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Sample records for abrasion resistant materials

  1. Abrasion resistance of medical glove materials.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Donna L; Schwerin, Matthew R; Kisielewski, Richard W; Kotz, Richard M; Chaput, Maria P; Varney, George W; To, Theresa M

    2004-01-15

    Due to the increasing demand for nonlatex medical gloves in the health-care community, there is a need to assess the durability of alternative glove materials. This study examines durability characteristics of various glove materials by abrasion resistance testing. Natural rubber latex (latex), polyvinyl chloride (vinyl), acrylonitrile butadiene (nitrile), polychloroprene (neoprene), and a styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS) were tested. All test specimens, with the exception of the vinyl, were obtained from surgical gloves. Unaged out-of-the-box specimens as well as those subjected to various degrees of artificial aging were included in the study. After the abrasion sequence, the barrier integrity of the material was assessed through the use of a static leak test. Other traditional tests performed on these materials were viral penetration to validate the abrasion data and tear testing for comparative purposes. The results indicate that specific glove-material performance is dependent upon the particular test under consideration. Most notably, abrasion, even in controlled nonsevere conditions, may compromise to varying degrees the barrier integrity of latex, vinyl, SEBS, nitrile, and neoprene glove materials. However, as evidenced by the results of testing three brands of neoprene gloves, the abrasion resistance of any one glove material may be significantly affected by variations in production processes.

  2. Resistance of dentin coating materials against abrasion by toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Gando, Iori; Ariyoshi, Meu; Ikeda, Masaomi; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2013-01-01

    Thin-film coating of root dentin surface by all-in-one adhesives has been shown to be an effective option to prevent root surface caries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear resistance against toothbrush abrasion of two all-in-one coating materials; Shield Force (SF) and Hybrid Coat (HC). Bovine dentin surfaces were covered with one of the coating materials; SF or HC. After storage in water for 24 h, the testing surface was subjected to the toothbrush abrasion test up to 50,000 cycles either in water or toothpaste slurry. The remaining thickness of the coating material was measured using SEM. Toothpaste slurry significantly increased rate of tooth brush abrasion of the coating materials. While SF and HC wore at a similar pace under toothbrush abrasion, SF had a thicker coat and could protect dentin longer, up to 50,000 cycles.

  3. Advance Abrasion Resistant Materials for Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.

    2004-06-01

    The high-density infrared (HDI) transient-liquid coating (TLC) process was successfully developed and demonstrated excellent, enhanced (5 times higher than the current material and process) wear performance for the selected functionally graded material (FGM) coatings under laboratory simulated, in-service conditions. The mating steel component exhibited a wear rate improvement of approximately one and a half (1.5) times. After 8000 cycles of. wear testing, the full-scale component testing demonstrated that the coating integrity was still excellent. Little or no spalling was observed to occur.

  4. ADVANCED ABRASION RESISTANT MATERIALS FOR MINING

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, G.M.

    2004-04-08

    The high-density infrared (HDI) transient-liquid coating (TLC) process was successfully developed and demonstrated excellent, enhanced (5 times higher than the current material and process) wear performance for the selected functionally graded material (FGM) coatings under laboratory simulated, in-service conditions. The mating steel component exhibited a wear rate improvement of approximately one and a half (1.5) times. After 8000 cycles of wear testing, the full-scale component testing demonstrated that the coating integrity was still excellent. Little or no spalling was observed to occur.

  5. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  6. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  7. Abrasion resistant composition

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Keith D; Barnes, Christopher A; Henderson, Stephen L

    2014-05-13

    A surface covering composition of abrasion resistant character adapted for disposition in overlying bonded relation to a metal substrate. The surface covering composition includes metal carbide particles within a metal matrix at a packing factor of not less than about 0.6. Not less than about 40 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter in the range of +14-32 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix. Not less than about 3 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter of +60 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix.

  8. Friction and abrasion of elastomeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.

    1975-01-01

    An abrasion apparatus is described. Experimental measurements are reported for four representative elastomeric materials, including a typical high-quality tire tread material and a possible replacement material for aircraft tire treads based on transpolypentenamer (TPPR). Measurements are carried out at different levels of frictional work input, corresponding to different severities of wear, and at both ambient temperature and at 100 C. Results indicate the marked superiority in abrasion resistance of the material based on TPPR, especially at 100 C, in comparison with the other materials examined.

  9. Valve for abrasive material

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Harold S.

    1982-01-01

    A ball valve assembly for controlling the flow of abrasive particulates including an enlarged section at the bore inlet and an enlarged section at the bore outlet. A refractory ceramic annular deflector is positioned in each of the enlarged sections, substantially extending the useful life of the valve.

  10. Abrasion-Resistant Technology and its Prospect for CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Li, Y. J.; Wang, L. J.; Liu, S. H.; Dou, Q. R.

    In recent years, CFB boilers (CFBB) have been widely used in the commercial power plants due to its environmental benefits, high combustion efficiency, wide coal flexibility, and some other advantages. At the same time, the abrasion problem, the greatest weakness of this kind of boiler, has been gradually exposed in its application process. The abrasion, particularly on key parts such as the heating surface of water-cooled wall, furnace corners, separator entrance, seriously restricts the long-period operation ability of the CFBB. This article discusses current development status for various abrasion resistant refractory materials used in a CFBB. Some comments are provided for developing new high-performance abrasion resistant refractory materials and rapid-repaired materials according to the abrasion principle and the abrasion on different parts, as well as the economical and environmental requirements for the material. The abrasion solution and operation period of CFBB can be better improved given realization.

  11. Materials selection for abrasive duty

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    The abrasion of equipment caused by the throughput of large volumes of solids or dust is a major problem in mining, handling and processing minerals such as coal and limestone, and in the disposal of waste products such as ash. Loss of material from the surfaces over which these materials pass is caused by the combined effects of impact abrasion, sliding abrasion, and chemical attack. Factors which affect these processes include properties of the conveying medium, and properties of the solids, such as particle size, structural composition, size mix, as well as the velocity of the material, the bulk volume of material passing, and the frequency of plant operation. Guidelines are given for materials selection and the use of linings in the coal handling plant, pulverized coal pipework, and ash disposal plant is reviewed for coal-fired power plants.

  12. Solidification structure and abrasion resistance of high chromium white irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Laird, G.

    1997-06-01

    Superior abrasive wear resistance, combined with relatively low production costs, makes high Cr white cast irons (WCIs) particularly attractive for applications in the grinding, milling, and pumping apparatus used to process hard materials. Hypoeutectic, eutectic, and hypereutectic cast iron compositions, containing either 15 or 26 wt pct chromium, were studied with respect to the macrostructural transitions of the castings, solidification paths, and resulting microstructures when poured with varying superheats. Completely equiaxed macrostructures were produced in thick section castings with slightly hypereutectic compositions. High-stress abrasive wear tests were then performed on the various alloys to examine the influence of both macrostructure and microstructure on wear resistance. Results indicated that the alloys with a primarily austenitic matrix had a higher abrasion resistance than similar alloys with a pearlitic/bainitic matrix. Improvement in abrasion resistance was partially attributed to the ability of the austenite to transform to martensite at the wear surface during the abrasion process.

  13. Abrasive drill for resilient materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Resilient materials normally present problem in obtaining accurate and uniform hole size and position. Tool is fabricated from stiff metal rod such as tungsten or carbon steel that has diameter slightly smaller than required hole. Piercing/centering point is ground on one end of rod. Rod is then plasma-sprayed (flame-sprayed) with suitable hard abrasive coating. High-speed, slow-feed operation of tool is necessary for accurate holes, and this can be done with drill press, hard drill, or similar machines.

  14. Abrasion resistant track shoe grouser

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Keith D; Diekevers, Mark S; Afdahl, Curt D; Steiner, Kevin L; Barnes, Christopher A

    2013-04-23

    A track shoe for a track-type vehicle. The track shoe includes a base plate and a grouser projecting away from the base plate. A capping surface structure of substantially horseshoe shaped cross-section is disposed across a distal portion of the grouser. The capping surface structure covers portions of a distal edge surface and adjacent lateral surfaces. The capping surface structure is formed from an material characterized by enhanced wear resistance relative to portions of the grouser underlying the capping surface structure.

  15. Method of protecting surfaces from abrasion and abrasion resistant articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1988-06-09

    Surfaces of fabricated structures are protected from damage by impacting particulates by a coating of hard material formed as a mass of thin flexible filaments having root ends secured to the surface and free portions which can flex and overlap to form a resilient cushioning mat which resembles hair or fur. The filamentary coating covers the underlying surface with hard abrasion resistance material while also being compliant and capable of local accommodation to particle impacts. The coating can also function as thermal and/or acoustical insulation and has a friction reducing effect. 11 figs.

  16. A physically-based abrasive wear model for composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gun Y.; Dharan, C.K.H.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2001-05-01

    A simple physically-based model for the abrasive wear of composite materials is presented based on the mechanics and mechanisms associated with sliding wear in soft (ductile) matrix composites containing hard (brittle) reinforcement particles. The model is based on the assumption that any portion of the reinforcement that is removed as wear debris cannot contribute to the wear resistance of the matrix material. The size of this non-contributing portion of the reinforcement is estimated by modeling the three primary wear mechanisms, specifically plowing, interfacial cracking and particle removal. Critical variables describing the role of the reinforcement, such as its relative size and the nature of the matrix/reinforcement interface, are characterized by a single contribution coefficient, C. Predictions are compared with the results of experimental two-body (pin-on drum) abrasive wear tests performed on a model aluminum particulate-reinforced epoxy matrix composite material.

  17. Bending and abrasion fatigue of common suture materials used in arthroscopic and open orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Savage, Earle; Hurren, Christopher J; Slader, Simon; Khan, Lukman A K; Sutti, Alessandra; Page, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    In orthopedic surgery, the reattachment of tendon to bone requires suture materials that have stable and durable properties to allow time for healing at the tendon-bone interface. The suture, not rigidly restrained within the anchor eyelet, is free to move during surgery and potentially after surgery with limb motion. During such movement, the suture is subjected to bending and frictional forces that can lead to fatigue-induced failure. We investigated some common contemporary commercial number-two-grade suture materials and evaluated their resistance to bending abrasion fatigue and the consequent failure. Sutures were oscillated over a stainless steel wire at low frequency under load. Number of abrasion cycles to failure, changes in suture morphology, and fatigue-failure method was recorded for each material. Suture structure had a significant effect on abrasion resistance, with braided sutures containing large numbers of fine high tenacity core filaments performing 15-20 times better than other braided suture structures. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) core filaments resisted bending abrasion failure better than other core materials due to the load spreading and abrasion resistance of these filaments. Sutures with UHMWPE cores also had high resistance to tensile failure. Limited correlation was observed between tensile strength and abrasion resistance.

  18. Abrasion and resistant discharge valve developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottwald, W. L.

    1969-01-01

    Discharge valve capable of withstanding intense radiation and high abrasion was developed for use in a fluidized bed reactor. The valve which employs a replaceable Teflon seal, has only one moving part and is designed for remote assembly and disassembly.

  19. Abrasive blast material utilization in asphalt roadbed material

    SciTech Connect

    Means, J.L.; Nehring, K.W.; Heath, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    The State of California has promulgated rules on California-only hazardous wastes that offer the potential for some of these wastes to be recycled or reused. Abrasive blast material (ABM) from military and commercial operations such as sandblasting may fall into the category of waste that can be reused. Experiments were conducted on spent sandblasting grit to determine whether the grit could be incorporated into asphalt concrete for use as roadbed material, and a test roadbed was laid to evaluate the long-term stability of the metals found in the grit. Incorporation of the ABM in asphalt helps reduce the mobility of metal contaminants making the material suitable for reuse. The results of the initial characterization, treatability testing, and follow-up measurements of core samples taken from the test roadbed are presented to show that the use of abrasive blast material in asphalt roadbed material is a viable option under the proposed California regulatory standards.

  20. Abrasion resistant coating and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Sordelet, Daniel J.; Besser, Matthew F.

    2001-06-05

    An abrasion resistant coating is created by adding a ductile phase to a brittle matrix phase during spray coating where an Al--Cu--Fe quasicrystalline phase (brittle matrix) and an FeAl intermetallic (ductile phase) are combined. This composite coating produces a coating mostly of quasicrystal phase and an inter-splat layer of the FeAl phase to help reduce porosity and cracking within the coating. Coatings are prepared by plasma spraying unblended and blended quasicrystal and intermetallic powders. The blended powders contain 1, 5, 10 and 20 volume percent of the intermetallic powders. The unblended powders are either 100 volume percent quasicrystalline or 100 volume percent intermetallic; these unblended powders were studied for comparison to the others. Sufficient ductile phase should be added to the brittle matrix to transform abrasive wear mode from brittle fracture to plastic deformation, while at the same time the hardness of the composite should not be reduced below that of the original brittle phase material.

  1. Abrasion Resistant Coating and Method of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Sordelet, Daniel J.; Besser, Matthew F.

    1999-06-25

    An abrasion resistant coating is created by adding a ductile phase to a brittle matrix phase during spray coating where an Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline phase (brittle matrix) and an FeAl intermetallic (ductile phase) are combined. This composite coating produces a coating mostly of quasicrystal phase and an inter-splat layer of the FeAl phase to help reduce porosity and cracking within the coating. Coatings are prepared by plasma spraying unblended and blended quasicrystal and intermetallic powders. The blended powders contain 1, 5, 10 and 20 volume percent of the intermetallic powders. The unblended powders are either 100 volume percent quasicrystalline or 100 volume percent intermetallic; these unblended powders were studied for comparison to the others. Sufficient ductile phase should be added to the brittle matrix to transform abrasive wear mode from brittle fracture to plastic deformation, while at the same time the hardness of the composite should not be reduced below that of the original brittle phase material.

  2. Influence of material characteristics on the abrasive wear response of some hardfacing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, A.K.; Prasad, B.K.; Dasgupta, R.; Modi, O.P.

    1999-04-01

    This study examines the abrasive wear behavior of two iron-base hardfacing materials with different combinations of carbon and chromium after deposition on a steel substrate. Effects of applied load and sliding distance on the wear behavior of the specimens were studied. Operating material removal mechanisms also were analyzed through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of typical wear surfaces, subsurface regions, and debris particles. The results suggest a significant improvement in the wear resistance of the hardfaced layers over that of the substrate. Further, the specimens overlaid with the material with low carbon and high chromium contents attained better wear resistance than the one consisting of more carbon but less chromium. The former specimens also attained superior hardness. Smoother abrasion grooves on the wear surfaces and finer debris formation during the abrasion of the hardfaced samples were consistent with wear resistance superior to that of the substrate.

  3. Comparison of dry wear characteristics of two abrasion-resistant steels: Q/T C1095 and 15B37H

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, G.; Tandon, K.N.; Iqbal, K.; Wang, Y.

    1995-10-01

    The dry reciprocating wear characteristics of two abrasion-resistant steels, C1095 and 15B37H, against an abrasive material were studied. Results showed that abrasive wear and surface fatigue were the primary wear mechanisms. The wear failure of the steels was related to frictional softening during wear.

  4. A study of the abrasive resistance of metal alloys with applications in dental prosthetic fixators.

    PubMed

    Gil, F J; Fernández, E; Manero, J M; Planell, J A; Sabrià, J; Cortada, M; Giner, L

    1995-01-01

    Wear is one of the main surface failure mechanisms in materials and it will play a leading role in substitutive dental biomaterials. The aim of the present study is to compare the abrasive wear of different metallic materials used in dental applications. The results show that the abrasive wear of alloys based on precious metals such as Pt, Pd, Au and Ag is higher than for Ti and Ti based alloys. The alloy with the highest wear resistance is the Co-Cr which exhibits as well the highest hardness and Young's modulus. Since the method corresponds to a well-established abrasive wear standard, the behaviour of the different materials can be easily compared.

  5. Influence of alumina and titanium dioxide coatings on abrasive wear resistance of AISI 1045 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Remolina, A.; Marulanda, J.

    2016-02-01

    This project aims to compare the behaviour of an AISI 1045 steel's abrasive wear resistance when is covered with aluminium oxide (Al2O3) or Titanium dioxide (TiO2), of nanometric size, using the technique of thermal hot spray, which allows to directly project the suspension particles on the used substrate. The tests are performed based on the ASTM G65-04 standard (Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Apparatus). The results show that the amount of, lost material increases linearly with the travelled distance; also determined that the thermal treatment of hardening-tempering and the alumina and titanium dioxide coatings decrease in average a 12.9, 39.6 and 29.3% respectively the volume of released material during abrasive wear test.

  6. Wear characterization of abrasive waterjet nozzles and nozzle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanduri, Madhusarathi

    Parameters that influence nozzle wear in the abrasive water jet (AWJ) environment were identified and classified into nozzle geometric, AWJ system, and nozzle material categories. Regular and accelerated wear test procedures were developed to study nozzle wear under actual and simulated conditions, respectively. Long term tests, using garnet abrasive, were conducted to validate the accelerated test procedure. In addition to exit diameter growth, two new measures of wear, nozzle weight loss and nozzle bore profiles were shown to be invaluable in characterizing and explaining the phenomena of nozzle wear. By conducting nozzle wear tests, the effects of nozzle geometric, and AWJ system parameters on nozzle wear were systematically investigated. An empirical model was developed for nozzle weight loss rate. To understand the response of nozzle materials under varying AWJ system conditions, erosion tests were conducted on samples of typical nozzle materials. The effect of factors such as jet impingement angle, abrasive type, abrasive size, abrasive flow rate, water pressure, traverse speed, and target material was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on eroded samples as well as worn nozzles to understand the wear mechanisms. The dominant wear mechanism observed was grain pullout. Erosion models were reviewed and along the lines of classical erosion theories a semi-empirical model, suitable for erosion of nozzle materials under AWJ impact, was developed. The erosion data correlated very well with the developed model. Finally, the cutting efficiency of AWJ nozzles was investigated in conjunction with nozzle wear. The cutting efficiency of a nozzle deteriorates as it wears. There is a direct correlation between nozzle wear and cutting efficiency. The operating conditions that produce the most efficient jets also cause the most wear in the nozzle.

  7. Abrasion resistance of muscovite in aeolian and subaqueous transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Calvin J.; Struble, Alexander; Whitmore, John H.

    2017-02-01

    Complementary aeolian and subaqueous transport experiments showed a trend in muscovite abrasion that may be useful for identifying ancient sandstones as aeolian or subaqueous in origin. We found that our experimental aeolian processes pulverized the micas quickly, while our subaqueous processes did not. In a pair of abrasion resistance experiments conducted with micaceous quartz sand, it was found that large muscovite grains were (1) reduced by aeolian processes to less than 500 μm in just 4 days, and (2) preserved by subaqueous processes to 610 ± 90 μm even after 356 days. At 20 days of aeolian transport no loose micas could be found even under the microscope, but after a year of subaqueous transport loose muscovite grains could still be seen with the naked eye. Thus, the occurrence and character of micas in a sandstone, particularly muscovite, may be helpful in determining the ancient depositional process.

  8. Characterization of the resistance of pyrolytic carbon to abrasive wear.

    PubMed

    Vitale, E; Giusti, P

    1995-12-01

    Si-alloyed pyrolitic carbon (PyC) is currently employed in many biomedical devices, due to its fairly good biological compatibility and non biodegradeability. For prosthetic heart valve applications, required to operate safely for many years, the resistance to abrasive wear is one of the limiting factors which must be accurately evaluated. The present study reports on abrasive wear testing of Ti/PyC and PyC/PyC sliding couples. For both couples it was found that the wear behaviour can be shifted from a low wear regime, characterised by very small wear rates and reduced scatter, to a high wear regime, characterised by high wear rates and high scatter, due to the presence of particle contamination coming from the environment and/or from the specimen polishing process. Actual biomedical devices, particularly heart valves, should not experience the high wear regime, due to the absence of any hard particle contamination source. The wear observed in these items is in fact minimal and may depend on mechanisms other than abrasive wear. In these conditions the experimental evaluation of the wear behaviour should definetely be performed by tests on actual devices.

  9. Hybrid inorganic-organic materials: Novel poly(propylene oxide)-based ceramers, abrasion-resistant sol-gel coatings for metals, and epoxy-clay nanocomposites, with an additional chapter on: Metallocene-catalyzed linear polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, Kurt

    1999-12-01

    The sol-gel process has been employed to generate hybrid inorganic-organic network materials. Unique ceramers were prepared based on an alkoxysilane functionalized soft organic oligomer, poly(propylene oxide (PPO), and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Despite the formation of covalent bonds between the inorganic and organic constituents, the resulting network materials were phase separated, composed of a silicate rich phase embedded in a matrix of the organic oligomer chains. The behavior of such materials was similar to elastomers containing a reinforcing filler. The study focused on the influence of initial oligomer molecular weight, functionality, and tetramethoxysilane, water, and acid catalyst content on the final structure, mechanical and thermal properties. The sol-gel approach has also been exploited to generate thin, transparent, abrasion resistant coatings for metal substrates. These systems were based on alkoxysilane functionalized diethylenetriamine (DETA) with TMOS, which generated hybrid networks with very high crosslink densities. These materials were applied with great success as abrasion resistant coatings to aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel. In another study, intercalated polymer-clay nanocomposites were prepared based on various epoxy networks montmorillonite clay. This work explored the influence of incorporated clay on the adhesive properties of the epoxies. The lap shear strength decreased with increasing day content This was due to a reduction in the toughness of the epoxy. Also, the delaminated (or exfoliated) nanocomposite structure could not be generated. Instead, all nanocomposite systems possessed an intercalated structure. The final project involved the characterization of a series of metallocene catalyzed linear polyethylenes, produced at Phillips Petroleum. Polyolefins synthesized with such new catalyst systems are becoming widely available. The influence of molecular weight and thermal treatment on the mechanical, rheological

  10. Heat sealable, flame and abrasion resistant coated fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Flame retardant, abrasion resistant elastomeric compositions are disclosed which are comprised of thermoplastic polyurethane polymer and flame retarding amounts of a filler selected from decabromodiphenyloxide and antimony oxide in a 3:1 weight ratio, and decabromodiphenyloxide, antimony oxide, and ammonium polyphosphate in a 3:1:3 weight ratio respectively. Heat sealable coated fabrics employing such elastomeric compositions as coating film are produced by dissolving the elastomeric composition to form a solution, casting the solution onto a release paper and drying it to form an elastomeric film. The film is then bonded to a woven, knitted, or felted fabric.

  11. Development of intermetallic-hardened abrasion-resistant weld hardfacing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    School, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Chromium and cobalt are strategic materials in the US and both are major constituents in many weld hardfacing alloys. Substitution for these materials or alternatives to their use was a primary direction of this investigation which was conducted in conjunction with the US Bureau of Mines. Minimization of the use of strategic materials was the criteria guiding the development of intermetallic-hardened abrasion resistant weld hardfacing materials. Other criteria were that the new alloy contain a hard intermetallic compound in an FCC matrix, and that these intermetallic compounds be stable at room temperature. A survey of ternary systems was made and the Fe-Mo-Ni system was selected to provide a basis for alloy development. Fe-Mo-Ni alloys synthesized by arc-melting and similar alloys made by welding possessed similar microstructures, a (Fe, Ni){sub 7}Mo{sub 6} intermetallic plus austenite eutectic in an austenitic matrix. These materials exhibited poor abrasive resistance. Silicon additions to the alloy promoted formation of a Laves phase FeMoSi intermetallic which helped increase the abrasive wear resistance. Through a series of alloy chemistry iterations a final composition of Fe-20Mo-15Ni-5Si was selected. Heat treatment of this alloy at 550 to 650 C caused second phase precipitation in the matrix and raised the hardness about 14 points HRC to 50 HRC. The alloy's wear rate, measured with the pin-on-drum abrasive wear test, was 6.3 to 6.5 mg/m. However this was twice the wear rate observed in commercial high-carbon high-chromium alloys. Based on examination of the alloy microstructures, their chemistry, and an analysis of the Fe-Mo-Si phase system; directions for further research are to increase the molybdenum and silicon content to produce a Fe-20Mo-10Ni-15Si composition.

  12. Development and Testing of Abrasion Resistant Hard Coats For Polymer Film Reflectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Gee, R.; DiGrazia, M.

    2010-10-01

    Reflective polymer film technology can significantly reduce the cost of solar reflectors and installed Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants by both reduced material cost and lower weight. One challenge of polymer reflectors in the CSP environment pertains to contact cleaning methods typically used with glass mirrors. Such contact cleaning methods can scratch the surface of polymer reflectors and thereby reduce specular reflectance. ReflecTech, Inc. (a subsidiary of SkyFuel, Inc.) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to devise and develop an abrasion resistant coating (ARC) suitable for deposition onto polymer based mirror film. A number of candidate ARC products were identified as candidate formulations. Industrial collaborators prepared samples having their ARCs deposited onto ReflecTech Mirror Film pre-laminated to aluminum sheet substrates. Samples were provided for evaluation and subjected to baseline (unweathered) and accelerated exposure conditions and subsequently characterized for abrasion resistance and adhesion. An advanced ARC product has been identified that exhibits outstanding initial abrasion resistance and adhesion to ReflecTech Mirror Film. These properties were also retained after exposure to the various accelerated stress conditions. This material has been successfully manufactured as a 1.5 m wide roll-to-roll construction in a production environment.

  13. Preparation and characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/nanoclay nanocomposite flat sheet membranes for abrasion resistance.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chi Yan; Groth, Andrew; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel

    2014-06-15

    Membranes with more resilience to abrasive wear are highly desired in water treatment, especially for seawater desalination. Nanocomposite poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/nanoclay membranes were prepared by phase inversion and then tested for abrasion resistance. Their material properties were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Nanoclay Cloisite(®) 15A was utilised as the inorganic nanoparticle incorporated into PVDF. FTIR results showed a shifting of the PVDF crystalline phase from α to β thus indicating that the nanoclay altered the PVDF host material's structure and mechanical properties in terms of stiffness and toughness. Water permeation test showed that nanoclay at low concentration tended to reduce water flux. All nanocomposite membranes, with between 1 wt% and 5 wt% initial nanoclay loading, were more abrasion resistant than the control PVDF membrane. However, the 1 wt% exhibited superior resistance, lasting two times longer than the reference PVDF membrane under the same abrasive condition. The 1 wt% nanoclay membrane appeared less abraded by SEM observation, while also having the greatest tensile strength improvement (from 4.5 MPa to 4.9 MPa). This membrane also had the smallest agglomerated nanoclay particle size and highest toughness compared to the higher nanoclay content membranes. Nanoclays are therefore useful for improving abrasion resistance of PVDF membranes, but optimal loadings are essential to avoid losing essential mechanical properties.

  14. The influence of aluminum and carbon on the abrasion resistance of high manganese steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckholz, Samuel August

    Abrasive wear testing of lightweight, austenitic Fe-Mn-Al-C cast steel has been performed in accordance with ASTM G65 using a dry sand, rubber wheel, abrasion testing apparatus. Testing was conducted on a series of Fe-30Mn-XAl-YC-1Si-0.5Mo chemistries containing aluminum levels from 2.9 to 9.5 wt.% and carbon levels from 0.9 to 1.83 wt.%. Solution treated materials having an austenitic microstructure produced the highest wear resistance. Wear resistance decreased with higher aluminum, lower carbon, and higher hardness after age hardening. In the solution treated condition the wear rate was a strong function of the aluminum to carbon ratio and the wear rate increased with a parabolic dependence on the Al/C ratio, which ranged from 1.8 to 10.2. Examination of the surface wear scar revealed a mechanism of plowing during abrasion testing and this method of material removal is sensitive to work hardening rate. Work hardening behavior was determined from tensile tests and also decreased with increasing Al/C ratio and after aging hardening. The loss of wear resistance is related to short range ordering of Al and C in the solution treated materials and kappa-carbide precipitation in age hardened materials and both contribute to planar slip and lower work hardening rates. A high carbon tool steel (W1) and a bainitic low alloy steel (SAE 8620) were also tested for comparison. A lightweight steel containing 6.5 wt.% Al and 1.2 wt.% C has wear resistance comparable to within 5% of the bainitic SAE 8620 steel forging currently used for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle track shoe and this cast Fe-Mn-Al-C steel, at equivalent tensile properties, would be 10% lighter.

  15. Quantitative image analysis for evaluating the abrasion resistance of nanoporous silica films on glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Karsten H.; Karlsson, Stefan; Limbach, Rene; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-12-01

    The abrasion resistance of coated glass surfaces is an important parameter for judging lifetime performance, but practical testing procedures remain overly simplistic and do often not allow for direct conclusions on real-world degradation. Here, we combine quantitative two-dimensional image analysis and mechanical abrasion into a facile tool for probing the abrasion resistance of anti-reflective (AR) coatings. We determine variations in the average coated area, during and after controlled abrasion. Through comparison with other experimental techniques, we show that this method provides a practical, rapid and versatile tool for the evaluation of the abrasion resistance of sol-gel-derived thin films on glass. The method yields informative data, which correlates with measurements of diffuse reflectance and is further supported by qualitative investigations through scanning electron microscopy. In particular, the method directly addresses degradation of coating performance, i.e., the gradual areal loss of antireflective functionality. As an exemplary subject, we studied the abrasion resistance of state-of-the-art nanoporous SiO2 thin films which were derived from 5-6 wt% aqueous solutions of potassium silicates, or from colloidal suspensions of SiO2 nanoparticles. It is shown how abrasion resistance is governed by coating density and film adhesion, defining the trade-off between optimal AR performance and acceptable mechanical performance.

  16. Quantitative image analysis for evaluating the abrasion resistance of nanoporous silica films on glass

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Karsten H.; Karlsson, Stefan; Limbach, Rene; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    The abrasion resistance of coated glass surfaces is an important parameter for judging lifetime performance, but practical testing procedures remain overly simplistic and do often not allow for direct conclusions on real-world degradation. Here, we combine quantitative two-dimensional image analysis and mechanical abrasion into a facile tool for probing the abrasion resistance of anti-reflective (AR) coatings. We determine variations in the average coated area, during and after controlled abrasion. Through comparison with other experimental techniques, we show that this method provides a practical, rapid and versatile tool for the evaluation of the abrasion resistance of sol-gel-derived thin films on glass. The method yields informative data, which correlates with measurements of diffuse reflectance and is further supported by qualitative investigations through scanning electron microscopy. In particular, the method directly addresses degradation of coating performance, i.e., the gradual areal loss of antireflective functionality. As an exemplary subject, we studied the abrasion resistance of state-of-the-art nanoporous SiO2 thin films which were derived from 5–6 wt% aqueous solutions of potassium silicates, or from colloidal suspensions of SiO2 nanoparticles. It is shown how abrasion resistance is governed by coating density and film adhesion, defining the trade-off between optimal AR performance and acceptable mechanical performance. PMID:26656260

  17. Hardness and Abrasion Resistance of Nanocrystalline Nickel Alloys Near the Hall-Petch Breakdown Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    for structural applications. In this work we discuss the hardness and scratch resistance of nanocrystalline nickel and nickel-tungsten solid solution alloys...hardness and abrasion data. The role of solid solution alloying on this breakdown is also discussed.

  18. The development of an in vitro test method for predicting the abrasion resistance of textile and metal components of endovascular stent grafts.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tong; Choules, Brian D; Rust, Jon P; King, Martin W

    2014-04-01

    Implantable endovascular stent grafts have become a frequent option for the treatment of abdominal and thoracic aneurysms. Given that such devices are permanent implants, the question of long-term biostability needs to be addressed. This article describes the development of an in vitro stent graft abrasion test method between the graft fabric and metal stent of an endovascular device. Three endpoints were established to determine the abrasion resistance between the fabric and stent surfaces after a predetermined number of abrasion cycles. During initial testing, two types of graft fabric materials, multifilament woven polyester fabric and monofilament woven polyester fabric, and two types of stent materials, laser cut nitinol stents and regular nitinol stent wire, were evaluated under dry and wet conditions. The results have shown that this test method is viable for testing the relative abrasion resistance of the components of endovascular stent grafts. The abrasion resistance of both fabrics was lower in a wet environment compared to being tested dry. Additionally, the multifilament polyester fabric had better abrasion resistance than the monofilament polyester fabric. The laser cut nitinol stent was more aggressive in creating holes and breaking yarns, while the regular nitinol stent wire caused a greater loss in fabric strength.

  19. Abrasion and fatigue resistance of PDMS containing multiblock polyurethanes after accelerated water exposure at elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Kimberly A; Wilson, Charles L; Himes, Adam K; Dawson, James W; Haddad, Tarek D; Buckalew, Adam J; Miller, Jennifer P; Untereker, Darrel F; Simha, Narendra K

    2013-11-01

    Segmented polyurethane multiblock polymers containing polydimethylsiloxane and polyether soft segments form tough and easily processed thermoplastic elastomers (PDMS-urethanes). Two commercially available examples, PurSil 35 (denoted as P35) and Elast-Eon E2A (denoted as E2A), were evaluated for abrasion and fatigue resistance after immersion in 85 °C buffered water for up to 80 weeks. We previously reported that water exposure in these experiments resulted in a molar mass reduction, where the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction is supported by a straight forward Arrhenius analysis over a range of accelerated temperatures (37-85 °C). We also showed that the ultimate tensile properties of P35 and E2A were significantly compromised when the molar mass was reduced. Here, we show that the reduction in molar mass also correlated with a reduction in both the abrasion and fatigue resistance. The instantaneous wear rate of both P35 and E2A, when exposed to the reciprocating motion of an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) jacketed cable, increased with the inverse of the number averaged molar mass (1/Mn). Both materials showed a change in the wear surface when the number-averaged molar mass was reduced to ≈ 16 kg/mole, where a smooth wear surface transitioned to a 'spalling-like' pattern, leaving the wear surface with ≈ 0.3 mm cracks that propagated beyond the contact surface. The fatigue crack growth rate for P35 and E2A also increased in proportion to 1/Mn, after the molar mass was reduced below a critical value of ≈30 kg/mole. Interestingly, this critical molar mass coincided with that at which the single cycle stress-strain response changed from strain hardening to strain softening. The changes in both abrasion and fatigue resistance, key predictors for long term reliability of cardiac leads, after exposure of this class of PDMS-urethanes to water suggests that these materials are susceptible to mechanical compromise in vivo.

  20. Study on correlating rain erosion resistance with sliding abrasion resistance of DLC on germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardos, Michael N.; Soriano, Bonnie L.; Propst, Steven H.

    1990-12-01

    Whirling arm rain erosion tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) tribonietry were performed in parallel with germanium (Ge) flats coated with sputtered DLC films ranging in thickness from 0. 25 zin to ''1 in. Our aim was to establish some correlation between delamination resistance of the DLC under rain drop impact and under environmentallycontrolled tangential shear conditions. The DLC tested at rain erosion velocities of 112 156 and 201 in. s1 (250 350 and 450 mph) showed a correlation between DLC thickness and mnicrofracturecaused delamination where the pit density decreased and pit size increased with coating thickness. Sliding a CVD polycrystalline diamond covered a-SiC pin tip against DLC-coated e flats undr controlled loads speeds and in 1. 33 x 10 Pa (1 x 10 torr) vacuum of the SEM triboineter abrasively removed the thin films inunediately. The thick films lasted for 3 to 10 cycles followed by catastrophic delamination from the wear path in large flakes. The data indicate that delamination of the DLC under any of the test conditions is controlled mainly by the increasing internal stresses developing with progressively higher film thicknesses. These tests served as a prelixainary study using high temperature SEM tribometry measuring abrasion resistance of DLC and polycrystalline diamond films as an approximation for rain erosion resistance under ultrahigh velocity and thermal shock conditions. SPIE Vol. 1325 Diamond Optics /11 (1990) / 99

  1. Three-Body Abrasion Testing Using Lunar Dust Simulants to Evaluate Surface System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Budinski, Kenneth G.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Klaus, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous unexpected operational issues relating to the abrasive nature of lunar dust, such as scratched visors and spacesuit pressure seal leaks, were encountered during the Apollo missions. To avoid reoccurrence of these unexpected detrimental equipment problems on future missions to the Moon, a series of two- and three-body abrasion tests were developed and conducted in order to begin rigorously characterizing the effect of lunar dust abrasiveness on candidate surface system materials. Two-body scratch tests were initially performed to examine fundamental interactions of a single particle on a flat surface. These simple and robust tests were used to establish standardized measurement techniques for quantifying controlled volumetric wear. Subsequent efforts described in the paper involved three-body abrasion testing designed to be more representative of actual lunar interactions. For these tests, a new tribotester was developed to expose samples to a variety of industrial abrasives and lunar simulants. The work discussed in this paper describes the three-body hardware setup consisting of a rotating rubber wheel that applies a load on a specimen as a loose abrasive is fed into the system. The test methodology is based on ASTM International (ASTM) B611, except it does not mix water with the abrasive. All tests were run under identical conditions. Abraded material specimens included poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), hardened 1045 steel, 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and 1018 steel. Abrasives included lunar mare simulant JSC- 1A-F (nominal size distribution), sieved JSC-1A-F (<25 m particle diameter), lunar highland simulant NU-LHT-2M, alumina (average diameter of 50 m used per ASTM G76), and silica (50/70 mesh used per ASTM G65). The measured mass loss from each specimen was converted using standard densities to determine total wear volume in cm3. Abrasion was dominated by the alumina and the simulants were only similar to the silica (i.e., sand) on the softer materials of

  2. Sliding-gate valve for use with abrasive materials

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Jr., William J.; Carter, Charles R.; Griffith, Richard A.; Loomis, Richard B.; Notestein, John E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a flow and pressure-sealing valve for use with abrasive solids. The valve embodies special features which provide for long, reliable operating lifetimes in solids-handling service. The valve includes upper and lower transversely slidable gates, contained in separate chambers. The upper gate provides a solids-flow control function, whereas the lower gate provides a pressure-sealing function. The lower gate is supported by means for (a) lifting that gate into sealing engagement with its seat when the gate is in its open and closed positions and (b) lowering the gate out of contact with its seat to permit abrasion-free transit of the gate between its open and closed positions. When closed, the upper gate isolates the lower gate from the solids. Because of this shielding action, the sealing surface of the lower gate is not exposed to solids during transit or when it is being lifted or lowered. The chamber containing the lower gate normally is pressurized slightly, and a sweep gas is directed inwardly across the lower-gate sealing surface during the vertical translation of the gate.

  3. Tribological properties of amorphous alloys and the role of surfaces in abrasive wear of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The research approach undertaken by the authors relative to the subject, and examples of results from the authors are reviewed. The studies include programs in adhesion, friction, and various wear mechanisms (adhesive and abrasive wear). The materials which have been studied include such ceramic and metallic materials as silicon carbide, ferrites, diamond, and amorphous alloys.

  4. Influence of matrix structure on the abrasion wear resistance and toughness of a hot isostatic pressed white iron matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagounis, E.; Lindroos, V. K.; Talvitie, M.

    1996-12-01

    The influence of the matrix structure on the mechanical properties of a hot isostatic pressed (hipped) white iron matrix composite containing 10 vol pct TiC is investigated. The matrix structure was systematically varied by heat treating at different austenitizing temperatures. Various subsequent treatments were also employed. It was found that an austenitizing treatment at higher temperatures increases the hardness, wear resistance, and impact toughness of the composite. Although after every different heat treatment procedure the matrix structure of the composite was predominantly martensitic, with very low contents of retained austenite, some other microstructural features affected the mechanical properties to a great extent. Abrasion resistance and hardness increased with the austenitizing temperature because of the higher carbon content in martensite in the structure of the composite. Optimum impact energy values were obtained with structures containing a low amount of M (M7C3+M23C6) carbides in combination with a decreased carbon content martensite. Structure austenitized at higher temperatures showed the best tempering response. A refrigerating treatment was proven beneficial after austenitizing the composite at the lower temperature. The greatest portion in the increased martensitic transformation in comparison to the unreinforced alloy, which was observed particularly after austenitizing the composite at higher temperatures,[1] was confirmed to be mechanically induced. The tempering cycle might have caused some additional chemically induced transformation. The newly examined iron-based composite was found to have higher wear resistance than the most abrasion-resistant ferroalloy material (white cast iron).

  5. Heat sealable, flame and abrasion resistant coated fabric. [clothing and containers for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Flame retardant, abrasion resistant elastomeric compositions are comprised of thermoplastic polyurethane polymer and flame retarding amounts of a filler selected from decabromodiphenyloxide and antimony oxide in a 3:1 weight ratio, and decabromodiphenyloxide, antimony oxide, and ammonium polyphosphate in a 3:1:3 weight ratio respectively. Coated fabrics employing such elastomeric compositions as coating film are flexible, lightweight, and air impermeable and can be made using heat or dielectric sealing procedures.

  6. Process for producing a well-adhered durable optical coating on an optical plastic substrate. [abrasion resistant polymethyl methacrylate lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubacki, R. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A low temperature plasma polymerization process is described for applying an optical plastic substrate, such as a polymethyl methacrylate lens, with a single layer abrasive resistant coating to improve the durability of the plastic.

  7. Abrasion-Erosion Resistance of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    James E. HI. United States . Amy. ss Corps of Engineers. Office of the Chief ’if Engineers. Liui, Tony C. Abras.on-erosion resistance of fiber...jApproved For Public Release; Distrýibution ltlnrimitedl U Prepared for Office, Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army -- Washinigton, D. C. 20314 8,󈨀... publication , or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approvai of the use of such commercial products

  8. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with excellent mechanical abrasion and corrosion resistance on copper substrate by a novel method.

    PubMed

    Su, Fenghua; Yao, Kai

    2014-06-11

    A novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 162 ± 1° and a sliding angle of 3 ± 0.5° on copper substrate is reported in this Research Article. The facile and low-cost fabrication process is composed from the electrodeposition in traditional Watts bath and the heat-treatment in the presence of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) triethoxysilane (AC-FAS). The superhydrophobicity of the fabricated surface results from its pine-cone-like hierarchical micro-nanostructure and the assembly of low-surface-energy fluorinated components on it. The superhydrophobic surface exhibits high microhardness and excellent mechanical abrasion resistance because it maintains superhydrophobicity after mechanical abrasion against 800 grit SiC sandpaper for 1.0 m at the applied pressure of 4.80 kPa. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surface has good chemical stability in both acidic and alkaline environments. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test shows that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has excellent corrosion resistance that can provide effective protection for the bare Cu substrate. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has self-cleaning ability. It is believed that the facile and low-cost method offer an effective strategy and promising industrial applications for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on various metallic materials.

  9. Micro topography of different material surface by solid abrasive lapped at high speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chunlin; Yang, Jiandong; Fan, Jingfeng; Zhou, Huawen

    2007-12-01

    The principle of solid abrasives lapping is that the abrasives are fixed and made into a special lapping tool; the workpiece is lapped in high speed lapping machine tool. It possesses many advantages compared with traditional low speed lapping with particulate abrasives, e.g. high machining efficiency, low machining cost, high and stable machining accuracy. So the highly efficient lapping method has been paid close attention to. This paper made a study on surface micro topography of different material by solid abrasive lapped at high speed. In experiments the lapping technique parameter is fixed, and different workpiece which are made by T10 steel, carbide, ceramic glass and alumina ceramics are lapped. The surface micro topography is measured by SEM, from the measuring result, it can be known that there is some shallow scribe on the surface of T10 steel, and the obvious plastic deformation can be observed. The SEM pictures show that there is some scribe on the surface of ceramics glass after lapped, with more magnification times many micro cracking and some plastic hump can be observed on the scribe. These scribes and humps are first cause of depressing surface quality, and these micro cracking can result in a lot of diffuse reflection on workpiece surface, it decreases the glossiness of mirror surface. On the surface of alumina ceramics there are a lot of defects, the size of such defect is more than the scribe of abrasive, it can be sure that the defect is not produced by lapping, so the material quality is an important effect fact to surface macro topography. On the surface of carbide there are a little of scribe and air cavity, and the scribe is very shallow; the defect of powder metallurgy martial is the primary reason.

  10. The surface quality of AWJ cut parts as a function of abrasive material reusing rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnakovszky, C.; Herghelegiu, E.; Radu, M. C.; Tampu, N. C.

    2015-11-01

    Abrasive water jet cutting (AWJ) has been extensively used during the last years to process a large variety of materials since it offers important advantages as a good quality of the processed surface, without heat affected zones, low environmental impact (no emission of dust or other compounds that endanger the health of the user), small induced mechanical stresses etc. The main disadvantage is the high cost of processing (cost of equipment and consumables). In view of this, the effects of reusing the abrasive material on the quality of processed surface are investigated in this paper. Two steel materials were used: OL 37 (S 235) with large applicability in machine building industry and 2P armor steel used in the arms industry. The reusing rate of the garnet abrasive material was: 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The quality of processed surface was quantified by the following parameters: width at the jet inlet (Li), width at the jet outlet (Lo), inclination angle (α), deviation from perpendicularity (u) and roughness (Ra).

  11. K/Na-treated Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys with high-impact-abrasion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.H.; Wang, X.B.

    1995-03-01

    This paper deals with K/Na-containing additives in the coatings or cores of electrodes, transforming the martensitic matrix of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloy into an austenitic one. The austenitic matrix hardened by the fine dispersed (Cr, Fe){sub 7}C{sub 3}, together with the isolated lumpish eutectic carbide, enhance both the impact and abrasion resistance of this alloy. The authors also found that Na doubled the effectiveness of the additive, and 50% less is needed to get better results compared to the K addition.

  12. Abrasion and erosion testing of materials used in power production from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Tylczak, Joseph H.; Adler, Thomas A.; Rawers, James C.

    2003-09-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of studying abrasive wear, related to mineral testing, handling, and processing. The center has also been instrumental in the design and development of wear test procedures and equipment. Research capabilities at ARC include Pin-on-Drum, Pin-on-Disk, and Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel abrasion tests, Jaw Crusher gouging test, Ball-on-Ball Impact test, and Jet erosion tests. Abrasive and erosive wear studies have been used to develop both new alloys and improved heat treatments of commercial alloys. As part of ARC’s newest iteration on wear testing to evaluate materials for use in new and existing pulverized coal combustion and gasifier power systems, the ARC has designed and constructed a new High Temperature Hostile Atmosphere Erosion Wear Test (HAET). This new piece of test apparatus is designed for erosive particle velocities of 10-40 m/sec and temperatures from room temperature (23°C) to 800+°C, with special control over the gas atmosphere. A variable speed whirling arm design is used to vary the impact energy of the gravity fed erosive particles. The specimens are mounted at the edge of a disk and allow a full range of impingement angles to be selected. An electric furnace heats the specimens in an enclosed retort to the selected temperature. Tests include both oxidizing conditions and reducing conditions. A range of gases, including CO, CO2, CH4, H2, H2S, HCl, N2, O2, and SO2 can be mixed and delivered to the retort. During the erosion testing a stream of abrasive powder is delivered in front of the specimens. This apparatus is designed to use low abrasive fluxes, which simulate real operating conditions in commercial power plants. Currently ~270 μm SiO2 particles are being used to simulate the abrasive impurities typically found in coal. Since operators are always striving for longer lifetimes and higher operating temperatures, this apparatus can help elucidate mechanisms of wastage and identify superior

  13. Comparative evaluation of surface properties of enamel and different esthetic restorative materials under erosive and abrasive challenges: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Makkar, Sameer; Kumar, Rajneesh; Pasricha, Shinam; Gupta, Pranav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Noncarious tooth surface loss is a normal physiological process occurring throughout the life, but it can often become a problem affecting function, esthetics or cause pain. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of erosive and abrasive challenges on the surface microhardness and surface wear of enamel and three different restorative materials, that is, nanofilled composite, microfilled composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) by using Vickers microhardness tester and profilometer respectively. Subjects and Methods: Nanofilled composite (Filtek™ Z350 × T), microfilled composite (Heliomolar®) and RMGIC (Fuji II LC) were used in the study. Results: Nanofilled composite resin has the best resistance to erosion and/or abrasion among all the materials tested, followed by microfilled composite and RMGIC respectively. Conclusion: Toothbrush abrasion has a synergistic effect with erosion on substance loss of human enamel, composites, and RMGIC. The susceptibility to acid and/or toothbrush abrasion of human enamel was higher compared to restorative materials. PMID:26752876

  14. Abrasive wear of alumina fibre-reinforced aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axen, N.; Alahelisten, A.; Jacobson, S.

    1994-04-01

    The friction and abrasive wear behaviour of an Al-Si1MgMn aluminium alloy reinforced with 10, 15 and 30 vol.% of alumina fibers has been evaluated. The influence of fiber content, matrix hardness, applied load as well as the hardness and size of the abrasive grits was investigated. The tests were performed with a pin-on-drum two-body abrasion apparatus. The wear mechanisms were studied using scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that fiber reinforcement increases the wear resistance in milder abrasive situations, i.e. small and soft abrasives and low loads. However, in tougher abrasive situations, meaning coarse and hard abrasives and high loads, the wear resistance of the composites is equal to or, in some cases, even lower than that of the unreinforced material. It is also shown that the coefficient of friction decreases with increasing fiber content and matrix hardness of the composites.

  15. Rig for testing the relative wear resistance of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Berdikov, V.F.; Diulin, A.I.; Efimchuk, V.P.; Pushkarev, O.I.; Finogenov, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have developed a simple and compact rig for studying the relative wear resistance of materials subjected to mechanical abrasion and friction. The rig has an electronic control system. It was used to test the relative wear resistance of a wide range of superhard and brittle materials under mechanical abrasion against a counterbody. The counterbody was made of modified iron and the test medium was a diamond suspension in oil. The results showed that specimen wear exhibits a linear relationship with abrasion time (in the range of 0.5-20 min.) at unit pressure from 0.01 to 0.10 MPa. That a standard wear pattern exists within a wide range of parameters indicates that abrasive conditions are highly stable and makes it possible to control conditions. The rig was used to establish the relative wear resistance of several abrasives, minerals, and refractory compounds. The very large difference (15.2 times) between the most and least-resistant materials (tungsten carbide and fluoride) illustrates the sensitivity of the methodology.

  16. The role of the microfissuration of the rock matrix in the abrasion resistance of ornamental granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Angel; Sanchez-Delgado, Nuria; Camino, Clara; Calleja, Lope; Ruiz de Argandoña, Vicente G.; Setien, Alexia

    2015-04-01

    The microcrack density and the abrasion resistance of five ornamental granites (Albero, Gris Alba, Mondariz, Rosa Porriño and Traspieles) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been quantified as part of a research aimed to interpret the cuttability of the rocks in relation to the petrophysical properties of the rock matrix. Large blocks from the quarries have been cut with an industrial saw and the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance have been measured in two surfaces: H, parallel to the cut surface; T, perpendicular both to the cut surface and the cutting direction. Both planes are perpendicular to the rift plane, as it is known in quarry works. The microcrack density has been quantified following an stereological procedure applied to polished sections imaged under scanning electron microscopy. The magnification of the images allowed the study of microcracks as narrow as 2 microns in aperture. The density has been quantified in terms of length of microcrack traces per surface unit so possible anisotropies of the microcrack network could be detected. The obtained values are in the typical range for this type of rocks although the Traspieles granite shows a higher value due to its weathering degree (H: 5.11, T: 5.37 mm/mm2). The values measured in the two surfaces (H and T) are quite similar in four of the rocks; only the Albero granite shows a marked anisotropy (H: 2.76 T: 3.53 mm/mm2). The abrasion resistance of the rocks has been measured following the european standard EN 14157:2004 using the capon method. The rocks can be classified in two groups according to their abrasion resistance. Rosa Porriño, Gris Alba and Mondariz granites are the more resistant to abrasion with values around 16-17 mm. Albero and Traspieles granites are less resistant with values higher than 19 mm. The results show a good correlation between the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance. As can be expected the rocks with high microcrack density show low abrasion resistance. The

  17. Scratch and abrasion properties of polyurethane-based micro- and nano-hybrid obturation materials.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Miriam; Rodriguez, J Rogelio; Vargas, Susana; Guerra, J A; Brostow, Witold; Lobland, Haley E Hagg

    2013-06-01

    Polyurethane-based micro- and nano-hybrid composites were produced with controlled porosity to be used as obturation materials. In addition to hydroxyapatite (HAp) micro-particles in the composites, two different ceramics particle types were also added: alumina micro-particles and silica nano-particles. Particles of different sizes provide the materials with improved mechanical properties: the use of micro- and nano-particles produces a better packing because the nano-particles fill the interstitial space left by the micro-particles, rendering an improvement in the mechanical properties. The silica and alumina particles provide the materials with appropriate abrasion and scratching properties, while the HAp provides the required bio-acceptance. The polymeric matrix was a mono-component solvent-free polyurethane. The porosity was selected by controlling the chemical reaction.

  18. The influence of heat treatment on the high-stress abrasion resistance and fracture toughness of alloy white cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sare, I. R.; Arnold, B. K.

    1995-07-01

    The influence of a range of austenitizing and subcritical (tempering) heat treatments on the high-stress abrasion resistance and fracture toughness of four commercially significant grades of alloy white cast iron was investigated. Complementing an earlier study[1] on the influence of a more limited range of heat treatments on the gouging abrasion performance of the same alloys, the results showed that the effect of austenitizing temperature on high-stress abrasion pin test weight loss differed for each alloy. With increasing austenitizing temperature, these results ranged from a substantial improvement in wear performance and retention of hardness through to vir-tually no change in wear performance and substantial falls in hardness. Fracture toughness, however, increased markedly in all alloys with increasing austenitizing temperature. Tempering treatments in the range 400 °C to 600 °C, following hardening at the austenitizing temperature used commonly in industrial practice for each alloy, produced significant changes in both hard-ness and wear performance, but negligible changes in fracture toughness. Most importantly, the data showed that selection of the correct temperature for subcritical heat treatment to reduce the retained austenite content for applications involving repeated impact loading is critical if abrasion resistance is not to suffer.

  19. Improvement of abrasion resistance in artificial seawater and corrosion resistance in NaCl solution of 7075 aluminum alloy processed by laser shock peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Ning, Chengyi; Huang, Yihui; Cao, Zhenya; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Wenwu

    2017-03-01

    As 7075 aluminum alloy is widely used in a humid environment, in order to enhance its abrasion resistance and electrochemical corrosion resistance, the paper studied the effect of laser shock peening on abrasion resistance in artificial seawater and corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution of 7075 aluminum alloy. Result shows that when specimens were treated once and twice with 7.17 GW/cm2 the abrasion loss would be reduced by 43.75% and 46.09% compare to untreated respectively, and the corrosion rate of 7075 aluminum alloy could be reduced as much as 50.32% by LSP treatment with 7.17 GW/cm2. What's more, the effects on the microhardness, microstructure and residual stress with different LSP impacts and power density were investigated to find out strengthening mechanism of laser shock peening, which were observed and measured by microhardness tester, optical microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress tester. In the entire laboratory tests, it is considered that LSP is a practical option to improve abrasion resistance in seawater and corrosion resistance of 7075 aluminum alloy.

  20. The Development of Surface Profile Models in Abrasive Slurry Jet Micro-machining of Brittle and Ductile materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouraei, Hooman

    In low-pressure abrasive slurry jet micro-machining (ASJM), a slurry jet of fine abrasive particles is used to erode micro-sized features such as holes and channels in a variety of brittle and ductile materials with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability without the need for a patterned mask. ASJM causes no tool wear and thermal damage, applies small forces on the workpiece, allows multilevel etching on a single substrate and is relatively quick and inexpensive. In this study for the first time, the mechanics of micro-slurry jet erosion and its relation to the fluid flow of the impinging jet was investigated using a newly developed ASJM system. Existing surface evolution models, previously developed for abrasive air jet machining (AJM), were evaluated and modified through the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models for profile modeling of micro-channels and micro-holes machined with ASJM in brittle materials. A novel numerical-empirical model was also developed in order to compensate for the shortcoming of existing surface evolution models and provide a higher degree of accuracy in predicting the profiles of features in ductile materials machined with ASJM. In addition, the effect of process parameters on the minimum feature size attainable with ASJM as a maskless process was also examined and it was shown that the size of machined features could be further reduced.

  1. Hardfacing and wear plates battle abrasion

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.F.

    1983-06-01

    This article examines abrasion-resistant steels and hardfacing as two effective weapons at the disposal of material handlers. It points out that abrasion is probably the single most destructive form of wear in the mixing and processing of coal. Particulate matter such as quartz sand and other minerals including coal curtail in-service life of dragline buckets, chute, crusher rolls, gates and valves, exhauster fan blades, target plates, truck beds, hoppers, vibrating pans, grinding mills, piping elbows, etc. The advantages of abrasion-resistant steels and hardfacing can be obtained in the form of a composite wear plate-hardfacing on a carbon steel backup plate. It concludes that the composite wear plate represents a major innovation since its advantages include ease of handling, low cost and easy installation, minimum on-site welding time and versatility. Its use is limited only to the consumer's creativity in application.

  2. Development of Abrasion-Resistant Coating for Solar Reflective Films. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-247

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this CRADA is to develop an abrasion-resistant coating, suitable for use on polymeric-based reflective films (e.g., the ReflecTech reflective film), that allows for improved scratch resistance and enables the use of aggressive cleaning techniques (e.g., direct contact methods like brushing) without damaging the specular reflectance properties of the reflective film.

  3. Abrasive Wear of Four Direct Restorative Materials by Standard and Whitening Dentifrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    creating cervical lesions and altering tooth surface is an area of interest in the dental community . This has led to the development of a number of...study of root caries : baseline and incidenc data. Journal of Dental Restorations, 64(9), 1141-1144. Barnes, D., Blank, L., Gingell, J., & Gilner, P... Community Dental Oral Epidemiology, 7(1), 57-64. Bull, W. H., Callender, R. M., Pugh, B. R., & Wood, G. D. (1968). The abrasion and cleaning

  4. Corneal Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes a Corneal Abrasion? Your eye has other defenses besides the orbital bone: The eyelids and eyelashes ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  5. Corneal Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... fingernails short, too.Use care when putting in contact lenses. Make sure you clean them properly each day.Don’t sleep in your contact lenses.Trim low-hanging tree branches. Corneal abrasion treatment ...

  6. Corneal Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... can damage the cornea. This includes dust, sand, wood shavings, hay, sparks, bugs, pieces of paper, and ... prevent a corneal abrasion, make sure to wear protection for your eyes, such as safety goggles or ...

  7. Degradation in the Fatigue Resistance of Dentin by Bur and Abrasive Air-jet Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Majd, H.; Viray, J.; Porter, J.A.; Romberg, E.; Arola, D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to distinguish whether the instruments commonly used for cutting dentin cause degradation in strength or fatigue behavior. Beams of coronal dentin were obtained from unrestored 3rd molars and subjected to either quasi-static or cyclic flexural loading to failure. The surfaces of selected beams were treated with a conventional straight-sided bur or with an abrasive air jet laden with glass particles. Under monotonic loading, there was no difference in the strength or Weibull parameters obtained for the control or treated beams. However, the fatigue strength of dentin receiving bur and air-jet treatments was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.0001) than that of the control. The bur treatment resulted in the largest overall degree of degradation, with nearly 40% reduction in the endurance limit and even more substantial decrease in the fatigue life. The methods currently used for cavity preparations substantially degrade the durability of dentin. PMID:22851284

  8. Microstructural effects in abrasive wear: Final report for period September 15, 1981--March 14, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kosel, T.H.

    1988-03-08

    This report summarizes research performed on abrasion of metallic alloys. The work was designed to improve our understanding of the factors affecting abrasion rates in two-phase alloys containing large, hard second-phase particles (SPPs) such as carbides, since this class of alloys generally has very high abrasion resistance owing to the presence of such carbides. The project was divided into sections dealing with material removal in the carbide and matrix phases. The materials studied included Stellite and high Cr-Mo white cast irons and a set of specially prepared model alloys containing one of six types of artificial SPPs dispersed in a sintered matrix of pure Cu. Scratch tests were employed to simulate abrasion mechanisms, and specially designed scratch test systems were fabricated to permit scratch testing in-situ in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and to permit scratches to be made at fixed depths of cut rather than fixed loads. Three types of abrasion tests were employed; a dry-sand rubber wheel abrasion test; a low-speed ''gouging'' abrasion test employing a special low-speed Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ grinding wheel; and a pin-on-disc abrasion test using abrasive paper. Abrasive type and size was varied in the rubber wheel and the pin-on-disc tests. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Erosion-resistant composite material

    DOEpatents

    Finch, C.B.; Tennery, V.J.; Curlee, R.M.

    A highly erosion-resistant composite material is formed of chemical vapor-deposited titanium diboride on a sintered titanium diboride-nickel substrate. This material may be suitable for use in cutting tools, coal liquefaction systems, etc.

  10. Abrasion protection in process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Accetta, J.

    1996-07-01

    Process piping often is subjected to failure from abrasion or a combination of abrasion and corrosion. Abrasion is a complex phenomenon, with many factors involved to varying degrees. Hard, mineral based alumina ceramic and basalt materials are used to provide protection against abrasion in many piping systems. Successful life extension examples are presented from many different industries. Lined piping components require special attention with regard to operating conditions as well as design and engineering considerations. Economic justification involves direct cost comparisons and avoided costs.

  11. Evaluation of surface finish and polish of eight provisional restorative materials using acrylic bur and abrasive disk with and without pumice.

    PubMed

    Maalhagh-Fard, Ahmad; Wagner, Warren C; Pink, Frank E; Neme, Ann Marie

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two finishing techniques and pumice polishing on the surface roughness of eight different provisional materials. Provisional materials included polymethylmethacrylate-based Alike, Snap, Trim and Jetand composite-based provisional materials Temphase, Protemp 3 Garant, Luxatemp and Integrity. Baseline surface roughness was measured by a profilometer, then the provisional materials were finished using extra fine acrylic burs or medium abrasive disks. The surface roughness of each sample was measured following finishing using a profilometer as previously stated. Each surface was then polished with pumice and the surface roughness was measured again. The data were analyzed using repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons (alpha = 0.05). The results indicated that with composite provisional materials, the unfinished surfaces are smoother than with bur or abrasive-disk finished surfaces. Pumice application did not smooth the surface finish for all materials. The different types of provisional materials required different finishing techniques to produce the smoothest finishes.

  12. Magnetic forming of resistive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waniek, R. W.

    1969-01-01

    Necessary theoretical foundation is given for the treatment of magnetic stresses applied to cylindrical boundaries and swaging of metallic tubing. Emphasis is placed on the use of high-resistivity materials such as stainless steel and Hastelloy.

  13. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  14. Fire Resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  15. Ballistic Resistance of Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Chad

    2005-03-01

    Ballistic-resistant body armor has been credited with saving more than 2,500 lives, but new materials are constantly being developed, and there currently exists no method for evaluating armor over time to ensure the continued effectiveness of the protection. We report on progress towards development of a standard test method for reliability of the active polymeric materials that comprise them.

  16. Abrasion Resistance of Al-Ni-Mm-Fe Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Composite Coating on the Surface of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Liang, X. B.; Chen, Y. X.; Xu, B. S.

    An Al-Ni-Mm-Fe amorphous and nanocrystalline composite coating was prepared onto the surface of AZ91 magnesium alloy by high velocity arc spraying process. And the microstructure of the coating was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis results indicated that the coating consists of amorphous, nanocrystalline and crystalline phases. It has a dense structure with a low porosity of about 2.0%. Its average micro Vickers hardness value is about 330 HV0.1, which is five times than that of AZ91 magnesium alloy (62 HV0.1) and four times than that of pure Al coating (71 HV0.1). The abrasion tests showed that the Al-Ni-Mm-Fe coating exhibits a good abrasion resistance.

  17. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-23

    Ceramic materials are disclosed which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200--550 C or organic salt (including SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) at temperatures of 25--200 C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components. 1 fig.

  18. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  19. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  20. Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Mary J.

    1992-01-01

    The Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application is in support of the Abrasion Resistance Materials Screening Test. The fundamental assumption made for the SEM abrasion analysis was that woven fabrics to be used as the outermost layer of the protective overgarment in the design of the future, planetary space suits perform best when new. It is the goal of this study to determine which of the candidate fabrics was abraded the least in the tumble test. The sample that was abraded the least will be identified at the end of the report as the primary candidate fabric for further investigation. In addition, this analysis will determine if the abrasion seen by the laboratory tumbled samples is representative of actual EVA Apollo abrasion.

  1. Comprehensive study of the abrasive wear and slurry erosion behavior of an expanded system of high chromium cast iron and microstructural modification for enhanced wear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Reinaldo Javier

    High chromium cast irons (HCCIs) have been demonstrated to be an effective material for a wide range of applications in aggressive environments, where resistances to abrasion, erosion and erosion-corrosion are required. For instance, machinery and facilities used in mining and extraction in Alberta's oil sands suffer from erosion and erosion-corrosion caused by silica-containing slurries, which create challenges for the reliability and maintenance of slurry pumping systems as well as other processing and handling equipment. Considerable efforts have been made to determine and understand the relationship between microstructural features of the HCCIs and their wear performance, in order to guide the material selection and development for specific service conditions with optimal performance. The focus was previously put on a narrow group of compositions dictated by ASTM A532. However, with recent advances in casting technology, the HCCI compositional range can be significantly expanded, which potentially brings new alloys that can be superior to those which are currently employed. This work consists of three main aspects of study. The first one is the investigation of an expanded system of white irons with their composition ranging from 1 to 6 wt.% C and 5 to 45 wt.% Cr, covering 53 alloys. This work has generated wear and corrosion maps and established correlation between the performance and microstructural features for the alloys. The work was conducted in collaboration with the Materials Development Center of Weir Minerals in Australia, and the results have been collected in a database that is used by the company to guide materials selection for slurry pump components in Alberta oil sands and in other mining operations throughout the world. The second part consists of three case studies on effects of high chromium and high carbon, respectively, on the performance of the HCCIs. The third aspect is the development of an approach to enhance the wear resistance of

  2. Adhesion and abrasion of surface materials in the Venusian aeolian environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John R.; Greeley, Ronald; Tucker, David; Fogleman, Guy; Hixon, Raymond

    1991-01-01

    In laboratory simulations of the Venusian environment, rock and mineral 'target' surfaces struck by aeolian particles develop a thin layer of accretionary material derived from the particles' attrition debris. Accretion may be (in part) a manifestation of 'cold welding', a process well known in engineering, where bonding occurs between metals at a tribological interface. Accretion on geological materials was found to occur at all Venusian surface temperatures and for all types of materials tested. First-order variations in the amount deposited by particles are related to relative attrition susceptibilities. Second-order variations relate to properties of the particle-target interface. Variations in accretion volume are apparently independent of mineral chemistry and are only weakly dependent on crystallography. The results suggest that accretion should be a fairly universal phenomenon in areas of Venus subject to aeolian activity.

  3. Adhesion and abrasion of surface materials in the Venusian aeolian environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Fogleman, G.; Greeley, R.; Hixon, R.; Tucker, D.

    1991-02-01

    In laboratory simulations of the Venusian environment, rock and mineral 'target' surfaces struck by aeolian particles develop a thin layer of accretionary material derived from the particles' attrition debris. Accretion may be (in part) a manifestation of 'cold welding', a process well known in engineering, where bonding occurs between metals at a tribological interface. Accretion on geological materials was found to occur at all Venusian surface temperatures and for all types of materials tested. First-order variations in the amount deposited by particles are related to relative attrition susceptibilities. Second-order variations relate to properties of the particle-target interface. Variations in accretion volume are apparently independent of mineral chemistry and are only weakly dependent on crystallography. The results suggest that accretion should be a fairly universal phenomenon in areas of Venus subject to aeolian activity.

  4. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  5. Determining the functional and material properties needed for abrasive wear prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, I.

    2016-08-01

    Abrassive wear is a complex mechanical process with specific characteristics, dependent on the bodies velocities and load, the quality of contact surfaces, the mechanical properties of the superficial layers, lubrication etc. During the friction of the bodies in contact, the mechanical properties and the micro-topography of superficial layers change, most of the time irrecoverable, leading to the shut-down of the technical system they are part of. The present paper proposes a theoretical and experimental analysis of the abrassive wear behaviour of a coupling made of steel/cast iron as well as the detection of the wear trace dependent on the inclination angle of the harder material asperities (penetrator).

  6. Influence of a corrosive-abrasive medium on the wear resistance of 12Kh18N10T steel with surface hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Golubets, V.M.; Kozub, V.V.; Shchuiko, Ya.V.; Pashechko, M.I.

    1987-11-01

    The authors study the wear and corrosion resistance of 12Kh18N10T steel after diffusion boriding, electrospark alloying, and combined hardening in a corrosive abrasive medium consisting of 50 percent sand and 3 percent NaCl with hydrochloric acid added to obtain a pH of 1. Metallographic analysis revealed a 40-micrometer-deep case with a microhardness of 6-8.5 GPa on the surface. X-ray diffraction established that the boride case consists of an FeB phase alloyed with chromium and nickel. Results are graphed.

  7. Transforming Anaerobic Adhesives into Highly Durable and Abrasion Resistant Superhydrophobic Organoclay Nanocomposite Films: A New Hybrid Spray Adhesive for Tough Superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Brown, Andrea; Steele, Adam; Loth, Eric

    2009-12-01

    The authors report fabrication of tough nanostructured self-cleaning superhydrophobic polymer-organoclay films from anaerobic acrylic adhesives displaying strong adhesion to metal surfaces. Both industrial and bio-grade anaerobic adhesives such as bone cements could be used. Montmorillonite clay filled anaerobic adhesives were modified by blending with a water dispersed fluoro-methacrylic latex in solution to form abrasion resistant interpenetrating polymer network films upon spray casting. The adhesive films could cure by thermosetting in oxygen-rich environments. Very high contact angles with low hysteresis were also measured for acidic (pH 2) and basic (pH 11) aqueous buffer solutions indicating resistance to acidic and basic media.

  8. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing... that contains an abrasive material, such as silica pumice, intended to remove debris from the...

  9. Treating corneal abrasions.

    PubMed

    Wingate, S

    1999-06-01

    Although corneal abrasions are commonly seen in primary care settings, the primary care literature contains scant references on detecting and managing this problem. This article provides an overview of corneal abrasion assessment and treatment. Four common etiologies of abrasion are discussed: traumatic abrasion, contact lens abrasion, foreign body abrasion, and recurrent erosion. Parameters for the history and physical examination are outlined, including sections on contact lens removal, lid eversion, and fluorescein staining. Treatment regimens for each of the etiologies are discussed, with a focus on current research on using pressure eye patches as an intervention. Indications for referral to an ophthalmologist are noted.

  10. Brushing abrasion of luting cements under neutral and acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Buchalla, W; Attin, T; Hellwig, E

    2000-01-01

    Four resin based materials (Compolute Aplicap, ESPE; Variolink Ultra, Vivadent; C&B Metabond, Parkell and Panavia 21, Kuraray), two carboxylate cements (Poly-F Plus, Dentsply DeTrey and Durelon Maxicap, ESPE), two glass-ionomer cements (Fuji I, GC and Ketac-Cem Aplicap, ESPE), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, 3M) one polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Cem, Dentsply DeTrey) and one zinc phosphate cement (Harvard, Richter & Hoffmann) were investigated according to their brushing resistance after storage in neutral and acidic buffer solutions. For this purpose 24 cylindrical acrylic molds were each filled with the materials. After hardening, the samples were stored for seven days in 100% relative humidity and at 37 degrees C. Subsequently, they were ground flat and polished. Then each specimen was covered with an adhesive tape leaving a 4 mm wide window on the cement surface. Twelve samples of each material were stored for 24 hours in a buffer solution with a pH of 6.8. The remaining 12 samples were placed in a buffer with a pH of 3.0. All specimens were then subjected to a three media brushing abrasion (2,000 strokes) in an automatic brushing machine. Storage and brushing were performed three times. After 6,000 brushing strokes per specimen, the tape was removed. Brushing abrasion was measured with a computerized laser profilometer and statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's Standardized Range Test (p < or = 0.05). The highest brushing abrasion was found for the two carboxylate cements. The lowest brushing abrasion was found for one resin based material, Compolute Aplicap. With the exception of three resin-based materials, a lower pH led to a higher brushing abrasion.

  11. Corneal Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... particles of wood, metal or other materials to fly into the air (such as a chainsaw or ... UsCopyright & PermissionsPrivacy PolicyContact FamilyDoctor.org is powered by © 2017 American Academy of Family Physicians

  12. Variable-Resistivity Material For Memory Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Distefano, Salvador; Moacanin, Jovan

    1989-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory elements packed densely. Electrically-erasable, programmable, read-only memory matrices made with newly-synthesized organic material of variable electrical resistivity. Material, polypyrrole doped with tetracyanoquinhydrone (TCNQ), changes reversibly between insulating or higher-resistivity state and conducting or low-resistivity state. Thin film of conductive polymer separates layer of row conductors from layer of column conductors. Resistivity of film at each intersection and, therefore, resistance of memory element defined by row and column, increased or decreased by application of suitable switching voltage. Matrix circuits made with this material useful for experiments in associative electronic memories based on models of neural networks.

  13. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins

    PubMed Central

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm2 and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm2of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics. PMID:27651887

  14. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins.

    PubMed

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm(2) and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm(2)of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  15. Effects of air abrasion with alumina or glass beads on surface characteristics of CAD/CAM composite materials and the bond strength of resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Nobuaki, ARAO; Keiichi, YOSHIDA; Takashi, SAWASE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The study aimed to evaluate effects of air abrasion with alumina or glass beads on bond strengths of resin cements to CAD/CAM composite materials. Material and Methods CAD/CAM composite block materials [Cerasmart (CS) and Block HC (BHC)] were pretreated as follows: (a) no treatment (None), (b) application of a ceramic primer (CP), (c) alumina-blasting at 0.2 MPa (AB), (d) AB followed by CP (AB+CP), and (e) glass-beads blasting at 0.4 MPa (GBB) followed by CP (GBB+CP). The composite specimens were bonded to resin composite disks using resin cements [G-CEM Cerasmart (GCCS) and ResiCem (RC)]. The bond strengths after 24 h (TC 0) and after thermal cycling (TC 10,000 at 4–60°C) were measured by shear tests. Three-way ANOVA and the Tukey compromise post hoc tests were used to analyze statistically significant differences between groups (α=0.05). Results For both CAD/CAM composite materials, the None group exhibited a significant decrease in bond strength after TC 10,000 (p<0.05). AB showed significantly higher bond strength after TC 10,000 than the None group, while CP did not (p<0.05). GBB exhibited smaller surface defects than did AB; however, their surface roughnesses were not significantly different (p>0.05). The AB+CP group showed a significantly higher bond strength after TC 10,000 than did the AB group for RC (p<0.05), but not for GCCS. The GBB+CP group showed the highest bond strength for both thermal cyclings (p<0.05). Conclusions Air abrasion with glass beads was more effective in increasing bond durability between the resin cements and CAD/CAM composite materials than was using an alumina powder and a CP. PMID:26814465

  16. In vitro evaluation of different remineralization periods in improving the resistance of previously eroded bovine dentine against tooth-brushing abrasion.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Buchalla, W; Putz, B

    2001-09-01

    One dentine specimen was prepared from each of 90 bovine incisors. The samples were then evenly distributed among nine groups (A-I) and submitted to 10 alternating de- and re-mineralization cycles, including abrasion by tooth brushing. Each cycle started with a demineralization using the erosive soft drink Sprite Light for 1 min, followed by storing the samples in pooled human saliva for a total of 240 min. The specimens were removed from the saliva at different intervals (group A, 0 min; B, 15 min; C, 30 min; D, 45 min; E, 60 min; F, 90 min; G, 120 min) and brushed in an automatic brushing machine. Groups H (erosion, but no brushing) and I (no erosion, but brushing), which were also stored in saliva for 240 min, served as controls. After these cycles, loss of dentine was determined by profilometry, producing the following values (mean+/-S.D.), which were analysed statistically (P< or = 0.05): group A (5.03+/-1.49 microm), B (4.44+/-1.09 microm), C (4.91+/-0.95 microm), D (5.47+/-1.52 microm), E (5.29+/-1.45 microm), F (4.76+/-0.74 microm), G (5.16+/-0.71 microm), H (2.61+/-1.31), I (1.11+/-0.39). Groups A-G had no significant differences, but they showed a significantly greater loss of dentine than groups H and I. It is concluded that the abrasion resistance of eroded bovine dentine is still decreased after a remineralization period of 120 min.

  17. Fabrication of ZIF-8@SiO2 Micro/Nano Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surface on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy with Impressive Corrosion Resistance and Abrasion Resistance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cuiqing; Liu, Qi; Chen, Rongrong; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Takahashi, Kazunobu; Liu, Peili; Wang, Jun

    2017-03-29

    Superhydrophobic coatings are highly promising for protecting material surfaces and for wide applications. In this study, superhydrophobic composites, comprising a rhombic-dodecahedral zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8@SiO2), have been manufactured onto AZ31 magnesium alloy via chemical etching and dip-coating methods to enhance stability and corrosion resistance. Herein, we report on a simple strategy to modify hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilan (HDTMS) on ZIF-8@SiO2 to significantly improve the property of repelling water. We show that various liquids can be stable on its surface and maintain a contact angle higher than 150°. The morphologies and chemical composition were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR). In addition, the anticorrosion and antiattrition properties of the film were assessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization and HT, respectively. Such a coating shows promising potential as a material for large-scale fabrication.

  18. Low stress abrasive wear behavior of a hardfaced steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, R.; Prasad, B. K.; Jha, A. K.; Modi, O. P.; Das, S.; Yegneswaran, A. H.

    1998-04-01

    A plain carbon steel was overlayed with a wear-resistant hardfacing alloy by manual arc welding. Low stress abrasive wear tests were conducted with an ASTM rubber wheel abrasion tester using crushed silica and as the abrasive medium. The wear rate decreased with sliding distance, and there was an overall improvement in the abrasive wear resistance as a result of overlaying. The wear behavior of the samples has been discussed in terms of microstructural features while the examination of wear surface and subsurface regions provides insight into the wear mechanisms.

  19. Acid soluble, pepsin resistant platelet aggregating material

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1982-08-31

    Disclosed is an acid soluble, pepsin resistant, platelet aggregating material isolated from equine arterial tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid. The method of isolation and use to control bleeding are described. 4 figs.

  20. Role of the Bogachev - Mints Concept of Metastability of Austenite in Choosing Wear-Resistant Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Filippov, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The significance of the Bogachev - Mints concept of metastability of austenite for the choice of strain-hardenable steel, cast iron, and facing alloys resisting mechanical kinds of wear (cavitation-, erosion-, and abrasion-induced) is discussed.

  1. Photoresist-free patterning by mechanical abrasion of water-soluble lift-off resists and bare substrates: toward green fabrication of transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Printz, Adam D; Chan, Esther; Liong, Celine; Martinez, René S; Lipomi, Darren J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of transparent electrodes based on grids of copper microwires using a non-photolithographic process. The process--"abrasion lithography"--takes two forms. In the first implementation (Method I), a water-soluble commodity polymer film is abraded with a sharp tool, coated with a conductive film, and developed by immersion in water. Water dissolves the polymer film and lifts off the conductive film in the unabraded areas. In the second implementation (Method II), the substrate is abraded directly by scratching with a sharp tool (i.e., no polymer film necessary). The abraded regions of the substrate are recessed and roughened. Following deposition of a conductive film, the lower profile and roughened topography in the abraded regions prevents mechanical exfoliation of the conductive film using adhesive tape, and thus the conductive film remains only where the substrate is scratched. As an application, conductive grids exhibit average sheet resistances of 17 Ω sq(-1) and transparencies of 86% are fabricated and used as the anode in organic photovoltaic cells in concert with the conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Compared to devices in which PEDOT:PSS alone serves as an anode, devices comprising grids of copper/nickel microwires and PEDOT:PSS exhibit lowered series resistance, which manifests in greater fill factor and power conversion efficiency. This simple method of forming micropatterns could find use in applications where cost and environmental impact should be minimized, especially as a potential replacement for the transparent electrode indium tin oxide (ITO) in thin-film electronics over large areas (i.e., solar cells) or as a method of rapid prototyping for laboratory-scale devices.

  2. Photoresist-Free Patterning by Mechanical Abrasion of Water-Soluble Lift-Off Resists and Bare Substrates: Toward Green Fabrication of Transparent Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Printz, Adam D.; Chan, Esther; Liong, Celine; Martinez, René S.; Lipomi, Darren J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of transparent electrodes based on grids of copper microwires using a non-photolithographic process. The process—“abrasion lithography”—takes two forms. In the first implementation (Method I), a water-soluble commodity polymer film is abraded with a sharp tool, coated with a conductive film, and developed by immersion in water. Water dissolves the polymer film and lifts off the conductive film in the unabraded areas. In the second implementation (Method II), the substrate is abraded directly by scratching with a sharp tool (i.e., no polymer film necessary). The abraded regions of the substrate are recessed and roughened. Following deposition of a conductive film, the lower profile and roughened topography in the abraded regions prevents mechanical exfoliation of the conductive film using adhesive tape, and thus the conductive film remains only where the substrate is scratched. As an application, conductive grids exhibit average sheet resistances of 17 Ω sq–1 and transparencies of 86% are fabricated and used as the anode in organic photovoltaic cells in concert with the conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Compared to devices in which PEDOT:PSS alone serves as an anode, devices comprising grids of copper/nickel microwires and PEDOT:PSS exhibit lowered series resistance, which manifests in greater fill factor and power conversion efficiency. This simple method of forming micropatterns could find use in applications where cost and environmental impact should be minimized, especially as a potential replacement for the transparent electrode indium tin oxide (ITO) in thin-film electronics over large areas (i.e., solar cells) or as a method of rapid prototyping for laboratory-scale devices. PMID:24358321

  3. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Davis, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  4. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  5. Airflow resistance of selected biomass materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.C.; Sumner, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Pressure drop created when air was forced through beds of selected biomass materials was determined. Materials tested included peanut hulls, peanut hull pellets, maize cobs, and wood shavings, chips and bark. The data were presented as logarithmic plots and equations of pressure drop versus airflow. The airflow resistances of the biomass materials increased with an increase in bulk density and were found to be in the range between values for ear and shelled maize. 12 references.

  6. Contact air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  7. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  8. Extending resolution limits of EUV resist materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysak, Marie; Leeson, Michael; Han, Eungnak; Blackwell, James; Harlson, Shane

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology continues to progress and remains a viable candidate for next generation lithography1, which drives the need for EUV resists capable of high resolution with high sensitivity and low LWR. While chemically amplified resists (CARs) have demonstrated the ability to pattern 12nm half-pitch features2, pattern collapse continues to limit their ultimate resolution. We have taken multiple approaches to extend resist capabilities past these limits. Recent results in pattern collapse mitigation using a resist encapsulation and etch back strategy will be discussed. We continue to investigate EUV patterning of semi-inorganic resists to simultaneously increase EUV photon absorption and extend mechanical strength beyond CAR capabilities. The limitations of metal oxide-based nanoparticle photoresists have been investigated, and have provided key insights to further understanding the mechanism of this class of materials.

  9. Proliferation resistance criteria for fissile material disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.A.; Fearey, B.L.; Markin, J.T.; Rutherford, D.A.; Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Mangan, D.L.; Moya, R.W.; Moore, L.R.; Strait, R.S.

    1995-04-01

    The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study {open_quotes}Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium{close_quotes} defined options for reducing the national and international proliferation risks of materials declared excess to the nuclear weapons program. This report proposes criteria for assessing the proliferation resistance of these options. The criteria are general, encompassing all stages of the disposition process from storage through intermediate processing to final disposition including the facilities, processing technologies and materials, the level of safeguards for these materials, and the national/subnational threat to the materials.

  10. Critical challenges for EUV resist materials

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Anderson, Christopher N.; Baclea-an, Lorie-Mae; Denham, Paul; George, Simi; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Jones, Gideon; McClinton, Brittany; Miyakawa, Ryan; Rekawa, Seno; Smith, Nathan

    2011-02-28

    Although Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is now well into the commercialization phase, critical challenges remain in the development of EUV resist materials. The major issue for the 22-nm half-pitch node remains simultaneously meeting resolution, line-edge roughness (LER), and sensitivity requirements. Although several materials have met the resolution requirements, LER and sensitivity remain a challenge. As we move beyond the 22-nm node, however, even resolution remains a significant challenge. Chemically amplified resists have yet to demonstrate the required resolution at any speed or LER for 16-nm half pitch and below. Going to non-chemically amplified resists, however, 16-nm resolution has been achieved with a LER of 2 nm but a sensitivity of only 70 mJ/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Approaches to flame resistant polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liepins, R.

    1975-01-01

    Four research and development areas are considered for further exploration in the quest of more flame-resistant polymeric materials. It is suggested that improvements in phenolphthalein polycarbonate processability may be gained through linear free energy relationship correlations. Looped functionality in the backbone of a polymer leads to both improved thermal resistance and increased solubility. The guidelines used in the pyrolytic carbon production constitute a good starting point for the development of improved flame-resistant materials. Numerous organic reactions requiring high temperatures and the techniques of protected functionality and latent functionality constitute the third area for exploration. Finally, some well-known organic reactions are suggested for the formation of polymers that were not made before.

  12. Method for forming an abrasive surface on a tool

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; White, Rickey L.; Swindeman, Catherine J.; Kahl, W. Keith

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating a tool used in cutting, grinding and machining operations, is provided. The method is used to deposit a mixture comprising an abrasive material and a bonding material on a tool surface. The materials are propelled toward the receiving surface of the tool substrate using a thermal spray process. The thermal spray process melts the bonding material portion of the mixture, but not the abrasive material. Upon impacting the tool surface, the mixture or composition solidifies to form a hard abrasive tool coating.

  13. Fluctuating phenomena in resistive materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, A. W.

    2013-07-01

    Noise properties of thick-film resistors made of various resistive and conductive materials, including Pb-rich and Pb/Cd-free, have been studied. Power spectral density of voltage fluctuations has been measured using different methods which have been described and discussed, including ac and dc bridge configuration, cross-correlation technique and low-frequency noise spectroscopy (LFNS). In temperature range from 0.3 up to 350 K, for all studied samples 1/f noise resulting from resistance fluctuations has been found to be dominated noise component. Using LFNS thermally activated noise sources (TANSs) have been detected. Their interesting properties have been described and activation energies of TANSs have been extracted, which occurred to be below 1eV. Second spectra analysis has been applied revealing non-Gaussian noise components in 1/f noise. On the other hand, it has been found that noise intensity in TFRs, including devices designed for temperature sensing, increases rapidly when temperature drops below a few K. Model of conduction transport, involving hopping mechanism and electro-thermal feedback, has been used for explanation of noise suppression by excitation power, what was observed in temperatures below 1K, in the framework of inhomogeneous heating. Integral measure of noise has been introduced which was then used for qualitatively description of bulk noise generated by resistive layer and noise of contacts. Detailed comparison of material noise intensities obtained for various resistive materials has been shown. Conclusions concerning TFRs optimization with respect to noise have been given. Compatibility criteria for materials used for thick-film technology have been formulated and systems of compatible materials have been evaluated. The conclusions might be useful in further improvement of materials systems for thick-film technology in order to fabricate low-noise, reliable and stable resistors.

  14. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  15. Design of abrasive tool for high-rate grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilinykh, AS

    2017-02-01

    The experimental studies aimed to design heavy-duty abrasive wheels for high-rate grinding are presented. The design of abrasive wheels with the working speed up to 100 m/s is based on the selection of optimized material composition and manufacture technology of the wheels.

  16. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 872.6030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... that contains an abrasive material, such as silica pumice, intended to remove debris from the teeth. The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup)....

  17. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 872.6030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... that contains an abrasive material, such as silica pumice, intended to remove debris from the teeth. The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup)....

  18. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 872.6030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... that contains an abrasive material, such as silica pumice, intended to remove debris from the teeth. The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup)....

  19. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 872.6030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... that contains an abrasive material, such as silica pumice, intended to remove debris from the teeth. The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup)....

  20. An evaluation of candidate oxidation resistant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon; Banks, Bruce; Mirtich, Michael; Difilippo, Frank; Hotes, Deborah; Labed, Richard; Dever, Terese; Kussmaul, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ground based testing of materials considered for Kapton solar array blanket protection, graphite epoxy structural member protection, and high temperature radiators was performed in an RF plasma asher. Ashing rates for Kapton were correlated with rates measured on STS-8 to determine the exposure time equivalent to one year in low Earth orbit (LEO) at a constant density space station orbital flux. Protective coatings on Kapton from Tekmat, Andus Corporation, and LeRC were evaluated in the plasma asher and mass loss rates per unit area were measured for each sample. All samples evaluated provided some protection to the underlying surface but ion beam sputter deposited samples of SiO2 and SiO2 with 8% polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) showed no evidence of degradation after 47 hours of exposure. Mica paint was evaluated as a protective coating for graphite epoxy structural members. Mica appears to be resistant to attack by atomic oxygen but only offers some limited protection as a paint because the paint vehicles evaluated to date were not resistant to atomic oxygen. Four materials were selected for evaluation as candidate radiator materials: stainless steel, copper, niobium-1% zirconium, and titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium. These materials were surface textured by various means to improve their emittance. Emittances as high as 0.93 at 2.5 microns for stainless steel and 0.89 at 2.5 microns for Nb-1 Zr were obtained from surface texturing. There were no significant changes in emittance after asher exposure.

  1. Adhesion and wear resistance of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies into the nature of bonding at the interface between two solids in contact or a solid and deposited film have provided a better understanding of those properties important to the adhesive wear resistance of materials. Analytical and experimental progress are reviewed. For simple metal systems the adhesive bond forces are related to electronic wave function overlap. With metals in contact with nonmetals, molecular-orbital energy, and density of states, respectively can provide insight into adhesion and wear. Experimental results are presented which correlate adhesive forces measured between solids and the electronic surface structures. Orientation, surface reconstruction, surface segregation, adsorption are all shown to influence adhesive interfacial strength. The interrelationship between adhesion and the wear of the various materials as well as the life of coatings applied to substrates are discussed. Metallic systems addressed include simple metals and alloys and these materials in contact with themselves, both oxide and nonoxide ceramics, diamond, polymers, and inorganic coating compounds, h as diamondlike carbon.

  2. Abrasion of 6 dentifrices measured by vertical scanning interference microscopy

    PubMed Central

    PASCARETTI-GRIZON, Florence; MABILLEAU, Guillaume; CHAPPARD, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The abrasion of dentifrices is well recognized to eliminate the dental plaque. The aims of this study were to characterize the abrasive powders of 6 dentifrices (3 toothpastes and 3 toothpowders) and to measure the abrasion on a test surface by Vertical Scanning Interference microscopy (VSI). Material and Methods Bright field and polarization microscopy were used to identify the abrasive particles on the crude dentifrices and after prolonged washes. Scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis characterized the shape and nature of the particles. Standardized and polished blocks of poly(methylmethacrylate) were brushed with a commercial electric toothbrush with the dentifrices. VSI quantified the mean roughness (Ra) and illustrated in 3D the abraded areas. Results Toothpastes induced a limited abrasion. Toothpowders induced a significantly higher roughness linked to the size of the abrasive particles. One powder (Gencix® produced a high abrasion when used with a standard testing weight. However, the powder is based on pumice particles covered by a plant homogenate that readily dissolves in water. When used in the same volume, or after dispersion in water, Ra was markedly reduced. Conclusion Light and electron microscopy characterize the abrasive particles and VSI is a new tool allowing the analysis of large surface of abraded materials. PMID:24212995

  3. Wind abrasion on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Aeolian activity was predicted for Mars from earth based observations of changing surface patterns that were interpreted as dust storms. Mariner 9 images showed conclusive evidence for aeolian processes in the form of active dust storms and various aeolian landforms including dunes and yardangs. Windspeeds to initiate particle movement are an order of magnitude higher on Mars than on Earth because of the low atmospheric density on Mars. In order to determine rates of abrasion by wind blown particles, knowledge of three factors is required: (1) particle parameters such as numbers and velocities of windblown grains as functions of windspeeds at various heights above the surface; (2) the susceptibility to abrasion of various rocks and minerals; and (3) wind frequencies and speeds. For estimates appropriate to Mars, data for the first two parameters can be determined through lab and wind tunnel tests; data for the last two factors are available directly from the Viking Lander meteorology experiments for the two landing sites.

  4. Wash resistance of insecticide-treated materials.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez González, José; Kroeger, Axel; Aviña, Ana Isabel; Pabón, Eulides

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of insecticide-treated materials (ITMs) for malaria control is reduced by washing them. This research in Colombia and Bolivia investigated the resistance of different insecticide formulations and, in particular, a commercially available impregnated bednet (PermaNet) which provides chemical protection for the insecticide. The fabrics studied were all polyester; the pyrethroids used for impregnation were deltamethrin (tablet and suspension concentrate both at 25 mg/m2 target dose), lambdacyhalothrin (capsule suspension at 15 mg/m2; laboratory study only), alphacypermethrin (suspension concentrate at 40 mg/m2) and, in the case of PermaNet, deltamethrin (55 mg/m2). The indicator of wash resistance was Anopheles spp. mortality (using the bioassay cone method) before and after different numbers and intensities of washing. When the fabrics were washed under controlled conditions, gently with water and a bar of soap, the wash resistance of all formulations was good (100% Anopheles mortality after 3 washes). However, when the impregnated nets were soaked for 30-60 min and washed with soap powder and tap water by local women in the usual way, the mortality after 4 washes declined considerably (43.5% and 41.3% for deltamethrin tablets and liquid respectively when washing every second day). Alphacypermethrin showed slightly better results after 3 washes every 7th day compared to deltamethrin tablets (63.8% and 43.3% mortality, respectively). The wash resistance offered by PermaNet was much better and longer lasting: Anopheles mortality after 4 washes was 92.6%, after 10 washes 83.7% and after 20 washes 87.1%. The limitations of commercially available wash-resistant nets are, however, their limited accessibility and the difficulty of replacing all existing bednets with a new product.

  5. CHIPPING FRACTURE RESISTANCE OF DENTURE TOOTH MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, G. D.; Giuseppetti, A. A.; Hoffman, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The applicability of the edge chipping method to denture tooth materials was assessed. These are softer materials than those usually tested by edge chipping. The edge chipping fracture resistances of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based and two filled resin composite denture tooth materials were compared. Methods An edge chipping machine was used to chip rectangular blocks and flattened anterior denture teeth. Force versus edge distance data were collected over a broad range of forces and distances. Between 20 and 65 chips were made per condition depending upon the material, the scatter, and the indenter type. Different indenter types were used including Rockwell C, sharp conical 120°, Knoop, and Vickers. The edge toughness, Te, was evaluated for different indenter types. Results The edge chipping data collected on the blocks matched the data collected from flattened teeth. High scatter, particularly at large distances and loads, meant that many tests (up to 64) were necessary to compare the denture tooth materials and to ascertain the appropriate data trends. A linear force – distance trend analysis was adequate for comparing these materials. A power law trend might be more appropriate, but the large scatter obscured the definitive determination of the precise trend. Different indenters produce different linear trends, with the ranking of: sharp conical 120°, Rockwell C, and Knoop, from lowest to highest edge toughness. Vickers indenter data were extremely scattered and a sensible trend could not be obtained. Edge toughness was inversely correlated to hardness. Significance Edge chipping data collected either from simple laboratory scale test blocks or from actual denture teeth may be used to evaluate denture materials. The edge chipping method’s applicability has been extended to another class of restorative materials. PMID:24674342

  6. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2003-08-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was well within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that the aggressive alkali-iron-trisulfate constituent was present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section C, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. The analysis of Test Section C followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of Test Section A. Again, the focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials for both Test Sections A and C

  7. Rapid prototyping of silicon structures by aid of laser and abrasive-jet machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruusing, Arvi; Leppaevuori, Seppo; Uusimaki, Antti; Uusimaki, Matti

    1999-03-01

    Rapid prototyping of silicon microstructures for fluidic devices using laser machining in water and abrasive-jet machining through mask is described. For laser machining a Q-switched 1-2 W 1 kHz pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam and 60 mJ XeCl excimer laser beam were used. The laser beam was scanned along the silicon surface at speeds 0.1-2 mm/s. Using excimer laser, the silicon nitride layer was patterned for subsequent chemical etching. Nd:YAG laser was used for fabrication of cavities and channels of depth down to 200 micrometers . Comparison of Nd:YAG laser machining of silicon in air and in water has been performed. Machining in water yields more even surfaces and there is no debris. By abrasive jet of velocity approximately 200 m/s and abrasive feed rate of 0.4 g/s, the silicon was eroded at speed of 40 micrometers /min. Several masking materials were compared, whereby a styrene based glue was found to have the best abrasion resistivity. The polymer masks were spun on the surface and patterned by excimer laser point or by knife. The described fabrication methods were used for making the fluid channels and chambers in silicon and for releasing silicon nitride and oxide films.

  8. Shock resistance of composite material pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Pays, M.F.; Garcin, P.

    1995-11-01

    Composite materials have found a wide range of applications for EDF nuclear plants. Applications include fire pipework, demineralized water, service water, and emergency-supplied service water piping. Some of those pipework is classified nuclear safety, their integrity (resistance to water aging and earthquakes or accidental excess pressure (water hammer)) must be safeguarded. As composite materials generally suffer damage for low energy impacts (under 10 J), the pipes planned for the Civaux power plant have been studied for their resistance to a low speed shock (0 to 50 m/s) and of a 0 to 110 J energy level. For three representative diameters (20, 150, 600 mm), the minimum impact energy that leads to a leak has been determined to be respectively 18, 20 and 48 J. Then the leak rate versus impact energy was plotted; until roughly 90 J, the leak rate remains stable at less than 25 cm{sup 3}/h and raises to higher values (300 cm{sup 3}/h) afterwards. The level of leakage in the range of impact energy tested always stays within the limits set by the Safety Authorities for metallic pipes. These results have been linked to destructive examinations, to clarify the damage mechanisms. Other tests are still ongoing to follow the evolution of the damage and of the leak rate while the pipe is maintained under service pressure during one year.

  9. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  11. Synthesis CNTs Particle Based Abrasive Media for Abrasive Flow Machining Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sonu; Murtaza, Q.; Walia, R. S.; Dhull, S.; Tyagi, P. K.

    2016-02-01

    Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is a modem fine finishing process used for intricate and internal finishing of components or parts. It is based on flowing of viscoelastic abrasive media over the surface to be fine finished. The abrasive media is the important parameter in the AFM process because of its ability to accurately abrade the predefined area along it flow path. In this study, an attempt is made to develop a new abrasive, alumina with Carbon non tubes (CNTs) in viscoelastic medium. CNT s in house produced through chemical vapour deposition technique and characterize through TEM. Performance evaluation of the new abrasive media is carried out by increasing content of CNT s with fixed extrusion pressure, viscosity of media and media flow rate as process parameters and surface finish improvement and material removal as process responses in AFM setup. Significantly improvement has been observed in material removal and maximum improvement of 100% has been observed in the surface finish on the inner cylindrical surface of the cast iron work piece.

  12. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  13. Abrasive Particle Trajectories and Material Removal Non-Uniformity during CMP and Filtration Characteristics of CMP Slurries - A Simulation and Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, Vahid

    Nanoscale finishing and planarization are integral process steps in multilevel metallization designs for integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing since it is necessary to ensure local and global surface planarization at each metal layer before depositing the next layer. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has been widely recognized as the most promising technology to eliminate topographic variation and has allowed the construction of multilevel interconnection structures with a more regularly stacked sequence, resulting in better device performance [1]. Understanding fundamental of the CMP mechanisms can offer guidance to the control and optimization of the polishing processes. CMP kinematics based on slurry distribution and particle trajectories have a significant impact on MRR profiles. In this work a mathematical model to describe particle trajectories during chemical mechanical polishing was developed and extended to account for the effect of larger particles, particle location changes due to slurry dispensing and in-situ conditioning. Material removal rate (MRR) and within wafer non-uniformity (WIWNU) were determined based on the calculated particle trajectory densities. Rotary dynamics and reciprocating motion were optimized to obtain best MRR uniformity. Edge-fast MRR profile was discussed based on mechanical aspect of CMP. Using the model, we also investigated the effect of variable rotational speeds of wafer and pad, and of large particles on WIWNU and scratch growth. It was shown that the presence of even a small portion of large particles can deteriorate the WIWNU significantly and also lead to more scratches. Furthermore, it was shown that the in-situ conditioning improves the uniformity of the polished wafers. Furthermore, a combined experimental and computational study of fibrous filters for removal of larger abrasive particles from aqueous dispersions, essential to minimize defects during chemical mechanical polishing, was performed. Dilute aqueous

  14. Hybrid materials offer new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Arnetzl, G; Arnetzl, G V

    2015-01-01

    Dental materials, especially in restorative dentistry, must not only be cost-effective, they must also meet many other requirements: biocompatibility, durability, excellent shade and light effects, abrasion resistance, hardness, mechanical strength under pressure, chemical resistance, surface density, ease of manufacture, and easy intraoral maintenance.

  15. Etude de la degradation des refractaires aluminosiliceux par abrasion, chocs thermiques et corrosion par l'aluminium: Correlation et interaction des mecanismes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntakaburimvo, Nicodeme

    Aluminosilicate refractories used for melting and holding furnaces on which the present work was focused are submitted to mechanical abuse such as abrasion, mechanical impact and erosion, on one hand; and to chemical degradation by corrosion, as well as to thermal stresses, mostly due to thermal shocks; on the other hand. This thesis is focused on four main objectives. The first one is related to the designing of an experimental set-up allowing abrasion testing of refractories. The second deals with the separate study of the deterioration of aluminosilicate refractories by abrasion, thermal shock and corrosion. The third is the correlation between these three mechanisms while the fourth is related to the interaction between thermal shock and corrosion. One of the contributions of this thesis is the realisation of the above mentioned experimental set-up, which permits to carry out refractories abrasion testing, as well as at room and high temperature, in the absence or in the presence of molten metal. The fact of testing refractory resistance when it is submitted separately and simultaneously to the action of dynamic corrosion, erosion and abrasion leads to the studying of the influence of each of these three mechanisms on the other. One of the characteristics of the designed set-up is the fact that it allows to adjust the seventy testing conditions according to the mechanical resistance of the test material. The other important point is related to the fact the abrasion tests were carried out in such manner to permit degradation quantification, otherwise than by the traditional method of loss of weight measurement; particularly by measuring the wear depth and the residual material properties, such as the rupture force and the strength. A perfect correlation was observed between the wear depth and the loss of weight, both being negatively correlated with the residual rupture force. The abrasion resistance was found to be globally positively correlated with the

  16. Cyanoacrylates and corneal abrasion.

    PubMed

    Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1989-01-01

    Cyanoacrylate-containing adhesives such as Super Glue, Krazy Glue, and a vast array of artificial nail adhesives are monomers which rapidly polymerize and bond in the presence of water or weak bases. Inadvertent contact with skin or tissue can also cause rapid bonding with resultant irritation. To assess the magnitude of problems associated with ocular contamination involving cyanoacrylates, a 12-month prospective study was conducted. 34 cases (21 adult and 13 pediatric) were collected. In all cases, contaminated eyes were thoroughly irrigated with tepid water for 15 minutes. 15 patients (44%) suffered a corneal abrasion, as determined by ophthalmic exam, necessitating treatment with antibiotics, cycloplegics, and patching. Individuals reporting complete resolution were irrigated with 20 minutes of exposure, while patients suffering mechanical injury delayed decontamination for a minimum of 15 minutes. In addition to immediate irrigation of eyes exposed to cyanoacrylates, we recommend an ophthalmologic evaluation to rule out the possibility of mechanical injury.

  17. Abrasive Wear Performance of Aluminium Modified Epoxy-Glass Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Vikram G.; Mishra, Punyapriya; Al Dabbas, Hassan A.; Panda, H. S.; Fernandez, Johnathan Bruce

    2015-07-01

    For a long time, Aluminum filled epoxies molds have been used in rapid tooling process. These molds are very economical when applied in manufacturing of low volume of plastic parts. To improve the thermal conductivity of the material, the metallic filler material is added to it and the glass fiber improves the wear resistance of the material. These two important parameters establish the life of composites. The present work reports on abrasive wear behavior of Aluminum modified epoxy and glass fiber composite with 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of aluminum particles. Through pin on disc wear testing machine, we studied the wear behaviors of composites, and all these samples were fabricated by using hand layup process. Epoxy resin was used as matrix material which was reinforced with Glass fiber and Aluminum as filler. The composite with 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of Al was cast with dimensions 100 × 100 × 6 mm. The specimens were machined to a size of 6 × 6 × 4 mm for abrasive testing. Abrasive tests were carried out for different grit paper sizes, i.e., 150, 320, 600 at different sliding distance, i.e., 20, 40, 60 m at different loads of 5, 10 and 15 N and at constant speed. The weight loss due to wear was calculated along with coefficient of friction. Hardness was found using Rockwell hardness machine. The SEM morphology of the worn out surface wear was analyzed to understand the wear mechanism. Results showed that the addition of Aluminum particles was beneficial for low abrasive conditions.

  18. Microstructural effects in abrasive wear. Quarterly progress report, September 15-December 15, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, N F; Kosel, T H; Channigiri, M; Desai, V; Fulcher, J

    1980-01-15

    This is the 11th quarterly report describing research aimed at establishing quantitative relations between microstructure and wear resistance of highly alloyed materials, including high-Cr white irons and experimental Co-base and Ni-base powder metallurgy (PM) alloys. The specific types of wear under study are low-stress abrasion and gouging wear encountered in mining, coal conversion and transfer applications. The white irons range in carbide volume fracton (v/sub f/) from 10 to 45%. They are of carefully balanced composition to produce maximum carbide hardness, v/sub f/ and matrix hardenability at minimum alloy content. Effort has been devoted to metallographic characterization of these alloys and to low-stress abrasion testing against dry SiO/sub 2/. Low-stress abrasion resistance passes through a maximum at intermediate v/sub f/, a finding which corroborates wet-sand, low-stress test results from another laboratory. Low- and high-matrix alloy content Co-base alloys are also under investigation. Both types of alloys have been processed by powder metallurgy (PM) to display a uniform array of fine, medium or coarse carbides in a FCC matrix. Extensive effort has been expended to develop metallographic procedures for characterizing the microstructures of the alloys. Of particular significance is the development of a one-step electrolytic etching-staining procedure which reveals matrix, matrix grain boundaries and carbides simultaneously in high contrast.

  19. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2007-12-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that

  20. Wear resistant alloys for coal handling equipment. Final technical report, October 1, 1977-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, W.M.; Parker, E.R.; Misra, A.; Finnie, I.

    1981-01-01

    In the progress report for 1977-1979, an extensive literature survey was completed in the areas of abrasive wear mechanisms, wear testing and microstructural effects on abrasive wear. Definitions of the various abrasive wear processes were clarified. A laboratory wear tester capable of simulating high stress two-body abrasive wear and low stress three-body wear was designed, constructed and calibrated. Experiments were run on some standard metals and alloys in the annealed, work hardened, and heat treated conditions under both two-body and three-body wear. In the 1979 to 1980 period, a detailed analysis of the abrasive size effect was performed based on the observations made on two- and three-body abrasion and erosion. It was concluded that the size effect was due to a shallow surface layer exhibiting higher flow stress than the bulk material when the material is abraded or eroded. The effect of certain variables on the wear resistance of different pure metals was compared for two-body abrasion, three-body abrasion and erosion. The variables studied are annealed hardness of the worn metal, the increase in hardness of the worn metal before the wear process due to work hardening and heat treatment, applied load, distance travelled, the abrasive particle size and abrasive hardness. The effect of most of these variables is similar for the three different wear processes. The existing low-stress, open three-body abrasive wear tester was modified and calibrated for testing abrasive wear up to 600/sup 0/C. Some standard materials were tested and in the case of pure aluminum it was found that the wear rate decreased with increase in temperature.

  1. Wear of materials - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ludema, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on materials testing to determine wear resistance. Topics considered at the conference included the wear of metals in a magnetic field, ceramics in advanced heat engine applications, wear tests of silicon carbides, microstructure, hardfacing alloys, sliding friction, coated systems, abrasion, erosion, test methods, tribology, stacking fault energy, and adhesion.

  2. Interaction between attrition,abrasion and erosion in tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; Shellis, R P

    2006-01-01

    Tooth wear is the result of three processes: abrasion (wear produced by interaction between teeth and other materials), attrition (wear through tooth-tooth contact) and erosion (dissolution of hard tissue by acidic substances). A further process (abfraction) might potentiate wear by abrasion and/or erosion. Both clinical and experimental observations show that individual wear mechanisms rarely act alone but interact with each other. The most important interaction is the potentiation of abrasion by erosive damage to the dental hard tissues. This interaction seems to be the major factor in occlusal and cervical wear. The available evidence seems insufficient to establish whether abfraction is an important contributor to tooth wear in vivo. Saliva can modulate erosive/abrasive tooth wear through formation of pellicle and by remineralisation but cannot prevent it.

  3. The interactions between attrition, abrasion and erosion in tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Shellis, R Peter; Addy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear is the result of three processes: abrasion (wear produced by interaction between teeth and other materials), attrition (wear through tooth-tooth contact) and erosion (dissolution of hard tissue by acidic substances). A further process (abfraction) might potentiate wear by abrasion and/or erosion. Knowledge of these tooth wear processes and their interactions is reviewed. Both clinical and experimental observations show that individual wear mechanisms rarely act alone but interact with each other. The most important interaction is the potentiation of abrasion by erosive damage to the dental hard tissues. This interaction seems to be the major factor in occlusal and cervical wear. The available evidence is insufficient to establish whether abfraction is an important contributor to tooth wear in vivo. Saliva can modulate erosive/abrasive tooth wear, especially through formation of pellicle, but cannot prevent it.

  4. Development of slurry erosion resistant materials by laser-based direct metal deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarrapareddy, Eswar

    -shaped probe and a linear scale with a digital readout. The damaged surfaces are characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the possible application of a material failure model, called damage initiation and damage propagation, to the case of the impingement of a mixture of solid and liquid particles on the Ni-Tung FGMs, Ni-Tung 40, and 4140 steels. Potentiodynamic polarization curves are generated for the three tested materials to illustrate the susceptibility of the materials for an erosive environment. Further, a nano-based material system resistant to the impingement of solid and liquid particles on solid surfaces was developed by the LBDMD process. The nano-based materials system contains five percent tungsten carbide (WC) nano-particles that are agglomerated with nickel-tungsten carbide 60 (Ni-Tung 60) by a ball mill operation for slurry erosion resistance applications. Slurry erosion tests are performed on the LBDMD processed depositions with a ceramic proppant delivered at different impingement angles using an abrasive water jet machine. From these tests, the amount of material removed, depth of penetration, and profile of the formed crater are computed as a function of the abrasive water jet impingement angles. The nano-based materials system exhibited better performance for slurry erosion resistance than the monolithic Ni-Tung 60 depositions and 4140 steels. In order to understand the role of the WC-nano particles influence on slurry erosion resistance and to understand the characteristic features of erosion surfaces, subsurfaces, and the erosion mechanism, different advanced characterization tools are used. This nano-based materials system was applied for the restoration of damaged oil drilling crossover tools. A material failure model (MFM) called progressive damage initiation and propagation for the impingement of solid and liquid particles on the solid surfaces has been used to numerically simulate the slurry erosion process by using the

  5. Triple-material stress-strain resistivity gage

    DOEpatents

    Stout, R.B.

    1987-05-19

    A triple material piezoresistive gage provides multi-component elastic stress or strain measurements. Thin foils of three piezoresistive materials, e.g., ytterbium, manganin, and constantan, are configured in a nested serpentine rectilinear grind or other grind arrangement and embedded in a medium, preferably normal to the direction of shock wave propagation. The output of the gage is a resistivity change history for each material of gage. Each resistivity change is independent of the others so that three diagonal components of the elastic stress or strain tensor can be calculated form the resistivity measurements. 4 figs.

  6. Triple-material stress-strain resistivity gage

    DOEpatents

    Stout, Ray B.

    1988-01-01

    A triple material piezoresistive gage provides multi-component elastic stress or measurements. Thin foils of three piezoresistive materials, e.g. ytterbium, manganin, and constantan, are configured in a nested serpentine rectilinear grid or other grid arrangement and embedded in a medium, preferably normal to the direction of shock wave propagation. The output of the gage is a resistivity change history for each material of the gage. Each resistivity change is independent of the others so that three diagonal components of the elastic stress or strain tensor can be calculated from the resistivity measurements.

  7. Triple-material stress-strain resistivity gage

    DOEpatents

    Stout, R.B.

    1988-05-17

    A triple material piezoresistive gage provides multi-component elastic stress measurements is disclosed. Thin foils of three piezoresistive materials, e.g. ytterbium, manganin, and constantan, are configured in a nested serpentine rectilinear grid or other grid arrangement and embedded in a medium, preferably normal to the direction of shock wave propagation. The output of the gage is a resistivity change history for each material of the gage. Each resistivity change is independent of the others so that three diagonal components of the elastic stress or strain tensor can be calculated from the resistivity measurements. 4 figs.

  8. Additives in Bituminous Materials and Fuel-Resistant Sealers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    AD-A285 748 D)OT/FAAICT-94/78 DOT/FAAtRD-93/30 Additives in Bituminous FA Tehnia Cer Materials and Fuel-Resistant Atlantic City International Airport...Subtitle Ro Dat August 1394 Additives in Bituminous Materials and Fuel-Resistant S •O..M0aMtioiCOd5 Sealers I Amdirw S Polwo ovwm ’n New, No Gary L...bituminous materials and fuel-resistant sealers. Included in this report is a brief hisLory of these types of additives, the results of an airport

  9. Space radiation resistant transparent polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.

    1977-01-01

    A literature search in the field of ultraviolet and charged particle irradiation of polymers was utilized in an experimental program aimed at the development of radiation stable materials for space applications. The rationale utilized for material selection and the synthesis, characterization and testing performed on several selected materials is described. Among the materials tested for ultraviolet stability in vacuum were: polyethyleneoxide, polyvinylnaphthalene, and the amino resin synthesized by the condensation of o-hydroxybenzoguanamine with formaldehyde. Particularly interesting was the radiation behavior of poly(ethyleneoxide), irradiation did not cause degradation of optical properties but rather an improvement in transparency as indicated by a decrease in solar absorptance with increasing exposure time.

  10. An Investigation of the Impact Resistance of Glazing Materials for Railroad Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    plastic . D 1.43 0.56 Tempered glass ; polyvinylbutyl inner layer; tempered glass . . 0.635 0.250 Abrasion resistant polycarbonate plastic , F 1.43 0.56...strengthened glass ; vinyl inner layer; heat-strengthened glass ; vinyl inner layer; heat-strengthened glass . K 1.27 0.50 Glass ; plastic interlayer; glass ...L 1.27 0.50 Glass ; plastic interlayer; polycarbonate plastic . IN1 1.43 0.56 Tempered glass ; interlayer; polycarbonate;

  11. Study on planarization machining of sapphire wafer with soft-hard mixed abrasive through mechanical chemical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yongchao; Lu, Jing; Xu, Xipeng

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the material removal mechanism of sapphire wafer with soft-hard mixed abrasives through mechanical chemical polishing (MCP). The polishing film, which contains diamond as hard abrasives and high reactivity silica as soft abrasives, is prepared through sol-gel technology. Silica abrasives with regular spherical shape and high reactivity are prepared through hydrolysis-precipitation. Diamond grits with three different particle sizes are used as abrasives. Results show that the rate of material removal of mixed abrasives during MCP is more than 52.6% of that of single hard abrasives and the decrease in surface roughness is more than 21.6% of that of single hard abrasives. These results demonstrate that the ideal planarization of sapphire wafer with high removal rate and good surface quality can be achieved when the effect of mechanical removal of hard abrasives and the chemical corrosion effect of soft abrasives are in dynamic equilibrium. A model that describes the material removal mechanism of sapphire with mixed abrasives during MCP is proposed. The results of thermodynamic calculation and polishing residue analysis are used to demonstrate the rationality of the model.

  12. ENHANCEMENT OF STRUCTURAL FOAM MATERIALS BY INCORPORATION OF GASIFIER SLAG

    SciTech Connect

    Olin Perry Norton; Ronald A. Palmer; W. Gene Ramsey

    2006-03-15

    As advanced gasification technology is increasingly adopted as an energy source, disposal of the resulting slag will become a problem. We have shown that gasifier slag can be incorporated into foamed glass, which is currently being manufactured as an abrasive and as an insulating material. The slag we add to foamed glass does not simply act as filler, but improves the mechanical properties of the product. Incorporation of gasifier slag can make foamed glass stronger and more abrasion resistant.

  13. Resistance of geopolymer materials to acid attack

    SciTech Connect

    Bakharev, T

    2005-04-01

    This article presents an investigation into durability of geopolymer materials manufactured using a class F fly ash (FA) and alkaline activators when exposed to 5% solutions of acetic and sulfuric acids. The main parameters studied were the evolution of weight, compressive strength, products of degradation and microstructural changes. The degradation was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The performance of geopolymer materials when exposed to acid solutions was superior to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste. However, significant degradation of strength was observed in some geopolymer materials prepared with sodium silicate and with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide as activators. The deterioration observed was connected to depolymerisation of the aluminosilicate polymers in acidic media and formation of zeolites, which in some cases lead to a significant loss of strength. The best performance was observed in the geopolymer material prepared with sodium hydroxide and cured at elevated temperature, which was attributed to a more stable cross-linked aluminosilicate polymer structure formed in this material.

  14. Preparation of atomic oxygen resistant polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tortorelli, Victor J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Connell, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Polyphenyl quinoxalines (PPQs) are an important family of high performance polymers that offer good chemical and thermal stability coupled with excellent mechanical properties. These aromatic heterocyclic polymers are potentially useful as films, coatings, adhesives, and composite materials that demand stability in harsh environments. Our approach was to prepare PPQs with pendent siloxane groups using the appropriate chemistry and then evaluate these polymers before and after exposure to simulated atomic oxygen. Either monomer, the bis(o-diamine)s or the bis(alpha-diketone)s can be synthesized with a hydroxy group to which the siloxane chain will be attached. Several novel materials were prepared.

  15. Development of resistant materials to beam impact and radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Masayoshi; Kokawa, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Akira; Yamamura, Tsutomu; Hara, Nobuyoshi; Akao, Noboru; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Kenji

    2006-09-01

    Materials that have strong resistance to both beam impact (or shock-wave) and radiation damage are required for the beam target of an intense accelerator and space applications. Recently, Futakawa et al. found in their experiments that Kolsterising specimens have a stronger resistance to pitting than SS316 CW. A similar effect can be expected for other hardening treatments, and new material development is hopeful. Accordingly, we have started the development of high-performance materials by organizing the project team from KEK, JAEA and universities. In this paper, the scope of the project is introduced. Recent topics involve the development of intergranular crack (IGC)-resistant austenitic stainless-steel, AlN-TiN ceramics and cladding techniques of thin tantalum or CrN film on a tungsten target by means of a molten-salt method and ion-beam-enhanced deposition. New observations on corrosion resistance are presented.

  16. Development of fire resistant, nontoxic aircraft interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, G.; Silverman, B.; Tajima, Y.

    1976-01-01

    All available newly developed nonmetallic polymers were examined for possible usage in developing fire resistant, nontoxic nonmetallic parts or assemblies for aircraft interiors. Specifically, feasibility for the development of clear films for new decorative laminates, compression moldings, injection molded parts, thermoformed plastic parts, and flexible foams were given primary considerations. Preliminary data on the flame resistant characteristics of the materials were obtained. Preliminary toxicity data were generated from samples of materials submitted from the contractor. Preliminary data on the physical characteristics of various thermoplastic materials to be considered for either compression molded, injection molded, or thermoformed parts were obtained.

  17. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Melissa H X; Hill, Robert G; Anderson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38-80 μm) versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm) in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p < 0.05) despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine.

  18. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Melissa H. X.; Hill, Robert G.; Anderson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38–80 μm) versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm) in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p < 0.05) despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine. PMID:26697067

  19. A Profilometric Study to Assess the Role of Toothbrush and Toothpaste in Abrasion Process

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar Singh, Siddharth; Gupta, Anjali; Roy, Sayak; Sareen, Mohit; Khajuria, Sarang

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Despite of many studies conducted on toothbrushes and toothpaste to find out the culprit for abrasion, there is no clear cut evidence to pin point the real cause for abrasion. Purpose An in vitro assessment of the role of different types of toothbrushes (soft/ medium/hard) in abrasion process when used in conjunction with and without a dentifrice. Materials and Method Forty five freshly extracted, sound, human incisor teeth were collected for this study. Enamel specimens of approximately 9 mm2 were prepared by gross trimming of extracted teeth using a lathe machine (Baldor 340 Dental lathe; Ohio, USA). They were mounted on separate acrylic bases. The specimens were divided into three groups, each group containing 15 mounted specimens. Group 1 specimens were brushed with soft toothbrush; Group 2 brushed with medium toothbrush and Group 3 with hard toothbrush. Initially, all the mounted specimens in each group were brushed using dentifrice and then the same procedure was repeated with water as control. Profilometric readings were recorded pre and post to tooth brushing and the differences in readings served as proxy measure to assess surface abrasion. These values were then compared to each other. Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test were performed. Results The results showed that brushing, with water alone, caused less abrasion than when toothpaste was added (p< 0.008). When brushed with water, the harder toothbrush caused more abrasion (higher Ra-value), but when toothpaste was added, the softer toothbrush caused more abrasion (p< 0.001). Conclusion Besides supporting the fact that toothpaste is needed to create a significant abrasion, this study also showed that a softer toothbrush can cause more abrasion than harder ones. The flexibility of bristles is only secondary to abrasion process and abrasivity of dentifrice has an important role in abrasion process. PMID:26535407

  20. ASM specialty handbook{reg_sign}: Heat-resistant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    This latest handbook brings together in one volume a comprehensive reference source of information on engineering metallic and nonmetallic heat-resistant materials. The volume covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials-selection guidelines for industrial applications and life-assessment methods. Materials covered include carbon, alloy and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; high-alloy cast steels; superalloys; titanium and titanium alloys; refractory metals and alloys; nickel-chromium and nickel-thoria alloys; structural intermetallics; structural ceramics, cermets, and cemented carbides; and carbon-carbon composites. Also included is information on property comparisons that allows ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion resistant coatings for superalloys, life-assessment methodology and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation.

  1. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. Review of the State of the Art for Underwater Repair Using Abrasion-Resistant Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    ratio and the inclusion of such materials as microsilica flume; these same properties reduce the work- ability of the mixture. Inadequate workability that...including condensed microsilica fume, fly ash, natural pozzolan, and blast furnace slag, can reduce the heat of hydration of rela- tively rich...pozzolans do, and it can increase the cohesiveness of the fresh concrete against washout from moving water. 52. Because microsilica fume is a very fine

  2. New concepts in air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Porth, R N

    1998-03-01

    There is no doubt that air abrasion is going to be part of the millennial shift in dentistry away from traditional treatment modalities. With the change in incidence and morphology of caries as a result of the hardening effect of fluoride on enamel, this ability to remove only decayed areas and permanently seal the less susceptible areas becomes increasingly desirable.

  3. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall... Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-1964. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall... Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-1964. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall... Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-1964. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall... Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-1964. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding...

  7. Laboratory experiments for defining scaling relations between rock material properties and rock resistance to erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklar, L. S.; Beyeler, J. D.; Collins, G. C.; Farrow, J. W.; Hsu, L.; Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Rock resistance to erosion is a key variable that limits rates of morphologic change and mass flux in landscapes. However, we have limited knowledge of how measurable material properties influence rock resistance to specific erosion processes. Rock 'erodibility' is commonly a free parameter in surface process models, where users assign or solve for numerical values that lack meaning outside of the model. Moreover, erodibility parameters often lump material resistance to erosion together with aspects of the forces driving erosion that are not explicitly represented in the model. Laboratory experiments in which rock types are varied, while erosive forces are held constant, can be used to develop scaling relationships between rock properties and erosion resistance for individual detachment mechanisms. With knowledge of why erosion rates vary between rock types for constant erosive forces, laboratory and field experiments that vary erosive intensity can be used to quantify the absolute susceptibility to erosion in physically explicit terms. Here we synthesize data collected over the past decade from a suite of laboratory investigations of rock resistance to wear by sediment particle impacts, and wear of sediment particles themselves, in experiments replicating fluvial and granular flow conditions. Materials tested included: field-sampled bedrock and sediment covering the widest feasible range of apparent durability and lithologic type; synthetic sandstones made from mixtures of sand and Portland cement; and water ice, both pure and containing solid impurities, tested over a wide range of temperatures. Material properties measured included: dry-bulk and saturated density, porosity, tensile strength, fracture toughness, elastic moduli, mineralogy, cement type, and the grain size of mineral crystals and cemented clasts. Erosion rates were measured by mass or volume loss divided by run time, in bedrock abrasion mills, barrel tumblers, and a large rotating drum. We find

  8. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  9. Abrasive tip treatment for use on compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    A co-spray process was used which simultaneously but separately introduces abrasive grits and metal matrix powder into the plasma stream and entraps the abrasive grits within a molten matrix to form an abrasive coating as the matrix material solidifies on test specimen surfaces. Spray trials were conducted to optimize spray parameter settings for the various matrix/grit combinations before actual spraying of the test specimens. Rub, erosion, and bond adhesion tests were conducted on the coated specimens in the as-sprayed condition as well as on coated specimens that were aged for 100 hours at a temperature of 866K (1100 F). Microscopic examinations were performed to determine the coating abrasive-particle content, the size and shape of the adhesive particles in the coating, and the extent of compositional or morphological changes resulting from the aging process. A nickel chromium/aluminum composite with No. 150 size (0.002 to 0.005 inch) silicon carbide grits was selected as the best matrix/abrasive combination of the candidates surveyed for coating compressor blade tips.

  10. Method of preparing corrosion resistant composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    Method of manufacture of ceramic materials which require stability in severely-corrosive environment having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These surfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  11. Abrasion of Candidate Spacesuit Fabrics by Simulated Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rogers, Kerry J.; Sheehy, Brennan H.

    2009-01-01

    A protocol has been developed that produced the type of lunar soil abrasion damage observed on Apollo spacesuits. This protocol was then applied to four materials (Kevlar (DuPont), Vectran (Kuraray Co., Ltd.), Orthofabric, and Tyvek (DuPont)) that are candidates for advanced spacesuits. Three of the four new candidate fabrics (all but Vectran) were effective at keeping the dust from penetrating to layers beneath. In the cases of Kevlar and Orthofabric this was accomplished by the addition of a silicone layer. In the case of Tyvek, the paper structure was dense enough to block dust transport. The least abrasive damage was suffered by the Tyvek. This was thought to be due in large part to its non-woven paper structure. The woven structures were all abraded where the top of the weave was struck by the abrasive. Of these, the Orthofabric suffered the least wear, with both Vectran and Kevlar suffering considerably more extensive filament breakage.

  12. Aeolian abrasion on Venus: Preliminary results from the Venus simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Greeley, Ronald; Tucker, D. W.; Pollack, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of atmospheric pressure on aeolian abrasion was examined in the Venus Simulator with a constant temperature of 737 K. Both the rock target and the impactor were fine-grained basalt. The impactor was a 3 mm diameter angular particle chosen to represent a size of material that is entrainable by the dense Venusian atmosphere and potentially abrasive by virtue of its mass. It was projected at the target 10 to the 5 power times at a velocity of 0.7 m/s. The impactor showed a weight loss of approximately 1.2 x 10 to the -9 power gm per impact with the attrition occurring only at the edges. Results from scanning electron microscope analysis, profilometry, and weight measurement are summarized. It is concluded that particles can incur abrasion at Venusian temperatures even with low impact velocities expected for Venus.

  13. Materials screening chamber for testing materials resistance to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Carruth, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    A unique test chamber for exposing material to a known flux of oxygen atoms is described. The capabilities and operating parameters of the apparatus include production of an oxygen atom flux in excess of 5 x 10 to the 16th atoms/sq cm-sec, controlled heating of the sample specimen, RF circuitry to contain the plasma within a small volume, and long exposure times. Flux measurement capabilities include a calorimetric probe and a light titration system. Accuracy and limitations of these techniques are discussed. An extension to the main chamber to allow simultaneous ultraviolet and atomic oxygen exposure is discussed. The oxygen atoms produced are at thermal energies. Sample specimens are maintained at any selected temperature between ambient and 200 C, to within + or - 2 C. A representative example of measurements made using the chamber is presented.

  14. Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of porous material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J. C. Y.; Fortini, A.

    1971-01-01

    Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of porous materials, including 304L stainless steel Rigimesh, 304L stainless steel sintered spherical powders, and OFHC sintered spherical powders at different porosities and temperatures are reported and correlated. It was found that the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity can be related to the solid material properties and the porosity of the porous matrix regardless of the matrix structure. It was also found that the Wiedermann-Franz-Lorenz relationship is valid for the porous materials under consideration. For high conductivity materials, the Lorenz constant and the lattice component of conductivity depend on the material and are independent of the porosity. For low conductivity, the lattice component depends on the porosity as well.

  15. Resistance to airflow through bedding materials used in infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, D J; Helms, P; Matthew, D J; Skinner, D

    1982-01-01

    Various bedding materials used in infancy, including duvets (or continental quilts), were tested for airflow using the British Standards Institution tests for pillows or fabrics. Resistance was also measured when the items were placed on a dummy infant face. Measurements were made on washed and unwashed garments, which were tested both dry and wet. Results suggest that all the bedding materials tested are safe for use even in the newborn period. The duvets produced slightly lower resistance to breathing than conventional blankets and sheets. In view of the wide variety of infant bedding fabrics it seems desirable for standard airflow performance requirements to be introduced. PMID:7092309

  16. Proliferation resistance criteria for fissile material disposition issues

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D.A.; Fearey, B.L.; Markin, J.T.; Close, D.A.; Tolk, K.M.; Mangan, D.L.; Moore, L.

    1995-09-01

    The 1994 National Acdaemy of Sciences study ``Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium`` defined options for reducing the national and international proliferation risks of materials declared excess to the nuclear weapons program. This paper proposes criteria for assessing the proliferation resistance of these options as well defining the ``Standards`` from the report. The criteria are general, encompassing all stages of the disposition process from storage through intermediate processing to final disposition including the facilities, processing technologies and materials, the level of safeguards for these materials, and the national/subnational threat to the materials.

  17. Wear resistance of composite materials. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wear resistance of composite materials. References discuss polymer, ceramic and metal composites. Tribological testing and failure analyses are included. (Contains a minimum of 200 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Diamond-Fluoroplastic Composites for Abrasive Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrianova, O. A.; Kirillin, A. D.; Chersky, I. N.

    2001-07-01

    Composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and natural technical diamond powders from Yakutia diamond deposits are developed. It is shown that the compositions based on PTFE and a technical diamond powder at a content of up to 60 wt.%, due to their good physicomechanical characteristics, low friction coefficient, and good wetting of diamond particles by polymer, make is possible to create abrasive tools for polishing and grinding hard metals and semiprecious and precious stones with high serviceability and operational life combined with a considerable increase in the quality of treated surfaces and operational stability of the tools. It is found that PTFE, being a more elastic and softer matrix than the traditional ones, exhibits a self-sharpening effect of diamond grains upon grinding hard surfaces, when the grains go deep into the elastic matrix, the matrix wears out, and the working part of the tool becomes enriched with the diamond powder. These conclusions are confirmed by electron microscopic investigations. It is shown that the introduction of ultradisperse fillings (up to 2 wt.%) into such compositions allows us to improve the characteristics of abrasive tools considerably, especially for grinding hard semiprecious stones. The physicomechanical and frictional characteristics of the compositions and specific examples of their application in the jewelry industry and in stone working are discussed.

  19. Stochastic simplified modelling of abrasive waterjet footprints

    PubMed Central

    Torrubia, P. Lozano; Axinte, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Abrasive micro-waterjet processing is a non-conventional machining method that can be used to manufacture complex shapes in difficult-to-cut materials. Predicting the effect of the jet on the surface for a given set of machine parameters is a key element of controlling the process. However, the noise of the process is significant, making it difficult to design reliable jet-path strategies that produce good quality parts via controlled-depth milling. The process is highly unstable and has a strong random component that can affect the quality of the workpiece, especially in the case of controlled-depth milling. This study describes a method to predict the variability of the jet footprint for different jet feed speeds. A stochastic partial differential equation is used to describe the etched surface as the jet is moved over it, assuming that the erosion process can be divided into two main components: a deterministic part that corresponds to the average erosion of the jet and a stochastic part that accounts for the noise generated at different stages of the process. The model predicts the variability of the trench profiles to within less than 8%. These advances could enable abrasive micro-waterjet technology to be a suitable technology for controlled-depth milling. PMID:27118905

  20. Abrasive swivel assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Hashish, Mohamed; Marvin, Mark

    1990-01-01

    An abrasive swivel assembly for providing a rotating, particle-laden fluid stream and, ultimately, a rotating particle-laden fluid jet is disclosed herein. This assembly includes a tubular arrangement for providing a particle-free stream of fluid, a swivel assembly for rotating a section of the tubular arrangement, and a tubular end section for introducing solid particles into the particle-free fluid stream at a point along the rotating tubular section, whereby to produce a particle-laden fluid stream. This last-mentioned stream can then be used in combination with a cooperating nozzle arrangement for providing a rotating particle-laden fluid jet. In an actual working embodiment, the fluid stream is of sufficiently high pressure so that the abrasive jet can be used as a cutting jet.

  1. Abrasive swivel assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Hashish, Mohamed; Marvin, Mark

    1989-01-01

    An abrasive swivel assembly for providing a rotating, particle-laden fluid stream and, ultimately, a rotating particle-laden fluid jet is disclosed herein. This assembly includes a tubular arrangement for providing a particle-free stream of fluid, means for rotating a section of the tubular arrangement, and means for introducing solid particles into the particle-free fluid stream at a point along the rotating tubular section, whereby to produce a particle-laden fluid stream. This last-mentioned stream can then be used in combination with a cooperating nozzle arrangement for providing a rotating particle-laden fluid jet. In an actual working embodiment, the fluid stream is of sufficiently high pressure so that the abrasive jet can be used as a cutting jet.

  2. Measuring pebble abrasion on a mixed sand and gravel beach using abrasion baskets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Stephenson, Wayne

    2015-11-01

    The abrasion of sediments on mixed sand and gravel beaches has important consequences for local sediment budgets as abrasion often accounts for the major loss of beach volume. Here we report an innovative method using abrasion baskets to measure abrasion in the swash zone of mixed sand and gravel beaches. This method offers significant advantages over laboratory-based tumbler experiments traditionally used to determine abrasion rates. The very high recovery rate from our method is also a significant advantage over previous field methods using radio frequency identification technology to measure abrasion where tagged particles are often lost. Either three or five abrasion baskets were placed across the swash zone on a mixed sand and gravel beach at Timaru, South Island, New Zealand, to measure the abrasion occurring on labeled sediments placed in the baskets. Over two experiments, results showed measurable abrasion across the swash zone with higher abrasion rates occurring in the middle of the swash zone and lower rates towards the swash limit and at the breaker zone. Results also illustrate the role of changing wave energy on abrasion loss. A relationship between particle size and abrasion rate was also found, similar to previous laboratory results reported in the literature. Our preliminary experiments lead us to define an abrasion zone and this idea may help shape future research on abrasion processes on mixed sand and gravel beaches.

  3. Experimental abrasion of detrital gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeend, Warren E.

    1975-01-01

    The physical breakdown and abrasion rates of gold were studied using a tumbler to simulate natural high-energy environments. The gold fragments were tumbled for periods ranging from 30 to 240 h with different combinations of sand, cobbles, and water at velocities of 0.5 and 2.0 mi/h (0.85 and 3.22 km/h). With sand and gravel, the common bedload of the rivers that deposited the gold-bearing Tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Sierra Nevada, gold is abraded at rates of 0.015 to 0.007 percent (by weight) per hour of travel (at 0.5 mi/h or 0.845 km/h). Cobbles, rather than sand, are responsible for most of the physical changes and abrasion of the gold. Ten gold fragments tumbled for 120 h with cobbles and water (no sand) were broken down to 68 recoverable fragments and lost about 25 percent of their weight to particles smaller than could be recovered using conventional panning techniques. Gold tumbled for 120 h with sand and water lost less than 1 percent of its weight. Gold was abraded faster by wet sand than by dry sand. Velocity appears to be more important as a factor in abrasion of gold than travel distance a fourfold increase in velocity produced a tenfold increase in hourly abrasion rates of gold. Scanning electron microscope examination of the gold fragments after the tumbling experiments revealed differences in surface texture between fragments tumbled with (1) sand, (2) sand and cobbles, and (3) cobbles only.

  4. Design and synthesis of novel resist materials for EUVL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana, V. S. V.; Singh, Vikram; Ghosh, Subrata; Sharma, Satinder; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.

    2014-04-01

    The design, synthesis and characterization of non-chemically amplified negative tone electron-beam and EUV resists based on the inclusion of a radiation sensitive sulfonium functional group are outlined.. MAPDST (4-(methacryloyloxy phenyldimethylsulfoniumtriflate) and MANTMS (1-(4-(methacryloyloxy)naphthalen-1-yl)tetrahydro-1H thiopheniumtrifluoromethane sulfonate) monomers each containing the sulfonium group underwent homo- and copolymerizations using free radical polymerization with 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) initiator. These resist materials were evaluated by EB lithography using 20 keV electron beam and EUV lithography to obtain sub-20 nm line patterns. These features were optimized ranging from resist coating, pre-exposure bake, exposure to e-beam, postexposure bake, development and imaging. Our investigation showed that these newly synthesized resists are potential viable candidates for EUV lithography based on their ability to form flaw free thin films < 50nm, sensitivity, resolution and LER control.

  5. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Alan; Swansiger, Thomas G.

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4-2.6 g/cm.sup.3 with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness, good abrasion resistance and crush strength.

  6. Air flow exploration of abrasive feed tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shijin; Li, Xiaohong; Gu, Yilei

    2009-12-01

    An abrasive water-jet cutting process is one in which water pressure is raised to a very high pressure and forced through a very small orifice to form a very thin high speed jet beam. This thin jet beam is then directed through a chamber and then fed into a secondary nozzle, or mixing tube. During this process, a vacuum is generated in the chamber, and garnet abrasives and air are pulled into the chamber, through an abrasive feed tube, and mixes with this high speed stream of water. Because of the restrictions introduced by the abrasive feed tube geometry, a vacuum gradient is generated along the tube. Although this phenomenon has been recognized and utilized as a way to monitor nozzle condition and abrasive flowing conditions, yet, until now, conditions inside the abrasive feed line have not been completely understood. A possible reason is that conditions inside the abrasive feed line are complicated. Not only compressible flow but also multi-phase, multi-component flow has been involved in inside of abrasive feed tube. This paper explored various aspects of the vacuum creation process in both the mixing chamber and the abrasive feed tube. Based on an experimental exploration, an analytical framework is presented to allow theoretical calculations of vacuum conditions in the abrasive feed tube.

  7. Grain decoration in aluminum oxynitride (ALON) from polishing on bound abrasive laps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Leslie L.; Marino, Anne E.; Hayes, Jennifer C.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (ALON) is a polycrystalline material that has proven difficult to polish due to its grain structure. Bound abrasives are an effective means for polishing ALON, and work is being done with them to obtain good surfaces, with reasonable removal rates. Laps consisting of abrasives bound in epoxy matrices were created for polishing ALON. The effects of varying abrasive type, abrasive concentration, lap shape, coolant and load were studied. Metrology procedures were developed to monitor different aspects of the grain structure and numerically evaluate grain boundary decoration. Strategies were developed to polish ALON at acceptable rates with reasonably good surface quality. Work is directed toward finding optimal bound abrasive lap formulations that can be fabricated into ring and/or contour tools for testing on CNC machining platforms.

  8. Grain decoration in aluminum oxynitride (ALON) from polishing on bound abrasive laps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Anne E.; Hayes, Jennifer; Gregg, Leslie L.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (ALON) is a material with desirable qualities for a variety of applications that has proven difficult to polish because of its grain structure. Bound abrasives may prove to be an effective means of polishing it, and work is being done with them to obtain good surfaces on ALON, with reasonable removal rates. Laps consisting of abrasives bound in epoxy matrices have been created for polishing ALON. The effects of varying abrasive type, abrasive concentration, lap shape, coolant and load are being studied. Metrology procedures are being developed to monitor different aspects of the grain structure and numerically evaluate its decoration. Strategies have been developed to polish ALON at acceptable rates with reasonably good surface quality. Work is directed toward finding optimal bound abrasive lap formulations that can be fabricated into ring and/or contour tools for testing on CNC machining platforms.

  9. Loose abrasive lapping hardness of optical glasses and its interpretation.

    PubMed

    Lambropoulos, J C; Xu, S; Fang, T

    1997-03-01

    We present an interpretation of the lapping hardness of commercially available optical glasses in terms of a micromechanics model of material removal by subsurface lateral cracking. We analyze data on loose abrasive microgrinding, or lapping at fixed nominal pressure, for many commercially available optical glasses in terms of this model. The Schott and Hoya data on lapping hardness are correlated with the results of such a model. Lapping hardness is a function of the mechanical properties of the glass: The volume removal rate increases approximately linearly with Young's modulus, and it decreases with fracture toughness and (approximately) the square of the Knoop hardness. The microroughness induced by lapping depends on the plastic and elastic properties of the glass, depending on abrasive shape. This is in contrast to deterministic microgrinding (fixed infeed rate), where it is determined from the plastic and fracture properties of the glass. We also show that Preston's coefficient has a similar dependence as lapping hardness on glass mechanical properties, as well as a linear dependence on abrasive size for the case of brittle material removal. These observations lead to the definition of an augmented Preston coefficient during brittle material removal. The augmented Preston coefficient does not depend on glass material properties or abrasive size and thus describes the interaction of the glass surface with the coolant-immersed abrasive grain and the backing plate. Numerical simulations of indentation are used to locate the origin of subsurface cracks and the distribution of residual surface and subsurface stresses, known to cause surface (radial) and subsurface (median, lateral) cracks.

  10. Kevlar Properties Investigation High Speed Abrasion Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. WILLIAM R. PINNELL EDWIN R. SCHULTZ, Chief Project Engineer Crew Escape...Mr. W. R. Pinnell acting as Project Engineer. Mr. NOJ J7.Ab % vwas the FR. Associate Director responsible for the overall programY Iffajority of...ft-lb. In all cases , a fresh abrad- ing surface was used only for each test. In most cases both surfaces of the abrading specimen were used. In the

  11. High temperature materials for resistive infrared scene projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Steven; Ginn, Robert; Campbell, Stephen; Jalali, Maryam; Goldsmith, George

    2006-05-01

    Joule heated resistive emitter arrays are presently limited to pixel temperatures on the order of 1000 K. A phase 2 SBIR program is underway to develop material sets with the goal of increasing the operating temperatures of these arrays by up to a factor of 3. Preliminary work indicates that transition metal oxides and carbides are the most promising materials for 3000 K pixel temperatures. An overview of the project and current status is presented. Thin films will be deposited by numerous vendors using a variety of techniques, and annealed at ultra-high temperatures in vacuum to select the most stable materials. Test emitter pixel arrays will be fabricated and tested.

  12. Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, Silvio; Ilarri, Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technology was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the manufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel. Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, generally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminated aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 minutes of the cleaning time. (authors)

  13. UPb ages of zircon rims: A new analytical method using the air-abrasion technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Winegarden, D.L.; Walter, M.

    1990-01-01

    We present a new technique for directly dating, by conventional techniques, the rims of zircons. Several circumstances, such as a xenocrystic or inherited component in igneous zircon and metamorphic overgrowths on igneous cores, can result in grains with physically distinct age components. Pneumatic abrasion has been previously shown by Krogh to remove overgrowths and damaged areas of zircon, leaving more resistant and isotopically less disturbed parts available for analysis. A new abrader design, which is capable of very gently grinding only tips and interfacial edges of even needle-like grains, permits easy collection of abraded material for dating. Five examples demonstrate the utility of the "dust-collecting" technique, including two studies that compare conventional, ion microprobe and abrader data. Common Pb may be strongly concentrated in the outermost zones of many zircons and this Pb is not easily removed by leaching (even in weak HF). Thus, the benefit of removing only the outermost zones (and avoiding mixing of age components) is somewhat compromised by the much higher common Pb contents which result in less precise age determinations. A very brief abrasion to remove the high common Pb zones prior to collection of material for dating is selected. ?? 1990.

  14. Improved Damage Resistant Composite Materials Incorporating Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Jeffrey S. N.; Rogers, Craig A.

    1996-01-01

    Metallic shape memory alloys (SMA) such as nitinol have unique shape recovery behavior and mechanical properties associated with a material phase change that have been used in a variety of sensing and actuation applications. Recent studies have shown that integrating nitinol-SMA actuators into composite materials increases the composite material's functionality. Hybrid composites of conventional graphite/epoxy or glass/epoxy and nitinol-SMA elements can perform functions in applications where monolithic composites perform inadequately. One such application is the use of hybrid composites to function both in load bearing and armor capacities. While monolithic composites with high strength-to-weight ratios function efficiently as loadbearing structures, because of their brittle nature, impact loading can cause significant catastrophic damage. Initial composite failure modes such as delamination and matrix cracking dissipate some impact energy, but when stress exceeds the composite's ultimate strength, fiber fracture and material perforation become dominant. One of the few methods that has been developed to reduce material perforation is hybridizing polymer matrix composites with tough kevlar or high modulus polyethynylene plies. The tough fibers increase the impact resistance and the stiffer and stronger graphite fibers carry the majority of the load. Similarly, by adding nitinol-SMA elements that absorb impact energy through the stress-induced martensitic phase transformation, the composites' impact perforation resistance can be greatly enhanced. The results of drop-weight and high velocity gas-gun impact testing of various composite materials will be presented. The results demonstrate that hybridizing composites with nitinol-SMA elements significantly increases perforation resistance compared to other traditional toughening elements. Inspection of the composite specimens at various stages of perforation by optical microscope illustrates the mechanisms by which

  15. Low-temperature radiation-resistant material for ball-bearing retainers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desau, P. O.; Emmons, W. F.

    1970-01-01

    Radiation resistant material, made of polyimide polymers and S-glass cloth, is used in ball bearing retainers for extreme environments. Material displays satisfactory wear resistance, lubricity, and stability. Results of comparative tests with fluorocarbon materials are given.

  16. Characterization and dispersion of pollutant releases from the abrasive blasting of lead paint from steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Rana, B.

    1999-07-01

    The characterization of airborne and spent material for abrasive blasting of steel paint was performed as part of the Environmental Impact Statement for Lead Paint Removal Operations on New York City Department of Transportation Bridges1. Laboratory tests were performed on painted steel components of the Williamsburg Bridge, to determine the sizes of particles typically released into the air as aerosol and onto the ground as bulk material, as a result of accidental releases from abrasive blasting operations. Two of the most commonly used abrasives for paint removal on steel structures, recyclable steel grit and expendable abrasives were subjected to the laboratory tests. The results of the tests were used to determine the percentage of existing paint and abrasive which becomes airborne and the resultant particle size distributions, which were employed in the air quality concentration and deposition modeling for the EIS. Particle size distributions of the airborne material indicated that the profiles of airborne lead and particulate matter have a mean particle size between 15 and 21 microns. Spent abrasives and paint chips that settle on the floor are larger in size with a mean diameter greater than 259 microns, although up to 6% of this material has a mean diameter less than 50 microns. The percentage of paint and expendable abrasives that become airborne as a result of abrasive blasting were estimated to be as high as 9.0 and 12.4%, respectively. Potential release rates were derived for total accumulation (duration of the project), annual, quarterly, 24-hour, and 1-hour time averaging periods for abrasives, lead, and other metals. Pollutant releases were simulated as individual sources at multiple release heights with the Environment Protection Agency's ISC3ST model for six representative bridges near potential places of public exposure.

  17. Patterning of hyperbranched resist materials by e-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Alexander R.; Tully, David C.; Frechet, Jean M. J.; Medeiros, David R.; Angelopoulos, Marie

    2000-06-01

    The application of a hyperbranched polymer with its globular architecture as a chemically amplified resist system is demonstrated. These hyperbranched poly(esters) based on 3,5- dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)valeric acid and obtained by a polycondensation process at high temperatures. Once obtained, the hyperbranched polymers are functionalized with acid and thermally labile t-BOC groups by reaction of their phenolic groups with di-t-butyl dicarbonate in the presence of a catalytic amount of potassium t-butoxide. These globular materials have number average molecular weights (Mn) in the range of 5,000 - 20,000 with polydispersities of 1.5 - 2. Exposure of the hyperbranched resist material formulated with a photoacid generator was carried out using a direct-write electron-beam (e-beam) tool operating at 50 keV with doses of 15 - 40 (mu) C/cm2. Development of these resist materials can be accomplished in either aqueous base developer or organic solvent, thereby allowing access to both the positive and negative tone images. Feature sizes of 100 nm are readily obtained from these unoptimized materials.

  18. Rate of wind abrasion on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Leach, R. N.; Williams, S. H.; Krinsley, D. H.; Marshall, J. R.; White, B. R.; Pollack, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A brief description is given of the experiments performed to obtain data on windblown particles and abrasion of rocks in a simulated Martian environment. Preliminary results are presented and combined with Viking meteorological data in estimating rates of wind abrasion at the VL-1 site on Mars. Attention is also given to the implications that the results have for Martian surface history. Calculations of the present rates of abrasion by windblown particles on Mars yield values ranging from 0.021 cm/yr to nearly zero, depending on the target, the agent of abrasion, and the availability of windblown particles.

  19. Frost resistance of concrete surfaces coated with waterproofing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klovas, A.; Dauksys, M.; Ciuprovaite, G.

    2015-03-01

    Present research lays emphasis on the problem of concrete surface exposed to aggressive surrounding quality. The test was conducted with concrete surfaces coated with different waterproofing materials exposed in solution of 3 % of sodium sulphate. Research was performed according to LST EN 1338:2003 standard requirements. Technological properties of concrete mixture as well as physical-mechanical properties of formed concrete specimens were established. The resistance of concrete to freezing - thawing cycles was prognosticated according to the porosity parameters established by the kinetic of water absorption. Five different waterproofing materials (coatings) such as liquid bitumen-rubber based, elastic fiber-strengthened, silane-siloxane based emulsion, mineral binder based and liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based coatings were used. Losses by mass of coating materials and specimens surface fractures were calculated based on the results of frost resistance test. Open code program "ImageJ" was used for visual analysis of concrete specimens. Based on the results, aggressive surrounding did not influence specimens coated with elastic, fibre-strengthened, mineral materials. On the other hand, specimens coated with liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based material were greatly influenced by aggressive surrounding. The biggest losses of specimen surface concrete (fractures) were obtained with silane-siloxane based emulsion coating. Generally, specimens coated with waterproofing materials were less influenced by aggressive surrounding compared with those without.

  20. Strengthening of oxidation resistant materials for gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, D. R.; Kirchner, H. P.; Gruver, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    Compressive surface layers were formed on hot-pressed silicon carbide and nitride. The objective of these treatments was to improve the impact resistance of these materials at 1590 K (2400 F). Quenching was used to form compressive surface layers on silicon carbide. The presence of the compressive stresses was demonstrated by slotted rod tests. Compressive stresses were retained at elevated temperatures. Improvements in impact resistance at 1590 K (2400 F) and flexural strength at room temperature were achieved using cylindrical rods 3.3 mm (0.13 in.) in diameter. Carburizing treatments were used to form the surface layers on silicon nitride. In a few cases using rectangular bars improvements in impact resistance at 1590 K (2400 F) were observed.

  1. Oxidation resistant slurry coating for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Rybicki, G. C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An oxidation resistant coating is produced on carbon-base materials, and the same processing step effects an infiltration of the substrate with silicon containing material. The process comprises making a slurry of nickel and silicon powders in a nitrocellulose lacquer, spraying onto the graphite or carbon-carbon substrate, and sintering in vacuum to form a fused coating that wets and covers the surface as well as penetrates into the pores of the substrate. Optimum wetting and infiltration occurs in the range of Ni-60 w/o Si to Ni-90 w/o Si with deposited thicknesses of 25-100 mg/sq. cm. Sintering temperatures of about 1200 C to about 1400 C are used, depending on the melting point of the specific coating composition. The sintered coating results in Ni-Si intermetallic phases and SiC, both of which are highly oxidation resistant.

  2. A Study of the Pickup of Abrasive Particles during Abrasion of Annealed Aluminum on Silicon Carbide Abrasive Papers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    annealed aluminium during abrasion on silicon carbide abrasive papers. Neither optical nor scanning electron microscopy adequately characterises the...despite its limitations when examining rough surfaces. The present results show that the pickup of silicon carbide particles increases with increase in

  3. Dynamical simulation of an abrasive wear process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elalem, Khaled; Li, D. Y.

    1999-05-01

    A dynamic computer model was developed to simulate wear behavior of materials on micro-scales. In this model, a material system is discretized and mapped onto a lattice or grid. Each lattice site represents a small volume of the material. During a wear process, a lattice site may move under the influence of external force and the interaction between the site and its adjacent sites. The site-site interaction is a function of mechanical properties of the material such as the elastic modulus, yield strength, work hardening and the fracture strain. Newton's law of motion is used to determine the movement of lattice sites during a wear process. The strain between a pair of sites is recoverable if it is within the elastic deformation range; otherwise plastic deformation takes place. A bond between two adjacent sites is broken when its strain exceeds a critical value. A site or a cluster of sites is worn away if all bonds connecting the site or the cluster to its nearest neighbors are broken. The model well describes the strain distribution in a contact region, in consistence with a finite element analysis. This model was applied to several metallic materials abraded under the ASTM G65 abrasion condition, and the results were compared to experimental observations. Good agreement between the modeling and the experiment was found.

  4. Fire-resistant aircraft materials development and evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, R. W.; Stuckey, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to provide a more fire-resistant commercial aircraft interior and to improve the fuselage insulation barrier between the cabin interior and an exterior fuel fire. Significant secondary objectives are to reduce the smoke and toxic gas production of the materials and to meet the end item use requirements pertaining to wearability, color fastness, and aesthetic appeal. It is shown that the fuselage insulation materials must meet stringent requirements pertaining to acoustic attenuation, low density, and water repellency.

  5. Low Temperature Compression Set Resistant O-Ring Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    short period of service, and conventional fluoroelastomers have limited low temperature performance capabilities. These performance issues have...materials have been commercially available since the mid 1960’s and, due to the presence of oxygen in their backbone, exhibit excellent chemical... Fluoroelastomers – Fluoroelastomers are known for their chemical resistance and would be an ideal o-ring candidate for the present application if their low

  6. Polymeric Materials Resistant to Erosion by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Thibeault, Sheila A.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer-matrix composites are ideally suited for space vehicles because of high strength to weight ratios. The principal component of the low earth orbit (LEO) is atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen causes surface erosion to polymeric materials. Polymer films with an organometallic additive showed greater resistance to atomic oxygen than the pure polymer in laboratory experiments and in the OPM/MIR experiment. In MISSE, the film with the organometallic additive was still intact after the pure film had completely eroded.

  7. Abrasive wear by coal-fueled diesel engine and related particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, L.K.

    1992-09-01

    The development of commercially viable diesel engines that operate directly on pulverized coal-fuels will require solution to the problem of severe abrasive wear. The purpose of the work described in this report was to investigate the nature of the abrasive wear problem. Analytical studies were carried out to determine the characteristics of the coal-fuel and associated combustion particles responsible for abrasion. Laboratory pinon-disk wear tests were conducted on oil-particle mixtures to determine the relationship between wear rate and a number of different particle characteristics, contact parameters, specimen materials properties, and other relevant variables.

  8. Two-body, dry abrasive wear of Fe/Cr/C experimental alloys - relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, C.K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A systematic study of abrasive wear resistance of Fe/Cr/Mn based alloys has been carried out using a two body pin-on-disc wear machine. Abrasives used were silicon carbide, alumina and quartz. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abrasive wear resistance and to investigate the relationships between microstructure, mechanical properties, and abrasive wear resistance for these experimental alloys. Several commercial alloys were also tested to provide a basis for comparison. The goal of this study was to develop information so as to improve wear resistance of these experimental alloys by means of thermal treatments. Grain-refinement by double heat treatment was carried out in this research.

  9. Restorative resins: abrasion vs. mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, K D

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to examine whether it is possible by simple and reliable laboratory tests to evaluate the abrasion by food of Class 1 restorative resins. The results point to the following main conclusions: for the smooth-surface resins, i.e. the micro-filled composite and the unfilled resins, the Wallace hardness test appears to be a valid parameter for abrasion; the greater the depth of penetration of the Vickers diamond of this apparatus, the more severe abrasion is to be expected. The mode of abrasion in this type of resin is scratching. Porosity in the resins strongly enhances the abrasion. For the rough-surface resins, i.e. the conventional composites, a dual effect of the filler particles was concluded. The filler particles on the one hand protect the matrix against abrasion, but cause, on the other hand, in time an increase of the surface roughness of the composite and thereby via increased friction an increase of the abrasion. Considerations on possible ways to improve the present-day restorative resins are presented. It is stressed that the results obtained refer only to abrasion of Class 1 fillings by food.

  10. Bendable Extension For Abrasive-Jet Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Walter

    1989-01-01

    Hard-to-reach places cleaned more easily. Extension for abrasive-jet apparatus bent to provide controlled abrasive cleaning of walls in deep cavities or other hard-to-reach places. Designed for controlled removal of penetrant inspection dyes from inside castings, extension tube also used for such general grit-blasting work as removal of scratches.

  11. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Gorin, Andrew H.; Seals, Roland D.

    1994-01-01

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  12. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Gorin, A.H.; Seals, R.D.

    1994-11-22

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  13. A new methodology for hydro-abrasive erosion tests simulating penstock erosive flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumelas, V.; Maj, G.; Le Calvé, P.; Smith, M.; Gambiez, B.; Mourrat, X.

    2016-11-01

    Hydro-abrasive resistance is an important property requirement for hydroelectric power plant penstock coating systems used by EDF. The selection of durable coating systems requires an experimental characterization of coating performance. This can be achieved by performing accelerated and representative laboratory tests. In case of severe erosion induced by a penstock flow, there is no suitable method or standard representative of real erosive flow conditions. The presented study aims at developing a new methodology and an associated laboratory experimental device. The objective of the laboratory apparatus is to subject coated test specimens to wear conditions similar to the ones generated at the penstock lower generatrix in actual flow conditions. Thirteen preselected coating solutions were first been tested during a 45 hours erosion test. A ranking of the thirteen coating solutions was then determined after characterisation. To complete this first evaluation and to determine the wear kinetic of the four best coating solutions, additional erosion tests were conducted with a longer duration of 216 hours. A comparison of this new method with standardized tests and with real service operating flow conditions is also discussed. To complete the final ranking based on hydro-abrasive erosion tests, some trial tests were carried out on penstock samples to check the application method of selected coating systems. The paper gives some perspectives related to erosion test methodologies for materials and coating solutions for hydraulic applications. The developed test method can also be applied in other fields.

  14. Proper bit design improves penetration rate in abrasive horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Gentges, R.J. )

    1993-08-09

    Overall drilling penetration rates nearly tripled, and drill bit life nearly doubled compared to conventional bits when specially designed natural diamond and polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits were used during a seven-well horizontal drilling program. The improvement in drilling performance from better-designed bits lowered drilling costs at ANR Pipeline Co.'s Reed City gas storage field in Michigan. Laboratory tests with scaled down bits used on abrasive cores helped determine the optimum design for drilling the gas storage wells. The laboratory test results and actual field data were used to develop a matrix-body natural diamond bit, which was later modified to become a matrix-body, blade-type polycrystalline diamond compact bit. This bit had excellent penetration rates and abrasion resistance. The paper describes the background to the project, bit selection, natural diamond bits, field results, new bit designs, and field results from the new design.

  15. Wheel Abrasion Experiment Metals Selection for Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Hoffman, Richard; Hill, Maria M.; Kaloyeros, Alain E.

    1996-01-01

    A series of metals was examined for suitability for the Wheel Abrasion Experiment, one of ten microrover experiments of the Mars Pathfinder Mission. The seven candidate metals were: Ag, Al, Au, Cu, Ni, Pt, and W. Thin films of candidate metals from 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer thick were deposited on black anodized aluminum coupons by e-beam and resistive evaporation and chemical vapor deposition. Optical, corrosion, abrasion, and adhesion criteria were used to select Al, Ni, and Pt. A description is given of the deposition and testing of thin films, followed by a presentation of experimental data and a brief discussion of follow-on testing and flight qualification.

  16. Surface roughness and gloss of current CAD/CAM resin composites before and after toothbrush abrasion.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Saiki, Osamu; Nogawa, Hiroshi; Hiraba, Haruto; Okazaki, Tomoyo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gloss and surface roughness behaviors of newly developed CAD/CAM composite blocks with different filler contents and characteristics. The gloss and surface roughness were quantified before and after a toothbrush dentifrice abrasion test; the results were compared to the gloss and surface roughness of a ceramic CAD/CAM block. Knoop hardness was determined before abrasion test. The results were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey HSD, and Dunnett t test (p<0.05). The rank order of Knoop hardness was as follows: Vita Mark II>Vita Enamic>Gradia block>Shofu Block HC, Lava Ultimate≥Katana Avencia block≥Cerasmart. After toothbrush abrasion, a significant difference in the gloss unit was detected between the Shofu Block HC material and the ceramic block. The Ra and Rz of the Cerasmart and Shofu Block HC materials were significantly larger than those of the ceramic block after toothbrush abrasion.

  17. Thin film materials and devices for resistive temperature sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basantani, Hitesh A.

    Thin films of vanadium oxide (VOx) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) are the two dominant material systems used in resistive infrared radiation detectors (microbolometers) for sensing long wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths in the 8--14 microm range. Typical thin films of VO x (x < 2) currently used in the bolometer industry have a magnitude of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) between 2%/K -- 3%/K. In contrast, thin films of hydrogenated germanium (SiGe:H) have |TCR| between 3%/K to 4%/K. Devices made from either of these materials have resulted in similar device performance with NETD ≈ 25 mK. The performance of the microbolometers is limited by the electronic noise, especially 1/f noise. Therefore, regardless of the choice of bolometer sensing material and read out circuitry, manufacturers are constantly striving to reduce 1/f noise while simultaneously increasing TCR to give better signal to noise ratios in their bolometers and ultimately, better image quality with more thermal information to the end user. In this work, thin films of VOx and hydrogenated germanium (Ge:H), having TCR values > 4 %/K are investigated as potential candidates for higher sensitivity next generation of microbolometers. Thin films of VO x were deposited by Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition (BTIBD) (˜85 nm thick). Electrical characterization of lateral resistor structures showed resistivity ranging from 104 O--cm to 2.1 x 104 O--cm, TCR varying from --4%/K to --5%/K, normalized Hooge parameter (alphaH/n) of 5 x 10 -21 to 5 x 10-18 cm3. Thin films of Ge:H were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by incorporating an increasing amount of crystal fraction in the growing thin films. Thin films of Ge:H having a mixed phase, amorphous + nanocrystalline, having a |TCR| > 6 %/K were deposited with resistivity < 2,300 O--cm and a normalized Hooge's parameter 'alphaH/n' < 2 x 10-20 cm3. Higher TCR materials are desired, however, such materials have

  18. Resistance to fracture of dental roots obturated with different materials.

    PubMed

    Celikten, Berkan; Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Gulsahi, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the vertical fracture resistance of roots obturated with different root canal filling materials and sealers. Crowns of 55 extracted mandibular premolar teeth were removed to provide root lengths of 13 mm. Five roots were saved as negative control group (canals unprepared and unfilled). Fifty root canals were instrumented and then five roots were saved as positive control group (canals prepared but unfilled). The remaining 45 roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 root/group) and obturated with the following procedures: in group 1, glass ionomer-based sealer and cone (ActiV GP obturation system); in group 2, bioceramic sealer and cone (EndoSequence BC obturation system); and in group 3, roots were filled with bioceramic sealer and cone (Smartpaste bio obturation system). All specimens were tested in a universal testing machine for measuring fracture resistance. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. The statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc test. There were no significant differences between the three experimental groups. The fracture values of three experimental and negative control groups were significantly higher than the positive control group. Within the limitations of this study, all materials increased the fracture resistance of instrumented roots.

  19. Resistance to Fracture of Dental Roots Obturated with Different Materials

    PubMed Central

    Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Gulsahi, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the vertical fracture resistance of roots obturated with different root canal filling materials and sealers. Crowns of 55 extracted mandibular premolar teeth were removed to provide root lengths of 13 mm. Five roots were saved as negative control group (canals unprepared and unfilled). Fifty root canals were instrumented and then five roots were saved as positive control group (canals prepared but unfilled). The remaining 45 roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 root/group) and obturated with the following procedures: in group 1, glass ionomer-based sealer and cone (ActiV GP obturation system); in group 2, bioceramic sealer and cone (EndoSequence BC obturation system); and in group 3, roots were filled with bioceramic sealer and cone (Smartpaste bio obturation system). All specimens were tested in a universal testing machine for measuring fracture resistance. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. The statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc test. There were no significant differences between the three experimental groups. The fracture values of three experimental and negative control groups were significantly higher than the positive control group. Within the limitations of this study, all materials increased the fracture resistance of instrumented roots. PMID:25756048

  20. Metal-nanotube composites as radiation resistant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Rafael I.; Valencia, Felipe; Mella, José; van Duin, Adri C. T.; So, Kang Pyo; Li, Ju; Kiwi, Miguel; Bringa, Eduardo M.

    2016-07-01

    The improvement of radiation resistance in nanocomposite materials is investigated by means of classical reactive molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, we study the influence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in an Ni matrix on the trapping and possible outgassing of He. When CNTs are defect-free, He atoms diffuse alongside CNT walls and, although there is He accumulation at the metal-CNT interface, no He trespassing of the CNT wall is observed, which is consistent with the lack of permeability of a perfect graphene sheet. However, when vacancies are introduced to mimic radiation-induced defects, He atoms penetrate CNTs, which play the role of nano-chimneys, allowing He atoms to escape the damaged zone and reduce bubble formation in the matrix. Consequently, composites made of CNTs inside metals are likely to display improved radiation resistance, particularly when radiation damage is related to swelling and He-induced embrittlement.

  1. Corrosion-Resistant Container for Molten-Material Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore G.; McNaul, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In a carbothermal process, gaseous methane is passed over molten regolith, which is heated past its melting point to a temperature in excess of 1,625 C. At this temperature, materials in contact with the molten regolith (or regolith simulant) corrode and lose their structural properties. As a result, fabricating a crucible to hold the molten material and providing a method of contact heating have been problematic. Alternative containment approaches use a large crucible and limit the heat zone of the material being processed, which is inefficient because of volume and mass constraints. Alternative heating approaches use non-contact heating, such as by laser or concentrated solar energy, which can be inefficient in transferring heat and thus require higher power heat sources to accomplish processing. The innovation is a combination of materials, with a substrate material having high structural strength and stiffness and high-temperature capability, and a coating material with a high corrosion resistance and high-temperature capability. The material developed is a molybdenum substrate with an iridium coating. Creating the containment crucible or heater jacket using this material combination requires only that the molybdenum, which is easily processed by conventional methods such as milling, electric discharge machining, or forming and brazing, be fabricated into an appropriate shape, and that the iridium coating be applied to any surfaces that may come in contact with the corrosive molten material. In one engineering application, the molybdenum was fashioned into a container for a heat pipe. Since only the end of the heat pipe is used to heat the regolith, the container has a narrowing end with a nipple in which the heat pipe is snugly fit, and the external area of this nipple, which contacts the regolith to transfer heat into it, is coated with iridium. At the time of this reporting, no single material has been found that can perform the functions of this combination

  2. Underlayer and rinse materials for improving EUV resist performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanaban, Munirathna; Cho, JoonYeon; Kudo, Takanori; Mullen, Salem; Yao, Huirong; Noya, Go; Matsuura, Yuriko; Ide, Yasuaki; Li, Jin; Pawlowski, Georg

    2013-03-01

    Photoresists play a key role in enabling the patterning process, and the development of their chemistry has contributed significantly to the industry's ability to continue shrinking device dimensions. However, with the increasing complexity of patterning ever smaller features, photoresist performance needs to be supported by a large number of materials, such as antireflective coatings and anti-collapse rinses. Bottom anti-reflective coatings are widely used to control reflectivity-driven pattern fidelity in i-line and DUV exposures. While no such reflectivity control is required at EUV wavelengths, it has been demonstrated that use of an EUV underlayer (EBL) coating with high EUV photon absorption (EPA) unit can improve resist performance such as sensitivity and resist-substrate poisoning, thereby improving resolution and process window. EBL can also help to reduce the effect of out-of-band (OoB) irradiation. Traditionally, final photoresist image cleaning after the develop step has been performed using de-ionized water, generally known as a "rinse step". More recently pattern collapse has developed to a major failure mode in high resolution lithography attributed to strong capillary forces induced by water resulting in pattern bending (`pattern sticking') or adhesion failure. With decreasing feature geometries (DPT immersion lithography, EUV) the benefit of rinse solutions to prevent pattern collapse has increased. In addition such rinse solutions can in some cases improve defects and LWR. In this paper we describe the advantages of AZ® EBL series of EUV underlayer materials and EUV FIRM® EXTREME™ rinse solutions when applied individually and in combinations. It is demonstrated that the use of underlayer materials can help improve LWR through improvement of resist profiles. Use of FIRM® EXTREME™ rinse is shown to provide significant improvement in collapse margin and total defect counts.

  3. Performance of Flame Sprayed Ni-WC Coating under Abrasive Wear Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsha, S.; Dwivedi, D. K.; Agarwal, A.

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the influence of a post spray heat treatment on the microstructure, microhardness and abrasive wear behavior of the flame sprayed Ni-WC (EWAC 1002 ET) coating deposited on the mild steel. Coatings were deposited by using an oxy-acetylene flame spraying torch (Superjet Eutalloy L & T, India). The wear behavior of the coating was evaluated using a pin on disc wear system against SiC abrasive medium of 120 and 600 grades at 5, 10, 15, and 20 N normal load. Results revealed that the influence of normal load on wear is governed by the microstructure, hardness and abrasive grit size. The heat treatment increased average microhardness of the coating. However, it was found that the hardness does not correctly indicate the abrasive wear resistance of Ni-WC coating in an as sprayed and heat treated condition. The heat treatment of the coating improved its abrasive wear resistance against fine abrasive medium while the wear resistance against coarse abrasive was found to be a function of a normal load. At low-normal load (5 and 10 N) the heat treated coating showed lower-wear rate than as spayed coating while at high-normal loads (15 and 20 N) heat treated coating was subjected to higher-wear rate than as sprayed coating. In general, an increase in normal load increased the wear rate. The scanning electron microscopy study indicated that the wear largely takes place by groove formation and scoring of eutectic matrix and the fragmentation of the carbide particles.

  4. Aeolian Abrasion at the Curiosity Landing Site: Clues to the Role of Wind in Landscape Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Le Mouélic, S.; Hallet, B.; Newman, C. E.; Rice, M. S.; Blaney, D. L.; Calef, F. J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Langevin, Y.; Lewis, K. W.; Maurice, S.; Pinet, P. C.; Wiens, R. C.; de Pablo, M.; Renno, N. O.

    2013-12-01

    The broad scale geomorphology of Gale Crater reflects diverse aeolian processes, from airfall settling that likely deposited much of the upper and some of the lower units of Mt. Sharp, to evidence of extensive wind exhumation and removal of material exterior to the mound, to active dunes on the crater floor. The integrated effect of aeolian sand transport can also be examined on a much smaller scale by the study of ventifacts, rocks that have been abraded by windborne particles. A diversity of ventifacts are found along Curiosity's traverse through the upper 'hummocky' (HY) geomorphic unit and the lower Yellowknife Bay (YKB) sedimentary rocks. The textures are analogous to abrasion features found on Earth and include cm-scale facets, keels, elongated pits, grooves, flutes, and basal sills. High-resolution images from ChemCam's Remote Micro-Imager also show mm-scale lineations. Evidence of differential erosion is common, with HY conglomerates (e.g., Hottah, Link) and the YKB Sheepbed mudstone unit containing distinct wind tails in the lee of resistant pebbles, and bedding features within Rocknest 3, the YKB Shaler sandstone unit, and other layered rocks displaying prominent ridge-groove topography. ChemCam LIBS depth profile data so far show no strong evidence for chemical differences in the elemental composition between abraded and non-abraded surfaces (as determined from qualitative assessment), as might be expected if there were rock coatings or weathering rinds undergoing active abrasion. Preliminary measurements of ventifact texture and wind tail orientations indicate sandblasting in HY and YKB from predominantly southwesterly and northerly directions, respectively. Based on meso-scale models of current winds and REMS results, SW flow is uncommon whereas N winds are frequent. Compositional and textural information from the suite of MSL instruments indicate that HY rocks are dominated by various types of basalt (either as whole rocks or the resistant clasts in

  5. New resist materials based on polyacetal main chain scission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manouras, Theodoros; Olziersky, Antonis; Argitis, Panagiotis

    2016-03-01

    The main target of the current work was to develop new polymeric materials for lithographic applications, the main chain of which is cleaved under the influence of photogenerated acid. Acetals have been chosen as functional groups in the main polymer chain since they can be cleaved in the presence of an acid while they remain untouched in alkaline ambient. The synthesized polymers were designed to bear in addition suitable functional groups for the achievement of desirable lithographic characteristics (thermal stability, acceptable glass transition temperature, etch resistance, proper dissolution behaviour). The synthesis was carried out via polyaddition of a vinyloxyl compound and a diol compound to produce novel polymers with acetal repeating units in their backbone. We chose polyaromatic hydrocarbons as diol units to achieve increased etch resistance. In addition, the polyaromatic units allow exposure at 193 nm as well, where the absorption of simple aromatics is prohibitively high. Good solubility and increased surface adhesion were achieved by choosing cycloaliphatic vinyloxyl ethers as the second component for the polyaddition. In addition, the same route can be followed to incorporate chromophores that can tune the resist absorbance in different spectral regions. Furthermore, single component systems can be designed following this approach by the incorporation of suitable PAGs in the main chain.

  6. Surface quality control in diamond abrasive finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, Yuriy D.; Sidorko, Volodymyr I.; Filatov, Olexandr Yu.; Yaschuk, Vasil P.; Heisel, Uwe; Storchak, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The paper presents a procedure for measuring laser radiation reflection and scattering coefficients of polished surface. A relation between the scattered light intensity and the polished surface roughness is studied. It is demonstrated that colorimetric characteristics of non-metallic materials can be determined from the light scattering and reflection coefficients. This work has demonstrated a possibility of and created prerequisites for the development of an express method for tentative assessment of polished surface roughness. Of interest is the use of the β(Rz) function for the purposes of quality inspection of polished surfaces of natural and synthetic stone and other non-metallic materials. It was established that the most relevant parameter of roughness, which can be defined by the light reflection is Rz. The Dependency of the reflection factor from parameter of roughness Rz was approximated by formula with inaccuracy 5-10%. Inaccuracy of the determination of roughness Rz has formed 1%. It was shown that method of the surface roughness control using the light reflection factor is the most efficient for surfaces with roughness Rz <0.3 microns, typical for finish diamond-abrasive machining.

  7. Nanometric Finishing on Biomedical Implants by Abrasive Flow Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Kavithaa Thirumalai; Balashanmugam, Natchimuthu; Shashi Kumar, Panaghra Veeraiah

    2016-01-01

    Abrasive flow finishing (AFF) is a non-conventional finishing technique that offers better accuracy, efficiency, consistency, economy in finishing of complex/difficult to machine materials/components and provides the possibility of effective automation as aspired by the manufacturing sector. The present study describes the finishing of a hip joint made of ASTM grade Co-Cr alloy by Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) process. The major input parameters of the AFF process were optimized for achieving nanometric finishing of the component. The roughness average (Ra) values were recorded during experimentation using surface roughness tester and the results are discussed in detail. The surface finished hip joints were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and residual stress analysis using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The discussion lays emphasis on the significance, efficacy and versatile nature of the AFF process in finishing of bio-medical implants.

  8. Thermal Fracture and Thermal Shock Resistance of Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Z.-H.; Batra, R. C.

    We first analyze thermal stresses and thermal cracking in a strip of a functionally graded material (FGM) subjected to sudden cooling. It is assumed that the shear modulus of the material decreases hyperbolically with the higher value occurring at the surface exposed to the thermal shock and that thermal conductivity varies exponentially. It is shown that the maximum tensile thermal stress induced in the strip is substantially reduced by the presumed thermal conductivity gradient. Thermal stress intensity factors (TSIFs) are also calculated for an edge crack at the surface exposed to the thermal shock and results show that while the TSIF is relatively insensitive to the shear modulus gradient, it is significantly reduced by the thermal conductivity gradient. The crack growth resistance curve of a ceramic-metal FGM is also studied and it is found that the FGM exhibits strong R-curve behavior when a crack grows from the ceramic-rich region into the metalrich region. Finally, the thermal shock resistance of FGMs is discussed.

  9. Drawing Light-fields: Hand-drawn Approaches to Abrasion Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, T.

    2013-02-01

    Abrasion holography has received little attention since the technique was described by William J. Beaty in the early 1990's. In this paper the limitations of abrasion holography are explored, and new approaches are presented which expand the possibilities of the medium. New tools presented here offer new possibilities to the artist wishing to draw holograms by hand. Methods are described by which complex curves and organic forms can be constructed by hand more easily and intuitively than previously described. In an analysis of reconstruction lighting and viewing geometries, new solutions to reduce or eliminate distortions are suggested. Various tools, materials, and scratch geometries are considered for optimum 3D illusion. A new class of abrasion holograms is presented that use elliptical, hypotrochoidal, and epitrochoidal scratch geometries, exhibiting novel animation effects. In conclusion, a method for embossing abrasion holograms with the aid of an etching press is described.

  10. Influence of Material Distribution on Impact Resistance of Hybrid Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abatan, Ayu; Hu, Hurang

    1998-01-01

    Impact events occur in a wide variety of circumstances. A typical example is a bullet impacting a target made of composite material. These impact events produce time-varying loads on a structure that can result in damage. As a first step to understanding the damage resistance issue in composite laminates, an accurate prediction of the transient response during an impact event is necessary. The analysis of dynamic loadings on laminated composite plates has undergone considerable development recently. Rayleigh-Ritz energy method was used to determine the impact response of laminated plates. The impact response of composite plates using shear deformation plate theory was analyzed. In recent work a closed-form solution was obtained for a rectangular plate with four edges simply supported subjected to a center impact load using classical plate theory. The problem was further investigated and the analysis results compared of both classical plate theory and shear deformation theory, and found that classical plate theory predicts very accurate results for the range of small deformations considered. In this study, the influence of cross sectional material distribution on the comparative impact responses of hybrid metal laminates subjected to low and medium velocity impacts is investigated. A simple linear model to evaluate the magnitude of the impact load is proposed first, and it establishes a relation between the impact velocity and the impact force. Then a closed-form solution for impact problem is presented. The results were compared with the finite element analysis results. For an 11 layer-hybrid laminate, the impact response as a function of material distribution in cross-section is presented. With equal areal weight, the effect of the number of laminate layers on the impact resistance is also investigated. Finally, the significance of the presented results is discussed.

  11. Checking Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... to get rid of the infection. Luckily, most cuts, scratches, and abrasions will go away on their own, thanks to your body's amazing ability to heal ... Story on Scars Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin What's a Scab? ...

  12. Abrasion Collar Around Shrapnel Entry Wound.

    PubMed

    Gujaral, Pootheril Balan; Ajay, Balachandran

    2017-02-28

    Abrasion collar is usually described as a feature of bullet entry wounds caused by friction and indentation. The present case is that of the peculiar entry wound caused by a piece of flying shrapnel which was ejected from a furnace in a steel plant. The scrap metal which exploded in the plant was sourced from the West Asia region. The entry wound on the chest was circular and had an abrasion collar around it. The projectile was a cylindrical object of obscure origin. The forensic science laboratory put forth the possibility that the projectile was a component of an artillery fuze. A decades old study which employed high-speed photography has rejected the possibility that abrasion collars are produced by friction. High-velocity projectiles other than bullets can also produce abrasion collars as the rubbing of the bullet against the skin or its rotation are not the causative mechanisms.

  13. The measurement of abrasive particles velocities in the process of abrasive water jet generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeleňák, Michal; Foldyna, Josef; Říha, Zdeněk

    2014-08-01

    An optimization of the design of the abrasive cutting head using the numerical simulation requires gathering as much information about processes occurring in the cutting head as possible. Detailed knowledge of velocities of abrasive particles in the process of abrasive water jet generation is vital for the verification of the numerical model. A method of measurement of abrasive particles at the exit of focusing tube using the FPIV technique was proposed and preliminary tests are described in the paper. Results of analysis of measured velocity fields are presented in the paper.

  14. Mechanics of the pad-abrasive-wafer contact in chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkaya, Dincer

    2009-12-01

    In chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), a rigid wafer is forced on a rough, elastomeric polishing pad, while a slurry containing abrasive particles flows through the interface. The applied pressure on the wafer is carried partially by the 2-body pad-wafer contact (direct contact) and partially by the 3-body contact of pad, wafer and abrasive particles ( particle contact). The fraction of the applied pressure carried by particle contacts is an important factor affecting the material removal rate (MRR) as the majority of the material is removed by the abrasive particles trapped between the pad asperities and the wafer. In this thesis, the contact of a rough, deformable pad and a smooth, rigid wafer in the presence of rigid abrasive particles at the contact interface is investigated by using contact mechanics and finite element (FE) modeling. The interactions between the pad, the wafer and the abrasive particles are modeled at different scales of contact, starting from particle level interactions, and gradually expanding the contact scale to the multi-asperity contact of pad and wafer. The effect of surface forces consisting of van der Waals and electrical double layer forces acting between the wafer and the abrasive particles are also investigated in this work. The wear rate due to each abrasive particle is calculated based on the wafer-abrasive particle contact force, and by considering adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms. A passivated layer on the wafer surface with a hardness and thickness determined by the chemical effects is modeled, in order to characterize the effect of chemical reactions between slurry and wafer on the MRR. The model provides accurate predictions for the MRR as a function of pad related parameters; pad elastic modulus, pad porosity and pad topography, particle related parameters; particle size and concentration, and slurry related parameters; slurry pH, thickness and hardness of the passivated surface layer of wafer. A good qualitative

  15. Abrasion by aeolian particles: Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Marshall, J. R.; White, B. R.; Pollack, J. B.; Marshall, J.; Krinsley, D.

    1984-01-01

    Estimation of the rate of aeolian abrasion of rocks on Mars requires knowledge of: (1) particle flux, (2) susceptibilities to abrasion of various rocks, and (3) wind frequencies on Mars. Fluxes and susceptibilities for a wide range of conditions were obtained in the laboratory and combined with wind data from the Viking meteorology experiment. Assuming an abundant supply of sand-sized particles, estimated rates range up to 2.1 x 10 to the minus 2 power cm of abrasion per year in the vicinity of Viking Lander 1. This rate is orders of magnitude too great to be in agreement with the inferred age of the surface based on models of impact crater flux. The discrepancy in the estimated rate of abrasion and the presumed old age of the surface cannot be explained easily by changes in climate or exhumation of ancient surfaces. The primary reason is thought to be related to the agents of abrasion. At least some sand-sized (approx. 100 micrometers) grains appear to be present, as inferred from both lander and orbiter observations. High rates of abrasion occur for all experimental cases involving sands of quartz, basalt, or ash. However, previous studies have shown that sand is quickly comminuted to silt- and clay-sized grains in the martian aeolian regime. Experiments also show that these fine grains are electrostatically charged and bond together as sand-sized aggregates. Laboratory simulations of wind abrasion involving aggregates show that at impact velocities capable of destroying sand, aggregates from a protective veneer on the target surface and can give rise to extremely low abrasion rates.

  16. Materials growth and characterization of thermoelectric and resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Kate J.

    In the 74 years since diode rectifier based radar technology helped the allied forces win WWII, semiconductors have transformed the world we live in. From our smart phones to semiconductor-based energy conversion, semiconductors touch every aspect of our lives. With this thesis I hope to expand human knowledge of semiconductor thermoelectric devices and resistive switching devices through experimentation with materials growth and subsequent materials characterization. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was the primary method of materials growth utilized in these studies. Additionally, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD),ion beam sputter deposition, reactive sputter deposition and electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation were also used in this research for device fabrication. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were the primary characterization methods utilized for this research. Additional device and materials characterization techniques employed include: current-voltage measurements, thermoelectric measurements, x-ray diffraction (XRD), reflection absorption infra-red spectroscopy (RAIRS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL), and raman spectroscopy. As society has become more aware of its impact on the planet and its limited resources, there has been a push toward developing technologies to sustainably produce the energy we need. Thermoelectric devices convert heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectric devices have the potential to save huge amounts of energy that we currently waste as heat, if we can make them cost-effective. Semiconducting thin films and nanowires appear to be promising avenues of research to attain this goal. Specifically, in this work we will explore the use of ErSb thin films as well as Si and InP nanowire networks for thermoelectric applications. First we will discuss the growth of

  17. Abrasive-waterjet machining of isogrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashish, Mohamed; Marvin, Mark; Monserud, David

    1990-12-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of machining isogrid structures with abrasive-waterjets (AWJs). The main objective was to mill isogrid patterns in surfaces with accurate depth control using an AWJ. Three different approaches using AWJs were tested: linear cutting of isogrid patterns for diffusion bonding, milling with conventional AWJ nozzles, and milling with a single-angled rotary AWJ nozzle. It was shown that pocket milling with conventional AWJs is the most feasible of those tested. The milling can be done internally on preformed aluminum tubes, and the AWJ can also be used on materials other than aluminum. Accurate depth control can be achieved at high productivity rates. As an example, it is projected that a 48-inch-diameter skirt 12 inches high could be milled with an isogrid pattern in 6.3 hours. Milled isogrid patterns can be controlled to 0.001 inch, and thin walls of less than 0.025 inch are achievable. Milling isogrid patterns with conventional AWJs could be very economical, but additional development efforts are required to optimize the milling process and to demonstrate the milling of prototype parts.

  18. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-08-28

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  19. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-06-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  20. Materials selection for oxide-based resistive random access memories

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2014-12-01

    The energies of atomic processes in resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are calculated for four typical oxides, HfO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to define a materials selection process. O vacancies have the lowest defect formation energy in the O-poor limit and dominate the processes. A band diagram defines the operating Fermi energy and O chemical potential range. It is shown how the scavenger metal can be used to vary the O vacancy formation energy, via controlling the O chemical potential, and the mean Fermi energy. The high endurance of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} RRAM is related to its more stable amorphous phase and the adaptive lattice rearrangements of its O vacancy.

  1. Fatigue Characterization of Fire Resistant Syntactic Foam Core Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammad Mynul

    Eco-Core is a fire resistant material for sandwich structural application; it was developed at NC A&T State University. The Eco-Core is made of very small amount of phenolic resin and large volume of flyash by a syntactic process. The process development, static mechanical and fracture, fire and toxicity safety and water absorption properties and the design of sandwich structural panels with Eco-Core material was established and published in the literature. One of the important properties that is needed for application in transportation vehicles is the fatigue performance under different stress states. Fatigue data are not available even for general syntactic foams. The objective of this research is to investigate the fatigue performance of Eco-Core under three types of stress states, namely, cyclic compression, shear and flexure, then document failure modes, and develop empherical equations for predicting fatigue life of Eco-Core under three stress states. Compression-Compression fatigue was performed directly on Eco-Core cylindrical specimen, whereas shear and flexure fatigue tests were performed using sandwich beam made of E glass-Vinyl Ester face sheet and Eco-Core material. Compression-compression fatigue test study was conducted at two values of stress ratios (R=10 and 5), for the maximum compression stress (sigmamin) range of 60% to 90% of compression strength (sigmac = 19.6 +/- 0.25 MPa) for R=10 and 95% to 80% of compression strength for R=5. The failure modes were characterized by the material compliance change: On-set (2% compliance change), propagation (5%) and ultimate failure (7%). The number of load cycles correspond to each of these three damages were characterized as on-set, propagation and total lives. A similar approach was used in shear and flexure fatigue tests with stress ratio of R=0.1. The fatigue stress-number of load cycles data followed the standard power law equation for all three stress states. The constant of the equation were

  2. Characterization of Effective Parameters in Abrasive Waterjet Rock Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae-Min; Cho, Gye-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The rock cutting performance of an abrasive waterjet is affected by various parameters. In this study, rock cutting tests are conducted with different energy (i.e., water pressure, traverse speed, and abrasive feed rate), geometry (i.e., standoff distance), and material parameters [i.e., uniaxial compressive strength (UCS)]. In particular, experimental tests are carried out at a long standoff distance (up to 60 cm) to consider field application. The effective parameters of the rock cutting process are identified based on the relationships between the cutting performance indices (depth, width, and volume) and parameters. In addition, the cutting efficiency is analyzed with effective parameters as well as different pump types and the number of cutting passes considering the concept of kinetic jet energy. Efficiency analysis reveals that the cutting depth efficiency tends to increase with an increase in the water pressure and traverse speed and with a decrease in the standoff distance and UCS. Cutting volume efficiency strongly depends on standoff distance. High efficiency of cutting volume is obtained at a long standoff distance regardless of the pump type. The efficiency analysis provides a realistic way to optimize parameters for abrasive waterjet rock excavation.

  3. Abrasion of Candidate Spacesuit Fabrics by Simulated Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rogers, Kerry J.; Sheehy, Brennan H.

    2009-01-01

    A protocol has been developed that produced the type of lunar soil abrasion damage observed on Apollo spacesuits. This protocol was then applied to four materials (Kevlar(Registered TradeMark), Vectran(Registered TradeMark), Orthofabric, and Tyvek(Registered TradeMark)) that are candidates for advanced spacesuits. Three of the four new candidate fabrics (all but Vectran(Registered TradeMark)) were effective at keeping the dust from penetrating to layers beneath. In the cases of Kevlar(Registered TradeMark) and Orthofabric this was accomplished by the addition of a silicone layer. In the case of Tyvek , the paper structure was dense enough to block dust transport. The least abrasive damage was suffered by the Tyvek(Registered TradeMark). This was thought to be due in large part to its non-woven paper structure. The woven structures were all abraded where the top of the weave was struck by the abrasive. Of these, the Orthofabric suffered the least wear, with both Vectran(Registered TradeMark) and Kevlar(Registered TradeMark) suffering considerably more extensive filament breakage.

  4. Permeation Resistance of Personal Protective Equipment Materials to Monomethyhydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, J. M.; Williams, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    Permeation resistance was determined by measuring the breakthrough time and time-averaged vapor transmission rate of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) through two types of personal protective equipment (PPE). The two types of PPE evaluated were the totally encapsulating ILC Dover Chemturion Model 1212 chemical protective suit with accessories, and the FabOhio polyvinyl chloride (PVC) splash garment. Two exposure scenarios were simulated: (1) a saturated vapor exposure for 2 hours (h), and (2) a brief MMH 'splash' followed by a 2-h saturated vapor exposure. Time-averaged MMH concentrations inside the totally-encapsulating suit were calculated by summation of the area-weighted contributions made by each suit component. Results show that the totally encapsulating suit provides adequate protection at the new 10 ppb Threshold Limit Value Time-Weighted Average (TLV-TWA). The permeation resistance of the PVC splash garment to MMH was poorer than any of the totally encapsulating suit materials tested. Breakthrough occurred soon after initial vapor or 'splash' exposure.

  5. Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with attention to the effects of reused abradant

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Dehoff, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    Abrasive wear is among the most common and costliest causes for material wastage, and it occurs in many forms. A simple method has been developed to quantify the response of metals and alloys to two-body wet abrasion. A metallographic polishing machine was modified to create a disk-on-flat sliding test rig. Adhesive-backed SiC grinding papers were used under fixed load and speed to rank the abrasive wear of seven alloy steels, some of which are candidates for drill cones for geothermal drilling. Standardized two-body abrasion tests, like those described in ASTM G132, feed unused abrasive into the contact; however, the current work investigated whether useful rankings could still be obtained with a simpler testing configuration in which specimens repeatedly slide on the same wear path under water-lubricated conditions. Tests using abrasive grit sizes of 120 and 180 resulted in the same relative ranking of the alloys although the coarser grit produced more total wear. Wear decreased when the same abrasive disk was re-used for up to five runs, but the relative rankings of the steels remained the same. This procedure was presented to ASTM Committee G2 on Wear and Erosion as a potential standard test for wet two-body abrasive wear.

  6. Water jet and abrasive water jet cutting of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramulu, M.; Arola, D.

    1993-06-01

    Unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite material has been machined by water jet and abrasive water jet cutting processes. Topography and morphology of the machined surfaces were evaluated with surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. The surface characteristics in terms of roughness and the micromechanisms of material removal for both processes were analyzed and compared. Abrasive water jet surface characteristics of graphite/epoxy were found to be significantly different from those of the water jet cutting process and micromechanical behavior of material removal was strongly dependent on the fiber orientation.

  7. Composite-Material Tanks with Chemically Resistant Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight composite-material tanks with chemically resistant liners have been developed for storage of chemically reactive and/or unstable fluids . especially hydrogen peroxide. These tanks are similar, in some respects, to the ones described in gLightweight Composite-Material Tanks for Cryogenic Liquids h (MFS-31379), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 58; however, the present tanks are fabricated by a different procedure and they do not incorporate insulation that would be needed to prevent boil-off of cryogenic fluids. The manufacture of a tank of this type begins with the fabrication of a reusable multisegmented aluminum mandrel in the shape and size of the desired interior volume. One or more segments of the mandrel can be aluminum bosses that will be incorporated into the tank as end fittings. The mandrel is coated with a mold-release material. The mandrel is then heated to a temperature of about 400 F (approximately equal to 200 C) and coated with a thermoplastic liner material to the desired thickness [typically approxiamtely equal to 15 mils (approximately equal to 0.38 mm)] by thermal spraying. In the thermal-spraying process, the liner material in powder form is sprayed and heated to the melting temperature by a propane torch and the molten particles land on the mandrel. The sprayed liner and mandrel are allowed to cool, then the outer surface of the liner is chemically and/or mechanically etched to enhance bonding of a composite overwrap. The etched liner is wrapped with multiple layers of an epoxy resin reinforced with graphite fibers; the wrapping can be done either by manual application of epoxy-impregnated graphite cloth or by winding of epoxy-impregnated filaments. The entire assembly is heated in an autoclave to cure the epoxy. After the curing process, the multisegmented mandrel is disassembled and removed from inside, leaving the finished tank. If the tank is to be used for storing hydrogen peroxide, then the liner material

  8. Correlating Inertial Acoustic Cavitation Emissions with Material Erosion Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibanez, I.; Hodnett, M.; Zeqiri, B.; Frota, M. N.

    The standard ASTM G32-10 concerns the hydrodynamic cavitation erosion resistance of materials by subjecting them to acoustic cavitation generated by a sonotrode. The work reported extends this technique by detecting and monitoring the ultrasonic cavitation, considered responsible for the erosion process, specifically for coupons of aluminium-bronze alloy. The study uses a 65 mm diameter variant of NPL's cavitation sensor, which detects broadband acoustic emissions, and logs acoustic signals generated in the MHz frequency range, using NPL's Cavimeter. Cavitation readings were made throughout the exposure duration, which was carried out at discrete intervals (900 to 3600 s), allowing periodic mass measurements to be made to assess erosion loss under a strict protocol. Cavitation measurements and erosion were compared for different separations of the sonotrode tip from the material under test. The maximum variation associated with measurement of cavitation level was between 2.2% and 3.3% when the separation (λ) between the transducer horn and the specimen increased from 0.5 to 1.0 mm, for a transducer (sonotrode) displacement amplitude of 43.5 μm. Experiments conducted at the same transducer displacement amplitude show that the mass loss of the specimen -a measure of erosion- was 67.0 mg (λ = 0.5 mm) and 66.0 mg (λ = 1.0 mm).

  9. Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    N. Jerred; L. Zirker; I. Charit; J. Cole; M. Frary; D. Butt; M. Meyer; K. L. Murty

    2010-10-01

    Pressure Resistance Welding (PRW) is a solid state joining process used for various high temperature metallic materials (Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys of MA957, MA754; martensitic alloy HT-9, tungsten etc.) for advanced nuclear reactor applications. A new PRW machine has been installed at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls for conducting joining research for nuclear applications. The key emphasis has been on understanding processing-microstructure-property relationships. Initial studies have shown that sound joints can be made between dissimilar materials such as MA957 alloy cladding tubes and HT-9 end plugs, and MA754 and HT-9 coupons. Limited burst testing of MA957/HT-9 joints carried out at various pressures up to 400oC has shown encouraging results in that the joint regions do not develop any cracking. Similar joint strength observations have also been made by performing simple bend tests. Detailed microstructural studies using SEM/EBSD tools and fatigue crack growth studies of MA754/HT-9 joints are ongoing.

  10. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials, test series 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Bricker, R. W.; Kuminecz, J. F.; Supkis, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft flammability tests in which the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials was evaluated by comparing their burning characteristics with those of other fire-resistant aircraft materials were described. New-fire-resistant materials that are more economical and better suited for aircraft use than the previously tested fire-resistant materials were tested. The fuel ignition source for one test was JP-4; a smokeless fuel was used for the other test. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. The results indicate that, similar to the fire-resistant materials tested previously, the new materials decompose rather than ignite and do not support fire propagation. Furthermore, the new materials did not produce a flash fire.

  11. Investigations on the trajectories of magnetic abrasive grains in magnetic induction-free abrasive wire sawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Yao, Chunyan; Tang, Chen; Qiu, Tengwei; Xu, Xuefeng

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a novel method of magnetic induction-free abrasive wire sawing. The ferromagnetic wire is magnetized in a uniform magnetic field, forming a high-gradient magnetic field that separates into paramagnetic and diamagnetic regions. Paramagnetic abrasive grains are attracted to the paramagnetic region and adhere to the wire surface but are repelled from the diamagnetic region. The trajectory of the magnetic abrasive grains is analyzed in a mathematical model and in COMSOL Multiphysics simulations. The results are verified by test investigations on the motions and adsorption of the magnetic abrasive grains using a dynamic microscope system. The detailed grain trajectories are investigated in a numerical model. Because it actively transports grains toward the wire (where they can be transported to the sawing channel), our proposed method achieves more efficient wire sawing performance than traditional free abrasive wire sawing. Such efficient performance is highly sought in silicon wafering technologies, which are commonly used in the solar and semiconductor industries.

  12. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da; Ritchie, Robert O.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  13. PAGMan - propelled abrasive grit to manage weeds in soybean and corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New tools for controlling weeds would be useful for soybean and corn production in organic systems or in systems in which weeds developed resistance to multiple herbicides. Here we report on two developments: (i) the safety to soybean seedlings of using air-propelled abrasive grit (PAG) for managing...

  14. The potential of deciduous and permanent bovine enamel as substitute for deciduous and permanent human enamel: Erosion-abrasion experiments.

    PubMed

    Attin, Thomas; Wegehaupt, Florian; Gries, David; Wiegand, Annette

    2007-10-01

    Aim of the present study was to compare toothbrushing abrasion of eroded human and bovine enamel utilizing a toothpaste slurry. The surfaces of each 36 teeth from cattle and calves and from each 36 human wisdom teeth and deciduous teeth were polished. Each 12 specimens from the respective tooth type were used for assessing toothbrushing abrasion only (A), erosion only (E) and the combination of erosion and toothbrushing abrasion (EA). The EA samples were subjected to 20 cycles comprising a demineralization/remineralization procedure directly followed by toothbrushing abrasion (100 strokes, 300 g load, toothpaste slurry: 3 ml artificial saliva mixed with 1g dentifrice). Demineralization in form of erosion was performed with 1% citric acid (1 min), remineralization with artificial saliva (15 min). Between the cycles, the samples were stored in artificial saliva. Wear of the treated surfaces with reference to untreated areas was determined profilometrically. The samples subjected to abrasion only (A) did not show a significantly different wear between the different kinds of teeth. The comparisons of substance loss between teeth of different species revealed that hard tissue loss of the human deciduous teeth was significantly lower as compared to calves' teeth after both erosion and erosion-abrasion. Also, both erosion only and erosion-abrasion caused higher enamel loss in cattle's teeth than in human wisdom teeth. It is concluded that human eroded enamel offers better resistance against brushing than bovine enamel.

  15. Effect of Lipid Materials on Heat Resistance of Bacterial Spores

    PubMed Central

    Molin, N.; Snygg, B. G.

    1967-01-01

    The apparent heat resistance of spores of Bacillus megaterium, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. stearothermophilus, and Clostridium botulinum type E in lipids was investigated and compared with the resistance of the spores in phosphate buffer solution. The most pronounced increase in heat resistance was noted for B. subtilis and C. botulinum type E, the increase varying with the type of lipid used. A high water content of the lipids used as heating menstruum lowered the heat resistance of the spores. Possible explanations for the high heat resistance of spores in lipids are discussed. PMID:16349757

  16. Improved fracture toughness corrosion-resistant bearing material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamberger, E. N.; Nahm, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    A development program was performed to establish whether a corrosion-resistant bearing material, such as a 14Cr steel, could be modified to allow carburization, thereby providing the excellent fracture toughness characteristics feasible with this process. The alloy selected for investigation was AMS 5749. Several modifications were made including the addition of a small amount of nickel for austenite stabilization. While some promising results were achieved, the primary objective of an acceptable combination of case hardness and microstructure was not attained. Because the high chromium content presents a serious problem in achieving a viable carburizing cycle, a number of experimental steels having lower chromium contents (8 to 12%) were produced in laboratory quantities and evaluated. The results were basically the same as those initially obtained with the modified AMS 5749. Corrosion tests were performed on AMS 5749, AISI M50, and 52100 bearing steels as well as some of the lower chromium steels. These tests showed that a reduced chromium level (10 to 12%) provided essentially the same corrosion protection as the 14Cr steels.

  17. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were badly abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub -layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This Paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, and shares the results and conclusions of the testing.

  18. Abrasive wear: The efects of fibres size on oil palm empty fruit bunch polyester composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasolang, S.; Kalam, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Suhadah, W. N.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to determine the effect of palm oil empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre size in dry sliding testing of polyester composite. These composite samples were produced by mixing raw OPEFB fibre with resin. The samples were prepared at different sizes of fibre (100, 125, 180 and 250μm). Abrasion Resistance Tester (TR-600) was used to carried out abrasive wear tests in dry sliding conditions. These tests were performed at room temperature for two different loads (10 and 30N) and at a constant sliding velocity of 1.4m/s. The specific wear rates of OPEFB polyester composites were obtained. The morphology of composite surface before and after tests was also examined using 3D microscope imaging. Preliminary work on thermal distribution at the abrasive wheel point was also conducted for selected samples.

  19. Defining an Abrasion Index for Lunar Surface Systems as a Function of Dust Interaction Modes and Variable Concentration Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected issues were encountered during the Apollo era of lunar exploration due to detrimental abrasion of materials upon exposure to the fine-grained, irregular shaped dust on the surface of the Moon. For critical design features involving contact with the lunar surface and for astronaut safety concerns, operational concepts and dust tolerance must be considered in the early phases of mission planning. To systematically define material selection criteria, dust interaction can be characterized by two-body or three-body abrasion testing, and subcategorically by physical interactions of compression, rolling, sliding and bending representing specific applications within the system. Two-body abrasion occurs when a single particle or asperity slides across a given surface removing or displacing material. Three-body abrasion occurs when multiple particles interact with a solid surface, or in between two surfaces, allowing the abrasives to freely rotate and interact with the material(s), leading to removal or displacement of mass. Different modes of interaction are described in this paper along with corresponding types of tests that can be utilized to evaluate each configuration. In addition to differential modes of abrasion, variable concentrations of dust in different zones can also be considered for a given system design and operational protocol. These zones include: (1) outside the habitat where extensive dust exposure occurs, (2) in a transitional zone such as an airlock or suitport, and (3) inside the habitat or spacesuit with a low particle count. These zones can be used to help define dust interaction frequencies, and corresponding risks to the systems and/or crew can be addressed by appropriate mitigation strategies. An abrasion index is introduced that includes the level of risk, R, the hardness of the mineralogy, H, the severity of the abrasion mode, S, and the frequency of particle interactions, F.

  20. Abrasion in pyroclastic density currents: Insights from tumbling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, Ulrich; Putz, Constanze; Spieler, Oliver; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2012-01-01

    During granular mass movements of any kind, particles may interact with one another. The degree of interaction is a function of several variables including; grain-size distribution, particle concentration, density stratification and degree of fluidisation. The impact of particle interaction is additionally influenced by the relative speed, impact angle and clast temperature. Thus, both source conditions and transport-related processes are expected to influence the flow dynamics of pyroclastic density currents and their subsequent deposition. Here, we use tumbling experiments to shed light on the susceptibility of porous clasts to abrasion. We investigated the abrasion of unaltered volcanic rocks (5.7-80 vol.% porosity) from Unzen (Japan), Bezymianny (Russia) and Santorini (Greece) volcanoes as well as one synthetic analogue material, an insulating material with the trade name Foamglas® (95 vol.% porosity). Each experiment started with angular fragments generated in a jaw crusher from larger clasts. Two experimental series were performed; on samples with narrow and broader grain-size distributions, respectively. The dry samples were subject to rotational movement at constant speed and ambient temperature in a gum rotational tumbler for durations of 15, 30, 45, 60 and 120 min. The amount of volcanic ash (particles <2 mm) generated was evaluated as a function of experimental duration and sample porosity. We term “abrasion” as the ash fraction generated during the experiments. The observed increase of “abrasion” with increasing sample porosity and experimental duration is initially non-linear but becomes linear for experiments of 30 min duration or longer. For any given sample, abrasion appears to be more effective for coarser samples and larger initial mass. The observed range of ash generated in our experiments is between 1 and 35 wt.%. We find that this amount generally increases with increasing initial clast size or increasing breadth of the initial grain

  1. The wear behavior between hardfacing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.; Wu, L.T.

    1996-11-01

    Hardface weld cladding in industry most commonly uses cobalt-based STELLITE Nos. 6 and 12 and nickel-based Colmonoy Nos. 56, 83, and 88 for plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding of 4140 steel. Frictional and abrasion wear of weld layers are compared with that of the widely used nitridized, low-level SKD6, SACM1 steel alloys and with centrifugal-cast nickel-based Colmonoy No. 68 bimetal. Experimental results show that cobalt alloys are not suitable for low-alloy steel frictional wear. However, nickel alloys are quite compatible. Resistance to abrasive wear increased in the experimental materials according to the level of hardness. Wear resistance was compromised in experimental materials when the hard phase was too dispersed.

  2. The microstructural dependence of wear resistance in austenite containing plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, Preston Charles

    The purpose of this project was to examine the microstructural dependence of wear resistance of various plate steels, with interests in exploring the influence of retained austenite (RA). Materials resistant to abrasive wear are desirable in the industrial areas of agriculture, earth moving, excavation, mining, mineral processing, and transportation. Abrasive wear contributes to significant financial cost associated with wear to the industry. The motivation for the current study was to determine whether it would be beneficial from a wear resistance perspective to produce plate steels with increased amounts of retained austenite. This thesis investigates this motivation through a material matrix containing AR400F, Abrasive (0.21 wt pct C, 1.26 wt pct Mn, 0.21 wt pct Si, 0.15 wt pct Ni, 0.18 wt pct Mo), Armor (0.46 wt pct C, 0.54 wt pct Mn, 0.36 wt pct Si, 1.74 wt pct Ni, 0.31 wt pct Mo), 9260, 301SS, Hadfield, and SAE 4325 steels. The Abrasive, Armor and 9260 steels were heat treated using different methods such as quench and temper, isothermal bainitic hold, and quench and partitioning (Q&P). These heat treatments yielded various microstructures and the test matrix allowed for investigation of steels with similar hardness and varying levels of RA. The wear test methods used consisted of dry sand rubber wheel (DSRW), impeller-tumbler impact-abrasion (impeller), and Bond abrasion wear testing. DSRW and impeller wear resistance was found to increase with hardness and retained austenite levels at certain hardness levels. Some Q&P samples exhibited similar or less wear than the Hadfield steels in DSRW and impeller tests. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of wear surfaces revealed different wear mechanisms for the different wear test methods ranging from micro-plowing, to micro-cutting and to fragmentation.

  3. Development of materials resistant to metal dusting degradation.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-12-07

    The deposition of carbon from carbonaceous gaseous environments is prevalent in many chemical and petrochemical processes such as, hydrogen-, ammonia-, and methanol-reforming systems, syngas production systems, and iron-ore reduction plants. One of the major consequences of carbon deposition is the degradation of structural materials by a phenomenon known as ''metal dusting''. There are two major issues of importance in metal dusting. First is formation of coke and subsequent deposition of coke on metallic structural components. Second is the initiation and subsequent propagation of metal dusting degradation of the structural alloy. In the past, we reported on the mechanism for metal dusting of Fe- and Ni-base alloys. In this report, we present metal dusting data on both Fe- and Ni-base alloys after exposure in high and atmospheric pressure environments that simulate the gas chemistry in operating hydrogen reformers. We have also measured the progression of pits by measuring the depth as a function of exposure time for a variety of Fe- and Ni-base structural alloys. We have clearly established the role of transport of iron in forming a non-protective spinel phase in the initiation process and presence of carbon transfer channels in the oxide scale for the continued propagation of pits, by nano-beam X-ray analysis using the advance photon source (APS), Raman scattering, and SEM/EDX analysis. In this report, we have developed correlations between weight loss and pit progression rates and evaluated the effects of carbon activity, system pressure, and alloy chemistry, on weight loss and pit propagation. To develop pit propagation data for the alloys without incurring substantial time for the initiation of pits, especially for the Ni-base alloys that exhibit incubation times of thousands of hours, a pre-pitting method has been developed. The pre-pitted alloys exhibited pit propagation rates similar to those of materials tested without pre-pitting. We have also developed

  4. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exceeded. (j) All employees using abrasive wheels shall be protected by eye protection equipment in accordance with the requirements of subpart I of this part except when adequate eye protection is afforded by eye shields which are permanently attached to the bench or floor stand....

  5. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels, used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides... Protection of Abrasive Wheels. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding, shall...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (1) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels, used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides... Protection of Abrasive Wheels. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding, shall...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels, used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides... Protection of Abrasive Wheels. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding, shall...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (1) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels, used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides... Protection of Abrasive Wheels. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding, shall...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels, used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides... Protection of Abrasive Wheels. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding, shall...

  10. Dust transport and abrasion assessment within simulated standing vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues are useful in protecting the top soil from depletion and abrasion due to wind erosion. A wind tunnel study was done to measure sand transport and abrasion energies within the simulated artificial standing vegetation. Wind profiles, relative abrasion energies and rates of sand dischar...

  11. 9 CFR 311.14 - Abrasions, bruises, abscesses, pus, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abrasions, bruises, abscesses, pus... PARTS § 311.14 Abrasions, bruises, abscesses, pus, etc. All slight, well-limited abrasions on the tongue... a carcass which is badly bruised or which is affected by an abscess, or a suppurating sore shall...

  12. Correlation of physical properties of ceramic materials with resistance to fracture by thermal shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lidman, W G; Bobrowsky, A R

    1949-01-01

    An analysis is made to determine which properties of materials affect their resistance to fracture by thermal stresses.From this analysis, a parameter is evaluated that is correlated with the resistance of ceramic materials to fracture by thermal shock as experimentally determined. This parameter may be used to predict qualitatively the resistance of a material to fracture by thermal shock. Resistance to fracture by thermal shock is shown to be dependent upon the following material properties: thermal conductivity, tensile strength, thermal expansion, and ductility modulus. For qualitative prediction of resistance of materials to fracture by thermal shock, the parameter may be expressed as the product of thermal conductivity and tensile strength divided by the product of linear coefficient of thermal expansion and ductility modulus of the specimen.

  13. Electrical Properties of Materials for Elevated Temperature Resistance Strain Gage Application. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to study the electrical resistances of materials that are potentially useful as resistance strain gages at 1000 C. Transition metal carbides and nitrides, boron carbide and silicon carbide were selected for the experimental phase of this research. Due to their low temperature coefficient of resistance and good stability, TiC, ZrC, B sub 4 C and beta-SiC are suggested as good candidates for high temperature resistance strain gage applications.

  14. Nondestructive evaluation of composite materials by electrical resistance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Zhen

    This dissertation investigates electrical resistance measurement for nondestructive evaluation of carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polymer matrix composites. The method involves measuring the DC electrical resistance in either the longitudinal or through thickness direction. The thermal history and thermal properties of thermoplastic/CF composites were studied by longitudinal and through-thickness resistance measurements. The resistance results were consistent with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) results. The resistance measurements gave more information on the melting of the polymer matrix than TMA. They were more sensitive to the glass transition of the polymer matrix than DSC. The through-thickness resistance decreased as autohesion progressed. The activation energy of autohesion was 21.2 kJ/mol for both nylon-6 and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)/CF composites. Adhesive bonding and debonding were monitored in real-time by measurement of the through-thickness resistance between the adherends in an adhesive joint during heating and subsequent cooling. Debonding occurred during cooling when the pressure or temperature during prior bonding was not sufficiently high. A long heating time below the melting temperature (T m) was found to be detrimental to subsequent PPS adhesive joint development above Tm, due to curing reactions below Tm and consequent reduced mass flow response above Tm. A high heating rate (small heating time) enhanced the bonding more than a high pressure. The longitudinal resistance measurement was used to investigate the effects of temperature and stress on the interface between a concrete substrate and its epoxy/CF composite retrofit. The resistance of the retrofit was increased by bond degradation, whether the degradation was due to heat or stress. The degradation was reversible. Irreversible disturbance in the fiber arrangement occurred slightly as thermal or load cycling occurred, as indicated by the

  15. Assessment of Abrasive Wear of Nanostructured WC-Co and Fe-Based Coatings Applied by HP-HVOF, Flame, and Wire Arc Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, C. R. C.; Libardi, R.; Camargo, F.; Fals, H. C.; Ferraresi, V. A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal spray processes have been widely used to minimize losses caused by wear mechanisms. Sprayed deposits using conventional wire and powder materials have been long solving tribological problems in engineering equipment. More recently, the option for new different technologies and consumables like nanostructured powder materials and nanocomposite cored wires have expanded the possibilities for technical solutions. Cored wire technology allows the use of compositions that cannot be drawn into wire form like carbides in metallic matrix and high-temperature materials, thus, intensifying the use of spraying processes with low operating cost to demanding wear and corrosion applications. The objective of this work was to study the mechanical characteristics and wear performance of coatings obtained by Flame, Wire Arc, and HVOF spraying using selected nanostructured WC10Co4Cr, WC12Co, and Fe-based 140 MXC powder and wire materials. Abrasive wear performance of the coatings was determinate following the ASTM G-65 standard. Based on the results, a higher abrasive wear resistance was found for the HVOF-sprayed WC10Co4Cr nanostructured coating.

  16. Comparative evaluation of enamel abrasivity by toothbrush and velcro: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Saroj Kumar; Javdekar, Sadashiv Bhaskar; Dhir, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Context: Plaque control has been shown to be pivotal in maintaining the optimal periodontal health. Mechanical plaque control is the most popular option for establishing the optimal oral health. Toothbrushes have been the novel tool for mechanical cleansing. However, the abrasive potential of the toothbrushes on the enamel surface is an area in gray. Aims: The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the abrasivity of the toothbrush versus the velcro fasteners. Materials and Methods: The mounted teeth of both the groups were subjected to abrasion test, and the tooth surfaces were observed for the possible abrasions from the oscillating strokes (toothbrush) and frictional contacts (hook and loop velcro) and examined under the scanning electron microscope. Results: Comparative assessment of both velcro (hook and loop) and toothbrush bristles did not reveal any evidence of abrasion on the tooth specimens. Conclusions: Veclro fasteners are safe and qualitatively at par to the manual toothbrush for their efficacy and efficiency in teeth cleansing PMID:26229264

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Gingival Depigmentation using Tetrafluoroethane Cryosurgery and Gingival Abrasion Technique: Two Years Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santhosh; Bhat, G. Subraya; Bhat, K. Mahalinga

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A comparative evaluation of the gingival depigmentation by using Tetrafluoroethane cryosurgery and the gingival abrasion technique – 2 years of follow up. Material and Methods: Ten systemically healthy patients who were aged 18 to 36 years were selected for the study. Tetrafluoroethane was used for the cryosurgical depigmentation and the gingival abrasion technique used a coarse flame shaped bur. The presence or absence of pigmentation was tabulated, based on the GPI (Gingival Pigmentation Index). For the statistical analysis, Freidman’s test was used. Results: The keratinization was completed within a week after the application of the cryogen and about 10 days after the gingival abrasion technique was done. The statistical analysis which was done after 90th, 180th days and 2 years. The p-value which was obtained (p<.001) showed the superiority of cryosurgery over the gingival abrasion. During the follow up period, no side effects were seen for both the techniques and the improved aesthetics was maintained upto 2 years. Conclusion: The use of cryogen Tetrafluoroethane is easy, practical and inexpensive as compared to gingival abrasion, due to its high rate of recurrence. Hence, it is more acceptable to the patients and the operator. Further studies are needed to assess the long term effectiveness of the cryosurgical method of depigmentation. PMID:23543863

  18. High stress abrasive wear behavior of some hardfaced surfaces produced by thermal spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, A. K.; Gachake, Arati; Prasad, B. K.; Dasgupta, Rupa; Singh, M.; Yegneswaran, A. H.

    2002-02-01

    Steel surfaces were thermally sprayed with nickel chromium boron (NCB) powder (with and without tungsten carbide) using an oxy-acetylene torch. The sprayed (hard) surfaces and substrate were characterized for abrasive wear properties. Test parameters such as load and sliding distance were varied. A significant improvement in the abrasive wear resistance (inverse of wear rate) was noted for the thermally sprayed surfaces as compared to that of the substrate. Wear surfaces, subsurface regions, and debris were examined in order to ascertain the operating wear mechanisms. Substrate (mild steel), because of its low hardness, suffered severe wear through the cutting, ploughing, and wedging action of the hard abrasive (silicon carbide). Deep cuts on the worn surface, a bulky transfer layer, subsurface cracks, and large-size debris were observed. However, wear was reduced due to high hardness of the layer of NCB powder on the substrate, which resisted the penetration of abrasive into the surface. Presence of tungsten carbide in the layer of NCB powder further reduced the wear of the corresponding specimen because of very high hardness of the tungsten carbide. Shallow wear grooves and finer debris were observed for the NCB coating with and without tungsten carbide. Cutting was the predominating wear mechanism in the case of coatings.

  19. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Surpkis, D. E.; Price, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests to evaluate the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials by comparing their burning characteristics with those of older aircraft materials are described. Three tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1, using pre-1968 materials, was run to correlate the procedures and to compare the results with previous tests by other organizations. Test 2 included newer, improved fire-resistant materials. Test 3 was essentially a duplicate of test 2, but a smokeless fuel was used. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. Results indicate that the pre-1968 materials ignited easily, allowed the fire to spread, produced large amounts of smoke and toxic combustion products, and resulted in a flash fire and major fire damage. The newer fire-resistant materials did not allow the fire to spread. Furthermore, they produced less, lower concentrations of toxic combustion products, and lower temperatures. The newer materials did not produce a flash fire.

  20. Design of special purpose products made of nanomodified collagen-containing materials with radio-frequency discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhotkina, L. Yu; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2016-06-01

    Research results shows that RF-plasma treatment increases the adhesion of the coating film to the leather uppers and resistance to abrasion and repeated bending of uppers, which define the ability of material to preserve its consumer properties and characterize longer safety of special purpose footwear form during its wearing.

  1. Conference on Fire Resistant Materials (FIREMEN): A compilation of presentations and papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the NASA Fire Resistant Materials Engineering (FIREMEN) Program held at Ames Research Center on April, 13, 14, 1978 are reported. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the results of NASA in the field of aircraft fire safety and fire resistant materials. The program components include the following: (1) large-scale testing; (2) fire toxicology; (3) polymeric materials; and (4) bibliography related and/or generated from the program.

  2. Improving impact resistance of ceramic materials by energy absorbing surface layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, H. P.; Seretsky, J.

    1974-01-01

    Energy absorbing surface layers were used to improve the impact resistance of silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics. Low elastic modulus materials were used. In some cases, the low elastic modulus was achieved using materials that form localized microcracks as a result of thermal expansion anisotropy, thermal expansion differences between phases, or phase transformations. In other cases, semi-vitreous or vitreous materials were used. Substantial improvements in impact resistance were observed at room and elevated temperatures.

  3. Conference on Fire Resistant Materials: A compilation of presentations and papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A. (Editor); Johnson, G. A. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The proceedings of the NASA IRE Resistant Materials Engineering (FIREMEN) Program held at Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, Seattle, Washington, on March 1-2, 1979 are reported. The conference was to discuss the results of research by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the field of aircraft fire safety and fire-resistant materials. The program topics include the following: (1) large-scale testing; (2) fire toxicology; (3) polymeric materials; and (4) fire modeling.

  4. Impact resistance of hybrid composite fan blade materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedrich, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    Improved resistance to foreign object damage was demonstrated for hybrid composite simulated blade specimens. Transply metallic reinforcement offered additional improvement in resistance to gelatin projectile impacts. Metallic leading edge protection permitted equivalent-to-titanium performance of the hybrid composite simulated blade specimen for impacts with 1.27 cm and 2.54 cm (0.50 and 1.00 inch) diameter gelatin spheres.

  5. Brushing abrasion of eroded dentin after application of sodium fluoride solutions.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Zirkel, C; Hellwig, E

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of sodium fluoride solutions on brushing abrasion of eroded dentin. Dentin specimens were prepared from 60 bovine incisors. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin, ground flat, polished and subsequently covered with tape exposing an area of 1.8 mm x 10.0 mm in the center of the exposed dentin. The samples were alternatingly stored in a demineralizing solution (5 min) and a remineralizing solution (1 min) for 5 times. The erosive soft drink Sprite light(R) served as a demineralizing solution and artificial saliva was used as a remineralizing solution. Prior to storage in artificial saliva 15 specimens were each treated for 1 min with 250 and 2,000 ppm fluoride solution, respectively. Fifteen specimens were treated with distilled water instead of the fluoride solution (= eroded controls). The remaining samples were neither eroded with the soft drink nor fluoridated (= uneroded controls). After each immersion in artificial saliva the specimens were submitted to abrasion in a toothbrushing machine. After 5 demineralization-remineralization brushing cycles the total amount of tooth wear due to erosion and subsequent abrasion was profilometrically evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed the significantly lowest wear in the uneroded controls and the highest amount of abrasion in the eroded controls. Application of the fluoride solutions increased the wear resistance of the eroded dentin specimens, showing significantly better protection by the high-concentration compared to the low-concentration solution. The susceptibility to abrasion of the eroded dentin specimens treated with the high-concentration fluoride solution did not differ significantly from the uneroded dentin samples. It is concluded that application of 2,000 ppm sodium fluoride solutions immediately before toothbrushing significantly reduces abrasion of eroded dentin in vitro.

  6. Microstructure Evolution and Abrasive Wear Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadke, Shreyash; Khatirkar, Rajesh K.; Shekhawat, Satish K.; Jain, Shreyans; Sapate, Sanjay G.

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the effect of quenching and aging treatment on microstructure and abrasive wear of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The as-received alloy was solution treated at 1339 K, then oil quenched, followed by aging at 823 K for 4 h (14,400 s). The microstructures of as-received and quench-aged specimens were characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron backscattered diffraction techniques. The as-received specimen consisted of very fine α grains (average grain size 2 μm) with β phase uniformly dispersed throughout. The microstructure of the quench-aged specimen showed α plates (formed by the decomposition of α' during aging). The β phase precipitated out of α' martensite during aging and hence was dispersed uniformly in the α matrix. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was quench-aged to achieve maximum hardness with a view that the increased hardness would lead to an improvement in abrasive wear behavior. Two-body abrasive wear tests were carried out on the as-received and quench-aged specimens using pin-on-disk apparatus with SiC as abrasive media (150-grit size). The effect of sliding distance and normal load on the abrasive wear behavior was studied. The wear resistance of the as-received specimen was greater than that of quench-aged specimen, while hardness of the as-received specimen was lower than that of quench-aged specimen. The abrasive wear behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been explained based on morphology/microstructure of the alloy and the associated wear mechanism(s).

  7. Evaluation of steam resistance of gravel-packing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, J.D.; Knox, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper compares the steam stability of common gravel-packing materials. The scope was limited to one set of downhole conditions. Results indicated that none of the commonly used materials were entirely satisfactory, but another material not normally used in the petroleum industry was found to give excellent results.

  8. Methodology of evaluating the influence of the resistance of contact regions in the measurements of sheet resistance on stripes of ultrathin high-resistance materials.

    PubMed

    Náhlík, Josef; Kašpárková, Irena; Fitl, Přemysl

    2012-07-01

    The paper reviews the problems of measurement of sheet resistance of ultrathin high-resistance layers of organic semiconductors and the essential underlying problems. Particular attention is paid to potential influence of the resistance of contact regions on the results of direct measurement of sheet resistance of stripe-shaped layers. In this connection, we present a methodology of double length stripe resistance measurement (DLSRM), used above all to minimise the influence of contact regions on the measurement results. We deduce theoretical as well as practical possibilities of DLSRM in the diagnostics and quantitative characterisation of unsuitable or even faulty contacts on high-resistance layers. The application efficiency of the DLSRM method is documented by the results of sheet resistance measurement on zinc phthalocyanine with cathode sputtered planar contacts of noble metals (gold, platinum, or palladium). As expected, gold is the best contact material, but even in its application one cannot neglect the influence of contact regions. The presented method is universal and generally applicable to all materials where sheet resistance is the relevant parameter, and its assessment is based on measurements of the layer resistance in stripe arrangement.

  9. Sintered superhard materials.

    PubMed

    Wentorf, R H; Devries, R C; Bundy, F P

    1980-05-23

    Diamond or cubic boron nitride particles can be sintered into strong masses at high temperatures and very high pressures at which these crystalline forms are stable. Most of the desirable physical properties of the sintered masses, such as hardness and thermal conductivity, approach those of large single crystals; their resistance to wear and catastrophic splitting is superior. The sintered masses are produced on a commercial scale and are increasingly used as cutting tools on hard or abrasive materials, as wire-drawing dies, in rock drills, and in special high-pressure apparatus.

  10. Sintered superhard materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wentorf, R.H.; DeVries, R.C.; Bundy, F.P.

    1980-01-01

    Diamond of cubic boron nitride particles can be sintered into strong masses at high temperatures and very high pressures at which these crystalline forms are stable. Most of the desirable physical properties of the sintered masses, such as hardness and thermal conductivity, approach those of large single crystals; their resistance to wear and catastrophic splitting is superior. The sintered masses are produced on a commercial scale and are increasingly used as cutting tools on hard or abrasive materials, as wire-drawing dies, in rock drills, and in special high-pressure apparatus.

  11. Liquid abrasive pressure pot scoping tests report

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The primary initiatives of the LITCO Decontamination Development group at the Idaho Chemical Process Plant (ICPP) are the development of methods to eliminate the use of sodium bearing decontamination chemicals and minimization of the amount of secondary waste generated during decontamination activities. In July of 1994, a Commerce Business Daily (CBD) announcement was issued by the INEL to determine commercial interest in the development of an in-situ liquid abrasive grit blasting system. As a result of the CBD announcement, Klieber & Schulz issued an Expression of Interest letter which stated they would be interested in testing a prototype Liquid Abrasive Pressure Pot (LAPP). LITCO`s Decontamination group and Kleiber & Schulz entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) in which the Decontamination Development group tested the prototype LAPP in a non-radioactive hot cell mockup. Test results are provided.

  12. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.

    1984-11-29

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  13. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  14. Impact and puncture resistant material protects parts from damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheriff, D. D.

    1966-01-01

    Uniform sized, laminated panels protect delicate parts and equipment from damage during storage and transportation. The panels consist of sheets of steel foil bonded between sheets of elastic foam. They are lightweight, impact and puncture-resistant, and, when formed into an enclosure, provide a barrier against moisture and thermal shock.

  15. Predicting abrasive wear with coupled Lagrangian methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Florian; Eberhard, Peter

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a mesh-less approach for the simulation of a fluid with particle loading and the prediction of abrasive wear is presented. We are using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method for modeling the fluid and the discrete element method (DEM) for the solid particles, which represent the loading of the fluid. These Lagrangian methods are used to describe heavily sloshing fluids with their free surfaces as well as the interface between the fluid and the solid particles accurately. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations model is applied for handling turbulences. We are predicting abrasive wear on the boundary geometry with two different wear models taking cutting and deformation mechanisms into account. The boundary geometry is discretized with special DEM particles. In doing so, it is possible to use the same particle type for both the calculation of the boundary conditions for the SPH method as well as the DEM and for predicting the abrasive wear. After a brief introduction to the SPH method and the DEM, the handling of the boundary and the coupling of the fluid and the solid particles are discussed. Then, the applied wear models are presented and the simulation scenarios are described. The first numerical experiment is the simulation of a fluid with loading which is sloshing inside a tank. The second numerical experiment is the simulation of the impact of a free jet with loading to a simplified pelton bucket. We are especially investigating the wear patterns inside the tank and the bucket.

  16. Tumbling experiments to test fragmentation and abrasion of rocks from the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, F.; Fluekiger, L.; Cox, S. C.; Beyssac, O.

    2011-12-01

    Detrital cobbles and pebbles were collected from rivers draining the Southern Alps in the South Island of New Zealand. Our objective was to obtain a time-series of abrasion and fragmentation processes, in order to replicate fluvial processes and understand the relative erosion resistance of bedrock lithologies. Lithologies included variably metamorphosed greywacke-sandstone, semischist and schist, reflecting the range of rocks in the hangingwall of the Alpine Fault exhumed by differential uplift, and granite and gneiss in the footwall. Rocks were cut into 3cm cubes, weighed individually and washed in millipore water, then photographed. Experimental sample sets, matching the proportions of rock lithologies observed in the riverbeds, were placed in rectangular 20 litre containers together with 2 litres of fresh rainwater. Containers were rotated in a concrete mixer at 26 revolutions per minute for 2, 4, 12 and 49 hours, with a duplicate geochemical blank sample left for 50 hrs without tumbing. Each set of tumbled material was then extracted, photographed, classified, sorted into size fractions, weighed and saved for further analysis. Samples of sand, silt, rock-contaminated water and suspended sediment were also collected for filtering of suspended sediment, petrography and chemical analysis. Tumbling produced dramatic differences in the behaviour of different rocks, particularly in the relative strength of sandstone, semischist and schist lithologies. Cubes of schist fragmented into tabular pieces and rounded quickly, within two hours, compared with semischist and sandstone which retained cuboid forms and suffered only minor rounding of edges after 49 hours tumbling. Fine-grained material produced as a by-product was dominated by a silt/clay fraction that increased in quantity with tumbling time. Relatively little sand-sized sediment was generated, and its quantity decreased with tumbling time as it was also transformed into finer material. The experiment highlights

  17. Thermal shock and erosion resistant tantalum carbide ceramic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honeycutt, L., III; Manning, C. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Ceramic tantalum carbide artifacts with high thermal shock and mechanical erosion resistance are provided by incorporating tungsten-rhenium and carbon particles in a tantalum carbide matrix. The mix is sintered by hot pressing to form the ceramic article which has a high fracture strength relative to its elastic modulus and thus has an improved thermal shock and mechanical erosion resistance. The tantalum carbide is preferable less than minus 100 mesh, the carbon particles are preferable less than minus 100 mesh, and the tungsten-rhenium particles are preferable elongate, having a length to thickness ratio of at least 2/1. Tungsten-rhenium wire pieces are suitable as well as graphite particles.

  18. A Study on 3-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Aluminium 8011 / Graphite Metal Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha Shankar, B.; Anil, K. C.; Patil, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    Metals and alloys have found their vital role in many applications like structural, corrosive, tribological, etc., in engineering environment. The alloys/composites having high strength to low weight ratio have gained attention of many researchers recently. In this work, graphite reinforced Aluminium 8011 metal matrix composite was prepared by conventional stir casting route, by varying the weight % of reinforcement. Uniform distribution of Graphite in matrix alloy was confirmed by optical micrographs. Prepared composite specimens were subjected to 3-body abrasive testing by varying applied load and time, the silica particles of 400 grit size were used as abrasive particles. It was observed that with the increase of weight% of Graphite the wear resistance of composite was also increasing and on comparison it was found that reinforced composite gives good wear resistance than base alloy.

  19. Overview: Damage resistance of graded ceramic restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Improving mechanical response of materials is of great interest in a wide range of disciplines, including biomechanics, tribology, geology, optoelectronics, and nanotechnology. It has been long recognized that spatial gradients in surface composition and structure can improve the mechanical integrity of a material. This review surveys recent results of sliding-contact, flexural, and fatigue tests on graded ceramic materials from our laboratories and elsewhere. Although our findings are examined in the context of possible applications for next-generation, graded all-ceramic dental restorations, implications of our studies have broad impact on biomedical, civil, structural, and an array of other engineering applications. PMID:22778494

  20. Novel Resistance Measurement Method: Analysis of Accuracy and Thermal Dependence with Applications in Fiber Materials.

    PubMed

    Casans, Silvia; Rosado-Muñoz, Alfredo; Iakymchuk, Taras

    2016-12-14

    Material resistance is important since different physicochemical properties can be extracted from it. This work describes a novel resistance measurement method valid for a wide range of resistance values up to 100 GΩ at a low powered, small sized, digitally controlled and wireless communicated device. The analog and digital circuits of the design are described, analysing the main error sources affecting the accuracy. Accuracy and extended uncertainty are obtained for a pattern decade box, showing a maximum of 1 % accuracy for temperatures below 30 ∘ C in the range from 1 MΩ to 100 GΩ. Thermal analysis showed stability up to 50 ∘ C for values below 10 GΩ and systematic deviations for higher values. Power supply V i applied to the measurement probes is also analysed, showing no differences in case of the pattern decade box, except for resistance values above 10 GΩ and temperatures above 35 ∘ C. To evaluate the circuit behaviour under fiber materials, an 11-day drying process in timber from four species (Oregon pine-Pseudotsuga menziesii, cedar-Cedrus atlantica, ash-Fraxinus excelsior, chestnut-Castanea sativa) was monitored. Results show that the circuit, as expected, provides different resistance values (they need individual conversion curves) for different species and the same ambient conditions. Additionally, it was found that, contrary to the decade box analysis, V i affects the resistance value due to material properties. In summary, the proposed circuit is able to accurately measure material resistance that can be further related to material properties.

  1. Resist Materials for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography: Toward Low-Cost Single-Digit-Nanometer Patterning.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Paul D; Olynick, Deirdre L; Ogletree, D Frank; Naulleau, Patrick P

    2015-10-14

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the leading technology for enabling miniaturization of computational components over the next decade. Next-generation resists will need to meet demanding performance criteria of 10 nm critical dimension, 1.2 nm line-edge roughness, and 20 mJ cm(-2) exposure dose. Here, the current state of the development of EUV resist materials is reviewed. First, pattern formation in resist materials is described and the Hansen solubility sphere (HSS) is used as a framework for understanding the pattern-development process. Then, recent progress in EUVL resist chemistry and characterization is discussed. Incremental advances are obtained by transferring chemically amplified resist materials developed for 193 nm lithography to EUV wavelengths. Significant advances will result from synthesizing high-absorbance resist materials using heavier atoms. In the framework of the HSS model, these materials have significant room for improvement and thus offer great promise as high-performance EUV resists for patterning of sub-10 nm features.

  2. Novel Resistance Measurement Method: Analysis of Accuracy and Thermal Dependence with Applications in Fiber Materials

    PubMed Central

    Casans, Silvia; Rosado-Muñoz, Alfredo; Iakymchuk, Taras

    2016-01-01

    Material resistance is important since different physicochemical properties can be extracted from it. This work describes a novel resistance measurement method valid for a wide range of resistance values up to 100 GΩ at a low powered, small sized, digitally controlled and wireless communicated device. The analog and digital circuits of the design are described, analysing the main error sources affecting the accuracy. Accuracy and extended uncertainty are obtained for a pattern decade box, showing a maximum of 1% accuracy for temperatures below 30 ∘C in the range from 1 MΩ to 100 GΩ. Thermal analysis showed stability up to 50 ∘C for values below 10 GΩ and systematic deviations for higher values. Power supply Vi applied to the measurement probes is also analysed, showing no differences in case of the pattern decade box, except for resistance values above 10 GΩ and temperatures above 35 ∘C. To evaluate the circuit behaviour under fiber materials, an 11-day drying process in timber from four species (Oregon pine-Pseudotsuga menziesii, cedar-Cedrus atlantica, ash-Fraxinus excelsior, chestnut-Castanea sativa) was monitored. Results show that the circuit, as expected, provides different resistance values (they need individual conversion curves) for different species and the same ambient conditions. Additionally, it was found that, contrary to the decade box analysis, Vi affects the resistance value due to material properties. In summary, the proposed circuit is able to accurately measure material resistance that can be further related to material properties. PMID:27983652

  3. Abrasive Wear Behaviour of COPPER-SiC and COPPER-SiO2 Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umale, Tejas; Singh, Amarjit; Reddy, Y.; Khatitrkar, R. K.; Sapate, S. G.

    The present paper reports abrasive wear behaviour of copper matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide and silica particles. Copper - SiC (12%) and Copper-SiO2 (9%) composites were prepared by powder metallurgical technique. Metallography, image analysis and hardness studies were carried out on copper composites. The abrasive wear experiments were carried out using pin on disc apparatus. The effect of sliding distance and load was studied on Copper - SiC (12%) and Copper-SiO2 (9%) composites. The abrasive wear volume loss increased with sliding distance in both the composites although the magnitude of increase was different in each case. Copper - SiC (12%) composites exhibited relatively better abrasion resistance as compared to and Copper-SiO2 (9%) composites. The abraded surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope to study the morphology of abraded surfaces and operating wear mechanism. The analysis of wear debris particles was also carried out to substantiate the findings of the investigation.

  4. Development of a Cavitation Erosion Resistant Advanced Material System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    43 Figure 5.7 - Summary results of cavitation resistance of composite samples ............. 43 Figure 5.8 - Carbon fiber over PVC core samples...showing core damage ................... 44 Figure 5.9 - Quartz fiber over PVC core sample showing core damage ..................... 44 Figure 5.10...Epoxy over a PVC foam core. Results from the testing using a similar vibratory induced cavitation method showed that the single laminate construction

  5. Investigation on low velocity impact resistance of SMA composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dianyin; Zhang, Long; Wang, Rongqiao; Zhang, Xiaoyong

    2016-04-01

    A method to improve low velocity impact resistance of aeroengine composite casing using shape memory alloy's properties of shape memory(SM) and super-elasticity(SE) is proposed in this study. Firstly, a numerical modeling of SMA reinforced composite laminate under low velocity impact load with impact velocity of 10 m/s is established based on its constitutive model implemented by the VUMAT subroutine of commercial software ABAQUS. Secondly, the responses of SMA composite laminate including stress and deflection distributions were achieved through transient analysis under low velocity impact load. Numerical results show that both peak stress and deflection values of SMA composite laminate are less than that without SMA, which proves that embedding SMA into the composite structure can effectively improve the low velocity impact performance of composite structure. Finally, the influence of SM and SE on low velocity impact resistance is quantitatively investigated. The values of peak stress and deflection of SMA composite based on SM property decrease by 18.28% and 9.43% respectively, compared with those without SMA, instead of 12.87% and 5.19% based on SE. In conclusion, this proposed model described the impact damage of SMA composite structure and turned to be a more beneficial method to enhance the impact resistance by utilizing SM effect.

  6. Heating of solid earthen material, measuring moisture and resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Heath, William O.; Richardson, Richard L.; Goheen, Steven C.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile contaminants. Six electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a substantially equilateral hexagonal arrangement. Six phases of voltages are applied to corresponding electrodes. The voltages are adjusted within a first range of voltages to create multiple current paths between pairs of the electrodes. The current paths are evenly distributed throughout the region defined by the electrodes and therefore uniformly heat the region. The region of earthen material is heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants by promoting microbial action. This temperature is less than a melting temperature of the earthen material.

  7. Heating of solid earthen material, measuring moisture and resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Heath, W.O.; Richardson, R.L.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-07-19

    The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile contaminants. Six electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a substantially equilateral hexagonal arrangement. Six phases of voltages are applied to corresponding electrodes. The voltages are adjusted within a first range of voltages to create multiple current paths between pairs of the electrodes. The current paths are evenly distributed throughout the region defined by the electrodes and therefore uniformly heat the region. The region of earthen material is heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants by promoting microbial action. This temperature is less than a melting temperature of the earthen material. 13 figs.

  8. Resistance fail strain gage technology as applied to composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. E.; Brinson, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Existing strain gage technologies as applied to orthotropic composite materials are reviewed. The bonding procedures, transverse sensitivity effects, errors due to gage misalignment, and temperature compensation methods are addressed. Numerical examples are included where appropriate. It is shown that the orthotropic behavior of composites can result in experimental error which would not be expected based on practical experience with isotropic materials. In certain cases, the transverse sensitivity of strain gages and/or slight gage misalignment can result in strain measurement errors.

  9. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabold, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The procurement and testing of a wide range of candidate materials is reported. Improved fire resistant nonmetallic materials were subjected to tests to evaluate their thermal characteristics, such as burn, smoke generation, heat release rate and toxicity. In addition, candidate materials were evaluated for mechanical, physical and aesthetic properties. Other properties considered included safety, comfort, durability and maintainability. The fiscal year 1977 and the projected 1980 cost data were obtained for aircraft seat materials.

  10. A review on nozzle wear in abrasive water jet machining application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syazwani, H.; Mebrahitom, G.; Azmir, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses a review on nozzle wear in abrasive water jet machining application. Wear of the nozzle becomes a major problem since it may affect the water jet machining performance. Design, materials, and life of the nozzle give significance effect to the nozzle wear. There are various parameters that may influence the wear rate of the nozzle such as nozzle length, nozzle inlet angle, nozzle diameter, orifice diameter, abrasive flow rate and water pressure. The wear rate of the nozzle can be minimized by controlling these parameters. The mechanism of wear in the nozzle is similar to other traditional machining processes which uses a cutting tool. The high pressure of the water and hard abrasive particles may erode the nozzle wall. A new nozzle using a tungsten carbide-based material has been developed to reduce the wear rate and improve the nozzle life. Apart from that, prevention of the nozzle wear has been achieved using porous lubricated nozzle. This paper presents a comprehensive review about the wear of abrasive water jet nozzle.

  11. An enhanced Whipple Bumper system - Impact resistance of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, J.; Mount, A.; Herren, K.; Nettles, A.; Semmel, C.; Sims, J.

    1992-01-01

    For long-duration space flights where human occupation is expected, micrometeroid and debris shields are necessary to prevent puncture of the pressure vessels. Current 'Whipple Bumper' designs range from single thin sheets of aluminum to complicated structures of many energy absorbing layers. This paper details the results of an experimental program tao determine the increased protection afforded by intermediate bumpers made of composite material structures. Various configurations of honeycomb support structures sandwiched between layers of materials such as Kevlar, Spectra, aluminum, and others are inserted between the bumper and pressure shell. The areal densities of each new material structure are maintained constant so that the results compare directly with single-sheet aluminum intermediate bumpers.

  12. Heating of solid earthen material, measuring moisture and resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Heath, William O.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Pillay, Gautam; Bergsman, Theresa M.; Eschbach, Eugene A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Richardson, Richard L.; Roberts, Janet S.; Schalla, Ronald

    1996-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile contaminants that utilizes electrical energy. A plurality of electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a selected geometric pattern. Varying phase and voltages configurations are applied to corresponding electrodes to achieve heating, physical phase changes, and the placement of substances within the treatment region. Additionally, treatment mediums can be added to either treat the contamination within the soil or to restrict their mobility.

  13. Heating of solid earthen material, measuring moisture and resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Heath, W.O.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pillay, G.; Bergsman, T.M.; Eschbach, E.A.; Goheen, S.C.; Richardson, R.L.; Roberts, J.S.; Schalla, R.

    1996-08-13

    The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile contaminants that utilizes electrical energy. A plurality of electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a selected geometric pattern. Varying phase and voltages configurations are applied to corresponding electrodes to achieve heating, physical phase changes, and the placement of substances within the treatment region. Additionally, treatment mediums can be added to either treat the contamination within the soil or to restrict their mobility. 29 figs.

  14. Effect of microstructure (particulate size and volume fraction) and counterface material on the sliding wear resistance of particulate-reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpas, A. T.; Zhang, J.

    1994-05-01

    The effects of microstructure (namely, particulate volume fraction and particulate size) and the counterface materials on the dry-sliding wear resistance of the aluminum matrix composites 2014A1-SiC and 6061Al-Al2O3 were studied. Experiments were performed within a load range of 0.9 to 350 N at a constant sliding velocity of 0.2 ms-1. Two types of counterface materials, SAE 52100 bearing steel and mullite, were used. At low loads, where particles act as loadbearing constituents, the wear resistance of the 2014A1 reinforced with 15.8 µm diameter SiC was superior to that of the alloy with the same volume fraction of SiC but with 2.4 µm diameter. The wear rates of the composites worn against a steel slider were lower compared with those worn against a mullite slider because of the formation of iron-rich layers that act as in situ solid lubricants in the former case. With increasing the applied load, SiC and A12O3 particles fractured and the wear rates of the composites increased to levels comparable to those of unreinforced matrix alloys. The transition to this regime was delayed to higher loads in the composites with a higher volume percentage of particles. Concurrent with particle fracture, large strains and strain gradients were generated within the aluminum layers adjacent to contact surfaces. This led to the subsurface crack growth and delamination. Because the particles and interfaces provided preferential sites for subsurface crack initiation and growth and because of the propensity of the broken particles to act as third-body abrasive elements at the contact surfaces, no improvement of the wear resistance was observed in the composites in this regime relative to unreinforced aluminum alloys. A second transition, to severe wear, occurred at higher loads when the contact surface temperature exceeded a critical value. The transition loads (and temperatures) were higher in the composites. The alloys with higher volume fraction of reinforcement provided better

  15. A new dimension to conservative dentistry: Air abrasion

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vivek S; Khatavkar, Roheet A

    2010-01-01

    Air abrasion dentistry has evolved over a period of time from a new concept of an alternative means of cavity preparation to an essential means of providing a truly conservative preparation for preservation of a maximal sound tooth structure. The development of bonded restorations in combination with air abrasion dentistry provides a truly minimal intervention dentistry. This article reviews the development of air abrasion, its clinical uses, and the essential accessories required for its use. PMID:20582212

  16. Materials That Enhance Efficiency and Radiation Resistance of Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiadong; Wang, Haorong

    2012-01-01

    A thin layer (approximately 10 microns) of a novel "transparent" fluorescent material is applied to existing solar cells or modules to effectively block and convert UV light, or other lower solar response waveband of solar radiation, to visible or IR light that can be more efficiently used by solar cells for additional photocurrent. Meanwhile, the layer of fluorescent coating material remains fully "transparent" to the visible and IR waveband of solar radiation, resulting in a net gain of solar cell efficiency. This innovation alters the effective solar spectral power distribution to which an existing cell gets exposed, and matches the maximum photovoltaic (PV) response of existing cells. By shifting a low PV response waveband (e.g., UV) of solar radiation to a high PV response waveband (e.g. Vis-Near IR) with novel fluorescent materials that are transparent to other solar-cell sensitive wavebands, electrical output from solar cells will be enhanced. This approach enhances the efficiency of solar cells by converting UV and high-energy particles in space that would otherwise be wasted to visible/IR light. This innovation is a generic technique that can be readily implemented to significantly increase efficiencies of both space and terrestrial solar cells, without incurring much cost, thus bringing a broad base of economical, social, and environmental benefits. The key to this approach is that the "fluorescent" material must be very efficient, and cannot block or attenuate the "desirable" and unconverted" waveband of solar radiation (e.g. Vis-NIR) from reaching the cells. Some nano-phosphors and novel organometallic complex materials have been identified that enhance the energy efficiency on some state-of-the-art commercial silicon and thin-film-based solar cells by over 6%.

  17. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Abrasion of mechanical components and fabrics by soil on Earth is typically minimized by the effects of atmosphere and water. Potentially abrasive particles lose sharp and pointed geometrical features through erosion. In environments where such erosion does not exist, such as the vacuum of the Moon, particles retain sharp geometries associated with fracturing of their parent particles by micrometeorite impacts. The relationship between hardness of the abrasive and that of the material being abraded is well understood, such that the abrasive ability of a material can be estimated as a function of the ratio of the hardness of the two interacting materials. Knowing the abrasive nature of an environment (abrasive)/construction material is crucial to designing durable equipment for use in such surroundings. The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement; in some cases, considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for de tailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness par ameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Further - more, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized

  18. Machining human dentin by abrasive water jet drilling.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Philipp; Tegtmeyer, Sven; Biskup, Christian; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Stiesch, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this experimental in-vitro study was to investigate the machining of human dentin using an abrasive water jet and to evaluate the influence of different abrasives and water pressures on the removal rate. Seventy-two human teeth had been collected after extraction and randomly divided into six homogeneous groups (n=12). The teeth were processed in the area of root dentin with an industrial water jet device. Different abrasives (saccharose, sorbitol, xylitol) and water pressures (15 or 25 MPa) were used in each group. Dimensions of dentin removal were analysed using a stripe projection microscope and both drilling depth as well as volume of abrasion were recorded. Morphological analyses of the dentin cavities were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both drilling depth and volume of abrasion were significantly influenced by the abrasive and the water pressure. Depending on these parameters, the drilling depth averaged between 142 and 378 μm; the volume of abrasion averaged between 0.07 and 0.15 mm3. Microscopic images revealed that all cavities are spherical and with clearly defined margins. Slight differences between the abrasives were found with respect to the microroughness of the surface of the cavities. The results indicate that abrasive water jet machining is a promising technique for processing human dentin.

  19. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Shook, W. H.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire tests are reported of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a source fire consisting of one and one-half pounds of newspaper in a tented configuration was developed. Finally, a preliminary seat specification was written based upon materials data and general seat design criteria.

  20. Fluorinated Materials for Air-stable and Moisture-resistant Flexible Optoelectronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-02

    3.00 Haoran Sun, Qiang Wei. Polyfluorinated electrolyte solutions and additives for high voltage non- flammable lithium batteries, Meet. Abstr...organic semiconductor materials; 3) revealed a fundamental understanding that leads to controllably formation of solid state materials with desired...resistant, computational prediction, solid state structure, crystal engineering REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S

  1. Flash-Fire Propensity and Heat-Release Rate Studies of Improved Fire Resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-six improved fire resistant materials were tested for flash-fire propensity and heat release rate properties. The tests were conducted to obtain a descriptive index based on the production of ignitable gases during the thermal degradation process and on the response of the materials under a specific heat load.

  2. Controlled toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel.

    PubMed

    Voronets, J; Jaeggi, T; Buergin, W; Lussi, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare toothbrush abrasion of softened enamel after brushing with two (soft and hard) toothbrushes. One hundred and fifty-six human enamel specimens were indented with a Knoop diamond. Salivary pellicle was formed in vitro over a period of 3 h. Erosive lesions were produced by means of 1% citric acid. A force-measuring device allowed a controlled toothbrushing force of 1.5 N. The specimens were brushed either in toothpaste slurry or with toothpaste in artificial saliva for 15 s. Enamel loss was calculated from the change in indentation depth of the same indent before and after abrasion. Mean surface losses (95% CI) were recorded in ten treatment groups: (1) soft toothbrush only [28 (17-39) nm]; (2) hard toothbrush only [25 (16-34) nm]; (3) soft toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [46 (27-65) nm]; (4) hard toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [45 (24-66) nm]; (5) soft toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [71 (55-87) nm]; (6) hard toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [85 (60-110) nm]; (7) soft toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [48 (39-57) nm]; (8) hard toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [40 (29-51) nm]; (9) soft toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [51 (37-65) nm]; (10) hard toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [52 (36-68) nm]. Neither soft nor hard toothbrushes produced significantly different toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel in this model (p > 0.05).

  3. Radiation Resistance Studies of Amorphous Silicon Alloy Photovoltaic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation resistance of commercial solar cells fabricated from hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys was investigated. A number of different device structures were irradiated with 1.0 MeV protons. The cells were insensitive to proton fluences below 1E12 sq cm. The parameters of the irradiated cells were restored with annealing at 200 C. The annealing time was dependent on proton fluence. Annealing devices for one hour restores cell parameters for fluences below lE14 sq cm require longer annealing times. A parametric fitting model was used to characterize current mechanisms observed in dark I-V measurements. The current mechanisms were explored with irradiation fluence, and voltage and light soaking times. The thermal generation current density and quality factor increased with proton fluence. Device simulation shows the degradation in cell characteristics may be explained by the reduction of the electric field in the intrinsic layer.

  4. Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; Craig Tyler

    2010-08-01

    Engineers from the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have demonstrated an innovative method for seal or pinch welding stainless steel tubing. Sometimes a tube has fuel or contamination that must be contained, or the tube needs to be shortened or cut for handling, and the tube needs to have a guaranteed sealed weld that is both quick and easy. This technique was demonstrated in a laboratory using a resistance welding system with specially designed electrodes to ensure a tube end is seal welded or if a long tube is to be shortened, the severed ends are seal welded. The unique electrodes design is integral to achieving the sealed ends. This process could readily be adapted for robotic--remote handling or for contact handling in a glovebox or hood.

  5. The effect of abrasive blasting on the strength of a joint between dental porcelain and metal base.

    PubMed

    Pietnicki, Krzysztof; Wołowiec, Emilia; Klimek, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of selected parameters of abrasive blasting on the strength of a joint between dental porcelain and metal base. Experiments were conducted for different grain sizes of abrasive material and different blasting angles, with a constant blasting pressure. InLine dental porcelain was fused on samples of cobalt-chromium alloy following abrasive blasting; they were subsequently subjected to shearing forces on a testing machine. The fractures were observed under an electron scanning microscope in order to determine the character and course of fracturing. Strength tests showed that the grain size of abrasive material was a parameter with the greatest effect on the strength. The best effects were achieved for samples subjected to abrasive blasting with material with grain size of 110 μm. No statistically significant differences were found for the strength of samples worked at different angles. The results of the fractographic examinations have shown that in all the samples, fracturing occurred mainly along the porcelain-metal boundary, with few cases of fracturing through porcelain.

  6. [Temperature measurements during abrasive water jet osteotomy].

    PubMed

    Schmolke, S; Pude, F; Kirsch, L; Honl, M; Schwieger, K; Krömer, S

    2004-01-01

    Working on bone is a major aspect of orthopaedic surgery. Despite its well-known appreciable thermal effects on the edges of the bone cut, the oscillating bone saw blade the oscillating saw remains the standard instrument both for cutting long bones and creating a bed for an endoprosthesis. The application of abrasive water jets offers the possibility of achieving an extremely precise curved cut in bone with no accompanying thermal effect. The thermographically measured absolute temperature increase at the cut edges seen with the water jet was 13 K maximum. The small process forces permit the application in automated handling systems.

  7. Mars Pathfinder Wheel Abrasion Experiment Ground Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Siebert, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sent a mission to the martian surface, called Mars Pathfinder. The mission payload consisted of a lander and a rover. The primary purpose of the mission was demonstrating a novel entry, descent, and landing method that included a heat shield, a parachute, rockets, and a cocoon of giant air bags. Once on the surface, the spacecraft returned temperature measurements near the Martian surface, atmosphere pressure, wind speed measurements, and images from the lander and rover. The rover obtained 16 elemental measurements of rocks and soils, performed soil-mechanics, atmospheric sedimentation measurements, and soil abrasiveness measurements.

  8. Pebble Jammed in Rock Abrasion Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity stopped working on sol 199 (Aug. 15, 2004), rover operators used the panoramic camera to take this image the next day for help in diagnosing the problem. The tool was closer than the camera could focus on sharply, but the image does show a dark spot just left of center, which engineers have determined is likely to be a pebble jammed between the cutting-blade rotor and the wire-brush rotor. If that diagnosis is confirmed by further analysis, the tool will likely be commanded to turn the rotors in reverse to release the pebble.

  9. Assessment of resist outgassing related EUV optics contamination for CAR and non-CAR material chemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollentier, I.; Neira, I.; Gronheid, R.

    2011-04-01

    EUV lithography is expected to be the key lithography option for sub-22nm device manufacturing. In order to meet the required imaging capability, resist performance improvements are being investigated by exploring both chemically amplified resists (CAR) and non-CAR chemistries. Another critical item related to resist chemistry is the EUV irradiation induced outgassing and its risk for optics contamination, especially towards high source power (pre-) productions tools. In this area it is important to characterize for the different chemistries which resist components are critical for EUV induced outgassing and - more important - which can result in non-cleanable mirror contamination. In this paper, we will explore the outgassing and contamination behavior of CAR and non-CAR resist by using Residual Gas Analysis (RGA) for identifying the resist outgassing characteristics, and by Witness Sample (WS) testing to evaluate the tendency for contamination. For CAR resists, it has been found that the PAG cation is a key component contributing to the contamination, but its impact can be changed by changing the resist formulation. In this investigation several model resists have been evaluated in order to understand which chemical components have - or don't have - an impact on the contamination. This has led to a proposal of a definition for a resist family. For non-CAR materials, the investigation has focused to a number of example resists. Most results are related to poly(-olefin sulfones), which have been proven to be good candidate materials for outgassing and contamination learning. The tests have confirmed that aromatic groups present in resist outgassing are playing an important role. As an opposite example of non-CAR material, the inorganic Inpria resist was tested, which revealed that its resist outgassing (water and oxygen) can remove carbon contamination. The combined work on CAR and non-CAR outgassing and contamination has learned significantly on the relationship

  10. Fire resistivity and toxicity studies of candidate aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire resistivity studies were conducted on a wide range of candidate nonmetallic materials being considered for the construction of improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seats. These materials were evaluated on the basis of FAA airworthiness burn and smoke generation tests, colorfastness, limiting oxygen index, and animal toxicity tests. Physical, mechanical, and aesthetic properties were also assessed. Candidate seat materials that have significantly improved thermal response to various thermal loads corresponding to reasonable fire threats as they relate to in-flight fire situations, are identified.

  11. M"ossbauer study of corrosion and abrasion products in oil transporting pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Raul W.; Perez Mazariego, Jose Luis; Marquina, Vivianne; Marquina, Ma. Luisa; Ridaura, Rosalia; Martinez, Lorenzo

    2012-02-01

    It is known that one of the main technological problems in carbon steel oleoducts is the corrosion produced by different substances, such as water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, and microorganisms. In addition, if in such mixture there is sand, aggressive sludge can be form that abrasions material from the oleoduct. A room temperature M"ossbauer study of corroded material taken from different sites of oleoducts is presented. Most of the M"ossbauer spectra reveal the presence of nanoparticles, indicating that in these pipes the abrasion problem is severe. A preliminary identification of the oxidized samples suggests the presence of magnetite, and some Iron hydroxides. Further studies are in course in order to identify unambiguously the products present in the corroded materials.

  12. Abrasive water suspension jet -- A multifunctional working tool for underwater applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.; Louis, H.; Meier, G.; Tebbing, G.

    1995-12-31

    It is the aim of the paper to show the possibilities of Abrasive Water Suspension Jets (AWSJ) for underwater machining tasks in the offshore industry and other deep sea operations. The AWSJ is a remote-controllable and multifunctional tool for different underwater purposes like maintenance and repair as well as salvage, removal and decommissioning. Therefore it is possible to clean structures from rust and marine growth, to remove concrete and other functional coatings, to cut through different materials as well as composite materials and also to carry out the preparation for repair welding. First the paper will give some basic information about Abrasive Water Jets under water and about the equipment to produce AWSJ. Afterwards the possibilities of jet generation for cutting (round jet), cleaning and material removal (flat jet) and multifunctional operation will be demonstrated. Test results which were carried out under water will be presented. The influence of relevant parameters on processing efficiency is given and discussed.

  13. The Steady Flow Resistance of Perforated Sheet Materials in High Speed Grazing Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Asif A.; Yu, Jia; Kwan, H. W.; Chien, E.; Jones, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of high speed grazing air flow on the acoustic resistance of perforated sheet materials used in the construction of acoustically absorptive liners placed in commercial aircraft engine nacelles. Since DC flow resistance of porous sheet materials is known to be a major component of the acoustic resistance of sound suppression liners, the DC flow resistance of a set of perforated face-sheets and linear 'wiremesh' face-sheets was measured in a flow duct apparatus (up to Mach 0.8). Samples were fabricated to cover typical variations in perforated face-sheet parameters, such as hole diameter, porosity and sheet thickness, as well as those due to different manufacturing processes. The DC flow resistance data from perforated sheets were found to correlate strongly with the grazing flow Mach number and the face-sheet porosity. The data also show correlation against the boundary layer displacement thickness to hole-diameter ratio. The increase in resistance with grazing flow for punched aluminum sheets is in good agreement with published results up to Mach 0.4, but is significantly larger than expected above Mach 0.4. Finally, the tests demonstrated that there is a significant increase in the resistance of linear 'wiremesh' type face-sheet materials.

  14. Method of making bearing materials. [self-lubricating, oxidation resistant composites for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for making a composite material which provides low friction surfaces for materials in rolling or sliding contact. The composite material which is self-lubricating and oxidation resistant up to and in excess of about 930 C is comprised of a metal component which lends strength and elasticity to the structure and a fluorine salt component which provides oxidation protection to the metal but may also enhance the lubrication qualities of the composite.

  15. HEAT-RESISTANT MATERIAL WITH SILICON CARBIDE AS A BASE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A new high-temperature material, termed SG-60, is a silicon carbide -graphite composite in which the graphite is the thermostability carrier since it...is more heat-conducting and softer (heat conductivity of graphite is 0.57 cal/g-cm-sec compared with 0.02 cal/g-cm-sec for silicon carbide ) while... silicon carbide is the carrier of high-temperature strength and hardness. The high covalent bonding strength of the atoms of silicon carbide (283 kcal

  16. Investigation of Sintering Temperature on Attrition Resistance of Highly Porous Diatomite Based Material

    SciTech Connect

    Garderen, Noemie van; Clemens, Frank J.; Scharf, Dagobert; Graule, Thomas

    2010-05-30

    Highly porous diatomite based granulates with a diameter of 500 mum have been produced by an extrusion method. In order to investigate the relation between microstructure, phase composition and attrition resistance of the final product, the granulates were sintered between 800 and 1300 deg. C. Mean pore size of the granulates was evaluated by Hg-porosimetry. An increase of the pore size is observed in the range of 3.6 nm to 40 mum with increasing sintering temperature. Higher mean pore radii of 1.6 mum and 5.7 mum obtained by sintering at 800 and 1300 deg. C respectively. X-ray diffraction shows that mullite phase appears at 1100 deg. C due to the presence of clay. At 1100 deg. C diatomite (amorphous silicate) started to transform into alpha-cristobalite. Attrition resistance was determined by evaluating the amount of ground material passed through a sieve with a predefined mesh size. It was observed that a material sintered at high temperature leads to an increase of attrition resistance due to the decrease of total porosities and phase transformation. Due to the reason that attrition resistance significantly increased by sintering the granulates at higher temperature, a so called attrition resistance index was determined in order to compare all the different attrition resistance values. This attrition resistance index was determined by using the exponential component of the equation obtained from attrition resistance curves. It permits comparison of the attrition behaviour without a time influence.

  17. EB and EUV lithography using inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto; Oshima, Akihiro; Kashiwakura, Miki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2016-03-01

    The validity of our approach of inedible cellulose-based resist material derived from woody biomass has been confirmed experimentally for the use of pure water in organic solvent-free water spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide(TMAH)-free water-developable techniques of eco-conscious electron beam (EB) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The water developable, non-chemically amplified, high sensitive, and negative tone resist material in EB and EUV lithography was developed for environmental affair, safety, easiness of handling, and health of the working people. The inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material was developed by replacing the hydroxyl groups in the beta-linked disaccharides with EB and EUV sensitive groups. The 50-100 nm line and space width, and little footing profiles of cellulose-based biomass resist material on hardmask and layer were resolved at the doses of 10-30 μC/cm2. The eco-conscious lithography techniques was referred to as green EB and EUV lithography using inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material.

  18. Development of oxidation/corrosion-resistant composite materials and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.; Shanmugham, S.

    1995-06-01

    Continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) are being developed for high temperature structural applications, many of which are in oxidative environments. Such composites are attractive since they are light-weight and possess the desired mechanical properties at elevated temperature and in aggressive environments. The most significant advantage is their toughness and their non-catastrophic failure behavior. The mechanical properties of CFCCs have been characteristically linked with the nature of the interfacial bond between the fibers and the matrix. Weakly bonded fiber-matrix intefaces allow an impinging matrix crack to be deflected such that the fracture process occurs through several stages: Crack deflection, debonding at the interface, fiber slip and pull-out, and ultimately fiber failure. Such a composite will fail in a graceful manner and exhibit substantial fracture toughness. Currently, carbon interface coatings are used to appropriately tailor interface properties, however their poor oxidation resistance has required a search of an appropriate replacement. Generally, metal oxides are inherently stable to oxidation and possess thermal expansion coefficients relatively close to those of Nicalon and SiC. However, the metal oxides must also be chemically compatible with the fiber and matrix. If the fiber/interface/matrix system is chemically compatible, then the interfacial bonding stress is influenced by the thermal residual stresses that are generated as the composite is cooled from processing to room temperature. In the current work, thermomechanical computational results were obtained from a finite element model (FEM) for calculating the thermal residual stresses. This was followed by experimental evaluation of Nicalon/SiC composites with carbon, alumina, and mullite interfacial coatings.

  19. Cold spraying on materials with low erosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikalov, V. S.; Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.

    2016-10-01

    The paper describes a cold spray process intended for deposition of aluminum coatings onto the surface of materials prone to erosion damage. The particles were accelerated in an ejector nozzle, with the working gas being air. Particle velocities were measured at the nozzle exit using nozzles of different geometries, in the temperature range from 300 to 600 K. Also, substrate mass change coefficients were measured. For the first time, it was shown that the erosion-adhesion transition may occur at different particle velocities (500 and 385 m/s) yet at roughly one and the same air stagnation temperature (~ 570 K). At lower stagnation temperatures, erosion is observed and, in compliance with general physical principles, higher erosion coefficients correspond to higher particle velocities.

  20. Lightweight Impact-Resistant Composite Materials: Lessons from Mantis Shrimp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliron, Garrett Wayne

    Nature has evolved efficient strategies to synthesize complex mineralized structures that exhibit exceptional damage tolerance. One such example is found in the hyper-mineralized hammer-like dactyl clubs of the stomatopods, a group of highly aggressive marine crustaceans. The dactyl clubs from one such species, Odontodactylus Scyllarus, exhibit an impressive set of characteristics adapted for surviving high velocity impacts with the heavily mineralized prey species on which they feed. Consisting of a multi-phase composite of oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite and amorphous calcium phosphate and carbonate, in conjunction with a highly expanded helicoidal organization of the fibrillar chitinous organic matrix, these structures display several effective lines of defense against catastrophic failure during repetitive high energy loading events. The study of this organism and its relatives has lead to design cues, which were incorporated into prototype composite materials designed for applications in aviation, body armor, and entertainment.

  1. Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Performance of Ni-Wc Composite Microwave Clad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Amit; Zafar, Sunny; Sharma, Apurbba Kumar

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, Ni-WC powder was deposited on mild steel substrate to develop clads through microwave hybrid heating technique. The cladding trials were carried out in an industrial microwave applicator at 1.1 kW for 540 s. The Ni-WC composite clads were characterized for microstructure and abrasive wear performance through combination of x-ray diffraction, electron and optical microscopy, microhardness, and wear tests. Phase analysis of the Ni-WC clad indicated the presence of stable carbides such as WC, W2C, Ni2W4C, and Fe6W6C. The microstructure study of the clad layer revealed the presence of a uniformly distributed interlocked WC-based reinforcement embedded in the Ni-based matrix. The average Vicker's microhardness in the clad layer was observed to be 1028 ± 90 HV, which was approximately three times the microhardness of the substrate. Abrasive wear resistance of the microwave clads was superior to the MS substrate. Abrasion was the main wear mechanism in the Ni-WC clads and the substrate samples. However, the presence of WC-based reinforcement in the composite clads reduced microcutting, resulting in enhanced wear resistance.

  2. Counterfeit-resistant materials and a method and apparatus for authenticating materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, J.M.; Klatt, L.N.

    2000-03-14

    Fluorescent dichroic fibers randomly incorporated within a media provide an improved method for authentication and counterfeiting protection. The dichroism is provided by an alignment of fluorescent molecules along the length of the fibers. The fluorescent fibers provide an authentication mechanism of varying levels of capability. The authentication signature depends on four parameters; the x,y position, the dichroism and the local environment. The availability of so many non-deterministic variables makes production of counterfeit articles (e.g., currency, credit cards, etc.) essentially impossible. Counterfeit-resistant articles, an apparatus for authenticating articles, and a process for forming counterfeit-resistant media are also provided.

  3. Counterfeit-resistant materials and a method and apparatus for authenticating materials

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Klatt, Leon N.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescent dichroic fibers randomly incorporated within a media provide an improved method for authentication and counterfeiting protection. The dichroism is provided by an alignment of fluorescent molecules along the length of the fibers. The fluorescent fibers provide an authentication mechanism of varying levels of capability. The authentication signature depends on four parameters, the x,y position, the dichroism and the local environment. The availability of so many non-deterministic variables makes production of counterfeit articles (e.g., currency, credit cards, etc.) essentially impossible Counterfeit-resistant articles, an apparatus for authenticating articles, and a process for forming counterfeit-resistant media are also provided&

  4. Counterfeit-resistant materials and a method and apparatus for authenticating materials

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Klatt, Leon N.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorescent dichroic fibers randomly incorporated within a media provide an improved method for authentication and counterfeiting protection. The dichroism is provided by an alignment of fluorescent molecules along the length of the fibers. The fluorescent fibers provide an authentication mechanism of varying levels of capability. The authentication signature depends on four parameters; the x,y position, the dichroism and the local environment. The availability of so many non-deterministic variables makes production of counterfeit articles (e.g., currency, credit cards, etc.) essentially impossible. Counterfeit-resistant articles, an apparatus for authenticating articles, and a process for forming counterfeit-resistant media are also provided.

  5. The Impact of Retained Austenite Characteristics on the Two-Body Abrasive Wear Behavior of Ultrahigh Strength Bainitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanaswamy, Balaji; Hodgson, Peter; Timokhina, Ilana; Beladi, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    In the current study, a high-carbon, high-alloy steel (0.79 pct C, 1.5 pct Si, 1.98 pct Mn, 0.98 pct Cr, 0.24 pct Mo, 1.06 pct Al, and 1.58 pct Co in wt pct) was subjected to an isothermal bainitic transformation at a temperature range of 473 K to 623 K (200 °C to 350 °C), resulting in different fully bainitic microstructures consisting of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite. With a decrease in the transformation temperature, the microstructure was significantly refined from ~300 nm at 623 K (350 °C) to less than 60 nm at 473 K (200 °C), forming nanostructured bainitic microstructure. In addition, the morphology of retained austenite was progressively altered from film + blocky to an exclusive film morphology with a decrease in the temperature. This resulted in an enhanced wear resistance in nanobainitic microstructures formed at low transformation temperature, e.g., 473 K (200 °C). Meanwhile, it gradually deteriorated with an increase in the phase transformation temperature. This was mostly attributed to the retained austenite characteristics ( i.e., thin film vs blocky), which significantly altered their mechanical stability. The presence of blocky retained austenite at high transformation temperature, e.g., 623 K (350 °C) resulted in an early onset of TRIPing phenomenon during abrasion. This led to the formation of coarse martensite with irregular morphology, which is more vulnerable to crack initiation and propagation than that of martensite formed from the thin film austenite, e.g., 473 K (200 °C). This resulted in a pronounced material loss for the fully bainitic microstructures transformed at high temperature, e.g., 623 K (350 °C), leading to distinct sub-surface layer and friction coefficient curve characteristics. A comparison of the abrasive behavior of the fully bainitic microstructure formed at 623 K (350 °C) and fully pearlitic microstructure demonstrated a detrimental effect of blocky retained austenite with low mechanical stability on

  6. Demonstration and Validation of Materials for Corrosion-Resistant Fencing and Guard Railings in Aggressive Climates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Resistant Fencing and Guard Railings in Aggressive Climates Final Report on Project F09-AR02 Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo ra to...29 October 2015 Demonstration and Validation of Materials for Corrosion-Resistant Fencing and Guard Railings in Aggressive Climates Final Report...a cold marine climate . Researchers coordinated with Department of Public Works (DPW) and engineering of- fice personnel to select the specific

  7. Potential of Lattice Boltzmann Method to Determine the Ohmic Resistance in Porous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Andaluz, Mayken; Andersson, Martin; Sundén, Bengt

    2016-08-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a suitable tool for solving transport phenomena that occur in gas- and liquid phases at different length scales, especially when complex geometries such as porous media are involved. However, investigations about applications of LBM in the solid electrical conducting material have not been carried out yet. Since in fuel cells (FCs) the multifunctional layers play an important role during the energy conversion process, and such layers consist of porous material, the ohmic resistance of porous materials represents a crucial characteristic to be studied to predict the internal ohmic losses. The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of LBM to determine the ohmic resistance of electrical conducting materials whose dimensions are modified considering the crosssectional area and length. Characteristics, limitations and recommendations of LBM applied to solid electrical conducting materials calculating the ohmic resistance are presented considering the coupling of the methodology with the Ohm's Law. Additionally, the behavior of the ohmic resistance for a given porous material is presented.

  8. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a) General requirements—(1) Machine guarding. Abrasive wheels shall be used only on machines provided with... omitted; and (ii) The spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.66 - Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. 3201.66 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.66 Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. (a) Definition. Products designed..., in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased cuts,...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.66 - Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. 3201.66 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.66 Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. (a) Definition. Products designed..., in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased cuts,...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.66 - Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. 3201.66 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.66 Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. (a) Definition. Products designed..., in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased cuts,...

  12. Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain

    DOEpatents

    Plovnick, Ross; Celikkaya, Ahmet; Blake, Rodger D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

  13. Soybean seedlings tolerate abrasion from air-propelled grit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New tools for controlling weeds would be useful for soybean production in organic systems. Air-propelled abrasive grit is one such tool that performs well for in-row weed control in corn, but crop safety in soybean is unknown. We examined responses to abrasion by corn-cob grit of soybean seedlings a...

  14. An advanced arc track resistant airframe wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tensolite, a custom cable manufacturer specializing in high temperature materials as the dielectric medium, develops an advance arc track resistant airframe wire called Tufflite 2000. Tufflite 2000 has the following advantages over the other traditional wires: lighter weight and smaller in diameter; excellent wet and dry arc track resistance; superior dynamic cut-through performance even at elevated temperatures; flight proven performance on Boeing 737 and 757 airplanes; and true 260 C performance by utilizing Nickel plated copper conductors. This paper reports the different tests performed on Tufflite 2000: accelerated aging, arc resistance (wet and dry), dynamic cut through, humidity resistance, wire-to-wire abrasion, flammability, smoke, weight, notch sensitivity, flexibility, and markability. It particularly focuses on the BSI (British Standards Institute) dry arc resistance test and BSI wet arc tracking.

  15. An experimental modeling and acoustic emission monitoring of abrasive wear in a steel/diabase pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchuganov, M. A.; Filippov, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Podgornyh, O. A.; Shamarin, N. N.; Filippova, E. O.

    2016-11-01

    The earthmoving of permafrost soil is a critical task for excavation of minerals and construction on new territories. Failure by abrasive wear is the main reason for excavation parts of earthmoving and soil cutting machines. Therefore investigation of this type of wear is a challenge for developing efficient and wear resistant working parts. This paper is focused on conducting tribological experiments with sliding the steel samples over the surface of diabase stone sample where abrasive wear conditions of soil cutting are modeled experimentally. The worn surfaces of all samples have been examined and transfer of metal and stone particles revealed. The acoustic emission (AE) signals have been recorded and related to the results of worn surface analysis. he acoustic emission (AE) signals have been recorded and related to the results of worn surface analysis. As shown the wear intensity correlates to that of acoustic emission. Both acoustic emission signal median frequency and energy are found to be sensitive to the wear mode.

  16. Flexible screen printed thick film thermoelectric generator with reduced material resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Z.; Koukharenko, E.; Torah, R. N.; Tudor, J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a flexible thick-film Bismuth Tellurium/Antimony Tellurium (BiTe/SbTe) thermoelectric generator (TEG) with reduced material resistivity fabricated by screen printing technology. Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) was introduced to lower the resistivity of the printed thermoelectric materials. The Seebeck coefficient (α) and the resistivity (ρ) of printed materials were measured as a function of applied pressure. A prototype TEG with 8 thermocouples was fabricated on flexible polyimide substrate. The dimension of a single printed element was 20 mm × 2 mm × 78.4 pm. The coiled-up prototype produced a voltage of 36.4 mV and a maximum power of 40.3 nW from a temperature gradient of 20 °C.

  17. Rock Cutting Depth Model Based on Kinetic Energy of Abrasive Waterjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae-Min; Cho, Gye-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Abrasive waterjets are widely used in the fields of civil and mechanical engineering for cutting a great variety of hard materials including rocks, metals, and other materials. Cutting depth is an important index to estimate operating time and cost, but it is very difficult to predict because there are a number of influential variables (e.g., energy, geometry, material, and nozzle system parameters). In this study, the cutting depth is correlated to the maximum kinetic energy expressed in terms of energy (i.e., water pressure, water flow rate, abrasive feed rate, and traverse speed), geometry (i.e., standoff distance), material (i.e., α and β), and nozzle system parameters (i.e., nozzle size, shape, and jet diffusion level). The maximum kinetic energy cutting depth model is verified with experimental test data that are obtained using one type of hard granite specimen for various parameters. The results show a unique curve for a specific rock type in a power function between cutting depth and maximum kinetic energy. The cutting depth model developed here can be very useful for estimating the process time when cutting rock using an abrasive waterjet.

  18. Supercritical fluid processing: opportunities for new resist materials and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher-Wetmore, Paula M.; Ober, Christopher K.; Gabor, Allen H.; Allen, Robert D.

    1996-05-01

    Over the past two decades supercritical fluids have been utilized as solvents for carrying out separations of materials as diverse as foods, polymers, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, natural products, and explosives. More recently they have been used for non-extractive applications such as recrystallization, deposition, impregnation, surface modification, and as a solvent alternative for precision parts cleaning. Today, supercritical fluid extraction is being practiced in the foods and beverage industries; there are commercial plants for decaffeinating coffee and tea, extracting beer flavoring agents from hops, and separating oils and oleoresins from spices. Interest in supercritical fluid processing of polymers has grown over the last ten years, and many new purification, fractionation, and even polymerization techniques have emerged. One of the most significant motivations for applying this technology to polymers has been increased performance demands. More recently, with increasing scrutiny of traditional solvents, supercritical fluids, and in particular carbon dioxide, are receiving widespread attention as 'environmentally conscious' solvents. This paper describes several examples of polymers applications, including a few involving photoresists, which demonstrate that as next- generation advanced polymer systems emerge, supercritical fluids are certain to offer advantages as cutting edge processing tools.

  19. Development of materials resistant to metal dusting degradation.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.

    2006-04-24

    Metal dusting corrosion has been a serious problem in the petroleum and petrochemical industries, such as reforming and syngas production systems. This form of deterioration has led to worldwide material loss for 50 years. For the past three years, we have studied the mechanism of metal dusting for Fe- and Ni-base alloys. In this report, we present a correlation between the weight loss and depth of pits that form in Ni-base alloys. Nickel-base alloys were also tested at 1 and 14.8 atm (210 psi), in a high carbon activity environment. Higher system pressure was found to accelerate corrosion in most Ni-base alloys. To reduce testing time, a pre-pitting method was developed. Mechanical scratches on the alloy surface led to fast metal dusting corrosion. We have also developed preliminary data on the performance of weldments of several Ni-base alloys in a metal dusting environment. Finally, Alloy 800 tubes and plates used in a reformer plant were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopy. The oxide scale on the surface of the Alloy 800 primarily consists of Fe{sub 1+x}Cr{sub 2-X}O{sub 4} spinel phase with high Fe content. Carbon can diffuse through this oxide scale. It was discovered that the growth of metal dusting pits could be stopped by means of a slightly oxidized alloy surface. This leads to a new way to solve metal dusting problem.

  20. Procedure for measuring electrical resistivity of anisotropic materials: A revision of the Montgomery method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, C. A. M.; de Campos, A.; da Luz, M. S.; White, B. D.; Neumeier, J. J.; de Lima, B. S.; Shigue, C. Y.

    2011-10-01

    A procedure for determining the electrical resistivity of anisotropic materials is presented. It offers several improvements to the well-known Montgomery method. One improvement, in particular, is the ability to obtain the electrical resistivity for all three axes of an orthorhombic crystal analytically, rather than using the iterative approach suggested by Montgomery for the third axis. All necessary equations are derived and their application in determining the tensor components of the electrical resistivity is explained in detail. Measurements on isotropic specimens were executed in order to test the foundations of the method. Measurements on anisotropic samples are compared with measurements obtained by using the standard four-probe method, revealing good agreement.

  1. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12). Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation. Results: No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987). There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1). Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918). However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives. PMID:25628694

  2. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1987-01-01

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

  3. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1985-04-03

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

  4. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1987-09-22

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate. 2 figs.

  5. EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF SALTSTONE MIXER AUGER/PADDLES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR IMPROVED WEAR RESISTANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.

    2012-08-15

    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay provide superior wear relative to the Astralloy and CF8M stainless steel, which are the current materials of construction, as well as the PVD coatings and Ultimet. The following recommendations are made for selecting new material options and improving the overall wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer components: A Stellite 12 weld overlay or higher hardness steel (with toughness equivalent to Astralloy) be used to improve the wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer paddles; other manufacturing specifications for the mixer need to be considered in this selection. The current use of the Stellite 12 weld overlay be evaluated so that coverage of the 316 auger can be optimized for improved wear resistance of the auger. The wear surfaces of the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles be evaluated so that laboratory data can be better correlated to actual service. The 2-inch Saltstone mixer prototype be used to verify material performance.

  6. Influence of ceramic thickness and ceramic materials on fracture resistance of posterior partial coverage restorations.

    PubMed

    Bakeman, E M; Rego, N; Chaiyabutr, Y; Kois, J C

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of ceramic thickness and ceramic materials on fracture resistance of posterior partial coverage ceramic restorations. Forty extracted molars were allocated into four groups (n=10) to test for two variables: 1) the thickness of ceramic (1 mm or 2 mm) and 2) the ceramic materials (a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic [IPS e.max] or leucite-reinforced glass ceramic [IPS Empress]). All ceramic restorations were luted with resin cement (Variolink II) on the prepared teeth. These luted specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine, in the compression mode, with a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey Honestly Significantly Different multiple comparison test (α =0.05). The fracture resistance revealed a significant effect for materials (p<0.001); however, the thickness of ceramic was not significant (p=0.074), and the interaction between the thickness of ceramic and the materials was not significant (p=0.406). Mean (standard deviation) fracture resistance values were as follows: a 2-mm thickness of a lithium disilicate bonded to tooth structure (2505 [401] N) revealed a significantly higher fracture resistance than did a 1-mm thickness of leucite-reinforced (1569 [452] N) and a 2-mm thickness of leucite-reinforced ceramic bonded to tooth structure (1716 [436] N) (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in fracture resistance values between a lithium disilicate ceramic at 1-mm thickness (2105 [567] N) and at 2-mm thickness. Using a lithium disilicate glass ceramic for partial coverage restoration significantly improved fracture resistance compared to using a leucite-reinforced glass ceramic. The thickness of ceramic had no significant effect on fracture resistance when the ceramics were bonded to the underlying tooth structure.

  7. Mechanical property characterization and impact resistance of selected graphite/PEEK composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    To use graphite/PEEK material on highly curved surfaces requires that the material be drapable and easily conformable to the surface. The mechanical property characterization and impact resistance results are presented for laminates made from two types of graphite/PEEK materials that will conform to a curved surface. These laminates were made from two different material forms. These forms are: (1) a fabric where each yarn is a co-mingled Celion G30-500 3K graphite fiber and PEEK fiber; and (2) an interleaved material of Celion G30-500 3K graphite fiber interleaved with PEEK film. The experimental results from the fabric laminates are compared with results for laminates made from AS4/PEEK unidirectional tape. The results indicate that the tension and compression moduli for quasi-isotropic and orthotropic laminates made from fabric materials are at least 98 pct. of the modulus of equivalent laminates made from tape materials. The strength of fabric material laminates is at least 80 pct. of laminates made from tape material. The evaluation of the fabric material for shear stiffness indicates that a tape material laminate could be replaced by a fabric material laminate and still maintain 89 pct. of the shear stiffness of the tape material laminate.

  8. Investigation of Thermostability of a Composite Resistive Material with Nanodimensional Carbon Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Vlasov, V. A.; Volokitin, G. G.; Melentyev, S. V.

    2014-06-01

    Thermostability of resistive materials based on polyurethane used as heat-liberating elements in the design of heating elements of thermoactive formworks is investigated. The application of polyurethane as a binder provides solid contact of polymer molecules with nanodimensional carbon fillers and their uniform distribution in a composite material. The influence of thermal treatment and dispersed fillers on the stability of electrophysical and thermophysical properties of carbon-filled polyurethane coatings is established.

  9. Silicon nitride: A ceramic material with outstanding resistance to thermal shock and corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, K. H.; Saure, F.

    1983-01-01

    The known physical, mechanical and chemical properties of reaction-sintered silicon nitride are summarized. This material deserves interest especially because of its unusually good resistance to thermal shock and corrosion at high temperatures. Two types are distinguished: reaction-sintered (porous) and hot-pressed (dense) Si3N4. Only the reaction-sintered material which is being produced today in large scale as crucibles, pipes, nozzles and tiles is considered.

  10. Improving the Erosion Resistance of Electrical Insulating Materials Using Nano Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hag, A.; Ul-Haq, S.; Jayaram, S.; Cherney, E.

    2007-08-01

    The paper presents the experimental results obtained to test the effect of nano-fillers on the aging performance of silicone rubber for outdoor applications and enamelled wire for motor insulation. The erosion resistance of silicone rubber (SIR) filled with 12 nm size fumed silica is compared to those filled with 5 μm size silica filler using the ASTM 2303 Inclined Plane Tracking and Erosion Test. The erosion resistance of the SIR materials increased with increasing percentage of the fillers, and it was observed that 10% by weight of nano-filled SIR gives a performance that is similar to that obtained with 50% by weight of micro-filled SIR. The paper discusses the possible reasons for the improvement in the erosion resistance of nano-filled silicone composites using different material analysis techniques like Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Also, the effect of using different nano fillers like alumina, fumed silica and titanium oxide on the erosion resistance of enamel wire insulating material subjected to different electrical stresses will be addresses. Surface roughness is used to evaluate the effect of different nano-fillers on the erosion resistance of enamel wire insulation.

  11. Rutting and Fatigue Cracking Resistance of Waste Cooking Oil Modified Trinidad Asphaltic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Rean; Ramjattan-Harry, Vitra; Mohamed, Nazim

    2015-01-01

    The influence of waste cooking oil (WCO) on the performance characteristics of asphaltic materials indigenous to Trinidad, namely, Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA), Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB), and TLA : TPB (50 : 50) blend, was investigated to deduce the applicability of the WCO as a performance enhancer for the base asphalt. The rheological properties of complex modulus (G∗) and phase angle (δ) were measured for modified base asphalt blends containing up to 10% WCO. The results of rheology studies demonstrated that the incremental addition of WCO to the three parent binders resulted in incremental decreases in the rutting resistance (decrease in G∗/sinδ values) and increases in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G∗sinδ value). The fatigue cracking resistance and rutting resistance for the TLA : TPB (50 : 50) blends were between those of the blends containing pure TLA and TPB. As operating temperature increased, an increase in the resistance to fatigue cracking and a decrease in the rutting resistance were observed for all of the WCO modified asphaltic blends. This study demonstrated the capability to create customized asphalt-WCO blends to suit special applications and highlights the potential for WCO to be used as an environmentally attractive option for improving the use of Trinidad asphaltic materials. PMID:26336652

  12. Airflow resistance measurement for a layer of granular material based on the Helmholtz resonance phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Nishizu, Takahisa; Tomatsu, Eiji; Katsuno, Nakako

    2017-04-01

    A Helmholtz resonance technique was employed to predict the airflow resistance of layers of granular materials, namely glass beads, brown rice, soybean, adzuki beans, and corn kernels. Each granular sample was placed on the tube mouth of an open-type Helmholtz resonator. The resonant frequency was determined by measuring the electric impedance of a loudspeaker that was installed in the resonator and driven by a chirp signal linearly sweeping from 90 to 220 Hz for 6.0 s. For a changing sample layer thickness, the resonant frequency was measured, and the specific airflow resistance was calculated by measuring the static pressure drop required for N2 gas to flow through the layer at a constant velocity of 0.042 m/s. When the thickness of the layer was fixed, the Helmholtz resonant frequency decreased as the specific airflow resistance increased, regardless of the kind of granular material.

  13. Abrasive Wear Behavior of WC Reinforced Ni-BASED Composite Coating Sprayed and Fused by Oxy-Acetylene Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qun; Chen, Zhenhua; Ding, Zhang Xiong; Chen, Ding

    Microstructure of WC reinforced Ni-based self-fluxing alloy composite coating sprayed and fused by oxy-acetylene flame was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The wear performance of the coating was studied by a MLS-225 wet sand rubber wheel abrasive wear tester at various loads and sizes of abrasive particles. Also, the wear resistance of the coating was compared with uncoated ASTM1020 steel. The results indicated that the coating is bonded metallurgically to the substrate and has a homogeneous microstructure composed of both coarse WC and fine carbide and boride grains such as Cr7C3, Cr23C6, and Ni2B which disperse uniformly in the matrix of γ-Ni solid solution and Ni3B. The worn mass loss of the coating and ASTM1020 steel both increased with the load and size of abrasive particles, also, the coating has exhibited excellent abrasive wear resistance compared with ASTM1020 steel.

  14. Studies on parametric optimization for abrasive water jet machining of Al7075-TiB2 in-situ composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavya, J. T.; Keshavamurthy, R.; Pradeep Kumar, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    The study focuses on optimization and determination of significant process parameter for Abrasive Water Jet Machining of Al7075-TiB2metal matrix composite. Al-TiB2 metal matrix composite is synthesized by stir casting using in-situ technique. Optimization of machining parameters is done using Taguchi's L25orthogonal array for the experimental trials, with cutting speed, stand-off distance and Abrasive Flow rate as input parameters at five different levels. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) method is used for identifying the effect of machining parameters on volumetric material removal rate, surface roughness and dimensional accuracy. Then the results are validated by conducting verification experiments.

  15. Applicability Examination and Evaluation of Reactor Dismantlement Technology in the Fugen: Examination of Double Tubes Cutting by Abrasive Water Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuyuki Nakamura; Kouichi Kikuchi; Yoshitsugu Morishita; Tatsuo Usui; Daisuke Ogane

    2006-07-01

    As a peculiar issue of the decommissioning of FUGEN, it is necessary to establish a dismantlement method for the reactor having a 224 double-tubes structure arranged with pressure and calandria tubes concentrically. Mechanical cutting method will be desirable considering the influence on the atmospheres because the double-tubes consist of highly activated zirconium alloy and zircaloy material. Therefore, the abrasive water jet method was tested and examined as a mechanical double-tube cutting method that needs the standoff comparatively longer. We confirmed the applicability of the abrasive water jet method to the dismantlement of FUGEN's reactor. (authors)

  16. HBCUs as Sites of Resistance: The Malignity of Materialism, Western Masculinity, and Spiritual Malefaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Ty-Ron M. O.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the author challenges stakeholders (i.e., administrators, educators, students) of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) to examine how HBCUs can continue to serve as sites of resistance against the prevailing cultural norms of materialism, Western masculinity, and spiritual malefaction. The author traces his…

  17. Treating of solid earthen material and a method for measuring moisture content and resistivity of solid earthen material

    DOEpatents

    Heath, William; Richardson, Richard; Goheen, Steven

    1994-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile and non-volatile contaminants. Six electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a substantially equilateral hexagonal arrangement. Six phases of voltages are applied to corresponding electrodes. The voltages are adjusted within a first range of voltages to create multiple current paths between pairs of the electrodes. The current paths are evenly distributed throughout the region defined by the electrodes and therefore uniformly heat the region. The region of earthen material is heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants. This temperature is less than a melting temperature of the earthen material. The voltages are then increased to a second range of voltages effective to create dry regions around the electrodes. The dry regions have a perimeter which define a boundary between the dry regions and the earthen material exterior to the dry regions. Corona discharge occurs at the boundaries of the dry regions. As voltages are increased further, the dry regions move radially outward from the electrodes through the entire region. The corona boundaries decompose the non-volatilized contaminants remaining in the region. The hexagonal arrangement of electrodes is also preferable for measuring resistivity and moisture content of the earthen material. The electric field created between the electrodes is readily discernable and therefore facilitates accurate measurements.

  18. The effects of abrasives on electrical submersible pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.L. )

    1990-06-01

    The electrical submersible pump (ESP) is a high-speed rotating device. Its operational life in oil wells can depend on the type and quantities of abrasives present in the produced fluid. This paper reports on a set of experiments performed in a specialized abrasive test loop. In the test, the size and quantity of abrasives were varied along with flow rate through the pump. This paper also examines recent literature on sand production and explores some of the practical problems in sand measurement.

  19. Robotic abrasive water jet cutting of aerostructure components

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    To reduce tooling and labor costs associated with net trimming of aerostructure components, a system has been designed and implemented which combines the flexibility and accuracy of robotics with the productivity of abrasive water jet cutting. The system is comprised of a large, six-axis gantry robot which uses specially developed abrasive water jet end effectors to trim the edge-of-panel (EOP) and integral stiffener blades. These end effectors employ compact catchers to contain the spent stream, and thereby eliminate the need for large catcher tanks commonly used in abrasive water jet cutting. The robot is offline programmed to perform trimming on large, complex contoured panels.

  20. Cut Front Geometry Characterization in Cutting Applications of Brass with Abrasive Water Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, Adnan

    2010-06-01

    Abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting is an advanced manufacturing process for machining hard to cut materials. In this study, brass-353 samples of different thicknesses were cut by AWJ using different feed rates to identify the relationships between depth of cut (material thickness), feed rate, and deflection of cutting edge geometry. The effects of material thickness on the AWJ cut surface roughness were investigated and discussed. Deflection of cutting edge geometry in AWJ cutting process was assessed. Cutting edge geometry was characterized by analyzing the surface properties of cut samples.

  1. Abrasive waterjet cutting of high purity uranium metal: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Dravland, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Abrasive Waterjet Cutting process was evaluated to determine if the equivalent could be utilized for cutting uranium metal at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). In the process, a thin stream of ultrahigh pressure water carried grit material through a designated piecepart. In order to be acceptable for use at the FMPC, the equipment must be cost effective, minimize waste, and be adaptableto operating in an enclosure, and improve health and safety conditions. Observation of the cutting process showed that health and safety aspects could be optimized with an enclosed ventilated system. Also the equipment can be easily automated. The cutting action produced sparks similar to the sparks caused by a grinding operation. The sparks are captured in a water container under the workpiece that not only catches the sparks, but also serves to dissipiate the stream of water and residues produced by the cut. Metallographic tests performed on the cut surface of the block of depleted uranium showed no contamination of the uranium metal and the surface finish. 2 figs.

  2. Research on resistance properties of conductive layer materials of microchannel plate film dynode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ling-ling; Duanmu, Qingduo; Yang, Ji-kai; Wang, Guo-zheng

    2015-03-01

    Silicon Microchannel Plate - MCP - is a new image multiplier devices based semiconductor process technology. Compared with the traditional glass MCP, Silicon MCP has an advantage in technology that the dynode materials and the substrate materials are separate. At the same time, the dynode preparation process and the microchannel arrays are also separate. Two different dynode conductive layer films are prepared: polysilicon conductive films prepared by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) and AZO thin films coated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The conductive films coated by ALD are superior to dynode conductive films prepared by LPCVD. By comparing the resistivity of conductive polysilicon thin film and AZO thin film of different Al concentrations doped, AZO thin film of different Al concentrations doped is a more suitable conductive layer dynode material to satisfy the MCP conductive layer resistivity requirements.

  3. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  4. Effect of abrasive grit size on wear of manganese-zinc ferrite under three-body abrasion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1987-01-01

    Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites under three-body abrasion. The abrasion mechanism of Mn-Zn ferrite changes drastically with the size of abrasive grits. With 15-micron (1000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion of Mn-Zn ferrite is due principally to brittle fracture; while with 4- and 2-micron (4000- and 6000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion is due to plastic deformation and fracture. Both microcracking and plastic flow produce polycrystalline states on the wear surfaces of single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites. Coefficient of wear, total thickness of the deformed layers, and surface roughness of the wear surfaces increase markedly with an increase in abrasive grit size. The total thicknesses of the deformed layers are 3 microns for the ferrite abraded by 15-micron SiC, 0.9 microns for the ferrite abraded by 4-micron SiC, and 0.8 microns for the ferrite abraded by 1-micron SiC.

  5. CHIPPING FRACTURE RESISTANCE OF DENTAL CAD/CAM RESTORATIVE MATERIALS: PART I, PROCEDURES AND RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, G. D.; Giuseppetti, A. A.; Hoffman, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The edge chipping test was used to measure the fracture resistance of CAD/CAM dental restoration ceramics and resin composites. Methods An edge chipping machine was used to evaluate six materials including one feldspathic porcelain, two glass ceramics, a filled resin-composite, a yttria-stabilized zirconia, and a new ceramic-resin composite material. Force versus edge distance data were collected over a broad range of forces and distances. Data were analyzed by several approaches and several chipping resistance parameters were evaluated. The effects of using different indenter types were explored. Results The force versus distance trends were usually nonlinear with good fits to a power law equation with exponents usually ranging from 1.2 to 1.9. The order of chipping resistance (from least to greatest) was: feldspathic porcelain and a leucite glass ceramic (which were similar), followed by the lithium disilicate glass ceramic and the two resin composites (which were similar), and finally the zirconia which had the greatest resistance to chipping. Chipping with a Vickers indenter required 28% to 45% more force than with the sharp conical 120° indenter. The two indenters rank materials approximately the same way. The power law exponents were very similar for the two indenters for a particular material, but the exponents varied with material. The Rockwell C indenter gives different power law trends and rankings. Significance Despite the variations in the trends and indenters, simple comparisons between materials can be made by chipping with sharp conical 120° or Vickers indenters at 0.50 mm. Broad distance ranges are recommended for trend evaluation. PMID:24685178

  6. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width as currently defined by the ASTM G 171 Standard. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement, in some cases considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for detailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness parameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Data are presented to show that different combinations of scratch tips and abraded materials can actually yield the same scratch width, but result in different volume displacement or removal measurements and therefore, the ZOI method is more discriminating than the ASTM method scratch width. Furthermore, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for our specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized manner, and not just by scratch width alone, is reinforced. This benefit is made apparent when a tip creates an intricate contour having multiple peaks and valleys within a single scratch. This work lays the foundation for updating scratch measurement standards to improve modeling and characterization of three-body abrasion test results.

  7. Realization of resistive switching and magnetoresistance in ZnO/ZnO-Co composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoli; Jia, Juan; Li, Yanchun; Bai, Yuhao; Li, Jie; Shi, Yana; Wang, Lanfang; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    Combining resistive switching and magnetoresistance in a system exhibits great potential for application in multibit nonvolatile data storage. It is in significance and difficulty to seek a material with resistances that can be stably switched at different resistance states modulated by an electrical field and a magnetic field. In this paper, we propose a novel electrode/ZnO/ZnO-Co/electrode device in which the storage layer combines a nanostructured ZnO-Co layer and a ZnO layer. The device exhibits bipolar resistive switching characteristics, which can be explained by the accumulation of oxygen vacancies due to the migration of oxygen ions by external electrical stimuli and the contribution of Co particles in the ZnO-Co layer. Moreover, the magnetoresistance effect at room temperature can be observed in the device at high and low resistance states. Therefore, through electrical and magnetic control, four resistance states are achieved in this system, presenting a new possibility towards enhancing data densities by many folds.

  8. Realization of resistive switching and magnetoresistance in ZnO/ZnO-Co composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoli; Jia, Juan; Li, Yanchun; Bai, Yuhao; Li, Jie; Shi, Yana; Wang, Lanfang; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Combining resistive switching and magnetoresistance in a system exhibits great potential for application in multibit nonvolatile data storage. It is in significance and difficulty to seek a material with resistances that can be stably switched at different resistance states modulated by an electrical field and a magnetic field. In this paper, we propose a novel electrode/ZnO/ZnO-Co/electrode device in which the storage layer combines a nanostructured ZnO-Co layer and a ZnO layer. The device exhibits bipolar resistive switching characteristics, which can be explained by the accumulation of oxygen vacancies due to the migration of oxygen ions by external electrical stimuli and the contribution of Co particles in the ZnO-Co layer. Moreover, the magnetoresistance effect at room temperature can be observed in the device at high and low resistance states. Therefore, through electrical and magnetic control, four resistance states are achieved in this system, presenting a new possibility towards enhancing data densities by many folds. PMID:27585644

  9. Improved wound healing in blue LED treated superficial abrasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Bacci, Stefano; De Siena, Gaetano; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco; Alfieri, Domenico

    2013-06-01

    A blue-LED photocoagulator device was designed in order to induce a selective photocoagulation effect in superficial bleeding. An in vivo study in rat back skin evidenced an improved healing process in the LED treated abrasions.

  10. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Speith, H.; Trabold, E.

    1980-01-01

    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. The smoke and heat release rates of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/cm2. Abrasion tests were conducted on the decorative fabric covering and slip sheet to ascertain service life and compatibility of layers

  11. 49 CFR 178.345-2 - Material and material thickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for minimum thickness specified in § 178.320(a). (c) Corrosion or abrasion protection. When required... corrosion or mechanical abrasion due to the lading, must be protected by providing the tank or part of the... protection. (1) Corrosion allowance. Material added for corrosion allowance need not be of uniform...

  12. Dental abrasion as a cutting process.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Peter W; Wagner, Mark; Al-Fadhalah, Khaled; Almusallam, Abdulwahab S; Michael, Shaji; Thai, Lidia A; Strait, David S; Swain, Michael V; van Casteren, Adam; Renno, Waleed M; Shekeban, Ali; Philip, Swapna M; Saji, Sreeja; Atkins, Anthony G

    2016-06-06

    A mammalian tooth is abraded when a sliding contact between a particle and the tooth surface leads to an immediate loss of tooth tissue. Over time, these contacts can lead to wear serious enough to impair the oral processing of food. Both anatomical and physiological mechanisms have evolved in mammals to try to prevent wear, indicating its evolutionary importance, but it is still an established survival threat. Here we consider that many wear marks result from a cutting action whereby the contacting tip(s) of such wear particles acts akin to a tool tip. Recent theoretical developments show that it is possible to estimate the toughness of abraded materials via cutting tests. Here, we report experiments intended to establish the wear resistance of enamel in terms of its toughness and how friction varies. Imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to assess the damage involved. Damage ranged from pure plastic deformation to fracture with and without lateral microcracks. Grooves cut with a Berkovich diamond were the most consistent, suggesting that the toughness of enamel in cutting is 244 J m(-2), which is very high. Friction was higher in the presence of a polyphenolic compound, indicating that this could increase wear potential.

  13. Engineering serendipity: High-throughput discovery of materials that resist bacterial attachment☆

    PubMed Central

    Magennis, E.P.; Hook, A.L.; Davies, M.C.; Alexander, C.; Williams, P.; Alexander, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the colonisation of materials by microorganisms is important in a wide range of industries and clinical settings. To date, the underlying mechanisms that govern the interactions of bacteria with material surfaces remain poorly understood, limiting the ab initio design and engineering of biomaterials to control bacterial attachment. Combinatorial approaches involving high-throughput screening have emerged as key tools for identifying materials to control bacterial attachment. The hundreds of different materials assessed using these methods can be carried out with the aid of computational modelling. This approach can develop an understanding of the rules used to predict bacterial attachment to surfaces of non-toxic synthetic materials. Here we outline our view on the state of this field and the challenges and opportunities in this area for the coming years. Statement of significance This opinion article on high throughput screening methods reflects one aspect of how the field of biomaterials research has developed and progressed. The piece takes the reader through key developments in biomaterials discovery, particularly focusing on need to reduce bacterial colonisation of surfaces. Such bacterial resistant surfaces are increasingly required in this age of antibiotic resistance. The influence and origin of high-throughput methods are discussed with insights into the future of biomaterials development where computational methods may drive materials development into new fertile areas of discovery. New biomaterials will exhibit responsiveness to adapt to the biological environment and promote better integration and reduced rejection or infection. PMID:26577984

  14. Dentifrice fluoride and abrasivity interplay on artificial caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Hani M; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    Incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces may be subjected to toothbrushing, potentially leading to remineralization and/or abrasive wear. The interplay of dentifrice abrasivity and fluoride on this process is largely unknown and was investigated on three artificially created lesions with different mineral content/distribution. 120 bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n = 10), resulting from the association of (1) lesion type [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC); carboxymethylcellulose solution (CMC); hydroxyethylcellulose gel (HEC)], (2) slurry abrasive level [low (REA 4/ RDA 69); high (REA 7/RDA 208)], and (3) fluoride concentration [0/275 ppm (14.5 mM) F as NaF]. After lesion creation, specimens were brushed in an automated brushing machine with the test slurries (50 strokes 2×/day). Specimens were kept in artificial saliva in between brushings and overnight. Enamel surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry after lesion creation, 1, 3 and 5 days. Two enamel sections (from baseline and post-brushing areas) were obtained and analyzed microradiographically. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 5%). Brushing with high-abrasive slurry caused more SL than brushing with low-abrasive slurry. For MeC and CMC lesions, fluoride had a protective effect on SL from day 3 on. Furthermore, for MeC and CMC, there was a significant mineral gain in the remaining lesions except when brushed with high-abrasive slurries and 0 ppm F. For HEC, a significant mineral gain took place when low-abrasive slurry was used with fluoride. The tested lesions responded differently to the toothbrushing procedures. Both slurry fluoride content and abrasivity directly impacted SL and mineral gain of enamel caries lesions.

  15. Analysis of Abrasive Blasting of DOP-26 Iridium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, Evan Keith; Zhang, Wei; Ulrich, George B

    2012-01-01

    The effects of abrasive blasting on the surface geometry and microstructure of DOP-26 iridium alloy (Ir-0.3% W-0.006% Th 0.005% Al) have been investigated. Abrasive blasting has been used to control emissivity of components operating at elevated temperature. The effects of abrasive blasting conditions on surface morphology were investigated both experimentally and by numerical modeling. The simplified model, based on finite element analysis of a single angular particle impacting on Ir alloy disk, calculates the surface deformation and residual strain distribution. The experimental results and modeling results both indicate that the surface geometry is not sensitive to the abrasive blast process conditions of nozzle pressure and standoff distance considered in this study. On the other hand, the modeling results suggest that the angularity of the abrasive particle has an important role in determining surface geometry, which in turn, affects the emissivity. Abrasive blasting causes localized surface strains and localized recrystallization, but it does not affect grain size following extended exposure at elevated temperature. The dependence of emissivity of the DOP-26 alloy on mean surface slope follows a similar trend to that reported for pure iridium.

  16. Prediction of Corrosion Resistance of Some Dental Metallic Materials with an Adaptive Regression Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelariu, Romeu; Suditu, Gabriel Dan; Mareci, Daniel; Bolat, Georgiana; Cimpoesu, Nicanor; Leon, Florin; Curteanu, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the electrochemical behavior of some dental metallic materials in artificial saliva for different pH (5.6 and 3.4), NaF content (500 ppm, 1000 ppm, and 2000 ppm), and with albumin protein addition (0.6 wt.%) for pH 3.4. The corrosion resistance of the alloys was quantitatively evaluated by polarization resistance, estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method. An adaptive k-nearest-neighbor regression method was applied for evaluating the corrosion resistance of the alloys by simulation, depending on the operation conditions. The predictions provided by the model are useful for experimental practice, as they can replace or, at least, help to plan the experiments. The accurate results obtained prove that the developed model is reliable and efficient.

  17. Materials for Advanced Turbine Engines (MATE). Project 4: Erosion resistant compressor airfoil coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashid, J. M.; Freling, M.; Friedrich, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of coatings to provide at least a 2X improvement in particulate erosion resistance for steel, nickel and titanium compressor airfoils was identified and demonstrated. Coating materials evaluated included plasma sprayed cobalt tungsten carbide, nickel carbide and diffusion applied chromium plus boron. Several processing parameters for plasma spray processing and diffusion coating were evaluated to identify coating systems having the most potential for providing airfoil erosion resistance. Based on laboratory results and analytical evaluations, selected coating systems were applied to gas turbine blades and evaluated for surface finish, burner rig erosion resistance and effect on high cycle fatigue strength. Based on these tests, the following coatings were recommended for engine testing: Gator-Gard plasma spray 88WC-12Co on titanium alloy airfoils, plasma spray 83WC-17Co on steel and nickel alloy airfoils, and Cr+B on nickel alloy airfoils.

  18. Effect of radiation cross-linking on the abrasive wear behaviour of polyethylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gul, Rizwan M.; Khan, Tahir I.

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the differences in the dry abrasive wear behavior of different polyethylenes, and compares the effect of radiation cross-linking on the wear behavior. Four different types of polyethylenes: LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE and UHMWPE were studied. Cross-linking was carried out by high energy electron beam with radiation dose of 200 kGy. The results show that in unirradiated state UHMWPE has excellent wear resistance, with HDPE showing comparable wear properties; both LDPE and LLDPE exhibit high wear rate. Cross-linking improves wear rate of LDPE and UHMWPE, however, the wear rate of HDPE and LLDPE increases with cross-linking.

  19. Standardization of a Volumetric Displacement Measurement for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, K. W. Jr.; Kobrick, R. L.; Klaus, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    A limitation has been identified in the existing test standards used for making controlled, two-body abrasion scratch measurements based solely on the width of the resultant score on the surface of the material. A new, more robust method is proposed for analyzing a surface scratch that takes into account the full three-dimensional profile of the displaced material. To accomplish this, a set of four volume- displacement metrics was systematically defined by normalizing the overall surface profile to denote statistically the area of relevance, termed the Zone of Interaction. From this baseline, depth of the trough and height of the plowed material are factored into the overall deformation assessment. Proof-of-concept data were collected and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of this proposed methodology. This technique takes advantage of advanced imaging capabilities that allow resolution of the scratched surface to be quantified in greater detail than was previously achievable. When reviewing existing data analysis techniques for conducting two-body abrasive scratch tests, it was found that the ASTM International Standard G 171 specified a generic metric based only on visually determined scratch width as a way to compare abraded materials. A limitation to this method was identified in that the scratch width is based on optical surface measurements, manually defined by approximating the boundaries, but does not consider the three-dimensional volume of material that was displaced. With large, potentially irregular deformations occurring on softer materials, it becomes unclear where to systematically determine the scratch width. Specifically, surface scratches on different samples may look the same from a top view, resulting in an identical scratch width measurement, but may vary in actual penetration depth and/or plowing deformation. Therefore, two different scratch profiles would be measured as having identical abrasion properties, although they differ

  20. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Material (HPCRM) Development

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C; Haslam, J; Day, D; Hailey, P; Lian, T; Rebak, R; Perepezko, J; Payer, J; Branagan, D; Beardsley, B; D'Amato, A; Aprigliano, L

    2008-01-09

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional

  1. Iron-Based Amorphous Metals:The High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials(HPCRM) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J

    2007-07-09

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional

  2. Iron-Based Amorphous Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Material Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Joseph; Choi, Jor-Shan; Saw, Cheng; Haslam, Jeffrey; Day, Dan; Hailey, Phillip; Lian, Tiangan; Rebak, Raul; Perepezko, John; Payer, Joe; Branagan, Daniel; Beardsley, Brad; D'Amato, Andy; Aprigliano, Lou

    2009-06-01

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was cosponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition, materials synthesis, thermal stability, corrosion resistance, environmental cracking, mechanical properties, damage tolerance, radiation effects, and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4) and SAM1651 (Fe48Mo14Cr15Y2C15B6) have been produced as meltspun ribbons (MSRs), dropcast ingots, and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of MSRs and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently, thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests; good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while the open-circuit corrosion potentials (OCPs) were simultaneously monitored; reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber and suitable for criticality-control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional stainless steel and Ni-based materials, and are proving to have excellent wear

  3. Eco-friendly electron beam lithography using water-developable resist material derived from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Oshima, Akihiro; Wakabayashi, Takanori; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the eco-friendly electron beam (EB) lithography using a high-sensitive negative type of water-developable resist material derived from biomass on hardmask layer for tri-layer processes. A water developable, non-chemically amplified, high sensitive, and negative tone resist material in EB lithography was developed for environmental affair, safety, easiness of handling, and health of the working people, instead of the common developable process of trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide. The images of 200 nm line and 800 nm space pattern with exposure dose of 7.0 μC/cm2 and CF4 etching selectivity of 2.2 with hardmask layer were provided by specific process conditions.

  4. Method and apparatus for measuring properties of particle beams using thermo-resistive material properties

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Dotson, Danny Wayne

    2007-10-09

    A beam position detector for measuring the properties of a charged particle beam, including the beam's position, size, shape, and intensity. One or more absorbers are constructed of thermo-resistive material and positioned to intercept and absorb a portion of the incoming beam power, thereby causing local heating of each absorber. The local temperature increase distribution across the absorber, or the distribution between different absorbers, will depend on the intensity, size, and position of the beam. The absorbers are constructed of a material having a strong dependence of electrical resistivity on temperature. The beam position detector has no moving parts in the vicinity of the beam and is especially suited to beam areas having high ionizing radiation dose rates or poor beam quality, including beams dispersed in the transverse direction and in their time radio frequency structure.

  5. Recent Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Rock Abrasion Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, J.; Paulsen, G.; Davis, K.; Gorevan, S.; Zacny, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) serves as the sample preparation device on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) science payload. The RAT grinds Martian rock in a cylindrical volume, 45 mm in diameter and to a depth of up to 10 mm. This grinding action is intended to remove the altered outer layers of rock as well as overlying surface fines in preparation for imaging and spectral observations. In addition to acting as a facilitator for other instruments in the MER payload, RAT telemetry acquired during grinding may be used to assess the physical properties of the rocks that it grinds. RAT instruments on both Spirit and Opportunity have continued to operate and return useful data since 2004, despite minor problems that have recently occurred. The RAT on Spirit has recently been used for a purpose outside its original design capabilities: brushing away thin layers of loose soil without solid rock underneath. By progressing into the soil a few millimeters at a time, the RAT has been instrumental in helping to reveal the stratigraphy of this soft material. These results have helped in assessing soil properties and in turn will facilitate extrication of Spirit from its current location. Recent results from the Mars Exploration Rovers are presented along with data from laboratory RAT testing.

  6. Nuclear-chemical methods in a hard tooth tissue abrasion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosman, A.; Spěváček, V.; Koníček, J.; Vopálka, D.; Houŝová, D.; Doležalová, L.

    1999-01-01

    The advanced method consists in implantation—labelling of the thin surface layers of the solid objects, e.g. hard tooth tissue, by atoms of suitable natural or artificial radionuclides. Nuclides from the uranium series were implanted into the surface by using nuclear recoil effect at alpha decay of 226Ra to 222Rn, alpha decay of 222Rn to RaA, alpha decay of RaA to RaB (beta-emitter) and further alpha or beta emitters. With regard to chosen alpha detection and to the half—lives of the radionuclides, there was actually measured the activity of 222Rn, RaA and RaC’ in the thin surface layer. This was followed by the laboratory simulation of the abrasion in the system of “toothbrush—various suspensions of the tooth-pastes—hard tooth tissue (or material standard—ivory)” in specially designed device—the dentoabrasionmeter. The activities of the tissue surface measured before and after abrasion were used for calculations of the relative drop of the surface activity. On this basis the influence of various tooth-pastes containing various abrasive substances was determined.

  7. Influence of air abrasion preparation on microleakage in glass ionomer cement restorations.

    PubMed

    Reis, Lucia da Silva; Chinelatti, Michelle A; Corona, Silmara A M; Palma-Dibb, Regina G; Borsatto, Maria Cristina

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess microleakage in class V cavities prepared by air abrasion or high-speed dental bur and restored with different glass ionomer cements. Sixty bovine incisors were equally divided into 6 groups: I, II and III (preparation by high-speed) and IV, V and VI (preparation by air abrasion). Groups I and IV were restored with Fuji IX; groups II and V with Ketac Molar; and groups III and VI with Vitremer. After 24 h (37 degrees C), specimens were thermocycled, isolated with nail varnish, immersed in a 0.2% Rhodamine B solution for 24 hours, sectioned longitudinally and analyzed for microleakage using an optical microscope connected to a digital camera and a computer. The images were digitized and a software allowed the quantitative evaluation of microleakage in millimeters. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. It was observed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) between incisal (enamel) and cervical (dentine/cementum) margins, mainly for Ketac Molar; there was no difference (p > 0.05) between preparation methods, except for group II (high-speed/Ketac Molar) that showed higher infiltration; regarding the materials, Ketac Molar demonstrated the highest microleakage values (p < 0.05), and only Vitremer sealed completely both margins of restorations. It was concluded that air abrasion preparation did not influence microleakage in class V restorations with the employed glass ionomer cements.

  8. Development of a protective decorative fire resistant low smoke emitting, thermally stable coating material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of suitable electrocoatings and subsequent application to nonconductive substrates are discussed. Substrates investigated were plastics or resin-treated materials such as FX-resin (phenolic-type resin) impregnated fiberglass mat, polyphenylene sulfide, polyether sulfone and polyimide-impregnated unidirectional fiberglass. Efforts were aimed at formulating a fire-resistant, low smoke emitting, thermally stable, easily cleaned coating material. The coating is to be used for covering substrate panels, such as aluminum, silicate foam, polymeric structural entities, etc., all of which are applied in the aircraft cabin interior and thus subject to the spillages, scuffing, spotting and the general contaminants which prevail in aircraft passenger compartments.

  9. The Further Development of Heat-Resistant Materials for Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, Franz

    1946-01-01

    The present report deals with the problems involved in the greater utilization and development of aircraft engine materials, and specifically; piston materials, cylinder heads, exhaust valves, and exhaust gas turbine blading. The blades of the exhaust gas turbine are likely to be the highest stressed components of modern power plants from a thermal-mechanical and chemical standpoint, even though the requirements on exhaust valves of engines with gasoline injection are in general no less stringent. For the fire plate in Diesel engines the specifications for mechanical strength and design are not so stringent, and the question of heat resistance, which under these circumstances is easier obtainable, predominates.

  10. Effects of pulp capping materials on fracture resistance of Class II composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Yasa, Bilal; Akcay, Merve; Savas, Selcuk; Kavrik, Fevzi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cavity design and the type of pulp capping materials on the fracture resistance of Class II composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted, sound molar teeth were selected for the study. A dovetail cavity on the mesio-occlusal and a slot cavity on disto-occlusal surfaces of each tooth were prepared, and the teeth were divided 4 groups which one of them as a control group. The pulp capping materials (TheraCal LC, Calcimol LC, Dycal) applied on pulpo-axial wall of each cavity, and the restoration was completed with composite resin. The teeth were subjected to a compressive load in a universal mechanical testing machine. The surfaces of the tooth and restoration were examined under a stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using factorial analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: For pulp capping materials, the highest fracture load (931.15 ± 203.81 N) and the lowest fracture load (832.28 ± 245.75 N) were calculated for Control and Dycal group, respectively. However, there were no statistically significant differences among all groups (P > 0.05). The fracture load of the dovetail groups was significantly higher than those of the slot cavity groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Dovetail cavity design shows better fracture resistance in Class II composite restorations, independent of used or not used pulp capping materials. PMID:26038653

  11. Super-elastic and fatigue resistant carbon material with lamellar multi-arch microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huai-Ling; Zhu, Yin-Bo; Mao, Li-Bo; Wang, Feng-Chao; Luo, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yang-Yi; Lu, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Ge, Jin; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Ya-Rong; Xu, Liang; Wang, Lin-Jun; Xu, Wei-Hong; Wu, Heng-An; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Low-density compressible materials enable various applications but are often hindered by structure-derived fatigue failure, weak elasticity with slow recovery speed and large energy dissipation. Here we demonstrate a carbon material with microstructure-derived super-elasticity and high fatigue resistance achieved by designing a hierarchical lamellar architecture composed of thousands of microscale arches that serve as elastic units. The obtained monolithic carbon material can rebound a steel ball in spring-like fashion with fast recovery speed (~580 mm s-1), and demonstrates complete recovery and small energy dissipation (~0.2) in each compress-release cycle, even under 90% strain. Particularly, the material can maintain structural integrity after more than 106 cycles at 20% strain and 2.5 × 105 cycles at 50% strain. This structural material, although constructed using an intrinsically brittle carbon constituent, is simultaneously super-elastic, highly compressible and fatigue resistant to a degree even greater than that of previously reported compressible foams mainly made from more robust constituents.

  12. Super-elastic and fatigue resistant carbon material with lamellar multi-arch microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Huai-Ling; Zhu, Yin-Bo; Mao, Li-Bo; Wang, Feng-Chao; Luo, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yang-Yi; Lu, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Ge, Jin; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Ya-Rong; Xu, Liang; Wang, Lin-Jun; Xu, Wei-Hong; Wu, Heng-An; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Low-density compressible materials enable various applications but are often hindered by structure-derived fatigue failure, weak elasticity with slow recovery speed and large energy dissipation. Here we demonstrate a carbon material with microstructure-derived super-elasticity and high fatigue resistance achieved by designing a hierarchical lamellar architecture composed of thousands of microscale arches that serve as elastic units. The obtained monolithic carbon material can rebound a steel ball in spring-like fashion with fast recovery speed (∼580 mm s−1), and demonstrates complete recovery and small energy dissipation (∼0.2) in each compress-release cycle, even under 90% strain. Particularly, the material can maintain structural integrity after more than 106 cycles at 20% strain and 2.5 × 105 cycles at 50% strain. This structural material, although constructed using an intrinsically brittle carbon constituent, is simultaneously super-elastic, highly compressible and fatigue resistant to a degree even greater than that of previously reported compressible foams mainly made from more robust constituents. PMID:27676215

  13. Performance analysis of cutting graphite-epoxy composite using a 90,000psi abrasive waterjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choppali, Aiswarya

    Graphite-epoxy composites are being widely used in many aerospace and structural applications because of their properties: which include lighter weight, higher strength to weight ratio and a greater flexibility in design. However, the inherent anisotropy of these composites makes it difficult to machine them using conventional methods. To overcome the major issues that develop with conventional machining such as fiber pull out, delamination, heat generation and high tooling costs, an effort is herein made to study abrasive waterjet machining of composites. An abrasive waterjet is used to cut 1" thick graphite epoxy composites based on baseline data obtained from the cutting of ¼" thick material. The objective of this project is to study the surface roughness of the cut surface with a focus on demonstrating the benefits of using higher pressures for cutting composites. The effects of major cutting parameters: jet pressure, traverse speed, abrasive feed rate and cutting head size are studied at different levels. Statistical analysis of the experimental data provides an understanding of the effect of the process parameters on surface roughness. Additionally, the effect of these parameters on the taper angle of the cut is studied. The data is analyzed to obtain a set of process parameters that optimize the cutting of 1" thick graphite-epoxy composite. The statistical analysis is used to validate the experimental data. Costs involved in the cutting process are investigated in term of abrasive consumed to better understand and illustrate the practical benefits of using higher pressures. It is demonstrated that, as pressure increased, ultra-high pressure waterjets produced a better surface quality at a faster traverse rate with lower costs.

  14. Improved fire-resistant coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, J. B.; Stuart, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Water-base coatings containing potassium silicate show improvement in areas of quick air-drying, crack, craze, and abrasion resistance, adherence, and leach resistance. Coatings are useful as thermal-barrier layers in furnaces, and as general purpose fire resistant surfaces where vapor impermeability is not a requirement.

  15. Wear resistance properties of austempered ductile iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Y. S.; Kingsbury, G. R.

    1998-02-01

    A detailed review of wear resistance properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI) was undertaken to examine the potential applications of this material for wear parts, as an alternative to steels, alloyed and white irons, bronzes, and other competitive materials. Two modes of wear were studied: adhesive (frictional) dry sliding and abrasive wear. In the rotating dry sliding tests, wear behavior of the base material (a stationary block) was considered in relationship to countersurface (steel shaft) wear. In this wear mode, the wear rate of ADI was only one-fourth that of pearlitic ductile iron (DI) grade 100-70-03; the wear rates of aluminum bronze and leaded-tin bronze, respectively, were 3.7 and 3.3 times greater than that of ADI. Only quenched DI with a fully martensitic matrix slightly outperformed ADI. No significant difference was observed in the wear of steel shafts running against ADI and quenched DI. The excellent wear performance of ADI and its countersurface, combined with their relatively low friction coefficient, indicate potential for dry sliding wear applications. In the abrasive wear mode, the wear rate of ADI was comparable to that of alloyed hardened AISI 4340 steel, and approximately one-half that of hardened medium-carbon AISI 1050 steel and of white and alloyed cast irons. The excellent wear resistance of ADI may be attributed to the strain-affected transformation of high-carbon austenite to martensite that takes place in the surface layer during the wear tests.

  16. Erosion studies of pipe-lining materials - fifth progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, H.

    1984-05-01

    This is the fifth report on laboratory tests to evaluate the erosion resistance of the inner surface of water-bearing pipe. Erosion resistance is defined as the resistance to the wearing effect produced by abrasive particles such as would be encountered in steel pipe carrying sand or sand- and gravel-laden water. Erosive conditions are simulated by rotating a lined pipe containing a sand-water or gravel-water slurry. Coal-tar enamel has good erosion resistance and is used as the standard for comparing other materials. Seventeen RPM pipe liners, concrete, steel, synthetic and natural rubber sheet, PVC, polyethylene, and ABS pipe had better erosion resistance than coal-tar enamel; four RPM liners, three RTRP liners, and one vinyl resin liner for asbestos-cement pipe were less resistant. Results from four previous progress reports are included.

  17. Abrasions and lameness in piglets born in different farrowing systems with different types of floor

    PubMed Central

    Zoric, Mate; Nilsson, Ebba; Mattsson, Sigbrit; Lundeheim, Nils; Wallgren, Per

    2008-01-01

    Background The quality of the floor is essential to the welfare of piglets as abrasions often are recorded in newborn piglets, and such lesions may lead to lameness. Apart from animal suffering, lameness contributes to losses in form of dead piglets, decreased growth, and increased use of antibiotics and manual labour. Methods In a herd with three different farrowing systems, 37 litters (390 piglets) were studied until the age of 3 weeks with respect to presence of skin wounds and abrasions. Lameness was registered until the age of 7 weeks. Eight lame piglets were sacrificed before medical treatment and subjected to necropsy including histopathological and microbiological examinations. Isolates of streptococci, staphylococci and E. coli were tested with respect to antimicrobial resistance. Mastitis was observed in ten sows. Results The most severe abrasions at carpus and soles were seen in the system with a new solid concrete floor with a slatted floor over the dunging area. The lowest magnitude was observed in the deep litter system with peat. Sole bruising was more common in the systems with concrete floor compared to the deep litter system with peat, and the differce in prevalence was significant at all examination days. The lesions decreased with time and about 75% of the treatments for lameness were performed during the first three weeks of life. The overall prevalence of lameness was highest in the system with new solid concrete floor with a slatted floor over the dunging area (9.4%) followed by the old solid concrete floor (7.5%). A lower (p < 0.05) prevalence was seen in the deep litters system with peat (3.3%). No significant relationship between mastitis and abrasions or lameness in the offspring was observed. Conclusion There were large differences in the prevalence of abrasions and lameness between the floor types. The deep litter system with peat provided a soft and good floor for piglets. The overall prevalence of lameness was only diagnosed in every

  18. Solid-state resistance upset welding: A process with unique advantages for advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Solid-state resistance upset welding is suitable for joining many alloys that are difficult to weld using fusion processes. Since no melting takes place, the weld metal retains many of the characteristics of the base metal. Resulting welds have a hot worked structure, and thereby have higher strength than fusion welds in the same mate. Since the material being joined is not melted, compositional gradients are not introduced, second phase materials are minimally disrupted, and minor alloying elements, do not affect weldability. Solid-state upset welding has been adapted for fabrication of structures considered very large compared to typical resistance welding applications. The process has been used for closure of capsules, small vessels, and large containers. Welding emphasis has been on 304L stainless steel, the material for current applications. Other materials have, however, received enough attention to have demonstrated capability for joining alloys that are not readily weldable using fusion welding methods. A variety of other stainless steels (including A-286), superalloys (including TD nickel), refractory metals (including tungsten), and aluminum alloys (including 2024) have been successfully upset welded.

  19. Relation between bandgap and resistance drift in amorphous phase change materials

    PubMed Central

    Rütten, Martin; Kaes, Matthias; Albert, Andreas; Wuttig, Matthias; Salinga, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Memory based on phase change materials is currently the most promising candidate for bridging the gap in access time between memory and storage in traditional memory hierarchy. However, multilevel storage is still hindered by the so-called resistance drift commonly related to structural relaxation of the amorphous phase. Here, we present the temporal evolution of infrared spectra measured on amorphous thin films of the three phase change materials Ag4In3Sb67Te26, GeTe and the most popular Ge2Sb2Te5. A widening of the bandgap upon annealing accompanied by a decrease of the optical dielectric constant ε∞ is observed for all three materials. Quantitative comparison with experimental data for the apparent activation energy of conduction reveals that the temporal evolution of bandgap and activation energy can be decoupled. The case of Ag4In3Sb67Te26, where the increase of activation energy is significantly smaller than the bandgap widening, demonstrates the possibility to identify new phase change materials with reduced resistance drift. PMID:26621533

  20. Relation between bandgap and resistance drift in amorphous phase change materials.

    PubMed

    Rütten, Martin; Kaes, Matthias; Albert, Andreas; Wuttig, Matthias; Salinga, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Memory based on phase change materials is currently the most promising candidate for bridging the gap in access time between memory and storage in traditional memory hierarchy. However, multilevel storage is still hindered by the so-called resistance drift commonly related to structural relaxation of the amorphous phase. Here, we present the temporal evolution of infrared spectra measured on amorphous thin films of the three phase change materials Ag4In3Sb67Te26, GeTe and the most popular Ge2Sb2Te5. A widening of the bandgap upon annealing accompanied by a decrease of the optical dielectric constant ε∞ is observed for all three materials. Quantitative comparison with experimental data for the apparent activation energy of conduction reveals that the temporal evolution of bandgap and activation energy can be decoupled. The case of Ag4In3Sb67Te26, where the increase of activation energy is significantly smaller than the bandgap widening, demonstrates the possibility to identify new phase change materials with reduced resistance drift.

  1. Development of plant-based resist material derived from biomass on hardmask layer in ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi

    2012-06-01

    Nanopatterning printability due to high sensitivity and low film thickness shrinkage of ultraviolet curing process in resist material was one of key to achieve high resolution and quality of nanoimprint lithography. The new ultraviolet curing plant-based resist material derived from biomass was investigated to achieve high quality of 100 nm line and space patterning images in the optimized conditions of ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography technology for the optical films containing light-emitting diodes, solar cell devices, actuators, biosensors, and micro electro mechanical systems. The newly plantbased resist material derived from biomass is expected as one of the nanoimprint lithography technology in next generation optical devices and biosensors.

  2. Recent progress and tests of radiation resistant impregnation materials for Nb{sub 3}Sn coils

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.; Krave, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2014-01-27

    Fermilab is collaborating with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) (US-LARP collaboration) to develop a large-aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. An important component of this work is the development of materials that are sufficiently radiation resistant for use in critical areas of the upgrade. This paper describes recent progress in characterization of materials, including the baseline CTD101K epoxy, cyanate ester blends, and Matrimid 5292, a bismaleimide-based system. Structural properties of “ten stacks” of cable impregnated with these materials are tested at room and cryogenic temperatures and compared to the baseline CT-101K. Experience with potting 1 and 2 meter long coils with Matrimid 5292 are described. Test results of a single 1-m coil impregnated with Matrimid 5292 are reported and compared to similar coils impregnated with the traditional epoxy.

  3. Testing and Selection of Fire-Resistant Materials for Spacecraft Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Jackson, Brian; Olson, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft fire-safety strategy emphasizes prevention, mostly through the selection of onboard items classified accord- ing to their fire resistance. The principal NASA acceptance tests described in this paper assess the flammability of materials and components under "worst-case" normal-gravity conditions of upward flame spread in controlled-oxygen atmospheres. Tests conducted on the ground, however, cannot duplicate the unique fire characteristics in the nonbuoyant low-gravity environment of orbiting spacecraft. Research shows that flammability an fire-spread rates in low gravity are sensitive to forced convection (ventilation flows) and atmospheric-oxygen concentration. These research results are helping to define new material-screening test methods that will better evaluate material performance in spacecraft.

  4. Recent progress and tests of radiation resistant impregnation materials for Nb3Sn coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossert, R.; Krave, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Fermilab is collaborating with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) (US-LARP collaboration) to develop a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. An important component of this work is the development of materials that are sufficiently radiation resistant for use in critical areas of the upgrade. This paper describes recent progress in characterization of materials, including the baseline CTD101K epoxy, cyanate ester blends, and Matrimid 5292, a bismaleimide-based system. Structural properties of "ten stacks" of cable impregnated with these materials are tested at room and cryogenic temperatures and compared to the baseline CT-101K. Experience with potting 1 and 2 meter long coils with Matrimid 5292 are described. Test results of a single 1-m coil impregnated with Matrimid 5292 are reported and compared to similar coils impregnated with the traditional epoxy.

  5. Preparation and wear resistance of Ti-Zr-Ni quasicrystal and polyamide composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinlu; Li, Xuesong; Zhang, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Wanqiang; Wang, Limin

    2011-07-01

    Ti-Zr-Ni icosahedral quasicrystal powders (Ti-QC), prepared by mechanical alloying and then annealing in a vacuum furnace, were used as a novel filler material in polyamide 12 (PA12). The melt processability of the composite was studied using a Haake torque rheometer. This indicates that PA12/Ti-QC composites can be melt-processed into a wear-resistant material. Further, these composites, fabricated by compression molding, were tested in sliding wear against a polished bearing steel counterface. The results from wear testing show that the addition of Ti-QC filler to PA12 enhances wear resistance and reduces volume loss by half compared with neat PA12. Furthermore, it is found that the hardness of the composite increases with increasing content of Ti-QC filler. In addition, PA12/Ti-QC composites exhibit a slightly higher crystallization temperature and better thermal stability than PA12. These combined results demonstrate that Ti-QC filler may be a desirable alternative when attempting to increase the wear resistance of PA12.

  6. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method.

    PubMed

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A

    2011-02-01

    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  7. A Damage Resistance Comparison Between Candidate Polymer Matrix Composite Feedline Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T

    2000-01-01

    As part of NASAs focused technology programs for future reusable launch vehicles, a task is underway to study the feasibility of using the polymer matrix composite feedlines instead of metal ones on propulsion systems. This is desirable to reduce weight and manufacturing costs. The task consists of comparing several prototype composite feedlines made by various methods. These methods are electron-beam curing, standard hand lay-up and autoclave cure, solvent assisted resin transfer molding, and thermoplastic tape laying. One of the critical technology drivers for composite components is resistance to foreign objects damage. This paper presents results of an experimental study of the damage resistance of the candidate materials that the prototype feedlines are manufactured from. The materials examined all have a 5-harness weave of IM7 as the fiber constituent (except for the thermoplastic, which is unidirectional tape laid up in a bidirectional configuration). The resin tested were 977-6, PR 520, SE-SA-1, RS-E3 (e-beam curable), Cycom 823 and PEEK. The results showed that the 977-6 and PEEK were the most damage resistant in all tested cases.

  8. Rock Abrasion Tool Exhibits the Deep Red Pigment of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    During recent soil-brushing experiments, the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit became covered with dust, as shown here. An abundance of iron oxide minerals in the dust gave the device a reddish-brown veneer. Investigators were using the rock abrasion tool to uncover successive layers of soil in an attempt to reveal near-surface stratigraphy. Afterward, remnant dirt clods were visible on both the bit and the brush of the tool. Designers of the rock abrasion tool at Honeybee Robotics and engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a plan to run the brush on the rock abrasion tool in reverse to dislodge the dirt and return the tool to normal operation. Subsequent communications with the rover revealed that the procedure is working and the rock abrasion tool remains healthy.

    Spirit acquired this approximately true-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 893rd sol, or Martian day (July 8, 2006). The image combines exposures taken through three of the camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 430 nanometers.

  9. Evaluating spin-on carbon materials at low temperatures for high wiggling resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Michael; Krishnamurthy, Vandana; Wang, Yubao; Lin, Qin; Guerrero, Douglas; Simmons, Sean; Carr, Brandy

    2013-03-01

    Spin-on carbon (SOC) materials play an important role in the multilayer lithography scheme for the mass production of advanced semiconductor devices. One of the SOC's key roles in the multilayer process (photoresist, silicon-containing hardmask, SOC) is the reactive ion etch (RIE) for pattern transfer into the substrate. As aspect ratios of the SOC material increase and feature sizes decrease, the pattern transfer from SOC to substrate by a fluorine-containing RIE induces severe pattern deformation ("wiggling"), which ultimately prevents successful pattern transfer into the substrate. One process that reduces line wiggling is a high-temperature (>250°C) post-application bake of the SOC material. In this study, we developed a process for evaluating SOC materials with respect to their pattern transfer performance. This process allowed us to evaluate line-wiggling behavior with several SOC materials at lower bake temperatures. This paper will discuss novel materials design in relation to high-aspect-ratio SOC layers and wiggling resistance.

  10. Antibacterial photodynamic therapy with 808-nm laser and indocyanine green on abrasion wound models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaloglu, Nermin; Güney, Melike; Yuksel, Sahru; Gülsoy, Murat

    2015-02-01

    Infections with pathogens could cause serious health problems, such as septicemia and subsequent death. Some of these deaths are caused by nosocomial, chronic, or burn-related wound infections. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be useful for the treatment of these infections. Our aim was to investigate the antibacterial effect of indocyanine green (ICG) and 808-nm laser on a rat abrasion wound model infected with the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain. Abrasion wounds were infected with a multidrug resistant clinical isolate of S. aureus. ICG concentrations of 500, 1000, and 2000 μg/ml were applied with a 450 J/cm2 energy dose. Temperature change was monitored by a thermocouple system. The remaining bacterial burden was determined by the serial dilution method after each application. Wounds were observed for 11 days posttreatment. The recovery process was assessed macroscopically. Tissue samples were also examined histologically by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Around a 90% reduction in bacterial burden was observed after PDT applications. In positive control groups (ICG-only and laser-only groups), there was no significant reduction. The applied energy dose did not cause any thermal damage to the target tissue or host environment. Results showed that ICG together with a 808-nm laser might be a promising antibacterial method to eliminate infections in animals and accelerate the wound-healing process.

  11. Adhesion and wear behaviour of NCD coatings on Si3N4 by micro-abrasion tests.

    PubMed

    Silva, F G; Neto, M A; Fernandes, A J S; Costa, F M; Oliveira, F J; Silva, R F

    2009-06-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings offer an excellent alternative for tribological applications, preserving most of the intrinsic mechanical properties of polycrystalline CVD diamond and adding to it an extreme surface smoothness. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics are reported to guarantee high adhesion levels to CVD microcrystalline diamond coatings, but the NCD adhesion to Si3N4 is not yet well established. Micro-abrasion tests are appropriate for evaluating the abrasive wear resistance of a given surface, but they also provide information on thin film/substrate interfacial resistance, i.e., film adhesion. In this study, a comparison is made between the behaviour of NCD films deposited by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) and microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) techniques. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic discs were selected as substrates. The NCD depositions by HFCVD and MPCVD were carried out using H2-CH4 and H2-CH4-N2 gas mixtures, respectively. An adequate set of growth parameters was chosen for each CVD technique, resulting in NCD films having a final thickness of 5 microm. A micro-abrasion tribometer was used, with 3 microm diamond grit as the abrasive slurry element. Experiments were carried out at a constant rotational speed (80 r.p.m.) and by varying the applied load in the range of 0.25-0.75 N. The wear rate for MPCVD NCD (3.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(-5) mm3 N(-1) m(-1)) is compatible with those reported for microcrystalline CVD diamond. The HFCVD films displayed poorer adhesion to the Si3N4 ceramic substrates than the MPCVD ones. However, the HFCVD films show better wear resistance as a result of their higher crystallinity according to the UV Raman data, despite evidencing premature adhesion failure.

  12. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Abrasion Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Anderson, M. S.; Hinde, B. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Pike, W. T.; Marshall, J. R.; Meloy, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) experiment, an instrument suite to be flown on Mars Surveyor 2001, will include a tool for doing simple mineralogical scratch and streak tests on particles from the Martian regolith. The Abrasion Tool will be applied to particles that adhere themselves to highly polished substrates of various hardnesses. Granular soil components will be subjected to a compressive force of about 3 N using a leaf spring. The spring will be applied with a paraffin actuator capable of a 0.76 mm throw to achieve a maximum displacement of about 7.5 mm at the tip of the tool. The pressure per grain will be dependent on the grain size, the number of grains that adhere to the substrate and the number of grains in compression. The pressure per particle is expected to be on the order of 100 MPa - 1 GPa. The MECA sample wheel containing the substrates will be rotated after the particles are placed in compression to produce scratches or pits. A primary goal of the Abrasion Tool is to identify quartz (Mohs' hardness = 7) using substrates of varying hardnesses. Quartz is considered hazardous to future human explorers of Mars because it can cause silicosis of the lungs if it is of respirable size. It is also hazardous to machinery, structures, and space suits because of its ability to abrade and scratch surfaces. Since large quantities of minerals harder than quartz are not expected, any scratches produced on polished quartz substrates might be reasonably attributed to quartz particles, although there may be minerals such as impact metamorphic diamond in the soils. Careful calibration of the tool will be necessary to ensure that grains are not overloaded; for example, a steel ball pressed into glass will produce a Hertzian fracture, even though it is softer than glass. Other minerals, such as magnetite (Mohs' hardness = 6.5) have been shown to scratch glass ceramics such as Zerodur (Mohs' hardness = 6.5). Thus, minerals can be differentiated

  13. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment MECA Abrasion Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Anderson, M. S.; Hinde, B. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Pike, W. T.; Marshall, J.; Meloy, T. P.; Cobbly, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) experiment, an instrument suite to be flown on Mars Surveyor 2001, will include a tool for doing simple mineralogical scratch and streak tests on particles from the Martian regolith. The Abrasion Tool will be applied to particles that adhere to highly polished substrates of various hardnesses. Granular soil components will be subjected to a compressive force of about 3 N using a leaf spring. The spring will be applied with a paraffin actuator capable of a 0.76 mm throw to achieve a maximum displacement of about 7.5 mm at the tip of the tool. The pressure per grain will be dependent on the grain size, the number of grains that adhere to the substrate and the number of grains in compression. The pressure per particle is expected to be on the order of 100 MPa - 1 GPa. The MECA sample wheel containing the substrates will be rotated after the particles are placed in compression to produce scratches or pits. A primary goal of the Abrasion Tool is to identify quartz (Mohs' hardness = 7) using substrates of varying hardnesses. Quartz is considered hazardous to future human explorers of Mars because it can cause silicosis of the lungs if it is of respirable size. It is also hazardous to machinery, structures, and space suits because of its ability to abrade and scratch surfaces. Since large quantities of minerals harder than quartz are not expected, any scratches produced on polished quartz substrates might be reasonably attributed to quartz particles, although there may be minerals such as impact metamorphic diamond in the soils. Careful calibration of the tool will be necessary to ensure that grains are not overloaded; for example, a steel ball pressed into glass will produce a Hertzian fracture, even though it is softer than glass. Other minerals, such as magnetite (Mohs'hardness = 6.5) have been shown to scratch glass ceramics such as Zerodur (Mohs' hardness = 6.5). Thus, minerals can be differentiated: note that

  14. Class III Restoration of Anterior Primary Teeth: In Vitro Retention Comparison of Conventional, Modified and Air-abrasion Treated Preparations.

    PubMed

    Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Najafpour, Ebrahim; Erfanparast, Leila; Samiei, Mohammad; Haghifar, Monireh; Sighari Deljavan, Alireza; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Shokravi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Anterior esthetic restoration is challenging in pediatric dentistry, due to limited durability and poor retention of the restoration.This study assessed the effect of air abrasion on tensile failure load of composite class III restorations using different preparation techniques. Materials and methods. 100 extracted human anterior primary teeth were divided, based on the preparation methods, into four groups each consisting of 25 subjects : conventional (A), labial surface bevel (B), conventional + air abrasion (C), and labial surface bevel + air abrasion (D). After restoring cavities, tensile failure load of samples was measured in Newton by Universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm per minute. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests using SPSS software. Results. There were statistically significant differences between groups A and C (P = 0.003), groups A and B (P & 0.001), groups A and D (P & 0.001), groups B and C (P = 0.028), groups B and D (P = 0.027), and also groups C and D (P& 0.001). Group D demonstrated the highest mean tensile failure load. Conclusion. Labial surface bevel treated by air abrasion showed significantly more retention of composite restoration.

  15. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, A.; Swansiger, T.G.

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process are disclosed for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4--2.6 g/cm{sup 3} with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness.

  16. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  17. Material and thickness: the important factors in the impact resistance of spectacle lenses.

    PubMed

    Christianson, M D; Parker, J A; Arndt, J

    1977-10-01

    The identify the population at risk of permanent visual impairment from injuries associated with spectacles, we analysed 446 cases of penetrating ocular injury occurring over a ten year period. Sixteen injuries (3.6%) were due to spectacles; 40% of these were adult male amateur athletes. We used the drop-ball test to determine the important factors in the resistance to impact of 177 used spectacle lenses (29 plastic C39, 40 heat-tempered glass, 108 non-tempered glass). We found that material and thickness were the most important. The plastic lenses were the most impact resistant and non-tempered glass lenses the least, with heat-tempered glass lenses falling between. Plastic lenses of adequate centre thickness mounted in plastic frames are recommended for all children and all adults involved in athletics.

  18. Minimal alterations on the enamel surface by micro-abrasion: in vitro roughness and wear assessments

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES, Marcela Charantola; MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; OLIVEIRA, Gabriela Ulian; FRANCO, Eduardo Batista; BASEGGIO, Wagner; WANG, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro changes on the enamel surface after a micro-abrasion treatment promoted by different products. Material and Methods: Fifty (50) fragments of bovine enamel (15 mm x 5 mm) were randomly assigned to five groups (n=10) according to the product utilized: G1 (control)= silicone polisher (TDV), G2= 37% phosphoric acid (3M/ESPE) + pumice stone (SS White), G3= Micropol (DMC Equipment), G4= Opalustre (Ultradent) and G5= Whiteness RM (FGM Dental Products). Roughness and wear were the responsible variables used to analyze these surfaces in four stages: baseline, 60 s and 120 s after the micro-abrasion and after polishing, using a Hommel Tester T1000 device. After the tests, a normal distribution of data was verified, with repeated ANOVA analyses (p≤0.05) which were used to compare each product in different stages. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied for individual comparisons between the products in each stage (p≤0.05). Results: Means and standard deviations of roughness and wear (mm) after all the promoted stages were: G1=7.26(1.81)/13.16(2.67), G2=2.02(0.62)/37.44(3.33), G3=1.81(0.91)/34.93(6.92), G4=1.92(0.29)/38.42(0.65) and G5=1.98(0.53)/33.45(2.66). At 60 seconds, all products tended to produce less surface roughness with a variable gradual decrease over time. After polishing, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups, except for G1. Independent of the product utilized, the enamel wear occurred after the micro-abrasion. Conclusions: In this in vitro study, enamel micro-abrasion presented itself as a conservative approach, regardless of the type of the paste compound utilized. These products promoted minor roughness alterations and minimal wear. The use of phosphoric acid and pumice stone showed similar results to commercial products for the micro-abrasion with regard to the surface roughness and wear. PMID:23739863

  19. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with a bulkfill flowable material and a resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Isufi, Almira; Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola Maria; Ioppolo, Pietro; Testarelli, Luca; Bedini, Rossella; Al-Sudani, Dina; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim To determine and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with a bulk fill flowable material (SDR) and a traditional resin composite. Methods Thirty maxillary and 30 mandibular first molars were selected based on similar dimensions. After cleaning, shaping and filling of the root canals and adhesive procedures, specimens were assigned to 3 subgroups for each tooth type (n=10): Group A: control group, including intact teeth; Group B: access cavities were restored with a traditional resin composite (EsthetX; Dentsply-Italy, Rome, Italy); Group C: access cavities were restored with a bulk fill flowable composite (SDR; Dentsply-Italy), except 1.5 mm layer of the occlusal surface that was restored with the same resin composite as Group B. The specimens were subjected to compressive force in a material static-testing machine until fracture occurred, the maximum fracture load of the specimens was measured (N) and the type of fracture was recorded as favorable or unfavorable. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni tests (P<0.05). Results No statistically significant differences were found among groups (P<0.05). Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with a traditional resin composite and with a bulk fill flowable composite (SDR) was similar in both maxillary and mandibular molars and showed no significant decrease in fracture resistance compared to intact specimens. Conclusions No significant difference was observed in the mechanical fracture resistance of endodontically treated molars restored with traditional resin composite restorations compared to bulk fill flowable composite restorations. PMID:27486505

  20. Evaluation of occlusal fracture resistance of three different core materials using the Nayyar core technique

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Satti Narayana; Harika, Kolli; Manjula, Shobha; Chandra, Pavani; Vengi, Lokesh; Koka, Krishna Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim and purpose of this study was to determine the occlusal fracture resistance of three core buildup materials using the Nayyar technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty human extracted maxillary premolars were used for the study. The test samples were decoronated till the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and proper cleaning and shaping was done with protaper niti files till the F3. Corresponding f3 protaper(Dentysply)gutta pecha cones were selected and obturated. The gutta-percha was removed till the depth of 4 mm from the coronal orifice with Gates Glidden (GG) drills for all the samples; then the samples were randomly divided into three different groups. Group I was restored with universal composite Z350XT, group II was restored with light curable glass ionomer cement (GIC), and group III was restored with miracle mix. The coronal buildup was done using compound supported matrix. The fracture resistance strength of all the specimen groups was tested under a universal testing machine. Results: The data of the study were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni's comparison test. Results of the study showed that group I that was restored with the universal composite Z350XT showed much higher fracture resistance strength compared to the other two groups. Statistically significant difference was noted between group I and group II and also between group I and group III. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the core buildup done with composite offered better occlusal fracture resistance strength compared to light curable GIC and miracle mix. PMID:27011931

  1. Competing mechanisms in the wear resistance behavior of biomineralized rod-like microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar de Obaldia, Enrique; Herrera, Steven; Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties observed in biological composite materials relative to those of their individual constituents distinguish them from common engineering materials. Some naturally occurring high-performance ceramics, like the external veneer of the Chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri) tooth, have been shown to have superior hardness and impressive abrasion resistance properties. The mechanical performance of the chiton tooth has been attributed to a hierarchical arrangement of nanostructured magnetite rods surrounded with organic material. While nanoindentation tests provide useful information about the overall performance of this biological composite, understanding the key microstructural features and energy dissipation mechanisms at small scales remains a challenging task. We present a combined experimental/numerical approach to elucidate the role of material deformation in the rods, debonding at the rod interfaces and the influence of energy dissipation mechanisms on the ability of the microstructure to distribute damage under extreme loading conditions. We employ a 3D finite element-based micromechanical model to simulate the nanoindentation tests performed in geological magnetite and cross-sections of the chiton tooth. This proposed model is capable of capturing the inelastic deformation of the rods and the failure of their interfaces, while damage, fracture and fragmentation of the mineralized rods is assessed using a probabilistic function. Our results show that these natural materials achieve their abrasion resistant properties by controlling the interface strength between rods, alleviating the tensile stress on the rods near the indentation tip and therefore decreasing the probability of catastrophic failure without significantly sacrificing resistance to penetration. The understanding of these competing energy dissipating mechanisms provides a path to the prediction of new combination of materials. In turns, these results suggest certain

  2. Standardization of a Volumetric Displacement Measurement for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    A limitation has been identified in the existing test standards used for making controlled, two-body abrasion scratch measurements based solely on the width of the resultant score on the surface of the material. A new, more robust method is proposed for analyzing a surface scratch that takes into account the full three-dimensional profile of the displaced material. To accomplish this, a set of four volume displacement metrics are systematically defined by normalizing the overall surface profile to statistically denote the area of relevance, termed the Zone of Interaction (ZOI). From this baseline, depth of the trough and height of the ploughed material are factored into the overall deformation assessment. Proof of concept data were collected and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of this proposed methodology. This technique takes advantage of advanced imaging capabilities that now allow resolution of the scratched surface to be quantified in greater detail than was previously achievable. A quantified understanding of fundamental particle-material interaction is critical to anticipating how well components can withstand prolonged use in highly abrasive environments, specifically for our intended applications on the surface of the Moon and other planets or asteroids, as well as in similarly demanding, harsh terrestrial settings

  3. Designing Multiagent Dental Materials for Enhanced Resistance to Biofilm Damage at the Bonded Interface.

    PubMed

    Melo, Mary Anne; Orrego, Santiago; Weir, Michael D; Xu, Huakun H K; Arola, Dwayne D

    2016-05-11

    The oral environment is considered to be an asperous environment for restored tooth structure. Recurrent dental caries is a common cause of failure of tooth-colored restorations. Bacterial acids, microleakage, and cyclic stresses can lead to deterioration of the polymeric resin-tooth bonded interface. Research on the incorporation of cutting-edge anticaries agents for the design of new, long-lasting, bioactive resin-based dental materials is demanding and provoking work. Released antibacterial agents such as silver nanoparticles (NAg), nonreleased antibacterial macromolecules (DMAHDM, dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate), and released acid neutralizer amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (NACP) have shown potential as individual and dual anticaries approaches. In this study, these agents were synthesized, and a prospective combination was incorporated into all the dental materials required to perform a composite restoration: dental primer, adhesive, and composite. We focused on combining different dental materials loaded with multiagents to improve the durability of the complex dental bonding interface. A combined effect of bacterial acid attack and fatigue on the bonding interface simulated the harsh oral environment. Human saliva-derived oral biofilm was grown on each sample prior to the cyclic loading. The oral biofilm viability during the fatigue performance was monitored by the live-dead assay. Damage of the samples that developed during the test was quantified from the fatigue life distributions. Results indicate that the resultant multiagent dental composite materials were able to reduce the acidic impact of the oral biofilm, thereby improving the strength and resistance to fatigue failure of the dentin-resin bonded interface. In summary, this study shows that dental restorative materials containing multiple therapeutic agents of different chemical characteristics can be beneficial toward improving resistance to mechanical and acidic challenges in oral

  4. [Abrasion measurements in vivo in occlusal composite and amalgam fillings].

    PubMed

    Meier, C; Lutz, F

    1978-09-01

    A new method for quantitative measurement of occlusal wear on restorations is described. In a clinical evaluation with four different composites and an amalgam the method proved to be simple in execution and very exact. Statistical analysis after 7 months has shown significant differences in wear resistance of the different materials. The nature of the resulting wear was electron optically examined. Typical structural surface characteristics were observed for each of the different materials. More recently developed composities utilizing extremly small filler particles (Aerosil) seem to be comparable to amalgam in wear resistance.

  5. Developments in new aircraft tire tread materials. [fatigue life of elastomeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.; Mccarty, J. L.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Golub, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    Comparative laboratory and field tests were conducted on experimental and state-of-the-art aircraft tire tread materials in a program aimed at seeking new elastomeric materials which would provide improved aircraft tire tread wear, traction, and blowout resistance in the interests of operational safety and economy. The experimental stock was formulated of natural rubber and amorphous vinyl polybutadiene to provide high thermal-oxidative resistance, a characteristic pursued on the premise that thermal oxidation is involved both in the normal abrasion or wear of tire treads and probably in the chain of events leading to blowout failures. Results from the tests demonstrate that the experimental stock provided better heat buildup (hysteresis) and fatigue properties, at least equal wet and dry traction, and greater wear resistance than the state-of-the-art stock.

  6. Silicon ingot casting: Heat exchanger method. Multi-wire slicing: Fixed abrasive slicing technique, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    In the area of ingot casting the proof of concept of heat exchanger method (HEM) was established. It was also established that HEM cast silicon yielded solar cell performance comparable to Czochralski grown material. Solar cells with conversion efficiencies of up to 15% were fabricated. It was shown that square cross-section ingots can be cast. In the area of crystal slicing, it was established that silicon can be sliced efficiently with the fixed abrasive slicing technique approach. This concept was carried forward to 10 cm diameter workpiece.

  7. Development of a fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) for reducing the cost of photovoltaic wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, F. )

    1991-12-01

    This report examines a wafer slicing technique developed by Crystal Systems, Inc. that reduces the cost of photovoltaic wafers. This fixed, abrasive slicing technique (FAST) uses a multiwire bladepack and a diamond-plated wirepack; water is the coolant. FAST is in the prototype production stage and reduces expendable material costs while retaining the advantages of a multiwire slurry technique. The cost analysis revealed that costs can be decreased by making more cuts per bladepack and slicing more wafers per linear inch. Researchers studied the degradation of bladepacks and increased wirepack life. 21 refs.

  8. Aeolian Abrasion, a Dominant Erosion Agent in the Martian Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N.; Cooper, G.; Eddlemon, E.; Greeley, R.; Laity, J.; Phoreman, J.; Razdan, A.; van Note, S.; White, B.; Wilson, G.

    2004-12-01

    Aeolian abrasion is one of the predominant erosion mechanisms on Mars today. Martian ventifacts record the climate under which the rocks were modified (wind direction, wind speeds and particle flux) and therefore tie into the overall climatic regime of the planet. By better understanding the rates at which rocks abrade and the features diagnostic of specific climatic conditions, we can gain insight into past climates. Herein we report on numerical models, wind tunnel experiments, and field work to determine 1) Particle and kinetic fluxes on Earth and Mars, 2) the degree to which these parameters control abrasion, and 3) how, in detail, rocks of various shapes and compositions erode over time. Kinetic energy generally increases with height, whereas flux decreases, and impact angles, which affect energy transfer, and rebound effects are functions of the rock facet angle. This results in a non-linear relationship between abrasion potential and height that is a function of wind speed, planetary environment, and target geometry. We have computed the first three of these parameters numerically using a numerical saltation code, combined with published flux calculations These results have been compared to wind tunnel tests of flux vs. height, abrasion of erodible targets, and high speed video analysis under terrestrial and Martian pressures. We are also using high resolution laser scanning to characterize textures, shapes, and weathering changes for terrestrial and Martian rocks at the 100s of microns scale. We find that facet angle, texture, and rock heterogeneity are of critical importance in determining the rate and style of abrasion. Field and theoretical results demonstrate that high speed winds, not the integrated flux of lower speeds, and sand, not dust, produce most rock abrasion. On Mars, this requires sustained winds above 20-25 m/s at the near surface, a challenge in the current environment.

  9. Experimental and numerical studies on laser-based powder deposition of slurry erosion resistant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Prabu

    Slurry erosion (the removal of material caused by the randomly moving high velocity liquid-solid particle mixture) is a serious issue in crude oil drilling, mining, turbines, rocket nozzles, pumps, and boiler tubes that causes excessive downtime and high operating costs as a result of premature part failure. The goal of this research is to enhance the service life of high-value components subjected to slurry erosion by utilizing the concept of functionally graded metal-ceramic composite material (FGMCCM) in which the favorable properties of metal (toughness, ductility, etc.) and ceramic (hardness) are tailored smoothly to improve erosion resistance. Among the potential manufacturing processes, such as the laser-based powder deposition (LBPD), the plasma transferred arc (PTA), and the thermal spray the LBPD process offers good composition and microstructure control with a high deposition rate in producing the FGMCCM. This research focuses on the development of nickel-tungsten carbide (Ni-WC) based FGMCCM using the LBPD process for applications the above mentioned. The LBPD of Ni-WC involves the introduction of Ni and WC powder particle by an inert gas into the laser-formed molten pool at the substrate via nozzles. The LBPD of Ni-WC includes complex multi-physical interactions between the laser beam, Ni-WC powder, substrate, and carrier and shielding gases that are governed by a number of process variables such as laser power, scanning speed, and powder flow rate. In order to develop the best Ni-WC based slurry erosion resistant material using the LBPD process, the following challenges associated with the fabrication and the performance evaluation need to be addressed: 1) flow behavior of the Ni-WC powder and its interaction with the laser, 2) the effect of the process variables, the material compositions, and the thermo-physical properties on thermal cycles, temperature gradient, cooling rate, and residual stress formation within the material and the subsequent

  10. Fluidizable zinc titanate materials with high chemical reactivity and attrition resistance

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1993-10-19

    Highly durable and chemically reactive zinc titanate materials are prepared in a particle size range of 50 to 400 [mu]m suitable for a fluidized-bed reactor for removing reduced sulfur species in a gaseous form by granulating a mixture of fine zinc oxide and titanium oxide with inorganic and organic binders and by optional additions of small amounts of activators such as CoO and MoO[sub 3]; and then indurating it at 800 to 900 C for a time sufficient to produce attrition-resistant granules.

  11. Fluidizable zinc titanate materials with high chemical reactivity and attrition resistance

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1993-01-01

    Highly durable and chemically reactive zinc titanate materials are prepared in a particle size range of 50 to 400 .mu.m suitable for a fluidized-bed reactor for removing reduced sulfur species in a gaseous form by granulating a mixture of fine zinc oxide and titanium oxide with inorganic and organic binders and by optional additions of small amounts of activators such as CoO and MoO.sub.3 ; and then indurating it at 800.degree. to 900.degree. C. for a time sufficient to produce attrition-resistant granules.

  12. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety. [clear air turbulence detectors, fire resistant materials, and crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's aviation safety technology program examines specific safety problems associated with atmospheric hazards, crash-fire survival, control of aircraft on runways, human factors, terminal area operations hazards, and accident factors simulation. While aircraft occupants are ultimately affected by any of these hazards, their well-being is immediately impacted by three specific events: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire and its effects, and crash impact. NASA research in the application of laser technology to the problem of clear air turbulence detection, the development of fire resistant materials for aircraft construction, and to the improvement of seats and restraint systems to reduce crash injuries are reviewed.

  13. Effects of anode materials on resistive characteristics of NiO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Ze; Wang, Linkai; Zhang, Naiwen; Ren, Tianling; Liou, Juin J.

    2013-01-28

    This letter shows that the NiO-based structure with different anodes has different resistive switching properties. A conical conductive filament (CF) model is proposed for oxygen vacancies distributed in NiO films. Modeling analysis reveals much larger dissolution velocity of CF near anodes than near cathodes during the reset process. Different interfaces shown in Auger electron spectroscopy can be bound with the model to reveal that CF is dissolved in the structure with Pt or Au as anodes, while CF remains constant if the anode material is Ti or Al, which can explain whether switching properties occur in the specific NiO-based structures.

  14. Pest resistant MoSi2-based materials containing in-situ grown .beta.-Si3N4 whiskers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A MoSi.sub.2 pest resistant material includes in-situ grown .beta.-Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 whiskers. In addition to excellent pest resistance, the material provides a lower coefficient of thermal expansion for better match with continuous reinforcing fibers such as SiC fibers. A two stage heating and pressing production technique enables lower temperature processing with substantially full densification.

  15. Pest resistant MoSi2-based materials containing in-situ grown .beta.-Si3N4whiskers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A MoSi.sub.2 pest resistant material includes in-situ grown .beta.-Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 whiskers. In addition to excellent pest resistance, the material provides a lower coefficient of thermal expansion for better match with continuous reinforcing fibers such as SiC fibers. A two stage heating and pressing production technique enables lower temperature processing with substantially full densification.

  16. Novel Attrition-Resistant Fischer Tropsch Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Weast, Logan, E.; Staats, William, R.

    2009-05-01

    demonstrated that materials with adequate pore volume can be produced. During the attrition resistance tests, it was learned that the glass-ceramic materials are very abrasive. Attention should be paid in any further developmental efforts to the potential for these hard, abrasive materials to damage reactors.

  17. Basic research needs and opportunities at the solid-solid interface - Adhesion, abrasion and polymer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowkes, F. M.; Butler, B. L.; Schissel, P.; Butler, G. B.; Hartman, J. S.; Hoffman, R. W.; Inal, O. T.; Miller, W. G.; Tompkins, H. G.; Delollis, N. J.

    1982-04-01

    Solid-solid interfaces in solar technologies such as photovoltaics, mirrored surfaces, and absorbers in flate plate collectors are examined theoretically along with degradation and protective measures. The energetics of adhesion are modeled in terms of intermolecular forces such as covalent and electrostatic bonds. Finite element analyses are noted to be useful for calculating the stress fields in layered solar cells, although inclusion of plastic flow and relaxation processes is not yet possible. The effects of physical degradation of protective coatings and front surfaces of reflectors are outlined, and research in abrasion-erosion resistance, particulate deposition resistance, and detergents for washing solar surfaces is indicated. Finally, polymeric coatings are discussed for solar cells and for wind turbine blades for providing environmental protection.

  18. Qualification of MCP BSCCO 2212 bulk material for use in resistive current limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elschner, S.; Breuer, F.; Noe, M.; Wolf, A.; Bock, J.

    2002-08-01

    Melt cast processed BSCCO 2212 is a very promising material option for use in resistive current limiters. The required compact elements with long conductor lengths can be manufactured by cutting tubes to bifilar coils. The critical current density and its homogeneity were examined on such coils at the projected operation temperature T=65 K. As a result we obtain Jc=3960 A/cm 2 ±5%. It was also shown, that the coils can be equipped with a metallic shunt. In addition the limiting behaviour of the material and the reliability of the electric bypass were tested on shunted 5 mm-rods. Effective limiting was achieved at any load up to 100 V/m.

  19. Influence of molybdenum silicide additions on high-temperature oxidation resistance of silicon nitride materials

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, H.; Tangermann, K.; Schubert, C.; Hermel, W.

    1996-09-01

    The influence of additions of molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2}) on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of a silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) material, with neodymium oxide (Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and aluminum nitride (AlN) as sintering aids, was studied. The composites, containing 5, 10, and 17.6 wt% MoSi{sub 2}, were fabricated by hot pressing. All materials exhibited a similar phase composition, detected by X-ray diffractometry. Up to MoSi{sub 2} additions of 10 wt%, mechanical properties such as strength, fracture toughness, or creep at 1,400 C were not affected significantly, in comparison to that of monolithic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The oxidation resistance of the composites, in terms of weight gain, degraded. After 1,000 h of oxidation at 1,400 and 1,450 C in air, a greater weight gain (by a factor of approximately three) was obtained, in comparison to that of the material without MoSi{sub 2}. Nevertheless, after 1,000 h of oxidation, the degradation in strength of the composites was considerably less severe than that of the material without MoSi{sub 2}. An additional layer was formed, caused by processes at the surface of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} material, preventing the formation of pores, cracks, or glassy-phase-rich areas, which are common features of oxidation damage in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials. This surface layer, containing Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and silicon oxynitride (Si{sub 2}ON{sub 2}), was the result of reactions between MoSi{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and the oxygen penetrating by diffusion into the material during the high-temperature treatment.

  20. Microstructures and Abrasive Properties of the Oxide Coatings on Al6061 Alloys Prepared by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Different Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Byun, Sangsik; Lee, Chan Gyu; Koo, Bon Heun; Wang, Yi Qi; Song, Jung Il

    Al2O3 coatings were prepared on T6-tempered Al6061 alloys substrate under a hybrid voltage (AC 200 V-60 Hz and DC 260 V value) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in 30 min. The effects of different electrolytes on the abrasive behaviors of the coatings were studied by conducting dry ball-on-disk wear tests. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate the coating microstructure. XRD analysis results show that the coatings mainly consist of α- and γ-Al2O3, and some mullite and AlPO4 phase in Na2SiO3 and Na3PO4 containing electrolytes, respectively. The wear test results show that the coatings which were PEO-treated in Na3PO4 containing electrolyte presented the most excellent abrasive resistance property.

  1. Evaluation of the local temperature of conductive filaments in resistive switching materials.

    PubMed

    Yalon, E; Cohen, S; Gavrilov, A; Ritter, D

    2012-11-23

    The resistive switching effect in metal oxides and other dielectric materials is among the leading future non-volatile memory technologies. Resistive switching is widely ascribed to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments in the oxide, which are generated by temperature-enhanced nano-scale ion migration or other thermal effects. In spite of the central role of the local filament temperature on the switching effect, as well as on the conduction and reliability physics, no measurement methods of the filament temperature are yet available. In this work, we report on a method for evaluating the conducting filament temperature, using a metal-insulator-semiconductor bipolar transistor structure. The filament temperature is obtained by analyzing the thermal excitation rate of electrons from the filament Fermi level into the conduction band of a p-type semiconductor electrode. Measurements were carried out to obtain the conductive filament temperature in hafnia at varying ambient temperatures in the range of 3-300 K. Significant Joule heating of the filament was observed across the entire measured ambient temperature range. The extracted temperatures provide physical insight into the resistive switching effect.

  2. Fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth after apexification with calcium silicate-based materials

    PubMed Central

    Evren, OK; Altunsoy, Mustafa; Tanriver, Mehmet; Capar, Ismail Davut; Kalkan, Abdussamed; Gok, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth filled with an apical barrier of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine, and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM). Materials and Methods: Fifty-two single-rooted human maxillary central incisors were used. For standardization, the teeth were sectioned 6 mm above and 9 mm below the cementoenamel junction to simulate immature apex. Simulations of roots into immature apices were carried out using 1.5 mm diameter drills. The specimens were then randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 13) and one control group (n = 13). In experimental groups, MTA, Biodentine, and CEM were placed to apical 4 mm of the simulated immature roots. The samples were stored at 37° C and 100% humidity for 1 week. A load was applied on the crown of all teeth at 135° to their long axis until fracture. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc tests. Results: No statistically significant differences were found among MTA, CEM, and Biodentine (P > 0.05), and these groups demonstrated higher fracture resistance than control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Using any of the MTA, Biodentine, and CEM as an apical plug and restoring with fiber post and composite resin increases the fracture resistance of immature teeth. PMID:27095894

  3. Lightweight materials for automotive applications/topic 2: Wear resistant aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.

    1997-01-31

    The replacement of cast iron by aluminum alloys in automotive engine blocks and heads represents a significant weight reduction in automobiles. The primary hurdle to the widespread use of aluminum alloy engine blocks in the North American automobile industry was high cost. The lack of wear resistance in most aluminum alloys added to manufacturing cost, since expensive procedures such as the incorporation of cast iron liners or special coatings were needed to achieve the required wear properties. The project targeted the development of a wear resistant aluminum alloy, as well as tools and the knowledge-base required to design the casting process, to allow it to be cast economically into engine blocks without the use of a cast iron liner or special coating, thereby providing benefits to both the material and manufacturing aspects of the process. The project combined the alloy development, wear and microstructural characterization, and casting modeling capabilities of the laboratory with the partners extensive alloy and casting process development and manufacturing experience to develop a suitable wear resistant aluminum alloy and casting process.

  4. Simulation of abrasive flow machining process for 2D and 3D mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Rupalika; Maity, Kalipada

    2015-12-01

    Improvement of surface finish and material removal has been quite a challenge in a finishing operation such as abrasive flow machining (AFM). Factors that affect the surface finish and material removal are media viscosity, extrusion pressure, piston velocity, and particle size in abrasive flow machining process. Performing experiments for all the parameters and accurately obtaining an optimized parameter in a short time are difficult to accomplish because the operation requires a precise finish. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to accurately determine optimum parameters. In the current work, a 2D model was designed, and the flow analysis, force calculation, and material removal prediction were performed and compared with the available experimental data. Another 3D model for a swaging die finishing using AFM was simulated at different viscosities of the media to study the effects on the controlling parameters. A CFD simulation was performed by using commercially available ANSYS FLUENT. Two phases were considered for the flow analysis, and multiphase mixture model was taken into account. The fluid was considered to be a

  5. Influence of Erosive and Abrasive Cycling on Bonding of Different Adhesive Systems to Enamel: An In situ Study.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Marina Ciccone; Casas-Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Machado, Camila Moreira; Freitas, Maria Cristina Carvalho de Almendra; Atta, Maria Teresa; Wang, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of orange juice on the bond strength (BS) of dentin bonding systems (DBSs) to enamel surface after simulation with an in situ/ ex vivo erosive cycling. One hundred and ninety two bovine enamel fragments (4x4x2mm) were obtained and randomized regarding superficial microhardness and distributed to palatal devices for 8 volunteers, in three phases (one for each DBS), containing 8 blocks, which were, allocated in 4 pairs. Daily, these pairs were subjected extraorally to the following conditions: CONT- neither erosive nor abrasive challenge; ERO- erosive challenge only; ABR- abrasive challenge only and ERO + ABR- with erosive and abrasive challenges. Erosive cycles (immersion in orange juice, 3 times/day/5 min/5 days) or/and abrasive challenges (electric toothbrush, 3 times/day/1 min/5 days) were performed. After these cycles, all specimens were restored with the adhesive systems Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP), Adper Single Bond 2 (SB) or Clearfil SE Bond (SE), and the composite resin Filtek Z250. After 7 days, sticks (area ≅1 mm2) were obtained and subjected to the microtensile bond strength test (μTBS) at 0.5 mm/min. Data was statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests (a=0.05). Failure modes were determined using a digital microscope (40´). DBS was the only statistical significant factor. SE was the unique DBS not affected in any challenge, whereas MP and SB performed according to the scenario. The adhesive and mixed failures were predominant in all groups. Overall performance suggested that BS to enamel after erosive /abrasive challenged by orange juice was not affected and it was material-dependent.

  6. The Sea of Azov: Recent abrasion processes and problems of coastal protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Bespalova, L. A.; Ivlieva, O. V.; Tsygankova, A. E.; Kropyanko, L. V.

    2016-12-01

    The abrasion processes of the Sea of Azov have been assessed on the basis of long-term monitoring. The coast has been zoned by the degree of abrasion. The current condition of coast protection measures has been studied.

  7. Polishing is made cheaper by disposable diamond-impregnated abrasive cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Diamond impregnated abrasive cloth eliminated expensive diamond pastes and was economically disposed of to avoid contamination. Cloth was spunbonded nylon, but any napless fabric could be used. Cloth was sprayed with diamond abrasive gel.

  8. Fracture resistance of overtly flaring root canals filled with resin-based obturation material

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Salma B.; Eldarrat, Aziza H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reinforcement of root canals obturated with Resilon was reported by several investigators, but no studies reported the reinforcement of overtly flared root canals obturated with Resilon material. The aim of this study was to investigate the fracture resistance of overtly flared root canals filled with Resilon as compared to similar root canals filled with gutta-percha (GP). Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted premolars were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1 served as control group. The control group was sub-divided into two groups, a negative group and a positive group. The negative group consisted of root canals that were only cleaned from residual pulpal tissues, however, the positive group had prepared and overtly flared root canals without obturation. Groups 2 and 4 were shaped using 0.04 taper rotary files, while groups 3 and 5 were shaped using 0.06 taper rotary files. Before obturation, the last four groups were further flared coronally with a reverse cone diamond bur. Groups 2 and 3 were obturated with GP and a resin-based sealer, while groups 4 and 5 were obturated with Resilon and Epiphany self-etching primer and Epiphany sealer. Roots were then fixed into a universal testing machine and vertically loaded until fracture. SPSS software (Release 9.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, USA) was used to perform the statistical analysis. Results: Fracture resistance measurements showed that there were differences in resistance to fracture among the experimental groups (ANOVA, P < 0.0001). Mean values of the loading force applied to the negative control group were the highest at 1.81 KN, whereas the mean values for the Resilon groups (Groups 4 and 5) at 1.13 KN and 1.54 KN were found to be higher than the GP groups (Groups 2 and 3) at 0.45 KN and 0.88 KN, respectively. Tukey's post hoc test showed that there was no statistical difference between the mean values of the negative control group and Group 5 (P = 0.69). Conclusion: Obturation of

  9. A comparison of the tribological behaviour of Y-TZP in tea and coffee under micro-abrasion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, S.; Stack, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    The micro-abrasion of Y-TZP, a candidate dental restorative material, was investigated in a range of caffeine-containing solutions which included tea and coffee. Additions of sugar and milk were used to test the effects of viscosity and pH on the wear rate. The results indicated a significant increase in wear rate in the various solutions, with some correlation between wear rate and increases in viscosity and this was linked to enhance particle entrainment in the more viscous solutions. The generally lower wear rate in tea compared to coffee was associated with a longer ageing period in this solution before uniform wear was observed. Micro-abrasion maps were used to characterize the differences in performance for the material in the environments studied.

  10. Investigation of oxidation resistance of carbon based first-wall liner materials of fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moormann, R.; Hinssen, H. K.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.; Stauch, B.; Wu, C. H.

    1994-09-01

    One important aspect in selection of carbon based first-wall liner materials in fusion reactors is a sufficient oxidation resistance against steam and oxygen; this is because during accidents like loss of coolant into vacuum or loss of vacuum these oxidizing media can enter the vacuum vessel and may cause some corrosion of carbon followed by release of adsorbed tritium; in addition other consequences of oxidation like formation of burnable gases and their explosions have to be examined. Based on extensive experience on nuclear graphite oxidation in HTRs KFA has started in cooperation with NET some experimental investigations on oxidation of fusion reactor carbons. Results of first experiments on CFCs, Ti- and Si-doped carbons and graphites in steam (1273-1423 K) and oxygen (973 K) are reported. It was found that most materials have a similar reactivity as HTR nuclear graphites (which is much smaller than those of usual technical carbons); Si-doped CFCs however have a remarkably better oxidation resistance than those, which is probably due to the formation of a protecting layer of SiO 2. The measured kinetic data will be used in safety analyses for above mentioned accidents.

  11. Resist double patterning on BARCs and spin-on multilayer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Mercado, Ramil-Marcelo L.

    2009-12-01

    Many approaches to double patterning have been devised, of which most have been designed to reduce the number of process steps. The litho-freeze-litho-etch process (LFLE) is one such technique that eliminates the first etch step from the standard litho-etch litho-etch (LELE) process. The resist freeze material chemically modifies the patterned photoresist, as well as potentially the layer beneath, which may result in a performance change at the second lithography step. Another approach, litho-process-litho-etch (LPLE) does not involve the use of a chemical freeze material, instead relying on a thermal treatment to remove excess solvent from the polymer and differential energy of activation between two resists to create a double-patterned image. Finally, double patterning using negative-tone development of a positiveacting photoresist is another approach in consideration. In this paper, we present the results of several double-patterning processes on organic bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARCs) and spin-on multilayer stacks consisting of a silicon hardmask on top of a carbon underlayer. Pattern profiles of the first and second lithography steps are compared.

  12. In vitro effect of air-abrasion operating parameters on dynamic cutting characteristics of alumina and bio-active glass powders.

    PubMed

    Milly, H; Austin, R S; Thompson, I; Banerjee, A

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry advocates the maintenance of all repairable tooth structures during operative caries management in combination with remineralization strategies. This study evaluated the effect of air-abrasion operating parameters on its cutting efficiency/pattern using bio-active glass (BAG) powder and alumina powder as a control in order to develop its use as a minimally invasive operative technique. The cutting efficiency/pattern assessment on an enamel analogue, Macor, was preceded by studying the powder flow rate (PFR) of two different commercial intraoral air-abrasion units with differing powder-air admix systems. The parameters tested included air pressure, powder flow rate, nozzle-substrate distance, nozzle angle, shrouding the air stream with a curtain of water, and the chemistry of abrasive powder. The abraded troughs were scanned and analyzed using confocal white light profilometry and MountainsMap surface analysis software. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way and repeated-measures analysis of variance tests (p=0.05). The air-abrasion unit using a vibration mechanism to admix the abrasive powder with the air stream exhibited a constant PFR regardless of the set air pressure. Significant differences in cutting efficiency were observed according to the tested parameters (p<0.05). Alumina powder removed significantly more material than did BAG powder. Using low air pressure and suitable consideration of the effect of air-abrasion parameters on cutting efficiency/patterns can improve the ultraconservative cutting characteristics of BAG air-abrasion, thereby allowing an introduction of this technology for the controlled cleaning/removal of enamel, where it is indicated clinically.

  13. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material

    SciTech Connect

    Valle-Zermeño, R. del; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J.M.; Martínez, M.; Fernández, A.I.

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A concrete formulation was optimized using Bottom Ash and APC ash. ► 10% of APC ash achieves good compromise between economic and performance aspects. ► The crushed concrete was evaluated as secondary building granular material. ► The environmental behavior allows its use as secondary material. ► The abrasion resistance is not good enough for its use as a road sub-base material. - Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured.

  14. The Vickers indentation technique used to evaluate thermal shock resistance of brittle materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tancret, F.; Osterstock, F.

    1997-08-15

    The establishment of transient thermal stresses during quenching brittle materials involves a number of parameters, such as Young`s modulus E, Poisson`s ratio v, coefficient of thermal expansion {alpha}, thermal conductivity of the material k, the size and shape of the sample, the quenching temperature difference {Delta}T, and the coefficient of heat transfer in the quenching medium h. The damage resulting from a critical thermal shock is governed by the toughness, the statistical distribution of initial surface flaws and thus by the rupture stress. It is shown here that, additionally to the preliminary determination of the material`s toughness and the quantification of the maximum value of the thermal transient stress, the combination of toughness and these thermal stresses yields descriptions of a new thermal shock resistance parameter for temperature differences {Delta}T lower than the critical one {Delta}{Tc}. The derivations will be verified on various microstructures of high-temperature superconducting ceramics, YBaCuO, and on alumina.

  15. Chemical shrink materials and process for negative tone development (NTD) resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Sagan, John; Padmanaban, Munirathna; Pawlowski, Georg; Nagahara, Tatsuro

    2014-03-01

    Negative tone shrink materials (NSM) suitable for resolution enhancement of negative tone development (NTD) 193nm immersion resists have been developed. While this technology is being applied to integrated circuits (IC) manufacturing, reduction of shrink differences between isolated and dense (ID) CDs also called as shrink ID bias is the challenge to meet wide-spread applications. In this paper, we present the effects of resist thermal flow, proximity effects of DUV exposure, flood exposure of after developed image (ADI) on the NSM shrink. High mixing bake (MB) temperature (example 170°C) during the shrink process resulted in increased resist thermal flow leading to worse shrink ID bias of 3.5 nm. As different pitch pattern has different proximity effect and matching with illumination condition, uneven dose is expected on them. These differences in dose required to obtain same through pitch (1:X, X-1, 1.5, 2, 3, 5) CD was assigned as the cause for shrink ID bias as the de-protection chemistry is related to dose which affects the shrink amount. This was further confirmed by flood exposure of after developed image (ADI) which reduced shrink ID bias from 3.5 nm to 1.8 nm. We concluded that the flood exposure makes the ADIs of the resist chemically uniform thereby minimizing shrink ID bias. Based on these studies, a mechanism for shrink ID bias is proposed. A modified NSM with 1.2 nm shrink ID bias has been developed without the need for the flood exposure.

  16. [Co-trimoxazole resistance in methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from clinical material in 2001-2003].

    PubMed

    Mikołajczyk, Dorota; Kaczmarek, Agnieszka; Budzytiska, Anna; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine resistance to co-trimoxazole among 476 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) and 2137 strains of methicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) isolation during three years (2001-2003). Their susceptibility testing were performed by the disc-diffusion techniques according to recomendation of NCCLS (National Committe for Clinical Laboratory Standards). Co-trimoxazole resistance was demonstrated more frequently among MRCNS (52,8%, 51,4%, 63,9% in 2001, 2002, 2003), than among MRSA (23,4%, 19,5%, 16,8% adequately).

  17. Resistive oxygen sensor using ceria-zirconia sensor material and ceria-yttria temperature compensating material for lean-burn engine.

    PubMed

    Izu, Noriya; Nishizaki, Sayaka; Shin, Woosuck; Itoh, Toshio; Nishibori, Maiko; Matsubara, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Temperature compensating materials were investigated for a resistive oxygen sensor using Ce(0.9)Zr(0.1)O(2) as a sensor material for lean-burn engines. The temperature dependence of a temperature compensating material should be the same as the sensor material; therefore, the Y concentration in CeO(2)-Y(2)O(3) was optimized. The resistance of Ce(0.5)Y(0.5)O(2-δ) was independent of the air-to-fuel ratio (oxygen partial pressure), so that it was confirmed to function as a temperature compensating material. Sensor elements comprised of Ce(0.9)Zr(0.1)O(2) and Ce(0.5)Y(0.5)O(2-δ) were fabricated and the output was determined to be approximately independent of the temperature in the wide range from 773 to 1,073 K.

  18. Inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material amenable to water-based processing for use in electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Maki, Hirotaka; Sugahara, Kigen; Ito, Kenta; Hanabata, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    An electron beam (EB) lithography method using inedible cellulose-based resist material derived from woody biomass has been successfully developed. This method allows the use of pure water in the development process instead of the conventionally used tetramethylammonium hydroxide and anisole. The inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material, as an alternative to alpha-linked disaccharides in sugar derivatives that compete with food supplies, was developed by replacing the hydroxyl groups in the beta-linked disaccharides with EB-sensitive 2-methacryloyloxyethyl groups. A 75 nm line and space pattern at an exposure dose of 19 μC/cm2, a resist thickness uniformity of less than 0.4 nm on a 200 mm wafer, and low film thickness shrinkage under EB irradiation were achieved with this inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material using a water-based development process.

  19. Inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material amenable to water-based processing for use in electron beam lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Satoshi Maki, Hirotaka; Sugahara, Kigen; Ito, Kenta; Hanabata, Makoto

    2015-07-15

    An electron beam (EB) lithography method using inedible cellulose-based resist material derived from woody biomass has been successfully developed. This method allows the use of pure water in the development process instead of the conventionally used tetramethylammonium hydroxide and anisole. The inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material, as an alternative to alpha-linked disaccharides in sugar derivatives that compete with food supplies, was developed by replacing the hydroxyl groups in the beta-linked disaccharides with EB-sensitive 2-methacryloyloxyethyl groups. A 75 nm line and space pattern at an exposure dose of 19 μC/cm{sup 2}, a resist thickness uniformity of less than 0.4 nm on a 200 mm wafer, and low film thickness shrinkage under EB irradiation were achieved with this inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material using a water-based development process.

  20. Investigation of Kevlar fabric-based materials for use with inflatable structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niccum, R. J.; Munson, J. B.; Rueter, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    Design, manufacture and testing of laminated and coated composite materials incorporating a structural matrix of Kevlar are reported. The practicality of using Kevlar in aerostat materials is demonstrated, and data are provided on practical weaves, lamination and coating particulars, rigidity, strength, weight, elastic coefficients, abrasion resistance, crease effects, peel strength, blocking tendencies, helium permeability, and fabrication techniques. Properties of the Kevlar-based materials are compared with conventional Dacron-reinforced counterparts. A comprehensive test and qualification program is discussed, and considerable quantitative biaxial tensile and shear test data are provided.

  1. Abrasive water-jet cutting; remote hot cell application

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.; Funnell, G.J.

    1988-09-01

    In the process of selecting a failed equipment cut-up tool for the Process Facility Modifications (PFM) Project, a system using an Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) was developed and tested for remote disassembly of failed equipment by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, PFM Mechanical Development Unit.

  2. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Muller, Matt T.; Simpson, Lin J.

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.

  3. Experiments of the selection of a method evaluating the fire resistance of some materials based on macromolecular compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Steln; Sebe, Mircea Octavian

    1987-01-01

    A comparative experimental study on the application of various tests for the evaluation of the fire-resistant properties of plastic materials is presented. On the basis of the results obtained conclusions are drawn on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used, and a preferred test method is picked, i.e., the introduction of fire retardant materials into the polymers.

  4. The effect of daily fluoride mouth rinsing on enamel erosive/abrasive wear in situ.

    PubMed

    Stenhagen, K R; Hove, L H; Holme, B; Tveit, A B

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether application of fluoride agents on enamel results in lasting resistance to erosive/abrasive wear. We investigated if one daily mouth rinse with sodium fluoride (NaF), stannous fluoride (SnF(2)) or titanium tetrafluoride (TiF(4)) solutions protected enamel against erosive/abrasive wear in situ (a paired, randomised and blind study). Sixteen molars were cut into 4 specimens, each with one amalgam filling (measurement reference surface). Two teeth (2 × 4 specimens) were mounted bilaterally (buccal aspects) on acrylic mandibular appliances and worn for 9 days by 8 volunteers. Every morning, the specimens were brushed manually with water (30 s) extra-orally. Then fluoride solutions (0.4% SnF(2) pH 2.5; 0.15% TiF(4) pH 2.1; 0.2% NaF pH 6.5, all 0.05 M F) were applied (2 min). Three of the specimens from each tooth got different treatment, and the fourth served as control. At midday, the specimens were etched for 2 min in 300 ml fresh 0.01 M hydrochloric acid and rinsed in tap water. This etch procedure was repeated in the afternoon. Topographic measurements were performed by a white-light interferometer. Mean surface loss (±SD) for 16 teeth after 9 days was: SnF(2) 1.8 ± 1.9 µm, TiF(4) 3.1 ± 4.8 µm, NaF 26.3 ± 4.7 µm, control 32.3 ± 4.4 µm. Daily rinse with SnF(2), TiF(4) and NaF resulted in 94, 90 and 18% reduction in enamel erosive/abrasive wear, respectively, compared with control (p < 0.05). The superior protective effect of daily rinse with either stannous or titanium tetrafluoride solutions on erosive/abrasive enamel wear is promising.

  5. Abrasive wear of high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) superalloy coatings under vibration load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandeva, M.; Ivanova, B.; Karastoyanov, D.; Grozdanova, T.; Assenova, E.

    2017-02-01

    The present paper considers wear of coatings deposited by HVOF (High velocity oxy-fuel) technology, under conditions of dry friction against abrasive surface accompanied with the action of vibrations perpendicular to the sliding axis. Results are obtained with four type coatings: two types with Ni matrix of composition 602P – without preliminary heating of the basic surface (the substrate) and after substrate heating up to 650°C in a chamber; coating WC-12Co with tungsten matrix and coating obtained by 1:1 proportion powder mixture of both compositions 602P and WC-12Co. Results about the thickness, hardness and coating’ morphology are presented, as well as dependences of the wear and the relative wear resistance on vibration speeds in the interval 3.03 to 21.08 mm/s. New results are obtained about the nonlinear relationship between abrasive wear and vibration speed showing minimal wear for all specimens by 6.04 mm/s. It is found that lowest wear shows WC-12Co coating in the entire interval of vibration speed variation: 3.03 to 21.08 mm/s. The obtained results are new in the literature; they are not presented and published by the authors.

  6. Brushing abrasion of eroded bovine enamel pretreated with topical fluorides.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Lugtenborg, M; Ruben, J L; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2006-01-01

    Topical fluorides have been proposed for the prevention of erosive dental wear. This study evaluated the in vitro effect of a single professional application of 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4), 1% amine fluoride (AmF) and 0.1% difluorosilane varnish (FV) in preventing wear due to combined erosion and brushing abrasion. One hundred and eight bovine enamel samples were used. Control groups were not pretreated with any product (C), pretreated with a fluoride-free varnish (FV-bl) or pretreated with fluoride varnish and subsequently submitted to varnish removal (FV-r). Wear was modeled by submitting the fluoride-treated and control groups to 3 cycles of the following regimens: erosion/remineralization (er/remin), abrasion/remineralization (abr/remin) or erosion/abrasion/remineralization (er/abr/remin). Erosion was simulated by immersion of the samples for 10 min in citric acid 50 mM (pH 3). Abrasion was carried out for 1 min (200 strokes, load 150 g) in a wear device. Remineralization (2 h artificial saliva) took place between the cycles. Two-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant interaction (pabrasion in vitro.

  7. Influence of Full Veneer Restoration on Fracture Resistance of Three Different Core Materials: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, P.S; Shekhawat, Kuldeep Singh; Deb, Saikat; Chidambaram, S.; Konchada, Jagadish; Venugopal, Nirupa; Vadivel, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives One of the factor which affects the strength of the tooth restored with core material is the property of the material. In clinical situation all such restored teeth are protected by crowns. This study evaluated the strength of different core materials on a compromised tooth structure after restoration with a crown. Materials and Methods Seventy extracted intact human premolars were collected and mounted within a mould using auto-polymerizing resin. The teeth were divided in-to four groups - A, B, C and D. Each group contained 20 teeth except group A with 10 teeth. All the teeth were prepared for full veneer cast crown. Except for the teeth in group: A) extensive class-I cavities were prepared in the teeth of all the groups and restored with; B) composite resin, 3M EPSE Filtek P60; C) Silver reinforced glass ionomer, SHOFU Hi Dense XP and; (D) Resin reinforced glass ionomer, GC Gold Label light cure GIC. All the teeth were restored with cast-metal alloy and exposed to 1.2 million cycles of cyclic loading in a chewing simulator. Subsequently, the teeth that survived were loaded till fracture in the universal testing machine. Fracture loads and type of fractures were recorded. Results All the specimens survived cyclic loading. The mean fracture strength of the silver reinforced glass ionomer was greater with and without crown (p<0.001). Statistical analysis for the mean fracture load of each specimen showed significant difference between the groups. Conclusion Under the condition of this study, core materials when restored with artificial crown had a significant increase in fracture resistance. PMID:26501004

  8. The effect of temporary restorative materials on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Milani, Amin Salem; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Hosein; Tabegh, Fatemeh Ghasemi; Pournaghiazar, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth temporarily restored with some commonly used interim materials. Of 90 extracted maxillary premolars used in this study, 15 were left intact as the positive control. Endodontic treatment was performed on the remaining 75 teeth. The endodontically treated teeth were then randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 15). One group was not restored and served as the negative control. In the remaining 4 experimental groups, the teeth were restored with a temporary cement: Zonalin, IRM, Coltosol, or Fuji II LC resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI). The fracture strengths of all teeth were measured with a universal testing machine. The fracture strength of teeth restored with RMGI was significantly greater than that of other groups (P < 0.001), including intact teeth (P = 0.025). The fracture strength of teeth restored with other temporary materials was significantly lower than that of intact teeth (P < 0.05) but not significantly different from that of the negative control. From a structural resistance standpoint, RMGI may be the best choice for short-term temporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth. Other types of temporary restorative material had no reinforcing effect on tooth structure.

  9. Simplified Abrasion Test Methodology for Candidate EVA Glove Lay-Ups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabel, Emily; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, space suit outer-layer fabrics were badly abraded after performing just a few extravehicular activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots that penetrated the outer-layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than 8 hrs of surface operations. Current plans for the exploration planetary space suits require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on a lunar or Martian surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last 40 years and improve on the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo Program. Over the past 25 years the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division has focused on tumble testing as means of simulating wear on the outer layer of the space suit fabric. Most recently, in 2009, testing was performed on 4 different candidate outer layers to gather baseline data for future use in design of planetary space suit outer layers. In support of the High Performance EVA Glove Element of the Next Generation Life Support Project, testing a new configuration was recently attempted in which require 10% of the fabric per replicate of that need in 2009. The smaller fabric samples allowed for reduced per sample cost and flexibility to test small samples from manufacturers without the overhead to have a production run completed. Data collected from this iteration was compared to that taken in 2009 to validate the new test method. In addition the method also evaluated the fabrics and fabric layups used in a prototype thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG) developed for EVA gloves under the NASA High Performance EVA Glove Project. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, results of the validation study, and results of the TMG testing.

  10. Microleakage on Class V glass ionomer restorations after cavity preparation with aluminum oxide air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Rocha, Renata Andréa Salvitti de Sá; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2005-01-01

    This in vitro study assessed the marginal microleakage on class V cavities prepared with aluminum oxide air abrasion and restored with different glass ionomer cements. The cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 15 sound third molars with an air- abrasion device (Kreativ Mach 4.1; New Image) using a 27.5-microm aluminum oxide particle stream, and were assigned to 3 groups of 10 cavities each. The restorative materials were: group I, a conventional glass ionomer cement (Ketac-Fil); groups II and III, resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Vitremer R and Fuji II LC, respectively). After placement of the restorations, the teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, polished and then submitted to a thermocycling regimen of 500 cycles, isolated, immersed in 0.2% Rhodamine B solution for 24 h, included and serially sectioned. Microleakage was assessed by viewing the specimens under an optical microscope connected to a color video camera and a computer. The images obtained were digitized and analyzed for microleakage using software that allows for a standard quantitative assessment of dye penetration in millimeters. Statistical analysis was done using the Kruskall-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests. Means of dye penetration (%) were: occlusal - I: 25.76 +/- 34.35, II: 20.00 +/- 42.16, III: 28.25 +/- 41.67; cervical - I: 23.72 +/- 41.84; II: 44.22 +/- 49.69, III: 39.27 +/- 50.74. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were observed among either the glass ionomer cements or the margins. In conclusion, class V cavities restored with either conventional or resin-modified glass ionomer cements after preparation with aluminum oxide air abrasion did not show complete sealing at the enamel and dentin/cementum margins.

  11. Simulation of abrasive water jet cutting process: Part 2. Cellular automata approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbanic, Henri; Junkar, Mihael

    2004-11-01

    A new two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model for the simulation of the abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting process is presented. The CA calculates the shape of the cutting front, which can be used as an estimation of the surface quality. The cutting front is formed based on material removal rules and AWJ propagation rules. The material removal rule calculates when a particular part of the material will be removed with regard to the energy of AWJ. The AWJ propagation rule calculates the distribution of AWJ energy through CA by using a weighted average. The modelling with CA also provides a visual narrative of the moving of the cutting front, which is hard to observe in real process. The algorithm is fast and has been successfully tested in comparison to cutting fronts obtained with cutting experiments of aluminium alloy.

  12. Mathematical modeling of surface roughness in magnetic abrasive finishing of BK7 optical glass.

    PubMed

    Pashmforoush, Farzad; Rahimi, Abdolreza; Kazemi, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) is one of the advanced machining processes efficiently used to finish hard-to-machine materials. Simulation and modeling of the process is of particular importance to understand the mechanics of material removal and consequently achieve a high-quality surface with a minimum of surface defects. Hence, in this paper, we performed a numerical-experimental study to mathematically model the surface roughness during the MAF of BK7 optical glass. For this purpose, the initial roughness profile was estimated using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and a Gaussian filter. We obtained the final surface profile based on the material removal mechanisms and the corresponding chipping depth values evaluated by finite element analysis. We then validated experimentally the simulation results in terms of the arithmetic average surface roughness (R(a ). The comparison between the obtained results demonstrates that the theoretical and experimental findings are in good agreement when predicting the parameters' effect on surface roughness behavior.

  13. An acoustic emission study of cutting bauxite refractory ceramics by abrasive water jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momber, A. W.; Mohan, R. S.; Kovacevic, R.

    1999-08-01

    This article discusses the material removal process in bauxite refractory ceramics cut by abrasive water jets. Several parameters of the process were changed during the experiments. The experiments were monitored online by the acoustic emission (AE) technique. It was found that AE signals are able to sense the material removal process as well as the machining performances very reliably. Unsteady material removal mode consisting of matrix removal and intergranular fracture was very well represented in the AE signals by an unsteady time dependent signal type characterized by burst emissions and a frequency domain signal associated with a twin-peak shape. The particular characteristics of the signal depend on the energy involved in the process.

  14. A novel method for creating endodontic access preparations through all-ceramic restorations: air abrasion and its effect relative to diamond and carbide bur use.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Christopher R; Flinn, Brian D; Pitts, David L; Gatten, Timothy L; Johnson, James D

    2005-08-01

    Access through porcelain restorations is a technically delicate and stressful procedure. Although this is a common dilemma in endodontics, little research has explored alternatives in cutting through porcelain. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of a carbide bur plus water, diamond bur plus water, and air abrasion to access through porcelain. All-ceramic samples were accessed using the different techniques. Samples were evaluated using two transillumination methods, white light, and fluorescent liquid penetrant described by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Edge chipping, microcracking, and catastrophic fracture of porcelain caused by the techniques were statistically compared. Fluorescent liquid penetrant was a more sensitive method for microcrack detection. There were significant differences between the preparation techniques. Air abrasion was significantly less destructive, and caused no catastrophic fractures, edge chipping or microcracks. Preparation by air abrasion took longer to complete.

  15. Diamond Sheet: A new diamond tool material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Diamond sheet is termed a diamond tool material because it is not a cutting tool, but rather a new material from which a variety of different tools may be fabricated. In appearance and properties, it resembles a sheet of copper alloy with diamond abrasive dispersed throughout it. It is capable of being cut, formed, and joined by conventional methods, and subsequently used for cutting as a metal bonded diamond tool. Diamond sheet is normally made with industrial diamond as the abrasive material. The metal matrix in diamond sheet is a medium hard copper alloy which has performed well in most applications. This alloy has the capability of being made harder or softer if specific cutting conditions require it. Other alloys have also been used including a precipitation hardened aluminum alloy with very free cutting characteristics. The material is suitable for use in a variety of cutting, surfacing, and ring type tools, as well as in such mundane items as files and sandpaper. It can also be used as a bearing surface (diamond to diamond) and in wear resistant surfaces.

  16. Improvement of the electrical contact resistance at rough interfaces using two dimensional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianchen; Pan, Chengbin; Lanza, Mario; Li, Heng; Shen, Panpan; Sun, Hui; Duan, Huiling

    2015-12-07

    Reducing the electronic contact resistance at the interfaces of nanostructured materials is a major goal for many kinds of planar and three dimensional devices. In this work, we develop a method to enhance the electronic transport at rough interfaces by inserting a two dimensional flexible and conductive graphene sheet. We observe that an ultra-thin graphene layer with a thickness of 0.35 nm can remarkably reduce the roughness of a sample in a factor of 40%, avoiding the use of thick coatings, leading to a more homogeneous current flow, and extraordinarily increasing the total current compared to the graphene-free counterpart. Due to its simplicity and performance enhancement, this methodology can be of interest to many interface and device designers.

  17. Electrical resistance tomography to monitor unsaturated moisture flow in cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hallaji, Milad; Seppänen, Aku; Pour-Ghaz, Mohammad

    2015-03-15

    Traditionally the electrically-based assessment of the moisture flow in cement-based materials relies on two- or four-point measurements. In this paper, imaging of moisture distribution with electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is considered. Especially, the aim is to study whether ERT could give information on unsaturated moisture flows in cases where the flow is non-uniform. In the experiment, the specimens are monitored with ERT during the water ingress. The ERT reconstructions are compared with neutron radiographs, which provide high resolution information on the 2D distribution of the moisture. The results indicate that ERT is able to detect the moisture movement and to show approximately the shape and position of the water front even if the flow is nonuniform.

  18. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 5; Abrasion: Plowing and Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    Chapter 5 discusses abrasion, a common wear phenomenon of great economic importance. It has been estimated that 50% of the wear encountered in industry is due to abrasion. Also, it is the mechanism involved in the finishing of many surfaces. Experiments are described to help in understanding the complex abrasion process and in predicting friction and wear behavior in plowing and/or cutting. These experimental modelings and measurements used a single spherical pin (asperity) and a single wedge pin (asperity). Other two-body and three-body abrasion studies used hard abrasive particles.

  19. Electrochemical studies on the stability and corrosion resistance of titanium-based implant materials.

    PubMed

    Aziz-Kerrzo, M; Conroy, K G; Fenelon, A M; Farrell, S T; Breslin, C B

    2001-06-01

    The corrosion susceptibility of Ti, Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-45Ni was studied in a buffered saline solution using anodic polarisation and electrochemical impedance measurements. Pitting potentials as low as + 250 mV(SCE) were recorded for Ti-45Ni and once initiated pits continued to propagate at potentials as low as -150 mV(SCE). It was possible to increase the pitting potential of Ti-45Ni to values greater than +800 mV(SCE) using a H2O2 surface treatment procedure; however, this surface modification process had no beneficial effect on the rate of pit repassivation. Impedance spectra, recorded under open-circuit conditions, were modelled using a dual oxide film model; a porous outer layer and an inner barrier oxide layer. The nature of this porous outer layer was found to depend on the nature of the electrode material and the presence of phosphate anions in the saline-buffered solution. The porous layers formed on Ti-45Ni and Ti-6Al-4V in the presence of phosphate anions had low resistances typically between 10 and 70 ohm cm2. Much higher porous layer resistances were recorded for Ti and also for Ti-45Ni and Ti-6Al-4V in the absence of the phosphate anions.

  20. Resistance Against the Intrinsic Rate of Fracture Mechanics Parameters for Polymeric Materials Under Moderate Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, R.; Seidler, S.; Grellmann, W.

    2005-09-01

    This study contributes towards understanding crack toughness as resistance against the intrinsic rate of fracture mechanics parameters. Up to now only few investigations have been done under moderate impact loading conditions. Based on experimental investigations using the crack resistance (R) concept, it has been shown that the stop block method combined with the multiple-specimen technique is a unique method for polymers under impact loading conditions in comparison with different R-curve methods. Other methods for the determination of R curve such as the low-blow technique are normally not applicable for polymers due to their time-dependent mechanical properties. The crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) rate is a measurement of the rate sensibility of stable fracture process depending on the type of deformation, which can provide deep insights into the micromechanics and activation mechanisms during the fracture processes. In the polymeric materials mostly investigated, one can understand the stable crack propagation with three-stage processes; crack-tip blunting/crack initiation, non-stationary stable crack growth and steady-state stable crack growth (an equilibrium state). In this stable crack propagation, the values of normalized CTOD rate converge rapidly to a ‘matrix’-specific threshold. The stop block method in the multiple-specimen technique assures the criteria of the time-independent strain field around the crack tip and constant crack speed therewith and the J-integral is a valid toughness parameter.