Each of these fields differs in obvious and not so obvious ways from the others in terms of goals, methods, purposes, and perspectives. Yet each also holds much in common with the others. Having worked in these fields and crossed the boundaries between them, I will explore in this talk not only the similarities and differences I have encountered on this journey, but also my growing appreciation of how these fields together provide a unified perspective on physics as a science and a disciple and as a vital component of our broader human culture.

  2. Abraham Pais Prize Talk: The Joy of History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuewer, Roger H.

    2013-04-01

    Physicists and historians of physics share a common goal, the quest for understanding, but their objects are different: Physicists attempt to understand Nature, while historians attempt to understand the past, finding both the challenge and joy of history in exploring the contingencies of historical events, their dependence on scientific, biographical, sociopolitical, cultural, and other factors, and shaping them into a coherent narrative. My first example will focus on the history of the photon concept, in particular on the work of Arthur Holly Compton between 1916 and 1922 that led to his discovery of the Compton effect, whose understanding ultimately rested on a close examination of his laboratory notebooks. I will then turn to two episodes in the history of nuclear physics. The first deals with a controversy between 1922 and 1927 between Ernest Rutherford and James Chadwick at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge and Hans Pettersson and Gerhard Kirsch at the Institute for Radium Research in Vienna that involved their fundamentally different experimental observations and theoretical interpretations of the artificial disintegration of nuclei whose resolution could only be understood after uncovering crucial correspondence between the protagonists. The second episode traces George Gamow's creation and development of the liquid-drop model of the nucleus in 1928 and 1929 and its subsequent development in two stages, first by Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker from 1933 to 1936, and second by Niels Bohr and Fritz Kalckar in 1936 and 1937, both of which merged in the minds of Lise Meitner and Otto Robert Frisch at the end of 1938 to yield the correct interpretation of nuclear fission, an act of creation whose understanding rested on a detailed analysis of the published literature.

  3. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics: Physics Textbooks Don't Always Tell the Truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Allan

    2016-03-01

    Anyone who studies the history of physics quickly realizes that the history of physics presented in physics textbooks is often inaccurate. This is not necessarily a bad thing. The purpose of textbooks is to help students learn physics. An inaccurate history may serve a pedagogical purpose. It may help to explain concepts more clearly than the actual history. I believe, however, that it is important for those of us who teach physics to know the accurate history. In this talk I will discuss two episodes from the history of modern physics, Millikan's experiments on the photoelectric effect and the Ellis-Wooster experiment on the energy spectrum in β decay. Everyone knows that Millikan's work established the photon theory of light. The problem is that what everyone knows is wrong. The Ellis-Wooster experiment, on the other hand, is rarely discussed in physics texts, but it should be. In this talk I will present a more accurate history of these experiments.

  4. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics Talk: Henry Cavendish, John Michell, Weighing the Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormmach, Russell

    2010-03-01

    This talk is about an interaction between two 18th-century natural philosophers (physical scientists), Henry Cavendish and John Michell, and its most important outcome, the experiment of weighing the world (their name for it) using a torsion balance (our name for it). Michell was the most inventive of the 18th century English natural philosophers, and Cavendish was the first of his countrymen to possess abilities at all comparable with Newton's. By their interests and skills, they were drawn to one another. Both were universal natural philosophers, equally adept at building scientific instruments, performing experiments, constructing theory, and using mathematics; both had a penchant for exacting, quantitative work. Both also had fitful habits of publication, which did not begin to reveal the range of their work, to the mystification of later scientists and historians. Late in life, Cavendish and Michell turned their attention to the force that Newton had examined most completely, a singular triumph of his natural philosophy, the force of universal gravitation. Over the course of the 18th century, abundant evidence of attraction had been gathered from the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets, phenomena which span the intermediate range of masses, sizes, and distances. But in three domains of experience, involving the extreme upper and lower limits of masses and dimensions, the universality of gravitation remained an article of faith. These were the gravity of the ``fixed'' stars, the mutual attraction of terrestrial bodies, and the gravitation of light and other special substances. Michell took on himself the task of deducing observable consequences from each of these prospective instances of universal gravitation. Cavendish encouraged Michell, and he followed up the resulting observational and experimental questions. The experiment of weighing the world was the last experiment Mitchell planned and the last experiment Cavendish published. The capstone of two distinguished careers, the experiment outlived the world in which it was conceived and carried out. Today gravitation is at the center of the physics of the very small and the very large, and experiments that followed in Michell and Cavendish's footsteps find a place in it. The ``most important advance in experiments on gravitation,'' to quote an authority, ``was the introduction of the torsion balance'' by Michell and Cavendish and independently by Coulomb; ``it has been the basis of all the most significant experiments on gravitation ever since.'' Another authority traces the ``noble tradition of precision measurement to which we are heirs'' to Cavendish's experiment, which he calls the ``first modern physics experiment.''

  5. The Abraham Pais Prize Lecture: The historical Development of the Physical Concept of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jammer, Max

    2007-04-01

    The Irish physicist and mathematician John Lighton Synge once (1959) proclaimed that of all physical measurements that of time is the most fundamental and its theory ``the most basic theory of all.'' Twenty years later the Belgian physicist and chemist Ilya Prigogine declared that ``the concept of time is much more complex than we thought.'' Indeed, having studied the basic notions in physics like space, mass, force, simultaneity and written on each of them a detailed monograph, I always postponed a similar treatment of the concept of time because I realized that just by being the ``most basic'' it is also the most ``complex'' of all notions in physics and therefore a rather complicated subject of research. In fact, time, as perceived by us, is both ``flowing'' and ``enduring'' and its ``passing'' always ``lasts.'' If I venture nevertheless to offer herewith a survey of the conceptual development of the notion of time, I do so because I delimit myself to the role of time only in physics and ignore as far as possible general metaphysical, psychological or biological issues. The presentation thus ignores the history of the notion of time as conceived in the myths and religions of ancient civilizations and begins, after some brief remarks about the Pythagoreans, with the theories of time as proposed by the Pre-Socratics, Plato and Aristotle. After a critical discourse on the early proponents of an idealistic interpretation of the notion of time, like that of St. Augustine, medieval theories of time, like those which proposed the atomicity of time, are discussed. After a presentation of sixteenth century discussions of time, like that by Bruno or Gassendi, Isaac Barrow's and Isaac Newton's theories of physical time are critically analyzed. This is followed by a brief study of the conceptions of time by Locke and Berkeley and subsequently by Leibniz, who is often regarded as the first proponent of a relational or causal theory of time. Following some brief remarks about Hume's conception of time Kant's critical investigation of the notion of time is analyzed and followed by the theories of an ``arrow if time'' as a result of the existence of irreversible thermodynamic processes. After a brief discussion of Poincar'e's thesis of the conventional status of temporal metric, Einstein's interpretation of distant simultaneity and consequently his definition of time via simultaneity, as presented in his famous 1905 paper on relativity, are discussed. This is followed by some remarks on the concept of time in the general theory of relativity. A brief outline of the role of the concept of time in modern cosmology and, in particular, Hawking's notion of ``imaginary time'' conclude this essay.

  6. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics Lecture: Big, Bigger, Too Big? From Los Alamos to Fermilab and the SSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoddeson, Lillian

    2012-03-01

    The modern era of big science emerged during World War II. Oppenheimer's Los Alamos laboratory offered the quintessential model of a government-funded, mission-oriented facility directed by a strong charismatic leader. The postwar beneficiaries of this model included the increasingly ambitious large laboratories that participated in particle physics--in particular, Brookhaven, SLAC, and Fermilab. They carried the big science they practiced into a new realm where experiments eventually became as large and costly as entire laboratories had been. Meanwhile the available funding grew more limited causing the physics research to be concentrated into fewer and bigger experiments that appeared never to end. The next phase in American high-energy physics was the Superconducting Super Collider, the most costly pure physics project ever attempted. The SSC's termination was a tragedy for American science, but for historians it offers an opportunity to understand what made the success of earlier large high-energy physics laboratories possible, and what made the continuation of the SSC impossible. The most obvious reason for the SSC's failure was its enormous and escalating budget, which Congress would no longer support. Other factors need to be recognized however: no leader could be found with directing skills as strong as those of Wilson, Panofsky, Lederman, or Richter; the scale of the project subjected it to uncomfortable public and Congressional scrutiny; and the DOE's enforcement of management procedures of the military-industrial complex that clashed with those typical of the scientific community led to the alienation and withdrawal of many of the most creative scientists, and to the perception and the reality of poor management. These factors, exacerbated by negative pressure from scientists in other fields and a post-Cold War climate in which physicists had little of their earlier cultural prestige, discouraged efforts to gain international support. They made the SSC crucially different from its predecessors and sealed its doom.

  7. Abraham Colles: Colles' fracture.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2012-08-01

    Every reader of this journal will be all too familiar with Colles' fracture; either seeing patients with it in A & E, helping with its reduction and splinting or being part of the anaesthetics team involved in its management. On an icy winter's day there might be half a dozen patients with this injury in your accident unit, mostly elderly ladies. Yet it was not until 1814 that Abraham Colles accurately described this injury and its treatment in his paper 'On the fracture of the carpal extremity of the radius', published in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal of that year.

  8. Pais Prize Lecture: History and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbron, John

    2006-04-01

    Modern history and experimental physics entered the university together, in the course of the eighteenth century. They shared several practices and projects. Historians began to emphasize physical factors, and so drew on, and occasionally contributed to, meteorology and physical geography; and they developed ancillary disciplines, like numismatics, diplomatics, and paleography, which required the analysis of metals, paper, and inks, and the careful comparison of material objects. In physics, historical reviews of newer subject matters, such as electricity, optics, and pneumatics, guided instruction where neither the facts nor their interpretation compelled consensus. The inherently historical science, geology, was a favorite subject of the age: the earth received a history, and the cosmos, too; evolutionary ideas found applications everywhere. The new physics and the new history became potent weapons of Enlightenment. A product of their collaboration is the lengthiest history of physics ever written, J.G. Fischer's Geschichte der Physik (8 vols., 1801-1808). It appeared within a series edited by Johnn Gottfried Eichhorn, Germany's leading exponent of the ``higher criticism,'' the corrosive application of historical and literary considerations to the stories of the Old Testament. The writings of historians like Eichhorn were more subversive than the work reported by Fischer in so far as humans are more concerned with their place in the world than with the details of its behavior. The coincidental matriculation of modern history and experimental physics, and its consequences, will be discussed.

  9. Abraham Maslow's Legacy for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Edward

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the life of Abraham Maslow, a key founder of the humanistic approach to counseling, and his contributions to the counseling field. Maintains that Maslow's innovative work was often misinterpreted by both his admirers and his critics, yet remains highly relevant to current concerns in counseling. (Author/PVV)

  10. Challenges & Prizes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prize competitions are open innovation tools championed by the America COMPETES ACT that EPA and other federal agencies use to attract fresh thinkers and creative problem solvers from across the country and the world.

  11. Prize Recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    The John Bardeen Prize is awarded for theoretical work that has provided significant insights on the nature of superconductivity and has led to verifiable predictions. It is sponsored by the Dresdner Bank.

  12. Abraham-Lorentz versus Landau-Lifshitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, David J.; Proctor, Thomas C.; Schroeter, Darrell F.

    2010-04-01

    The classical Abraham-Lorentz formula for the radiation reaction on a point charge suffers from two notorious defects: runaways and preacceleration. Recently, several authors have advocated as an alternative the Landau-Lifshitz formula, which has neither fault. The latter formula is often presented as an approximation to Abraham-Lorentz, raising the delicate question of how an approximation can be considered more accurate than the original. For a spherical shell of finite size, the equation for the radiation reaction is noncontroversial. We begin there, obtain the Abraham-Lorentz and Landau-Lifshitz expressions as limiting cases, and undertake some numerical studies to determine which is superior.

  13. [Salzburg 1908. Karl Abraham caught between Freud and Jung].

    PubMed

    van Schoonheten, Anna Bentinck

    2010-01-01

    The first psychoanalytic congress in Salzburg has often been described as a great success with one blemish: a conflict between Jung and Abraham, mainly caused by the rivalry in Abraham's behaviour. A new study of the material, and taking Abraham's perspective, provides a different view. Abraham, still a beginner in psychoanalysis, got in the way of Freud and Jung who at that time had a deep theoretical disagreement. In the end they both blamed Abraham.

  14. Abraham Maslow: On the Potential of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podeschi, Ronald L.; Podeschi, Phyllis J.

    1973-01-01

    Authors presented some principal perspectives by the psychologist, Abraham Maslow, who died in 1970, and who was writing about the potential of women long before it became popular to do so. (Author/RK)

  15. Premonitory Awareness in Stuttering Scale (PAiS).

    PubMed

    Cholin, Joana; Heiler, Sabrina; Whillier, Alexander; Sommer, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Anticipation of stuttering events in persistent developmental stuttering is a frequent but inadequately measured phenomenon that is of both theoretical and clinical importance. Here, we describe the development and preliminary testing of a German version of the Premonitory Awareness in Stuttering Scale (PAiS): a 12-item questionnaire assessing immediate and prospective anticipation of stuttering that was translated and adapted from the Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS) (Woods, Piacentini, Himle, & Chang, 2005). After refining the preliminary PAiS scale in a pilot study, we administered a revised version to 21 adults who stutter (AWS) and 21 age, gender and education-matched control participants. Results demonstrated that the PAiS had good internal consistency and discriminated the two speaker groups very effectively, with AWS reporting anticipation of speech disruptions significantly more often than adults with typical speech. Correlations between the PAiS total score and both the objective and subjective measures of stuttering severity revealed that AWS with high PAiS scores produced fewer stuttered syllables. This is possibly because these individuals are better able to adaptively use these anticipatory sensations to modulate their speech. These results suggest that, with continued refinement, the PAiS has the potential to provide clinicians and researchers with a practical and psychometrically sound tool that can quantify how a given AWS anticipates upcoming stuttering events.

  16. Abraham Lincoln: American Lawyer-President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirck, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Abraham Lincoln was the most experienced trial lawyer Americans have ever placed in the White House. While more than half of the United State's presidents have been attorneys, none possessed Lincoln's extensive courtroom experience: approximately 3,800 known cases, litigated during a quarter century at the Illinois bar. However, the law's…

  17. The Political Novels of Peter Abrahams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunghesan, Kolawole

    1973-01-01

    Abrahams' theme is the attempt of black men to regain their manhood and self-respect, which alone can help them to achieve true freedom in a world dominated by white men: how this is to be done is the subject of three novels, using three different political situations. (Author/JM)

  18. Famous Americans: George Washington & Abraham Lincoln.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Maria

    Introducing students in grade 1-3 to George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, this book presents thematic units that present biographical information, and literature links such as poems, songs, stories, cross-curricular activities, and hands-on reproducibles. Chapters in the book are: (1) Getting to Know George; (2) The Father and His Country; (3)…

  19. Famous Americans: George Washington and Abraham Lincoln.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Maria

    This book provides background information and ideas for teaching about George Washington and Abraham Lincoln at the primary grade level. Cross-curricular activities include work in music, writing, art, research, plays, and games. A pull-out poster with a poem on "President's Day" is stapled in the center of the book. Chapters in the book…

  20. [Karl Abraham, Freud's scapegoat and, guide to understanding the truth].

    PubMed

    Cremerius, J

    1997-01-01

    The history of the relationship between Freud and Abraham is characterized by the presence of third parties. There was always another, more favored one of Freud's disciples between Freud and Abraham. The first of these, from 1907 to 1912, was C.G. Jung. The second, fifteen years later, was Otto Rank. (I will omit Ferenczi, because his relationship with Freud only entered its dramatic final stage after Abraham's death.) Both Jung and Rank eventually showed signs of deviating from Freud's theories, and Abraham, as the guardian of those teachings, called attention to this. As a result, complicated triangles arose between Freud, Abraham and the favored son of the moment. Because of Freud's preference for these psychoanalytic sons, a preference of which he himself was not consciously aware, he resisted Abraham's attacks on them and felt them to be unfounded and destructive. Confusing cause with effect he blamed Abraham for the danger to the psychoanalytic movement which ensued from three conflicts. Freud loved and protected the apostates and made the defender of his theories into a scapegoat. When, however, the apostasy eventually became apparent, Freud renounced whoever was concerned and rehabilitated Abraham. However, until the final separation from the love object, Freud wavered between rejection and affection, hope and disappointment. Then, feeling deceived and betrayed, Freud's love turned to hate.

  1. View southwest, buildings of the Abraham Cyrus Farmstead. (Left to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest, buildings of the Abraham Cyrus Farmstead. (Left to right in photograph: hen house, chicken shed, equipment shed, large tree at center foreground, barn, evergreen in yard, wash house, farmhouse - Abraham Cyrus Farmstead, 3271 Cyrus Road (County Road 1/6), Cyrus, Wayne County, WV

  2. Abraham Colles and his contributions to anatomy.

    PubMed

    Shayota, Brian J; Oelhafen, Kim; Shoja, Mohammadali; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-07-01

    Abraham Colles is known among the medical community for his detailed description of Colles' fracture, one of the most common occurring skeletal injuries. It is remarkable that something as seemingly simple as the diagnosis of Colles' fracture had not been established until nearly 200 years ago. While that may have been his most well known accomplishment, Colles made several other contributions to medicine across multiple fields of practice. In the field of anatomy, he is also credited for his discovery and description of Colles' fascia and Colles' ligament. Less commonly known, however, are his clinical observations and offered treatment regimens for syphilis, as well as his achievement in performing the first surgery for axillary artery aneurysm. The current paper will review the life and contributions of this early surgeon and anatomist.

  3. Abraham Lincoln and the insanity plea.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, A D

    1994-06-01

    A confederate civilian physician shot and killed a white Union officer who was drilling Negro troops in Norfolk, Virginia. With no question as to guilt, President Abraham Lincoln decided to have a medical expert conduct a professional sanity/insanity examination. Documentation indicates that legal and political factors may have influenced Lincoln's decision. As a lawyer, Lincoln prosecuted a case where the insanity plea was used as a defense. Two influential Cabinet members, William H. Seward and Edwin M. Stanton, also had legal experience involving the insanity plea. Politically, Lincoln faced serious issues such as the draft riots, the military necessity to recruit slaves into the army, the impact of Union Negro soldiers upon the border states, the morale and discipline of the army and the upcoming presidential election. Upon Seward's recommendation, Lincoln chose a physician who had a reputation for finding the accused sane and who did so in this case. As the southern physician was hanged, Lincoln's means achieved the desired legal and political ends.

  4. EPA Challenges & Prizes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is a government leader in tapping the power of contributions from the public to help solve difficult problems that affect the environment and public health. Prize competitions allow federal agencies to pay only for successful solutions.

  5. Abraham Lincoln and the global economy.

    PubMed

    Hormats, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Abraham Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations. In Lincoln's America, as in many developing nations today, sweeping economic change threatened older industries, traditional ways of living, and social and national cohesion by exposing economies and societies to new and powerful competitive forces. Yet even in the midst of the brutal and expensive American Civil war--and in part because of it--Lincoln and the Republican Congress enacted bold legislation that helped create a huge national market, a strong and unified economy governed by national institutions, and a rising middle class of businessmen and property owners. Figuring out how to maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing its disruptions is a formidable challenge for policy makers. How do you expand opportunities for the talented and the lucky while making sure the rest of society doesn't fall behind? It may be helpful to look at the principles that informed the policies that Lincoln and the Republican Congress instituted after they came to power in 1861: Facilitate the upward mobility of low- and middle-income groups to give them a significant stake in the country. Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests. Affirm the need for sound government institutions to temper the dynamics of the free enterprise system. Tailor policies to the national situation. Realize that a period of turmoil may present a unique opportunity for reform. These principles drove the reforms that helped Americans cope with and benefit from rapid technological advances and the fast integration of the American economy in the nineteenth century. They may be instructive to today's policy makers who are struggling to help their own citizens integrate into the fast-changing global economy of the twenty-first century.

  6. Citations Prize 2010 Citations Prize 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2010-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2010 Citations Prize winners The winning authors Fernando Rannou (left), George Alexandrakis (holding the Rotblat Medal) and Arion Chatziioannou (right). The winner of the 2010 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2005-2009) is Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study Authors: George Alexandrakis, Fernando R Rannou and Arion F Chatziioannou Reference: George Alexandrakis et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4225-41 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/44334). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  7. Citations Prize 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2014-06-01

    Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat, a Nobel Prize winner who also was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winner of the 2013 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous five years (2008-2012) is Figure. Figure. Four of the prize winning authors. From left to right: Thomas Istel (Philips), Jens-Peter Schlomka (with medal, MorphoDetection), Ewald Roessl (Philips), and Gerhard Martens (Philips). Title: Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography Authors: Jens Peter Schlomka1, Ewald Roessl1, Ralf Dorscheid2, Stefan Dill2, Gerhard Martens1, Thomas Istel1, Christian Bäumer3, Christoph Herrmann3, Roger Steadman3, Günter Zeitler3, Amir Livne4 and Roland Proksa1 Institutions: 1 Philips Research Europe, Sector Medical Imaging Systems, Hamburg, Germany 2 Philips Research Europe, Engineering & Technology, Aachen, Germany 3 Philips Research Europe, Sector Medical Imaging Systems, Aachen, Germany 4 Philips Healthcare, Global Research and Advanced Development, Haifa, Israel Reference: Schlomka et al 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 4031-47 This paper becomes the first to win both this citations prize and also the PMB best paper prize (The Roberts Prize), which it won for the year 2008. Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found in this medicalphysicsweb article from the time of the Roberts Prize win (http://medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/39907). The author's enthusiasm for their prototype spectral CT system has certainly been reflected in the large number of citations the paper subsequently has

  8. [Abraham Horwitz (1910-2000): a Leading Man of Pan American Public Health].

    PubMed

    Jiménez de la Jara, Jorge

    2003-08-01

    The Chilean physician Abraham B Horwitz (1910-2000) was an outstanding personality of World and Pan American public health during the second half of the twentieth century. He was member of a family that, emigrating due to ethnic persecutions in Russia, took refuge in Chile. He became a relevant physician, a specialist in infectious diseases and public health. He was highly influential in the birth of the Public Health School at the University of Chile and the Chilean Health Service. He became Executive Director of the Pan American Health Organization, holding that position for 16 years. During this period, the institution experienced a great development. He stimulated research in the areas of basic sanitation, nutrition and eradication of transmissible diseases. He also opened unexplored areas such as the relation between economy, modern administration and health. During his last years, he chaired a successful Nutrition Committee at the United Nations. The most outstanding achievement of this Committee was the promotion of widespread vitamin A use. His intellectual and social deed is continued by The Pan American Foundation for Health and Education and this institution established an annual prize in his memory.

  9. Citations Prize 2011 Citations Prize 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Susan Hagness (left) receiving the Rotblat Medal from Robert Jeraj of PMB's Editorial Board (right) on behalf of Mariya Lazebnik. The winner of the 2011 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2006-2010) is A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries Authors: Mariya Lazebnik, Dijana Popovic, Leah McCartney, Cynthia B Watkins, Mary J Lindstrom, Josephine Harter, Sarah Sewall, Travis Ogilvie, Anthony Magliocco, Tara M Breslin, Walley Temple, Daphne Mew, John H Booske, Michal Okoniewski and Susan C Hagness Reference: Mariya Lazebnik et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 6093-115 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/47814). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  10. Citations Prize 2012 Citations Prize 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-01-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The authors of the winning paper. The authors of the winning paper. The winner of the 2012 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2007-2011) is Image reconstruction in circular cone-beam computed tomography by constrained, total-variation minimization Authors: Emil Y Sidky and Xiaochuan Pan Reference: Emil Y Sidky and Xiaochuan Pan 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 4777-807 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/51868). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Simon Cherry Editor-in-Chief Jon Ruffle Publisher

  11. The Enigmatic Savior of the Union: Abraham Lincoln.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Ronald L.; Diamond, Linda W.

    Abraham Lincoln rose from the depths of obscurity to guide the United States successfully through the turbulent and menacing years of the Civil War. Laborer, businessman, postmaster, politician, and lawyer were some of the vocations, not all successful, that Lincoln tried during the years leading to his ascent to the Presidency. This review of the…

  12. "Happy Birthday, Mr. President!" New Books for Abraham Lincoln's Bicentennial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrell A.; Ward, Barbara A.; Day, Deanna

    2009-01-01

    Stories about Abraham Lincoln have captivated children for generations. The Lincoln story has taken on almost mythic proportions, making it difficult to separate fact from fiction or exaggeration. Young readers never tire of talking about Lincoln's early days--from his birth in a log cabin in Hardin County, Kentucky to his childhood in…

  13. The 2010 Broad Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  14. Citations Prize 2009 Citations Prize 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2009 Citations Prize winners Some of the winning authors with their certificates, and Christian Morel with the Rotblat Medal, at the award ceremony in Orsay, near Paris. From left to right are Corinne Groiselle, Lydia Maigne, David Brasse, Irène Buvat, Dimitris Visvikis, Giovanni Santin, Uwe Pietrzyk, Pierre-François Honore, Christian Morel, Sébastien Jan and Arion Chatziioannou. The winner of the 2009 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2004-2008) is GATE: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT Authors: S Jan, G Santin, D Strul, S Staelens, K Assié, D Autret, S Avner, R Barbier, M Bardiès, P M Bloomfield, D Brasse, V Breton, P Bruyndonckx, I Buvat, A F Chatziioannou, Y Choi, Y H Chung, C Comtat, D Donnarieix, L Ferrer, S J Glick, C J Groiselle, D Guez, P-F Honore, S Kerhoas-Cavata, A S Kirov, V Kohli, M Koole, M Krieguer, D J van der Laan, F Lamare, G Largeron, C Lartizien, D Lazaro, M C Maas, L Maigne, F Mayet, F Melot, C Merheb, E Pennacchio, J Perez, U Pietrzyk, F R Rannou, M Rey, D R Schaart, C R Schmidtlein, L~Simon, T Y Song, J-M Vieira, D Visvikis, R Van de Walle, E Wieörs and C Morel Reference: S Jan et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4543-61 Since its publication in 2004 this article has received over 200 citations. This extremely high figure is a testament to the great influence and usefulness of the work to the nuclear medicine community. More discussion of the winning paper can be found on

  15. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educational - Medicine Prize Related The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to people and ... this page MLA style: "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – Educational". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media ...

  16. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  17. Abraham Lincoln, psychotherapist to the nation: the use of metaphors.

    PubMed

    Leetz, K L

    1997-01-01

    Metaphors are widely utilized in psychotherapy to effect change in patients. Psychotherapeutic metaphors, in their various versions, may offer new choices and ways of viewing oneself to the patient which are more palatable than straight discussions or sterile insights. By addressing resistances indirectly, metaphors can be an effective tool for the therapist to use, regardless of theoretical orientation. Abraham Lincoln, a master of metaphor, utilized this tool effectively in dealing with crises and the ultimate fragmentation, disunion of the national identity. The author argues that Lincoln was able to address complex issues (such as slavery, liberty, nationhood, union, and conduct of the war) with metaphors, much as a skilled psychotherapist addresses complex issues within his or her purview. Abraham Lincoln effectively disarmed his critics, established a means of communication with the people, and sought to make his points in an understandable nonconfrontational fashion. These are skills highly valued by psychotherapists. One might say that Abraham Lincoln conducted psychotherapy on a national scale. Without formal training, he was ultimately able to create a new and more stable sense of national self using a metaphorical approach.

  18. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  19. In Brief: Trieste Prize nominations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Nominations for the 2008 Trieste Science Prize in Earth, space, ocean, and atmospheric sciences and in engineering sciences are being accepted through 31 January 2008. The prize has been established to give international recognition and visibility to outstanding scientific achievements made by scientists from developing countries. Candidates must be nationals of developing countries, and the prizes will only be awarded to individuals for scientific research of outstanding international merit carried out at institutions in developing countries. The prizes, each of which carries a US$50,000 monetary award, are administered by the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) and funded by Illycaffè in collaboration with the Trieste (Italy) Town Council and the Trieste International Foundation for Scientific Progress and Freedom. For more information, contact the TWAS Secretariat at prizes@twas.org.

  20. Abraham Flexner and the black medical schools. 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Savitt, Todd

    2006-01-01

    "Abraham Flexner and the Black Medical Schools" first appeared in Beyond Flexner: Medical Education in the Twentieth Century, Barbara Barzansky and Norman Gevitz, eds. Copyright 1992 by Barbara Barzansky and Norman Gevitz. Reproduced with permission of Greenwood Publishing Group Inc., Westport, CT. The article will be reprinted in a collection of the author's writings on African-American medical history called Race and Medicine in Nineteenth- and Early-Twentieth-Century America, to be published in December 2006 by Kent State University Press and published here with permission of the Kent State University Press. PMID:17019906

  1. Heroes in endocrinology: Nobel Prizes.

    PubMed

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2014-09-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was first awarded in 1901. Since then, the Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Chemistry and Physics have been awarded to at least 33 distinguished researchers who were directly or indirectly involved in research into the field of endocrinology. This paper reflects on the life histories, careers and achievements of 11 of them: Frederick G Banting, Roger Guillemin, Philip S Hench, Bernardo A Houssay, Edward C Kendall, E Theodor Kocher, John J R Macleod, Tadeus Reichstein, Andrew V Schally, Earl W Sutherland, Jr and Rosalyn Yalow. All were eminent scientists, distinguished lecturers and winners of many prizes and awards.

  2. Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Three physicists who carried out pioneering work in former industrial research labs have picked up this year's Nobel Prize for Physics. One half of the SEK 10m prize has been awarded to Charles Kao, 75, for his work at the UK-based Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) on the transmission of light in optical fibres, which underpinned the telecommunications revolution. The other half of the prize is shared between Willard Boyle, 85, and George Smith, 79, of Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, US, for inventing the charge-coupled device (CCD) - an imaging semiconductor circuit that forms the basis of most digital cameras.

  3. Heroes in endocrinology: Nobel Prizes

    PubMed Central

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2014-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was first awarded in 1901. Since then, the Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Chemistry and Physics have been awarded to at least 33 distinguished researchers who were directly or indirectly involved in research into the field of endocrinology. This paper reflects on the life histories, careers and achievements of 11 of them: Frederick G Banting, Roger Guillemin, Philip S Hench, Bernardo A Houssay, Edward C Kendall, E Theodor Kocher, John J R Macleod, Tadeus Reichstein, Andrew V Schally, Earl W Sutherland, Jr and Rosalyn Yalow. All were eminent scientists, distinguished lecturers and winners of many prizes and awards. PMID:25055817

  4. Distribution of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) in tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, A J; Booth, N A; Moore, N R; Bennett, B

    1991-01-01

    Extracts of human tissue were analysed for plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) antigen and activity. PAI-1 was localised in tissues by an immunochemical method, using monoclonal antibodies. PAI-1 occurred throughout the body; its concentration and activity differed considerably from organ to organ. Extracts of liver and spleen had the greatest abundance of PAI-1, but the activity of the inhibitor was much higher in liver than in spleen: the liver may be a source of plasma PAI-1. Immunochemical staining for PAI-1 was observed in endothelium, platelets and their precursor cells, the megakaryocytes, and locations central to the process of haemostasis. PAI-1 also occurred in neutrophil polymorphs and macrophages, cells important in inflammatory and immune processes, but not in lymphocytes. Other cell types, in particular, vascular smooth muscle cells and mesangial cells, also stained positively for PAI-1 and such cells seem to represent an important reservoir of PAI-1. Images PMID:1864986

  5. Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchet, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Science is awarded annually. Through the Prize, Europlanet aims to recognise achievements in engaging European citizens with planetary science and to raise the profile of outreach within the scientific community. It is awarded to individuals or groups who have developed innovative practices in planetary science communication and whose efforts have significantly contributed to a wider public engagement with planetary science.

  6. Haagen-Smit Prize 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2015 ''Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  7. Haagen-Smit Prize 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2014 ''Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  8. Haagen-Smit Prize 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hanwant

    2017-03-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2016 "Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  9. Nobel Prize Winners in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    One of the greatest honours which can be bestowed upon any human being is the Nobel Prize. It is named after Alfred Nobel, a Swedish physicist who was particularly noted for his work on explosives. Nobel was born in 1833, and had a long and successful career, so that, when he died, on 10 December 1896, he left a large sum of money. This was to be put into a trust to establish an annual prize to t...

  10. Detection of the Abraham force with a succession of short optical pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen Å.

    2012-08-01

    For over a century, two rival descriptions of electromagnetic field momentum in matter have coexisted, due to Abraham and Minkowski, respectively. We propose a setup for measuring the difference between Abraham's and Minkowski's predictions in optics. To wit, a setup is proposed in which the transient “Abraham force,” a consequence of the Abraham energy-momentum tensor of 1909, may be measured directly. We show that when a train of short laser pulses is sent through a fiber wound up on a cylindrical drum, the Abraham theory predicts a torque, which, by inserting realistic parameters, is found to be detectable. Indeed, the same torque when calculated with the Minkowski tensor takes the opposite sign. Numerical estimates show that with a typical torsion pendulum setup and standard laser parameters, the angular deflection is in the order of 10-3 rad, which is easily measurable and even visible to the naked eye. Although its prediction is a century old, the Abraham force has proven experimentally elusive, and to our knowledge no macroscopic experimental demonstration of the difference between the predictions of the two mentioned energy-momentum tensors exists at optical frequencies.

  11. 1993 Gordon Bell Prize Winners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, Alan H.; Simon, Horst; Heller, Don; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Gordon Bell Prize recognizes significant achievements in the application of supercomputers to scientific and engineering problems. In 1993, finalists were named for work in three categories: (1) Performance, which recognizes those who solved a real problem in the quickest elapsed time. (2) Price/performance, which encourages the development of cost-effective supercomputing. (3) Compiler-generated speedup, which measures how well compiler writers are facilitating the programming of parallel processors. The winners were announced November 17 at the Supercomputing 93 conference in Portland, Oregon. Gordon Bell, an independent consultant in Los Altos, California, is sponsoring $2,000 in prizes each year for 10 years to promote practical parallel processing research. This is the sixth year of the prize, which Computer administers. Something unprecedented in Gordon Bell Prize competition occurred this year: A computer manufacturer was singled out for recognition. Nine entries reporting results obtained on the Cray C90 were received, seven of the submissions orchestrated by Cray Research. Although none of these entries showed sufficiently high performance to win outright, the judges were impressed by the breadth of applications that ran well on this machine, all nine running at more than a third of the peak performance of the machine.

  12. Legends about Legends: Abraham Eleazar's Adaptation of Nicolas Flamel.

    PubMed

    Priesner, Claus

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the relationship between three illustrated alchemical treatises, all of which are associated with Jewish adepts: the famous Le Livre des figures hieroglyphiques attributed to Nicolas Flamel, and two treatises published in 1735 in Erfurt-the Uraltes Chymisches Werckh and the Donum Dei. The Werckh is supposedly written by Rabbi Abraham Eleazar, while the Donum Dei is attributed to an ancient alchemist-cabalist, Rabbi Samuel Baruch. I argue that these authors are fictitious, and that both works were in fact written in the early eighteenth century by their supposed editor, the probably pseudonymous Julius Gervasius. Gervasius connects the Werckh with the legend of Nicolas Flamel by suggesting that it is based on the original, Jewish manuscript which helped Flamel to find the Stone of the Sages. Gervasius used various strategies to confer a sense of Jewish "authenticity" on these works, borrowing from contemporary (non-Jewish) perceptions of Jewish ritual, Hebrew language, and Christian Cabala. The Werckh also borrows and adapts a sequence of allegorical illustrations from those in pseudo-Flamel's Livre, and I compare the two sets of figures and, where possible, interpret them. I conclude that the later works in fact teach us far more about the state of alchemy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries than they do about either medieval alchemy or Judaism.

  13. Landau's Nobel Prize in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, M.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Work of Lev Landau had a profound impact on the physics in 20th century. Landau had created the paradigms that had framed the conversations on the outstanding problems in physics for decades. He had laid foundations for our understanding of quantum matter like superfluidity, superconductivity and the theory of Fermi liquid. Here we present some Nobel Archive data on the winning nomination that led to the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1962.

  14. Ponderomotive forces in electrodynamics of moving media: The Minkowski and Abraham approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, V. V.; Nesterenko, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    In the general setting of the problem, the explicit compact formulae are derived for the ponderomotive forces in the macroscopic electrodynamics of moving media in the Minkowski and Abraham approaches. Taking account of the Minkowski constitutive relations and making use of a special representation for the Abraham energy-momentum tensor enable one to obtain a compact expression for the Abraham force in the case of arbitrary dependence of the medium velocity on spatial coordinates and the time and for nonstationary external electromagnetic field. We term the difference between the ponderomotive forces in the Abraham and Minkowski approaches as the Abraham force not only under consideration of media at rest but also in the case of moving media. The Lorentz force is found which is exerted by external electromagnetic field on the conduction current in a medium, the covariant Ohm law, and the constitutive Minkowski relations being taken into account. The physical argumentation is traced for the definition of the 4-vector of the ponderomotive force as the 4-divergence of the energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field in a medium.

  15. Special issue: Culham Thesis Prize winners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Culham Thesis Prize is awarded annually to the nominee who has displayed an excellence in the execution of the scientific method as witnessed by the award of Doctor of Philosophy in Plasma Science from a UK or Irish university. The thesis content should exhibit significant new work and originality, clearly driven by the nominee, be well explained and demonstrate a good understanding of the subject. The prize is awarded at the Institute of Physics Plasma Physics Group Spring Conference and the prize winner gives an invited talk about their thesis work. The prize is sponsored by Culham Centre for Fusion Energy.

  16. Non-polynomial extensions of solvable potentials à la Abraham-Moses

    SciTech Connect

    Odake, Satoru; Sasaki, Ryu

    2013-10-15

    Abraham-Moses transformations, besides Darboux transformations, are well-known procedures to generate extensions of solvable potentials in one-dimensional quantum mechanics. Here we present the explicit forms of infinitely many seed solutions for adding eigenstates at arbitrary real energy through the Abraham-Moses transformations for typical solvable potentials, e.g., the radial oscillator, the Darboux-Pöschl-Teller, and some others. These seed solutions are simple generalisations of the virtual state wavefunctions, which are obtained from the eigenfunctions by discrete symmetries of the potentials. The virtual state wavefunctions have been an essential ingredient for constructing multi-indexed Laguerre and Jacobi polynomials through multiple Darboux-Crum transformations. In contrast to the Darboux transformations, the virtual state wavefunctions generate non-polynomial extensions of solvable potentials through the Abraham-Moses transformations.

  17. Shaping Solutions from Learnings in PAIs: A Blueprint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosanjh, Nawtej; Jha, Pushkar P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The paper outlines a portal that facilitates learning through sharing of experiences. This flow is between experience sharers and solution seekers in the domain of poverty alleviation interventions (PAIs). Practitioners working on PAIs are often confined to searching from within "lessons learned" repositories and also from…

  18. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  19. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change--the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010--clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design…

  20. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in eosinophilic leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Jonathan M; Byström, Jonas; Dyer, Kimberly D; Nitto, Takeaki; Wynn, Thomas A; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2004-10-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) as a potential eosinophil protein was inferred from our gene microarray study of mouse eosinophilopoiesis. Here, we detect 47 kDa intracellular and approximately 60 kDa secretory forms of PAI-2 in purified human eosinophil extracts. PAI-2 is present at variable concentrations in eosinophil lysates, ranging from 30 to 444 ng/10(6) cells, with a mean of 182 ng/10(6) cells from 10 normal donors, which is the highest per-cell concentration among all leukocyte subtypes evaluated. Enzymatic assay confirmed that eosinophil-derived PAI-2 is biologically active and inhibits activation of its preferred substrate, urokinase. Immunohistochemical and immunogold staining demonstrated PAI-2 localization in eosinophil-specific granules. Immunoreactive PAI-2 was detected in extracellular deposits in and around the eosinophil-enriched granuloma tissue encapsulating the parasitic egg in livers of wild-type mice infected with the helminthic parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Among the possibilities, we consider a role for eosinophil-derived PAI-2 in inflammation and remodeling associated with parasitic infection as well as allergic airways disease, respiratory virus infection, and host responses to tumors and metastasis in vivo.

  1. 2014 WSEAT X-Prize

    SciTech Connect

    Bosiljevac, Thomas; Kramer, Sharlotte; Laing, John

    2014-10-01

    The 2014 WSEAT X-Prize is modeled as a double blind study to challenge the computational and material mechanics communities methodologies to develop better capabilities in modeling and experimentation to predict the failure in ductile metals. The challenge is presented as a distinct, yet relatively, simple geometry with all reported modeling predictions blind to each of the modeling teams. The experimental testing is validated by two independent test labs to confirm the experimentally observed behavior and results are unbiased and repeatable. The WSEAT X-Prize was issued to both external participants and internal participants as the Sandia Fracture Challenge 2 (SFC2) on May 30, 2014. A Challenge Supplemental Information Packet was sent to participants on August 13, 2014 to Prior years SFCs focused on the ability to predict failures under a quasi-static loading condition that focused on either a shear or tensile-dominated failure mode. This year’s challenge focuses on a geometry with a shear and/or tensile-dominated failure mode influenced by a moderate strain-rate ductile fracture in a metallic alloy.

  2. Electromagnetic Momentum in Magnetic Media and the Abraham-Minkowski Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, J. L.; Campos, I.; Lopez-Marino, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the consequences of a force density, [image omitted], studied by some authors, for the device designed by Lai (1980 "Am. J. Phys. 48" 658) to analyse which definition of electromagnetic momentum density, either Minkowski's or Abraham's, is consistent with mechanical torques that arise from the change in time of a magnetic field, which…

  3. Abraham's discovery of the 'bad mother'. A contribution to the history of the theory of depression.

    PubMed

    May, U

    2001-04-01

    The author shows how, after Freud struggled in vain from the 1890s to develop a theory of depression, Abraham succeeded for the first time in finding an approach to the understanding of depression a few years before the publication of Freud's 'Mourning and melancholia'. It is contained in his study of the painter Giovanni Segantini (1911), which also includes a description, imbued with a new atmospheric quality, of the mother-son relationship that centres on the concept of the 'bad mother'. The author points out that Abraham's 'good/bad' dimension is effectively absent from Freud's published work up to 1911 and is also at variance with his view of the relationship between son and mother. In later contributions, too, Abraham maintained that unconscious hate directed at the mother, who is experienced as 'bad' but longed for as 'good', was a central factor in the aetiology of depression, a view he had to defend vis-à-vis Freud. The author contends that in the Segantini paper Abraham was describing an inner world similar to that evinced by the work of Melanie Klein and significantly different from Freud's. It is characterised by hate, revenge, death wishes and guilt feelings on the one hand and tranquillity and inner peace on the other.

  4. Technology Staff-Development and Support Programs: Applying Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Gerald D.; Pownell, David

    1998-01-01

    Presents Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs (physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization) as a model for developing technology training and support for teachers, identifies basic technology-related needs that must be met before higher levels of technology integration can be achieved, and offers seven implications to help…

  5. Abraham Baldwin: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Although his father was an illiterate blacksmith, Abraham Baldwin demonstrated how academic achievement opened opportunities in colonial society, and he later became a fervent missionary of public education. This booklet on Baldwin is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who signed the U.S. Constitution. The booklet reviews his education,…

  6. Abraham Lincoln--His Words and His World: a Unit Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Ronald L.; Diamond, Linda W.

    Planned for an eighth-grade classroom, this unit plan, consisting of 19 lesson plans on the topic of Abraham Lincoln, is based upon the fulfillment of 17 unit objectives. Each daily lesson plan specifies the following: lesson theme, learner objective, needed prerequisites, new vocabulary or terms, learning set/motivation, presentation of new…

  7. Anatomy of a Masterpiece: A Close Textual Analysis of Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slagell, Amy R.

    1991-01-01

    States that Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address is a recognized rhetorical masterpiece. Accounts for this recognition by examining the text microscopically. Uses the method of close textual analysis that explores the inner workings of the text to discover the complexity of Lincoln's masterwork. (PRA)

  8. Paul Abraham: A Forgotten Scholar of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Paul Abraham, one of the Berlin Academy's most experienced researchers, was deported to Auschwitz in 1943. The fate of this Jewish scholar reveals much about the inner life of the Academy, and its treatment of Jewish staff, during the World War II. This paper describes his life, against a backdrop of war, revolution, and dictatorship, and in the…

  9. Abraham Lincoln and Harry Potter: Children's Differentiation between Historical and Fantasy Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Kim, Angie L.; Schwalen, Courtney E.; Harris, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the testimony of others, children learn about a variety of figures that they never meet. We ask when and how they are able to differentiate between the historical figures that they learn about (e.g., Abraham Lincoln) and fantasy characters (e.g., Harry Potter). Experiment 1 showed that both younger (3- and 4-year-olds) and older children…

  10. Sheeley Receives 2009 Hale Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2009-05-01

    Neil Sheeley Jr., of the Space Science Division of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), has been awarded the 2009 George Ellery Hale Prize by the Solar Physics Division of the American Astronomical Society (AAS). The international award recognizes work in solar astronomy done over an extended period of time. Sheeley will receive the award in June at the AAS meeting in Pasadena, Calif. Sheeley is cited "for his continuing outstanding contributions to our understanding of the solar magnetic field, coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. His wide-ranging observational and theoretical work has laid the foundation for much current research in solar and heliospheric physics, and continues to have important applications in space weather prediction."

  11. Science Underlying 2008 Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Bernadette A.

    2009-01-01

    JCE offers a wealth of materials for teaching and learning chemistry that you can explore online. In the list below, Bernadette Caldwell of the Editorial Staff suggests additional resources that are available through JCE for teaching the science behind some of the 2008 Nobel Prizes . Discovering and Applying the Chemistry of GFP The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP to three scientists: Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Y. Tsien. These scientists led the field in discovering and introducing a fluorescing protein from jellyfish into cells and genes under study, which allows researchers to witness biochemistry in action. Now tags are available that emit light in different colors, revealing myriad biological processes and their interactions simultaneously. Identifying HPV and HIV, HIV's Replication Cycle, and HIV Virus-Host Interactions The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to two scientists: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier; and for his discovery of human papilloma viruses [HPV] causing cervical cancer to one scientist, Harald zur Hausen. Diseases caused by these infectious agents significantly affect global health. While isolating and studying the virus, researchers discovered HIV is an uncommon retrovirus that infects humans and relies on the host to make its viral DNA, infecting and killing the host's white blood cells, ultimately destroying the immune systems of infected humans. Related Resources at JCE Online The Journal has published articles relating to GFP specifically, and more generally to fluorescing compounds applied to biochemistry. The Journal has also published an article and a video on protease inhibition—a strategy to suppress HIV's biological processes. With the video clips, an accompanying guide

  12. Stellar students win fantastic prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    School students and teachers across Europe and around the world are discovering today who has won fantastic prizes in "Catch a Star", the international astronomical competition run by ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). CAS2008 artwork ESO PR Photo 14/08 One of the winning artworks "We were extremely impressed by the high quality of the entries, and the number of participants was even higher than last year. We wish to congratulate everybody who took part," said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. "'Catch a Star' clearly shows astronomy's power to inspire and excite students of all ages," added Fernand Wagner, President of the EAAE. The top prize, of a week-long trip to Chile to visit the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal, was won by students Roeland Heerema, Liesbeth Schenkels, and Gerben Van Ranst from the Instituut Spijker in Hoogstraten, Belgium, together with their teacher Ann Verstralen. With their "story of aged binary stars... Live and Let Die", they take us on a vivid tour of the amazing zoo of binary stars, and the life and death of stars like our Sun. The students show how state-of-the-art telescopes, particularly those at ESO's sites of La Silla and Paranal, help us understand these stars. They take as an illustrative example the binary star system V390 Velorum. In the last phases of its life, V390 Velorum will shed its outer shell of gas and dust, turning from a celestial chrysalis into a beautiful cosmic butterfly. The students also involved other pupils from their school, showing them how to test their eyesight by observing the binary star system of Alcor and Mizar. But perhaps the most important discovery they made is that, as they write in their report, "Astronomy lives! Discoveries are being made each day and there is still very much to be found and learned by astronomers!" The team will travel to Chile and visit the ESO VLT - the world's most advanced optical/infrared telescope. At Paranal, they

  13. Fishman Receives the Shaw Prize for Astronomy

    NASA Video Gallery

    In the video, Dr. Jerry Fishman discusses his career as a scientist, his lifelong interest in science and his recognition as the 2011 Shaw Prize Recipient for Astronomy. Fishman is being recognized...

  14. Nobel Prize 2014: Akasaki, Amano & Nakamura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, Joerg

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources."

  15. Templeton Prize again goes to physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeandron, Michelle

    2008-04-01

    The Polish mathematical physicist and former priest Michael Heller has been awarded this year's Templeton Prize. Heller, whose more than 40-year-long career has encompassed research in theology, philosophy, mathematics and cosmology, intends to use the £820 000 prize to found an interuniversity institute in Poland to investigate questions in science, theology and philosophy. Dubbed the "Copernicus Centre", the institute will be affiliated to the Jagiellonian University and the Pontifical Academy of Theology in Cracow.

  16. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  17. Helicobacter pylori with East Asian-type cagPAI genes is more virulent than strains with Western-type in some cagPAI genes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Yan; Yan, Jin-Jun; Yang, Ya-Chao; Wu, Chun-Mei; Hu, Yan; Geng, Jian-Li

    2016-12-22

    The severity of Helicobacter pylori-related disease is correlated with the presence and integrity of a cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI). cagPAI genotype may have a modifying effect on the pathogenic potential of the infecting strain. After analyzing the sequences of cagPAI genes, some strains with the East Asian-type cagPAI genes were selected for further analysis to examine the association between the diversity of the cagPAI genes and the virulence of H. pylori. The results showed that gastric mucosal inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly higher in patients with East Asian-type cagPAI genes H. pylori strain compared with mosaicism cagPAI genes H. pylori strain (p<0.05). H. pylori strains with the East Asian-type cagPAI genes were closely associated with IL-8 secretion in vitro and in vivo compared with H. pylori strains with the mosaicism cagPAI genes (p<0.01). H. pylori strains with East Asian-type cagPAI genes are able to strongly translocate CagA to host cells. These results suggest that H. pylori strains with East Asian-type cagPAI genes are more virulent than the strains of cagPAI gene/genes that are Western type.

  18. Can the Abraham Light Momentum and Energy in a Medium Constitute a Lorentz Four-Vector?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changbiao

    2013-08-01

    By analyzing the Einstein-box thought experiment with the principle of relativity, it is shown that Abraham's light momentum and energy in a medium cannot constitute a Lorentz four-vector, and they consequentially break global momentum and energy conservation laws. In contrast, Minkowski's momentum and energy always constitute a Lorentz four-vector no matter whether in a medium or in vacuum, and the Minkowski's momentum is the unique correct light momentum. A momentum-associated photon mass in a medium is exposed, which explains why only the Abraham's momentum is derived in the traditional "center-of-mass-energy" approach. The EM boundary-condition matching approach, combined with Einstein light-quantum hypothesis, is proposed to analyze this thought experiment, and it is found for the first time that only from Maxwell equations without resort to the relativity, the correctness of light momentum definitions cannot be identified. Optical pulling effect is studied as well.

  19. The 6th FDR prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funakoshi, Mitsuaki

    2013-06-01

    From the 58 papers published in 2012 in Fluid Dynamics Research, the following paper has been selected for the sixth FDR prize: The finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method and its application in computational aero-acoustics by Michihisa Tsutahara (Professor Emeritus, Kobe University, Japan), published in volume 44 (August 2012) 045507. This is a review paper of the author's recent work on the finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM). In this paper, the author introduces a modified FDLBM and its application to aero-acoustics. To solve the discrete Bhatnager, Gross and Krook equation for simulating fluid flow, the FDLBM applies a stable finite-difference scheme on a curvilinear coordinate system, whereas the ordinary lattice Boltzmann method uses regular lattices. It is known that for the lattice Boltzmann methods, there is difficulty in simulating high Mach number compressible flows in principle. To alleviate this, the author proposed the modified FDLBM, expanding the flexibility of setting time increments. With this FDLBM, the author has shown that it is possible to simulate compressible flows efficiently around complex bluff bodies and with complex aero-acoustic behaviour. The author summarizes all those works, including studies only available in Japanese up to now, in this review paper. After discussing the details of the FDLBM proposed by the author, example results of simulating the Aeolian tone generated from a circular cylinder at the Mach number M = 0.7 are shown. Then, the scheme is expanded for moving bodies by combining with the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation. Using this moving mesh scheme, the author shows the simulation results of the very strong sound pressure generated by a high-speed train in a tunnel. For issues of sound propagation in compressible two-phase flows whose density ratio is high, the two-particle model is introduced. Also, techniques to reduce noise generation from the flow velocity and pressure at gas

  20. Measurement of the Abraham force and its predicted QED corrections in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Rikken, G L J A; van Tiggelen, B A

    2011-10-21

    We report the observation by a new method of mechanical momentum transferred to gas phase atoms and molecules upon application of crossed oscillating electric and static magnetic fields. We identify this momentum as the microscopic analogue of the classical Abraham force. Two QED predictions of additional magnetoelectrically induced mechanical momentum are addressed. One of them is experimentally refuted; the other is found to be currently below our experimental detection.

  1. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  2. PAI-1 mRNA expression and plasma level in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship with 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Ruiz-Quezada, Sandra Luz; Oregón-Romero, Edith; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa Elena; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; De la Cruz-Mosso, Ulises; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2012-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the synovial membrane, cartilage and bone. PAI-1 is a key regulator of the fibrinolytic system through which plasminogen is converted to plasmin. The plasmin activates the matrix metalloproteinase system, which is closely related with the joint damage and bone destruction in RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism with mRNA expression and PAI-1 plasma protein levels in RA patients. 113 RA patients and 123 healthy subjects (HS) were included in the study. The 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method; the PAI-1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR; and the soluble PAI-1 (sPAI-1) levels were quantified using an ELISA kit. No significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism were found between RA patients and HS. However, the 5G/5G genotype was the most frequent in both studied groups: RA (42%) and HS (44%). PAI-1 mRNA expression was slightly increased (0.67 fold) in RA patients with respect to HS (P = 0.0001). In addition, in RA patients, the 4G/4G genotype carriers showed increased PAI-1 mRNA expression (3.82 fold) versus 4G/5G and 5G/5G genotypes (P = 0.0001), whereas the sPAI-1 plasma levels did not show significant differences. Our results indicate that the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism is not a marker of susceptibility in the Western Mexico. However, the 4G/4G genotype is associated with high PAI-1 mRNA expression but not with the sPAI-1 levels in RA patients.

  3. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 suppresses inhibition of gastric emptying by cholecystokinin (CCK) in mice.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Joanne; Kenny, Susan; Dockray, Graham J

    2013-08-10

    The intestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) delays gastric emptying and inhibits food intake by actions on vagal afferent neurons. Recent studies suggest plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 suppresses the effect of CCK on food intake. In this study we asked whether PAI-1 also modulated CCK effects on gastric emptying. Five minute gastric emptying of liquid test meals was studied in conscious wild type mice (C57BL/6) and in transgenic mice over-expressing PAI-1 in gastric parietal cells (PAI-1H/Kβ mice), or null for PAI-1. The effects of exogenous PAI-1 and CCK8s on gastric emptying were studied after ip administration. Intragastric peptone delayed gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice by a mechanism sensitive to the CCK-1 receptor antagonist lorglumide. Peptone did not delay gastric emptying in PAI-1-H/Kβ mice. Exogenous CCK delayed gastric emptying of a control test meal in C57BL/6 mice and this was attenuated by administration of PAI-1; exogenous CCK had no effect on emptying in PAI-1-H/Kβ mice. Prior administration of gastrin to increase gastric PAI-1 inhibited CCK-dependent effects on gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice but not in PAI-1 null mice. Thus, both endogenous and exogenous PAI-1 inhibit the effects of CCK (whether exogenous or endogenous) on gastric emptying. The data are compatible with emerging evidence that gastric PAI-1 modulates vagal effects of CCK.

  4. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  5. The odd-order Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterov, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    We consider a Hamiltonian formulation of the (2 n + 1)-order generalization of the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator with distinct frequencies of oscillation. This system is invariant under time translations. However, the corresponding Noether integral of motion is unbounded from below and can be presented as a direct sum of 2n one-dimensional harmonic oscillators with an alternating sign. If this integral of motion plays a role of a Hamiltonian, a quantum theory of the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator faces a ghost problem. We construct an alternative canonical formulation for the system under study to avoid this nasty feature.

  6. PAI-1-Dependent Endothelial Cell Death Determines Severity of Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Abderrahmani, Rym; François, Agnes; Buard, Valerie; Tarlet, Georges; Blirando, Karl; Hneino, Mohammad; Vaurijoux, Aurelie; Benderitter, Marc; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Milliat, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Normal tissue toxicity still remains a dose-limiting factor in clinical radiation therapy. Recently, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (SERPINE1/PAI-1) was reported as an essential mediator of late radiation-induced intestinal injury. However, it is not clear whether PAI-1 plays a role in acute radiation-induced intestinal damage and we hypothesized that PAI-1 may play a role in the endothelium radiosensitivity. In vivo, in a model of radiation enteropathy in PAI-1 −/− mice, apoptosis of radiosensitive compartments, epithelial and microvascular endothelium was quantified. In vitro, the role of PAI-1 in the radiation-induced endothelial cells (ECs) death was investigated. The level of apoptotic ECs is lower in PAI-1 −/− compared with Wt mice after irradiation. This is associated with a conserved microvascular density and consequently with a better mucosal integrity in PAI-1 −/− mice. In vitro, irradiation rapidly stimulates PAI-1 expression in ECs and radiation sensitivity is increased in ECs that stably overexpress PAI-1, whereas PAI-1 knockdown increases EC survival after irradiation. Moreover, ECs prepared from PAI-1 −/− mice are more resistant to radiation-induced cell death than Wt ECs and this is associated with activation of the Akt pathway. This study demonstrates that PAI-1 plays a key role in radiation-induced EC death in the intestine and suggests that this contributes strongly to the progression of radiation-induced intestinal injury. PMID:22563394

  7. [Karl Abraham's revolution. From sensual sucking to oral-aggressive destruction wishes].

    PubMed

    May, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that Abraham's paper on "The first pregenital stage of the libido" (1916-17) expounds a new conception of orality, i. e. the idea of a purposeful oral aggression directed against an object. This conception is shown to be contrary to Freud's view of orality as elaborated in his Three Essays as well as in other writings of late 1914 and early 1915. It ignores fundamental dimensions of Freud's thinking, namely the difference between autoerotism/narcissism and object love on the one hand and between libido and aggression on the other, thus representing a basic theoretical change that also had consequences for analytical practice.

  8. Relativistic Dynamics of a Charged Sphere: Updating the Lorentz-Abraham Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    and is approved for publication. APPROVED: V Y~t C w ROBERT V. McGAHAN, Chief Applied Electromagnetics Division FOR THE COMMANDER: d JOHN K. SCHINDLER...Abraham derivation reveals that the self electromagnetic force must be modified during the short time interval after the external force is first applied ...Newton’s secondI law of mot ion. arid Lu"Ist em’s mt ass-energy relation. (The latter twvo laws of phyisics were( not dIiscoveredI until after t lie

  9. NVVC/NHJ Durrer prizes 2014.

    PubMed

    Wall, E E van der; Umans, V A W M

    2015-06-01

    At the annual 2015 Spring Congress of the NVVC, the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of two of the best original/review articles published in the year 2014, one paper being more basically oriented and one paper being more clinically oriented. This has been an annual tradition since the year 2006.

  10. NVVC/NHJ Durrer prizes 2013.

    PubMed

    van der Wall, E E; Umans, V A W M

    2014-05-01

    At the annual Spring Congress of the NVVC, the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of two of the best original/review articles published in the year 2013, one paper being more basically oriented and one paper being more clinically oriented. This annual tradition has existed since the year 2006.

  11. NVVC/NHJ Durrer Prizes 2012.

    PubMed

    van der Wall, E E; Schalij, M J; Umans, V A W M

    2013-06-01

    At the annual Spring Congress of the NVVC the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of the best original/review articles published in the year 2012, one paper being more basically-oriented and one paper being more clinically-oriented. This annual tradition exists already since the year 2006.

  12. NVVC/NHJ Durrer prizes 2015.

    PubMed

    van der Wall, E E

    2016-05-01

    At the annual 2016 Spring Congress of the NVVC, the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of two of the best original articles published in the year 2015, one paper being more basically oriented and one paper being more clinically oriented. This annual tradition has existed since the year 2006.

  13. Quantum pioneers snap up 2013 Wolf prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The 2013 Wolf Prize in Physics has been awarded to Juan Ignacio Cirac of the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Munich, Germany, and Peter Zoller of the University of Innsbruck in Austria for "groundbreaking theoretical contributions to quantum-information processing, quantum optics and the physics of quantum gases".

  14. L Prize Drives Technology Innovation, Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-30

    Fact sheet that provides an overview of DOE's L Prize competition, which challenges industry to develop high-quality, high-efficiency SSL products to replace 60W incandescent and PAR38 halogen light bulbs, and highlights the competition's first 60W winner from Philips Lighting North America.

  15. How Einstein Got the Nobel Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Abraham

    1982-01-01

    Discusses why the Nobel Committee for Physics waited so long before giving Einstein the Nobel Prize and why they did not award it for relativity, but for the photoelectric effect instead. Focuses on the judgments of leading scientists who made nominations as well as committee members' decisions. (Author/JN)

  16. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R; Jerling, Johann C; Pieters, Marlien

    2013-01-01

    Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  17. Graphene Oxide Demonstrates Experimental Confirmation of Abraham Pressure on Solid Surface.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Anirban; Rani, Renu; Hazra, Kiran S

    2017-02-13

    The century-old controversy over two contradicting theories on radiation pressure of light proposed by Abraham and Minkowski can come to an end if there is a direct method to measure the surface deformation of the target material due to momentum transfer of photons. Here we have investigated the effect of radiation pressure on the surface morphology of Graphene Oxide (GO) film, experienced due to low power focused laser irradiation. In-depth investigation has been carried out to probe the bending of the GO surface due to radiation pressure by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and subsequently the uniaxial strain induced on the GO film has been probed by Raman Spectroscopy. Our results show GO film experience an inward pressure due to laser radiation resulting in inward bending of the surface, which is consistent with the Abraham theory. The bending diameter and depth of the irradiated spot show linear dependence with the laser power while an abrupt change in depth and diameter of the irradiated spot is observed at the breaking point. Such abrupt change in depth is attributed to the thinning of the GO film by laser irradiation.

  18. Sir Edward Abraham's contribution to the development of the cephalosporins: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Miller, J M

    2000-08-01

    This paper is based on an invited lecture given at the 21st International Congress of Chemotherapy in July 1999, as part of a Symposium entitled '50 years of cephalosporins: their use the next 50 years', (Hamilton-Miller JMT, Cephalosporins: from mould to drug. Sardinia to Oxford and beyond, J Antimicr Chemother 1999;44(A):26). Celebration of this Golden Anniversary was made more poignant by the death of the last major participant, Sir Edward Abraham, in May 1999. This history has been told before, but mainly by Sir Edward, who being a very modest man (to which his obituaries graphically attest) consistently underplayed the role that he and Newton had in the discovery of cephalosporin C, that led to all the cephalosporins now in use. I had the privilege of working at the Dunn School from 1967 to 1970, with Abraham and Newton, where I met Brotzu, Florey and Dorothy Hodgkin, all of whom had important roles in this story. Other workers at the Dunn School at that time, e.g. Heatley, Sanders and Jennings (who became Lady Florey), helped develop penicillin. Such a galaxy of stars of the antibiotic firmament will never again be assembled. "Let us now praise famous men... these were honoured in their generation, and were the glory of their times" - Ecclesiasticus XLIV. vv 1.7.

  19. Graphene Oxide Demonstrates Experimental Confirmation of Abraham Pressure on Solid Surface

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Anirban; Rani, Renu; Hazra, Kiran S.

    2017-01-01

    The century-old controversy over two contradicting theories on radiation pressure of light proposed by Abraham and Minkowski can come to an end if there is a direct method to measure the surface deformation of the target material due to momentum transfer of photons. Here we have investigated the effect of radiation pressure on the surface morphology of Graphene Oxide (GO) film, experienced due to low power focused laser irradiation. In-depth investigation has been carried out to probe the bending of the GO surface due to radiation pressure by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and subsequently the uniaxial strain induced on the GO film has been probed by Raman Spectroscopy. Our results show GO film experience an inward pressure due to laser radiation resulting in inward bending of the surface, which is consistent with the Abraham theory. The bending diameter and depth of the irradiated spot show linear dependence with the laser power while an abrupt change in depth and diameter of the irradiated spot is observed at the breaking point. Such abrupt change in depth is attributed to the thinning of the GO film by laser irradiation. PMID:28211901

  20. Graphene Oxide Demonstrates Experimental Confirmation of Abraham Pressure on Solid Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Anirban; Rani, Renu; Hazra, Kiran S.

    2017-02-01

    The century-old controversy over two contradicting theories on radiation pressure of light proposed by Abraham and Minkowski can come to an end if there is a direct method to measure the surface deformation of the target material due to momentum transfer of photons. Here we have investigated the effect of radiation pressure on the surface morphology of Graphene Oxide (GO) film, experienced due to low power focused laser irradiation. In-depth investigation has been carried out to probe the bending of the GO surface due to radiation pressure by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and subsequently the uniaxial strain induced on the GO film has been probed by Raman Spectroscopy. Our results show GO film experience an inward pressure due to laser radiation resulting in inward bending of the surface, which is consistent with the Abraham theory. The bending diameter and depth of the irradiated spot show linear dependence with the laser power while an abrupt change in depth and diameter of the irradiated spot is observed at the breaking point. Such abrupt change in depth is attributed to the thinning of the GO film by laser irradiation.

  1. Intracellular Expression of PAI-1 Specific Aptamers Alters Breast Cancer Cell Migration, Invasion and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fortenberry, Yolanda M.; Brandal, Stephanie M.; Carpentier, Gilles; Hemani, Malvi; Pathak, Arvind P.

    2016-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is elevated in various cancers, where it has been shown to effect cell migration and invasion and angiogenesis. While, PAI-1 is a secreted protein, its intercellular levels are increased in cancer cells. Consequently, intracellular PAI-1 could contribute to cancer progression. While various small molecule inhibitors of PAI-1 are currently being investigated, none specifically target intracellular PAI-1. A class of inhibitors, termed aptamers, has been used effectively in several clinical applications. We previously generated RNA aptamers that target PAI-1 and demonstrated their ability to inhibit extracellular PAI-1. In the current study we explored the effect of these aptamers on intracellular PAI-1. We transiently transfected the PAI-1 specific aptamers into both MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and studied their effects on cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Aptamer expressing MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited a decrease in cell migration and invasion. Additionally, intracellular PAI-1 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) protein levels decreased, while the PAI-1/uPA complex increased. Moreover, a significant decrease in endothelial tube formation in HUVECs transfected with the aptamers was observed. In contrast, conditioned media from aptamer transfected MDA-MB-231 cells displayed a slight pro-angiogenic effect. Collectively, our study shows that expressing functional aptamers inside breast and endothelial cells is feasible and may exhibit therapeutic potential. PMID:27755560

  2. Serum PAI-1 and PAI-1 4G/5G Polymorphism in Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Cirrhosis and Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    El Edel, Rawhia H; Essa, Enas Said; Essa, Abdallah S; Hegazy, Sara A; El Rowedy, Dalia I

    2016-11-01

    Association between variable agent-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and both PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) levels compared to healthy controls have been reported in earlier studies. We aimed to assess serum PAI-1 and PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced HCC, HCV-induced liver cirrhosis, and viral infection-free apparently healthy control subjects. Forty nine HCC, 52 cirrhosis, and 105 controls were genotyped for PAI-1 4G/5G using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. In addition, for 31 HCC, 24 cirrhosis, and 28 controls, serum PAI-1 level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was no significant difference in PAI-1 4G/5G genotype distribution between cirrhosis and controls (p = 0.33, p = 0.15, and p = 0.38 for the codominant, dominant, and recessive models, respectively) or between HCC and cirrhosis (p = 0.5, p = 0.24, and p = 0.69 for the codominant, dominant, and recessive models, respectively). Serum PAI-1 was significantly higher in cirrhosis than controls and significantly lower in HCC than cirrhosis (p < 0.001 for both). Serum PAI-1 did not differ significantly among the three PAI-1 4G/5G genotypes in controls, cirrhosis, and HCC (p = 0.29, p = 0.28, and p = 0.73 respectively). We documented higher serum PAI-1 in HCV-induced HCC than viral infection-free controls, but interestingly, lower than HCV-induced liver cirrhosis patients. This was not genotype related. Further studies will be needed to clearly elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  3. A small molecule PAI-1 functional inhibitor attenuates neointimal hyperplasia and vascular smooth muscle cell survival by promoting PAI-1 cleavage.

    PubMed

    Simone, Tessa M; Higgins, Stephen P; Archambeault, Jaclyn; Higgins, Craig E; Ginnan, Roman G; Singer, Harold; Higgins, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the primary inhibitor of urokinase-and tissue-type plasminogen activators (uPA and tPA), is an injury-response gene implicated in the development of tissue fibrosis and cardiovascular disease. PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels were elevated in the balloon catheter-injured carotid and in the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-enriched neointima of ligated arteries. PAI-1/uPA complex formation and PAI-1 antiproteolytic activity can be inhibited, via proteolytic cleavage, by the small molecule antagonist tiplaxtinin which effectively increased the VSMC apoptotic index in vitro and attenuated carotid artery neointimal formation in vivo. In contrast to the active full-length serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN), elastase-cleaved PAI-1 (similar to tiplaxtinin) also promoted VSMC apoptosis in vitro and similarly reduced neointimal formation in vivo. The mechanism through which cleaved PAI-1 (CL-PAI-1) stimulates apoptosis appears to involve the TNF-α family member TWEAK (TNF-α weak inducer of apoptosis) and it's cognate receptor, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-inducible 14 (FN14). CL-PAI-1 sensitizes cells to TWEAK-stimulated apoptosis while full-length PAI-1 did not, presumably due to its ability to down-regulate FN14 in a low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)-dependent mechanism. It appears that prolonged exposure of VSMCs to CL-PAI-1 induces apoptosis by augmenting TWEAK/FN14 pro-apoptotic signaling. This work identifies a critical, anti-stenotic, role for a functionally-inactive (at least with regard to its protease inhibitory function) cleaved SERPIN. Therapies that promote the conversion of full-length to cleaved PAI-1 may have translational implications.

  4. PAI-1 antagonists: the promise and the peril.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Douglas E

    2011-01-01

    The plasminogen activator (i.e., fibrinolytic) system is one of the key endogenous defense mechanisms against intravascular thrombosis. Thrombolytic agents represent the only direct way of augmenting fibrinolytic activity in humans, and have proven to be of value in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Although these agents are efficacious in the acute setting, they are not a viable option for long-term use. Net fibrinolytic activity is plasma is largely determined by the balance between tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its natural, fast-acting inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). The recent development of specific PAI-1 antagonists promises to expand the limits of understanding of the role of the fibrinolytic system in human disease, and to break through the current confines of therapeutic options that can effectively restore and augment the activity of the fibrinolytic system.

  5. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Scriven, Neil

    2008-10-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in May each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 40 (2007) or 41 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  6. Prizes for innovation of new medicines and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Love, James; Hubbard, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that prizes can help stimulate medical innovation, control costs and ensure greater access to new medicines and vaccines. The authors explore four increasingly ambitious prize options to reward medical innovation, each addressing flaws in the current patent system. The first option promotes innovation through a large prize fund linked to the impact on health outcomes; the second option rewards the sharing of knowledge, data, and technology with open source dividends; the third option awards prizes for interim benchmarks and discrete technical problems; and the final option removes the exclusive right to use patented inventions in upstream research in favor of prizes. The authors conclude that a system of prizes to reward drug development would break the link between R&D incentives and product prices, and that such a reform is needed to improve innovation and access to new medicines and vaccines.

  7. Arthroscopy Journal Prizes Are Major Decisions.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct.

  8. The Brain Prize 2014: complex human functions.

    PubMed

    Grigaityte, Kristina; Iacoboni, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Giacomo Rizzolatti, Stanislas Dehaene, and Trevor Robbins were recently awarded the 2014 Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize for their 'pioneering research on higher brain mechanisms underpinning such complex human functions as literacy, numeracy, motivated behavior and social cognition, and for their effort to understand cognitive and behavioral disorders'. Why was their work highlighted? Is there anything that links together these seemingly disparate lines of research?

  9. 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R. J.

    2016-12-19

    This is the 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech of R.J. Goldston: It is a great pleasure to receive the 2015 Nuclear Fusion award for my work developing a heuristic drift-based model for the power scrape-off width in tokamaks. I was particularly pleased to receive the award from IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, whose thoughtful leadership has advanced the cause of nuclear non-proliferation mightily.

  10. Profit Regulation of Defense and Prizes for Innovation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    AD-A253 965 Profit Regulation of Defense Contractors and Prizes for Innovation William P. Rogerson ,TIC ELECTE S AUG 191992 AD Ubi doewment bas bn...0004. ULbrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Rogerson, William P. (William Paul), 1955- Profit regulation of defense contractors and prizes...Published 1992 by RAND 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138 R-3635-PA&E Profit Regulation of Defense Contractors and Prizes for

  11. Experimental determination of solvent-water partition coefficients and Abraham parameters for munition constituents.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuzhen; Kuo, Dave T F; Allen, Herbert E; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2016-10-01

    There is concern about the environmental fate and effects of munition constituents (MCs). Polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs) that employ Abraham solute parameters can aid in evaluating the risk of MCs to the environment. However, poor predictions using pp-LFERs and ABSOLV estimated Abraham solute parameters are found for some key physico-chemical properties. In this work, the Abraham solute parameters are determined using experimental partition coefficients in various solvent-water systems. The compounds investigated include hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX), hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5- nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), and 4-nitroanisole. The solvents in the solvent-water systems are hexane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, octanol, and toluene. The only available reported solvent-water partition coefficients are for octanol-water for some of the investigated compounds and they are in good agreement with the experimental measurements from this study. Solvent-water partition coefficients fitted using experimentally derived solute parameters from this study have significantly smaller root mean square errors (RMSE = 0.38) than predictions using ABSOLV estimated solute parameters (RMSE = 3.56) for the investigated compounds. Additionally, the predictions for various physico-chemical properties using the experimentally derived solute parameters agree with available literature reported values with prediction errors within 0.79 log units except for water solubility of RDX and HMX with errors of 1.48 and 2.16 log units respectively. However, predictions using ABSOLV estimated solute parameters have larger prediction errors of up to 7.68 log units. This large discrepancy is probably due to the missing R2NNO2

  12. First AGU Climate Communication Prize awarded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Christine

    2012-02-01

    Gavin Schmidt, a climate scientist at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and cofounder of the RealClimate blog (http://www.realclimate.org/), received the first AGU Climate Communication Prize at the honors ceremony. The prize recognizes excellence in climate communication as well as the promotion of scientific literacy, clarity of messaging, and efforts to foster respect and understanding for science-based values related to climate change. Sponsored by Nature's Own—a Boulder, Colo.-based company specializing in the sale of minerals, fossils, and decorative stone specimens—the prize comes with a $25,000 cash award. "AGU created this award to raise the visibility of climate change as a critical issue facing the world today, to demonstrate our support for scientists who commit themselves to the effective communication of climate change science, and to encourage more scientists to engage with the public and policy makers on how climate research can contribute to the sustainability of our planet," said AGU president Michael Mc Phaden. "That's why we are so pleased to recognize Gavin for his dedicated leadership and outstanding scientific achievements. We hope that his work will serve as an inspiration for others."

  13. Maria Goeppert Mayer and the Nobel Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Karen E.

    2013-04-01

    When Maria Goeppert Mayer was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963, she was only the second woman to receive that award and there have been no additional female physics laureates since. Mayer was uniquely prepared to carry out her prize-winning work on the nuclear shell model. Furthermore, she worked with some of the most well-known figures in mid-twentieth century physics, and her award came at a time when American science was in ascendance. Why, then, is her name so little known beyond the physics community? There are several possible answers to this question, ranging from the personal (her modest reaction to public acclaim) and the scientific (the mathematically abstract nature of her prize-winning work), to the national (the nature of the issues commanding public attention in the 1960s). In this talk I will present an overview of the circumstances that enabled Mayer to make exceptional contributions to nuclear physics, and then examine some of the possible reasons why her exceptional status is not more widely known.

  14. A Brief Analysis of Abraham Maslow's Original Writing of "Self-Actualizing People: A Study of Psychological Health"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Nedra H.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes Abraham Maslow's original writing of "Self-Actualizing People: A Study of Psychological Health." The review of literature in this article reveals that Maslow's hierarchy of needs have had profound effects in the area of psychology. In addition, the authors present information regarding self-actualized people, theorists of…

  15. Predicting solvent-water partitioning of charged organic species using quantum-chemically estimated Abraham pp-LFER solute parameters.

    PubMed

    Davis, Craig Warren; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2016-12-01

    Methods for obtaining accurate predictions of solvent-water partitioning for neutral organic chemicals (e.g., Kow) are well-established. However, methods that provide comparable accuracy are not available for predicting the solvent-water partitioning of ionic species. Previous methods for addressing charge contributions to solvent-water partitioning rely on charged solute descriptors which are obtained from regressions to neutral species descriptors as well as charged descriptors which are specific to unique charge-functionalities and structural moieties. This paper presents a method for obtaining Abraham poly-parameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) descriptors using quantum chemical calculations and molecular structure, only. The method utilizes a large number of solvent-water systems to overcome large errors in individual quantum chemical computations of ionic solvent-water partition coefficients. The result is a single set of quantum-chemically estimated Abraham solute parameters (QCAP) which are solvent-independent, and can be used to predict the solvent-water partitioning of ionic species. Predictions of solvent-water partition coefficients for ionic species using quantum-chemically estimated Abraham parameters (QCAPs) are shown to provide improved accuracy compared over both existing Absolv-estimated Abraham solute parameters (AAP) as well as direct a priori quantum chemical (QC) calculations for partitioning of anionic solutes in 4 organic solvent-water systems (RMS = 0.740, 2.48 and 0.426 for the Absolv, QC and QCAP methods, respectively). For quaternary amine cations in the octanol-water system the RMS errors of the solvent-water partition coefficients were larger and similar between the two Abraham models (RMSE = 0.997 and 1.16, for the AAP and QCAP methods, respectively). Both methods showed significant improvement over direct QC calculations (RMSE = 2.82).

  16. Momentum Exchange between Light and a Single Atom: Abraham or Minkowski?

    PubMed

    Hinds, E A; Barnett, Stephen M

    2009-02-06

    We consider forces on an atom due to a plane-wave light pulse. The standard view of the optical dipole force indicates that red-detuned light should attract the atom towards high intensity. While the atom is inside the pulse, this would increase the average momentum per photon from p_{0} to p_{0}n, where n is the average refractive index due to the presence of the atom. We show, however, that this is the wrong conclusion and that the dispersive forces repel the atom from the light in this particular case, giving the photons a momentum p_{0}/n. This leads us to identify Abraham's optical momentum with the kinetic momentum transfer. The form due to Minkowski is similarly associated with the canonical momentum. We consider the possibility of demonstrating this in the laboratory, and we note an unexpected connection with the Aharonov-Casher effect.

  17. Reduced-order Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac equation and the consistency of classical electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steane, Andrew M.

    2015-03-01

    It is widely believed that classical electromagnetism is either unphysical or inconsistent, owing to pathological behavior when self-force and radiation reaction are non-negligible. We argue that there is no inconsistency as long as it is recognized that certain types of charge distribution are simply impossible, such as, for example, a point particle with finite charge and finite inertia. This is owing to the fact that negative inertial mass is an unphysical concept in classical physics. It remains useful to obtain an equation of motion for small charged objects that describes their motion to good approximation without requiring knowledge of the charge distribution within the object. We give a simple method to achieve this, leading to a reduced-order form of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac equation, essentially as proposed by Eliezer, Landau, and Lifshitz and derived by Ford and O'Connell.

  18. Religion, Sexuality, and Internalized Homonegativity: Confronting Cognitive Dissonance in the Abrahamic Religions.

    PubMed

    Meladze, Pikria; Brown, Jac

    2015-10-01

    This research was aimed at investigating how religious beliefs and internalized shame predicted homonegativity. An online survey, which consisted of a self-report questionnaire assessing religious orientation, internalized shame, and internalized homonegativity, was completed by 133 Caucasian and Asian gay men. The respondents also were asked to write a short answer in which they had to explain how they integrated their religion and sexual practices. The quantitative analyses of data demonstrated no significant difference in internalized homonegativity among the two cultural groups. Internalized homonegativity was predicted by the main Abrahamic faiths (i.e. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism) and internalized shame. Qualitative analysis showed that gay men who adhere to a monotheistic religious faith follow a different path to reconciling their religion and homosexuality compared to gay men who adhere to Philosophical/New Age religions or to gay men who have no religious faith. The implications of these findings as well as directions for future research studies were discussed.

  19. Effect of reinforcement probability and prize size on cocaine and heroin abstinence in prize-based contingency management.

    PubMed

    Ghitza, Udi E; Epstein, David H; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and the size of the prize won (small, large, or jumbo) on likelihood of abstinence until the next urine-collection day for heroin and cocaine users (N=116) in methadone maintenance. Higher probability of winning, but not the size of individual prizes, was associated with a greater percentage of cocaine-negative, but not opiate-negative, urines.

  20. 4G/5G polymorphism modulates PAI-1 circulating levels in obese women.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Karla S; Sandrim, Valéria C

    2012-05-01

    The increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) has been described as a risk factor to thrombosis-related diseases. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the variant 4G of polymorphism 4G/5G located in promoter region of PAI-1 gene is associated with higher PAI-1 levels. We investigate the role of this polymorphism on circulating PAI-1 concentration in a population of 57 obese women (23%, 4G/4G; 49%, 4G/5G and 28%, 5G/5G genotypes). Our results demonstrate a genotype-specific modulation on PAI-1 levels in obese women, thus 5G/5G genotype presented significantly lower levels of plasma PAI-1 when compared to 4G/4G group (46 ± 19 ng/mL vs. 63 ± 13 ng/mL, respectively). Our findings indicate that obese carriers of 4G/4G genotype may have increased risk to develop thrombotic diseases.

  1. Clinical impact of PAI 1 4G/5G gene polymorphism in colorectal carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Halamkova, J; Kiss, I; Pavlovsky, Z; Tomasek, J; Jarkovsky, J; Cech, Z; Bednarova, D; Tucek, S; Hanakova, L; Moulis, M; Zavrelova, J; Man, M; Benda, P; Robek, O; Kala, Z; Penka, M

    2013-01-01

    Plasminogen activator ihnibitor (PAI 1) belongs to the plasminogen activator system, which is part of the metastatic cascade and significantly contributes to invasive growth and angiogenesis of malignant tumors. Its plasma level is normally low but 4G/4G homozygotes have higher concentrations of PAI 1. This genotype may be associated with worse prognosis and proximal location of colorectal cancer than 5G/5G homozygotes. In our prospective evaluation we examined plasma level PAI 1 (using photometric microplate method ELISA) pre-surgery and, subsequently, 6-8 weeks later, from 80 patients. For the PAI 1 rs1799889 -675 4G/5G polymorphism test the PCR amplification was used.Analysis of collected data was confirmed that significantly higher plasma levels of PAI 1 were found in patients before starting therapy, which decreased (p=0.004) after initiation of treatment. Patients with higher plasma level PAI 1 before (p=0.013) and after therapy (p=0.004) had significantly shorter survival. We found no relationship between polymorphisms of PAI 1 (-675 4G/5G) in relation to stage, survival or tumor location. PAI 1 is useful as a negative marker of prognosis and could be advantageous when planning adjuvant treatment of patients with colorectal carcinoma. Although opinions on the importance of polymorphisms of PAI 1 in relation to the prognosis are not uniform, it does seem that their role in the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer is not essential.

  2. PAI-1 and TNF-α profiles of adipose tissue in obese cardiovascular disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic Gazioglu, Sema; Akan, Gokce; Atalar, Fatma; Erten, Gaye

    2015-01-01

    Obesity as a leading preventable cause of death worldwide is closely linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a potent inhibitor of plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis, is increased in many clinical situations associated with high incidence of CVD. In the obesity-linked elevation of PAI-1, evidence points to TNF-α as an important regulator of PAI-1 expression in adipose tissue. Background: This study aims to evaluate mediastinal PAI-1 and TNF-α mRNA levels in adipose tissues (AT) and compare serum levels in obesity with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients and methods: Obese patients with (n=37) and without CAD (n=20) were included in the study. Results: The serum levels of PAI-1 and TNF-α were significantly higher in obese patients with CAD compared to obese patients without CAD. PAI-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT) of obese patients with CAD compared to those without CAD, TNF-α mRNA expressions were found to be higher in EAT (epicardial AT), MAT and SAT (subcutaneous AT) of obese patients with CAD. Conclusions: The study demonstrated a close direct relationship between TNF-α and PAI-1. PAI-1 mRNA expression strongly correlated positively with serum TNF-α in MAT, and TNF-α expressions with PAI-1 serum levels. PMID:26884864

  3. Nominations sought for the 2016 Haagen-Smit Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    We, the editors and publishers of Atmospheric Environment invite our readers to nominate papers for the 2016 "Haagen-Smit Prize". The prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution.

  4. 29 CFR 778.330 - Prizes or contest awards generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prizes or contest awards generally. 778.330 Section 778.330 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special Problems Prizes As Bonuses § 778.330...

  5. 26 CFR 1.74-1 - Prizes and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prizes and awards. 1.74-1 Section 1.74-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.74-1 Prizes and awards. (a) Inclusion in gross income. (1) Section...

  6. Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzschild, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak [open quotes]for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.[close quotes] Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given.

  7. EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    2006 Roberts Prize The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) in association with the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) jointly award an annual prize for an article published in PMB during the previous year. The following ten articles, listed below in chronological order, were rated the best of 2006 based on the (two or three) referees' assessments: D W Mundy et al 2006 Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1377-91 Y Yang et al 2006 Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1649-59 M Krämer and M Scholz 2006 Rapid calculation of biological effects in ion radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1959-70 P Crespo et al 2006 On the detector arrangement for in-beam PET for hadron therapy monitoring Phys. Med. Biol. 51 2143-63 R J Senden et al 2006 Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3301-14 J Wang et al 2006 FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4119-27 C A T Van den Berg et al 2006 The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4735-46 S Qin and K W Ferrara 2006 Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5065-88 R Kramer et al 2006 Skeletal dosimetry in the MAX06 and the FAX06 phantoms for external exposure to photons based on vertebral 3D-microCT images Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6265-89 R Leiderman et al 2006 Coupling between elastic strain and interstitial fluid flow: ramifications for poroelastic imaging Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6291-313 An IPEM college of jurors then assessed and rated these papers in order to choose a winner. We have much

  8. EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    2005 Roberts Prize The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) in association with the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) jointly award an annual prize for an article published in PMB during the previous year. The following 14 articles, listed below in chronological order, were rated the best of 2005 based on the (two or three) referees' assessments: P Kundrát et al 2005 Probabilistic two-stage model of cell inactivation by ionizing particles Phys. Med. Biol. 50 1433-47 D Arora et al 2005 Direct thermal dose control of constrained focused ultrasound treatments: phantom and in vivo evaluation Phys. Med. Biol. 50 1919-35 J S Dysart et al 2005 Characterization of Photofrin photobleaching for singlet oxygen dose estimation during photodynamic therapy of MLL cells in vitro Phys. Med. Biol. 50 2597-616 M Defrise et al 2005 Fourier rebinning of time-of-flight PET data Phys. Med. Biol. 50 2749-63 Z Su et al 2005 Systematic investigation of the signal properties of polycrystalline HgI2 detectors under mammographic, radiographic, fluoroscopic and radiotherapy irradiation conditions Phys. Med. Biol. 50 2907-28 E Bräuer-Krisch et al 2005 New irradiation geometry for microbeam radiation therapy Phys. Med. Biol. 50 3103-11 H C Pyo et al 2005 Identification of current density distribution in electrically conducting subject with anisotropic conductivity distribution Phys. Med. Biol. 50 3183-96 R P Findlay et al 2005 Effects of posture on FDTD calculations of specific absorption rate in a voxel model of the human body Phys. Med. Biol. 50 3825-35 G Alexandrakis et al 2005 Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4225-41 J Keshvari et al 2005 Comparison of radio frequency energy absorption in ear and eye region of children and adults at 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4355-69 J Laufer et al 2005 In vitro measurements of absolute blood

  9. On the Human Aspect of Nobel Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, G.

    1990-10-01

    One night, Nico invited for dinner all his postdoc and graduate students, in a German restaurant close to Harvard Square. Just before we were to pay for our meal, he told us: "Tomorrow, we shall know the Nobel prize winner. Can you people make a guess on his name?" All my colleagues nominated great physicists. In my turn, I suggested naively (and perhaps nationalistically) the name of Alfred Kastler who had been my thesis adviser. "Come on," joked Nico, "I know a lot of physicists who would deserve it much better.."

  10. Effect of Reinforcement Probability and Prize Size on Cocaine and Heroin Abstinence in Prize-Based Contingency Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and…

  11. Society News: Welcome to Griffiths Bay; RAS Associate wins Shaw Prize; Postgraduate prize preparations; Council minutes on-line; Birthday Honours; Kavli Prize; New Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    The late Donald Griffiths will be commemorated in the name of a bay on the Antarctic Peninsula. Prof. Reinhard Genzel, Associate of the Society since 1994, Darwin Lecturer in 2007, and Director of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics has been awarded the Shaw Prize in Astronomy for 2008. While postgrad students complete their PhD theses, supervisors should note the deadline for submissions to the annual Michael Penston and Keith Runcorn Prizes.

  12. Increased Umbilical Cord PAI-1 Levels in Placental Insufficiency Are Associated with Fetal Hypoxia and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Seferovic, Maxim D.; Gupta, Madhulika B.

    2016-01-01

    In intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a subset of pregnancies undergoes placental vascular dysregulation resulting in restricted blood flow and fetal hypoxemia. Altered transcription of hypoxic regulated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has been associated with pregnancy complications and angiogenic regulation. Here we assessed circulating PAI-1 as an indicator of placental insufficiency. Venous umbilical PAI-1 of hypoxemic (VpO2 20 versus 35 mmHg, p < 0.0001) placental insufficient pregnancies (resistance index 0.9 versus 0.63, p < 0.05) (n = 18) was compared to controls (n = 12). PAI-1 was increased (~10-fold, p < 0.001) and had a positive predictive ratio of 6.7. Further, PAI-1 levels correlated to blood oxygen (r = −0.68, p < 0.0001). The plasma's angiogenic potency measured in vitro was associated with umbilical cord blood PAI-1 levels (r = 0.65, p < 0.01). This association was attenuated by PAI-1 inhibiting antibody (p < 0.001). The results demonstrate PAI-1 as a potential marker of placental insufficiency and identify its close association with pathological hypoxia and angiogenesis in a subset of growth restricted pregnancies. PMID:26903689

  13. Tumor Budding, uPA, and PAI-1 in Colorectal Cancer: Update of a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hardt, Jochen; Franz, Simon; Schaller, Tina; Schenkirsch, Gerhard; Kriening, Bernadette; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Rüth, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Aims. The prognostic role of the proteases uPA and PAI-1, as well as tumor budding, in colon cancer, has been investigated previously. Methods. We provide 6-year follow-up data and results of the validation set. The initial test set and validation set consisted of 55 colon cancers and 68 colorectal cancers, respectively. Tissue samples were analyzed for uPA and PAI-1 using a commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Tumor budding was analyzed on cytokeratin-stained slides. Survival analyses were performed using cut-offs that were determined previously. Results. uPA was not prognostic for outcome. PAI-1 showed a trend towards reduced cancer specific survival in PAI-1 high-grade cases (68 versus 83 months; P = 0.091). The combination of high-grade PAI-1 and tumor budding was associated with significantly reduced cancer specific survival (60 versus 83 months; P = 0.021). After pooling the data from both sets, multivariate analyses revealed that the factors pN-stage, V-stage, and a combination of tumor budding and PAI-1 were independently prognostic for the association with distant metastases. Conclusions. A synergistic adverse effect of PAI-1 and tumor budding in uni- and multivariable analyses was found. PAI-1 could serve as a target for anticancer therapy. PMID:28286517

  14. Resolution of the Abraham-Minkowski debate: Implications for the electromagnetic wave theory of light in matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, B. A.

    2011-06-01

    A century has now passed since the origins of the Abraham-Minkowski controversy pertaining to the correct form of optical momentum in media. Experiment and theory have been applied at both the classical and quantum levels in attempt to resolve the debate. The result of these efforts is the identification of Abraham's kinetic momentum as being responsible for the overall center of mass translations of a medium and Minkowski's canonical or wave momentum as being responsible for translations within or with respect to a medium. In spite of the recent theoretical developments, much confusion still exists regarding the appropriate theory required to predict experimental outcomes and to develop new applications. In this paper, the resolution of the longstanding Abraham-Minkowski controversy is reviewed. The resolution is presented using classical electromagnetic theory and logical interpretation of experiments disseminated over the previous century. Emphasis is placed on applied physics applications: modeling optical manipulation of cells and particles. Although the basic interpretation of optical momentum has been resolved, there is still some uncertainly regarding the complete form of the momentum continuity equation describing electromagnetics. Thus, while a complete picture of electrodynamics has still yet to be fully interpreted, this correspondence should help clarify the state-of-the-art view.

  15. Prize level and debt size: impact on gambling behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crewe-Brown, Courtney; Blaszczynski, Alex; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    No studies to date have specifically determined the relationship between prize levels, debt size, and impulsivity on reported gambling behaviour on Electronic Gaming Machines (EGM). The present study reports the findings of a pilot study designed to investigate whether or not the likelihood of increasing the size of a bet was related to the level of prize offered and personal debt. The sample consisted of 171 first year psychology students (61 males and 120 females). Participants completed a series of gambling vignettes designed to elicit data on reported bet size according to different prize levels and debt sizes; the Eysenck Impulsivity Scale (Eysenck and Eysenck 1977); the Canadian Problem Gambling Index; and an author-constructed questionnaire eliciting data on demographic and gambling behaviours. Results indicated that as prize levels increase the odds (relative risk) of an individual placing a bet on an EGM and the amount of money reportedly bet tends to increase. A negative relationship between debt size and reported gambling behaviour moderated by prize level was found. No differences were found in the odds of placing a bet according to impulsivity. It was concluded that prize and debt sizes do influence propensities to gamble and level of bets. The findings have implications for restricting jackpot and general prize levels as a responsible gambling strategy designed to reduce motivations to gamble.

  16. The Road to Stockholm - Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargittai, István

    2002-05-01

    The Nobel Prize is by far the highest recognition a scientist may receive and the only one with which the general public is familiar. Its prestige has reached improbable heights. At the same time a lot of myth surrounds the Nobel Prize, and this is compounded by the fact that people tend to view scientists with some bewilderment.This book introduces the process of selection of the laureates, discusses the ingredients for scientific discovery and for getting recognition. It reviews the decisive moments of scientific careers en route to the Nobel Prize, points to characteristic features of the laureates, the importance of mentors and venues in scientific careers and other components of success. It also covers some discoverers and discoveries for whom and for which the Nobel Prize never materialized.Whereas there is no general recipe for receiving the Nobel Prize, there are common features of successful scientific careers. The book reveals some information about the scientists' lives and careers that may guide other scientists in increasing their chances of becoming more effective and better recognized players--although it is not expected to help anyone to receive the Nobel Prize!For the general reader The Road to Stockholm reveals the human face of scientists and the human side of their endeavours. The Nobel Prize has served as inspiration for scientists and the general public for a hundred years: this book discusses its problems and celebrates its triumphs.

  17. Abraham Lincoln loses a medical malpractice case, debates Stephen A. Douglas, and secures two murder acquittals.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Allen D; Kavaler, Florence

    2004-02-01

    An improperly healed fracture was the most common reason for the medical malpractice crisis between the 1830s and 1860s in the United States. As a practicing lawyer in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln defended physicians in medical malpractice law suits. One of these was Dr. Powers Ritchey, who was sued for malpractice in 1855. Lincoln agreed to represent Dr. Ritchey in 1858 as the case was appealed to the supreme court of Illinois. In the interim, Lincoln defended two indicted murderers and won acquittals for both. Between the two murder trials, Lincoln debated Stephen A. Douglas while running for U.S. Senator from Illinois. Lincoln believed that Ritchey's case was poorly represented in the lower court. Ritchey's prior attorneys did not file a bill of exceptions to the testimony of the plaintiff's expert medical witnesses. Lincoln attempted to rebut the allegation of a lack of reasonable medical care and diligence by Ritchey, and he sought to secure a new trial for his client. In its decision, the supreme court of Illinois did not find any error and affirmed the lower court's judgment.

  18. Abraham Lincoln and Harry Potter: children's differentiation between historical and fantasy characters.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Kathleen H; Kim, Angie L; Schwalen, Courtney E; Harris, Paul L

    2009-11-01

    Based on the testimony of others, children learn about a variety of figures that they never meet. We ask when and how they are able to differentiate between the historical figures that they learn about (e.g., Abraham Lincoln) and fantasy characters (e.g., Harry Potter). Experiment 1 showed that both younger (3- and 4-year-olds) and older children (5-, 6-, and 7-year-olds) understand the status of familiar figures, correctly judging historical figures to be real and fictional figures to be pretend. However, when presented with information about novel figures embedded in either a realistic narrative or a narrative with obvious fantasy elements, only older children used the narrative to make an appropriate assessment of the status of the protagonist. In Experiment 2, 3-, and 4-year-olds were prompted to judge whether the story events were really possible or not. Those who did so accurately were able to deploy that judgment to correctly assess the status of the protagonist.

  19. Pennies from heaven? Conceptions and earmarking of lottery prize money.

    PubMed

    Hedenus, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The source of money has been shown to be important for how money is spent. In addition, sudden wealth is often associated with social and psychological risks. This article investigates if conceptions of lottery prize money--as a special kind of money--imply restrictions on how it can be spent. Analysis of interviews with lottery winners shows that interviewees use earmarking of the prize money as a strategy for avoiding the pitfalls associated with a lottery win. Conceptions of lottery prize money as 'a lot' or as 'a little', as shared or personal, and as an opportunity or a risk, influences the ends for which it is earmarked: for self-serving spending, a 'normal' living standard, paying off loans, saving for designated purposes, or for economic security and independence. Clearly defining and earmarking lottery prize money thus helps lottery winners construe their sudden wealth, not as a risk, but as 'pennies from heaven.'

  20. Pat Thiel talks about Nobel Prize winner Dan Shechtman

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  1. Pat Thiel talks about Nobel Prize winner Dan Shechtman

    ScienceCinema

    Thiel, Pat

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  2. Perspectives on the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics for graphene.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Araujo, Paulo T

    2010-11-23

    The 2010 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for their groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene. Some personal perspectives about this award are presented.

  3. 2016 ISCB Overton Prize awarded to Debora Marks

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Christiana N.; Kovats, Diane E.

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) recognizes the achievements of an early- to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize each year. The Overton Prize was established to honor the untimely loss of Dr. G. Christian Overton, a respected computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators in the early to middle phases of their careers who are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. 2016 will mark the fifteenth bestowment of the ISCB Overton Prize.  ISCB is pleased to confer this award the to Debora Marks, Assistant Professor of Systems Biology and director of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Computational Biology at Harvard Medical School. PMID:27429747

  4. 2016 ISCB Overton Prize awarded to Debora Marks.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Christiana N; Kovats, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) recognizes the achievements of an early- to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize each year. The Overton Prize was established to honor the untimely loss of Dr. G. Christian Overton, a respected computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators in the early to middle phases of their careers who are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. 2016 will mark the fifteenth bestowment of the ISCB Overton Prize.  ISCB is pleased to confer this award the to Debora Marks, Assistant Professor of Systems Biology and director of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Computational Biology at Harvard Medical School.

  5. A small molecule inhibitor of PAI-1 protects against doxorubicin-induced cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Asish K.; Rai, Rahul; Park, Kitae E.; Eren, Mesut; Miyata, Toshio; Wilsbacher, Lisa D.; Vaughan, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin, an anthracycline antibiotic, is a commonly used anticancer drug. In spite of its widespread usage, its therapeutic effect is limited by its cardiotoxicity. On the cellular level, Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity manifests as stress induced premature senescence. Previously, we demonstrated that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a potent inhibitor of serine proteases, is an important biomarker and regulator of cellular senescence and aging. Here, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of cellular PAI-1 protects against stress- and aging-induced cellular senescence and delineated the molecular basis of protective action of PAI-1 inhibition. Results show that TM5441, a potent small molecule inhibitor of PAI-1, effectively prevents Doxorubicin-induced senescence in cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. TM5441 exerts its inhibitory effect on Doxorubicin-induced cellular senescence by decreasing reactive oxygen species generation, induction of antioxidants like catalase and suppression of stress-induced senescence cadre p53, p21, p16, PAI-1 and IGFBP3. Importantly, TM5441 also reduces replicative senescence of fibroblasts. Together these results for the first time demonstrate the efficacy of PAI-1 inhibitor in prevention of Doxorubicin-induced and replicative senescence in normal cells. Thus PAI-1 inhibitor may form an important adjuvant component of chemotherapy regimens, limiting not only Doxorubicin-induced cardiac senescence but also ameliorating the prothrombotic profile. PMID:27736799

  6. Iranian PhD student wins human-rights prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2013-11-01

    A physicist imprisoned in Iran while on a break from his PhD studies in the US has been awarded a human-rights prize. Omid Kokabee, who had been based at the University of Texas in Austin, has been given the Andrei Sakharov Prize from the American Physical Society (APS) for "his courage in refusing to use his physics knowledge to work on projects that he deemed harmful to humanity, in the face of extreme physical and psychological pressure".

  7. Innate immunity's path to the Nobel Prize 2011 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hermann

    2012-05-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine to Ralph Steinmann, Jules Hoffmann, and Bruce Beutler recognized a paradigm shift in our understanding of innate immunity, and its impact on adaptive immunity. The Prize highlighted the initial discoveries of Toll's role in immunity in flies, Toll-like receptors in mammals, and the establishment of dendritic cells as the initiators of adaptive immunity. This historical Commentary focuses on the developments in our understanding of innate immunity.

  8. [Telomeres: a Nobel Prize at the beginning… of the end].

    PubMed

    Rajpar, Shanna; Guittat, Lionel; Mergny, Jean-Louis

    2011-10-01

    The 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack K. Szostak for their work on telomeres and telomerase. This prize acknowledges their pionneering discoveries on chromosomal extremities. Telomeres are the nucleoproteic complexes that may be found at the ends of linear chromosomes. They are essential for genomic stability and are involved in aging and tumorogenesis.

  9. Volatility, house edge and prize structure of gambling games.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel E

    2011-12-01

    This study used simulations to examine the effect of prize structure on the outcome volatility and the number of winners of various game configurations. The two most common prize structures found in gambling games are even money payoff games (bet $1; win $2) found on most table games and multilevel prizes structures found in gambling machine games. Simulations were set up to examine the effect of prize structure on the long-term outcomes of these games. Eight different prize structures were compared in terms of the number of winners and volatility. It was found that the standard table game and commercial gambling machines produced fairly high numbers of short term winners (1 h), but few long term winners (50 h). It was found that the typical even money game set up produced the lowest level of volatility. Of the multilevel prize structures examined, the three simulations based on commercial gambling machines were the least volatile. The results are examined in terms of the pragmatics of game design.

  10. "Microquasar" Discoveries Win Prize for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The discovery of "microquasars" within our own Milky Way Galaxy has won two astronomers a prize from the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society. Felix Mirabel of the Center for Studies at Saclay, France, and Luis Rodriguez of the Institute of Astronomy at the National Autonomous University in Mexico City, were awarded the Bruno Rossi Prize at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Toronto, Ontario, today. The two researchers, who have collaborated for more than 15 years, used an orbiting X-Ray observatory and the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to discover the extremely energetic microquasars. Microquasars are thought to be binary-star systems with one of the stars either a superdense neutron star or a black hole. They emit X-rays and eject jets of subatomic particles at speeds approaching that of light. Though the neutron stars or black holes in microquasars are only a few times the mass of the sun, the phenomena associated with them, such as the jets, are similar to those seen in active galaxies and quasars, believed to be powered by the gravitational energy of black holes with millions of times the mass of the sun. As such, the microquasars provide much closer "laboratories" for study of these phenomena, which remain poorly understood. The Rossi Prize is awarded for "a significant contribution to high energy astrophysics, with particular emphasis on recent work," according to the High Energy Astrophysics Division. Mirabel and Rodriguez began the research that led to the microquasar discoveries in 1990. Using the French-Russian SIGMA- GRANAT X-Ray satellite, they discovered a microquasar near the Milky Way's center in 1992. With the VLA, they found radio emission from this object. In 1992, using the same satellite, they discovered a similar object, called GRS 1915+105. In 1994, that object experienced an outburst that made it bright enough at radio wavelengths to observe with the VLA

  11. Chandra Telescope Designer Wins 2002 Rossi Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts has been awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society. The Rossi Prize recognizes significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics. It is awarded annually in honor of the late Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of X-ray astronomy. The prize also includes an engraved certificate and a $1,500 award. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the X-ray mirrors for NASA's premier X­ray observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision X-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Hughes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the X-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory. "Leon is one of the master mirror designers of our time," said Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Chandra X-ray Center. "His contributions were crucial to the spectacular success of the Chandra mission." The Chandra mirrors are the most precise mirrors ever made, smooth with tolerances of a few atoms. If the state of Colorado had the same relative smoothness as the surface of the Chandra X-ray Observatory mirrors, Pike's Peak would be less than an inch tall. The smoothness and alignment of the Chandra's mirrors are enabling scientists to make new discoveries about black holes, neutron stars, and galactic explosions. "Many, many other people made essential contributions to the Chandra program, and hopefully some of them will receive proper recognition," said Van Speybroeck. "In the meantime, I am thoroughly enjoying

  12. Validity of the PAI interpersonal scales for measuring the dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Emily B; Kurtz, John E; DeMoor, Rebecca M; Markey, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Two studies evaluated the validity of the interpersonal scales, Dominance (DOM) and Warmth (WRM), from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) to measure the 2 dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex (IPC). In Study 1, 114 college freshmen completed the PAI and the Interpersonal Adjectives Scale (IAS; Wiggins, 1995). In Study 2, 170 college students completed the PAI and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (IIP-SC; Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995). The results of both studies supported the convergent validity of DOM and WRM, although discriminant validity was stronger using the IIP-SC as the criterion. Circumplex projections placed DOM and WRM in the appropriate segments of both the IAS and IIP-SC. These findings provide additional support for the validity of the PAI interpersonal scales as measures of the primary dimensions of the IPC.

  13. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with posttreatment abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Roll, John M

    2011-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine-abusing methadone-maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self-reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence, such as pretreatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM.

  14. Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cell migration and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Niamh M.; Joyce, Myles R.; Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O’Brien, Timothy; Kerin, Michael J.; Dwyer, Roisin M.

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •MSCs were directly co-cultured with colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on 3D scaffolds. •MSCs influence CRC protein/gene expression, proliferation and migration. •We report a significant functional role of MSC-secreted PAI-1 in colon cancer. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to engraft and integrate into the architecture of colorectal tumours, with little known regarding their fate following engraftment. This study aimed to investigate mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) and colon cancer cell (CCC) interactions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and colon cancer cells (HT29 and HCT-116) were cultured individually or in co-culture on 3-dimensional scaffolds. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested at day 1, 3 and 7. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array, ELISA (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) and RQ-PCR. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation in response to recombinant PAI-1, MSCs and MSCs + antibody to PAI-1 was analyzed using Transwell inserts and an MTS proliferation assay respectively. Chemi-array revealed secretion of a wide range of factors by each cell population, including PAI-1and MIF. ELISA analysis revealed Mesenchymal Stem Cells to secrete the highest levels of PAI-1 (MSC mean 10.6 ng/mL, CCC mean 1.01 ng/mL), while colon cancer cells were the principal source of MIF. MSC-secreted PAI-1 stimulated significant migration of both CCC lines, with an antibody to the chemokine shown to block this effect (67–88% blocking,). A cell-line dependant effect on CCC proliferation was shown for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 with HCT-116 cells showing decreased proliferation at all concentrations, and HT29 cells showing increased proliferation in the presence of higher PAI-1 levels. This is the first study to identify PAI-1 as an important mediator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/colon cancer cell interactions and highlights the

  15. Monitoring PAI-1 and VEGF Levels in 6 Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma Xenografts During Fractionated Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, Christine; Kielow, Achim; Schilling, Daniela; Maftei, Constantin-Alin; Zips, Daniel; Yaromina, Ala; Baumann, Michael; Molls, Michael; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that the plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are regulated by hypoxia and irradiation and are involved in neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo whether changes in PAI-1 and VEGF during fractionated irradiation could predict for radiation resistance. Methods and Materials: Six xenografted tumor lines from human squamous cell carcinomas (HSCC) of the head and neck were irradiated with 0, 3, 5, 10, and 15 daily fractions of 2 Gy. The PAI-1 and VEGF antigen levels in tumor lysates were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The amounts of PAI-1 and VEGF were compared with the dose to cure 50% of tumors (TCD{sub 50}). Colocalization of PAI-1, pimonidazole (hypoxia), CD31 (endothelium), and Hoechst 33342 (perfusion) was examined by immunofluorescence. Results: Human PAI-1 and VEGF (hVEGF) expression levels were induced by fractionated irradiation in UT-SCC-15, UT-SCC-14, and UT-SCC-5 tumors, and mouse VEGF (msVEGF) was induced only in UT-SCC-5 tumors. High hVEGF levels were significantly associated with radiation sensitivity after 5 fractions (P=.021), and high msVEGF levels were significantly associated with radiation resistance after 10 fractions (P=.007). PAI-1 staining was observed in the extracellular matrix, the cytoplasm of fibroblast-like stroma cells, and individual tumor cells at all doses of irradiation. Colocalization studies showed PAI-1 staining close to microvessels. Conclusions: These results indicate that the concentration of tumor-specific and host-specific VEGF during fractionated irradiation could provide considerably divergent information for the outcome of radiation therapy.

  16. Does the Convergent Validity of the PAI Antisocial Features Scale Depend on Offender Response Style?

    PubMed

    Gardner, Brett O; Boccaccini, Marcus T

    2017-04-04

    Researchers have recently questioned the utility of the response style indicators included on many self-report measures of personality and psychopathology. We examined whether the size of convergent validity coefficients for Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Antisocial Features (ANT) scores depends on PAI validity scale scores. Using PAI and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores from 477 offenders evaluated for civil commitment as sexually violent predators, we found that PAI Positive Impression (PIM), Negative Impression (NIM), Malingering Index (MAL), Defensiveness Index (DEF), and Infrequency (INF) scores moderated the association between ANT and PCL-R scores. The association between ANT and PCL-R scores decreased as offenders overstated psychopathology (i.e., higher NIM or MAL scores) or exhibited increasing disengagement (i.e., higher INF scores). However, the association between ANT and PCL-R scores increased as offenders engaged in defensive reporting (i.e., higher PIM or DEF scores). The interaction effects were most common for ANT-E (Egocentricity), and to a lesser extent ANT-A (Antisocial Behaviors). PAI discriminant function validity indexes did not exhibit moderating effects on ANT and PCL-R scores. There was no evidence of validity scale suppression effects. These findings provide support for the potential role of some PAI response style measures for ANT scale interpretation in forensic settings.

  17. Prognostic and predictive values of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cong-Fa; Yu, Guang-Tao; Wang, Wei-Ming; Liu, Bing; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 are known to be closely associated with tumor progression in several kinds of human tumors. This study aimed to investigate the expression of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to evaluate their association with the prognosis in oral carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine the expression of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 in 17 normal oral mucosa, 6 oral epithelial dysplasia and 43 OSCC specimens by tissue microarrays. High expression of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 was found in OSCC patients, and SPP1 and PAI expression were significantly higher in OSCC than in normal oral mucosa. No significant correlations were found between SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 expression and clinicopathological factors. Expression of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 was also not associated with overall survival. Moreover, SPP1 was closely correlated with PAI, caveolin-1 and Keap1, and PAI had significant correlations with caveolin-1, Keap1 and Nrf2, and caveolin-1 was associated with Keap1 by using the Pearson correlation coefficient test. Our findings suggest that overexpressed SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 were linked to carcinogenesis and progression, and thus they may serve as potential prognostic factors in OSCC.

  18. 77 FR 56697 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The English Prize: The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... for Exhibition Determinations: ``The English Prize: The Capture of the Westmorland, an Episode of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``The English Prize:...

  19. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in late Spring each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 39 (2007) or 40 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  20. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in late Spring each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 39 (2007) or 40 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  1. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in May each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 40 (2007) or 41 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  2. Analysis of the Henderson-Abraham-Barker equation in the case of a polar liquid near a neutral hard wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badiali, J. P.; Russier, V.; Holovko, M. E.

    1993-11-01

    The physical content of the wall-particle direct correlation function cw(1), defined from the Ornstein-Zernike equation in the framework of the Henderson-Abraham-Barker approach, is analyzed in the case of a dipolar-hard-sphere fluid near a pure and dielectric neutral wall. The exact asymptotic behavior of cw(1) is established and we show that it is not related to simple physical concepts as, e.g., the image potential. We show that the exact Henderson-Abraham-Barker equation introduces some bridge diagrams which are more simple graphs in another approach. Due to this fact, at least for systems with long range interactions, it is misleading to use the usual closures of the theory of homogeneous liquids for cw(1). In the case of a dielectric wall, we emphasize that the diagrammatic structure of cw(1) requires the introduction of a three-body Mayer function. The dipolar-hard-sphere liquid is a good candidate for analyzing cw(1) because some exact results are known and related to simple electrostatic effects; however, the present results are not restricted to this system.

  3. Irish Team Wins SEA & SPACE Super Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    A secondary school team from Ireland has won a trip to Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guyana, and to ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal, Chile. The trip is the Super-Prize for the Sea & Space Newspaper Competition , organised within the framework of the European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. ESO PR Photo 33/98 ESO PR Photo 33/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 434 pix - 568k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 1627 pix - 6.7Mb] The presentation of prize certificates to the winning Irish team (right) in Lisbon, on August 31, 1998, by ESO, ESA and EAAE representatives. Stephen Kearney, Cian Wilson (both aged 16 years), Eamonn McKeogh (aged 17 years) together with their teacher, John Daly of Blackrock College in Dublin, prepared their newspaper, Infinitus , on marine and space themes, and came first in the national round of the competition. Together with other students from all over Europe, they were invited to present their winning newspaper to a jury consisting of representatives of the organisers, during a special programme of events at the Gulbenkian Planetarium and EXPO '98 in Lisbon, from 28-31 August, 1998. The Irish team scored highly in all categories of the judging, which included scientific content and originality and creativity of the articles. Their look at Irish contributions to sea and space research also proved popular in a ballot by fellow student competitors. This vote was also taken into account by the judges. The jury was very impressed by the high quality of the national entries and there were several close runners-up. The width and depth was amazing and the variety of ideas and formats presented by the sixteen teams was enormous. A poster competition was organised for younger students, aged 10 to 13 and winning entries at national level are on display at the Oceanophilia Pavilion at EXPO '98. The SEA & SPACE project is a joint initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) , the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , and the

  4. Ecosystems Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. H.; Frame, M. T.; Ferriter, O.; Recker, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stimulating innovation and private sector entrepreneurship is an important way to advance the preparedness of communities, businesses and individuals for the impacts of climate change on certain aspects of ecosystems, such as: fire regimes; water availability; carbon sequestration; biodiversity conservation; weather-related hazards, and the spread of invasive species. The creation of tools is critical to help communities and natural resource managers better understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and the potential resulting implications for ecosystem services and conservation efforts. The Department of the Interior is leading an interagency effort to develop the Ecosystems Vulnerability theme as part of the President's Climate Action Plan. This effort will provide seamless access to relevant datasets that can help address such issues as: risk of wildfires to local communities and federal lands; water sensitivity to climate change; and understanding the role of ecosystems in a changing climate. This session will provide an overview of the proposed Ecosystem Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition, outlining the intended audience, scope, goals, and overall timeline. The session will provide an opportunity for participants to offer new ideas. Through the Challenge, access will be made available to critical datasets for software developers, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers to develop and submit applications addressing critical science issues facing our Nation today. Application submission criteria and guidelines will also be discussed. The Challenge will be open to all sectors and organizations (i.e. federal, non-federal, private sector, non-profits, and universities) within the United States. It is anticipated the Challenge will run from early January 2015 until spring of 2015.

  5. Randomized Trial of Prize-Based Reinforcement Density for Simultaneous Abstinence from Cocaine and Heroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of reinforcer density in prize-based abstinence reinforcement, heroin/cocaine users (N = 116) in methadone maintenance (100 mg/day) were randomly assigned to a noncontingent control group (NonC) or to 1 of 3 groups that earned prize draws for abstinence: manual drawing with standard prize density (MS) or computerized drawing…

  6. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits TNF-α-induced PAI-1 production in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanli; Wang, Difei; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2013-11-01

    : (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major catechin derived from green tea, reduces the incidence of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) accelerates thrombus formation upon ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. However, it is not known whether or not EGCG inhibits PAI-1 production induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in endothelial cells. This study tested the hypothesis that EGCG might have an inhibitory effect on PAI-1 production induced by TNF-α. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured and incubated with TNF-α and/or EGCG. The expression of p-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK1/2) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR1) protein was quantified by Western blotting, and PAI-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that TNF-α increased PAI-1 production in both a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, and EGCG prevented TNF-α-mediated PAI-1 production and reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2. The ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059 (20 μmol/L), downregulated TNF-α-induced PAI-1 expression 57.69 ± 2.46% (P < 0.01), but had no effect in cells pretreated with EGCG. TNF-α stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in TNFR1, an effect that was abolished by pretreatment with EGCG. These results suggest that EGCG could provide vascular benefits in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases such as decreased thrombus formation associated with ruptured atherosclerotic plaques.

  7. PAI-1 Expression Is Required for HDACi-Induced Proliferative Arrest in ras-Transformed Renal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen P; Higgins, Craig E; Higgins, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Malignant transformation of mammalian cells with ras family oncogenes results in dramatic changes in cellular architecture and growth traits. The generation of flat revertants of v-K-ras-transformed renal cells by exposure to the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB) was previously found to be dependent on transcriptional activation of the PAI-1 (SERPINE1) gene (encoding the type-1 inhibitor of urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activators). NaB-initiated PAI-1 expression preceded induced cell spreading and entry into G(1) arrest. To assess the relevance of PAI-1 induction to growth arrest in this cell system more critically, two complementary approaches were used. The addition of a stable, long half-life, recombinant PAI-1 mutant to PAI-1-deficient v-K-ras-/c-Ha-ras-transformants or to PAI-1 functionally null, NaB-resistant, 4HH cells (engineered by antisense knockdown of PAI-1 mRNA transcripts) resulted in marked cytostasis in the absence of NaB. The transfection of ras-transformed cells with the Rc/CMVPAI expression construct, moreover, significantly elevated constitutive PAI-1 synthesis (10- to 20-fold) with a concomitant reduction in proliferative rate. These data suggest that high-level PAI-1 expression suppresses growth of chronic ras-oncogene transformed cells and is likely a major cytostatic effector of NaB exposure.

  8. Structural and Functional Evidence for Bacillus subtilis PaiA as a Novel N1-spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Forouhar,F.; Lee, I.; Vujcic, J.; Vujcic, S.; Shen, J.; Vorobiev, S.; Xiao, R.; Acton, T.; Montelione, G.; et al.

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis PaiA has been implicated in the negative control of sporulation as well as production of degradative enzymes. PaiA shares recognizable sequence homology with N-acetyltransferases, including those that can acetylate spermidine/spermine substrates (SSATs). We have determined the crystal structure of PaiA in complex with CoA at 1.9 Angstrom resolution and found that PaiA is a member of the N-acetyltransferase superfamily of enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observed the binding of an oxidized CoA dimer in the active site of PaiA, and the structural information suggests the substrates of the enzyme could be linear, positively charged compounds. Our biochemical characterization is also consistent with this possibility since purified PaiA possesses N1-acetyltransferase activity towards polyamine substrates including spermidine and spermine. Further, conditional over-expression of PaiA in bacteria results in increased acetylation of endogenous spermidine pools. Thus, our structural and biochemical analyses indicate that PaiA is a novel N-acetyltransferase capable of acetylating both spermidine and spermine. In this way, the pai operon may function in regulating intracellular polyamine concentrations and/or binding capabilities. In addition to preventing toxicity due to polyamine excess, this function may also serve to regulate expression of certain bacterial gene products such as those involved in sporulation.

  9. The Lincoln Legal Papers Curriculum: Understanding Illinois Social History through Documents from the Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln, 1836-1861.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Lawrence W., Ed.; Drake, Frederick D., Ed.

    This curriculum considers the social history of Illinois during the years of 1836-1861 by studying Abraham Lincoln's legal papers from his time as a lawyer. Nearly 100,000 documents have been discovered in the archives of local, county, state, federal courts, libraries, and other repositories. The documents include detailed information about the…

  10. It Is My Desire to Be Free: Annie Davis's Letter to Abraham Lincoln and Winslow Homer's Painting "A Visit from the Old Mistress"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Michael; Eder, Elizabeth K.

    2010-01-01

    "Mr. President, It is my Desire to be free," wrote Annie Davis to Abraham Lincoln, 20 months after he issued the Emancipation Proclamation. The Emancipation Proclamation affected only those parts of the country that were in rebellion against the United States on the date it was issued, January 1, 1863. The slaveholding border states of…

  11. Natriuretic peptides regulate the expression of tissue factor and PAI-1 in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, M; Tsuji, H; Nishimura, H; Masuda, H; Kunieda, Y; Kawano, H; Kimura, S; Sugano, T; Kitamura, H; Nakagawa, K; Nakagawa, M

    1999-11-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate that brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) interact with angiotensin II (Ang II) in regulative blood coagulation and fibrinolysis by suppressing the expressions of both tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) induced by Ang II. The expressions of TF and PAI-1 mRNA were analyzed by northern blotting methods, and the activities of TF on the surface of rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) and PAI-1 in the culture media were respectively measured by chromogenic assay. Both BNP and CNP suppressed the expressions of TF and PAI-1 mRNA induced by Ang II in a time- and concentration-dependent manner via cGMP cascade, which suppressions were accompanied by respective decrease in activities of TF and PAI-1. However, neither the expression of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) nor tissue-type plasminogen activator (TPA) mRNA was affected by the treatment of BNP and CNP.

  12. Pat Thiel talks about attending the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Pat Thiel, Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, was invited to be a guest at the ceremony on December 10th, in Stockholm, Sweden, where Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory scientist, received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Following her return to the Lab, Thiel shared some of her recollections of the momentous event.

  13. Training Quality: Before and after Winning the Deming Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magennis, Jo P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Quality Improvement Program developed by Florida Power and Light's Nuclear Training organization that was awarded the Deming Application Prize for quality control. Training quality, team activities, training's role in business planning, customer involvement and evaluation, and continuous improvement of training are discussed. (LRW)

  14. SunShot Catalyst Prize Competition Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Catalyst Energy Innovation Prize, an open innovation program launched in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This program aims to catalyze the rapid creation and development of products and solutions that address near-term challenges in the U.S. solar energy marketplace.

  15. The Competition "First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzkowski, W.; Surya, Y; Zuberek, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. What to do to win a Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foundationeer, Second; chrischievious; Hasler, John; nvrao; dedalus22; Martin

    2014-11-01

    In reply to the infographic "Illustrating a century of Nobels" and a related physicsworld.com blog post "What type of physics should you do if you want to bag a Nobel prize?" (2 October, http://ow.ly/CmCzl, see also pp22-23).

  17. Modular Curriculum: English, American Nobel Prize Winners in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, James A.

    This independent study module treats those Americans who have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. They include Sinclair Lewis, Eugene O'Neill, T. S. Eliot, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, and Pearl Buck. Selections from the writings of these authors are included. Their works represent many literary genres and also…

  18. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school…

  19. What Is Community College Excellence? Lessons from the Aspen Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyner, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year, in a process to select the winner of the Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence, the Aspen Institute has convened national experts to define and determine how to measure "excellence," to identify community colleges with high levels of student success, and to help more community colleges understand what can be done to…

  20. Defining Excellence: Lessons from the 2013 Aspen Prize Finalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In many respects, one couldn't find a group of 10 schools more diverse than the finalists for the 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence. One community college serves 1,500 students, another 56,000. There are institutions devoted primarily--even solely--to technical degrees, and ones devoted mainly to preparing students for further…

  1. The 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlstein, Linda

    2013-01-01

    For millions of Americans, community colleges provide an essential pathway to well-paying jobs and continuing higher education. The Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence honors those institutions that strive for and achieve exceptional levels of success for all students, while they are in college and after they graduate. Community colleges…

  2. "Not Censorship but Selection": Censorship and/as Prizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This essay calls for a fresh critical approach to the topic of censorship, suggesting that anticensorship efforts, while important and necessary, function much like literary prizing. The analysis draws especially on James English's recent study "The Economy of Prestige." There are two central arguments: first, that the librarian ethic of…

  3. Physics GRE Scores of Prize Postdoctoral Fellows in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Bezanson, Rachel; Tremblay, Grant

    2017-01-01

    The Physics GRE has long been a required element of the graduate admissions process in many U.S. astronomy programs; however, its predictive power and utility as a means of selection "successful" applicants had not been quantitatively examined until recently. In the fall of 2015 we circulated a short questionnaire to 271 people who have held U.S. prize postdoctoral fellowships in astrophysics between 2010-2015, asking them to report their Physics GRE scores. The response rate was 64%, and the responding sample was unbiased with respect to the overall gender distribution of prize fellows. The responses revealed that the Physics GRE scores of prize fellows do not adhere to any minimum percentile score and show no statistically significant correlation with the number of first author papers published. As an example, a Physics GRE percentile cutoff of 60% would have eliminated 44% of 2010-2015 U.S. prize postdoctoral fellows, including 60% of the female fellows. From these data, we found no evidence that the Physics GRE could be used as an effective predictor of "success" either in or beyond graduate school. Following this work and last year's official recommendation from the AAS, several astronomy departments have recently decided to eliminate the Physics GRE as a requirement for graduate applicants.

  4. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  5. Pat Thiel talks about attending the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony

    ScienceCinema

    Thiel, Pat

    2016-07-12

    Pat Thiel, Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, was invited to be a guest at the ceremony on December 10th, in Stockholm, Sweden, where Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory scientist, received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Following her return to the Lab, Thiel shared some of her recollections of the momentous event.

  6. Cracker Jacks: "Finding the Prize" inside Each Adolescent Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbrock, Cheryl; DiCicco, Michael; Denmon, Jennifer M.; Parke, Erin; Mead, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight several practical classroom examples of asset-driven acts of reciprocal care and content-driven community builders and icebreakers that highlight ways to "find the prize" inside each student by fostering an adolescent-centered community of care that is committed to both relationships and…

  7. Grand Prize and Citation Winners: Ten School with Soaring Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design features of the grand prize winners of the 2002 "Learning by Design" contest--an addition to West Linn High School in West Linn, Oregon, and the renovation of Beaver Brook Academic Center/The Ethel Walker School in Simsbury, Connecticut. Also describes the designs of the eight citation winners. (EV)

  8. Whose Big Prize? A Response to Hall and Gunter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hall and Gunter who accuse the author of trying to mount "a stout defence" of New Labour's reforms of the teaching profession. Hall and Gunter go further and accuse the author of "triumphalism" in his use of the title "Tony Blair's big prize". Their second and more…

  9. Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    The life and personality of Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes established by his will are discussed. Nobel was a 19th century Swedish industrialist who was fluent in six languages. He invented dynamite. At his death in 1896, his estate amounted to $9,200,000. His will stipulated that the income from his estate should be divided annually into five…

  10. Lightweight Wearable Power Energized by Pentagon’s Prize Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-27

    the Virgin Earth Challenge under which Richard Branson and Al Gore are offering a prize of $25 million to anyone who can demonstrate a commercially...asserts Dr. Richard T. Fingers, Chief of the Energy Power Thermal Division at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

  11. How Robert A. Millikan Got the Physics Nobel Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panusch, Martin; Heering, Peter; Singh, Rajinder

    2010-01-01

    In 1923, R.A. Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect. Recently, historical research had a focus on Millikan's publication practice, as well as on the role of his assistant, Harvey Fletcher. Several studies have raised doubts on whether Millikan can…

  12. Reclaiming "Lost Prizes": An Interview with Ken McCluskey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bockern, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Ken McCluskey, Dean and Professor of Education at the University of Winnipeg. He is known internationally for his work in several areas including: (1) mentoring; (2) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; (3) at-risk children and youth (where his "Lost Prizes" and related projects serve as…

  13. Prizes in Cereal Boxes: An Application of Probability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents four cases of real-world probabilistic situations to promote more effective teaching of probability. Calculates the probability of obtaining six of six different prizes successively in six, seven, eight, and nine boxes of cereal, generalizes the problem to n boxes of cereal, and offers suggestions to extend the problem. (MDH)

  14. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Robyn Ready

    2011-12-31

    The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program conducted education and outreach activities and used the competition's technical goals and vehicle demonstrations as a means of attracting students and the public to learn more about advanced vehicle technologies, energy efficiency, climate change, alternative fuels, and the science and math behind efficient vehicle development. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program comprised three integrated components that were designed to educate the general public and create a multi-tiered initiative to engage students and showcase the 21st century skills students will need to compete in our global economy: teamwork, creativity, strong literacy, math and science skills, and innovative thinking. The elements included an Online Experience, a National Student Contest, and in person education events and activites. The project leveraged online connections, strategic partnerships, in-classroom, and beyond-the-classroom initiatives, as well as mainstream media. This education program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also funded the specification of vehicle telemetry and the full development and operation of an interactive online experience that allowed internet users to follow the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE vehicles as they performed in real-time during the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE competition events.

  15. Supporting Military Veteran Students: Early Lessons from Kohlberg Prize Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Klempin, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary education participation is critical for military-connected individuals as they transition back to civilian life. The Kisco Foundation's Kohlberg Prize, a competitive grant awarded in 2015 and 2016, is aimed at making community colleges more welcoming and better able to meet the needs of veteran students. This review details the early…

  16. Student Intern Lands Top Prize in National Science Competition | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Student intern Sam Pritt’s interest in improving geolocation led him to develop a project that won a top regional prize at the Siemens Competition in Math, Science, and Technology in November. Pritt was awarded a $3,000 college scholarship, and he competed in the national competition in early December.

  17. Distribution of pathogenicity island (PAI) markers and phylogenetic groups in diarrheagenic and commensal Escherichia coli from young children

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Ghazal; Haghi, Fakhri; Zeighami, Habib; Hemati, Fatemeh; Masoumian, Neda

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This case–control study investigated the various PAI markers, phylogenetic groups and antimicrobial susceptibility among DEC and commensal E. coli isolates. Background: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is an emerging agent among pathogens that cause diarrheal diseases and represents a major public health problem in developing countries. The major difference in virulence among DEC pathotype and commensals may be related to the presence of specific genomic segments, termed pathogenicity islands (PAIs). Patients and methods: A total of 600 stool specimens from children (450 with and 150 without diarrhea) were collected and various PAI markers, phylogenetic groups and antimicrobial resistance profile among DEC and commensal E. coli isolates were detected. Results: One hundred sixty eight (90.3%) isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. PAI markers were detected in a substantial percentage of commensal (90%) and DEC isolates (99.3%) (P> 0.05). The most prevalent PAI marker among DEC and commensal isolates was HPI (91.9% DEC vs. 68% commensal). We found a high number of PAI markers such as SHI-2, She and LEE that were significantly associated with DEC. Several different combinations of PAIs were found among DEC isolates. Comparison of PAIs among DEC and commensal isolates showed that many DEC isolates (94.8%) carried two or more PAI markers, while 76% of commensals had only one PAI marker (P<0.05). According to the phylogenetic classification, group B2 was the most commonly found in the DEC isolates. Furthermore, our results showed that group B2 can be present in commensal isolates (18%). Conclusion: These results indicate that PAI markers are widespread among commensal and DEC isolates and these commensal isolates may be reservoirs for transmission of these markers. PMID:27895858

  18. HIF-2alpha-dependent PAI-1 induction contributes to angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Geis, Theresa; Döring, Claudia; Popp, Rüdiger; Grossmann, Nina; Fleming, Ingrid; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Dehne, Nathalie; Brüne, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Hypoxia promotes progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), not only affecting tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but also angiogenesis and thus, increasing the risk of metastasis. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)-1α and -2α cause adaptation of tumors to hypoxia, still with uncertainties towards the angiogenic switch. We created a stable knockdown of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HepG2 cells and generated cocultures of HepG2 spheroids with embryonic bodies as an in vitro tumor model mimicking the cancer microenvironment. The naturally occuring oxygen and nutrient gradients within the cocultures allow us to question the role of distinct HIF isoforms in regulating HCC angiogenesis. In cocultures with a HIF-2α knockdown, angiogenesis was attenuated, while the knockdown of HIF-1α was without effect. Microarray analysis identified plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a HIF-2α target gene in HepG2 cells. The knockdown of PAI-1 in HepG2 cells also lowered angiogenesis. Blocking plasmin, the downstream target of PAI-1, with aprotinin in HIF-2α knockdown (k/d) cells proved a cause–effect relation and restored angiogenesis, with no effect on control cocultures. Suggestively, HIF-2α increases PAI-1 to lower concentrations of active plasmin, thereby supporting angiogenesis. We conclude that the HIF-2α target gene PAI-1 favors the angiogenic switch in HCC. - Highlights: • HepG2 were cocultured with stem cells to mimic a cancer microenvironment in vitro. • A knockdown of HIF-2α reduces angiogenesis. • PAI-1 was identified as a HIF-2α target gene in HCC by microarray analysis. • HIF-2α induces the angiogenic switch via inhibition of plasmin.

  19. More than Prize Lists: Head Teachers, Student Prize Winners, School Ceremonies and Educational Promotion in Colonial South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marisa

    2007-01-01

    Australian educators now operate in environments that frequently stress marketing activities. This article highlights the ways that colonial school prize ceremonies were deliberately developed to promote teaching activities. These ceremonies were part of carefully considered strategies that helped to boost the status of entrepreneurial teachers…

  20. Lord Rutherford of Nelson, his 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and why he didn't get a second prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarlskog, Cecilia

    2008-11-01

    'I have dealt with many different transformations with various periods of time, but the quickest that I have met was my own transformation in one moment from a physicist to a chemist.' Ernest Rutherford (Nobel Banquet, 1908) This article is about how Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) got the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and why he did not get a second Prize for his subsequent outstanding discoveries in physics, specially the discovery of the atomic nucleus and the proton. Who were those who nominated him and who did he nominate for the Nobel Prizes? In order to put the Prize issue into its proper context, I will briefly describe Rutherford's whereabouts. Rutherford, an exceptionally gifted scientist who revolutionized chemistry and physics, was moulded in the finest classical tradition. What were his opinions on some scientific issues such as Einstein's photon, uncertainty relations and the future prospects for atomic energy? What would he have said about the 'Theory of Everything'? Extended version of an invited talk presented at the conference 'Neutrino 2008', Christchurch, NZ, 25-31 May 2008

  1. Isolated renal vein thrombosis associated with MTHFR-1298 and PAI-1 4G gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Cinemre, Hakan; Bilir, Cemil; Akdemir, Nermin

    2010-12-01

    Isolated renal vein thrombosis is very rare without the presence of nephrotic syndrome. It is more common in the newborns and infants. Whereas major risk factors in adults are the procoagulant states such as protein C or S deficiency, factor V Leiden mutation, primary or secondary antiphospholipid syndrome, severe hypothyroidism, and trauma. Here, we report a case of isolated renal vein thrombosis associated with MTHFR-1298 and PAI-1 4G gene mutations. It should be noted that the presence of MTHFR-1298 and PAI-1 4G gene mutations together might be one of the examples of genetic mutation combinations that increase the likelihood of a thrombotic event.

  2. PPARα deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression possibly through PPARγ activation in the liver.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Ohkura, Naoki; Horie, Shuichi

    2010-10-15

    An increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and PAI-1 gene expression is under the control of molecular circadian clocks in mammals. We recently showed that PAI-1 expression is augmented in a phase-advanced circadian manner in mice fed with a ketogenic diet (KD). To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is involved in hypofibrinolytic status induced by a KD, we examined the expression profiles of PAI-1 and circadian clock genes in PPARα-null KD mice. Chronic administration of bezafibrate induced the PAI-1 gene expression in a PPARα-dependent manner. Feeding with a KD augmented the circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the hearts and livers of wild-type (WT) mice as previously described. The KD-induced mRNA expression of typical PPARα target genes such as Cyp4A10 and FGF21 was damped in PPARα-null mice. However, plasma PAI-1 concentrations were significantly more elevated in PPARα-null KD mice in accordance with hepatic mRNA levels. These observations suggest that PPARα activation is dispensable for KD-induced PAI-1 expression. We also found that hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and the hepatic expressions of PPARγ and its coactivator PCG-1α were more effectively induced in PPARα-null, than in WT mice on a KD. Furthermore, KD-induced hepatic PAI-1 expression was significantly suppressed by supplementation with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPARγ antagonist, in both WT and PPARα-null mice. PPARγ activation seems to be involved in KD-induced hypofibrinolysis by augmenting PAI-1 gene expression in the fatty liver.

  3. Cross-Validation of the PAI Negative Distortion Scale for Feigned Mental Disorders: A Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Richard; Gillard, Nathan D.; Wooley, Chelsea N.; Kelsey, Katherine R.

    2013-01-01

    A major strength of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is its systematic assessment of response styles, including feigned mental disorders. Recently, Mogge, Lepage, Bell, and Ragatz developed and provided the initial validation for the Negative Distortion Scale (NDS). Using rare symptoms as its detection strategy for feigning, the…

  4. Novel Combinatorial Therapeutic Targeting of PAI-1 (SERPINE1) Gene Expression in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kutz, Stacie M.; Higgins, Craig E.; Higgins, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid peptides (Aβ) in the brain, generated by β-site proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is the hallmark pathophysiologic feature of Alzheimer's disease. The plasmin-activating cascade, in which urokinase (uPA) and tissue-type (tPA) plasminogen activators convert plasminogen to the broad-spectrum protease plasmin, appears to serve a protective, Aβ-clearing, role in the central nervous system. Plasmin degrades Aβ and catalyzes α- site APP proteolysis generating nontoxic peptides. Plasmin activation in the brain is negatively regulated by the fast-acting clade E serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1; SERPINE1) resulting in Aβ accumulation. PAI-1 and its major physiological inducer TGF-β1, moreover, are both increased in Alzheimer's disease models and implicated in the etiology and progression of human neurodegenerative disorders. Current findings support the hypothesis that targeting of PAI-1 function (by small molecule drugs) and/or gene expression (by histone deacetylase inhibitors) may constitute a clinically-relevant molecular approach to the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases associated with increased PAI-1 levels. PMID:23847772

  5. Relationship between HMGB1 and PAI-1 after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Shosaku; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Katayama, Yuta; Yagi, Hideo; Fujishima, Naoto; Ota, Shuichi; Moriyama, Masato; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Yasuhiko; Hayashi, Kunio; Fujita, Shinya; Satake, Atsushi; Ito, Tomoki; Kyo, Taiichi; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2016-01-01

    Background Conditioning regimens including total body irradiation (TBI) or cyclophosphamide can mobilize high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) to peripheral blood. Additionally, increased plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 levels are associated with post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). However, changes to circulating levels of HMGB1 after aHSCT are poorly understood. Materials and methods The study cohort included 289 patients who underwent aHSCT at one of 25 institutions in Japan. We have investigated the relationship between HMGB1 and PAI-1 following aHSCT. A significant increase in HMGB1 levels occurred after conditioning treatment. Additionally, levels of HMGB1 at day 0 were significantly increased in TBI+ patients and cyclophosphamide/TBI patients. Conclusion Our data revealed that an increased level of HMGB1 at day 0 following aHSCT correlates with increased PAI-1 after aHSCT, which is consistent with previous reports. Increased HMGB1 at day 0 after a conditioning regimen may play a role in transplantation-associated coagulopathy following aHSCT, because PAI-1 can accelerate procoagulant activity. PMID:26848281

  6. Gender-responsiveness in corrections: Estimating female inmate misconduct risk using the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI).

    PubMed

    Davidson, Megan; Sorensen, Jon R; Reidy, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Proper inmate assessment is critical to correctional management and institutional security. While many instruments have been developed to assist with this process, most of these tools have not been validated using samples of female inmates although distinct gender differences have been identified in the inmate population in terms of adaptation and misconduct. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a multiscale measure of psychopathology that is being increasingly utilized in the correctional setting to assist with the inmate classification process. The current study contributes to the dearth of literature surrounding gender-responsive inmate classification by utilizing a sample of 2,000 female inmates to examine the incremental and predictive validity of the PAI in association with general and assaultive disciplinary infractions. Findings from this study reveal that the PAI scales presenting the strongest relationship to general and assaultive disciplinary infractions among this female sample included Aggression (AGG), Antisocial Features (ANT), Paranoia (PAR), and the Violence Potential Index (VPI). Moreover, findings derived from this study suggest that certain PAI measures, specifically ARD-T, DRU, and more general substance abuse and mental health indicators may be useful in gender-responsive assessments during the female inmate classification process.

  7. TGF-β1-Induced Expression of the Anti-Apoptotic PAI-1 Protein Requires EGFR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen P.; Samarakoon, Rohan; Higgins, Craig E.; Freytag, Jennifer; Wilkins-Port, Cynthia E.; Higgins, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    TGF-β1 and its target gene encoding plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are major regulators of capillary outgrowth, vessel maturation and angiogenic network stability. The increasing realization of the complexity of PAI-1 action in the vascular system requires analysis of specific signaling events that impact its expression in a physiologically-relevant cell system. PAI-1 was required for tubular differentiation and maintenance of cellular survival in complex gels since targeted disruption of PAI-1 synthesis or activity with antisense constructs or function-blocking antibodies resulted in network regression. Indeed, serum-deprivation-induced apoptosis of tubulogenic T2 cells was concentration-dependently inhibited by addition of a stable PAI-1 mutant protein consistent with the established pro-survival role of PAI-1 in vascular endothelial cells. PAI-1 induction and ERK pathway activation in response to TGF-β1 was attenuated by EGFR signaling blockade (with AG1478) or preincubation with the MMP/ADAM inhibitor GM6001. The combination of AG1478 + GM6001 completely ablated both responses suggesting that EGFR transactivation is important in PAI-1 gene control and may, at least partially, involve ligand shedding. TGF-β1-stimulated PAI-1 induction was preceded, in fact, by EGFR phosphorylation on Y845 (a src kinase target residue). EGFR1 knockdown with lentiviral shRNA constructs, moreover, effectively decreased (by >75%) TGF-β1-stimulated PAI-1 expression whereas infection with control (i.e. GFP) viruses had no effect. TGF-β1 failed to induce PAI-1 synthesis in EGFR-deficient fibroblasts while introduction of a wild-type EGFR1 construct in EGFR−/− cells rescued the PAI-1 response to TGF-β1 confirming, at a genetic level, the targeted knockdown data. The continued clarification of novel cooperative signaling cascades that impact expression of important angiogenic genes (e.g. PAI-1) may provide therapeutically useful targets to manage the pathophysiology

  8. The American Orthodontics BOS MOrth Cases Prize 2005.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Nadine

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the orthodontic treatment of two cases that were successfully entered for the 2005 American Orthodontics MOrth Cases Prize. The first case is that of a patient presenting with a Class II division 2 malocclusion treated with upper and lower fixed appliances plus headgear. The second case demonstrates the use of a twin-block appliance, followed by fixed appliances to correct a moderate Class II division 1 malocclusion.

  9. Development of a plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) assay and comparison of plasma PAI-1 activity in hyperlipidemic/dyslipidemic dogs with either hyperadrenocorticism or diabetes mellitus, and healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cheryl J; Koch, Michael; Behling-Kelly, Erica L

    2017-04-01

    Thrombosis is a serious complication of many canine diseases and may be related to decreased fibrinolytic potential. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the key regulator of fibrinolysis with increased levels demonstrated in states of pro-thrombosis and abnormal lipid metabolism. Our objective was to develop and validate a canine PAI-1 activity assay and test whether dogs with hyperadrenocorticism or diabetes mellitus that are hyperlipidemic/dyslipidemic have increased plasma PAI-1 activity. Functionally active PAI-1 in the plasma sample was incubated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), allowing the formation of a 1:1 stoichiometric inactive complex. Residual unbound tPA was then reacted with excess plasminogen in the presence of a colorimetric plasmin substrate. Plasmin production is quantified by computing the area under the curve of time (x) vs optical density (y) plot and converted to tPA IU/mL by comparison to a calibration curve of tPA standards. PAI-1 activity was determined by calculating the proportion of exogeneous tPA suppressed by PAI-1 in plasma. Assay verification included assessment of linearity, specificity, precision, sensitivity, and stability. PAI-1 activity was increased in hyperlipidemic compared to healthy dogs, but there was no significant difference between dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and diabetes mellitus. A near significant decrease in activity was detected in thawed plasma stored for 20h at 4°C. Our successfully validated assay offers a new tool for investigating fibrinolysis in dogs. Investigation of PAI-1 activity in dogs with other diseases associated with an increased risk of thrombosis would be valuable. Future studies of PAI-1 activity should consider its lability.

  10. 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    It is a great honor to receive the 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize, here at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. On behalf of everyone involved in this work, I would like to thank the IAEA, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, the IOP, and specifically Mitsuru Kikuchi, for their support of this important award. I would also like to acknowledge the many important contributions made by the other ten papers nominated for this prize. Our paper investigates the physics of the H-mode pedestal in tokamaks, specifically the development of a predictive understanding of the pedestal structure based on electromagnetic instabilities which constrain it, and the testing of the resulting theoretical model (EPED) against detailed observations on multiple devices. In addition to making pedestal predictions for existing devices, the paper also presents predictions for ITER, including methods for optimizing its pedestal height and fusion performance. What made this work possible, and indeed a pleasure to be involved with, was an extensive set of collaborations, including theory-experiment, multi-institutional, and international collaborations. Many of these collaborations have gone on for over a decade, and have been fostered in part by the ITPA Pedestal Group. The eight authors of this paper, from five institutions, all made important contributions. Rich Groebner, Tom Osborne and Tony Leonard carried out dedicated experiments and data analysis on the DIII-D tokamak, testing the EPED model over a very wide range of parameters. Jerry Hughes led dedicated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which tested the model at high magnetic field and pedestal pressure. Marc Beurskens carried out experiments and data analysis on the JET tokamak, testing the model at large scale. Xueqiao Xu conducted two-fluid studies of diamagnetic stabilization, which enabled a more accurate treatment of this important effect. Finally, Howard Wilson and I have been working together for many years to develop analytic formalism

  11. Kevin E. Trenberth Receives 2013 Climate Communication Prize: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    I am delighted to be recognized with this prize. I want to first thank AGU and the prize committee and, especially, Nature's Own for establishing this prize in a field that has become contentious and highly political. It did not used to be this way. Following the media frenzy with the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, there was hope at the 2009 Conference of Parties meeting in Copenhagen that an international framework agreement on climate change might be achieved. It was not to be. Planned actions to address issues of climate change were undermined by huge funding of misinformation by vested interests. It was not helped by so-called "climategate" in which many emails illegally hacked from a computer server at the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom were released, cherry picked, distorted, and misused by climate change deniers. Minor errors in the IPCC report were blown out of all proportion and ineffectively addressed. I was caught up in all this, and one of my many emails went viral: the "travesty" quote in which I bemoaned the inability to close the global energy balance associated with short-term climate variability but which was misinterpreted as saying there was no global warming. These examples highlight failures of communication.

  12. "Highly qualified loser"? Harvey Cushing and the Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Schlich, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Neurosurgery, in particular surgery of the brain, was recognized as one of the most spectacular transgressions of the traditional limits of surgical work. With their audacious, technically demanding, laboratory-based, and highly promising new interventions, prominent neurosurgeons were primary candidates for the Nobel Prize. Accordingly, neurosurgical pioneers such as Victor Horsley and, in particular, Harvey Cushing continued to be nominated for the prize. However, only António Egas Moniz was eventually awarded the prestigious award in 1949 for the introduction of frontal lobotomy, an intervention that would no longer be prize-worthy from today's perspective. Horsley and Cushing, who were arguably the most important proponents of early neurosurgery, remained "highly qualified losers," as such cases have been called. This paper examines the nominations, reviews, and discussions kept in the Nobel Archives to understand the reasons for this remarkable choice. At a more general level, the authors use the example of neurosurgery to explore the mechanisms of scientific recognition and what could be called the enacting of excellence in science and medicine.

  13. Revisiting the crisis in Freud's libido theory and Abraham's concept of the oral-sadistic phase as a way out of it.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    The now available unabridged correspondence between Freud and Abraham leads to a re-evaluation of the significance of Abraham's work. The author proposes the thesis that clinical observations by Karl Abraham of the ambivalence of object relations and the destructive-sadistic aspects of orality have an important influence on the advancement of psychoanalytical theory. The phantasy problem of the Wolf Man and the question of the pathogenic relevance of early actual, or merely imagined traumata led Freud to doubt the validity of his theory. He attempted repeatedly to solve this problem using libido theory, but failed because of his problematic conception of oral erotics. The pathogenic effect of presymbolic traumatizations cannot be demonstrated scientifically because of the still underdeveloped brain in the early stage of the child's development. Consequently, the important empirical evidence of a scientific neurosis theory could not be provided. A revision of the theory of the instincts thus became necessary. With Abraham's clinical contributions and other pathologic evidence, Freud was, with some reservation, forced to modify his idea of oral erotics by ascribing to it a status of a merely constructed and fictive phase of oral organization. A solution was eventually facilitated via recognition of non-erotic aggression and destruction, thereby opening libido theory to fundamental revisions. Driven by the desire to develop a scientific theory, Freud initially had, in his first theory of the instincts, assumed a strongly causal-deterministic view on Psychic Function. His third revision of theory of the instincts, Beyond the Pleasure Principle including the death instinct hypothesis, considered the hermeneutic aspect of psychoanalytic theory, which had previously existed only implicitly in his theory. Further development of the death instinct hypothesis by Melanie Klein and her successors abandoned quantitative-economic and causal-deterministic principles, and instead

  14. The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene -844 A/G and -675 4G/5G promoter polymorphism significantly influences plasma PAI-1 levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sun; Huiya, Zhang; Bo, Liu; Wei, Wei; Yongmei, Guan

    2009-12-01

    Mutations in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene, along with increased PAI-1 levels, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We investigated a possible influence of the promoter polymorphism (-844 A/G and -675 4G/5G) in the PAI-1 gene on plasma PAI-1 levels in 126 PCOS patients and 97 healthy controls. Levels of total testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin, and PAI-1 were measured, and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), LH/FSH ratio, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G and -844 A/G gene polymorphisms were also performed. Total testosterone, fasting insulin, and PAI-1 levels; BMI, LH/FSH, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in PCOS patients than controls (P < 0.05). The odds ratio of 4G/4G genotype, 4G allele, and the combination genotype of 4G/4G and -844 A/A were 2.49 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-4.44), 2.1 (95% CI, 1.43-3.08), and 2.9 (95% CI, 1.41-5.98), respectively, (P < 0.001). In the PCOS group, the PAI-1 level of the A/A was significantly higher than that of the A/G or G/G genotype, similarly was 4G/4G genotype compared with 4G/5G or 5G/5G genotype. The plasma PAI-1 levels of the combination of the PAI-1 -844 A/A and -675 4G/4G or 4G/5G genotypes, or the coadunation of 4G/4G and -844 non-G/G (A/A + A/G) genotypes were significantly high in PCOS women compared with controls. A trend to a positive interaction between PAI-1 -675 4G/5G and -844 A/G gene polymorphism may elevate plasma PAI-1 levels and hypofibrinolysis, which is probably an important hereditary risk factor in PCOS.

  15. Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Gene Polymorphisms with Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures (OVCFs) in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Oh; Han, Soo Hong; Lee, Yeon Ho; Ahn, Tae Keun; Lim, Jae Joon; Chung, Young Sun; Shin, Dong Eun; Lee, Woo Sik; Han, In Bo; Kim, Nam Keun

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are strongly associated with mortality and morbidity, both in developing and developed countries. Menopause accelerates bone loss due to estrogen deficiency and age-related linear bone loss. We investigated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). In this case-control study, 355 postmenopausal women were genotyped for the presence of PAI-1 gene polymorphisms −844A > G, −675 4G > 5G, 43G > A, 9785A > G, and 11053T > G. Genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 were analyzed by the polymerization chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism assay, and their association with disease status and folate and homocysteine levels was determined in 158 OVCF patients and 197 control subjects. The PAI-1 −675 5G5G (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.302; p = 0.017) and 43GA + AA (AOR, 2.087; p = 0.042) genotype frequencies showed significant association with the increased prevalence of OVCFs in postmenopausal women. In addition, we performed gene–environment interaction studies and demonstrated an association between PAI-1 gene polymorphisms and OVCF prevalence. Our novel finding is the identification of several PAI-1 genetic variants that increase susceptibility to OVCF. Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in PAI-1 may contribute to OVCF, and that they can be developed as biomarkers for evaluating OVCF risk. PMID:27941685

  16. Impact of cagPAI and T4SS on the Inflammatory Response of Human Neutrophils to Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Zauco, Norma Angélica; Torres, Javier; Pérez-Figueroa, Gloria Erandi; Álvarez-Arellano, Lourdes; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Gómez, Alejandro; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori contains a pathogenicity island, cagPAI, with genes homologous to components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The T4SS components assemble a structure that transfers CagA protein and peptidoglycan into host epithelial cells, causing the increased release of interleukin 8 (IL8) from the cells. The Toll-like receptors on neutrophils recognize H. pylori, initiating signaling pathways that enhance the activation of NF-κB. However, the roles of cagPAI and T4SS in the inflammatory response of neutrophils are unknown. We evaluated the participation of cagPAI and T4SS in the response of human neutrophils to H. pylori infection. Neutrophils were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and infected with H. pylori cagPAI+, cagPAI–, and cagPAI mutant strains virB4– and virD4–. Whereas cagPAI+ strain 26695 induced the greatest IL8 production, a proinflammatory response, cagPAI– strain 8822 induced the greatest IL10 production, an anti-inflammatory response. In contrast, the virB4– and virD4– mutant strains produced significantly more of the two proinflammatory cytokines IL1β and tumor necrosis factor αthan the cagPAI+ strain 26695. We observed that H. pylori downregulated the expression of TLRs 2 and 5 but upregulated TLR9 expression in a cagPAI and T4SS-independent manner. These results show for the first time that the response of human neutrophils to H. pylori may vary from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory response, depending on cagPAI and the integrity of T4SS. PMID:23755130

  17. Hyperglycaemia-induced reciprocal changes in miR-30c and PAI-1 expression in platelets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Mao; Li, Rong; Ren, Meiping; Chen, Ni; Deng, Xin; Tan, Xiaoyong; Li, Yongjie; Zeng, Min; Yang, Yan; Wan, Qin; Wu, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM2) is associated with accelerated thrombotic complications and is characterized by high levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Recent studies show that human platelets have high levels of miR-30c and synthesize considerable active PAI-1. The underlying mechanism of how PAI-1 expression is upregulated in DM2 is poorly understood. We now report that hyperglycaemia-induced repression of miR-30c increases PAI-1 expression and thrombus formation in DM2. Bioinformatic analysis and identification of miRNA targets were assessed using luciferase assays, quantitative real-time PCR and western blots in vitro and in vivo. The changes in miR-30c and PAI-1 levels were identified in platelets from healthy and diabetic individuals. We found that miR-30c directly targeted the 3′ UTR of PAI-1 and negatively regulated its expression. miR-30c was negatively correlated with glucose and HbA1c levels in DM2. In HFD-fed diabetic mice, increasing miR-30c expression by lenti-miR-30c significantly decreased the PAI-1 expression and prolonged the time to occlusion in an arterial thrombosis model. Platelet depletion/reinfusion experiments generating mice with selective ablation of PAI-1 demonstrate a major contribution by platelet-derived PAI-1 in the treatment of lenti-miR-30c to thrombus formation. These results provide important implications regarding the regulation of fibrinolysis by platelet miRNA under diabetic mellitus. PMID:27819307

  18. The Gordon Gordon-Taylor Memorial Lecture: surgical giants and giants among surgeons--the case of Abraham Colles.

    PubMed

    Little, Miles

    2006-12-01

    Sir Gordon Gordon-Taylor was a surgical giant and a giant among surgeons. There's a distinction between the two. Surgical giants are technical geniuses who pave the way for others and set the standards against which others can measure their performance. Giants among surgeons contribute other things to the science and practice of surgery and sometimes to fields outside surgery. By these measures, Abraham Colles was not a surgical giant. He thought, wrote and taught about his interests. He enhanced the reputation of Irish surgery. In retrospect, his science and his ethics seem flawed by modern standards, but by the measures of his own time he was a model investigator and a man of outstanding moral probity. He is remembered for the eponymous Colles's fracture and for Colles's fascia and ligament. He held the Chair of Anatomy and Surgery in Dublin for 32 years and drew the admiration and affection of his contemporaries, colleagues and students. He was a giant among surgeons, and his name deserves commemoration.

  19. Sr isotopic chemostratigraphy of Precambrian carbonate rocks in the Amderma Rise, Pai-Khoi Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. B.; Starikova, E. V.; Maslov, A. V.; Konstantinova, G. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Sr and C isotopic compositions of Precambrian carbonate rocks are determined for Amderma Rise, in the northeastern margin of Pai-Khoi Ridge. Based on the Sr isotopic chemostratigraphy, it is established for the first time that the Amderma Formation is referred to the Early Vendian, while the Morozovsk Formation is Late Riphean in age. This conclusion along with detailed mapping proves that the Precambrian "section" of the Amderma Rise is a series of tectonic plates combined in a nonchronostratigraphic order. Volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Morozovsk and Sokolninsk formations make up the allochthon proper, while carbonate rocks of the Amderma Formation make up the para-autochthon. The high values of δ13C (up to +9.5‰) identified in limestones of both formations suggest a considerable distance of the Pai-Khoi paleobasin from the passive margin of the Baltic Region upon facies similarity to the Laurentia active margins.

  20. 77 FR 58114 - SunShot Prize: Race to the Rooftop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... installation cost of rooftop solar energy systems. DATES: Registration opened on September 12, 2012, and will... about the SunShot Prize: Race to the Rooftop competition rules at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html . Teams that wish to enter the competition can register at...

  1. The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William P.; Palenik, Gus J.; Suh, Il-Hwan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of complex molecular structures. Emphasizes their individual significance through examination of the Nobel Prizes of the 20th century. Highlights prizes awarded to Conrad Rontgen, Francis H.C. Crick, James D. Watson, Maurice H.F. Wilkins, and others. (SOE)

  2. 45 CFR 73.735-505 - Acceptance of awards and prizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of awards and prizes. 73.735-505 Section 73.735-505 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors § 73.735-505 Acceptance of awards and prizes. (a) Employees may accept awards, including cash...

  3. Collecting Poetry for the Academic Library: An Evaluation of Poetry Prizes as Selection Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golomb, Liorah

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of poetry book prizes as a selection tool by evaluating their fairness, meaningfulness, and reliability as an indication of quality. The results of two surveys, one collecting data on poetry book prizes and the other asking librarians about their collecting practices, suggest that selecting on the basis of prizes…

  4. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  5. [Women in natural sciences--Nobel Prize winners].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Lipozencić, Jasna; Kolcić, Ivana; Spoljar-Vrzina, Sanja; Polasek, Ozren

    2006-01-01

    Alfred Bernhard Nobel was the founder of the Nobel Foundation, which has been awarding world-known scientists since 1901, for their contribution to the welfare of mankind. The life and accomplishments of Alfred Bernhard Nobel are described as well as scientific achivements of 11 women, Nobel prize winners in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology and/or medicine. They are Marie Sklodowska Curie, Maria Goeppert Mayer, Irene Joliot-Curie, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori, Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, Barbara McClintock, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Gertrude Elion, Christine Nusslein-Volhard and Linda B. Buck.

  6. uPA Binding to PAI-1 Induces Corneal Myofibroblast Differentiation on Vitronectin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingyan; Ly, Christine M.; Ko, Chun-Ying; Meyers, Erin E.; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Bernstein, Audrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Vitronectin (VN) in provisional extracellular matrix (ECM) promotes cell migration. Fibrotic ECM also includes VN and, paradoxically, strongly adherent myofibroblasts (Mfs). Because fibrotic Mfs secrete elevated amounts of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), we tested whether increased extracellular uPA promotes the persistence of Mfs on VN. Methods. Primary human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were cultured in supplemented serum-free medium on VN or collagen (CL) with 1ng/mL transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1). Adherent cells were quantified using crystal violet. Protein expression was measured by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Transfection of short interfering RNAs was performed by nucleofection. Mfs were identified by α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) stress fibers. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) levels were quantified by ELISA. Results. TGFβ1-treated HCFs secreted PAI-1 (0.5uM) that bound to VN, competing with αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin/VN binding, thus promoting cell detachment from VN. However, addition of uPA to cells on VN increased Mf differentiation (9.7-fold), cell-adhesion (2.2-fold), and binding by the VN integrins αvβ3 and -β5 (2.2-fold). Plasmin activity was not involved in promoting these changes, as treatment with the plasmin inhibitor aprotinin had no effect. A dominant negative PAI-1 mutant (PAI-1R) that binds to VN but does not inhibit uPA prevented the increase in uPA-stimulated cell adhesion and reduced uPA-stimulated integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 binding to VN by 73%. Conclusions. uPA induction of TGFβ1-dependent Mf differentiation on VN supports the hypothesis that elevated secretion of uPA in fibrotic tissue may promote cell adhesion and the persistence of Mfs. By blocking uPA-stimulated cell adhesion, PAI-1R may be a useful agent in combating corneal scarring. PMID:22700714

  7. Jeffrey T. Kiehl Receives 2012 Climate Communication Prize: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    I thank James Hurrell for his gracious citation of my work on communicating climate science to the public. I am deeply moved by his summary of my work over these past years. It clearly reflects how passionately I feel about this work and how important communication is for our field. I thank the Prize Committee for their recognition of my work and Nature's Own for supporting this important AGU prize. As climate scientists, I feel we have a duty to convey our research to the public in meaningful ways. This is especially true given that much of our scientific research is supported by tax-paying citizens. I also believe there is a moral imperative to communicate our research to the world. Our understanding of the significant climatic changes occurring now and those that will occur in the future places a great burden on all of us as scientists. We cannot hold onto our science like some protected treasure but must convey both the facts and the serious implications of our science to more than just our peers.

  8. APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation.

  9. [Weizsäcker, Bethe and the Nobel Prize].

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For his work on nuclear physics Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker was twice nominated for the Nobel Prize in physics. Bethe had worked on the energy production in stars at about the same time as Weizsäcker but independently from him. The Nobel Committee valued the structural depth of BETHE'S work more than Weizsäcker's temporal priority because Bethe had described the nuclear reactions quantitatively and had shown a much deeper understanding of the nuclear processes in the centre of stars whereas Weizsäcker had worked more qualitatively. There are no reasons to believe that political resentments towards Weizsäcker played any significant role in awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 only to Bethe. The lives and works of Weizsäcker and Bethe show some remarkable parallels, ranging from calculating the binding energy in nuclei to the energy production in sun-like and massive stars to peace- and disarmament initiatives.

  10. Leon Van Speybroeck Wins Astrophysics Bruno Rossi Prize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge Massachusetts was awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomy Society. The Rossi Prize is an arnual recognition of significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics in honor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's late Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of x-ray astronomy. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the x-ray mirrors for NASA's premier Chandra X-Ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision x-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Huhes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the x-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory.

  11. [Opinions of the participants of 'Quit and Win' competition concerning prizes motivating to refrain from smoking].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Alina; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Rzeźnicki, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Big antinicotine campaigns both in Poland and worldwide, are finished with a competition with prizes of different value. Psychologists say that a prize significantly motivates a person to certain kinds of behaviour. During educational activities carried out in the time of campaign, it is recommended to use techniques of psychological interaction that would release motives most beneficial to health. The aim of the work was to recognize frequency of being influenced mostly by the possibility of winning a prize before making a decision about quitting smoking and joining the competition, and learning the opinions of prize laureates concerning efficiency of 'Quit and Win' competitions. Empirical material comes from two sources. The first one is the selected fragments of a survey study carried out at Social and Preventive Medicine Department among 1700 participants of 'Quit and Win' competition that finished the 2nd International Antinicotine Campaign in Poland. The correctly filled survey was sent by 1285 people, that is 75.6%. The second source is a fragment of a survey study carried out in 2003 among 54 laureates of 'Quit and Win' competition in Poland. The completed survey was sent by majority of the laureates, that is 34 people (f = 0.63). Possibility of winning a prize as the most important reason for taking up the attempt to stop smoking and joining the competition was pointed to by 56 respondents (4.4%), whereas the remaining people chose other reasons as the most important ones. In the group of 34 respondents who were the laureates of competitions, majority, that is 22 people (f = 0.65) claimed the competition with prizes as a very effective method of reducing smoking. Half of the surveyed (17 people) claimed the possibility of winning a few prizes of high value would be more motivating than winning one of many prizes of smaller value. As the least attractive, prize gifts were pointed to. A prize in the form of a trip or holiday was considered very popular, as

  12. "I am the Author and Must Take Full Responsibility": Abraham Verghese, Physicians as the Storytellers of the Body, and the Renewal of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, Abraham M

    2016-12-01

    Abraham Verghese proposes to renew medicine by training physicians to read the right texts-literary fiction and patients' bodies-with skilled attention. Analyzing Verghese's proposal with reference to Foucault's idea of the "clinical gaze," I find that Verghese conceives of patients as texts that only physicians can read, meaning that physicians become the storytellers of the bodies, lives, and deaths of the people they meet as patients. I conclude that Verghese's project is unsustainable and alternatively propose thinking analogically of physicians as ship captains who maintain therapeutic distance to reopen interpretative spaces for communities outside of medicine.

  13. Global Gene Expression Profiling in PAI-1 Knockout Murine Heart and Kidney: Molecular Basis of Cardiac-Selective Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Asish K.; Murphy, Sheila B.; Kishore, Raj; Vaughan, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis is defined as an abnormal matrix remodeling due to excessive synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in tissues during wound healing or in response to chemical, mechanical and immunological stresses. At present, there is no effective therapy for organ fibrosis. Previous studies demonstrated that aged plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) knockout mice develop spontaneously cardiac-selective fibrosis without affecting any other organs. We hypothesized that differential expressions of profibrotic and antifibrotic genes in PAI-1 knockout hearts and unaffected organs lead to cardiac selective fibrosis. In order to address this prediction, we have used a genome-wide gene expression profiling of transcripts derived from aged PAI-1 knockout hearts and kidneys. The variations of global gene expression profiling were compared within four groups: wildtype heart vs. knockout heart; wildtype kidney vs. knockout kidney; knockout heart vs. knockout kidney and wildtype heart vs. wildtype kidney. Analysis of illumina-based microarray data revealed that several genes involved in different biological processes such as immune system processing, response to stress, cytokine signaling, cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, matrix organization and transcriptional regulation were affected in hearts and kidneys by the absence of PAI-1, a potent inhibitor of urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator. Importantly, the expressions of a number of genes, involved in profibrotic pathways including Ankrd1, Pi16, Egr1, Scx, Timp1, Timp2, Klf6, Loxl1 and Klotho, were deregulated in PAI-1 knockout hearts compared to wildtype hearts and PAI-1 knockout kidneys. While the levels of Ankrd1, Pi16 and Timp1 proteins were elevated during EndMT, the level of Timp4 protein was decreased. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report on the influence of PAI-1 on global gene expression profiling in the heart and kidney and its implication in fibrogenesis and

  14. Molecular approaches to understanding neural network plasticity and memory: the Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Sander, M; Bergersen, L H; Storm-Mathisen, J

    2009-11-10

    The Kavli Prizes were awarded for the first time in Oslo, Norway on September 9, 2008 to seven of the world's most prominent scientists in astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience. The astrophysics prize was awarded jointly to Maarten Schmidt, of the California Institute of Technology, USA, and Donald Lynden-Bell, of Cambridge University, UK; the nanoscience prize was awarded jointly to Louis E. Brus, of Columbia University, USA, and Sumio Iijima, of Meijo University, Japan; and the neuroscience prize was awarded jointly to Pasko Rakic, of the Yale University School of Medicine, USA, Thomas Jessell, of Columbia University, USA, and Sten Grillner, of the Karolinska Institute, Sweden. The Kavli Prize is a joint venture of the Kavli Foundation, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. The Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience was held at the University of Oslo on 8 September, 2008, organized by L.H. Bergersen, E. Moser M.-B. Moser, and J. Storm-Mathisen. At this Symposium, seven leading neuroscientists described their groundbreaking work, which encompasses some of the most important recent advances in the field of neuroscience, from molecule to synapse to network to behavior. The Symposium was a fitting tribute to Fred Kavli's vision of neuroscience as an outstanding area of progress, and to the achievements of the winners of the first Kavli Prize in Neuroscience. The main points of the Symposium presentations are summarized below.

  15. Prizes to solve problems in and beyond medicine, big and small: it can work.

    PubMed

    Erren, Thomas C

    2007-01-01

    This article complements Dr. Charlton's follow-up of David Horrobin's suggestion in Nature two decades ago to offer sizeable prizes for practical approaches to either eliminate a problem in medicine or reduce the cost of its solution. Examples from the 20th and 21st centuries illustrate that prizes--small and big--have generated sustained and successful attacks on defined problems in biology, physics and, lately, mathematics. Provided that glittering prizes are offered and awarded with care, they can lead to effective problem-solving in medicine and related biomedical sciences as well.

  16. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lei, Haixin; Hemminki, Kari; Johansson, Robert; Altieri, Andrea; Enquist, Kerstin; Henriksson, Roger; Lenner, Per; Försti, Asta

    2008-05-01

    Extracellular matrix degradation, mediated by the urokinase plasminogen activation (uPA) system, is a critical step in tumor invasion and metastasis. High tumor levels of uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 have been correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. We examined whether genetic variation in the genes of the uPA system affect breast cancer susceptibility and prognosis. We genotyped eight potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes of the uPA system in 959 Swedish breast cancer patients with detailed clinical data and up to 15 years of follow-up together with 952 matched controls. We used the unconditional logistic regression models to evaluate the associations between genotypes and breast cancer risk and tumor characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival probabilities; the log-rank test was used to test differences between subgroups. None of the SNPs conferred an increased breast cancer risk, but correlation with some traditional prognostic factors was observed for several SNPs. Most importantly, we identified the -675 4G/5G SNP in the PAI-1 gene as a promising prognostic biomarker for breast cancer. Compared to the 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes 5G/5G homozygosity correlated significantly with worse survival (RR 2.04, 95% CI 1.45-2.86, P<0.001), especially in patients with more aggressive tumors. 5G/5G homozygotes were also the group with worse survival among lymph node negative cases. Our finding suggests that genotyping PAI-1 -675 4G/5G may help in clinical prognosis of breast cancer.

  17. Testing the predictive validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in relation to inmate misconduct and violence.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Thomas J; Sorensen, Jon R; Davidson, Megan

    2016-08-01

    The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) has been widely employed in correctional settings as a screening tool to assess inmates' risk for committing various types of institutional misconduct. Evaluations have generally found the PAI scales Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and the Violence Potential Index (VPI) to be modestly related to institutional misbehavior, thus supporting its construct validity. The current study provides the most comprehensive examination of the predictive and incremental validity of the PAI and its subscales among a large sample of imprisoned offenders to date. In particular, the size of the sample (n = 15,546) and follow-up period (mean time at risk of 2.2 years) allowed for the disaggregation of institutional misconduct by levels of seriousness and separate examinations by conviction offense and criminal history variables. The 3 scales most strongly related to general rule infractions were ANT, AGG, and the VPI. After controlling for age at intake, violent conviction history, prior violent arrests, and time at risk, the PAI scales were shown to add incremental validity to the classification of 4 types of disciplinary infractions ranging from 2 to 4 percentage points. The study also explored the relationship of the PAI's response bias scales to institutional misconduct. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. TGF-β induces p53/Smads complex formation in the PAI-1 promoter to activate transcription

    PubMed Central

    Kawarada, Yuki; Inoue, Yasumichi; Kawasaki, Fumihiro; Fukuura, Keishi; Sato, Koichi; Tanaka, Takahito; Itoh, Yuka; Hayashi, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling facilitates tumor development during the advanced stages of tumorigenesis, but induces cell-cycle arrest for tumor suppression during the early stages. However, the mechanism of functional switching of TGF-β is still unknown, and it is unclear whether inhibition of TGF-β signaling results amelioration or exacerbation of cancers. Here we show that the tumor suppressor p53 cooperates with Smad proteins, which are TGF-β signal transducers, to selectively activate plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) transcription. p53 forms a complex with Smad2/3 in the PAI-1 promoter to recruit histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP) and enhance histone H3 acetylation, resulting in transcriptional activation of the PAI-1 gene. Importantly, p53 is required for TGF-β-induced cytostasis and PAI-1 is involved in the cytostatic activity of TGF-β in several cell lines. Our results suggest that p53 enhances TGF-β-induced cytostatic effects by activating PAI-1 transcription, and the functional switching of TGF-β is partially caused by p53 mutation or p53 inactivation during cancer progression. It is expected that these findings will contribute to optimization of TGF-β-targeting therapies for cancer. PMID:27759037

  19. Minimal realization of ℓ-conformal Galilei algebra, Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators and their deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Sorin, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    We present the minimal realization of the ℓ-conformal Galilei group in 2+1 dimensions on a single complex field. The simplest Lagrangians yield the complex PaisUhlenbeck oscillator equations. We introduce a minimal deformation of the ℓ = 1/2 conformal Galilei (a.k.a. Schrödinger) algebra and construct the corresponding invariant actions. Based on a new realization of the d = 1 conformal group, we find a massive extension of the near-horizon Kerr-dS/AdS metric.

  20. From Tomato King to World Food Prize laureate.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Philip E

    2014-01-01

    This autobiographical article describes my early years, education, and career at Purdue University. Helping form and expand the Department of Food Science at Purdue was exciting and gratifying, and working with students in the classroom and on research projects was rewarding and kept me feeling young. My research on bulk aseptic processing allowed me to help solve problems relevant to the tomato industry, but I learned later that it had much broader relevance. I certainly never expected the impact and visibility of the work to result in my being awarded the World Food Prize. Being the first food scientist to win this award has enabled me to focus increased attention on the need to reduce food losses.

  1. How Citation Boosts Promote Scientific Paradigm Shifts and Nobel Prizes

    PubMed Central

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the “boosting effect” of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying “boost factor” is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract. PMID:21573229

  2. [From apprenticeship to Nobel Prize: Henri Moissan's fabulous destiny].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2008-01-01

    Born in Paris on September 28, 1852, son of an eastern railways' employee and of a dressmaker, Henri Moissan's secondary schooling in Meaux did not allow him to get access to the sesame diploma "baccalauréat" (GCE). In 1869, he did obtain a special certificate of secondary schooling so that he could become an apprentice in watch making. That could have been the end of the story, but dreadful event for France appeared to have beneficial effects for Moissan. Under the threat of the Prussian army, Moissan's family took refuge near Paris. This gave the young Henri the opportunity to register as a student for the second-class pharmacy diploma, which did not need, at the time, the GCE. Moissan became then a trainee in pharmacy in 1871. Meanwhile, he followed the special schooling of "Ecole de chimie" founded by E. Frémy, and then joined the laboratory of Dehérain at the Museum, where he worked in plant physiology. He finally obtained the famous "baccalauréat" (GCE) and could register as a student in first-class pharmacy. He became a pharmacist as well as a doctor in sciences. In 1883, Moissan was named professor at the school of pharmacy in Paris. In 1886, he isolated fluorine by electrolysis of fluorhydric acid, in the presence of potassium fluoride, at a low temperature. He then studied diamond synthesis and gave a start to high temperature chemistry, designing his famous furnace. These findings and many others allowed Moissan to rise to membership in many learned academies around the world. Crowning achievement, Moissan won the Nobel Prize in 1906. A man of culture, collector of autographs and paintings, he died in 1907. Nothing of that would have been possible if there had not been a second-class pharmacist diploma. The history of Henri Moissan is one of a rise from apprenticeship to the Nobel Prize.

  3. How citation boosts promote scientific paradigm shifts and nobel prizes.

    PubMed

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-05-04

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the "boosting effect" of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying "boost factor" is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract.

  4. "Often a Bridesmaid, Never a Bride": Frank Grimes and the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marler, Charles H.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that Grimes, editor of the "Abilene Reporter-News" for more than 40 years, was denied the Pulitzer because of the manuevering of Arthur Krock, a powerful figure on the Pulitzer Prize Advisory Board. (FL)

  5. [On the Awarding of the First Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine to Emil von Behring].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Enke, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    In his will of 1895, the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel laid the foundation for prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace to those who had "conferred the greatest benefit on mankind" during the last year. The Nobel Prize is today widely considered as the most prestigious international symbol of scientific excellence, but it still is an exciting research question how it gained such prestige. Drawing on files from the Emil von Behring Archive in Marburg, Germany, and the Archive of the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine in Stockholm this essay aims at shedding light on why the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1901 was awarded the German immunologist Emil von Behring, and how this decision was viewed at that time. This study is part of a research project that explores mechanisms leading to scientific recognition by using the example of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

  6. MIT Clean Energy Prize: Final Technical Report May 12, 2010 - May 11, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Chris; Campbell, Georgina; Salony, Jason; Aulet, Bill

    2011-08-09

    The MIT Clean Energy Prize (MIT CEP) is a venture creation and innovation competition to encourage innovation in the energy space, specifically with regard to clean energy. The Competition invited student teams from any US university to submit student-led ventures that demonstrate a high potential of successfully making clean energy more affordable, with a positive impact on the environment. By focusing on student ventures, the MIT CEP aims to educate the next generation of clean energy entrepreneurs. Teams receive valuable mentoring and hard deadlines that complement the cash prize to accelerate development of ventures. The competition is a year-long educational process that culminates in the selection of five category finalists and a Grand Prize winner and the distribution of cash prizes to each of those teams. Each entry was submitted in one of five clean energy categories: Renewables, Clean Non-Renewables, Energy Efficiency, Transportation, and Deployment.

  7. Nobel Prize for Physical Therapy? Rise, Fall, and Revival of Medico-Mechanical Institutes.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Ottosson, Anders

    2015-08-01

    This historical vignette explores the considerations of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine by vetting the Nobel Prize chances of Dr Gustaf Zander (1835-1920). His way to stardom started 150 years ago when he began mechanizing the passive and active movements that physical therapists manually used to treat diseases. A glance at his machines shows that they parallel surprisingly well what can be found in modern fitness studios. By combining files from the Nobel Prize Archive and sources from the first physical therapists, this vignette pieces together why Zander was considered one of the best candidates for the Nobel Prize in 1916. By providing this glimpse of history, questions about the origin of physical therapy concepts and the profession of the physical therapist are raised.

  8. The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, Haim

    2009-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize story may attract and motivate high school students to open-up to scientific topics and thus be spurred to pursue science. The two major arguments for the method are that if presented in story form Nobel Prizes naturally incorporate the philosophical and historical aspects of science and therefore enable teaching about science as well as teaching science itself; and that such instruction implements case-based teaching principles, which is how humans naturally think, learn, and remember. Finally, the paper presents the storycase of the Nobel Prize Einstein received for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect as a concrete illustration of classroom implementation.

  9. Multiscale modeling of nerve agent hydrolysis mechanisms: a tale of two Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy W.

    2014-10-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems, whereas the 2013 Peace Prize was given to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons for their efforts to eliminate chemical warfare agents. This review relates the two by introducing the field of multiscale modeling and highlighting its application to the study of the biological mechanisms by which selected chemical weapon agents exert their effects at an atomic level.

  10. From Stealing Fire to Cellular Reprogramming: A Scientific History Leading to the 2012 Nobel Prize

    PubMed Central

    Lensch, M. William; Mummery, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular reprogramming was recently “crowned” with the award of the Nobel Prize to two of its groundbreaking researchers, Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka. The recent link between reprogramming and stem cells makes this appear almost a new field of research, but its historical roots have actually spanned more than a century. Here, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 is placed in its historical context. PMID:24052937

  11. From stealing fire to cellular reprogramming: a scientific history leading to the 2012 Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Lensch, M William; Mummery, Christine L

    2013-06-04

    Cellular reprogramming was recently "crowned" with the award of the Nobel Prize to two of its groundbreaking researchers, Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka. The recent link between reprogramming and stem cells makes this appear almost a new field of research, but its historical roots have actually spanned more than a century. Here, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 is placed in its historical context.

  12. Pyroelectricity Assisted Infrared-Laser Desorption Ionization (PAI-LDI) for Atmospheric Pressure Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanyan; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Wei, Zhenwei; Gong, Xiaoyun; Yang, Chengdui; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-08-01

    A new atmospheric pressure ionization method termed pyroelectricity-assisted infrared laser desorption ionization (PAI-LDI) was developed in this study. The pyroelectric material served as both sample target plate and enhancing ionization substrate, and an IR laser with wavelength of 1064 nm was employed to realize direct desorption and ionization of the analytes. The mass spectra of various compounds obtained on pyroelectric material were compared with those of other substrates. For the five standard substances tested in this work, LiNbO3 substrate produced the highest ion yield and the signal intensity was about 10 times higher than that when copper was used as substrate. For 1-adamantylamine, as low as 20 pg (132.2 fmol) was successfully detected. The active ingredient in (Compound Paracetamol and 1-Adamantylamine Hydrochloride Capsules), 1-adamantylamine, can be sensitively detected at an amount as low as 150 pg, when the medicine stock solution was diluted with urine. Monosaccharide and oligosaccharides in Allium Cepa L. juice was also successfully identified with PAI-LDI. The method did not require matrix-assisted external high voltage or other extra facility-assisted set-ups for desorption/ionization. This study suggested exciting application prospect of pyroelectric materials in matrix- and electricity-free atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry research.

  13. Therapeutic effects of calcium dobesilate on diabetic nephropathy mediated through reduction of expression of PAI-1

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIAOQIAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether calcium dobesilate (calcium dihydroxy-2,5-benzenesulfonate) may be used to treat diabetic nephropathy. A total of 121 patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy received calcium dobesilate (500 mg, 3 times a day) for 3 months. The levels of glycated hemoglobin, fasting serum C peptide, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, hematocrit, plasma viscosity, whole blood reduced viscosity, high, medium and low shear rate whole blood viscosity, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and endothelin were determined. The urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) was also determined once a month during the study. The UAER and medium and low shear rate whole blood viscosity were significantly lower in the treated patients. The rate of microalbuminuria normalization was 90%. During the treatment, the UAERs decreased. The results revealed that calcium dobesilate has therapeutic effects on type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria. In addition, the benefit was positively correlated with the calcium dobesilate treatment time. The therapeutic effect may be due to decreases in the levels of PAI-1. PMID:23251286

  14. When a misperception favors a tragedy: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize of 1921.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Couto, Lucélio B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

    2013-11-20

    Carlos Chagas, the discoverer of Chagas' disease was nominated to the Nobel Prize in 1921, but none did win the prize in that year. As a leader of a young scientist team, he discovered all aspects of the new disease from 1909 to 1920. It is still obscure why he did not win the Nobel Prize in 1921. Chagas was discarded by Gunnar Hedrèn on April 16, 1921. Hedrèn should have made a written report about the details of his evaluation to the Nobel Committee. However, such a document has not been found in the Nobel Committee Archives. No evidence of detractions made by Brazilian scientists on Chagas was found. Since Chagas nomination was consistent with the Nobel Committee requirements, as seen in the presentation letter by until now unknown Cypriano de Freitas, it become clear that Chagas did not win the Nobel Prize exclusively because the Nobel Committee did not perceive the importance of his discovery. Thus, it would be fair a posthumous Nobel Prize of 1921 to Carlos Chagas. A diploma of the Nobel Prize, as precedent with Dogmack in 1947, would recognize the merit of the scientist who made the most complete medical discovery of all times.

  15. Another Nobel Prize linked to synchrotron radiation work

    SciTech Connect

    Hasnain, S.

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry went to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien 'for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP'. This year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry rewards the initial discovery of GFP and a series of important developments which have led to its use as a tagging tool in bioscience. By using DNA technology, researchers can now connect GFP to other interesting, but otherwise invisible, proteins. This glowing marker allows the movements, positions and interactions of the tagged proteins to be monitored. Osamu Shimomura was the first to isolate GFP from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, found off the west coast of North America, and discovered the protein's green glow [Shimomura et al. (1962). J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 59, 223-240]. Martin Chalfie demonstrated the value of GFP as a luminous genetic tag. In one of his first experiments he coloured six individual cells in the transparent roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans with the aid of GFP. He had obtained the GFP gene (gfp) clone from Prasher [Prasher et al. (1992). Gene, 111, 229-233] and expressed it in E. coli. The GFP protein displayed a bright green fluorescence in this heterologous organism, suggesting that it could indeed serve as a versatile genetic marker in virtually all organisms. Chalfie transformed C. elegans with gfp under the control of a promoter regulating the expression of {beta}-tubulin, abundant in six touch receptor neurons in C. elegans. The organism subsequently expressed GFP from distinct positions in its body and at distinct times in its development [Chalfie et al. (1994). Science, 263, 802-805]. Roger Tsien contributed to the general understanding of how GFP glows by determining the formation of the GFP chromophore, a chemical group that absorbs and emits light. Tsien is best known for extending the colour palette of GFP beyond green, allowing researchers to follow several different biological processes at the same time. According to background

  16. FETTU Wins International Year of Astronomy 2009 Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    The "From Earth to the Universe" (FETTU) project -- a worldwide series of exhibitions featuring striking astronomical imagery -- has won the first Mani Bhaumik prize for excellence in astronomy education and public outreach. This award was given for the best of the tens of thousands of activities conducted during the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009. NASA was a major sponsor of the project, which was led by the Chandra X-ray Center, that placed these images into public parks, metro stations, libraries, and other non-traditional locations around the world. The exhibit showcases some of the best astronomical images taken from telescopes both on the ground and in space, representing the wide variety of wavelengths and objects observed. While FETTU has been a worldwide effort, a NASA grant provided the primary funding for the FETTU exhibits in the US. NASA funds also supplied the project's infrastructure as well as educational and other materials that helped the FETTU international efforts to thrive. "We are truly thrilled to see how many people FETTU has reached both in the US and around the world," said Hashima Hasan, NASA's Single Point of Contact for IYA2009. "It's an investment we feel has been well spent." In the US, FETTU has been placed on semi-permanent display at Chicago's O'Hare and Atlanta's Hartsfield airports. In addition, a traveling version of the exhibit has visited over a dozen US cities such as Washington, DC, Anchorage, AK, Memphis, TN, and New York City. Three tactile and Braille versions of the FETTU exhibit were also made possible by the NASA funds, each of which has traveled to multiple locations around the country. "It's been so rewarding to see how people - many of whom had never seen these images - have embraced the wonders of astronomy through these exhibits," said Kimberly Kowal Arcand, co-chair of the FETTU project at the Chandra X-ray Center, which is located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. "The

  17. [Commentary on the Nobel Prize that has been granted in Medicine-Physiology, Chemistry and Physics to noteable investigators].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Arturo; Apolinar, Leticia Manuel; Saucedo, Renata; Basurto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was established by Alfred Nobel in 1901 to award people who have made outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry and medicine. So far, from 852 laureates, 45 have been female. Marie Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in 1903 for physics and eight years later also for chemistry It is remarkable that her daughter Irene and her husband also received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1935. Other two married couples, Cori and Moser, have also been awarded the Nobel Prize. The present commentary attempts to show the female participation in the progress of scientific activities.

  18. Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac versus Landau-Lifshitz radiation friction force in the ultrarelativistic electron interaction with electromagnetic wave (exact solutions).

    PubMed

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Bulanov, Stepan S

    2011-11-01

    When the parameters of electron-extreme power laser interaction enter the regime of dominated radiation reaction, the electron dynamics changes qualitatively. The adequate theoretical description of this regime becomes crucially important with the use of the radiation friction force either in the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac form, which possesses unphysical runaway solutions, or in the Landau-Lifshitz form, which is a perturbation valid for relatively low electromagnetic wave amplitude. The goal of the present paper is to find the limits of the Landau-Lifshitz radiation force applicability in terms of the electromagnetic wave amplitude and frequency. For this, a class of the exact solutions to the nonlinear problems of charged particle motion in the time-varying electromagnetic field is used.

  19. Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac versus Landau-Lifshitz radiation friction force in the ultrarelativistic electron interaction with electromagnetic wave (exact solutions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K.; Bulanov, Stepan S.

    2011-11-01

    When the parameters of electron-extreme power laser interaction enter the regime of dominated radiation reaction, the electron dynamics changes qualitatively. The adequate theoretical description of this regime becomes crucially important with the use of the radiation friction force either in the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac form, which possesses unphysical runaway solutions, or in the Landau-Lifshitz form, which is a perturbation valid for relatively low electromagnetic wave amplitude. The goal of the present paper is to find the limits of the Landau-Lifshitz radiation force applicability in terms of the electromagnetic wave amplitude and frequency. For this, a class of the exact solutions to the nonlinear problems of charged particle motion in the time-varying electromagnetic field is used.

  20. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G alleles frequency distribution in the Lebanese population.

    PubMed

    Shammaa, Dina M R; Sabbagh, Amira S; Taher, Ali T; Zaatari, Ghazi S; Mahfouz, Rami A R

    2008-09-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis. Increased plasma PAI-1 levels play an essential role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular risk and other diseases associated with thrombosis. The 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 promoter region has been extensively studied in different populations. We studied 160 healthy unrelated Lebanese individuals using a reverse hybridization PCR assay to detect the 5G/5G, 4G/5G and, 4G/4G genotypes of the PAI-1 gene and the frequencies of the 4G and 5G alleles. We found that 4G/5G genotype was the most prevalent (45.6%) followed by 5G/5G (36.9%) and 4G/4G (17.5%). The frequencies of the 4G and 5G alleles were calculated to be 0.403 and 0.597, respectively. Compared to other ethnic communities, the Lebanese population was found to harbour a relatively high prevalence of the rare 4G allele. This, in turn, may predispose this population to develop cardiovascular diseases and other thrombotic clinical conditions. This study aids to enhance our understanding of the genetic features of the Lebanese population.

  1. PAI1: a novel PP1-interacting protein that mediates human plasma's anti-apoptotic effect in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui; He, Guangchun; Chen, Chao; Yan, Shichao; Lu, Lu; Song, Liujiang; Vijayan, K Vinod; Li, Qinglong; Xiong, Li; Miao, Xiongying; Deng, Xiyun

    2017-03-11

    Activation of apoptotic signalling in endothelial cells contributes to the detrimental effects of a variety of pathological stimuli. In investigating the molecular events underlying the anti-apoptotic effect of human plasma in cultured human endothelial cells, we unexpectedly uncovered a novel mechanism of apoptosis suppression by human plasma through an interaction between two previously unrelated proteins. Human plasma inhibited hypoxia-serum deprivation-induced apoptosis and stimulated BAD(S136) and Akt(S473) phosphorylation. Akt1 silencing reversed part (~52%) of the anti-apoptotic effect of human plasma, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms mediating the anti-apoptotic effect other than Akt signalling. Human plasma disrupted the interaction of BAD with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Mass spectrometry identified fourteen PP1-interacting proteins induced by human plasma. Notably, a group of serine protease inhibitors including plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, were involved. Silencing of PAI1 attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of human plasma. Furthermore, combined Akt1 and PAI1 silencing attenuated the majority of the anti-apoptotic effect of human plasma. We conclude that human plasma protects against endothelial cell apoptosis through sustained BAD phosphorylation, which is achieved by, at least in part, a novel interaction between PP1 with PAI1.

  2. The -844 G>A PAI-1 Polymorphism Is Associated with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Ilian Janet; Valle, Yeminia; Sandoval-Pinto, Elena; Valdés-Alvarado, Emmanuel; Valdez-Haro, Angélica; Francisco Muñoz-Valle, José; Flores-Salinas, Héctor Enrique; Figuera-Villanueva, Luis Eduardo; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Nory Omayra; Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorge Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Background. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has an important impact in public health with high morbidity and mortality. Prothrombotic and proinflammatory states are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the major inhibitor of the fibrinolysis and also is part of immune response. The -844 G>A gene polymorphism is related to increased PAI-1 protein levels. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association of -844 G>A PAI-1 polymorphism with ACS. Methods. A total of 646 individuals were recruited from Western Mexico: 350 unrelated healthy subjects and 296 patients with diagnosis of ACS. Results. The most important risk factor in our population was hypertension, followed by smoking. The genetic distribution showed an association of the A allele (OR = 1.27, P = 0.04) and AA genotype (OR = 1.86, P = 0.02) with ACS. The recessive model displayed similar results (OR = 1.76, P = 0.02). As additional finding, we observed significant differences in the genetic distribution of ACS dyslipidemic patients (OR = 1.99, P = 0.04). The A allele and AA genotype of -844 polymorphism of PAI-1 gene are risk factors for ACS. The AA genotype might be associated with the development of dyslipidemia in ACS patients. PMID:25788758

  3. Cognitive status and profile validity on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in offenders with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Matlasz, Tatiana M; Brylski, Jamie L; Leidenfrost, Corey M; Scalco, Matt; Sinclair, Samuel J; Schoelerman, Ronald M; Tsang, Valerie; Antonius, Daniel

    Cognitive impairment among seriously mentally ill offenders has implications for legal matters (e.g., competency to stand trial), as well as clinical treatment and care. Thus, being able to identify potential cognitive concerns early in the adjudication process can be important when deciding on further interventions. In this study, we examined the validity scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV), and competency findings in male inmates (n=61) diagnosed with a serious mental illness. Lower scores on the WAIS-IV significantly (p=0.001) predicted invalid, versus valid, PAI profiles, with working memory impairment being the most significant (p=0.004) predictor of an invalid profile. Ancillary analyses on a smaller sample (n=18) indicate that those with invalid PAI profiles were more likely to be deemed legally incompetent (p=0.03). These findings suggest that the PAI validity scales may be informative in detecting cognitive concerns and help clinicians make determinations about competency restoration and treatment.

  4. Venous thrombosis risk associated with plasma hypofibrinolysis is explained by elevated plasma levels of TAFI and PAI-1.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Mirjam E; Lisman, Ton; de Groot, Philip G; Meijers, Joost C M; le Cessie, Saskia; Doggen, Carine J M; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2010-07-08

    Elevated plasma clot lysis time (CLT) increases risk of venous and arterial thrombosis. It is unclear which fibrinolytic factors contribute to thrombosis risk. In 743 healthy control subjects we investigated determinants of CLT. By comparison with 770 thrombosis patients, we assessed plasma levels of fibrinolytic proteins as risk factors for a first thrombosis. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were the main determinants of CLT, followed by plasminogen, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), prothrombin, and alpha2-antiplasmin. Fibrinogen, factor VII, X, and XI contributed minimally. These proteins explained 77% of variation in CLT. Levels of the fibrinolytic factors were associated with thrombosis risk (odds ratios, highest quartile vs lowest, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index: 1.6 for plasminogen, 1.2 for alpha2-antiplasmin, 1.6 for TAFI, 1.6 for PAI-1, and 1.8 for tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA]). Adjusting for acute-phase proteins attenuated the risk associated with elevated plasminogen levels. The risk associated with increased t-PA nearly disappeared after adjusting for acute-phase proteins and endothelial activation. TAFI and PAI-1 remained associated with thrombosis after extensive adjustment. In conclusion, CLT reflects levels of all fibrinolytic factors except t-PA. Plasminogen, TAFI, PAI-1, and t-PA are associated with venous thrombosis. However, plasminogen and t-PA levels may reflect underlying risk factors.

  5. Nobel Prize Literature; A Selection of the Works of Forty-Four Nobel Prize Winning Authors in the Library of Dutchess Community College, with Biographical and Critical Sketches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Terry E., Comp.

    This bibliography is a compilation of works by 44 Nobel Prize winning authors presently available at the Dutchess Community College library. Each entry describes the piece of literature for which the author received an award, provides a brief sketch of the writer, includes a commentary on the themes of major works, and lists the writer's works. An…

  6. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2009 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2010-07-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner has been made as thorough as possible, to try to ensure that an outstanding paper wins the prize. We started off with a shortlist of the 10 research papers published in 2009 which were rated the best based on the referees' quality assessments. Following the submission of a short 'case for winning' document by each of the shortlisted authors, an IPEM college of jurors of the status of FIPEM assessed and rated these 10 papers in order to choose a winner, which was then endorsed by the Editorial Board. We have a clear, and very worthy, winner this year. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2009 Roberts Prize is awarded to E Z Zhang et al from University College London for their paper on photoacoustic tomography. In vivo high resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy E Z Zhang, J G Laufer, R B Pedley and P C Beard 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1035-46 Our congratulations go to these authors. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full top-10 is listed below (in alphabetical order). Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher References Cheng Y-C N , Neelavalli J and Haacke E M 2009 Limitations of calculating field distributions and magnetic susceptibilities in MRI using a Fourier based method Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1169-89 Cho S, Ahn S, Li Q and Leahy R M 2009 Exact and approximate Fourier rebinning of PET data from time-of-flight to non time-of-flight 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 467-84 Davidson S R H, Weersink R A, Haider M A, Gertner M R, Bogaards A, Giewercer D, Scherz A, Sherar M D, Elhilali M, Chin J L, Trachtenberg J and Wilson B C 2009 Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial

  7. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2011-08-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner has been made as thorough as possible, to try to ensure that an outstanding paper wins the prize. We started off with a shortlist of the 10 research papers published in 2010 which were rated the best based on the referees' quality assessments. Following the submission of a short 'case for winning' document by each of the shortlisted authors, an IPEM college of jurors of the status of FIPEM assessed and rated these 10 papers in order to choose a winner, which was then endorsed by the Editorial Board. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010 is awarded to M M Paulides et al from Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, for their paper on hyperthermia treatment: The clinical feasibility of deep hyperthermia treatment in the head and neck: new challenges for positioning and temperature measurement M M Paulides, J F Bakker, M Linthorst, J van der Zee, Z Rijnen, E Neufeld, P M T Pattynama, P P Jansen, P C Levendag and G C van Rhoon 2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 2465 Our congratulations go to these authors. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full top-10 is listed below (in alphabetical order). Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher References Alonzo-Proulx O, Packard N, Boone J M, Al-Mayah A, Brock K K, Shen S Z and Yaffe M J 2010 Validation of a method for measuring the volumetric breast density from digital mammograms Phys. Med. Biol. 55 3027 Bian J, Siewerdsen J H, Han X, Sidky E Y, Prince J L, Pelizzari C A and Pan X 2010 Evaluation of sparse-view reconstruction from flat-panel-detector cone-beam CT Phys. Med. Biol. 55 6575 Brun M-A, Formanek F, Yasuda A, Sekine M, Ando N

  8. Moderate rest intervals are superior to short intervals for improving PAI-1 following exhaustive exercise in recreational weightlifters

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Gerosa-Neto, Jose; Diniz, Tiego Aparecido; Freitas, Ismael F.; Lira, Fabio Santos; Cholewa, Jason Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of short and moderate recovery intervals on lipid profiles and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) following exhaustive strength exercise in recreational weightlifters. Seven subjects performed two conditions in a randomized order: short, 90% of one maximum repetition (1RM) and 30-sec rest allowed between sets; moderate, 90% of 1RM and 90-sec rest allowed between sets. Total cholesterol (Chol), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triacylglycerol (TAG), Chol/HDL-c ratio and PAI-1 concentrations were assessed at baseline, immediately postexercise, and 15- and 30-min postexercise (post-15 and post-30). The LDL-c concentrations decreased and HDL-c concentrations increased in both conditions but without significant differences (LDL-c: 30 sec: pre, 82.0±19.5 mg/dL, immediately, 73.9±16.4 mg/dL, 90 sec: pre, 75.9±30.8 mg/dL, immediately, 66.2±35.5 mg/dL, P=0.423; HDL-c: 30 sec: pre, 53.5±9.2 mg/dL, immediately, 61.4±11.4 mg/dL; 90 sec: pre, 55.8±11.1 mg/dL, immediately, 84.9±27.8, mg/dL; P=0.146). On the other hand, PAI-1 had a tendency to decrease only in the 90-sec condition (pre, 7,754.9±2,927.7 pg/mL; immediately, 5,313.1±4,637.4 pg/mL; P=0.085). There was a positive correlation between PAI-1 and Chol (30 sec: r=0.83, 90 sec: r=0.91; P<0.05), PAI-1 and fat-free mass in both conditions (30 sec post-15: r=0.79, post-30: r=081, P<0.05; 90 sec immediately: r=0.77, post-15: r=0.81; P<0.05), and PAI-1 and TAG only in 30 sec (r=0.87, P<0.05). Short and moderate intervals of recovery improve lipid profiles after heavy strength exercise but only 90 sec induced greater improved in PAI-1 concentration in recreational weightlifters. PMID:28119878

  9. Propulsion airframe integration session overview and review of Lewis PAI efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterton, Peter G.

    1992-01-01

    Propulsion/Airframe Integration (PAI) is a key issue for the High Speed Civil Transport. The aircraft performance, economics, and environmental acceptability can be adversely affected if the integration of the propulsion system and the airframe is not addressed properly or in a timely manner. Some of the goals are listed in this figure. In particular, these goals are highly influenced by how successfully the propulsion system and airframe are integrated. These goals were grouped by the 'Aero' and 'Propulsion' categories to suggest which group of technologists will likely be addressing them. In terms of the NASA High Speed Research Program, the ultimate objective for propulsion/airframe integration is to demonstrate the technologies for achievement of these goals on a 'single' integrated configuration.

  10. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and coronary artery disease risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhongshu; Jiang, Weihong; Ouyang, Mao; Yang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G polymorphism and this association with coronary artery disease (CAD). But definite conclusions can not be drawn. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 10 August 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 53 studies including 20921 CAD cases and 18434 controls were included. Significantly elevated CAD risk was found in overall analysis (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05-1.21, P = 0.0009). In the subgroup analysis by races, significantly increased risk was found in Caucasians (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.20, P = 0.005) and Asians (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.42, P = 0.04). In the subgroup analysis by gender, significant association was found in males (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.25, P = 0.0008), but was not found in females (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92-1.20, P = 0.47). In the subgroup analysis by age, young populations showed increased CAD risk (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.37, P = 0.02), but old populations did not show this association (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.82-1.24, P = 0.93). This meta-analysis provides the evidence that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may contribute to the CAD development. PMID:25932140

  11. Prize-based Contingency Management for the Treatment of Substance Abusers: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benishek, L. A.; Dugosh, K. L.; Kirby, K. C.; Matejkowski, J.; Clements, N. T.; Seymour, B. L.; Festinger, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To review randomized controlled trials to assess efficacy of a prize-based contingency management procedure in reducing substance use (where a drug-free breath or urine sample provides a chance of winning a prize). Methods A meta-analysis was conducted on articles published from January 2000 to February 2013 to determine the effect size of studies comparing prize-based contingency management to a treatment-as-usual control condition (k=19 studies). Parallel analyses evaluated the efficacy of both short- (k=9 studies) and long-term outcomes (k=6 studies) of prize-based contingency management . Results The average end-of-treatment effect size (Cohen's d) was .46 [95% CI=0.37,0.54). This effect size decreased at the short-term (≤ 3-month) post-intervention follow-up to .33 (95% CI=0.12,0.54) and at the 6-month follow-up time point there was no detectable effect (d=-.09 (95% CI=−0.28,0.10)). Conclusion Adding prize-based contingency management to behavioral support for substance use disorders can increase short-term abstinence but the effect does not appear to persist to 6 months. PMID:24750232

  12. PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression possibly through PPAR{gamma} activation in the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Ohkura, Naoki; Horie, Shuichi

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression. {yields} Hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and PCG-1{alpha} are induced by a ketogenic diet. {yields} PPAR{gamma} antagonist attenuates a ketogenic diet-induced PAI-1 expression. {yields} Ketogenic diet advances the phase of circadian clock in a PPAR{alpha}-independent manner. -- Abstract: An increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and PAI-1 gene expression is under the control of molecular circadian clocks in mammals. We recently showed that PAI-1 expression is augmented in a phase-advanced circadian manner in mice fed with a ketogenic diet (KD). To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is involved in hypofibrinolytic status induced by a KD, we examined the expression profiles of PAI-1 and circadian clock genes in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice. Chronic administration of bezafibrate induced the PAI-1 gene expression in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Feeding with a KD augmented the circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the hearts and livers of wild-type (WT) mice as previously described. The KD-induced mRNA expression of typical PPAR{alpha} target genes such as Cyp4A10 and FGF21 was damped in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. However, plasma PAI-1 concentrations were significantly more elevated in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice in accordance with hepatic mRNA levels. These observations suggest that PPAR{alpha} activation is dispensable for KD-induced PAI-1 expression. We also found that hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and the hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and its coactivator PCG-1{alpha} were more effectively induced in PPAR{alpha}-null, than in WT mice on a KD. Furthermore, KD-induced hepatic PAI-1 expression was significantly suppressed by supplementation with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPAR{gamma} antagonist, in both WT and PPAR

  13. Activity Report: "Escola de Cultura de Pau", the Laureate of the First Evens Prize for Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvou, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    On March 18th 2011 an independent jury of experts convened in Antwerp, Belgium, to select the laureate of the first Evens Prize for Peace Education from a shortlist of eleven organizations from all over Europe. After a long day of intense discussions, the jury agreed unanimously to award the prize to the "Escola de Cultura de Pau"…

  14. Randomized Trial Comparing Two Treatment Strategies Using Prize-Based Reinforcement of Abstinence in Cocaine and Opiate Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kenzie L.; Ghitza, Udi E.; Schmittner, John P.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Epstein, David H.

    2008-01-01

    We compared two strategies of prize-based contingency management (CM) in methadone-maintained outpatients. Urine was tested thrice weekly for 5 weeks pre-CM, 12 weeks CM, and 8 weeks post-CM. Participants were randomly assigned to a cocaine contingency (four prize draws for each cocaine-negative urine, N = 29) or an opiate-cocaine contingency (one…

  15. Bonner Prize: The Elastic Form Factors of the Nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrisat, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    A series of experiments initiated in 1998 at the then new Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator, or CEBAF in Newport News Virginia, resulted in unexpected results, changing significantly our understanding of the structure of the proton. These experiments used a relatively new technique to obtain the ratio of the two form factors of the proton, namely polarization. An intense beam of highly polarized electrons with energy up to 6 GeV was made to interact elastically with un-polarized protons in a hydrogen target. The polarization of the recoiling protons, with energies up to 5 GeV, was measured from a second interaction in a polarimeter consisting of blocs of graphite or CH2 and tracking wire chambers. The scattered electrons were detected in an electromagnetic lead-glass calorimeter, to select elastically scattered events. After a short introduction describing the path which brought me from the University of Geneva to the College of William and Mary in 1966, I will introduce the subject of elastic electron scattering, describe some of the apparatus required for such experiments, and show the results which were unexpected at the time. These results demonstrated unequivocally that the two form factors required to describe elastic ep scattering, electric GE and magnetic GM in the Born approximation, had a drastically different dependence upon the four-momentum squared q2 = q2 -ω2 with q the momentum, and ω the energy transferred in the reaction. The finding, in flagrant disagreement with the data available at the time, which had been obtained dominantly from cross section measurements of the type first used by Nobel Prize R. Hofstadter 60 years ago, have led to a reexamination of the information provided by form factors on the structure of the nucleon, in particular its quark-gluon content. The conclusion will then be a brief outline of several theoretical considerations to put the results in a proper perspective.

  16. Small Prizes Improve Food Selection in a School Cafeteria Without Increasing Waste.

    PubMed

    Hudgens, Michelle E; Barnes, Allison S; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Beckford, Monna; Siegel, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    We recently demonstrated that small prizes given for a "Power Plate" (plain fat-free milk, entrée, fruit and vegetable) can be used in an elementary school cafeteria to increase healthful food selection by over 300%. The purpose of this study was to measure changes in food waste when the Power Plate (PP) program is implemented. The PP intervention was conducted at an inner-city elementary school. Emoticons were placed next to the preferred foods and children were given a small prize if they selected the PP. Data were obtained by observation and cash register receipts. The trays of 111 students before the intervention and 96 after were examined for content and waste. PP selection increased from 2% to 73% ( P < .001). There was no significant change in waste. We conclude that small prizes as an incentive for better food selection does not lead to an increase food waste.

  17. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions

  18. The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: a spatial model for cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Neil

    2014-12-17

    Understanding how the cognitive functions of the brain arise from its basic physiological components has been an enticing final frontier in science for thousands of years. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 was awarded one half to John O'Keefe, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain." This prize recognizes both a paradigm shift in the study of cognitive neuroscience, and some of the amazing insights that have followed from it concerning how the world is represented within the brain.

  19. Mega-prizes in medicine: big cash awards may stimulate useful and rapid therapeutic innovation.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Following Horrobin's suggestion of 1986, I argue that offering very large prizes (tens of millions of US dollars, or more) for solving specific therapeutic problems, would be an excellent strategy for promoting the rapid development of effective new treatments. The two mainstream ways of paying for medical research are funding the process with grants or funding the outcome via patent protection. When grants are used to fund the process of research the result tends to be 'pure' science, guided by intrinsic scientific objectives. Practical results, such as useful therapeutic advances, are a by-product. Patent-seeking research, by contrast, is more focused on technology than science. It seeks practical results; and aims to pay for itself (and make a profit) in the long term by generating a patentable product or procedure. Prize-seeking research is subject to different incentives and applicable to different situations than either process-funded or patent-seeking research. Prize seeking researchers have a strong incentive to solve the specified problem as rapidly as possible, but the problem may be solved using old ideas that are scientifically mundane or unpatentable technologies and methods. Prizes therefore seem to generate solutions which are incremental extensions, new applications or novel combinations of already-existing technologies. The main use of mega-prizes in medicine would be to accelerate therapeutic progress in stagnant fields of research and to address urgent problems. For example, medical charities focused on specific diseases should consider accumulating their resources until they can offer a mega-prize for solving a clinical problem of special concern to their patients. Prize money should be big enough to pay for the research and development, the evaluation of the new treatment in a clinical trial, and with a large profit left-over to compensate for the intrinsic risk of competing. Sufficiently large amounts of money, and the prestige and publicity

  20. Mortality and immortality: the Nobel Prize as an experiment into the effect of status upon longevity.

    PubMed

    Rablen, Matthew D; Oswald, Andrew J

    2008-12-01

    It has been known for centuries that the rich and famous have longer lives than the poor and ordinary. Causality, however, remains trenchantly debated. The ideal experiment would be one in which extra status could somehow be dropped upon a sub-sample of individuals while those in a control group of comparable individuals received none. This paper attempts to formulate a test in that spirit. It collects 19th-century birth data on science Nobel Prize winners. Correcting for potential biases, we estimate that winning the Prize, compared to merely being nominated, is associated with between 1 and 2 years of extra longevity.

  1. The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: A Spatial Model for Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the cognitive functions of the brain arise from its basic physiological components has been an enticing final frontier in science for thousands of years. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 was awarded one half to John O’Keefe, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain.” This prize recognizes both a paradigm shift in the study of cognitive neuroscience, and some of the amazing insights that have followed from it concerning how the world is represented within the brain. PMID:25521374

  2. Interaction between plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) bound to fibrin and either tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) or urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Binding of t-PA/PAI-1 complexes to fibrin mediated by both the finger and the kringle-2 domain of t-PA.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, O F; de Vries, C; Hohmann, C; Veerman, H; Pannekoek, H

    1989-01-01

    Plasminogen activation is catalyzed both by tissue-type-(t-PA) and by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). This reaction is controlled by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) that is either present in plasma or bound to fibrin, present in a thrombus. We studied the mechanism of in vitro inhibition of both t-PA and u-PA activity by PAI-1 bound to fibrin. It is shown that activation of latent PAI-1 unmasks a specific fibrin-binding site that is distinct from its reactive site. This reactive site of activated PAI-1 bound to fibrin is fully exposed to form complexes with t-PA and u-PA, that are unable to activate plasminogen. Upon complex formation with either one of the plasminogen activators, PAI-1 apparently undergoes a conformational change and loses its affinity for fibrin. Consequently, complexes of u-PA and PAI-1 dissociate from the fibrin matrix and are encountered in the fluid phase. In contrast, t-PA/PAI-1 complexes remain bound to fibrin. By employing recombinant t-PA deletion-mutant proteins, that precisely lack domains involved in fibrin binding, we demonstrate that binding of t-PA/PAI-1 complexes is mediated by both the "finger" (F) and the "kringle-2" (K2) domain of t-PA. A model is proposed that explains inhibition of the fibrinolytic process, at the level of plasminogen activation by t-PA, directed by PAI-1 bound to fibrin. An implication of the proposed model is that t-PA/PAI-1 complexes and free t-PA compete for the same binding sites on fibrin. Images PMID:2503541

  3. An additive effect of anti-PAI-1 antibody to ACE inhibitor on slowing the progression of diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chunyan; Zhang, Jiandong; Noble, Nancy A; Peng, Xiao-Rong; Huang, Yufeng

    2016-11-01

    While angiotensin II blockade slows the progression of diabetic nephropathy, current data suggest that it alone cannot stop the disease process. New therapies or drug combinations will be required to further slow or halt disease progression. Inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) aimed at enhancing ECM degradation has shown therapeutic potential in diabetic nephropathy. Here, using a mouse model of type diabetes, the maximally therapeutic dose of the PAI-1-neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody (MEDI-579) was determined and compared with the maximally effective dose of enalapril. We then examined whether addition of MEDI-579 to enalapril would enhance the efficacy in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Untreated uninephrectomized diabetic db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis associated with increased expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, PAI-1, type IV collagen, and fibronectin from weeks 18 to 22, which were reduced by MEDI-579 at 3 mg/kg body wt, similar to enalapril given alone from weeks 12 to 22 Adding MEDI-579 to enalapril from weeks 18 to 22 resulted in further reduction in albuminuria and markers of renal fibrosis. Renal plasmin generation was dramatically reduced by 57% in diabetic mice, a decrease that was partially reversed by MEDI-579 or enalapril given alone but was further restored by these two treatments given in combination. Our results suggest that MEDI-579 is effective in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice and that the effect is additive to ACEI. While enalapril is renal protective, the add-on PAI-1 antibody may offer additional renoprotection in progressive diabetic nephropathy via enhancing ECM turnover.

  4. PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism (rs1799768) contributes to tumor susceptibility: Evidence from meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Xie, Yanqi; Lin, Yiwei; Xu, Xianglai; Zhu, Yi; Mao, Yeqing; Hu, Zhenghui; Wu, Jian; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xiangyi; Qin, Jie; Xie, Liping

    2012-12-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), belonging to the urokinase plasminogen activation (uPA) system, is involved in cancer development and progression. The PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was shown to contribute to genetic susceptibility to cancer, although the results were inconsistent. To assess this relationship more precisely, a meta-analysis was performed. The electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched; data were extracted and analyzed independently by two reviewers. Ultimately, 21 eligible case-control studies with a total of 8,415 cancer cases and 9,208 controls were included. The overall odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) showed a statistically significant association between the PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism and cancer risk (4G/4G vs. 5G/5G: OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.07-1.47, P(heterogeneity)=0.001; 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G+5G/5G: OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.03-1.17, P(heterogeneity)=0.194; 4G/4G+4G/5G vs. 5G/5G: OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.01-1.35, P(heterogeneity)=0.041). In further subgroup analyses, the increased risk of cancer was observed in a subgroup of Caucasians with regards to endometrial cancer. Our meta-analysis suggests that the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism most likely contributes to susceptibility to cancer, particularly in Caucasians. Furthermore, the 4G allele may be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer.

  5. Prognostic significance of tPA/PAI-1 complex in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Winter, Max-Paul; Kleber, Marcus E; Koller, Lorenz; Sulzgruber, Patrick; Scharnagl, Hubert; Delgado, Graciela; Goliasch, Georg; März, Winfried; Niessner, Alexander

    2017-02-28

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) represents a major epidemic, clinical and public health problem with rising patient numbers every year. Traditional markers for heart failure have been shown to be of limited sensitivity in patients with HFpEF, as those do not reflect pathophysiology of the disease properly. Dysregulation of haemostasis is thought to be central for the initiation and progression of HFpEF. For this reason, we aimed to assess markers of fibrinolytic activity as potential biomarkers for risk assessment in patients with HFpEF. We evaluated blood coagulation parameters in 370 patients with HFpEF included in the LUdwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. Within an observation period of 9.7 years, 40 percent of these patients died from any cause. tPA/PAI-1 complex significantly predicted all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.24 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.47) per increase of 1 SD and cardiovascular mortality with a HR 1.26 (95 % CI 1.02-1.56) per increase of 1 SD. Both associations remained significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and frequent HFpEF- related comorbidities. Importantly, tPA/PAI-1 complex had additional prognostic value above and beyond NT-proBNP as indicated by integrated discrimination improvement (0.0157, p=0.017). In conclusion, the concentration of tPA/PAI-1 complex is an independent predictor of mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular causes in patients with HFpEF. The concomitant measurement of tPA/PAI-1 complex might be useful in clinical practice to add prognostic value to traditional markers of heart failure.

  6. Prognostic significance of uPA/PAI-1 level, HER2 status, and traditional histologic factors for survival in node-negative breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Takac, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The association of HER2 status with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels raises the question whether uPA/PAI-1 level carries additional clinically relevant prognostic information independently from HER2 status. The aim of our study was to compare the prognostic value of uPA/PAI-1 level, HER2 status, and traditional prognostic factors for survival in node-negative breast cancer patients. Patients and methods A retrospective analysis of 858 node-negative breast cancer patients treated in Maribor University Clinical Center, Slovenia, in the years 2000–2009 was performed. Data were obtained from patient medical records. The median follow-up time was 100 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses of disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed using the Cox regression and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results In univariate analysis, age, tumor size, grade, lymphovascular invasion, HER2 status and UPA/PAI-1 level were associated with DFS, and age, tumor size, grade, and uPA/PAI-1 level were associated with OS. In the multivariate model, the most important determinants of DFS were age, estrogen receptor status and uPA/PAI-1 level, and the most important factors for OS were patient age and tumor grade. The HR for death from any cause in the multivariate model was 1.98 (95% CI 0.83–4.76) for patients with high uPA and/or PAI-1 compared to patients with both values low. Conclusions uPA/PAI-1 level clearly carries an independent prognostic value regardless of HER2 status in node-negative breast cancer and could be used in addition to HER2 and other markers to guide clinical decisions in this setting. PMID:28265234

  7. PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR-1 (PAI-1): A KEY FACTOR LINKING FIBRINOLYSIS AND AGE-RELATED SUBCLINICAL AND CLINICAL CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Cesari, Matteo; Pahor, Marco; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2010-01-01

    The close relationship existing between aging and thrombosis has growingly been studied in this last decade. The age-related development of a pro-thrombotic imbalance in the fibrinolysis homeostasis has been hypothesized at the basis of this increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk. Fibrinolysis is the resulting of the interactions among multiple plasminogen activators and inhibitors constituing the enzymatic cascade, and ultimately leading to the degradation of fibrin. The plasminogen activator system plays a key role in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a member of the superfamily of serine-protease inhibitors (or serpins), and the principal inhibitor of both the tissue-type and the urinary-type plasminogen activator, the two plasminogen activators able to activate plasminogen. In this review, current evidence describing the central role played by PAI-1 in a number of age-related subclinical (i.e., inflammation, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance) and clinical (i.e., obesity, comorbidities, Werner syndrome) conditions is presented. Despite some controversial and unclear issues, PAI-1 represents an extremely promising marker which may become a biological parameter to be growingly considered in the prognostic evaluation, in the disease monitoring, and as treatment target of age-related conditions in the next future. PMID:20626406

  8. Human circadian system causes a morning peak in prothrombotic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) independent of the sleep/wake cycle.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Frank A J L; Shea, Steven A

    2014-01-23

    Serious adverse cardiovascular events peak in the morning, possibly related to increased thrombosis in critical vessels. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which inhibits fibrinolysis, is a key circulating prothrombotic factor that rises in the morning in humans. We tested whether this morning peak in PAI-1 is caused by the internal circadian system or by behaviors that typically occur in the morning, such as altered posture and physical activity. Twelve healthy adults underwent a 2-week protocol that enabled the distinction of endogenous circadian effects from behavioral and environmental effects. The results demonstrated a robust circadian rhythm in circulating PAI-1 with a peak corresponding to ∼6:30 am. This rhythm in PAI-1 was 8-times larger than changes in PAI-1 induced by standardized behavioral stressors, including head-up tilt and 15-minute cycle exercise. If this large endogenous morning peak in PAI-1 persists in vulnerable individuals, it could help explain the morning peak in adverse cardiovascular events.

  9. A PAI-1 (SERPINE1) polymorphism predicts osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    French, Deborah; Hamilton, Leo H.; Mattano, Leonard A.; Sather, Harland N.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Nachman, James B.

    2008-01-01

    As glucocorticoid use increased in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, osteonecrosis became an increasingly frequent complication. Besides increased age, host risk factors are poorly defined. We tested whether 12 polymorphisms were associated with osteonecrosis among patients 10 years and older treated on the CCG1882 protocol. Candidate genes (TYMS, MTHFR, ABCB1, BGLAP, ACP5, LRP5, ESR1, PAI-1, VDR, PTH, and PTHR) were chosen based on putative mechanisms underlying osteonecrosis risk. All children received dexamethasone, with doses varying by treatment arm. A PAI-1 polymorphism (rs6092) was associated with risk of osteonecrosis in univariate (P = .002; odds ratio = 2.79) and multivariate (P = .002; odds ratio = 2.89) analyses (adjusting for gender, age, and treatment arm). Overall, 21 of 78 (26.9%) children with PAI-1 GA/AA genotypes, versus 25 of 214 (11.7%) children with GG genotype, developed osteonecrosis. PAI-1 polymorphisms and PAI-1 serum levels have previously been associated with thrombosis. We conclude that PAI-1 genetic variation may contribute to risk of osteonecrosis. PMID:18285546

  10. 77 FR 36272 - SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Affordable Rooftop rules at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html . DATES: DOE will accept comments... ``America's Most Affordable Rooftop'' in the Subject line Mail: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Solar....S. Department of Energy, Solar Program, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585....

  11. Languages for Learning: Granting All Students Access to New Skills. Fishman Prize Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Steven; Zunkiewicz, Kelly; Strait, Laura; Towne, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A single great teacher can change a life by introducing a new language, helping you master a new skill or opening a door you never knew was there. That's why every year, TNTP awards the Fishman Prize for Superlative Classroom Practice: to celebrate a select cohort of public school teachers who demonstrate exceptionally effective teaching with…

  12. John Bardeen: The Only Person to Win Two Nobel Prizes in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddeson, L.

    2011-01-01

    John Bardeen worked on the theory of solids throughout his physics career, winning two Nobel Prizes: the first in 1956 for the invention of the transistor with Walter Brattain and William Shockley; and the second in 1972 for the development with Leon Cooper and J Robert Schrieffer of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity.…

  13. Following Zahka: Using Nobel Prize Winners' Speeches and Ideas to Teach Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Martin P.; Wilson, John K.; Becker, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the late William Zahka (1990, 1998) outlined how the acceptance speeches of those who received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science could be used to teach undergraduates. This article updates and expands Zahka's work, identifying some of the issues discussed by recent Nobel Laureates, classifying their speeches by topic…

  14. Small prizes increased healthful school lunch selection in a Midwestern school district.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Robert; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Barnes, Allison S; Hiller, Elizabeth; Kipp, Roger; Robison, Debora L; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Hudgens, Michelle E

    2016-04-01

    As obesity has become a pressing health issue for American children, greater attention has been focused on how schools can be used to improve how students eat. Previously, we piloted the use of small prizes in an elementary school cafeteria to improve healthful food selection. We hoped to increase healthful food selection in all the elementary schools of a small school district participating in the United States Department of Agriculture Lunch Program by offering prizes to children who selected a Power Plate (PP), which consisted of an entrée with whole grains, a fruit, a vegetable, and plain low-fat milk. In this study, the PP program was introduced to 3 schools sequentially over an academic year. During the kickoff week, green, smiley-faced emoticons were placed by preferred foods, and children were given a prize daily if they chose a PP on that day. After the first week, students were given a sticker or temporary tattoo 2 days a week if they selected a PP. Combining data from the 3 schools in the program, students increased PP selection from 4.5% at baseline to 49.4% (p < 0.0001) during an intervention period of 2.5 school weeks. The school with the longest intervention period, 6 months, showed a PP selection increase of from 3.9% to 26.4% (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, giving small prizes as rewards dramatically improves short-term healthful food selection in elementary school children.

  15. Charting the Course: Four Years of the Thomas W. Payzant School on the Move Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Entremont, Chad; Norton, Jill; Bennett, Michael; Piazza, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Since 2006, the Thomas W. Payzant School on the Move (SOM) Prize has been awarded annually to a Boston public school that has made significant progress in improving student achievement. This case study identifies the structures and strategies that best serve students in prizewinning schools, provides a profile of each of the four winning schools…

  16. Children's spontaneous emotional expressions while receiving (un)wanted prizes in the presence of peers.

    PubMed

    Visser, Mandy; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although current emotion theories emphasize the importance of contextual factors for emotional expressive behavior, developmental studies that examine such factors are currently thin on the ground. In this research, we studied the course of emotional expressions of 8- and 11-year-old children after winning a (large) first prize or a (substantially smaller) consolation prize, while playing a game competing against the computer or a physically co-present peer. We analyzed their emotional reactions by conducting two perception tests in which participants rated children's level of happiness. Results showed that co-presence positively affected children's happiness only when receiving the first prize. Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children's expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively. Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize.

  17. The Crafoord Prize 1985 in Astronomy to Professor Lyman Spitzer Jr.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahm, G.

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the Crafoord Prize 1985 of 135000 US$ to Professor Lyman Spitzer Jr., Princeton, U.S.A., for his "Fundamental pioneering studies of practically every aspect of the interstellar medium, culminating in the results obtained using the Copernicus satellite".

  18. Eyes on the Prize: Teaching Complex Historical Content to Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell; Baker, Scott K.; Smith-Johnson, Joyce; Dimino, Joseph; Peterson, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This study compared two approaches for teaching a history unit on the Civil Rights Movement (1954-1965) to middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) in general education settings. The curriculum was designed to make the content challenging, but accessible. The major text was the documentary, Eyes on the Prize (DeVinney, 1991).…

  19. Superintendent Leadership: A Phenomenological Study of Texas Superintendents from Broad Prize Eligible School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Jose H.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of leadership qualities and reform strategies implemented to increase student achievement in urban school districts is vital to closing the achievement gap. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify a leadership profile of the Broad Prize superintendent and reform strategies used to leverage systemic change that…

  20. The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, Haim

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize…

  1. Quality in Higher Education: Lessons Learned from the Baldrige Award, Deming Prize, and ISO 9000 Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izadi, Mahyar; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Compares the Baldrige Award, Deming Prize, and ISO 9000 registration in terms of purpose, focus, eligibility, time frame, information sharing, number of recipients, and assessment. Suggests that vocational-technical programs in higher education could be improved using the criteria for these awards. (SK)

  2. Creative Problem Solving with Marginalized Populations: Reclaiming Lost Prizes through In-the-Trenches Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, Ken W.; Baker, Philip A.; McCluskey, Andrea L. A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes several initiatives in which Creative Problem Solving, in combination with career exploration and mentoring, has been used successfully to identify and develop the talents of "at-risk" populations. During the past decade, the Lost Prizes project helped turn around the lives of talented but troubled high-school…

  3. Prize reinforcement contingency management for treating cocaine users: how low can we go, and with whom?

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Tedford, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This study evaluated the efficacy of a low-cost, prize reinforcement contingency management (CM) intervention for reducing cocaine use. Setting Community-based treatment centers. Participants and design Cocaine-abusing out-patients (n = 120) were assigned randomly to one of three 12-week conditions: standard treatment, standard treatment plus CM with an expected maximum of $80 of reinforcement or standard treatment plus CM with an expected maximum of $240 of reinforcement. Intervention In the CM conditions, patients earned the opportunity to win prizes for submitting negative urine samples and completing goal-related activities. Measurements Drug use was measured at intake and throughout a 3-month treatment period. Findings Patients in the $240 CM condition achieved more abstinence than patients in the standard condition. Patients who initiated treatment with positive urinalysis results were most responsive to the CM intervention, with the $240 CM condition engendering the best effects in this subgroup. In contrast, patients who initiated treatment with negative urinalysis results generally remained abstinent during treatment, regardless of treatment assignment. On average, patients in the two CM conditions earned $36 and $68 in prizes. Conclusions This study suggests that prize reinforcement CM may be suitable for community-based settings, and beneficial effects may be magnitude-dependent in more severe patients. PMID:14982548

  4. Introducing Taiwanese undergraduate students to the nature of science through Nobel Prize stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, Haim; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2013-06-01

    Although there is a broad agreement among scientists and science educators that students should not only learn science, but also acquire some sense of its nature, it has been reported that undergraduate students possess an inadequate grasp of the nature of science (NOS). The study presented here examined the potential and effectiveness of Nobel Prize stories as a vehicle for teaching NOS. For this purpose, a 36-hour course, “Albert Einstein’s Nobel Prize and the Nature of Science,” was developed and conducted in Taiwan Normal University. Ten undergraduate physics students participated in the course. Analysis of the Views of Nature of Science questionnaires completed by the students before and after the course, as well as the students’ own presentations of Nobel Prize stories (with an emphasis on how NOS characteristics are reflected in the story), showed that the students who participated in the course enriched their views concerning all aspects of NOS. The paper concludes with some suggestions for applying the novel idea of using Nobel Prize stories in physics classrooms.

  5. Randomized Trial of Contingent Prizes versus Vouchers in Cocaine-Using Methadone Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Sierra, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions frequently utilize vouchers as reinforcers, but a prize-based system is also efficacious. This study compared these approaches. Seventy-four cocaine-dependent methadone outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST plus a maximum of $585 in contingent vouchers, or ST plus an expected…

  6. 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other…

  7. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1981: Fukui and Hoffmann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, J.

    2002-06-01

    The 1981 Nobel Prize was awarded to Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions." Those theories, which have come to be known as "frontier orbital theory" and the "Woodward-Hoffmann rules" respectively, remain important tools for predicting the course of organic reactions and they are frequently taught in courses in mechanistic organic chemistry.

  8. Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics Lecture: Understanding Nonequilibrium via Rare Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jona-Lasinio, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    Irreversible processes are a hot subject in statistical mechanics. During the last decade through the effort of several people, including the recipient of the prize and his collaborators, a progress in understanding stationary nonequilibrium states has been achieved. The key has been the study of rare fluctuations. The talk will review some basic ideas, results and perspectives.

  9. Prizing Children's Science Information Books: The Text, Reading and the Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Joy; Jarman, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Society Young People's Book Prize is awarded annually in the United Kingdom for the best science information book, and the winning book is chosen by panels of young people. This article discusses the findings of a study of the responses to the books and to their judging experience of young people who participated on panels in the 2011…

  10. In Sciences, the Reflected Prestige of the Nobel Prize Extends Far Beyond Anything Its Creator Imagined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kim

    1987-01-01

    As the ultimate symbol of excellence, the Nobel Prize has had a tremendous effect on scholars, institutions, and national pride. Topics discussed include: recruitment and fund raising, salaries and other perks, "raids" from other institutions, students seeking out winners, publication declines, etc. (MLW)

  11. The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln and the Evolution of Neuro-Trauma Care: Would the 16th President Have Survived in the Modern Era?

    PubMed

    Yan, Sandra C; Smith, Timothy R; Bi, Wenya Linda; Brewster, Ryan; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-11-01

    Abraham Lincoln was the 16(th) President of the United States of America. On April 14, 1865, shortly after his re-election and the conclusion of the Civil War, Lincoln was shot and killed by John Wilkes Booth. Although numerous physicians tended to the President shortly after his injury, he passed away the next morning. Today, we recognize Lincoln as one of the greatest Presidents in American history. His assassination profoundly influenced the future of the United States, especially as the country was coming back together again following the Civil War. Testaments to his lasting legacy can be seen in many places, from the stone carving of him on Mount Rushmore to his image gracing the $5 bill. What if the President had survived his injury? Would he have had a different outcome utilizing current critical care treatment? Neurotrauma care in 1865 was not yet developed, and head wounds such as the one Lincoln sustained were almost always fatal. The medical attention he received is considered by historians and physicians today to be excellent for that time. We look at the evolution of neurotrauma care during the last 150 years in the US. Particular focus is paid to the advancement of care for penetrating brain injuries in modern trauma centers.

  12. Abraham Flexner of Kentucky, his report, Medical Education in the United States and Canada, and the historical questions raised by the report.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Edward C; Perman, Jay A; Wilson, Emery A

    2010-02-01

    One hundred years ago, the time was right and the need was critical for medical education reform. Medical education had become a commercial enterprise with proprietary schools of variable quality, lectures delivered in crowded classrooms, and often no laboratory instruction or patient contact. Progress in science, technology, and the quality of medical care, along with political will and philanthropic support, contributed to the circumstances under which Abraham Flexner produced his report. Flexner was dismayed by the quality of many of the medical schools he visited in preparing the report. Many of the recommendations in Medical Education in the United States and Canada are still relevant, especially those concerning the physician as a practitioner whose purpose is more societal and preventive than individual and curative. Flexner helped establish standards for prerequisite education, framed medical school admission criteria, aided in the design of a curriculum introduced by the basic and followed by the clinical sciences, stipulated the resources necessary for medical education, and emphasized medical school affiliation with both a university and a strong clinical system. He proposed integration of basic and clinical sciences leading to contextual learning, active rather than passive learning, and the importance of philanthropy. Flexner's report poses several questions for the historian: How were his views on African American medical education shaped by his post-Civil War upbringing in Louisville? Was the report original or derivative? Why did it have such a large impact? This article describes Flexner's early life and the report's methodology and considers several of the historical questions.

  13. How the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was shared between Golgi and Cajal.

    PubMed

    Grant, Gunnar

    2007-10-01

    In 1906 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was shared between Camillo Golgi and Ramón y Cajal in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system. Golgi's most impressive contribution was his method, described in 1873. This was applied in studies of the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb, hippocampus and the spinal cord. These studies together with his earlier work were included in his Opera Omnia, published in 1903. His method was highly praised by Cajal. His adherence to the reticular theory was opposed by Cajal, however, who had spelled out the neuron theory already in the late 1800s. Cajal's extraordinary contributions to the structure of the nervous system, based largely on the Golgi method and Ehrlich's methylene blue stain, were published in his Textura del Sistema Nerviosa de Hombre y de los Vertebrados, three volumes published from 1897 to 1904. Documents from the Nobel Archives reveal that Kölliker, Retzius and Fürst were the ones who proposed Golgi and Cajal for a shared prize. Golgi was nominated by Hertwig, as well. Cajal was proposed by Ziehen and Holmgren, and also by Retzius, as an alternative to a shared prize. Holmgren, who was commissioned to write the report to the Nobel Committee, found Cajal far superior to Golgi. Sundberg, asked for another evaluation, was more positive to Golgi's contributions than Holmgren. Gadelius supported Holmgren's views. The final vote gave a majority for a shared prize. The prize ceremony and the lectures were described in detail in Cajal's autobiography.

  14. Gestalt switches in Poincaré's prize paper: An inspiration for, but not an instance of, chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuchowski, Lena Christine

    2014-08-01

    I analyse in detail the construction of asymptotic surfaces in Sections 16-19 of Poincaré (1890), also known as the prize paper. There are two prime reasons for doing so. Firstly, this part of the prize paper contains an interesting argumentative strategy, which I call Poincaré's gestalt switch. Secondly, it has been claimed that the prize paper contains one of the first descriptions of chaotic motion. I will argue that the latter claim is false, although both the gestalt switches and the graphical representation which Poincaré (1890) chose for the asymptotic surfaces might well have provided the inspiration for later works in chaos theory.

  15. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2011 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2012-08-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner is a two-stage process. First, a shortlist of contenders is drawn up based on those papers that had the best referees' quality assessments, with a further quality check and endorsement by the Editorial Board. The papers on the shortlist are then reviewed by a specially convened IPEM committee consisting of members with fellow status. This committee reads the shortlisted papers and selects the winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2011 is awarded to Matthew Hough et al from the University of Florida, the Francis Marion University and the National Cancer Institute, USA for their paper on a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of skeletal tissues in the adult male: An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male—internal electron sources 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 2309 Matthew Hough1, Perry Johnson1, Didier Rajon2, Derek Jokisch3, Choonsik Lee4 and Wesley Bolch1,5 1Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA 2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC, USA 4Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Bone marrow is one of the more radiosensitive tissues in the human body and is housed within a complex structure of bone. This paper describes a comprehensive model of energy deposition by internal electron or beta particle emitters for the ICRP reference adult male based upon ex vivo CT and microCT images of

  16. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2013-08-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award the Roberts prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner is a two-stage process. First, a shortlist of contenders is drawn up based on those papers that had the best referees' quality assessments, with a further quality check and endorsement by the Editorial Board. The papers on the shortlist are then reviewed by a specially convened IPEM committee consisting of members with fellow status. This committee reads the shortlisted papers and selects the winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012 is awarded to Michel Defrise, Ahmadreza Rezaei and Johan Nuyts from the Vrije Universiteit Brussels and the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium for their breakthrough paper that describes how the information needed for attenuation correction in PET imaging can be extracted, to within a constant, from time-of-flight emission data: Time-of-flight PET data determine the attenuation sinogram up to a constant 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57 885 Michel Defrise1, Ahmadreza Rezaei2 and Johan Nuyts2 1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1090 Brussels, Belgium 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium This paper represents an important and timely contribution to the literature as time-of-flight PET scanners are now offered by several manufacturers. In hybrid PET/CT scanners, the PET attenuation correction, necessary for quantitative reconstruction of the tracer distribution, can be derived directly from the CT data. Sometimes, however, the PET and CT scans may be poorly aligned due to patient motion and other approaches are needed. In addition, hybrid PET/MRI scanners also, have been developed recently, and in

  17. Society News: PhD theses could win prizes; Last chance for IYA2009 grants; New Fellows; RAS Fellows win prizes; Need a job? Need staff? RAS Library Saturdays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-08-01

    Fellows who are PhD student supervisors should be on the lookout for exceptionally good work from research students submitting their theses this year, for nomination for the RAS Michael Penston Astronomy Prize and the RAS Keith Runcorn Prize. The RAS is offering one last chance to apply for grants towards International Year of Astronomy activities, but you'll have to apply soon. The Society sends congratulations to Fellows of the RAS who have recently received prestigious awards for their work.

  18. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1986: Dudley Herschbach, Yuan Lee, and John Polanyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, J.

    2002-08-01

    The 1986 Nobel Prize was awarded to Dudley Herschbach, Yuan Lee, and John Polanyi for their work extending chemical dynamics to the level of individual atoms and molecules, using molecular beam and infrared chemiluminescence experiments.

  19. Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry 2014: Celebrating the International Year of Light 2015, commemorating the Old Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2015-01-01

    2015 is the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies (IYL), while the physics and chemistry Nobel Prizes 2014 are both about light. The work leading to the two prizes share the same basic theoretical foundation: when an electron jumps from a higher energy level to a lower energy level, the energy difference is transformed into a photon. This basic way of light generation is a key part of the Old Quantum Theory. Interestingly, the date of announcing the 2014 Nobel Prize for physics coincided with the birthdays of Niels Bohr and, especially, of Planck's blackbody radiation formula. In connection with the two 2014 Nobel Prizes, we recall the development of the Old Quantum Theory by Planck, Einstein and Bohr.

  20. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Nobel prize winners in physics from 1901 to 1990: simple statistics for physics teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weijia; Fuller, Robert G.

    1998-05-01

    A demographic database for the 139 Nobel prize winners in physics from 1901 to 1990 has been created from a variety of sources. The results of our statistical study are discussed in the light of the implications for physics teaching.

  1. Stimulating Innovation and Accelerating the Development of Complex and Slowly Maturing Technologies Through Advanced Technology Prize Competitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    between Paris and New York. It took eight years before Charles Lindbergh , a relatively unknown American airmail pilot, climbed into the cockpit of the...Spirit of St. Louis and flew solo for 30 hours to win the prize on June 16, 1927. Lindbergh beat several already famous pilots who attempted to win and...demonstrate their performance and eventually win the prize. Charles Lindberg finally won this competition in 1927. The same is true for the original

  2. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1913: The Highest Honor for the Lowest Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif-Acherman, Simón

    2013-12-01

    One century ago this year the Dutch experimental physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work in low-temperature physics, in particular for his production of liquid helium. I trace the route to his Nobel Prize within the context of his and his colleagues' research in his laboratory at the University of Leiden, and in light of his nominators and the nominations he received in the five years 1909-1913.

  3. Prognostic significance of urokinase (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 for survival in advanced ovarian carcinoma stage FIGO IIIc.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, W; Schmalfeldt, B; Reuning, U; Pache, L; Berger, U; Ulm, K; Harbeck, N; Späthe, K; Dettmar, P; Höfler, H; Jänicke, F; Schmitt, M; Graeff, H

    1999-04-01

    Strong evidence has accumulated on the prognostic value of tumour-associated proteolytic factors in patients afflicted with solid malignant tumours, including advanced ovarian cancer. We evaluated the prognostic impact of the protease urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 on overall survival in patients with advanced ovarian cancer stage FIGO IIIc in order to select patients at risk. uPA and PAI-1 antigen were determined by ELISA in primary tumour tissue extracts of 86 ovarian cancer patients FIGO stage IIIc enrolled in a prospective study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The time-varying coefficient model of Gray was used to assess the time-dependent strength of prognostic factors tumour mass, uPA and PAI-1 on overall survival. In all patients, uPA and PAI-1 (optimized cut-offs of 2.0 and 27.5 ng mg(-1) protein respectively), in addition to the traditional prognostic parameters of residual tumour mass, nodal status, grading and ascites volume, were of prognostic significance in univariate analysis for overall survival. Even in patients with residual tumour mass (n = 43), the statistically independent prognostic impact of PAI-1 persisted, allowing further discrimination between low- and high-risk patients. In multivariate analysis, residual tumour mass (P < 0.001, relative risk (RR) 4.5), PAI-1 (P < 0.001; RR 3.1) and nodal status (P = 0.022, RR 2.6) turned out to be strong, statistically independent prognostic parameters. Evaluation of the time-dependent prognostic impact of residual tumour mass and PAI-1 on overall survival (n = 86, 50 months) revealed that the prognostic power of these factors increased with time. In patients with advanced ovarian cancer, both residual tumour mass and PAI-1 are statistically independent strong prognostic factors. Even within patient subgroups with or without residual tumour mass, PAI-1 allowed selection of patients at risk who might benefit from

  4. Elevated circulating PAI-1 levels are related to lung function decline, systemic inflammation, and small airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Ting; Li, Diandian; Wu, Yanqiu; Zhang, Xue; Pang, Caishuang; Zhang, Junlong; Ying, Binwu; Wang, Tao; Wen, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) participate in inflammation and tissue remolding in various diseases, but their roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not yet clear. This study aimed to investigate if PAI-1 and suPAR were involved in systemic inflammation and small airway obstruction (SAO) in COPD. Methods Demographic and clinical characteristics, spirometry examination, and blood samples were obtained from 84 COPD patients and 51 healthy volunteers. Serum concentrations of PAI-1, suPAR, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected with Magnetic Luminex Screening Assay. Differences between groups were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or chi-square test. Pearson’s partial correlation test (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, cigarette status, and passive smoke exposure) and multivariable linear analysis were used to explore the relationships between circulating PAI-1 and indicators of COPD. Results First, we found that serum PAI-1 levels but not suPAR levels were significantly increased in COPD patients compared with healthy volunteers (125.56±51.74 ng/mL versus 102.98±36.62 ng/mL, P=0.007). Then, the correlation analysis showed that circulating PAI-1 was inversely correlated with pulmonary function parameters including the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), FEV1/Pre (justified r=−0.308, P<0.001; justified r=−0.295, P=0.001, respectively) and SAO indicators such as FEV3/FVC, MMEF25–75/Pre (justified r=−0.289, P=0.001; justified r=−0.273, P=0.002, respectively), but positively related to the inflammatory marker CRP (justified r=0.351, P<0.001), the small airway remolding biomarker TIMP-1, and MMP-9 (justified r=0.498, P<0.001; justified r=0.267, P=0.002, respectively). Besides, multivariable

  5. Prognostic value of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Yagmurdur, M C; Atac, F B; Tutar, N U; Verdi, H; Isiklar, I; Ozdemir, B H; Ozbek, N; Karakayali, H; Haberal, M

    2008-01-01

    The study group was derived from the archive materials of 55 invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) patients who had undergone breast-preserving surgery (partial mastectomy/ axillary dissection). All patients included in the study had clinically T(1)-2, N0-M0 invasive ductal carcinoma. Genomic DNA species were extracted from paraffin-embedded blocks, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Patient demographics, axillary metastasis status, metastatic lymph nodi/total dissected lymph nodes from axilla, histopathologic characteristics of tumors, local recurrences, and survival ratio were assessed. PAI-1 4G/5G genotype frequencies were 4G/4G (64%), 4G/5G (31%), and 5G/5G (5%) in the patient group. According to the results based on frequencies, the demographics were not different. Five-year local recurrence rate of 4G/5G patients was the lowest (2/17, 12%) (P = 0.02). Also five-year distant metastases ratio of 4G/5G patients was the highest (18%) (P = 0.01). Five- and 10-year disease-free survival rates for the 4G/4G, 4G/5G, and 5G/5G groups were 97% and 94%, 82% and 77%, and 100% and 94%, respectively (P = 0.004). The results of this study indicate that the 4G allele in the PAI 1 gene had a negative impact on local recurrence and disease-free survival of patients with clinical T(1)-2N0M0 IDC.

  6. Standard magnitude prize reinforcers can be as efficacious as larger magnitude reinforcers in cocaine-dependent methadone patients

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Barry, Danielle; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Contingency management (CM) reduces cocaine use in methadone patients, but only about 50% of patients respond to CM interventions. This study evaluated whether increasing magnitudes of reinforcement will improve outcomes. Methods Cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 240) were randomized to one of four 12-week treatment conditions: usual care (UC), UC plus “standard” prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $300, UC plus high magnitude prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $900, or UC plus voucher CM with an expected maximum of about $900 in vouchers. Results All three CM conditions yielded significant reductions in cocaine use relative to UC, with effect sizes (d) ranging from 0.38 to 0.59. No differences were noted between CM conditions, with at least 55% of patients in each CM condition achieving one week or more of cocaine abstinence versus 35% in UC. During the 12 weeks after the intervention ended, CM increased time until relapse relative to UC, but the effects of CM were no longer significant at a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions Providing the standard magnitude of $300 in prizes was as effective as larger magnitude CM in cocaine-dependent methadone patients in this study. Given its strong evidence base and relatively low costs, standard magnitude prize CM should be considered for adoption in methadone clinics to encourage cocaine abstinence, but new methods need to be developed to sustain abstinence. PMID:25198284

  7. [t-PA and PAI in patients with Raynaud's syndrome in treatment with a stable prostacyclin analog].

    PubMed

    Pola, P; de Martini, D; Gerardino, L

    1992-01-01

    An study was made in order to determinate the relationship between the restoration of the local fibrinolytic activity and the clinical signs in patients with a Raynaud's phenomenon. It is known that local fibrinolytic activity is a system influenced by changes into its components produced by exogenous and endogenous factors. An important role is represented by the t-PA and PAI-1. On the contrary, u-PA doesn't change. Samples were all taken at the same time, approximately at the middle of the morning. In patients with Raynaud's phenomenon treated with a prostacyclin stable analogous, we have perceived a clinical improvement, corresponding with a fibrinolytic activity increase.

  8. Association of a PAI-1 Gene Polymorphism and Early Life Infections with Asthma Risk, Exacerbations, and Reduced Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Young; Oh, Sam S.; Torgerson, Dara R.; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Hu, Donglei; Sen, Saunak; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Farber, Harold J.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Serebrisky, Denise; Thyne, Shannon M.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Williams, L. Keoki; DuPont, William; Seibold, Max A.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Avila, Pedro C.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is induced in airways by virus and may mediate asthmatic airway remodeling. We sought to evaluate if genetic variants and early life lower respiratory infections jointly affect asthma risk. Methods We included Latino children, adolescents, and young adults aged 8–21 years (1736 subjects with physician-diagnosed asthma and 1747 healthy controls) from five U.S. centers and Puerto Rico after excluding subjects with incomplete clinical or genetic data. We evaluated the independent and joint effects of a PAI-1 gain of function polymorphism and bronchiolitis / Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) or other lower respiratory infections (LRI) within the first 2 years of life on asthma risk, asthma exacerbations and lung function. Results RSV infection (OR 9.9, 95%CI 4.9–20.2) and other LRI (OR 9.1, 95%CI 7.2–11.5) were independently associated with asthma, but PAI-1 genotype was not. There were joint effects on asthma risk for both genotype-RSV (OR 17.7, 95% CI 6.3–50.2) and genotype-LRI (OR 11.7, 95% CI 8.8–16.4). A joint effect of genotype-RSV resulted in a 3.1-fold increased risk for recurrent asthma hospitalizations. In genotype-respiratory infection joint effect analysis, FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC % predicted were further reduced in the genotype-LRI group (β -2.1, 95% CI -4.0 to -0.2; β -2.0, 95% CI -3.1 to -0.8 respectively). Similarly, lower FEV1% predicted was noted in genotype-RSV group (β -3.1, 95% CI -6.1 to -0.2) with a trend for lower FEV1/FVC % predicted. Conclusions A genetic variant of PAI-1 together with early life LRI such as RSV bronchiolitis is associated with an increased risk of asthma, morbidity, and reduced lung function in this Latino population. PMID:27556405

  9. Myers-Pospelov model as an ensemble of Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators: unitarity and Lorentz invariance violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Sarrion, Justo; Reyes, Carlos M.

    2013-04-01

    We study a generalization of the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator for fermionic variables. Next, we consider an ensemble of these oscillators and we identify a particular case of the Myers-Pospelov model which is relevant for effective theories of quantum gravity. Finally, by taking advantage of this connection, we analyze, for this model, unitarity at one loop order in the low energy regime where no ghost states can be created on-shell. This energy regime is the relevant one when we consider the Myers-Pospelov model as a true effective theory coming from a new space-time structure.

  10. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and the JWST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2007-01-01

    I will describe the history of the universe, from the Big Bang to 2013, when the JWST is to be launched to look back towards our beginnings. I will discuss how the COBE results led to the Nobel Prize, how the COBE results have been confirmed and extended, and their implications for future observations. The James Webb Space Telescope will be used to examine every part of our history from the first stars and galaxies to the formation of individual stars and planets and the delivery of life-supporting materials to the Earth. I will describe the plans for the JWST and how observers may use it. With luck, the JWST may produce a Nobel Prize for some discovery we can only guess today.

  11. Promoting public health research in BRICS through a multinational public health prize fund.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes the establishment of a prize fund to incentivise public health research within the BRICS association, which comprises the five major emerging world economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. This would stimulate cooperative healthcare research within the group and, on the proviso that the benefits of the research are made freely available within the association, would be rewarding for researchers. The results of the research stimulated by the prize would provide beneficial new healthcare technologies, targeting the most vulnerable and needy groups. The proposed fund is consistent with current international patent law and would not only avoid some of the problems associated with the "Health Impact Fund", but also create a new model for healthcare research.

  12. Prize reinforcement contingency management for cocaine dependence: integration with group therapy in a methadone clinic.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Martin, Bonnie; Simcic, Francis

    2005-04-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated a low-cost contingency management (CM) procedure for reducing cocaine use and enhancing group therapy attendance in 77 cocaine-dependent methadone patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment or standard treatment with CM, in which patients earned the opportunity to win prizes ranging from $1 to $100 for submitting cocainenegative samples and attending therapy. Patients in the CM condition submitted more cocaine-negative samples and attended more groups than patients in standard treatment. The best predictor of cocaine abstinence at follow-up was duration of abstinence during treatment. On average, patients in the CM condition earned $117 in prizes. Data from this study suggest that some aspects of reinforcement can be implemented in group therapy in community-based clinics.

  13. The discovery of artemisinin and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xin-zhuan; Miller, Louis H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Professor Youyou Tu for her key contributions to the discovery of artemisinin. Artemisinin has saved millions of lives and represents one of the significant contributions of China to global health. Many scientists were involved in the previously unknown 523 Project, and the Nobel Prize given to a single person has not been without controversy. Here we summarized some key events in the 523 Project and present our views on the Award to help the public better understand the rationale of the Nobel committee’s decision, the significance of the discovery, and current issues related to artimisinin in treating malaria. PMID:26481135

  14. Nanoscopy—imaging life at the nanoscale: a Nobel Prize achievement with a bright future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, Hans; Bates, Mark

    2015-10-01

    A grand scientific prize was awarded last year to three pioneering scientists, for their discovery and development of molecular ‘ON-OFF’ switching which, when combined with optical imaging, can be used to see the previously invisible with light microscopy. The Royal Swedish Academy of Science announced on October 8th their decision and explained that this achievement—rooted in physics and applied in biology and medicine—was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for controlling fluorescent molecules to create images of specimens smaller than anything previously observed with light. The story of how this noble switch in optical microscopy was achieved and how it was engineered to visualize life at the nanoscale is highlighted in this invited comment.

  15. Preliminary efficacy of prize-based contingency management to increase activity levels in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Washington, Wendy Donlin; Banna, Kelly M; Gibson, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 30% of Americans meet the criteria for obesity. Effective, low-cost interventions to increase physical activity are needed to prevent and treat obesity. In this study, 11 healthy adults wore Fitbit accelerometers for 3 weeks. During the initial baseline, subjects earned prize draws for wearing the Fitbit. During intervention, percentile schedules were used to calculate individual prize-draw criteria. The final week was a return to baseline. Four subjects increased step counts as a result of the intervention. A bout analysis of interresponse times revealed that subjects increased overall step counts by increasing daily minutes active and within-bout response rates and decreasing pauses between bouts of activity. Strategies to improve effectiveness are suggested, such as modification of reinforcement probability and amount and identification of the function of periods of inactivity.

  16. Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, Saul

    2012-01-13

    The Department of Energy (DOE) hosted an event Friday, January 13, with 2011 Physics Nobel Laureate Saul Perlmutter. Dr. Perlmutter, a physicist at the Department’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley, won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.” DOE’s Office of Science has supported Dr. Perlmutter’s research at Berkeley Lab since 1983. After the introduction from Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, Dr. Perlmutter delivered a presentation entitled "Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize." [Copied with editing from DOE Media Advisory issued January 10th, found at http://energy.gov/articles/energy-department-host-event-2011-physics-nobel-laureate-saul-perlmutter

  17. Fermi Prize: J. Robert Oppenheimer Named to Receive Annual AEC Award.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, J R

    1963-04-12

    The White House announced last week that J. Robert Oppenheimer would be the recipient of the Atomic Energy Commission's 1963 Fermi prize. The prize, which is accompanied by a $50,000 award, is given for "especially meritorious contribution to the development, use or control of atomic energy," and, as such, is strictly a recognition of scientific merit. This fact cannot be overstated. Nevertheless, because of the bitter and emotional controversy that surrounded the removal of Oppenheimer's security clearance in 1954, the Oppenheimer case has come to symbolize the dark hour to which nonconformity and scientific integrity were subjected in the McCarthy era. Oppenheimer's selection for the award is thus widely regarded as an effort by the scientific community and the Kennedy administration to right a long-standing wrong. The following account is an appreciation of Oppenheimer, written especially for Science by his colleague, Hans Bethe, of Cornell University.

  18. Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize

    ScienceCinema

    Perlmutter, Saul

    2016-07-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) hosted an event Friday, January 13, with 2011 Physics Nobel Laureate Saul Perlmutter. Dr. Perlmutter, a physicist at the Department’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley, won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.” DOE’s Office of Science has supported Dr. Perlmutter’s research at Berkeley Lab since 1983. After the introduction from Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, Dr. Perlmutter delivered a presentation entitled "Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize." [Copied with editing from DOE Media Advisory issued January 10th, found at http://energy.gov/articles/energy-department-host-event-2011-physics-nobel-laureate-saul-perlmutter

  19. Chemistry in the News: 1998 Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jennifer B.

    1999-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Walter Kohn (University of California at Santa Barbara) for his development of the density-functional theory and to John A. Pople (Northwestern University at Evanston, Illinois) for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute has awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly to Robert F. Fuchgott (State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn), Louis J. Ignarro (University of California at Los Angeles), and Ferid Murad (University of Texas Medical School at Houston) for identifying nitric oxide as a key biological signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system.

  20. The Journal of Pathology 2008 Jeremy Jass Prize for Research Excellence in Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Poulsom, Richard; Coates, Philip J; Du, Ming-Qing; Hogendoorn, Pancras Cw; Jones, Louise J; Ladanyi, Marc; Murray, Graeme I; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2009-12-01

    The first Jass Prize for Research Excellence has been awarded to a group from Hannover in Germany. These authors discovered the epigenetic inactivation of microRNA gene hsa-mir-9-1 in human breast cancer and characterized its biological and clinical relevance. This frequent epigenetic silencing was found to occur early in the development of breast cancer, and illustrates another mechanism by which tumour development is influenced by genes that operate without expression as proteins.

  1. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1983: Henry Taube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, J.

    2002-07-01

    The 1983 Nobel Prize was awarded to Henry Taube for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes. Taube's work represents a watershed in the development of the mechanistic chemistry of inorganic transition metal complexes. His studies of those reactions is a central feature in courses in mechanistic inorganic chemistry, and his description of inner-sphere and outer-sphere electron transfer mechanisms remain as the textbook examples.

  2. Nils Gustav Dalén, the Unknown Nobel Prize Winner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Hanging on the wall of my museum is a large "Map of Physics" published by the Central Scientific Company in 1938. On it is a list of the Nobel Prizes in physics, starting with Roentgen in 1901 and ending with Fermi in 1938. I can recognize every name except the one for 1912: Nils Gustav Dalén. Perhaps you have had the same experience when looking through the updated list.

  3. Let there be light--with gallium nitride: the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics.

    PubMed

    Von Dollen, Paul; Pimputkar, Siddha; Speck, James S

    2014-12-15

    Significant gains in energy savings now underway can be traced to a single invention--the blue light-emitting diode. GaN-based blue LED technology not only resulted in efficient white light sources, but continues to enable a host of applications and scientific inquiries. The researchers primarily responsible for the development of the blue LED were awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics.

  4. The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, William P.; Palenik, Gus J.; Suh, Il-Hwan

    2003-07-01

    For the past 100 years, with only a few exceptions during war times, Nobel Prizes have been awarded annually to men and women who have made exceptionally important discoveries in science. In thirteen of those years, prizes were awarded to individuals whose contributions helped explain the molecular world of matter through interactions of waves or particles with atoms. From William C. Röntgen, who received the very first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 for his work with X-rays, to von Laue and the father-and-son Bragg team in the second decade of the century, who used X-rays to understand atomic arrangements, much progress had been made revealing secrets at the molecular level of matter. In the 1930s Debye, Davisson, and Thomson revealed further information using, among other techniques, diffraction of electrons by matter. In the 1960s Crick, Watson, Wilkins, Perutz, Kendrew, and Hodgkin received Nobel Prizes for revealing structures of significantly more complex molecules including the DNA double helix, myoglobin, hemoglobin, and vitamin B12. In the 1970s and 1980s Lipscomb would be recognized for organizing our picture of boron hydrides, Klug would use electron diffraction to determine structures of important nucleic acid protein complexes, Hauptman and Karle would bring us a powerful new way to solve structures, and Deisenhofer, Huber, and Michel would determine the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction center. Finally, in 1994 Brockhouse and Shull were recognized for their work with neutrons. Crystallography has been used to answer increasingly complex questions in the past, and will certainly remain an important tool in the future.

  5. John Bardeen: the only person to win two Nobel Prizes in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoddeson, L.

    2011-11-01

    John Bardeen worked on the theory of solids throughout his physics career, winning two Nobel Prizes: the first in 1956 for the invention of the transistor with Walter Brattain and William Shockley; and the second in 1972 for the development with Leon Cooper and J Robert Schrieffer of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity. The transistor made possible the information revolution; the BCS theory helped lay the microscopic foundation for the modern theory of condensed matter physics.

  6. 2017 INFORMS PRIZE. The Nomination of The United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-08

    presented in a separate document. It is included here for reference; please see the Supplemental Material document for the full content . 2 0 17 I N F... integrated O.R. throughout its structure. The Air Force maintains a career field of military analysts, ranging from lieutenants to colonels, and...the 2017 INFORMS Prize 12,000 Awarded Grants >200 Academic insitutions >200 Academic insitutions RAND developed software and programming languages

  7. Theodore William Richards: apostle of atomic weights and Nobel Prize winner in 1914.

    PubMed

    Herschbach, Dudley R

    2014-12-15

    In recognition of his exact determinations of the atomic weights of a large number of the chemical elements, T. W. Richards received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1914. His meticulous techniques resulted in "a degree of accuracy never before attained". This Essay follows Richards from his precocious youth to becoming a celebrated chemist and emphasizes his dedication to forseeing likely sources of error and how to avoid them.

  8. New Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize announced for 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    At the 2011 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., AGU announced the creation of a new award: the Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize. The prize, which is being made possible by a generous contribution from longtime AGU members and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, scientists Bruce Tsurutani and Olga Verkhoglyadova, will recognize an AGU member scientist and will come with a $10,000 award. Tsurutani has served as a researcher with JPL since 1972 and is currently a senior research scientist. He was also the president of AGU's Space Physics and Aeronomy section from 1990 to 1992 and is a recipient of AGU's John Adam Fleming Medal, given “for original research and technical leadership in geomagnetism, atmospheric electricity, aeronomy, space physics, and related sciences.” Verkhoglyadova served as a professor of space physics in the Department of Astrophysics and Space Physics at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, in the Ukraine, prior to coming to the United States. Their leadership and dedication to AGU and to their field are apparent in their passion for this prize.

  9. Dissecting slander and crying for justice: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize of 1921.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

    2013-10-03

    Chagas disease was discovered by Carlos Chagas in 1909. Chagas worked at Oswaldo Cruz Institute, where the bases of experimental medicine were settled in Brazil, and that had no connection with the Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro. Chagas had several enemies at Oswaldo Cruz Institute mainly because of his election to Head of Service in 1910, and for the position of Oswaldo Cruz Directorship in 1917. Furthermore, Chagas gained enemies at Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, which did not like to see the economical political autonomy of Oswaldo Cruz Institute. This allowed the Institute not only to perform top experimental research, but also to take the leadership of research in the country. Chagas was nominated to the Nobel Prize of 1921 in December, 1920. None was awarded the Nobel Prize in that year. He seems to have been evaluated by the Noble Committee of Karolinska Institute from March to May of 1921. At that time, his enemies were denying his discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi, a key point in Chagas' nomination by Karolinska Institute, and giving no epidemiological importance for the disease. By the same way, the obligation of small pox vaccination was tarnishing his public image. Having taken into account the epidemiologic importance of Chagas disease, the strong historical mistake in the process of Chagas evaluation, and the inequity behind all these facts, we insist on a posthumous Nobel Prize for the man who made the most complete medical-scientist discovery of all time.

  10. TGF-beta1 Suppresses Plasmin and MMP Activity in Flexor Tendon Cells via PAI-1: Implications for Scarless Flexor Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Youssef M.; Al-Maliki, Alaa A.; Easa, Anas; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Schwarz, Edward M.; Awad, Hani A.

    2014-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries caused by deep lacerations to the hands are a challenging problem as they often result in debilitating adhesions that prevent the movement of the afflicted fingers. Evidence exists that tendon adhesions as well as scarring throughout the body are largely precipitated by the pleiotropic growth factor, TGF-β1, but the effects of TGF-β1 are poorly understood in tendon healing. Using an in vitro model of tendon healing, we previously found that TGF-β1 causes gene expression changes in tenocytes that are consistent with scar tissue and adhesion formation, including upregulation of the anti-fibrinolytic protein, PAI-1. Therefore, we hypothesized that TGF-β1 contributes to scarring and adhesions by reducing the activity of proteases responsible for ECM degradation and remodeling, such as plasmin and MMPs, via upregulation of PAI-1. To test our hypothesis, we examined the effects of TGF-β1 on the protease activity of tendon cells. We found that flexor tendon tenocytes treated with TGF-β1 had significantly reduced levels of active MMP-2 and plasmin. Interestingly, the effects of TGF-β1 on protease activity were completely abolished in tendon cells from homozygous PAI-1 KO mice, which are unable to express PAI-1. Our findings support the hypothesis that TGF-β1 induces PAI-1, which suppresses plasmin and plasmin-mediated MMP activity, and provide evidence that PAI-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for preventing adhesions and promoting a scarless, regenerative repair of flexor tendon injuries. PMID:24962629

  11. Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To Astronomer For NASA-Funded Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    Riccardo Giacconi, the "father of X-ray astronomy," has received the Nobel Prize in physics for "pioneering contributions to astrophysics," which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Giaconni, president of the Associated Universities Inc., in Washington, and Research Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, discovered the first X-ray stars and the X-ray background in the 1960s and conceived of and led the implementation of the Uhuru and High Energy Astronomy Observatory-2 (HEAO-2) X-ray observatories in the 1970s. With funding from NASA, he also detected sources of X-rays that most astronomers now consider to contain black holes. Giacconi said that receiving the award confirms the importance of X-ray astronomy. "I think I'm one of the first to get the Nobel prize for work with NASA, so that's good for NASA and I think it's also good for the field," he said. "It's also nice for all the other people who've worked in this field. I recognize that I was never alone. I'm happy for me personally, I'm happy for my family, and I'm happy for the field and for NASA," Giacconi added. In 1976, Giacconi along with Harvey Tananbaum of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., submitted a proposal letter to NASA to initiate the study and design of a large X-ray telescope. In 1977 work began on the program, which was then known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility and in 1998 renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory. "Partnerships with universities and scientists are essential in our quest to answer the fundamental questions of the universe," said Dr. Ed Weiler, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science, Headquarters, Washington. "Dr. Giacconi's achievements are a brilliant example of this synergy among NASA, universities and their community of scientists and students," he said. Giacconi is Principal Investigator for the ultradeep survey with Chandra - the "Chandra Deep Field South" - that has

  12. Why there should be more science Nobel prizes and laureates - And why proportionate credit should be awarded to institutions.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The four science Nobel prizes (physics, chemistry, medicine/physiology and economics) have performed extremely well as a method of recognizing the highest level of achievement. The prizes exist primarily to honour individuals but also have a very important function in science generally. In particular, the institutions and nations which have educated, nurtured or supported many Nobel laureates can be identified as elite in world science. However, the limited range of subjects and a maximum of 12 laureates per year mean that many major scientific achievements remain un-recognized; and relatively few universities can gather sufficient Nobel-credits to enable a precise estimate of their different levels of quality. I advocate that the Nobel committee should expand the number of Nobel laureates and Prize categories as a service to world science. (1) There is a large surplus of high quality prize candidates deserving of recognition. (2) There has been a vast expansion of research with a proliferation of major sub-disciplines in the existing categories. (3) Especially, the massive growth of the bio-medical sciences has created a shortage of Nobel recognition in this area. (4) Whole new fields of major science have emerged. I therefore suggest that the maximum of three laureates per year should always be awarded in the categories of physics, chemistry and economics, even when these prizes are for diverse and un-related achievements; that the number of laureates in the 'biology' category of physiology or medicine should be increased to six or preferably nine per year; and that two new Prize categories should be introduced to recognize achievements in mathematics and computing science. Together, these measures could increase the science laureates from a maximum of 12 to a minimum of 24, and increase the range of scientific coverage. In future, the Nobel committee should also officially allocate proportionate credit to institutions for each laureate, and a historical task

  13. James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie; Scully, Peter; Ba, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Allison. Dr. Allison's work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:25189714

  14. A Dialogue with Abraham Maslow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardeman, Mildred

    1979-01-01

    This question-and-answer session was conducted at the New School for Social Research in the spring of 1962. Maslow comments on creativity, peak experiences, drug use, self-actualization, religion, and his psychology of Being. (SJL)

  15. A Psychometric Evaluation of the STAI-Y, BDI-II, and PAI Using Single and Multifactorial Models in Young Adults Seeking Psychoeducational Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Benjamin D.; Musso, Mandi; Jones, Glenn N.; Pella, Russell D.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2013-01-01

    A psychometric evaluation on the measurement of self-report anxiety and depression using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Form-Y (STAI-Y), and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was performed using a sample of 534 generally young adults seeking psychoeducational evaluation at a university-based clinic.…

  16. PULMONARY LOCALIZATION AND EXPRESSION OF PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR-1 (PAI-1) IN HEALTHY OR HYPERTENSIVE RATS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PULMONARY LOCALIZATION AND EXPRESSION OF PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR-1 (PAI-1) IN HEALTHY OR HYPERTENSIVE RATS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM). GS Backus1, R Vincent2, UP Kodavanti2, 1Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill; 2NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park,...

  17. Genome-wide association study for circulating levels of PAI-1 provides novel insights into its regulation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Tregouet, David; Shin, So-Youn; Ding, Jingzhong; Baumert, Jens; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Folkersen, Lasse; Johnson, Andrew D.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Williams, Scott M.; Ikram, Mohammad A.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Becker, Diane M.; Truong, Vinh; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Tang, Weihong; Yang, Qiong; Sennblad, Bengt; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Frances M. K.; Dehghan, Abbas; Silbernagel, Günther; Schrijvers, Elisabeth M. C.; Smith, Shelly; Karakas, Mahir; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Silveira, Angela; Navis, Gerjan J.; Lohman, Kurt; Chen, Ming-Huei; Peters, Annette; Goel, Anuj; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Chambers, John C.; Saleheen, Danish; Lundmark, Per; Psaty, Bruce M.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Carter, Angela M.; Meisinger, Christa; Peden, John F.; Bis, Joshua C.; McKnight, Barbara; Öhrvik, John; Taylor, Kent; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Seedorf, Udo; Collins, Rory; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Goodall, Alison H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Cushman, Mary; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Folsom, Aaron R.; Basu, Saonli; Matijevic, Nena; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Hofman, Albert; Danesh, John; Clarke, Robert; Meigs, James B.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Reilly, Muredach P.; Klopp, Norman; Harris, Tamara B.; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Grant, Peter J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Watkins, Hugh; Spector, Timothy D.; Becker, Lewis C.; Tracy, Russell P.; März, Winfried; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Eriksson, Per; Cambien, Francois; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Koenig, Wolfgang; Soranzo, Nicole; van der Harst, Pim; Liu, Yongmei

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify novel associations between genetic variants and circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration, and examined functional implications of variants and genes that were discovered. A discovery meta-analysis was performed in 19 599 subjects, followed by replication analysis of genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10−8) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 796 independent samples. We further examined associations with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, assessed the functional significance of the SNPs for gene expression in human tissues, and conducted RNA-silencing experiments for one novel association. We confirmed the association of the 4G/5G proxy SNP rs2227631 in the promoter region of SERPINE1 (7q22.1) and discovered genome-wide significant associations at 3 additional loci: chromosome 7q22.1 close to SERPINE1 (rs6976053, discovery P = 3.4 × 10−10); chromosome 11p15.2 within ARNTL (rs6486122, discovery P = 3.0 × 10−8); and chromosome 3p25.2 within PPARG (rs11128603, discovery P = 2.9 × 10−8). Replication was achieved for the 7q22.1 and 11p15.2 loci. There was nominal association with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease at ARNTL (P < .05). Functional studies identified MUC3 as a candidate gene for the second association signal on 7q22.1. In summary, SNPs in SERPINE1 and ARNTL and an SNP associated with the expression of MUC3 were robustly associated with circulating levels of PAI-1. PMID:22990020

  18. Oxymatrine inhibits the migration of human colorectal carcinoma RKO cells via inhibition of PAI-1 and the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Chun; Wang, Jiaqi; Fan, Yue; Wang, Zhenghua; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2017-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling has been shown to play a critical role in the development of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). PAI-1 is one of the most important target genes in the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, which can hinder the degradation of ECM composition and may promote cell invasion and migration. Oxymatrine (OM) is an alkaloid extracted from the Chinese herb Sophora flavescens Ait and has been demonstrated to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cells including colorectal cancer. However, the anticancer effect of OM in colorectal cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we detected the expression of E-cadherin, α-SMA, FN, TGF-β1, PAI-1, Smad4, pP38 and pSmad2 in FHC, RKO and OM-treated RKO cells. We also detected pSmad2 and PAI-1 in RKO cells following the addition of SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor). The results showed that E-cadherin expression in RKO cells was significantly decreased, while PAI-1, TGF-β1, α-SMA, FN, Smad4, pSmad2 and pP38 expression levels were significantly increased in the RKO cells compared to levels in the FHC cells, which was almost completely reversed by OM. OM alleviated EMT induced in colorectal cancer via inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway activation by reducing P38-dependent increased expression of PAI-1. Hence, OM could be a novel therapeutic agent for colorectal cancer. PMID:27959430

  19. Cloning of the 5' regulatory regions and functional characterization of the core promoters of ovine PLAU (u-PA) and SERPIN1 (PAI-1).

    PubMed

    Lampidonis, A D; Theodorou, G; Pecorini, C; Rebucci, R; Baldi, A; Politis, I

    2011-12-01

    The activation of plasminogen plays a crucial role in various extracellular proteolytic events (fibrinolysis, cell migration, ovulation and involution of the mammary gland). In the present study we describe the isolation of the 5' proximal and distal promoter regions of ovine PLAU (urokinase plasminogen activator, u-PA) and SERPIN1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, PAI-1) genes for the first time in ruminants. Analysis of the 5.645kb 5'-flanking region of u-PA revealed a putative TATA-less promoter. In contrast the isolated 2.787kb 5'-flanking region of PAI-1 included a TATA-box. It should be noted that both genes lack the initiator motif around the transcription start site. The two genes share a number of transcription factor binding sites, namely Nuclear Factor-kappa B, Stimulating Protein 1 and Activating protein 1, suggesting co-expression of the two genes. Moreover, additional, not shared, transcription factor binding sites were identified in u-PA and PAI-1. More important of these are the cis-regulatory elements for plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 located in the distal promoter region of u-PA, suggesting an involvement of the other specific inhibitor in the regulation of ovine u-PA gene expression, and the three stress response elements sites present in the proximal and distal promoter of PAI-1. Different genomic fragments of the two 5' flanking regions were directionally cloned into a suitable reporter vector upstream of a promoter-less luciferase gene. Transient transfection into bovine mammary epithelial (BME-UV) cells demonstrated that the regions of -384/+27 and -382/+22 for the u-PA and PAI-1genes, respectively, potentially function as core promoter regions.

  20. Youyou Tu: significance of winning the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenxiu

    2016-01-01

    Youyou Tu, a female scientist at the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing, is the first Chinese winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Based on the study of recipes which had been used for thousands of years to treat fever, Tu’s group discovered that the plant artemesia annua, sweet wormwood, showed substantial inhibition of rodent malaria parasites. Her achievement and experience have inspired other researchers and emphasized the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Her award has led to a heated discussion about scientific research investment, fair treatment of research staff, and intellectual property right (IPR) protection in China. PMID:26885485

  1. Youyou Tu: significance of winning the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxiu; Liu, Yue

    2016-02-01

    Youyou Tu, a female scientist at the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing, is the first Chinese winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Based on the study of recipes which had been used for thousands of years to treat fever, Tu's group discovered that the plant artemesia annua, sweet wormwood, showed substantial inhibition of rodent malaria parasites. Her achievement and experience have inspired other researchers and emphasized the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Her award has led to a heated discussion about scientific research investment, fair treatment of research staff, and intellectual property right (IPR) protection in China.

  2. Radiation risk and nuclear medicine: An interview with a Nobel Prize winner

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    In a speech given years ago at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, Rosalyn S. Yalow, 1977 Nobel Prize recipient for her invention of radioimmunoassay, made several salient points on the perception of fear or hazards from exposure to low-level radiation and low-level radioactive wastes. For the past three years, Yalow has been concerned with the general fear of radiation. In this interview, Newsline solicited Yalow`s views on public perceptions on radiation risk and what the nuclear medicine community can do to emphasize the fact that, if properly managed, the use of isotopes in medicine and other cases is not dangerous.

  3. The mantle of the heavens: Reflections on the 2014 Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Richard G M

    2015-06-01

    The award of the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 2014 for the discovery of place and grid cells was both a personal award to three great scientists and also a mark of the maturity of systems neuroscience as a discipline. This article offers both personal and scientific reflections on these discoveries, detailing both how getting to know all three winners had an impact on my life and the research questions that we shared in common work together. It ends with brief reflections on three important outstanding questions.

  4. The exponential growth of autophagy-related research: from the humble yeast to the Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Noboru

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy was discovered more than half a century ago. In the early days, autophagy was studied mostly through the use of biochemical methods and electron microscopy. In the 1990s, yeast genetics was introduced to this field and brought about an exponential expansion. The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was eventually awarded to the scientist who spearheaded the rapid development of the field: Yoshinori Ohsumi. Here, I describe in a Nutshell how the autophagy machinery was discovered and how the autophagy research field has grown following the breakthroughs from yeast studies.

  5. Lumen Maintenance Testing of the Philips 60-Watt Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Hafen, Ryan P.; Hathaway, John E.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes testing conducted to evaluate the Philips' L Prize award winning 60-watt LED replacement product's ability to meet the lifetime/lumen maintenance requirement of the competition, which was: "having 70 percent of the lumen value under subparagraph (A) [producing a luminous flux greater than 900 lumens] exceeding 25,000 hours under typical conditions expected in residential use." A custom test apparatus was designed and constructed for this testing and a statistical approach was developed for use in evaluating the test results. This will be the only publicly available, third-party data set of long-term LED product operation.

  6. The Beatles, the Nobel Prize, and CT scanning of the chest.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lawrence R

    2010-01-01

    From its first test scan on a mouse, in 1967, to current medical practice, the CT scanner has become a core imaging tool in thoracic diagnosis. Initially financed by money from Beatles' record sales, the first patient scan was performed in 1971. Only 8 years later, a Nobel Prize in Physics and Medicine was awarded to Hounsfield and Cormack for their discovery. This article traces the history of CT scanner development and how each technical advance expanded chest diagnostic frontiers. Chest imaging now accounts for 30% of all CT scanning.

  7. Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Charles P.

    2006-02-01

    The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Yves Chauvin of the Institut Français du Pétrole, Robert H. Grubbs of CalTech, and Richard R. Schrock of MIT "for development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction now used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other products. This article tells the story of how olefin metathesis became a truly useful synthetic transformation and a triumph for mechanistic chemistry, and illustrates the importance of fundamental research. See JCE Featured Molecules .

  8. The -675 4G/5G polymorphism at the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) gene modulates plasma Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 concentrations in response to dietary fat consumption.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, P; Adarraga-Cansino, M D; Fernández de la Puebla, R A; Blanco-Molina, A; Delgado-Lista, J; Marín, C; Ordovás, J M; López-Miranda, J; Pérez-Jiménez, F

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1) -675 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with the response of functional plasma PAI-1 concentrations to changes in the amount and quality of dietary fat in healthy subjects. PAI-1 is the major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, and a lower level of fibrinolytic activity could be implicated in an increased risk of IHD. Fifty-nine healthy Spanish volunteers (ten 4G/4G homozygotes, twenty-eight heterozygotes 4G/5G and twenty-one 5G/5G homozygotes) consumed three diets for periods of 4 weeks each: a SFA-rich diet (38 % fat, 20 % SFA), followed by a carbohydrate-rich diet (30 % fat, 55 % carbohydrate) and a MUFA-rich diet (38 % fat, 22 % MUFA) according to a randomized crossover design. At the end of each dietary period plasma lipid and functional plasma PAI-1 concentrations were determined. Subjects carrying the 4G allele (4G/4G and 4G/5G) showed a significant decrease in PAI-1 concentrations after the MUFA diet, compared with the SFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets (genotype x diet interaction: P = 0.028). 5G/5G homozygotes had the lowest plasma PAI-1 concentrations compared with 4G/4G and 4G/5G subjects (genotype: P = 0.002), without any changes as a result of the amount and the quality of the dietary fat. In summary, no differences in plasma PAI-1 concentration response were found after changes in dietary fat intake in 5G/5G homozygotes, although these subjects displayed the lowest concentrations of PAI-1. On the other hand, carriers of the 4G allele are more likely to hyper-respond to the presence of MUFA in the diet because of a greater decrease in PAI-1 concentrations.

  9. Special Issue on "Neutrino Oscillations: Celebrating the Nobel Prize in Physics 2015" in Nuclear Physics B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Takaaki Kajita from the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration and Arthur B. McDonald from the SNO Collaboration ;for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass;. Furthermore, the Daya Bay, K2K and T2K, KamLAND, SNO, and Super-Kamiokande Collaborations shared the Fundamental Physics Breakthrough Prize the same year. In order to celebrate this successful and fruitful year for neutrino oscillations, the editors and the publisher of Nuclear Physics B decided to publish a Special Issue on neutrino oscillations. We invited prominent scientists in the area of neutrino physics that relates to neutrino oscillations to write contributions for this Special Issue, which was open to both original research articles as well as review articles. The authors of this Special Issue consist of e.g. the two Nobel Laureates, International Participants of the Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics at Haga Slott in Enköping, Sweden (August 19-24, 2004), selected active researchers, and members from large experimental collaborations with major results in the last ten years. In total, this Special Issue consists of 28 contributions. Please note that the cover of this Special Issue contains a figure from each of the 26 contributions that have figures included.

  10. A Hyperspectral Imager for the Google Lunar X-Prize Open Source FREDnet Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branly, Rolando

    2010-05-01

    A Hyper-Spectral Imager (HSI) instrument has been designed for a lunar mission sponsored as part of the Google Lunar X-prize endeavor. The HSI instrument is contributed to team FREDnet's Open-Source mission development. The imager provivides hyper-spectral image cubes using the techniques developed by Sellar. The image cubes are comprised of 1024 X 1024 spatial-spectral planes obtained by a pushbroom configuration of an instrument with no moving parts. The HSI has been designed with NASA/CalPoly Cubesat standard. A smaller no moving parts monolthic instrument is planned for a project required lunar pico-rover. Lunar X-prize Missions are expected to launch prior to the end of 2014 using new commercial rocket vehicles. This lunar endeavor carries with significant undergraduate research involvement. References: Branly R., Howard E.S., An Experiment Carrier Demonstrator Project with Hyperspectral Imaging for VTVL Vehicles, LPI Cont. No.1534 p.6 Sellar et al., Techniques for Achieving High Throughput with a Pushbrrom Imaging Spectrometer, SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4480 pp.32-39

  11. Expressing gambling-related cognitive biases in motor behaviour: rolling dice to win prizes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Matthew S M; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive perspectives on gambling propose that biased thinking plays a significant role in sustaining gambling participation and, in vulnerable individuals, gambling problems. One prominent set of cognitive biases include illusions of control involving beliefs that it is possible to influence random gaming events. Sociologists have reported that (some) gamblers believe that it is possible to throw dice in different ways to achieve gaming outcomes (e.g., 'dice-setting' in craps). However, experimental demonstrations of these phenomena are lacking. Here, we asked regular gamblers to roll a computer-simulated, but fair, 6 sided die for monetary prizes. Gamblers allowed the die to roll for longer when attempting to win higher value bets, and when attempting to hit high winning numbers. This behaviour was exaggerated in gamblers motivated to keep gambling following the experience of almost-winning in gambling games. These results suggest that gambling cognitive biases find expression in the motor behaviour of rolling dice for monetary prizes, possibly reflecting embodied substrates.

  12. The matilda effect in science: awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Anne E; Pincus, Stephanie; Koster, Janet Bandows; Leboy, Phoebe S

    2012-04-01

    Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism--the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims and contributions--in practice, a great deal of evidence suggests that the scientific efforts and achievements of women do not receive the same recognition as do those of men: the 'Matilda Effect'. Awards in science, technology, engineering and medical (STEM) fields are not immune to these biases. We outline the research on gender bias in evaluations of research and analyze data from 13 STEM disciplinary societies. While women's receipt of professional awards and prizes has increased in the past two decades, men continue to win a higher proportion of awards for scholarly research than expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The results support the powerful twin influences of implicit bias and committee chairs as contributing factors. The analysis sheds light on the relationship of external social factors to women's science careers and helps to explain why women are severely underrepresented as winners of science awards. The ghettoization of women's accomplishments into a category of 'women-only' awards also is discussed.

  13. "The developmental and functional logic of neuronal circuits": commentary on the Kavli Prize in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Glover, J C

    2009-11-10

    The first Kavli Prize in Neuroscience recognizes a confluence of career achievements that together provide a fundamental understanding of how brain and spinal cord circuits are assembled during development and function in the adult. The members of the Kavli Neuroscience Prize Committee have decided to reward three scientists (Sten Grillner, Thomas Jessell, and Pasko Rakic) jointly "for discoveries on the developmental and functional logic of neuronal circuits". Pasko Rakic performed groundbreaking studies of the developing cerebral cortex, including the discovery of how radial glia guide the neuronal migration that establishes cortical layers and for the radial unit hypothesis and its implications for cortical connectivity and evolution. Thomas Jessell discovered molecular principles governing the specification and patterning of different neuron types and the development of their synaptic interconnection into sensorimotor circuits. Sten Grillner elucidated principles of network organization in the vertebrate locomotor central pattern generator, along with its command systems and sensory and higher order control. The discoveries of Rakic, Jessell and Grillner provide a framework for how neurons obtain their identities and ultimate locations, establish appropriate connections with each other, and how the resultant neuronal networks operate. Their work has significantly advanced our understanding of brain development and function and created new opportunities for the treatment of neurological disorders. Each has pioneered an important area of neuroscience research and left a legacy of exceptional scientific achievement, insight, communication, mentoring and leadership.

  14. Selman A. Waksman, winner of the 1952 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, H Boyd

    2014-01-01

    The history of the discovery and development of streptomycin is reviewed here from the personal standpoint of a member of Dr. Selman Waksman's antibiotic screening research team. The team approach of eight individuals illustrates how the gradual enhancement of the screening methodology was developed. I illustrate three study periods with key aspects in the development of streptomycin which led to a Nobel Prize being granted to Professor Waksman. One item not previously emphasized is the employment of a submerged culture technique for large-scale production of streptomycin, thus enabling rapid animal testing and human clinical trials with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Another is that purified streptomycin was shown by Dr. Waksman to be distinctly different from the substances called natural products, which are no longer patentable in the United States; therefore, streptomycin was found to be patentable. A third item not previously emphasized is his emphasis on the screening of actinomycetes, including the newly named Streptomyces genus. All of these factors contributed to the success of streptomycin in the treatment of tuberculosis. In combination, their successes led to Dr. Waksman's department becoming a new pharmacological research area, specializing in drug discovery. These unique accomplishments all burnish the prior rationales used by the Karolinska Institute in granting Dr. Waksman alone the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

  15. The Dual Diverse Dynamic Reversible Effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper on EPCR and PAI-1 Inside Vascular Endothelial Cells With and Without LPS Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Karabıyık, Afife; Yılmaz, Erkan; Güleç, Şükrü; Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim; Akar, Nejat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) is comprised of a mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. ABS is used as a topical hemostatic agent due to its antihemorrhagic effect, yet its hemostatic mechanism of action remains to be investigated. ABS does not affect the levels of coagulation factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI and XII. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ABS on endothelium and immune response. As such, we evaluated changes in endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) expression inside human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the presence and absence of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). Material and Methods: We exposed HUVECs to 10 μL and 100 μL of ABS for 5 min, 25 min, 50 min, 6 h, and 24 h. Additionally, 10 μg mL–1 of LPS was administered for 1 h to observe the effects of LPS challenge on HUVECs, and then the cells were treated with ABS for 5 min, 25 min, 50 min, and 6 h to observe the effects of ABS on HUVECs. Total RNA was isolated from HUVECs and then the level of expression of EPCR and PAI-1 mRNA was measured. Results: Cells were microscopically observed to arise from the surface and adhere to each other following the administration of ABS to HUVECs. Additionally, after 24 h the cells had normal growth and physiology, which suggests that the adhesive cellular effects of ABS might be reversible. ABS had a negative effect on EPCR and PAI-1 expression; the effect in response to 100 µL was greater than that to 10 µL. EPCR and PAI-1 expression increased over time in response to LPS and 10 µL of ABS. EPCR and PAI-1 expression was very low during the first hour of exposure to LPS and 100 µL of ABS, but after 6 h increased to levels similar to those observed in response to LPS and 10 µL of ABS. Conclusion: It was observed that ABS had dual diverse dynamic reversible effects on EPCR and PAI-1

  16. Relationship of metabolic syndrome and its components with -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several association studies have shown that -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms are related with increase of PAI-1 levels, obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in PAI-1 gene and its association with metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of Mexican mestizo children. Methods This study included 100 children with an age range between 6-11 years divided in two groups: a) 48 children diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and b) 52 children metabolically healthy without any clinical and biochemical alteration. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of the following criteria: fasting glucose levels ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol < 40 mg/dL, obesity BMI ≥ 95th percentile, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 95th percentile and insulin resistance HOMA-IR ≥ 2.4. The -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results For the -844 G/A polymorphism, the G/A genotype (OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 1.11-7.08; p = 0.015) and the A allele (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.43; p = 0.015) were associated with metabolic syndrome. The -844 G/A and A/A genotypes were associated with increase in plasma triglycerides levels (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.16 to 6.04; p = 0.02), decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.06 to 5.42; p = 0.03) and obesity (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.17-5.92; p = 0.01). The C/G and G/G genotypes of the HindIII C/G polymorphism contributed to a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol levels (179 vs. 165 mg/dL; p = 0.02) in comparison with C/C genotype. Conclusions The -844 G/A PAI-1 polymorphism is related with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and the HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphism was

  17. News and Views: ALMA examines Centaurus A; WMAP team wins Gruber Prize; EUCLID moves closer to launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-08-01

    Charles Bennett (right) and the team behind the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe received the 2012 Gruber Prize, in recognition of the precision of their results that have turned an “appealing scenario into precise science”. ESA's dark energy and dark matter mission, EUCLID, has received approval from the Science Programme Committee to move into the full contruction phase, ahead of launch in 2020.

  18. Society News: RAS Fellows are honoured with awards; Patrick Moore Medal; Best theses win prizes; New Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    Congratulations to several Fellows of the RAS who have received prestigious awards this year. Congratulations to the winners of the annual prizes for the best PhD theses in astronomy and geophysics, awarded by the RAS and sponsored by Wiley-Blackwell. Winners receive a cheque for £1000, runners-up £50.

  19. A Valentine's Day bouquet for Temperature readers: pleasing with prizes, searching for the right words, and keeping things mysterious.

    PubMed

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial tells its readers that the journal Temperature awards its first prizes for best papers to Boris Kingma and Assaf Yacobi. It also discusses the use of several thermoregulation-related terms and expressions, including "cold temperature," "thermoneutral temperature," and "warm-sensitive" and offers, arguably, better alternatives. The editorial also contains a new puzzle: how can color affect temperature perception?

  20. Children’s spontaneous emotional expressions while receiving (un)wanted prizes in the presence of peers

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Mandy; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although current emotion theories emphasize the importance of contextual factors for emotional expressive behavior, developmental studies that examine such factors are currently thin on the ground. In this research, we studied the course of emotional expressions of 8- and 11-year-old children after winning a (large) first prize or a (substantially smaller) consolation prize, while playing a game competing against the computer or a physically co-present peer. We analyzed their emotional reactions by conducting two perception tests in which participants rated children’s level of happiness. Results showed that co-presence positively affected children’s happiness only when receiving the first prize. Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children’s expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively. Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize. PMID:26441776

  1. Unlocking Student Effort: How Five Irreplaceable Teachers Engage, Challenge and Inspire Students to Excellence. Fishman Prize Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Shira; Henderson, Whitney; Irish, Jamie; Lyons, Katie; Ross, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Founded by TNTP, the Fishman Prize for Superlative Classroom Practice is an annual award for the nation's best teachers in high-poverty public schools. The goal is to shine a spotlight on great teaching and amplify the voices of some of the nation's best educators so that others can gain insight into their remarkable classrooms. No more than five…

  2. Next X-Prize: L1 Base with Linked Asteroid Mining as Prime Catalyst for Space Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Ken R.

    2006-01-01

    We are at a cusp in our emergence as a space-faring race. Development of space resources offers unparalleled economic opportunities. Entrepreneurs with fortunes from the computer and internet revolutions are heavily investing in space. Their goal: to make space accessible to civilians at affordable prices, and build their next fortunes off-planet. The Ansari X-Prize showed that economic incentives can augment the pace and efficiency of this venture. Lunar and Martian missions are being touted as the top priorities by the US and other nations. However, serious and profitable expansion into space is best achieved by the establishment of an L1 base, its economic lifeblood based on processing asteroidal materials to provide the staples of all human space enterprise: oxygen, water, fuel and shielding. This paper outlines the components of an ``L1-prize'' modeled on the Ansari X-prize competition that led to the first private manned flight into space by Scaled Composites. The economic costs, crucial components and profit potential of a primary L1 base with asteroid mining technology intimately tied to it are detailed. The technical and economic benefits of the L1 location are contrasted to alternatives. The likely revenue sources are estimated, including contracting nations and industries; and orbital, lunar and Martian interplanetary enterprises. These are discussed as realistically and conservatively as possible in terms of the potential future profits for the winner of the prize.

  3. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-02-03

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)--a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.

  4. The Nobel Prize as a Reward Mechanism in the Genomics Era: Anonymous Researchers, Visible Managers and the Ethics of Excellence.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Hub

    2010-09-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is regarded by many as one of the major scientific achievements in recent science history, a large-scale endeavour that is changing the way in which biomedical research is done and expected, moreover, to yield considerable benefit for society. Thus, since the completion of the human genome sequencing effort, a debate has emerged over the question whether this effort merits to be awarded a Nobel Prize and if so, who should be the one(s) to receive it, as (according to current procedures) no more than three individuals can be selected. In this article, the HGP is taken as a case study to consider the ethical question to what extent it is still possible, in an era of big science, of large-scale consortia and global team work, to acknowledge and reward individual contributions to important breakthroughs in biomedical fields. Is it still viable to single out individuals for their decisive contributions in order to reward them in a fair and convincing way? Whereas the concept of the Nobel prize as such seems to reflect an archetypical view of scientists as solitary researchers who, at a certain point in their careers, make their one decisive discovery, this vision has proven to be problematic from the very outset. Already during the first decade of the Nobel era, Ivan Pavlov was denied the Prize several times before finally receiving it, on the basis of the argument that he had been active as a research manager (a designer and supervisor of research projects) rather than as a researcher himself. The question then is whether, in the case of the HGP, a research effort that involved the contributions of hundreds or even thousands of researchers worldwide, it is still possible to "individualise" the Prize? The "HGP Nobel Prize problem" is regarded as an exemplary issue in current research ethics, highlighting a number of quandaries and trends involved in contemporary life science research practices more broadly.

  5. Sex of rearing seems to exert a powerful influence on gender identity in the absence of strong hormonal influence: report of two siblings with PAIS assigned different sex of rearing.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Angela Ann; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Mehta, Manju; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2011-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the relative contribution of nurture over nature in development of gender identity. Patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) have ambiguous genitalia and are known to be reared as male or female. Familial cases of PAIS sharing common hormonal defects are usually reared in the same sex. Here, we describe two siblings with PAIS, one reared as a male and the other as female. These two siblings presented at adolescence. Gender identity was concordant with the sex of rearing for both. The male sibling was distressed with gynecomastia that had disrupted his social life. The sex of rearing seems to have played a predominant role in the formation of gender identity in these two patients with PAIS.

  6. Cytotoxicity of PAI2, C595 and Herceptin vectors labeled with the alpha-emitting radioisotope Bismuth-213 for ovarian cancer cell monolayers and clusters.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan J; Qu, Chang F; Rizvi, Syed M A; Li, Yong; Robertson, G; Raja, Chand; Morgenstern, Alfred; Apostolidis, Christos; Perkins, Alan C; Allen, Barry J

    2006-03-28

    The vectors PAI2, C595 and Herceptin target the membrane-bound uPA, MUC1 and HER2 antigens expressed by cancer cells, respectively. The expression of these receptors was tested in the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3; MUC-1 was strongly expressed (3+), uPA moderately expressed (2+), but HER2 was negative (-). The alpha-emitting radionuclide Bismuth-213 was chelated with these targeting vectors to form alpha conjugates (ACs), the cytotoxicity of which were tested with OVCAR-3 cells. The PAI2 and C595 ACs are highly cytotoxic to the ovarian monolayer cancer cells and cell clusters in a concentration-dependent fashion and cause morphological changes of treated cancer cells, inducing apoptosis. These ACs are potential candidates for the control of ovarian cancer at the minimum residual disease (MRD) stage.

  7. Assessing the heterogeneity of aggressive behavior traits: exploratory and confirmatory analyses of the reactive and instrumental aggression Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales.

    PubMed

    Antonius, Daniel; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Shiva, Andrew A; Messinger, Julie W; Maile, Jordan; Siefert, Caleb J; Belfi, Brian; Malaspina, Dolores; Blais, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    The heterogeneity of violent behavior is often overlooked in risk assessment despite its importance in the management and treatment of psychiatric and forensic patients. In this study, items from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) were first evaluated and rated by experts in terms of how well they assessed personality features associated with reactive and instrumental aggression. Exploratory principal component analyses (PCA) were then conducted on select items using a sample of psychiatric and forensic inpatients (n = 479) to examine the latent structure and construct validity of these reactive and instrumental aggression factors. Finally, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on a separate sample of psychiatric inpatients (n = 503) to evaluate whether these factors yielded acceptable model fit. Overall, the exploratory and confirmatory analyses supported the existence of two latent PAI factor structures, which delineate personality traits related to reactive and instrumental aggression.

  8. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism in association with diabetes and diabetic complications susceptibility: a meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kuanfeng; Liu, Xiaoyun; Yang, Fan; Cui, Dai; Shi, Yun; Shen, Chong; Tang, Wei; Yang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and susceptibility to diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic coronary artery disease (CAD). A literature-based search was conducted to identify all relevant studies. The fixed or random effect pooled measure was calculated mainly at the allele level to determine heterogeneity bias among studies. Further stratified analyses and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Publication bias was examined by the modified Begg's and Egger's test. Twenty published articles with twenty-seven outcomes were included in the meta-analysis: 6 studies with a total of 1,333 cases and 3,011 controls were analyzed for the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetes risk, 7 studies with 1,060 cases and 1,139 controls for DN risk, 10 studies with 1,327 cases and 1,557 controls for DR and 4 studies with 610 cases and 1,042 controls for diabetic CAD risk respectively. Using allelic comparison (4G vs. 5G), the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism was observed to have no significant association with diabetes (REM OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96, 1.20), DN (REM OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.98, 1.25), DR (REM OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.97, 1.22) or diabetic CAD risk (REM OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.81, 1.42), and similar results were obtained in the dominant, recessive and co-dominant models. Our meta-analyses suggest that the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism might not be a risk factor for DM, DN, DR or diabetic CAD risk in the populations investigated. This conclusion warrants confirmation by further studies.

  9. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G Polymorphism in Association with Diabetes and Diabetic Complications Susceptibility: a Meta-Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Cui, Dai; Shi, Yun; Shen, Chong; Tang, Wei; Yang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and susceptibility to diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic coronary artery disease (CAD). A literature-based search was conducted to identify all relevant studies. The fixed or random effect pooled measure was calculated mainly at the allele level to determine heterogeneity bias among studies. Further stratified analyses and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Publication bias was examined by the modified Begg’s and Egger’s test. Twenty published articles with twenty-seven outcomes were included in the meta-analysis: 6 studies with a total of 1,333 cases and 3,011 controls were analyzed for the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetes risk, 7 studies with 1,060 cases and 1,139 controls for DN risk, 10 studies with 1,327 cases and 1,557 controls for DR and 4 studies with 610 cases and 1,042 controls for diabetic CAD risk respectively. Using allelic comparison (4G vs. 5G), the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism was observed to have no significant association with diabetes (REM OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96, 1.20), DN (REM OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.98, 1.25), DR (REM OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.97, 1.22) or diabetic CAD risk (REM OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.81, 1.42), and similar results were obtained in the dominant, recessive and co-dominant models. Our meta-analyses suggest that the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism might not be a risk factor for DM, DN, DR or diabetic CAD risk in the populations investigated. This conclusion warrants confirmation by further studies. PMID:24223897

  10. Tumour-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 in normal and neoplastic tissues of patients with squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity - clinical relevance and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Hundsdorfer, Brigitte; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Bock, Klaus Peter; Dettmar, Peer; Schmitt, Manfred; Kolk, Andreas; Pautke, Christoph; Horch, Hans-Henning

    2005-06-01

    The central role of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor, the plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), in tumour invasion and metastasis becomes more and more evident. In several studies, uPA and PAI-1 proved to be of prognostic relevance as shown for different types of cancer (e.g. breast, stomach, lung). Elevated antigen levels of uPA and/or PAI-1 predict poor outcome (relapse-free survival) for patients afflicted with cancer. For oral squamous cell carcinomas, however, the prognostic relevance of the tumour-associated proteolytic factors uPA and PAI-1 has still to be evaluated. In the present study, using tissue extracts of 79 oral cancer cases, 58 specimens of normal oral cavity mucosa and of 16 tumour positive lymph nodes taken from the same patients, uPA and PAI-1 antigen were determined by highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation was found between uPA and PAI-1 in tumour tissue, when compared with the normal mucosa of the same oral cavity. Median levels showed significant elevations in cancer tissue and in tumour positive lymph nodes versus normal oral mucosa. In patients with high levels of uPA or PAI-1, there were significantly more tumour relapses. There was no significant correlation between pathological TNM categories, grading, residual tumour category, tumour site and patient age. In summary, tumour uPA/PAI-1 content (as determined by ELISA) appears to be a strong independent prognostic factor for relapse-free survival in squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity. These observations might help to select patients with poor prognosis for additional adjuvant therapy in conjunction with complete surgical resection.

  11. Overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA with Diminished PAI-1 Related to Metastasis in Ductal Breast Cancer Patients Attending a Public Hospital in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Castañeda, Luis Miguel; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Evelin; García-Rodríguez, Francisco Mario; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Castro-Mussot, María Eugenia; Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteases and the fibrinolytic system are important protease systems interacting with each other in charge of remodeling and recycling of tissues. Their role in tumor invasion and metastasis is often discussed. In this study several metalloproteases such as MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 together with molecules from the fibrinolytic system like uPA, its receptor uPAR, and its inhibitor, PAI-1, were studied by immune-histochemistry to establish a comparison with and without metastasis. From the (118) primary tumors of Mexican patients with ductal breast cancer studied, 56% were grade II and 69% were size T2; the group with metastatic ganglia included 64 samples (54.3%). In patients with metastasis the estimated expression of MMP-3 and uPA (resp., 28% and 45%) was higher than that from no metastatic tumors; it means there is higher expression of both markers in metastatic tumors (p < 0.05). At the same time, metastatic tumors showed statistically significant lower signal of PAI-1 (24%) than tumors without metastasis (p < 0.05). We concluded that overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA, altogether with diminished expression of PAI-1 from metastatic tumors, might be a crucial step towards metastasis in ductal breast cancer. Nevertheless, additional studies in different populations are necessary to establish a pattern.

  12. Differential response patterns on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in compensation-seeking and non-compensation-seeking mild traumatic brain injury patients.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Douglas M; Galbreath, Jennifer; Brown, Michelle; Turnbull, Jane

    2012-01-01

    There is relatively little research on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) populations. There is also little research on how compensation-seeking status affects personality assessment results in MTBI patients. The current study examined the PAI scales and subscales in two MTBI groups, one composed of compensation-seeking MTBI patients and the other consisting of non-compensation-seeking MTBI patients. Results indicated significant differences on several scales and subscales between the two MTBI groups, with the compensation-seeking MTBI patients having significantly higher elevations on scales related to somatic preoccupation (Somatic Complaint Scale, SOM), emotional distress (Anxiety Scale, ANX; Anxiety Related Disorders Scale, ARD; Depression Scale, DEP), and the Negative Impression Management, NIM, validity scale. All the SOM subscales and the Anxiety Cognitive (ANX-C) and ANX Affective, ANX-A, subscales were also elevated in the compensation-seeking group. Results indicated that several scales on the PAI were sensitive to group differences in compensation-seeking status in MTBI patients.

  13. Overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA with Diminished PAI-1 Related to Metastasis in Ductal Breast Cancer Patients Attending a Public Hospital in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Barajas-Castañeda, Luis Miguel; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Evelin; García-Rodríguez, Francisco Mario; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteases and the fibrinolytic system are important protease systems interacting with each other in charge of remodeling and recycling of tissues. Their role in tumor invasion and metastasis is often discussed. In this study several metalloproteases such as MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 together with molecules from the fibrinolytic system like uPA, its receptor uPAR, and its inhibitor, PAI-1, were studied by immune-histochemistry to establish a comparison with and without metastasis. From the (118) primary tumors of Mexican patients with ductal breast cancer studied, 56% were grade II and 69% were size T2; the group with metastatic ganglia included 64 samples (54.3%). In patients with metastasis the estimated expression of MMP-3 and uPA (resp., 28% and 45%) was higher than that from no metastatic tumors; it means there is higher expression of both markers in metastatic tumors (p < 0.05). At the same time, metastatic tumors showed statistically significant lower signal of PAI-1 (24%) than tumors without metastasis (p < 0.05). We concluded that overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA, altogether with diminished expression of PAI-1 from metastatic tumors, might be a crucial step towards metastasis in ductal breast cancer. Nevertheless, additional studies in different populations are necessary to establish a pattern. PMID:27975070

  14. Development and preliminary validation of the Level of Care Index (LOCI) from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in a psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Antonius, Daniel; Stein, Michelle B; Siefert, Caleb J; Haggerty, Greg; Malone, Johanna C; O'Keefe, Sheila; Blais, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Research over the last decade has been promising in terms of the incremental utility of psychometric tools in predicting important clinical outcomes, such as mental health service utilization and inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new Level of Care Index (LOCI) from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Logistic regression was initially used in a development sample (n = 253) of psychiatric patients to identify unique PAI indicators associated with inpatient (n = 75) as opposed to outpatient (n = 178) status. Five PAI variables were ultimately retained (Suicidal Ideation, Antisocial Personality-Stimulus Seeking, Paranoia-Persecution, Negative Impression Management, and Depression-Affective) and were then aggregated into a single LOCI and independently evaluated in a second validation sample (n = 252). Results indicated the LOCI effectively differentiated inpatients from outpatients after controlling for demographic variables and was significantly associated with both internalizing and externalizing risk factors for psychiatric admission (range of ds = 0.46 for history of arrests to 0.88 for history of suicidal ideation). The LOCI was additionally found to be meaningfully associated with measures of normal personality, performance-based tests of psychological functioning, and measures of neurocognitive (executive) functioning. The clinical implications of these findings and potential utility of the LOCI are discussed.

  15. The Aula Espazio Observatory At The Universidad Del Pais Vasco (Spain): Planetary Observations For Graduate And Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.; Rojas, J. F.

    2010-10-01

    The Aula Espazio Gela is a facility at the School of Technical Engineering of the Universidad del Pais Vasco (Bilbao, Spain) dedicated to the education of undergarduated and gratuated students in the research and technology of space science activities. It also promotes the collaboration between the University and industrial spatial sector. One of the main elements of this facility is an astronomical observatory that is oriented to the activities of the students of the Master in Space Science and Technology. The main instrument is a 50 cm aperture Dall-Kirham telescope with equatorial mount completely robotized that includes different CCD cameras. Here we present some of the projects developed by graduate and under-graduate students in the field of the solar system. Explicitly we present some studies dedicated to the studies of planetary atmospheres and to acquire skills on the software management of planetary images. Aknowledgements: This project is supported by the Dpto. Innovación y Promoción Económica de la Diputación Foral de Bizkaia (Basque Country).

  16. [Ilya Ilich Metchnikov and Paul Ehrlich: 1908 Nobel Prize winners for their research on immunity].

    PubMed

    Lokaj, J; John, C

    2008-11-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908 was awarded to Ilya I. Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich for recognition of their work on immunity. Mechnikov have discovered phagocytes and phagocytosis as the basis of natural cellular immunity. His ,,phagocytic theory" is the principle of immunological concept "self and not self" as the prerequisition of physiological inflammation, and selfmaintaining of organism. Ehrlich developed the methods for standardization of antibody activity in immune sera, described neutralizing and complement-depending effect of antibodies and enunciated the ,"ide-chain" theory of the formation of antibodies. Their concept of the key-stone of immunity was different, but they expressed the basic paradigma of immunology: immunity imply the protection of identity and guarantee the integrity of organism. Both are the founders of immunology as the scientific discipline. Discoveries and conceptions of I. Mechnikov and P. Ehrlich exceedingly influenced development of immunology and are also applicable, instructive and suggestive in contemporary immunology and microbiology.

  17. The 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Thomas A. Steitz and the Structure of the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 200 years, there have been countless groundbreaking discoveries in biology and medicine at Yale University. However, one particularly noteworthy discovery with profoundly important and broad consequences happened here in just the past two decades. In 2009, Thomas Steitz, the Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for “studies of the structure and function of the ribosome,” along with Venkatraman Ramakrishnan of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science. This article covers the historical context of Steitz’s important discovery, the techniques his laboratory used to study the ribosome, and the impact that this research has had, and will have, on the future of biological and medical research. PMID:21698044

  18. The 2007 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for surface chemistry: understanding nanoscale phenomena at surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Michael

    2007-11-01

    The 2007 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Gerhard Ertl for his seminal work in the area of surface science, particularly at the gas-solid interface. Although Ertl began his career at a time when the term "nanotechnology" was not yet known, his contributions to the field have paved the way for many future scientists in this area and led to a deeper understanding of catalysis and other surface-specific processes at the nanoscale. Here, we summarize the scientific developments that guided early progress in surface science, and we explore the major advancements in Ertl's career, including his work on adsorption and oxidation of small molecules on metal surfaces. Significant contributions of other key scientists to this rich area are also presented.

  19. The 2010 millennium technology grand prize: dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gerald J

    2010-08-24

    The 2010 Millennium Technology Grand Prize was awarded to Michael Gratzel for his ground-breaking research that has led to the practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells. Although Gratzel began his research well before nanotechnology had the "buzz" that it does today, the mesoscopic thin films he has developed have paved the way for generations of scientists to exploit the nanoscale for energy conversion. In addition to practical application, his research has led to a deeper understanding of photoinitiated charge-transfer processes at semiconductor interfaces. Here, the key scientific developments that guided early progress in dye-sensitized solar cells are summarized, with emphasis on fundamental advances that have enabled practical application.

  20. Nobel Prize Recipient Eric Betzig Presents Lecture on Efforts to Improve High-Resolution Microscopy | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Eric Betzig, Ph.D., a 2014 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and a scientist at Janelia Research Campus (JRC), Howard Hughes Medical Institute, in Ashburn, Va., visited NCI at Frederick on Sept. 10 to present a Distinguished Scientist lecture and discuss the latest high-resolution microscopy techniques. Betzig co-invented photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) in collaboration with scientists at NIH. PALM achieves 10-fold improvement in spatial resolution of cells, going from the resolution limit of approximately 250 nm in standard optical microscopy down to approximately 20 nm, thus producing a so-called “super-resolution” image. Spatial resolution refers to the clarity of an image or, in other words, the smallest details that can be observed from an image.

  1. EDITORIAL: 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Dan; Wright, Guillaume

    2011-12-01

    To celebrate the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) the publishers of the journal, IOP Publishing, have awarded a prize for the five best articles published in ERL since the journal began in 2006. The procedure for deciding the winning articles was as thorough as possible to ensure that the most outstanding articles would win the prize. A shortlist of 25 nominated research articles, five for each year since ERL was launched, which were chosen based on a range of criteria including novelty, scientific impact, readership, broad appeal and wider media coverage, was selected. The ERL Editorial Board then assessed and rated these 25 articles in order to choose a winning article for each year. We would like to announce that the following articles have been awarded ERL's 5th anniversary best article prize: 2006/7 The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest Ilan Koren, Yoram J Kaufman, Richard Washington, Martin C Todd, Yinon Rudich, J Vanderlei Martins and Daniel Rosenfeld 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 2008 Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought Ning Zeng, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jose A Marengo, Ajit Subramaniam, Carlos A Nobre, Annarita Mariotti and J David Neelin 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002 2009 How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming? J A Lowe, C Huntingford, S C B Raper, C D Jones, S K Liddicoat and L K Gohar 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 2010 Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia Matti Kummu, Philip J Ward, Hans de Moel and Olli Varis 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 2011 Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Our congratulations go to these authors. In recognition of their outstanding work, we are delighted to offer all of the authors of the winning articles free

  2. News and Views: Diamond is new head of SKA; Did you read our `A&G' mobile issue? BBC writer wins astro journalism prize; Kavli prize recognizes work on Kuiper Belt objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-10-01

    Philip Diamond will become director general of the Square Kilometre Array this month, moving from Australia to the new SKA headquarters at Jodrell Bank Radio Observatory. Technology writer Katia Moskvitch has won the first European Astronomy Journalism Prize for her series of articles on the Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. Moskvitch will be the guest of the ESO at the inauguration of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Atacama desert in March 2013. The 2012 Kavli Prize in Astrophysics is shared between David C Jewitt (University of California, USA), Jane X Luu (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory, USA), and Michael E Brown (California Institute of Technology, USA) “for discovering and characterizing the Kuiper Belt and its largest members, work that led to a major advance in the understanding of the history of our planetary system”.

  3. Factors Associated with Fear of Falling among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in the Shih-Pai Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Hsi-Chung; Chou, Pesus

    2016-01-01

    Background Fear of falling is an important risk indicator for adverse health related outcomes in older adults. However, factors associated with fear of falling among community-dwelling older adults are not well-explored. Objectives To explore the quality of life and associated factors in fear of falling among older people in the Shih-Pai area in Taiwan. Methods This community-based survey recruited three thousand eight hundred and twenty-four older adults aged ≥ 65 years. The measurements included a structured questionnaire, including quality of life by using Short-Form 36, and information of fear of falling, fall history, demographics, medical conditions, insomnia, sleep quality, depression and subjective health through face-to-face interviews. Results A total of 53.4% of participants reported a fear of falling. The rate of fear of falling was higher in female subjects. Subjects with fear of falling had lower Short Form-36 scores both for men and women. Falls in the previous year, older age, insomnia, depression and worse subjective health were correlates of fear of falling for both sexes. Male-specific associations with fear of falling were the accessibility of medical help in an emergency, diabetes mellitus and stroke. In parallel, cardiovascular diseases were a female-specific correlate for fear of falling. Conclusions Fear of falling is prevalent among community-dwelling older adults. It is seems that there are gender differences in fear of falling with respect to the prevalence and associated factors in older adults. Gender differences should be considered when planning prevention and intervention strategies for fear of falling among older people. PMID:26933882

  4. SerpinB2 (PAI-2) Modulates Proteostasis via Binding Misfolded Proteins and Promotion of Cytoprotective Inclusion Formation

    PubMed Central

    Farrawell, Natalie; Shearer, Robert F.; Constantinescu, Patrick; Hatters, Danny M.; Schroder, Wayne A.; Suhrbier, Andreas; Wilson, Mark R.; Saunders, Darren N.; Ranson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    SerpinB2 (PAI-2), a member of the clade B family of serine protease inhibitors, is one of the most upregulated proteins following cellular stress. Originally described as an inhibitor of urokinase plasminogen activator, its predominant cytoplasmic localisation suggests an intracellular function. SerpinB2 has been reported to display cytoprotective properties in neurons and to interact with intracellular proteins including components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In the current study we explored the potential role of SerpinB2 as a modulator of proteotoxic stress. Initially, we transiently transfected wild-type SerpinB2 and SerpinB2-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with Huntingtin exon1-polyglutamine (fused C-terminally to mCherry). Inclusion body formation as result of Huntingtin aggregation was evident in the SerpinB2 expressing cells but significantly impaired in the SerpinB2-/- cells, the latter concomitant with loss in cell viability. Importantly, recovery of the wild-type phenotype and cell viability was rescued by retroviral transduction of SerpinB2 expression. SerpinB2 modestly attenuated Huntingtin and amyloid beta fibril formation in vitro and was able to bind preferentially to misfolded proteins. Given the modest chaperone-like activity of SerpinB2 we tested the ability of SerpinB2 to modulate UPS and autophagy activity using a GFP reporter system and autophagy reporter, respectively. Activity of the UPS was reduced and autophagy was dysregulated in SerpinB2-/- compared to wild-type MEFs. Moreover, we observed a non-covalent interaction between ubiquitin and SerpinB2 in cells using GFP-pulldown assays and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We conclude that SerpinB2 plays an important role in proteostasis as its loss leads to a proteotoxic phenotype associated with an inability to compartmentalize aggregating proteins and a reduced capacity of the UPS. PMID:26083412

  5. A Valentine's Day bouquet for Temperature readers: pleasing with prizes, searching for the right words, and keeping things mysterious

    PubMed Central

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial tells its readers that the journal Temperature awards its first prizes for best papers to Boris Kingma and Assaf Yacobi. It also discusses the use of several thermoregulation-related terms and expressions, including “cold temperature,” “thermoneutral temperature,” and “warm-sensitive” and offers, arguably, better alternatives. The editorial also contains a new puzzle: how can color affect temperature perception? PMID:27226997

  6. Measuring revolutionary biomedical science 1992-2006 using Nobel prizes, Lasker (clinical medicine) awards and Gairdner awards (NLG metric).

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The Nobel prize for medicine or physiology, the Lasker award for clinical medicine, and the Gairdner international award are given to individuals for their role in developing theories, technologies and discoveries which have changed the direction of biomedical science. These distinctions have been used to develop an NLG metric to measure research performance and trends in 'revolutionary' biomedical science with the aim of identifying the premier revolutionary science research institutions and nations from 1992-2006. I have previously argued that the number of Nobel laureates in the biomedical field should be expanded to about nine per year and the NLG metric attempts to predict the possible results of such an expansion. One hundred and nineteen NLG prizes and awards were made during the past fifteen years (about eight per year) when overlapping awards had been removed. Eighty-five were won by the USA, revealing a massive domination in revolutionary biomedical science by this nation; the UK was second with sixteen awards; Canada had five, Australia four and Germany three. The USA had twelve elite centres of revolutionary biomedical science, with University of Washington at Seattle and MIT in first position with six awards and prizes each; Rockefeller University and Caltech were jointly second placed with five. Surprisingly, Harvard University--which many people rank as the premier world research centre--failed to reach the threshold of three prizes and awards, and was not included in the elite list. The University of Oxford, UK, was the only institution outside of the USA which featured as a significant centre of revolutionary biomedical science. Long-term success at the highest level of revolutionary biomedical science (and probably other sciences) probably requires a sufficiently large number of individually-successful large institutions in open competition with one another--as in the USA. If this model cannot be replicated within smaller nations, then it implies

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-mediated transcription of miR-301a and miR-454 and their host gene SKA2 regulates endothelin-1 and PAI-1 expression in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Caryn S; Li, Chen; Malik, Punam; Tahara, Stanley M; Kalra, Vijay K

    2015-10-12

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) play important roles in pulmonary hypertension (PH) in sickle cell disease (SCD). Our previous studies show higher levels of placenta growth factor (PlGF) in SCD correlate with increased plasma levels of ET-1, PAI-1, and other physiological markers of PH. PlGF-mediated ET-1 and PAI-1 expression occurs via activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). However, relatively little is understood regarding post-transcriptional regulation of PlGF-mediated expression of ET-1 and PAI-1. Herein, we show PlGF treatment of endothelial cells reduced levels of miR-301a and miR-454 from basal levels. In addition, both miRNAs targeted the 3'-UTRs of ET-1 and PAI-1 mRNAs. These results were corroborated in the mouse model of SCD [Berkeley sickle mice (BK-SS)] and in SCD subjects. Plasma levels of miR-454 in SCD subjects were significantly lower compared with unaffected controls, which correlated with higher plasma levels of both ET-1 and PAI-1. Moreover, lung tissues from BK-SS mice showed significantly reduced levels of pre-miR-301a and concomitantly higher levels of ET-1 and PAI-1. Furthermore, we show that miR-301a/miR-454 located in the spindle and kinetochore-associated protein-2 (SKA2) transcription unit was co-transcriptionally regulated by both HIF-1α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) as demonstrated by SKA2 promoter mutational analysis and ChIP. Finally we show that fenofibrate, a PPAR-α agonist, increased the expression of miR-301a/miR-454 and SKA2 in human microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC) cells; the former were responsible for reduced expression of ET-1 and PAI-1. Our studies provide a potential therapeutic approach whereby fenofibrate-induced miR-301a/miR-454 expression can ameliorate PH and lung fibrosis by reduction in ET-1 and PAI-1 levels in SCD.

  8. The Nobel Prize as a Reward Mechanism in the Genomics Era: Anonymous Researchers, Visible Managers and the Ethics of Excellence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is regarded by many as one of the major scientific achievements in recent science history, a large-scale endeavour that is changing the way in which biomedical research is done and expected, moreover, to yield considerable benefit for society. Thus, since the completion of the human genome sequencing effort, a debate has emerged over the question whether this effort merits to be awarded a Nobel Prize and if so, who should be the one(s) to receive it, as (according to current procedures) no more than three individuals can be selected. In this article, the HGP is taken as a case study to consider the ethical question to what extent it is still possible, in an era of big science, of large-scale consortia and global team work, to acknowledge and reward individual contributions to important breakthroughs in biomedical fields. Is it still viable to single out individuals for their decisive contributions in order to reward them in a fair and convincing way? Whereas the concept of the Nobel prize as such seems to reflect an archetypical view of scientists as solitary researchers who, at a certain point in their careers, make their one decisive discovery, this vision has proven to be problematic from the very outset. Already during the first decade of the Nobel era, Ivan Pavlov was denied the Prize several times before finally receiving it, on the basis of the argument that he had been active as a research manager (a designer and supervisor of research projects) rather than as a researcher himself. The question then is whether, in the case of the HGP, a research effort that involved the contributions of hundreds or even thousands of researchers worldwide, it is still possible to “individualise” the Prize? The “HGP Nobel Prize problem” is regarded as an exemplary issue in current research ethics, highlighting a number of quandaries and trends involved in contemporary life science research practices more broadly. PMID:20730106

  9. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now. and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein's biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the univerre, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA's plans for the next great telescope in space, the Jarnes Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where rtars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  10. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now. and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein's biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA's plans for the next great telescope in space, the James Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where stars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  11. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now, and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein's biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA's plans for the next great telescope in space, the James Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where stars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  12. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now, and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA s Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein s biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA s plans for the next great telescope in space, the James Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where stars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  13. A Primal-Dual Approximation Algorithm for the Asymmetric Prize-Collecting TSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Viet Hung

    We present a primal-dual ⌈log(n) ⌉-approximation algorithm for the version of the asymmetric prize collecting traveling salesman problem, where the objective is to find a directed tour that visits a subset of vertices such that the length of the tour plus the sum of penalties associated with vertices not in the tour is as small as possible. The previous work on the problem [9] is based on the Held-Karp relaxation and heuristic methods such as the Frieze et al.'s heuristic [6] or the recent Asadpour et al.'s heuristic for the ATSP [2]. Depending on which of the two heuristics is used, it gives respectively 1 + ⌈log(n) ⌉ and 3+ 8log(n)/log(log(n)) as an approximation ratio. Our approximation ratio ⌈log(n) ⌉ outperforms the first in theory and the second in practice. Moreover, unlike the method in [9], our algorithm is combinatorial.

  14. Turbulence theory and infrared images falsify the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Turbulence defined by the inertial vortex force explains Planck scale big bang processes as temporary, rendering a permanent Einstein cosmological constant Λ and a positive expansion rate of the universe driven by anti-gravitational dark energy forces unnecessary. Large kinematic viscosity stresses during the plasma epoch from 1011 s to 1013 s cause fragmentation by proto-super-cluster-voids at 1012 s and proto-galaxies at the 1013 s transition to gas. Fragmentation of gas proto-galaxies is at Earth-mass planet viscous scales in Jeans mass clumps of a trillion planets. These Proto-Globular-star-Clusters (PGCs) freeze to form the dark matter of galaxies according to the Gibson (1996) Hydro-Gravitational-Dynamics (HGD) theory, and as observed by Schild (1996) by quasar microlensing. White dwarf carbon stars explode as Supernovae Ia events (SNeIa) when their mass increases to 1.44 solar, providing the standard candles used to justify the Nobel Prize claim of a positive expansion rate. However, if all stars form from primordial planet mergers in PGC clumps as claimed by HGD cosmology, the SNeIa become subject to a systematic dimming error depending on the line of sight to the event. New space telescope infrared images strongly support HGD cosmology.

  15. The structure of Lippmann heliochromes: Cajal and the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physics.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The 1908 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Luxembourgeois Gabriel Lippmann (1848-1921), Professor of Mathematical and Experimental Physics at la Sorbonne, for his method of reproducing colors photographically based on the theory of wave interference. In the preceding several years, the eminent neurohistologist - and avid photographer - Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) had been experimenting with Lippmann heliochromes, studying under the microscope the structure of the laminae of Zenker that produce mixed colors, and especially white. Those studies led to a series of technical papers by Cajal, the culmination being an article published 100 years ago in the Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. A few years later, Cajal published Photography in Colors, his classic monograph on the physicochemical principles of the 'art of Daguerre,' bearing further testimony to his exuberant productivity, far-reaching interests, and scientific genius. The present article reflects on the workings of the mind of Cajal and his fundamental knowledge that was a precondition for his success in neurohistology. It highlights the links between the early photographic studies of Cajal and Lippmann, masters of the biological and physical sciences, respectively. Special emphasis is placed on Lippmann's discovery of heliochromes and the microscopic analyses performed on them by Cajal, including elements from relevant contemporary studies and discoveries.

  16. Thrombophilic genetic factors PAI-1 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT as risk factors of alcohol, cryptogenic liver cirrhosis and portal vein thrombosis, in a Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Mario; Pasta, Francesca; Pasta, Linda

    2015-08-15

    The thrombophilic genetic factors (THRGFs), PAI-1 4G-4G, MTHFR 677TT, V Leiden 506Q and Prothrombin 20210A, were studied as risk factors in 865 Caucasian patients with liver cirrhosis, consecutively enrolled from June 2008 to January 2014. A total of 582 HCV, 80 HBV, 94 alcohol, (82 with more than one etiologic factor) and 191 cryptogenic patients with liver cirrhosis had been consecutively enrolled; 243 patients showed portal vein thrombosis (PVT). At least one of the above THRGFs was present in 339/865 patients (39.2%). PAI-1 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT were the most frequent THRGFs, statistically significant in patients with alcohol, cryptogenic liver cirrhosis, and PVT: respectively 24 and 28, 50 and 73, and 65 and 83 (all chi-square tests>3.84, and p values<0.05). Two logistic regression analysis, using PAI-1 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT, as dependent variable, confirmed the independent significant relationship of these THRGFs with alcohol, cryptogenic liver cirrhosis and PVT. PAI 1 and MTHFR 677 genotypes, deviated from those expected in populations in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (all p values<0.05), in the subgroups of patients with alcohol, cryptogenic liver cirrhosis and presence of PVT. Our study shows the pivotal role of PAI-1 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT in patients with alcohol, cryptogenic liver cirrhosis, and PVT, in a Caucasian population. In conclusion, thrombo and fibro-genetic mechanisms of PAI-1 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT, could have a role in the development of liver cirrhosis, mainly in patients without HCV and HBV, and PVT.

  17. [Maria Skłodowska-Curie--her chemistry at the centenary of the second Nobel Prize].

    PubMed

    Zagórski, Zbigniew Paweł; Kornacka, Ewa Maria

    2012-01-01

    The article presents from the perspective of one hundred years the work of Maria Curie-Skłodowska, which in many cases was ahead of the state of knowledge of the time. It opened new horizons and for this reason we made many digressions. The fact of awarding her the Nobel Prize twice is a sensation enough to present the values of careful activity of the Nobel Prize Committee that emphasizes the importance of Maria's achievements. A significant element of Maria Skłodowska-Curie's achievements was still mysterious character of the radiation in her time, and only chemical approach made it possible to organise the phenomena and explain the origin of the radiation. The essence of the research was an arduous separation of components following the track of growing radiation of successive fractions of preparations. This research was a start of the technology of educement of dispersed elements in great mass of materials. We underline the paramount role of the chemical research Maria Skłodowska conducted while still in Warsaw in the laboratories of the Museum of Industry and Agriculture under the guidance of an excellent chemist Józef Jerzy Boguski. Her research in Paris was the origin of the semi-commercial scale in chemistry and setting aside a special shed outside the university building was the beginning of the institutes that now function beyond universities and are key element of scientific and technical progress. Technology of splitting developed by Maria Skłodowska-Curie was applied also by other radiochemists, e.g. By Otto Hahn. Lively movement in radiochemistry of her lifetime resulted in Maria's disputes with e.g. German chemist Marckwald, who questioned the originality of polonium. The scientific disputes like this one Maria won triumphantly although in several others she had to accept opponents' argument, as in the case of radon. Her experiments were planned with utmost rationality as it was with the rejection of the hypothesis saying that radioactivity was

  18. Paul Dirac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, Abraham; Jacob, Maurice; Olive, David I.; Atiyah, Michael F.

    2005-09-01

    Preface Peter Goddard; Dirac memorial address Stephen Hawking; 1. Paul Dirac: aspects of his life and work Abraham Pais; 2. Antimatter Maurice Jacob; 3. The monopole David Olive; 4. The Dirac equation and geometry Michael F. Atiyah.

  19. Paul Dirac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, Abraham; Jacob, Maurice; Olive, David I.; Atiyah, Michael F.

    1998-02-01

    Preface Peter Goddard; Dirac memorial address Stephen Hawking; 1. Paul Dirac: aspects of his life and work Abraham Pais; 2. Antimatter Maurice Jacob; 3. The monopole David Olive; 4. The Dirac equation and geometry Michael F. Atiyah.

  20. Frank Isakson Prize for Optical Effects in Solids: Optical spectroscopy and mechanisms of superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, Dirk

    vibrations of the lattice, and where the electron-electron interaction is purely repulsive. Invited talk because of the Frank Isakson Prize 2016.

  1. Oscar II's prize competition and the error in Poincaré's memoir on the three body problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow-Green, J.

    1994-12-01

    In the autumn of 1890 Henri Poincaré's memoir on the three body problem was published in the journal Acta Mathematica as the winning entry in the international prize competition sponsored by Oscar II, King of Sweden and Norway, to mark his 60th birthday on January 21, 1889. Today, Poincaré's published memoir is renowned for containing the first mathematical description of chaotic behavior in a dynamical system. Correspondence preserved at the Institut Mittag-Leffler reveals that the competition was beleaguered by difficulties throughout. In particular, it has emerged that only weeks before the prize-winning memoir was due to be published, Poincaré discovered an error in his work which forced him to make very substantial changes. Indeed it was only as a result of correcting the error that he discovered the existence of what today are known as homoclinic points. This paper is an account of the troubled history of the competition together with an explanation of the error in Poincaré's memoir.

  2. The Contributions of Paul Ehrlich to Pharmacology: A Tribute on the Occasion of the Centenary of His Nobel Prize

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Fèlix; Rosich, Laia

    2008-01-01

    On the centenary of Paul Ehrlich's Nobel Prize, this German researcher deserves to be remembered as a pioneer in a large number of scientific disciplines. As a result of his enthusiasm and scientific abilities, dedication, and contacts with other scientists of his time, he was able to make countless contributions in fields as diverse as histology, haematology, immunology, oncology, microbiology and pharmacology, among others. Although the Swedish award was meant to recognize the standardization of the manufacture of antidiphtheria serum, it was the discovery of arsphenamine (Salvarsan) for the treatment of syphilis which won him wider international acclaim. From a pharmacological perspective, Ehrlich's outstanding contributions include dissemination of the ‘magic bullet’ concept for the synthesis of antibacterials, introduction of concepts such as chemoreceptor and chemotherapy, and linking the chemical structure of compounds to their pharmacological activity. These achievements took place within the framework he established for the transition from experimental pharmacology to therapeutic pharmacology. He introduced a modern research system based on the synthesis of multiple chemical structures for pharmacological screening in animal models of disease states. These contributions were undoubtedly decisive in propitiating the wider development of antibiotics decades later. For these reasons, it is fitting to mark the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize awarded to this great scientist by commemorating the importance of his contributions to the advance of pharmacology. PMID:18679046

  3. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Ivan Petrovic Pavlov: their parallel scientific lives, schools and nobel prizes.

    PubMed

    Rozo, Jairo A; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal was not only a great scientist but he was also a dedicated teacher who managed to create his own School in Spain. Cajal was active at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, a period in which Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, another great contemporary scientist, also established a strong School in Russia. While these two acclaimed scientists shared a similar vision on science, a view they also conveyed to their disciples, they applied quite distinct criteria in the way they dealt with their followers. Interestingly, despite the geographic and idiomatic barriers that had to be overcome, the paths of these two great figures of XX century science crossed at least three times. First when they competed for the City of Moscow Prize, second when they both attended the "Congreso Internacional de Medicina de Madrid" (Medicine International Congress in Madrid) in 1903 and finally, they competed on four consecutive occasions for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Here we discuss their scientific vision, their different attitudes in the interaction with disciples and the distinct circumstances in which their paths crossed.

  4. The contributions of Paul Ehrlich to pharmacology: a tribute on the occasion of the centenary of his Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Fèlix; Rosich, Laia

    2008-01-01

    On the centenary of Paul Ehrlich's Nobel Prize, this German researcher deserves to be remembered as a pioneer in a large number of scientific disciplines. As a result of his enthusiasm and scientific abilities, dedication, and contacts with other scientists of his time, he was able to make countless contributions in fields as diverse as histology, haematology, immunology, oncology, microbiology and pharmacology, among others. Although the Swedish award was meant to recognize the standardization of the manufacture of antidiphtheria serum, it was the discovery of arsphenamine (Salvarsan) for the treatment of syphilis which won him wider international acclaim. From a pharmacological perspective, Ehrlich's outstanding contributions include dissemination of the 'magic bullet' concept for the synthesis of antibacterials, introduction of concepts such as chemoreceptor and chemotherapy, and linking the chemical structure of compounds to their pharmacological activity. These achievements took place within the framework he established for the transition from experimental pharmacology to therapeutic pharmacology. He introduced a modern research system based on the synthesis of multiple chemical structures for pharmacological screening in animal models of disease states. These contributions were undoubtedly decisive in propitiating the wider development of antibiotics decades later. For these reasons, it is fitting to mark the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize awarded to this great scientist by commemorating the importance of his contributions to the advance of pharmacology.

  5. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Ivan Petrovic Pavlov: their parallel scientific lives, schools and nobel prizes

    PubMed Central

    Rozo, Jairo A.; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal was not only a great scientist but he was also a dedicated teacher who managed to create his own School in Spain. Cajal was active at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, a period in which Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, another great contemporary scientist, also established a strong School in Russia. While these two acclaimed scientists shared a similar vision on science, a view they also conveyed to their disciples, they applied quite distinct criteria in the way they dealt with their followers. Interestingly, despite the geographic and idiomatic barriers that had to be overcome, the paths of these two great figures of XX century science crossed at least three times. First when they competed for the City of Moscow Prize, second when they both attended the “Congreso Internacional de Medicina de Madrid” (Medicine International Congress in Madrid) in 1903 and finally, they competed on four consecutive occasions for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Here we discuss their scientific vision, their different attitudes in the interaction with disciples and the distinct circumstances in which their paths crossed. PMID:26082688

  6. Do Nobel Laureates Create Prize-Winning Networks? An Analysis of Collaborative Research in Physiology or Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Caroline S.; Horlings, Edwin; Whetsell, Travis A.; Mattsson, Pauline; Nordqvist, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine who received the Prize between 1969 and 2011 are compared to a matched group of scientists to examine productivity, impact, coauthorship and international collaboration patterns embedded within research networks. After matching for research domain, h-index, and year of first of publication, we compare bibliometric statistics and network measures. We find that the Laureates produce fewer papers but with higher average citations. The Laureates also produce more sole-authored papers both before and after winning the Prize. The Laureates have a lower number of coauthors across their entire careers than the matched group, but are equally collaborative on average. Further, we find no differences in international collaboration patterns. The Laureates coauthor network reveals significant differences from the non-Laureate network. Laureates are more likely to build bridges across a network when measuring by average degree, density, modularity, and communities. Both the Laureate and non-Laureate networks have “small world” properties, but the Laureates appear to exploit “structural holes” by reaching across the network in a brokerage style that may add social capital to the network. The dynamic may be making the network itself highly attractive and selective. These findings suggest new insights into the role "star scientists" in social networks and the production of scientific discoveries. PMID:26230622

  7. Do Nobel Laureates Create Prize-Winning Networks? An Analysis of Collaborative Research in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Caroline S; Horlings, Edwin; Whetsell, Travis A; Mattsson, Pauline; Nordqvist, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine who received the Prize between 1969 and 2011 are compared to a matched group of scientists to examine productivity, impact, coauthorship and international collaboration patterns embedded within research networks. After matching for research domain, h-index, and year of first of publication, we compare bibliometric statistics and network measures. We find that the Laureates produce fewer papers but with higher average citations. The Laureates also produce more sole-authored papers both before and after winning the Prize. The Laureates have a lower number of coauthors across their entire careers than the matched group, but are equally collaborative on average. Further, we find no differences in international collaboration patterns. The Laureates coauthor network reveals significant differences from the non-Laureate network. Laureates are more likely to build bridges across a network when measuring by average degree, density, modularity, and communities. Both the Laureate and non-Laureate networks have "small world" properties, but the Laureates appear to exploit "structural holes" by reaching across the network in a brokerage style that may add social capital to the network. The dynamic may be making the network itself highly attractive and selective. These findings suggest new insights into the role "star scientists" in social networks and the production of scientific discoveries.

  8. The Dual Diverse Dynamic Reversible Effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper on EPCR and PAI-1 Inside Vascular Endothelial Cells With and Without LPS Challenge.

    PubMed

    Karabıyık, Afife; Yılmaz, Erkan; Güleç, Sükrü; Haznedaroğlu, Ibrahim; Akar, Nejat

    2012-12-01

    Amaç: Ankaferd, Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum ve Urtica dioica bitkilerindenoluşan bir karışımdır. Kanamayı durdurucu etkisinden dolayı topikal hemostatik ajan olarak kullanılmaktadır.Hemostatik çalışma mekanizması araştırılmaktadır. Koagülasyon faktörleri II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI ve XII seviyeleriAnkaferd’den etkilenmemektedir. Çalışmamızda Ankaferd’in endotel üzerindeki ve immün yanıttaki etkisini araştırmakamacıyla, İnsan Umbilical Ven Endotel Hücreleri (HUVEC) kullanılarak Endotelyal Protein C Reseptörü (EPCR) vePlazminojen Aktivatör İnhibitör (PAI-1) gen ekspresyonları üzerindeki etkisi araştırılmış ve farklı doz ve zamanlardaoluşturduğu değişikliklerin incelenmesi, lipopolisakkarit (LPS) muamelesinden sonra EPCR ve PAI-1 ekspresyonlarıüzerindeki olası etkisinin gösterilmesi amaçlanmıştır.Gereç ve Yöntemler: HUVEC’lere 10 µl ve 100 µl konsantrasyonlarda Ankaferd 5 dk, 25 dk, 50 dk, 6 saat ve 24saat süreyle uygulanmıştır. Ayrıca immün yanıt üzerindeki etkisinin incelenebilmesi için 10 µg/ml LPS ile 1 saatlikmuamelenin ardından hücreler 10 µl ve 100 µl Ankaferd’le birlikte 5 dk, 25 dk, 50 dk ve 6 saatlik sürelerde maruzbırakılmıştır. HUVEC hücrelerinden RNA izolasyonu yapılmış; EPCR ve PAI-1 gen ekspresyonları incelenmiştir.Bulgular: Yapılan mikroskobik incelemede Ankaferd uygulamasıyla hücrelerin yüzeyden kalkıp toplanarak birbirlerineyapıştıkları ve 24 saatin içerisinde büyüme ve gelişmelerinin normale döndüğü gözlenmiştir. Bu, Ankaferd’in etkisininzamanla azaldığı anlamına gelebilir. Ankaferd muamelesiyle başlangıçta gözlenen EPCR ve PAI-1 ekspresyonundakideğişim zamanla azalmıştır. Ayrıca ekspresyonlardaki hızlı değişim göz önüne alındığında Ankaferd’in artankonsantrasyonlarda etkisini daha da fazla gösterdiği söylenebilir. Böylece Ankaferd’in EPCR ve PAI-1

  9. News and Views: A VISTA of the Orion Nebula; Grote Reber Award; Leverhulme Prize; GNSS workshop; Farming in space; Space messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    The recipient of the 2010 Grote Reber Award is Dr Alan Rogers, a Research Affiliate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory. Matt King, a Reader in Polar Geodesy in the School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences at the University of Newcastle, was awarded a Philip Leverhulme Prize in 2009.

  10. University of Illinois at Chicago and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Win Top Prizes in EPAs Campus RainWorks Challenge

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO (April 22, 2015) -- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 5 Administrator Susan Hedman today awarded the University of Illinois at Chicago and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign first and second prizes in the EPA Campus RainWorks

  11. SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop Solar: A Competition To Spur Low-Cost Rooftop Solar Installations Across The Nation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    The SunShot Prize encourages novel public-private partnerships, original business models, and innovative approaches to installing clean, renewable solar energy. The sustainable business strategies developed by participants will provide transferable lessons that can be applied nationwide to hasten America's transition to affordable clean energy in a post-subsidy market.

  12. Written on the Writer's Face: Facial Width-to-Height Ratio among Nominees and Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebuda, Izabela; Karwowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), an established marker of testosterone level and dominance, and eminent writers' achievement. The fWHR of laureates (N = 39) and nominees (N = 247) of the Nobel Prize in Literature 1901-1950 was measured together with historiometric data. It was demonstrated that…

  13. Abraham Lincoln and the Pillars of Liberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Diana J.

    2002-01-01

    In this essay, Diana Schaub, associate professor and chair of the Department of Political Science at Loyola College in Maryland, asserts that the 9/11 attack on America showed students the fallacy not of relativism, but of toleration. They are now aware that there are limits to toleration. By giving such a vivid display of the horrors of…

  14. Essay: Samuel Abraham Goudsmit (1902-1978).

    PubMed

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2008-07-04

    When Sam Goudsmit was 23, he and George Uhlenbeck hypothesized that the electron had spin. Sam was a well-known atomic physicist working at the University of Michigan when World War II began. During the war he first worked on radar at the MIT Radiation Lab, and then in the waning days of the war in Europe he led a mission to determine how far the Nazis had gotten in developing an atomic bomb. After chairing the Physics Department at Brookhaven, in 1950 APS named Goudsmit Managing Editor of Physical Review and Reviews of Modern Physics; in 1966 he was named Editor-in-Chief. He founded Physical Review Letters in 1958.

  15. Essay: Samuel Abraham Goudsmit (1902 1978)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2008-07-01

    When Sam Goudsmit was 23, he and George Uhlenbeck hypothesized that the electron had spin. Sam was a well-known atomic physicist working at the University of Michigan when World War II began. During the war he first worked on radar at the MIT Radiation Lab, and then in the waning days of the war in Europe he led a mission to determine how far the Nazis had gotten in developing an atomic bomb. After chairing the Physics Department at Brookhaven, in 1950 APS named Goudsmit Managing Editor of Physical Review and Reviews of Modern Physics; in 1966 he was named Editor-in-Chief. He founded Physical Review Letters in 1958.

  16. Chaffee Landfill... G. Abraham Petition Response

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. The Hyper-Commons: how open science prizes can expand and level the medical research playing field.

    PubMed

    Hynek, Paul

    2008-12-01

    The largest industry in America is increasingly incapable of serving its customers. Over-fencing of the information commons has led to unaffordable medicine, for want of which millions of Americans and people around the world go without lifesaving treatments. Eliminating patent distribution exclusivity altogether, however, is not feasible, given the entrenched nature of the health-care industry. This paper proposes a program of voluntary Open Science Prizes that would draw large numbers of new players, who would in turn produce much new medical innovation, provide academic priority recognition, and develop a growing body of patent-beating prior art that would serve as public domain firewalls on a new supranational Hyper-Commons.

  18. Performance of a cavity-method-based algorithm for the prize-collecting Steiner tree problem on graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biazzo, Indaco; Braunstein, Alfredo; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2012-08-01

    We study the behavior of an algorithm derived from the cavity method for the prize-collecting steiner tree (PCST) problem on graphs. The algorithm is based on the zero temperature limit of the cavity equations and as such is formally simple (a fixed point equation resolved by iteration) and distributed (parallelizable). We provide a detailed comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms on a wide range of existing benchmarks, networks, and random graphs. Specifically, we consider an enhanced derivative of the Goemans-Williamson heuristics and the dhea solver, a branch and cut integer linear programming based approach. The comparison shows that the cavity algorithm outperforms the two algorithms in most large instances both in running time and quality of the solution. Finally we prove a few optimality properties of the solutions provided by our algorithm, including optimality under the two postprocessing procedures defined in the Goemans-Williamson derivative and global optimality in some limit cases.

  19. Prizes, lectures, and awards of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons Section on Tumors.

    PubMed

    Barker, Fred G; McDermott, Michael W

    2005-04-15

    An important goal of the Section on Tumors of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) and Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS) since its founding in 1985 has been to foster both education and research in the field of brain tumor treatment. As one means of achieving this, the Section awards a number of prizes, research grants, and named lectures at the annual meetings of the AANS and CNS. After a brief examination of similar honors that were given in recognition of pioneering work by Knapp, Cushing, and other early brain tumor researchers, the authors describe the various awards given by the AANS/CNS Section on Tumors since its founding, their philanthropic donors, and the recipients of the awards. The subsequent career of the recipients is briefly examined, in terms of the rate of full publication of award-winning abstracts and achievement of grant funding by awardees.

  20. All Might Have Won, But Not All Have the Prize: Optimal Treatment for Substance Abuse Among Adolescents with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Spas, Jayson; Ramsey, Susan; Paiva, Andrea L.; Stein, L.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence from the literature on treatment outcomes indicates that substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems varies widely. Treatments commonly used among this population are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 12-step facilitation, multisystemic therapy (MST), psychoeducation (PE), and motivational interviewing (MI). This manuscript thoroughly and systematically reviews the available literature to determine which treatment is optimal for substance-abusing adolescents with conduct problems. Results suggest that although there are several evidence-based and empirically supported treatments, those that incorporate family-based intervention consistently provide the most positive treatment outcomes. In particular, this review further reveals that although many interventions have gained empirical support over the years, only one holds the prize as being the optimal treatment of choice for substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems. PMID:23170066

  1. Bernard Lerer: Recipient of the 2014 Inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine (Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics)

    PubMed Central

    Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dove, Edward S.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hafen, Ernst; Kesim, Belgin Eroğlu; Kolker, Eugene; Lee, Edmund J.D.; LLerena, Adrian; Nacak, Muradiye; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Someya, Toshiyuki; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tomlinson, Brian; Vayena, Effy; Warnich, Louise; Yaşar, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article announces the recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine by the Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics (PRACP): Bernard Lerer, professor of psychiatry and director of the Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. The Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize is given to an exceptional interdisciplinary scholar who has made highly innovative and enduring contributions to global omics science and personalized medicine, with both vertical and horizontal (transdisciplinary) impacts. The prize is established in memory of a beloved colleague, mentor, and friend, the late Professor Werner Kalow, who cultivated the idea and practice of pharmacogenetics in modern therapeutics commencing in the 1950s. PRACP, the prize's sponsor, is one of the longest standing learned societies in the Asia-Pacific region, and was founded by Kalow and colleagues more than two decades ago in the then-emerging field of pharmacogenetics. In announcing this inaugural prize and its winner, we seek to highlight the works of prize winner, Professor Lerer. Additionally, we contextualize the significance of the prize by recalling the life and works of Professor Kalow and providing a brief socio-technical history of the rise of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine as a veritable form of 21st century scientific practice. The article also fills a void in previous social science analyses of pharmacogenetics, by bringing to the fore the works of Kalow from 1995 to 2008, when he presciently noted the rise of yet another field of postgenomics inquiry—pharmacoepigenetics—that railed against genetic determinism and underscored the temporal and spatial plasticity of genetic components of drug response, with invention of the repeated drug administration (RDA) method that estimates the dynamic heritabilities of drug response. The prize goes a

  2. [Changes of focal and brainstem neurologic signs in patients with traumatic brain injury and their dependence on the -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene].

    PubMed

    Potapov, O; Kmyta, O

    2014-09-01

    Regressive course of neurological signs and symptoms is an important factor of evaluating the clinical course and treatment efficacy of traumatic brain injury. This article presents changes evaluation of focal and brainstem symptoms in 200 patients with traumatic brain injury, and determines the association between these changes and the -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene. We have found a connection between 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes for the studied polymorphism and the changes of focal and brainstem symptoms in patients with traumatic brain injury. Thus, we have demonstrated that the clinical course of traumatic brain injury is influenced by the -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene.

  3. A novel tumor-promoting role for nuclear factor IA in glioblastomas is mediated through negative regulation of p53, p21, and PAI1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Sung; Xiao, Jiping; Patel, Parita; Schade, Jake; Wang, Jinhua; Deneen, Benjamin; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Song, Hae-Ri

    2014-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor IA (NFIA), a transcription factor and essential regulator in embryonic glial development, is highly expressed in human glioblastoma (GBM) compared with normal brain, but its contribution to GBM and cancer pathogenesis is unknown. Here we demonstrate a novel role for NFIA in promoting growth and migration of GBM and establish the molecular mechanisms mediating these functions. Methods To determine the role of NFIA in glioma, we examined the effects of NFIA in growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. We used gain-of-function (overexpression) and loss-of-function (shRNA knockdown) of NFIA in primary patient-derived GBM cells and established glioma cell lines in culture and in intracranial xenografts in mouse brains. Results Knockdown of native NFIA blocked tumor growth and induced cell death and apoptosis. Complementing this, NFIA overexpression accelerated growth, proliferation, and migration of GBM in cell culture and in mouse brains. These NFIA tumor-promoting effects were mediated via transcriptional repression of p53, p21, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) through specific NFIA-recognition sequences in their promoters. Importantly, the effects of NFIA on proliferation and apoptosis were independent of TP53 mutation status, a finding especially relevant for GBM, in which TP53 is frequently mutated. Conclusion NFIA is a modulator of GBM growth and migration, and functions by distinct regulation of critical oncogenic pathways that govern the malignant behavior of GBM. PMID:24305710

  4. A great honor and a huge challenge for China: You-you TU getting the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Da; Yang, Xue; Guo, Jun-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Public excitement over the award of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to the Chinese medical scientist You-you TU for the discovery of a herbal anti-malarial, may mislead the Chinese people into believing that traditional Chinese herbal medicine can be used to cure all disease without any adverse effects. The aim of this paper is to explain the advantages and disadvantages of herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) objectively. PMID:27143269

  5. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Clean Energy Entrepreneurship Prize 2008 Final Report DOE Award # DE-FG36-07GO17110

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-09

    The MIT Clean Energy Prize was established to accelerate the pace of innovation in the energy space, specifically with regard to clean energy and to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Through a prize structure designed to incent new ideas to be brought forward coupled with a supporting infrastructure to educate, mentor, network and provide a platform for visibility, it was believed we could achieve this goal in a very efficient and effective manner. The grand prize of $200K was meant to be the highly visible and attractive carrot to achieve this and through a public-private partnership of sponsors who held a long term view (i.e., they were not Venture Capitalists or law firms looking for short term business through advantaged deal flow). It was also designed to achieve this in a highly inclusive manner. Towards this end, while MIT was the platform on which the competition was run, and this brought some instant cache and differentiation, the competition was open to all teams which had at least one US citizen. Both professional teams and student teams were eligible.

  6. The Bohr paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-05-01

    In his book Niels Bohr's Times, the physicist Abraham Pais captures a paradox in his subject's legacy by quoting three conflicting assessments. Pais cites Max Born, of the first generation of quantum physics, and Werner Heisenberg, of the second, as saying that Bohr had a greater influence on physics and physicists than any other scientist. Yet Pais also reports a distinguished younger colleague asking with puzzlement and scepticism "What did Bohr really do?".

  7. De-identification Methods for Open Health Data: The Case of the Heritage Health Prize Claims Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Luk; Koru, Gunes; Eze, Benjamin; Gaudette, Lisa; Neri, Emilio; Rose, Sean; Howard, Jeremy; Gluck, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Background There are many benefits to open datasets. However, privacy concerns have hampered the widespread creation of open health data. There is a dearth of documented methods and case studies for the creation of public-use health data. We describe a new methodology for creating a longitudinal public health dataset in the context of the Heritage Health Prize (HHP). The HHP is a global data mining competition to predict, by using claims data, the number of days patients will be hospitalized in a subsequent year. The winner will be the team or individual with the most accurate model past a threshold accuracy, and will receive a US $3 million cash prize. HHP began on April 4, 2011, and ends on April 3, 2013. Objective To de-identify the claims data used in the HHP competition and ensure that it meets the requirements in the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule. Methods We defined a threshold risk consistent with the HIPAA Privacy Rule Safe Harbor standard for disclosing the competition dataset. Three plausible re-identification attacks that can be executed on these data were identified. For each attack the re-identification probability was evaluated. If it was deemed too high then a new de-identification algorithm was applied to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. We performed an actual evaluation of re-identification risk using simulated attacks and matching experiments to confirm the results of the de-identification and to test sensitivity to assumptions. The main metric used to evaluate re-identification risk was the probability that a record in the HHP data can be re-identified given an attempted attack. Results An evaluation of the de-identified dataset estimated that the probability of re-identifying an individual was .0084, below the .05 probability threshold specified for the competition. The risk was robust to violations of our initial assumptions. Conclusions It was possible to ensure that the probability of re

  8. The inhibitory effect of flavonoids on interleukin-8 release by human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells infected with cag PAI (+) Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Szendzielorz, Kornelia; Mazur, Bogdan; Król, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach induces gastritis and causes an immune response. Exposure of gastric epithelial cell lines to this germ induces the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8), which is a potent PMN-activating chemotactic cytokine. Interleukin-8 is usually elevated in gastric biopsy samples of patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and significantly increases in the supernatant of in vitro cultivated biopsy samples of gastric mucosa with active H. pylori gastritis. Interleukin-8 is an activating factor for leucocytes and other pro-inflammatory factors, free radicals, and proteolytic enzymes. That is why natural compounds potentially useful in therapy are still investigated – among them flavonoids. They reveal anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and significantly inhibit the gastric mucosa damage. The aim of the study Was the estimation of the anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids on H. pylori-induced activation of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells (AGS). After infection of AGS cells by cag PAI (+) H. pylori in vitro, secretion of IL-8, effects of flavonoids on viability of AGS cells, and effects of flavonoids on increase of H. pylori were determined. Such flavones as chrysin, quercetin, kaemferide, flavanone, galangin, and kaempferol were examined. Results This study has shown an inhibitory effect of flavonoids on the release of IL-8 through infected AGS cells (except chrysin), and no toxic effects to AGS cells were observed. Galangin revealed antibacterial effects against H. pylori. Flavonoids limit the inflammatory process through the inhibition of IL-8 release in infected AGS cells with H. pylori. The strongest inhibitor of IL-8 was galangin. PMID:27833438

  9. X-Ray Spectroscopy, The Ellen Richards Prize, and Nuclear Proliferation: The Inspiring Life of Katherine Chamberlain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geramita, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    In 1924, Katherine Chamberlain became the first woman to receive a doctorate in physics from the University of Michigan. As one of the first women in the world to earn a doctorate in physics, Katherine reached a level prominence in the scientific community that few women had achieved. As a scientist, Katherine studied the outer energy levels of various elements using x-ray spectroscopy at the University of Michigan. In her thesis, she showed the potential for x-rays to reduce highly oxidized compounds and in 1925 won the Ellen Richards Prize for the world's best scientific paper by a woman. As an educator, she taught an introduction to photography course for thirty-five years in the hopes of creating new ways to inspire a love for physics in her students. As a community leader, she worked with The United World Federalists and The Michigan Memorial Phoenix Project to find peaceful uses for nuclear energy. Looking at these aspects of Chamberlain's life offers a unique perspective on the physics community of the 1920's, physics education, and the nuclear panic that followed WWII.

  10. From fission to fusion: a perspective on the research that won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2013.

    PubMed

    Ray, Krishanu

    2014-03-01

    Secretion is widespread in all eukaryotic cells: all of us experience this in the course of daily life--saliva, mucus, sweat, tears, bile juice, adrenalin, etc.--the list is extremely long. How does a cell manage to repeatedly spit out some stuff without losing the rest? The answer is: through regulated vesicle trafficking within the cell. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013 was awarded to Drs Randy Schekman, James E Rothman and Thomas C Südhof for their 'discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells'. Dr Randy Schekman and his colleagues discovered a number of genes required for vesicle trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi; the James E Rothman group unravelled the protein machinery that allows vesicles to bud off from the membrane and fuse to their targets; and Dr Thomas C Südhof along with his colleagues revealed how calcium ions could instruct vesicles to fuse and discharge their contents with precision. These enabled the biotechnology industry to produce a variety of pharmaceutical and industrial products like insulin and hepatitis B vaccines, in a cost-efficient manner, using yeast and tissue cultured cells.

  11. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize in Experimental Particle Physics: Establishing and testing the Standard Model of flavor physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitlin, David

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of an unexpectedly long B meson lifetime made it feasible to measure the CP -violating asymmetry in B meson decay. The measurement of these asymmetries were made by the BABAR Collaboration at SLAC and the Belle Collaboration at KEK, using the PEP-II and KEKB asymmetric e+e- colliders. The asymmetry in the decay rates of B0 and B0 mesons to CP eigenstate final states, due to a non-zero phase in the three quark generation CKM matrix, can be directly interpreted using the Unitarity Triangle construction in terms of the fundamental parameters of the matrix, with very little uncertainty due to hadronic effects. The measurement of these asymmetries in a wide variety of final states, which show complete consistency with the three-generation Standard Model, will be discussed. The three following presentations will discuss in further detail the PEP-II and KEKB colliders, the BABAR and Belle detectors, and aspects of the results other than those on CP -violation. This is the first of four Panofsky Prize presentation abstracts. The order of presentation should be Hitlin, Dorfan, Takasaki, Olsen.

  12. Mélanome cutané épais: facteurs de mortalité et de survenue de métastases

    PubMed Central

    Tarwate, Mariam; Benchikhi, Hakima; Adarmouch, Latifa; Benider, Abdelatif; Amine, Mohamed; Zamiati, Soumya; Boukind, El Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Au Maroc peu d’études ont été menées concernant les facteurs pronostiques du mélanome. L'objectif de cette étude était d'identifier les facteurs de survenue de métastases viscérales à distance à 1an et de mortalité à 2ans chez des patients atteints de mélanome cutané épais. Ont été colligés rétrospectivement tous les cas de mélanomes suivis au service de dermatologie et d'oncologie du CHU de Casablanca de 2006 à 2010. On été inclus les patients qui présentaient un mélanome à localisation cutanée et/ou muqueuse buccogénitale, confirmés histologiquement ayant un Breslow>2mm. Ont été exclus les patients présentant des métastases viscérales à distance au moment du diagnostic. Les données socio-démographiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques ont été recueillies au niveau des dossiers; celles relatives à l’évolution ont été complétées par contact téléphonique. L'analyse statistique était de type uni et bivarié. Soixante patients ont été inclus:41hommes et19femmes (sexe ratio de 2,15). La moyenne d’âge était de 60 ans (17-96). L'indice de Breslow était en moyenne de10mm+/-7et78%des patients(32) avaient un Breslow>4mm. Vingt trois patients (38,3%) avaient des adénopathies régionales. Quatorze patients ont présenté des métastases à distance après 1an (23,3%) et13patients étaient décédés après 2ans d’évolution (21,7%). Les facteurs associés à la survenue de métastases à distance étaient l'indice de Breslow. Des métastases à 1an ont été retrouvées chez 61,5%des patients avec un Breslow >10mm contre18,8% avec un Breslow PMID:25368733

  13. Impact of etanercept tapering on work productivity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: results from the PRIZE study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Bansback, Nick; Sun, Huiying; Pedersen, Ronald; Kotak, Sameer; Anis, Aslam H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess changes in work productivity in patients who have achieved response using etanercept (ETN) 50 mg+methotrexate (MTX) (phase I) are randomised to ETN 25 mg+MTX versus MTX versus placebo (phase II) and then withdrawn from treatment (phase III). Methods Patients included in the analysis were in employment entering phase II of the PRIZE trial and had one or more follow-ups. Phase II was a 39-week, randomised and double-blind comparison of the 3 dose-reduction treatments. Phase III was a 26-week observational study where treatment was withdrawn. The Valuation of Lost Productivity was completed approximately every 13 weeks to estimate productivity impacts from a societal perspective. Results A total of 120 participants were included in our analyses. During phase II, ETN25+MTX or MTX improved paid work productivity by over 100 hours compared with placebo, amounting to a gain of €1752 or €1503, respectively. ETN25+MTX compared with placebo gains €1862 in total paid/unpaid productivity. At week 52, the 3-month paid work productivity loss was 21.8, 12.8 and 14.0 hours, respectively. The productivity loss increased at week 64 from week 52, dropped at week 76 for all treatment groups and then continued rising after week 76 for the placebo group (71.9 hours at week 91) but not for the other 2 groups (21.9 hours for ETX25+MTX and 27.6 hours for MTX). Conclusions The work productivity gain in phase I as a result of ETN50+MTX was marginally lost in the dose-reduction treatment groups, ETN25+MTX and MTX, but substantially lost in the placebo group during phase II. Trial registration number NCT00913458; Results. PMID:27486524

  14. The Design of Two Nano-Rovers for Lunar Surface Exploration in the Context of the Google Lunar X Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, E.; Honfi Camilo, L.; Kuystermans, P.; Maas, A. S. B. B.; Buutfeld, B. A. M.; van der Pols, R. H.

    2008-09-01

    This paper summarizes a study performed by ten students at the Delft University of Technology on a lunar exploration vehicle suited for competing in the Google Lunar X Prize1. The design philosophy aimed at a quick and simple design process, to comply with the mission constraints. This is achieved by using conventional technology and performing the mission with two identical rovers, increasing reliability and simplicity of systems. Both rovers are however capable of operating independently. The required subsystems have been designed for survival and operation on the lunar surface for an estimated mission lifetime of five days. This preliminary study shows that it is possible for two nano-rovers to perform the basic exploration tasks. The mission has been devised such that after launch the rovers endure a 160 hour voyage to the Moon after which they will land on Sinus Medii with a dedicated lunar transfer/lander vehicle. The mission outline itself has the two nano-rovers travelling in the same direction, moving simultaneously. This mission characteristic allows a quick take-over of the required tasks by the second rover in case of one rover breakdown. The main structure of the rovers will consist of Aluminium 2219 T851, due to its good thermal properties and high hardness. Because of the small dimensions of the rovers, the vehicles will use rigid caterpillar tracks as locomotion system. The track systems are sealed from lunar dust using closed track to prevent interference with the mechanisms. This also prevents any damage to the electronics inside the tracks. For the movement speed a velocity of 0.055 m/s has been determined. This is about 90% of the maximum rover velocity, allowing direct control from Earth. The rovers are operated by a direct control loop, involving the mission control center. In order to direct the rovers safely, a continuous video link with the Earth is necessary to assess its immediate surroundings. Two forward pointing navigational cameras

  15. News and Views: A total solar eclipse over Rapa Nui; ESA's vision; International team wins first Ambartsumian Prize; Thinner thermosphere; ESA funds games; Team finds starspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Francisco Diego recorded spectacular images of the 11 July 2010 total solar eclipse from Rapa Nui (Easter Island), making the most of modern digital technology - much of which originated from astronomical research - in taking and processing the images. The European Space Agency has set out its priorities for the decade starting in 2015, in a report entitled Cosmic Vision. The first Viktor Ambartsumian International Prize, in memory of the distinguished Armenian theorist, goes to the team led by Prof. Michel Mayor of the Observatory of Geneva, for ``their important contribution in the study of relation between planetary systems and their host stars''.

  16. At what institutions did Nobel laureates do their prize-winning work? An analysis of biographical information on Nobel laureates from 1994 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Schlagberger, Elisabeth Maria; Bornmann, Lutz; Bauer, Johann

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examined the institutions (and countries) the Nobel laureates of the three disciplines chemistry, physics and physiology/medicine were affiliated with (from 1994 to 2014) when they did the decisive research work. To be able to frame the results at that time point, we also looked at when the Nobel laureates obtained their Ph.D./M.D. and when they were awarded the Nobel Prize. We examined all 155 Nobel laureates of the last 21 years in physics, chemistry, and physiology/medicine. Results showed that the USA dominated as a country. Statistical analysis also revealed that only three institutions can boast a larger number of Nobelists at all three time points examined: UC Berkeley, Columbia University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Researcher mobility analysis made clear that most of the Nobel laureates were mobile; either after having obtained their Ph.D./M.D. or after writing significant papers that were decisive for the Nobel Prize. Therefore, we distinguished different ways of mobility between countries and between institutions. In most cases, the researchers changed institutes/universities within one and the same country (in first position: the USA, followed, by far, by the United Kingdom, Japan and Germany).

  17. Prize of the best thesis 2015: Study of debris discs through state-of-the-art numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kral, Q.; Thébault, P.

    2015-12-01

    This proceeding summarises the thesis entitled ``Study of debris discs with a new generation numerical model'' by Quentin Kral, for which he obtained the prize of the best thesis in 2015. The thesis brought major contributions to the field of debris disc modelling. The main achievement is to have created, almost ex-nihilo, the first truly self-consistent numerical model able to simultaneously follow the coupled collisional and dynamical evolutions of debris discs. Such a code has been thought as being the ``Holy Grail'' of disc modellers for the past decade, and while several codes with partial dynamics/collisions coupling have been presented, the code developed in this thesis, called ``LIDT-DD'' is the first to achieve a full coupling. The LIDT-DD model, which is the first of a new-generation of fully self-consistent debris disc models is able to handle both planetesimals and dust and create new fragments after each collision. The main idea of LIDT-DD development was to merge into one code two approaches that were so far used separately in disc modelling, that is, an N-body algorithm to investigate the dynamics, and a statistical scheme to explore the collisional evolution. This complex scheme is not straightforward to develop as there are major difficulties to overcome: 1) collisions in debris discs are highly destructive and produce clouds of small fragments after each single impact, 2) the smallest (and most numerous) of these fragments have a strongly size-dependent dynamics because of the radiation pressure, and 3) the dust usually observed in discs is precisely these smallest grains. These extreme constraints had so far prevented all previous attempts at developing self-consistent disc models to succeed. The thesis contains many examples of the use of LIDT-DD that are not yet published but the case of the collision between two asteroid-like bodies is studied in detail. In particular, LIDT-DD is able to predict the different stages that should be observed

  18. Nobel prize for the artemisinin and ivermectin discoveries: a great boost towards elimination of the global infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Khater, Emad I M; Chen, Jun-Hu; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-12-28

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) made a marked transformation for neglected and vulnerable communities in the developing countries from the start, but infectious diseases of poverty (IDoPs) continue to inflict a disproportionate global public health burden with associated consequences, thereby contributing to the vicious cycle of poverty and inequity. However, the effectiveness and large-scale coverage of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) have revolutionized malaria treatment just as the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis have benefitted from harnessing the broad-spectrum effect of avermectin-based derivatives. The paradigm shift in therapeutic approach, effected by these two drugs and their impact on community-based interventions of parasitic diseases plaguing the endemic low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs), led to the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2015. However, the story would not be complete without mentioning praziquantel. The huge contribution of this drug in modernizing the control of schistosomiasis and also some intestinal helminth infections had already shifted the focus from control to potential elimination of this disease. Together, these new drugs have provided humankind with powerful new tools for the alleviation of infectious diseases that humans have lived with since time immemorial. These drugs all have broad-spectrum effects, yet they are very safe and can even be packaged together in various combinations. The strong effect on so many of the great infectious scourges in the developing countries has not only had a remarkable influence on many endemic diseases, but also contributed to improving the cost structure of healthcare. Significant benefits include improved quality of preventive and curative medicine, promotion of community-based interventions, universal health coverage and the fostering of global partnerships. The laudable progress and benefits achieved are indispensable in championing

  19. Eye on the Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, David

    2011-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated the dramatic impact small discretionary funding can have on a school. Grant funding allows school leaders to think creatively by developing unique solutions to today's educational challenges. This article presents strategies that principals, faculty, parents, and advisory groups can follow to attract grant funding that…

  20. Andrei Sakharov Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liangying

    2008-04-01

    Ever since my youth, the writings of Einstein had always enlightened my life. However, I later began to follow Marxism and threw myself into the Chinese revolution. Yet, ironically, after the victory of the revolution I myself became a target of the revolutionary dictatorship. Started from 1962 I collected, edited and translated ``Collected Works of Einstein'' in the countryside. Fourteen years later the three-volume collected works were published in China, which created immense impacts to Chinese intellectuals. It was Einstein's thoughts on human rights and democracy that awakened me. Since then I have devoted myself to the fight for human rights and to the cause of democratic enlightenment in China. My goal is to transform an autocratic China that tramples human rights into a democratic and free modern China that respects human rights.

  1. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  2. Buckley Prize talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Alan

    2001-03-01

    Interacting electrons in one dimension exhibit a wealth of surprises and challenges to the intuition. These range from an identity crisis between fermions and bosons, confusion about spin and charge degrees of freedom, to critical phenomena in two dimensions. Resolution of these issues involve techniques such as boson-fermion duality, Bethe Ansatz wave functions, and conformal field theory. Many models of lower dimensional systems turn out to be related, such as the Hubbard model of electrons in one dimension, the Luttinger model, the eight vertex model, the spin 1/2 x-y-z chain, and the quantum Sine-Gordon equation. A new type of dictionary connects different models in different fields of physics. The emergence of this interesting physics is signaled by divergences in the perturbation expansion in powers of the electron-electron interaction strength. New and unexpected gaps appear in the Eigenvalue spectrum along with dramatic changes to the response functions. The Fermi liquid picture suffers a total breakdown. Many of these ideas apply in higher dimensions as well. In two dimensions, the fermi surface can have flat regions in momentum space, signaling a type of one dimensional behavior. These flat regions are remarkably stable to doping when interactions are included. A new boson-fermion duality principle emerges, which includes spin-charge separation, similar to the one dimensional case. Some applications of this representation to the Cuprate superconductors will be presented.

  3. Onsager Prize Talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, Valery

    2005-03-01

    Many physical problems are associated with the quantum or statistical mechanics of strings and kinks. They include thermodynamics of adsorbed atoms on a crystal substrate, equilibrium shape of crystals, properties of vortices in a superconducting film with modulated thickness and Josephson vortices in layered superconductors, structure of intercalated compounds and others. Strings or domain wall in 2 dimensions can be treated as fermion world lines in 1+1 dimension. The fermion representation simplifies the problem and allows its exact solution. The fermion approach is especially useful for commensurate- incommensurate phase transition, which is described as the appearance of "living" fermions when the chemical potential exceeds the energy gap. It also allows finding the ground state of a quantum string in a periodic potential. At large enough ratio of quantum fluctuations to the strength of periodic potential its ground state becomes rough, with a multitude of kinks and antikinks. We review theoretical and experimental results in the field and discuss topological aspects of the problem.

  4. Panofsky Prize Talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannelli, Italo

    2007-04-01

    After the NA31 discovery in 1987 of the first evidence of Direct CP violation in neutral Kaon to two-pion decays, the NA48 Collaboration at CERN designed a new experiment, with the aim of improving significantly the statistical and systematic accuracy of the measurement. A description of the beam, experimental apparatus and strategy of data collection and analysis will be given, emphasizing the features which were most relevant for the success of this second generation experiment. The results obtained for ɛ'/ɛ and other selected measurements will be reported. The experimental study at CERN for Direct CP violation effects has been extended with high statistics and systematically accurate comparisons between positive and negative Kaon decays into three-charged pions and into one charged and two neutral pions. For this, NA48/2, experimental phase, the main change was the substitution of the neutral Kaon beams with a double beam of unseparated, momentum analized, K+ and K -- produced simultaneously and spatially overlapping throughout the fiducial decay region. The analysis of the data collected during 2003 and 2004 is approaching completion. Results will be reported which superseed in precision by more than an order of magnitude those of previous experiments.

  5. Up-Regulation of PAI-1 and Down-Regulation of uPA Are Involved in Suppression of Invasiveness and Motility of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by a Natural Compound Berberine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuanbin; Wang, Ning; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Ming; Cao, Fengjun; Yu, Xianjun; Zhang, Jingxuan; Tan, Yan; Xiang, Longchao; Feng, Yibin

    2016-04-16

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death and its prognosis remains poor due to the high risk of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Berberine (BBR) is a natural compound derived from some medicinal plants, and accumulating evidence has shown its potent anti-tumor activity with diverse action on tumor cells, including inducing cancer cell death and blocking cell cycle and migration. Molecular targets of berberine involved in its inhibitory effect on the invasiveness remains not yet clear. In this study, we identified that berberine exhibits a potent inhibition on the invasion and migration of HCC cells. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent down-regulation of expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in berberine-treated HCC cells. Furthermore, berberine inactivated p38 and Erk1/2 signaling pathway in HCC cells. Primarily, this may be attributed to the up-regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a tumor suppressor that can antagonize uPA receptor and down-regulation of uPA. Blockade of uPA receptor-associated pathways leads to reduced invasiveness and motility of berberine-treated HCC cells. In conclusion, our findings identified for the first time that inactivation of uPA receptor by up-regulation of PAI-1 and down-regulation of uPA is involved in the inhibitory effect of berberine on HCC cell invasion and migration.

  6. Evaluation of serum fibrinogen, plasminogen, α2-anti-plasmin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor levels (PAI) and their correlation with presence of retinopathy in patients with type 1 DM.

    PubMed

    Polat, Sefika Burcak; Ugurlu, Nagihan; Yulek, Fatma; Simavli, Huseyin; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir; Erel, Ozcan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in the world. Retinopathy can still progress despite optimal metabolic control. The aim of the study was to determine whether different degrees of DR (proliferative or nonproliferative) were associated with abnormally modulated hemostatic parameters in patients with T1DM. METHOD. 52 T1DM patients and 40 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Patients were subdivided into three categories. Group I was defined as those without retinopathy, group II with NPRP, and group III with PRP. We compared these subgroups with each other and the control group (Group IV) according to the serum fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-anti-plasmin ( α2-anti-plasmin), and PAI. RESULTS. We detected that PAI-1, serum fibrinogen, and plasminogen levels were similar between the diabetic and control groups (P = 0.209, P = 0.224, and P = 0.244, resp.), whereas α2-anti-plasmin was higher in Groups I, II, and III compared to the control group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, resp.). There was a positive correlation between serum α2-anti-plasmin and HbA1c levels (r = 0,268, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION. To our knowledge there is scarce data in the literature about α2-anti-plasmin levels in type 1 diabetes. A positive correlation between α2-anti-plasmin with HbA1c suggests that fibrinolytic markers may improve with disease regulation and better glycemic control.

  7. News and Views: Good publicity? Astrophysicists win Kavli Prizes; Maps for the planetary explorer; Small galaxies reveal property of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    The inaugural Kavli Prizes, including the Astrophysics award, were marked by a ceremony in Oslo in 9 September, celebrating international scientific success. Planetary explorers may have the equivalent of SatNav to guide them, but to avoid ending up in the space equivalent of a double-decker bus wedged under a low bridge, they need proper maps. And the topographer who is mapping exploration targets has received an Exceptional Achievement medal from NASA for the quality of his work. How big is the smallest galaxy? About 10 million solar masses, according to researchers mapping the small faint galaxies around the Milky Way. And they think that this figure might indicate something about dark matter.

  8. Role of polymorphisms in factor V (FV Leiden), prothrombin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) genes as risk factors for thrombophilias.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, A L

    2012-09-01

    Thrombophilias are defined as a predisposition to thrombosis due to hematological changes which induce blood hypercoagulability; they can be inherited or acquired. They are individually characterized by a large phenotypic variability, even when they occur within the same family. Hereditary thrombophilias are, in most cases, due to changes related to physiological coagulation inhibitors or mutations in the genes of coagulation factors. High levels of plasma homocysteine may also be responsible for vaso-occlusive episodes and may have acquired (nutritional deficiencies of folate and vitamins B6 and B12) and/or genetic causes (mutations in the genes responsible for expression of enzymes involved in the intracellular metabolism of homocysteine). Considering that: (1) thromboses are events of multigenic and multifactorial etiopathology; (2) the presence of mutations in several genes significantly increases the risk of their occurrence; (3) the vascular territory (venous and/or arterial) affected involves different pathophysiological mechanisms and treatments, knowledge of genetic variants that may contribute to the risk and variability of the phenotypic manifestations of these diseases is extremely important. This understanding may provide support for a more individualized and therefore more effective treatment for thrombophilia carriers. Thus, this mini-review aims to address a comprehensive summary of thrombophilias and thrombosis, and discuss the role of polymorphisms in Factor V (FV Leiden), Prothrombin, Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) genes as risk factors for thrombophilias.

  9. Bone transplantation and tissue engineering, part IV. Mesenchymal stem cells: history in orthopedic surgery from Cohnheim and Goujon to the Nobel Prize of Yamanaka.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In 1867 the German pathologist Cohnheim hypothesized that non-hematopoietic, bone marrow-derived cells could migrate through the blood stream to distant sites of injury and participate in tissue regeneration. In 1868, the French physiologist Goujon studied the osteogenic potential of bone marrow on rabbits. Friedenstein demonstrated the existence of a nonhematopoietic stem cell within bone marrow more than a hundred years later. Since this discovery, the research on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has explored their therapeutic potential. The prevalent view during the second century was that mature cells were permanently locked into the differentiated state and could not return to a fully immature, pluripotent stem-cell state. Recently, Japanese scientist (first orthopaedist) Shinya Yamanaka proved that introduction of a small set of transcription factors into a differentiated cell was sufficient to revert the cell to a pluripotent state. Yamanaka shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and opened a new door for potential applications of MSCs. This manuscript describes the concept of MSCs from the period when it was relegated to the imagination to the beginning of the twenty-first century and their application in orthopaedic surgery.

  10. Flip-Flopping, Presidential Politics, and Abraham Lincoln

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The American public can count on a few things during the presidential election season. First, candidates will take a moral high ground and forswear mudslinging. Before long however, they will proceed to engage in nasty accusations against their opponents. A vibrant democracy ought to welcome carefully thought-out views that, when intentionally…

  11. Adolphe Abrahams memorial lecture, 1988. Exercise and lifestyle change.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R J

    1989-01-01

    While the evidence for a clustering of health habits is not particularly strong, there are both pedagogic and economic arguments in favour of a multifaceted approach to health education. The present review thus examines the impact of regular physical exercise upon other forms of health behaviour, testing the extent to which an activity programme can be a catalyst of improved lifestyle in both primary and secondary preventive therapy. The conceptual framework of health promotion is examined with particular reference to the models of Skinner, Becker, Fishbein, Triandis and Rokeach. Certain differences are noted between the decision to exercise and the marketing decisions for which Fishbein's model was originally designed. Nevertheless, in its later modifications, it provides a basic framework for understanding how human lifestyle is shaped. Theoretical mechanisms are suggested whereby exercise could influence such behaviours as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and drug usage, seat-belt usage, hypertension, body mass, lipid profile, promiscuous sexual behaviour, the carrying of lethal weapons, and acceptance of regular preventive medical examinations. The empirical evidence from both cross-sectional and longitudinal experiments shows a relatively weak association between exercise habits and other desirable forms of health behaviour. Moreover, it is arguable that other forms of health intervention such as smoking withdrawal or dieting might be equally effective as a primary change agent, and much of the observed association between exercise and other health habits could be attributable to a common dependence on demographic and socio-economic factors. On the other hand, the apparent weakness of associations may arise in part from difficulties in measuring both habitual physical activity and other forms of health behaviour, with a resultant attenuation of correlations. Possibly, a stronger association between exercise participation and other favourable health habits would be uncovered if attention were focused upon those forms of endurance exercise currently thought to enhance cardiac health. Given that moderate endurance exercise is also positive and pleasant advice, further examination of the potential of multifaceted but exercise-centered health promotion programmes appears warranted. Images p11-a PMID:2659129

  12. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  13. Baring the soul: Paul Bindrim, Abraham Maslow and 'nude psychotherapy'.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Nude psychotherapy is one of the most flamboyant therapeutic techniques ever developed in American psychology. Largely forgotten today, the therapy was an academic and popular sensation upon its introduction in 1967. Developed by psychologist Paul Bindrim, the therapy promised to guide clients to their authentic selves through the systematic removal of clothing. This paper explores the intellectual, cultural and ethical context of nude therapy and its significance as a form of unchurched spirituality. Although nude therapy has an indisputable tabloid character, it is also rooted in a long-standing academic search for authenticity and ultimate meaning through science. Bindrim's career demonstrates the historically long-standing interweaving of spirituality and science within American psychology while simultaneously highlighting the field's extraordinary capacity for adaptive reinvention.

  14. Abraham Lincoln: Leadership and Democratic Statesmanship in Wartime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    and Democratic Statesmanship in Wartime 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval War College,National Security Affairs,686 Cushing Road...Newport,RI,02841-1207 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S

  15. Abraham Guillen: A Relevant Theory for Contemporary Guerrilla Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    Marighella,” Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla,” in Terror and Urban Guerrillas: A Study of Tactics and Documents, ed. Jay Mallin ( Coral Gables, FL... Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press, 1982. Metz, Steven and Raymond Millen. Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in the 21st Century

  16. "Towering genius disdains a beaten path" Abraham Lincoln.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Paré, Mary; Mitchell, Gail J; Perkin, Karen; Stevenson, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    We see nursing leadership existing at all levels in nursing...all nurses leading. Nurse executives within academic health environments across Canada will be influencing health policy directions and dialogue within the profession nationally. They will be contributing to the development of a national agenda for nursing practice, education, research and leadership. These nurse executives will lead in a way that makes an invigorating impact on human service in health care environments and they will be dedicated to preparing the nursing leaders of tomorrow. The Academy of Canadian Executive Nurses will connect with the Office of Nursing Policy, Canadian Nurses Association, Canadian Association of University Schools of Nursing, Association of Canadian Academic Health Care Organizations and others to develop position papers regarding key issues such as patient safety, health human resource planning and leadership in the Canadian health care system. Our definition of professional nursing practice, fully integrated with education and research, will be advanced through these endeavours. The end result of a strong individual and collective voice will be improved patient outcomes supported by professional nursing practice in positive practice environments. This paper is intended to stimulate dialogue among nursing leaders in Canada, dislodge us from a long and traditional path, and place us firmly in a new millennium of leadership for the profession and practice of nursing, a style of leadership that is needed, wanted and supported by nurses and the clients we serve. It is the responsibility of those of us who lead in academic health science centres to be courageous for the students we support, the puactitioners we lead and the renewal of the profession. We are the testing ground for nursing research, and need to be the source of innovation for nursing practice. It is incumbent on us to leap forward to engage a new vision of the professional practice of nursing with a reconfigured work design and work environment compatible with the new economy, workplace and workforce.

  17. Abraham Flexner's "mooted question" and the story of integration.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, J Donald; Cassell, Eric J

    2010-02-01

    Contemporary medicine is characterized by dualities. They include psyche and soma, subject and object, and, most important, science and humanism. The authors, in exploring Flexner's landmark publication, suggest that the history of curricular evolution has been marked by a quest for the integration of two knowledge bases: science and clinical medicine. They describe this goal as a preoccupation of medical educators, arguing that it was triggered, in part, by Flexner's recommendation for a two-phase curriculum. Their claim is illustrated with an analysis of motives for curricular renewal at one medical school and a review of published reports from educational opinion leaders. They discuss Flexner's conception of integration-namely, that unity could be achieved through methodology and, in particular, through inductive reasoning. They situate this perspective in the context of other purported integrative principles such as bioethics, narrative medicine, and the biopsychosocial model. They conclude by recommending an alternative framework for integration. The authors propose that a synthesis of two separate knowledge domains can be achieved through a common purpose and that, in a clinical context, that purpose is the well-being of the patient. Well-being is defined as the patient's ability to pursue achievable goals and purposes. It can be brought about by changing medicine's emphasis from the eradication of disease to the restoration of functions impaired by sickness. This idea is congruent with aspects of Flexner's understanding of medical practice, as shown in his statement that the restoration of normal functioning should be the doctor's "goal in action."

  18. Neuron theory, the cornerstone of neuroscience, on the centenary of the Nobel Prize award to Santiago Ramón y Cajal.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Boya, Jesús; Alamo, Cecilio

    2006-10-16

    Exactly 100 years ago, the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Santiago Ramón y Cajal, "in recognition of his meritorious work on the structure of the nervous system". Cajal's great contribution to the history of science is undoubtedly the postulate of neuron theory. The present work makes a historical analysis of the circumstances in which Cajal formulated his theory, considering the authors and works that influenced his postulate, the difficulties he encountered for its dissemination, and the way it finally became established. At the time when Cajal began his neurohistological studies, in 1887, Gerlach's reticular theory (a diffuse protoplasmic network of the grey matter of the nerve centres), also defended by Golgi, prevailed among the scientific community. In the first issue of the Revista Trimestral de Histología Normal y Patológica (May, 1888), Cajal presented the definitive evidence underpinning neuron theory, thanks to staining of the axon of the small, star-shaped cells of the molecular layer of the cerebellum of birds, whose collaterals end up surrounding the Purkinje cell bodies, in the form of baskets or nests. He thus demonstrated once and for all that the relationship between nerve cells was not one of continuity, but rather of contiguity. Neuron theory is one of the principal scientific conquests of the 20th century, and which has withstood, with scarcely any modifications, the passage of more than a 100 years, being reaffirmed by new technologies, as the electron microscopy. Today, no neuroscientific discipline could be understood without recourse to the concept of neuronal individuality and nervous transmission at a synaptic level, as basic units of the nervous system.

  19. Three Proposals for Rewarding Novel Health Technologies Benefiting People Living in Poverty. A Comparative Analysis of Prize Funds, Health Impact Funds and a Cost-Effectiveness/Competitive Tender Treaty

    PubMed Central

    Faunce, Thomas Alured; Nasu, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    This paper sets out to analyse three different academic proposals for addressing the needs of the poor in relation to new, rather than ‘essential’ medicines. It focuses particularly on (1) research and development (R&D) prize funds, (2) a health impact fund (HIF) system and (3) a multilateral treaty on health technology cost-effectiveness evaluation and competitive tender. It compares the extent to which each responds to the ‘market fundamentalist’ philosophy (that we maintain forms a loose theoretical background for the patent-driven approach to pharmaceutical R&D) and begins to analyse their respective strengths and weaknesses. PMID:19461854

  20. News Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-03-01

    Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

  1. Distinguished Books. Notable Books of 2001; Best Books for Young Adults; Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers; Audiobooks for Young Adults; Notable Children's Books; Notable Children's Videos; Notable Recordings for Children; Notable software and Web Sites for Children; Bestsellers of 2001; Literary Prizes, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryles, Daisy; Riippa, Laurele; Ink, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Presents bibliographies of notable books, best books for young adults, audiobooks for young adults, notable children's books, notable children's videos, notable recordings for children, and notable software and Web sites for children; discusses bestsellers; and lists literary prizes awarded in 2001. (LRW)

  2. News Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

  3. Medical Innovation Prize Fund Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Sanders, Bernard [I-VT

    2011-05-26

    05/15/2012 Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-570. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. ETL wins Army Lab Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories (ETL), located in Fort Belvoir, Va., was awarded the 1981 Department of the Army Most Improved Laboratory of the Year Award for ETL's scientific and technical achievements in mapping, military geographic information, and geographic intelligence systems.ETL, the largest topographic research and development organization of its kind in the world, specializes in mapping, geodesy, point positioning, and military geographic information. ETL addresses the full range of development from basic research to a final product in the topographic sciences. In addition, scientists at the laboratory have interpreted feedback from satellites, such as Landsat, to help pinpoint and improve ecological imbalance in some areas. ETL engineers are developing electronic systems to measure dams, while other ETL staff members are designing a pseudo-radar system for the Pershing II missile.

  5. Will strangeness win the prize?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapusta, Joseph I.

    2001-03-01

    Five groups have made predictions involving the production of strange hadrons and entered them in a competition set up by Barbara Jacak, Xin-Nian Wang and myself in the spring of 1998 for the purpose of comparing with first-year physics results from RHIC. These predictions are summarized and evaluated.

  6. South Carolina Wins the Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Discusses factors involved in locating new BMW car-manufacturing plant in South Carolina. Discusses state's business environment, transportation, and education system. Describes development process, site selection, and implications for economic development. Describes importance of state's labor-force development via regional technical colleges and…

  7. Ductile failure X-prize.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, James V.; Wellman, Gerald William; Emery, John M.; Ostien, Jakob T.; Foster, John T.; Cordova, Theresa Elena; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Mota, Alejandro; Bishop, Joseph E.; Silling, Stewart Andrew; Littlewood, David John; Foulk, James W., III; Dowding, Kevin J.; Dion, Kristin; Boyce, Brad Lee; Robbins, Joshua H.; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting

    2011-09-01

    Fracture or tearing of ductile metals is a pervasive engineering concern, yet accurate prediction of the critical conditions of fracture remains elusive. Sandia National Laboratories has been developing and implementing several new modeling methodologies to address problems in fracture, including both new physical models and new numerical schemes. The present study provides a double-blind quantitative assessment of several computational capabilities including tearing parameters embedded in a conventional finite element code, localization elements, extended finite elements (XFEM), and peridynamics. For this assessment, each of four teams reported blind predictions for three challenge problems spanning crack initiation and crack propagation. After predictions had been reported, the predictions were compared to experimentally observed behavior. The metal alloys for these three problems were aluminum alloy 2024-T3 and precipitation hardened stainless steel PH13-8Mo H950. The predictive accuracies of the various methods are demonstrated, and the potential sources of error are discussed.

  8. J. Robert Oppenheimer - A Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, Abraham; Crease, Robert P.

    2006-04-01

    The late Abraham Pais wrote the definitive biography of Albert Einstein, "Subtle is the Lord," which won an American Book Award. As a distinguished physicist and Einstein's colleague, Pais combined a sophisticated understanding of physics with first-hand knowledge of this notoriously private individual, offering rare insights into both. It is his unique double perspective that makes his work so valuable. Now Abraham Pais offers an illuminating portrait of another eminent colleague, J. Robert Oppenheimer, one of the most charismatic and enigmatic figures of modern physics. Pais introduces us to a precocious youth who sped through Harvard in three years, made signal contributions to quantum mechanics while in his twenties, and was instrumental in the growth of American physics in the decade before the Second World War, almost single-handedly putting American physics on the map. Pais paints a revealing portrait of Oppenheimer's life in Los Alamos, where in twenty remarkable, feverish months, under his inspired leadership, the first atomic bomb was designed and built, a success that made Oppenheimer America's most famous scientist. Pais, who was his next-door neighbor for many years, describes Oppenheimer's long tenure as Director of the Institute of Advanced Study at Princeton, but also shows how Oppenheimer's intensity and arrogance won him powerful enemies, who would ultimately make him one of the principal victims of the Red Scare of the 1950s. Told with compassion and deep insight, J. Robert Oppenheimer is the most comprehensive biography of the great physicist available. It is Abraham Pais's final work, completed after his death by Robert P. Crease, an acclaimed historian of science in his own right.

  9. INTRODUCTION: Award of the 2004 Hannes Alfvén Prize of the European Physical Society to J W Connor, R J Hastie and J B Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Jo, Dr

    2004-12-01

    Jack Connor, Jim Hastie and Bryan Taylor The Hannes Alfvén Prize of the European Physical Society for Outstanding Contributions to Plasma Physics (2004) has been awarded to Jack Connor, Jim Hastie and Bryan Taylor `for their seminal contributions to a wide range of issues of fundamental importance to the success of magnetic confinement fusion, including: the development of gyro-kinetic theory; the prediction of the bootstrap current; dimensionless scaling laws; pressure-limiting instabilities, and micro-stability and transport theory'. Jack Connor, Jim Hastie and Bryan Taylor form one of the most successful teams of theoretical physicists in the history of magnetic confinement fusion. They have made important contributions individually, but their greatest discoveries have mostly been accomplished jointly, either in pairs or as a team involving all three. Their early work, in the 1960s, included the development of the gyro-kinetic theory for fine-scale plasma instabilities, which today forms the basis of the most advanced turbulence simulation codes in tokamak and stellarator research. The theoretical prediction of the bootstrap current, made in 1970-71 was not confirmed experimentally for over a decade but is now regarded as crucial to the success of the tokamak as a steady-state fusion power source. Their work on collisional transport also included the prediction of impurity ion accumulation, which is observed in internal transport barriers and is a key concern for long-pulse tokamak operation. The relativistic threshold for runaway electrons, identified in 1975, forms the basis of the most recent tokamak disruption mitigation schemes. In the late 1970s, the team developed the theory for ballooning instabilities, which provided an important ingredient in the `Troyon-Sykes' β-limit—an expression that is still used as a guide to the performance of tokamaks and in the design of ITER. Ballooning mode theory has also contributed to the understanding of

  10. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Laureates Nobel Prizes and Laureates Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize ... Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize ...

  11. Play the Blood Typing Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Laureates Nobel Prizes and Laureates Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize ... Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize ...

  12. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Laureates Nobel Prizes and Laureates Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize ... Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize ...

  13. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Laureates Nobel Prizes and Laureates Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize ... Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize ...

  14. Play the MRI Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Laureates Nobel Prizes and Laureates Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize ... Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize ...

  15. News Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

  16. The discovery of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complex and the molecular regulation of synaptic vesicle transmitter release: the 2010 Kavli Prize in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Davanger, S

    2011-09-08

    Brain function depends on a crucial feature: The ability of individual neurons to share packets of information, known as quantal transmission. Given the sheer number of tasks the brain has to deal with, this information sharing must be extremely rapid. Synapses are specialized points of contact between neurons, where fast transmission takes place. Though the basic elements and functions of the synapse had been established since the 1950s, the molecular basis for regulation of fast synaptic transmitter release was not known 20 years ago. However, around 1990, crucial discoveries were made by Richard Scheller, James Rothman, and Thomas Südhof, leading a few years later to the formulation of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) hypothesis and a new understanding of the molecular events controlling vesicular release of transmitter in synapses. The 2010 Kavli Prize in neuroscience was awarded to these three researchers, "for their work to reveal the precise molecular basis of the transfer of signals between nerve cells in the brain."

  17. Theodor Billroth's vision and Karl Ziegler's action: commemoration of the 40th day of death and the 50th anniversary of conferment of Nobel Prize for Chemistry of Karl Ziegler.

    PubMed

    Kapischke, Matthias; Pries, Alexandra

    2014-02-01

    Alloplastic materials are broadly used in modern surgery. Until the middle of the 20th century, metal materials and especially silver were used because of their antimicrobial properties. With the development of a new catalytic process for the production of high-density polyethylene and polypropylene materials, a new era of prosthesis was introduced. These polymers are integral part of our everyday operations surgery, especially in hernia repair. The famous surgeon Billroth mentioned to his pupil Czerny in 1878: "If we could artificially produce tissues of the density and toughness of fascia and tendon, the secret of the radical cure of hernia would be discovered". The polypropylene developed by Karl Ziegler gave the surgeon a material for daily practice, which in its properties (nearly) achieved Billroth's initial vision. In 1963 the Nobel Prize for Chemistry was awarded to Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta in Stockholm. Furthermore, August 11, 2013 will be the 40th anniversary of Karl Ziegler's death. This manuscript honors both days.

  18. J. Robert Oppenheimer - A Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, Abraham; Crease, Robert P.

    2007-05-01

    The late Abraham Pais, author of the award winning biography of Albert Einstein, Subtle is the Lord , here offers an illuminating portrait of another of his eminent colleagues, J. Robert Oppenheimer, one of the most charismatic and enigmatic figures of modern physics. Pais introduces us to a precocious youth who sped through Harvard in three years, made signal contributions to quantum mechanics while in his twenties, and was instrumental in the growth of American physics in the decade before the Second World War, almost single-handedly bringing it to a state of prominence. He paints a revealing portrait of Oppenheimer's life in Los Alamos, where in twenty remarkable, feverish months, and under his inspired guidance, the first atomic bomb was designed and built, a success that made Oppenheimer America's most famous scientist. Pais describes Oppenheimer's long tenure as Director of the Institute of Advanced Study at Princeton, where the two men worked together closely. He shows not only Oppenheimer's brilliance and leadership, but also how his displays of intensity and arrogance won him powerful enemies, ones who would ultimately make him one of the principal victims of the Red Scare of the 1950s. J. Robert Oppenheimer is Abraham Pais's final work, completed after his death by Robert P. Crease, an acclaimed historian of science in his own right. Told with compassion and deep insight, it is the most comprehensive biography of the great physicist available. Anyone seeking an insider's portrait of this enigmatic man will find it indispensable.

  19. High School Teachers Win ACS Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editorial Staff, Jce

    2009-07-01

    William E. Snyder is the 2009 winner of the ACS Division of Chemical Education Central Region Award for Excellence in High School Teaching; Sally Mitchell is the winner of the 2009 James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching.

  20. Sakurai Prize: The Future of Higgs Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Sally

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson relied critically on precision calculations. The quantum contributions from the Higgs boson to the W and top quark masses suggested long before the Higgs discovery that a Standard Model Higgs boson should have a mass in the 100-200 GeV range. The experimental extraction of Higgs properties requires normalization to the predicted Higgs production and decay rates, for which higher order corrections are also essential. As Higgs physics becomes a mature subject, more and more precise calculations will be required. If there is new physics at high scales, it will contribute to the predictions and precision Higgs physics will be a window to beyond the Standard Model physics.