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Sample records for abrasive flow finishing

  1. Nanometric Finishing on Biomedical Implants by Abrasive Flow Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Kavithaa Thirumalai; Balashanmugam, Natchimuthu; Shashi Kumar, Panaghra Veeraiah

    2016-01-01

    Abrasive flow finishing (AFF) is a non-conventional finishing technique that offers better accuracy, efficiency, consistency, economy in finishing of complex/difficult to machine materials/components and provides the possibility of effective automation as aspired by the manufacturing sector. The present study describes the finishing of a hip joint made of ASTM grade Co-Cr alloy by Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) process. The major input parameters of the AFF process were optimized for achieving nanometric finishing of the component. The roughness average (Ra) values were recorded during experimentation using surface roughness tester and the results are discussed in detail. The surface finished hip joints were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and residual stress analysis using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The discussion lays emphasis on the significance, efficacy and versatile nature of the AFF process in finishing of bio-medical implants.

  2. New vibration-assisted magnetic abrasive polishing (VAMAP) method for microstructured surface finishing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiang; Kum, Chun Wai; Au, Ka Hing; Tan, Zhi'En Eddie; Wu, Hu; Liu, Kui

    2016-06-13

    In order to polish microstructured surface without deteriorating its profile, we propose a new vibration-assisted magnetic abrasive polishing (VAMAP) method. In this method, magnetic force guarantees that the magnetic abrasives can well contact the microstructured surface and access the corners of microstructures while vibration produces a relative movement between microstructures and magnetic abrasives. As the vibration direction is parallel to the microstructures, the profile of the microstructures will not be deteriorated. The relation between vibration and magnetic force was analyzed and the feasibility of this method was experimentally verified. The results show that after polishing, the surface finish around microstructures was significantly improved while the profile of microstructures was well maintained.

  3. Study on ultra-precision magnetic abrasive finishing process using low frequency alternating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinzhong; Zou, Yanhua; Sugiyama, Hitoshi

    2015-07-01

    We proposed a new ultra-precision magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) process using low frequency alternating magnetic field in this paper. Magnetic cluster themselves may produce the up and down movement change under alternating magnetic force. The movement may not only promote the dispersion of micro-magnetic particles, but also improve stirring effect and cross-cutting effects of the abrasives, achieving circulation and update to ensure the stability of grinding tools. This process is considered to be able to efficiently apply in ultra-precision finishing of plane and complicated micro-surfaces. In this study, we investigated the effects of alternating magnetic field on magnetic field distribution, finishing force and abrasive behavior. Furthermore, a set of experimental devices have been designed for finishing SUS304 stainless steel plate. The present work is aimed at understanding finishing particularity of this process and studying impacts of important process parameters namely grinding fluid, rotational speed of magnetic pole, current frequency on change in finish surface and material removal. Experimental results indicate that the process can realize ultra-precision finishing of plane by using oily grinding fluid. In the present research, the surface roughness of SUS304 stainless steel plate was improved from 240.24 nm to 4.38 nm by this process.

  4. Mathematical modeling of surface roughness in magnetic abrasive finishing of BK7 optical glass.

    PubMed

    Pashmforoush, Farzad; Rahimi, Abdolreza; Kazemi, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) is one of the advanced machining processes efficiently used to finish hard-to-machine materials. Simulation and modeling of the process is of particular importance to understand the mechanics of material removal and consequently achieve a high-quality surface with a minimum of surface defects. Hence, in this paper, we performed a numerical-experimental study to mathematically model the surface roughness during the MAF of BK7 optical glass. For this purpose, the initial roughness profile was estimated using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and a Gaussian filter. We obtained the final surface profile based on the material removal mechanisms and the corresponding chipping depth values evaluated by finite element analysis. We then validated experimentally the simulation results in terms of the arithmetic average surface roughness (R(a ). The comparison between the obtained results demonstrates that the theoretical and experimental findings are in good agreement when predicting the parameters' effect on surface roughness behavior. PMID:26479596

  5. Simulation of abrasive flow machining process for 2D and 3D mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Rupalika; Maity, Kalipada

    2015-12-01

    Improvement of surface finish and material removal has been quite a challenge in a finishing operation such as abrasive flow machining (AFM). Factors that affect the surface finish and material removal are media viscosity, extrusion pressure, piston velocity, and particle size in abrasive flow machining process. Performing experiments for all the parameters and accurately obtaining an optimized parameter in a short time are difficult to accomplish because the operation requires a precise finish. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to accurately determine optimum parameters. In the current work, a 2D model was designed, and the flow analysis, force calculation, and material removal prediction were performed and compared with the available experimental data. Another 3D model for a swaging die finishing using AFM was simulated at different viscosities of the media to study the effects on the controlling parameters. A CFD simulation was performed by using commercially available ANSYS FLUENT. Two phases were considered for the flow analysis, and multiphase mixture model was taken into account. The fluid was considered to be a

  6. Surface roughness of flowable and packable composite resin materials after finishing with abrasive discs.

    PubMed

    Uçtaşli, M B; Bala, O; Güllü, A

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare surface roughness of flowable (Admira Flow, Filtek Flow, Tetric Flow) and packable (Admira, Filtek P60, Tetric HB) composite resin restorative materials finishing with Sof-Lex discs by means of average surface roughness (Ra) measurement using a surface profilometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For each test group five specimens were prepared and roughness was measured in five different positions using a profilometer with a traversing distance of 4 mm and a cut-off value of 0.8 mm. The radius of the tracing diamond tip was 5 microm and measuring force and speed was 4 mN and 0.5 mm/s, respectively. The surface roughness of each individual disk was taken as the arithmetic mean of the Ra values measured in five different positions. Additionally, one specimen of each test group after finishing was observed under SEM with the magnification of x800 and x2500. Before finishing with Sof-Lex discs, flowable composite materials showed a smoother surface than packable composites restoratives (P < 0.05). However, after the finishing procedures similar surface textures were observed both from packable and flowable composites (P > 0.05).

  7. Evaluation of surface finish and polish of eight provisional restorative materials using acrylic bur and abrasive disk with and without pumice.

    PubMed

    Maalhagh-Fard, Ahmad; Wagner, Warren C; Pink, Frank E; Neme, Ann Marie

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two finishing techniques and pumice polishing on the surface roughness of eight different provisional materials. Provisional materials included polymethylmethacrylate-based Alike, Snap, Trim and Jetand composite-based provisional materials Temphase, Protemp 3 Garant, Luxatemp and Integrity. Baseline surface roughness was measured by a profilometer, then the provisional materials were finished using extra fine acrylic burs or medium abrasive disks. The surface roughness of each sample was measured following finishing using a profilometer as previously stated. Each surface was then polished with pumice and the surface roughness was measured again. The data were analyzed using repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons (alpha = 0.05). The results indicated that with composite provisional materials, the unfinished surfaces are smoother than with bur or abrasive-disk finished surfaces. Pumice application did not smooth the surface finish for all materials. The different types of provisional materials required different finishing techniques to produce the smoothest finishes.

  8. Conditioning method development for 3M Trizact diamond tile fixed abrasives used in the finishing of brittle substrates; Technical Digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Tim; Gobena, Feben T.; Romero, Vince; Sventek, Bruce; Schoenhofen, Walter

    2005-05-01

    Results of a series of single sided lapping experiments designed to develop appropriate conditioning methods for 3M Trizact Diamond Tile fixed abrasives are reported. Trizact™ Diamond Tile is a structured fixed abrasive lapping technology developed by 3M. The Trizact™ Diamond Tile structured abrasive pad consists of an organic (polymeric binder)-inorganic (abrasive mineral, i.e., diamond) composite that is used with a water-based coolant. The effect of platen and conditioner speed on pad wear will be explored for a roller yoke single-side lapping machine. Pad break-in conditioning was studied in detail for a 6 micron Trizact™ Diamond Tile abrasive used to lap soda-lime glass.

  9. Solder flow over fine line PWB surface finishes

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    The rapid advancement of interconnect technology has stimulated the development of alternative printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes to enhance the solderability of standard copper and solder-coated surfaces. These new finishes are based on either metallic or organic chemistries. As part of an ongoing solderability study, Sandia National Laboratories has investigated the solder flow behavior of two azole-based organic solderability preservations, immersion Au, immersion Ag, electroless Pd, and electroless Pd/Ni on fine line copper features. The coated substrates were solder tested in the as-fabricated and environmentally-stressed conditions. Samples were processed through an inerted reflow machine. The azole-based coatings generally provided the most effective protection after aging. Thin Pd over Cu yielded the best wetting results of the metallic coatings, with complete dissolution of the Pd overcoat and wetting of the underlying Cu by the flowing solder. Limited wetting was measured on the thicker Pd and Pd over Ni finishes, which were not completely dissolved by the molten solder. The immersion Au and Ag finishes yielded the lowest wetted lengths, respectively. These general differences in solderability were directly attributed to the type of surface finish which the solder came in contact with. The effects of circuit geometry, surface finish, stressing, and solder processing conditions are discussed.

  10. Can Wet Rocky Granular Flows Become Debris Flows Due to Fine Sediment Production by Abrasion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabnia, O.; Sklar, L. S.; Bianchi, G.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flows are rapid mass movements in which elevated pore pressures are sustained by a viscous fluid matrix with high concentrations of fine sediments. Debris flows may form from coarse-grained wet granular flows as fine sediments are entrained from hillslope and channel material. Here we investigate whether abrasion of the rocks within a granular flow can produce sufficient fine sediments to create debris flows. To test this hypothesis experimentally, we used a set of 4 rotating drums ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 m diameter. Each drum has vanes along the boundary ensure shearing within the flow. Shear rate was varied by changing drum rotational velocity to maintain a constant Froude Number across drums. Initial runs used angular clasts of granodiorite with a tensile strength of 7.6 MPa, with well-sorted coarse particle size distributions linearly scaled with drum radius. The fluid was initially clear water, which rapidly acquired fine-grained wear products. After each 250 m tangential distance, we measured the particle size distributions, and then returned all water and sediment to the drums for subsequent runs. We calculate particle wear rates using statistics of size and mass distributions, and by fitting the Sternberg equation to the rate of mass loss from the size fraction > 2mm. Abundant fine sediments were produced in the experiments, but very little change in the median grain size was detected. This appears to be due to clast rounding, as evidenced by a decrease in the number of stable equilibrium resting points. We find that the growth in the fine sediment concentration in the fluid scales with unit drum power. This relationship can be used to estimate fine sediment production rates in the field. We explore this approach at Inyo Creek, a steep catchment in the Sierra Nevada, California. There, a significant debris flow occurred in July 2013, which originated as a coarse-grained wet granular flow. We use surveys to estimate flow depth and velocity where super

  11. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  12. Convergent evolution of abrading flow obstacles: Insights from analogue modelling of fluvial bedrock abrasion by coarse bedload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Andrew; Lavé, Jérôme

    2014-03-01

    Upstream-facing convex surfaces (UFCS) are formed by bedload abrasion in bedrock rivers and indicate the recent, significant action of bedload abrasion in causing channel incision. Beyond this, little is known of the dynamics of UFCS and the effect of substrate and bedload properties on rates and distribution of bedload abrasion for these bed roughness elements. Grain size populations from 1 to 8 cm (b-axis, in 1- or 2-cm bin widths) were used to bombard preshaped marble and limestone targets bolted to the base of an annular flume. The control of initial shape and lithology of the target and the erodent grain size and lithology were investigated by monitoring the evolution of the target form using laser scanning at predefined time intervals. Eleven experiment suites were carried out containing three initial target shapes constructed from two lithologies, four bedload (erodent) grain sizes of either granodiorites or limestone, or clear water flow. All 10 targets abraded by bedload evolved from their initial form into a steady state (time invariant) form, producing UFCSs. Steady state forms were closely similar for all targets despite different initial conditions. Bedload grain size has a strong control on this equilibrium form, related to the transit path of the grains when moving over the target, whilst initial target form has only a weak control. Steady state morphology is achieved more rapidly with harder erodent bedload particles and/or softer targets. Upstream-facing convex surface stoss sides were characterised by a brighter, sugary, granular appearance on the rock-forming grain scale. Increasing erodent grain size, for a fixed bedload mass, increased the bulk abrasion rate at fixed flow speed and discharge. No detectable erosion occurred for a limestone block in clear water flows under the same flow conditions, indicating solution and cavitation were insignificant mechanisms of erosion in this study. During the experiment suites, suspended load abrasion was

  13. Effect of Blade-surface Finish on Performance of a Single-stage Axial-flow Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Jason J; Serovy, George, K

    1951-01-01

    A set of modified NACA 5509-34 rotor and stator blades was investigated with rough-machine, hand-filed, and highly polished surface finishes over a range of weight flows at six equivalent tip speeds from 672 to 1092 feet per second to determine the effect of blade-surface finish on the performance of a single-stage axial-flow compressor. Surface-finish effects decreased with increasing compressor speed and with decreasing flow at a given speed. In general, finishing blade surfaces below the roughness that may be considered aerodynamically smooth on the basis of an admissible-roughness formula will have no effect on compressor performance.

  14. Seasonal-scale abrasion and quarrying patterns from a two-dimensional ice-flow model coupled to distributed and channelized subglacial drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaud, Flavien; Flowers, Gwenn E.; Pimentel, Sam

    2014-08-01

    Field data and numerical modeling show that glaciations have the potential either to enhance relief or to dampen topography. We aim to model the effect of the subglacial hydraulic system on spatiotemporal patterns of glacial erosion by abrasion and quarrying on time scales commensurate with drainage system fluctuations (e.g., seasonal to annual). We use a numerical model that incorporates a dual-morphology subglacial drainage system coupled to a higher-order ice-flow model and process-specific erosion laws. The subglacial drainage system allows for a dynamic transition between two morphologies: the distributed system, characterized by an increase in basal water pressure with discharge, and the channelized system, which exhibits a decrease in equilibrium water pressure with increasing discharge. We apply the model to a simple synthetic glacier geometry, drive it with prescribed meltwater input variations, and compute sliding and erosion rates over a seasonal cycle. When both distributed and channelized systems are included, abrasion and sliding maxima migrate ~ 20% up-glacier compared to simulations with distributed drainage only. Power-law sliding generally yields to a broader response of abrasion to water pressure changes along the flowline compared to Coulomb-friction sliding. Multi-day variations in meltwater input elicit a stronger abrasion response than either diurnal- or seasonal variations alone for the same total input volume. An increase in water input volume leads to increased abrasion. We find that ice thickness commensurate with ice sheet outlet glaciers can hinder the up-glacier migration of abrasion. Quarrying patterns computed with a recently published law differ markedly from calculated abrasion patterns, with effective pressure being a stronger determinant than sliding speeds of quarrying rates. These variations in calculated patterns of instantaneous erosion as a function of hydrology-, sliding-, and erosion-model formulation, as well as model

  15. Valve for abrasive material

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Harold S.

    1982-01-01

    A ball valve assembly for controlling the flow of abrasive particulates including an enlarged section at the bore inlet and an enlarged section at the bore outlet. A refractory ceramic annular deflector is positioned in each of the enlarged sections, substantially extending the useful life of the valve.

  16. Simulation of Magnetic Field Assisted Finishing (MFAF) Process Utilizing Smart MR Polishing Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Anwesa; Das, Manas

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic field assisted finishing process is an advanced finishing process. This process is capable of producing nanometer level surface finish. In this process magnetic field is applied to control the finishing forces using magnetorheological polishing medium. In the current study, permanent magnet is used to provide the required magnetic field in the finishing zone. The working gap between the workpiece and the magnet is filled with MR fluid which is used as the polishing brush to remove surface undulations from the top surface of the workpiece. In this paper, the distribution of magnetic flux density on the workpiece surface and behaviour of MR polishing medium during finishing are analyzed using commercial finite element packages (Ansys Maxwell® and Comsol®). The role of magnetic force in the indentation of abrasive particles on the workpiece surface is studied. A two-dimensional simulation study of the steady, laminar, and incompressible MR fluid flow behaviour during finishing process is carried out. The material removal and surface roughness modelling of the finishing process are also presented. The indentation force by a single active abrasive particle on the workpiece surface is modelled during simulation. The velocity profile of MR fluid with and without application of magnetic field is plotted. It shows non-Newtonian property without application of magnetic field. After that the total material displacement due to one abrasive particle is plotted. The simulated roughness profile is in a good agreement with the experimental results. The conducted study will help in understanding the fluid behavior and the mechanism of finishing during finishing process. Also, the modelling and simulation of the process will help in achieving better finishing performance.

  17. An investigation into magnetic electrolytic abrasive turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdy, M. A. M.; Ismaeial, A. L.; Aly, F. F.

    2013-07-01

    The magnetic electrolytic abrasive turning (MEAT) process as a non-traditional machining is used to obtain surface finishing like mirror. MEAT provides one of the best alternatives for producing complex shapes with good finish in advanced materials used in aircraft and aerospace industries. The improvement of machining accuracy of MEAT continues to be a major challenge for modern industry. MEAT is a hybrid machining which combines two or more processes to remove material. The present research focuses on the development of precision electrochemical turning (ECT) under the effects of magnetic field and abrasives. The effect of magnetic flux density, electrochemical conditions and abrasive parameters on finishing efficiency and surface roughness are investigated. An empirical relationship is deduced.

  18. Investigation on Multi-Physics Simulation-Based Virtual Machining System for Vibratory Finishing of Integrally Bladed Rotors (IBRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiamah-Ampomah, N.; Cheng, Kai

    2016-02-01

    An investigation was carried out to improve the slow surface finishing times of integrally bladed rotors (IBRs) in the aerospace industry. Traditionally they are finished by hand, or more currently by abrasive flow machining. The use of a vibratory finishing technique to improve process times has been suggested; however as a largely empirical process, very few studies have been done to improve and optimize the cycle times, showing that critical and ongoing research is still needed in this area. An extensive review of the literature was carried out, and the findings used to identify the key parameters and model equations which govern the vibratory process. Recommendations were made towards a multi-physics-based simulation model, as well as projections made for the future of vibratory finishing and optimization of surface finishes and cycle times.

  19. Prepolishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeffler, Adrienne E.; Gregg, Leslie L.; Schoen, John M.; Fess, Edward M.; Hakiel, Michael; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Deterministic microgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-5μm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an Optipro CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

  20. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 5; Abrasion: Plowing and Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    Chapter 5 discusses abrasion, a common wear phenomenon of great economic importance. It has been estimated that 50% of the wear encountered in industry is due to abrasion. Also, it is the mechanism involved in the finishing of many surfaces. Experiments are described to help in understanding the complex abrasion process and in predicting friction and wear behavior in plowing and/or cutting. These experimental modelings and measurements used a single spherical pin (asperity) and a single wedge pin (asperity). Other two-body and three-body abrasion studies used hard abrasive particles.

  1. Abrasion resistance of linings in filament wound composite pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.C.

    1999-07-01

    Fiberglass filament wound composite pipe has numerous industrial applications including transportation of petroleum and natural gas. Its corrosion resistance is well known but it can be susceptible to abrasion and erosion when it is used to transport slurries or dry gas containing sand particles. However, composite pipe can be manufactured integrally with abrasion resistant linings which protect the pipe from abrasion and erosion and increase its life. Laboratory investigations were performed to determine the effect of abrasive flows through polyurea-lined and unlined glass-reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipe, ultra-high molecular weight (UHMW) polyethylene (PE) pipe, and unlined steel pipe. Results are provided for the abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, adhesion strength, elongation, tensile strength, impact resistance and hardness of selected linings. The abrasion resistance of polyurea-lined composite pipe proved to be almost as resistant to abrasion and erosion as unlined steel pipe without the electrochemical corrosion associated with steel pipe.

  2. [The application of air abrasion in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Mandinić, Zoran; Vulićević, Zoran R; Beloica, Milos; Radović, Ivana; Mandić, Jelena; Carević, Momir; Tekić, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    One of the main objectives of contemporary dentistry is to preserve healthy tooth structure by applying techniques of noninvasive treatment. Air abrasion is a minimally invasive nonmechanical technique of tooth preparation that uses kinetic energy to remove carious tooth structure. A powerful narrow stream of moving aluminum-oxide particles hit the tooth surface and they abrade it without heat, vibration or noise. Variables that affect speed of cutting include air pressure, particle size, powder flow, tip's size, angle and distance from the tooth. It has been proposed that air abrasion can be used to diagnose early occlusal-surface lesions and treat them with minimal tooth preparation using magnifier. Reported advantages of air abrasion include reduced noise, vibration and sensitivity. Air abrasion cavity preparations have more rounded internal contours than those prepared with straight burs. This may increase the longevity of placed restorations because it reduces the incidence of fractures and a consequence of decreased internal stresses. However, air abrasion cannot be used for all patients, i.e. in cases involving severe dust allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, recent extraction or other oral surgery, open wounds, advanced periodontal disease, recent placement of orthodontic appliances and oral abrasions, or subgingival caries removal. Many of these conditions increase the risk of air embolism in the oral soft tissues. Dust control is a challenge, and it necessitates the use of rubber dam, high-volume evacuation, protective masks and safety eyewear for both the patient and the therapist.

  3. Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain

    DOEpatents

    Plovnick, Ross; Celikkaya, Ahmet; Blake, Rodger D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

  4. Surface finishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzler, J. A.; Hefferman, J. T.; Fehrenkamp, L. G.; Lee, W. S. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A surface of an article adapted for relative motion with a fluid environment is finished by coating the surface with a fluid adhesive, covering the adhesive with a sheet of flexible film material under tension on the film material whereby the tensioned film material is bonded to the surface by the adhesive.

  5. Finishing Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2011-05-01

    As we finish this publishing cycle, I'd like to thank all the readers who sent in video clips. If you have a YouTube clip that you use in class, please send the link and a brief description to driendeau@dist113.org.

  6. Wind abrasion on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Aeolian activity was predicted for Mars from earth based observations of changing surface patterns that were interpreted as dust storms. Mariner 9 images showed conclusive evidence for aeolian processes in the form of active dust storms and various aeolian landforms including dunes and yardangs. Windspeeds to initiate particle movement are an order of magnitude higher on Mars than on Earth because of the low atmospheric density on Mars. In order to determine rates of abrasion by wind blown particles, knowledge of three factors is required: (1) particle parameters such as numbers and velocities of windblown grains as functions of windspeeds at various heights above the surface; (2) the susceptibility to abrasion of various rocks and minerals; and (3) wind frequencies and speeds. For estimates appropriate to Mars, data for the first two parameters can be determined through lab and wind tunnel tests; data for the last two factors are available directly from the Viking Lander meteorology experiments for the two landing sites.

  7. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  8. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  9. The scalpel finishing technique: a tooth-friendly way to finish dental composites in anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Kup, Elaine; Tirlet, Gil; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Optimal results can be obtained on direct restorations by the application of layering procedures that combine the accurate morphological insertion of restorative materials with the knowledge of the optical and mechanical properties of both composite resin and natural hard dental tissue. Even if the finishing procedures on restorations, such as margination (the trimming of margins), are minimized by anatomical layering techniques, finishing can still be highly complicated due to a number of pre-finishing sequences using specific instruments proposed in the literature, which include finishing burs and abrasive discs. Finishing procedures performed with a scalpel on polymerized direct composite restorations can improve the quality of the final sculptured surface by developing natural contours and characteristics and by removing the excess restorative material at the tooth-structure margin. Enhanced movement control and fine fingertip perception of the surface texture while moving the scalpel blade allow the operator to detect and cut the excess composite material during the margination procedure and to refine the final anatomy. Avoiding the use of finishing burs during finishing procedures on direct composite restorations may save adjacent enamel surfaces from abrasive damage. The composite surface and margins may also benefit from using the scalpel finishing technique, considering the potential risk of excess removal and surface crazing that the improper use of finishing burs could cause to composite material. The purpose of this article is to propose and describe the scalpel finishing technique step by step, as well as to briefly discuss the advantages of its application within the limits of a clinical case report.

  10. The scalpel finishing technique: a tooth-friendly way to finish dental composites in anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Kup, Elaine; Tirlet, Gil; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Optimal results can be obtained on direct restorations by the application of layering procedures that combine the accurate morphological insertion of restorative materials with the knowledge of the optical and mechanical properties of both composite resin and natural hard dental tissue. Even if the finishing procedures on restorations, such as margination (the trimming of margins), are minimized by anatomical layering techniques, finishing can still be highly complicated due to a number of pre-finishing sequences using specific instruments proposed in the literature, which include finishing burs and abrasive discs. Finishing procedures performed with a scalpel on polymerized direct composite restorations can improve the quality of the final sculptured surface by developing natural contours and characteristics and by removing the excess restorative material at the tooth-structure margin. Enhanced movement control and fine fingertip perception of the surface texture while moving the scalpel blade allow the operator to detect and cut the excess composite material during the margination procedure and to refine the final anatomy. Avoiding the use of finishing burs during finishing procedures on direct composite restorations may save adjacent enamel surfaces from abrasive damage. The composite surface and margins may also benefit from using the scalpel finishing technique, considering the potential risk of excess removal and surface crazing that the improper use of finishing burs could cause to composite material. The purpose of this article is to propose and describe the scalpel finishing technique step by step, as well as to briefly discuss the advantages of its application within the limits of a clinical case report. PMID:25874271

  11. Optimizing parameters for magnetorheological finishing supersmooth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Zhijing; Wang, Yingwei

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a reasonable approach to this issue, i.e., computer controlled magnetorheological finishing (MRF). In MRF, magnetically stiffened magnetorheological (MR) abrasive fluid flows through a preset converging gap that is formed by a workpiece surface and a moving rigid wall, to create precise material removal and polishing. Tsinghua University recently completed a project with MRF technology, in which a 66 mm diameter, f/5 parabolic mirror was polished to the shape accuracy of λ/17 RMS (λ=632.8nm) and the surface roughness of 1.22 nm Ra. This was done on a home made novel aspheric computer controlled manufacturing system. It is a three-axis, self-rotating wheel machine, the polishing tool is driven with one motor through a belt. This paper presents the manufacturing and testing processes, including establish the mathematics model of MRF optics on the basis of Preston equation, profiler test and relative coefficients, i.e., pressure between workpiece and tool, velocity of MR fluid in polishing spot, tolerance control of geometrical parameters such as radius of curvature and conic constant also been analyzed in the paper. Experiments were carried out on the features of MRF. The results indicated that the required convergent speed, surface roughness could be achieved with high efficiency.

  12. The effects of abrasives on electrical submersible pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.L. )

    1990-06-01

    The electrical submersible pump (ESP) is a high-speed rotating device. Its operational life in oil wells can depend on the type and quantities of abrasives present in the produced fluid. This paper reports on a set of experiments performed in a specialized abrasive test loop. In the test, the size and quantity of abrasives were varied along with flow rate through the pump. This paper also examines recent literature on sand production and explores some of the practical problems in sand measurement.

  13. Abrasion protection in process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Accetta, J.

    1996-07-01

    Process piping often is subjected to failure from abrasion or a combination of abrasion and corrosion. Abrasion is a complex phenomenon, with many factors involved to varying degrees. Hard, mineral based alumina ceramic and basalt materials are used to provide protection against abrasion in many piping systems. Successful life extension examples are presented from many different industries. Lined piping components require special attention with regard to operating conditions as well as design and engineering considerations. Economic justification involves direct cost comparisons and avoided costs.

  14. Abrasion resistant composition

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Keith D; Barnes, Christopher A; Henderson, Stephen L

    2014-05-13

    A surface covering composition of abrasion resistant character adapted for disposition in overlying bonded relation to a metal substrate. The surface covering composition includes metal carbide particles within a metal matrix at a packing factor of not less than about 0.6. Not less than about 40 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter in the range of +14-32 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix. Not less than about 3 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter of +60 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix.

  15. Effect of abrasive grit size on wear of manganese-zinc ferrite under three-body abrasion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1987-01-01

    Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites under three-body abrasion. The abrasion mechanism of Mn-Zn ferrite changes drastically with the size of abrasive grits. With 15-micron (1000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion of Mn-Zn ferrite is due principally to brittle fracture; while with 4- and 2-micron (4000- and 6000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion is due to plastic deformation and fracture. Both microcracking and plastic flow produce polycrystalline states on the wear surfaces of single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites. Coefficient of wear, total thickness of the deformed layers, and surface roughness of the wear surfaces increase markedly with an increase in abrasive grit size. The total thicknesses of the deformed layers are 3 microns for the ferrite abraded by 15-micron SiC, 0.9 microns for the ferrite abraded by 4-micron SiC, and 0.8 microns for the ferrite abraded by 1-micron SiC.

  16. Abrasion-resistant antireflective coating for polycarbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Following plasma-polymerization technique, treatment in oxygen glow discharge further enhances abrasion resistance and transmission. Improvement in abrasion resistance was shown by measuring percentage of haze resulting from abrasion. Coating samples were analyzed for abrasion using standard fresh rubber eraser. Other tests included spectra measurements and elemental analysis with spectrometers and spectrophotometers.

  17. Transparent, abrasion resistant coating compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Ashlock, L.T.; Mukamal, H.; White, W.H.

    1985-02-19

    There is disclosed transparent, abrasion resistant coating compositions comprising a colloidal dispersion of a water insoluble dispersant in a water-alcohol solution of the partial condensate of silanol wherein the dispersant comprises metals, alloys and salts thereof.

  18. Abrasives in snuff?

    PubMed

    Dahl, B L; Stølen, S O; Oilo, G

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and calculate the inorganic contents of four brands of snuff. Visual inspection of wet snuff showed fairly large, yellow crystal-like particles. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray dispersive (EDX) analyses were used to study both wet snuff and ashes of snuff, whereas light emission spectrography was used to determine elements in the ashes. The crystal-like particles did not dissolve in distilled water or in ethanol heated to 60 degrees C. EDX analyses showed that most elements remained in the particles after washing. The total weight percentage of inorganic material in snuff was calculated after burning dried snuff until constant weight was obtained. The ashes of snuff did not contain any crystal-like particles but consisted of a small-grained amorphous mass. The following elements were detected: Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Si, Sr, Ti, Va, and Zr. Other elements such as rare earths were not searched for. The weight percentage of inorganic elements ranged between 12.35 +/- 0.69 and 20.95 +/- 0.81. Provided snuff is used in the same manner as chewing tobacco, and some people admit to doing so, there is a risk that its relatively high contents of inorganic material and heavily soluble salts may be conducive to excessive abrasion of teeth and restorations. PMID:2782061

  19. Acidic magnetorheological finishing of infrared polycrystalline materials

    DOE PAGES

    Salzman, S.; Romanofsky, H. J.; West, G.; Marshall, K. L.; Jacobs, S. D.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    2016-10-12

    Here, chemical-vapor–deposited (CVD) ZnS is an example of a polycrystalline material that is difficult to polish smoothly via the magnetorheological–finishing (MRF) technique. When MRF-polished, the internal infrastructure of the material tends to manifest on the surface as millimeter-sized “pebbles,” and the surface roughness observed is considerably high. The fluid’s parameters important to developing a magnetorheological (MR) fluid that is capable of polishing CVD ZnS smoothly were previously discussed and presented. These parameters were acidic pH (~4.5) and low viscosity (~47 cP). MRF with such a unique MR fluid was shown to reduce surface artifacts in the form of pebbles; however,more » surface microroughness was still relatively high because of the absence of a polishing abrasive in the formulation. In this study, we examine the effect of two polishing abrasives—alumina and nanodiamond—on the surface finish of several CVD ZnS substrates, and on other important IR polycrystalline materials that were finished with acidic MR fluids containing these two polishing abrasives. Surface microroughness results obtained were as low as ~28 nm peak-to-valley and ~6-nm root mean square.« less

  20. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  1. Ultra-fast X-ray particle velocimetry measurements within an abrasive water jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balz, R.; Mokso, R.; Narayanan, C.; Weiss, D. A.; Heiniger, K. C.

    2013-03-01

    Ultra-fast X-ray velocimetry measurements were taken to measure velocities and spatial positions of individual abrasive particles within the solid-liquid-gaseous three-phase flow of a high-pressure injection method-based abrasive water jet (AWJ). A synchrotron X-ray source provided sufficient photon flux to take double-frame images of the AWJ with an inter-frame time interval of 5 μs. Abrasive particles with a Sauter mean diameter of 265.5 μm were detected by a scintillator optically coupled to a gated image intensifier and a high-speed camera running at a frame rate of 11,250 Hz. A commercially available particle tracking velocimetry software was used to process the acquired images and evaluate the spatial positions and velocities of abrasive particles as a function of water pressure and abrasive mass flow. The acquired data show a Gaussian radial distribution of abrasive particles within the AWJ and an almost uniform mean axial velocity, irrespective of water jet velocity and abrasive flow rates. These results are useful to validate theoretical models for the momentum/energy transfer in AWJ, to provide input for abrasion/erosion models, to further understand and advance the AWJ process, and to develop new process opportunities such as AWJ milling.

  2. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor... § 1915.134 Abrasive wheels. This section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor... § 1915.134 Abrasive wheels. This section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor... § 1915.134 Abrasive wheels. This section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor... § 1915.134 Abrasive wheels. This section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with...

  6. Material removal mechanisms in abrasive vibration polishing of complex molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinksmeier, E.; Riemer, O.; Schulte, H.

    2010-10-01

    Optical and medical industries are demanding a large variety of optical elements exhibiting complex geometries and multitude opto-functional areas in the range of a few millimeters [1]. Therefore, mold inserts made of steel or carbides must be finished by polishing for the replication of glass and plastic lenses [2]. For polishing theses complex components in the shape of localized cavities or grooves the application of rotating polishing pads is very limited. Established polishing processes are not applicable, so state of the art is a time consuming and therefore expensive polishing procedures by hand. An automated process with conventional polishing machines is impossible because of the complex mold insert geometry. The authors will present the development of a new abrasive polishing process for finishing these complex mold geometries to optical quality. The necessary relative velocity in the contact area between polishing pad and workpiece surface is exclusively realized by vibration motions which is an advantage over vibration assisted rotating polishing processes. The absence of rotation of the pad opens up the possibility to machine new types of surface geometries. The specific influence factors of vibration polishing were analyzed and will be presented. The determination of material removal behavior and polishing effect on planar steel samples has shown that the conventional abrasive polishing hypothesis of Preston is applicable to the novel vibration polishing process. No overlaid chemical material removal appears.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficiency of Four Ceramic Finishing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, Prasad; Razak, P Abdul; Francis, P G; Issac, Johnson K; Shanoj, R P; Sasikumar, T P

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of four different finishing systems and diamond paste on ceramic roughness with the objectives of evaluating the roughness of ceramic surface of prepared specimens after abrasion, finishing and polishing. Materials & Methods: A total of 50 test specimens were fabricated in the form of discs of diameter 13mm and 0.6mm thickness. Test specimens were then randomly distributed into five groups of 10 and coded. All the test specimens were then abraded with 125μm diamond in unidirectional motion to create surface roughness that will simulate occlusal or incisal correction. The values were recorded and the specimens were then finished using the various finishing systems. multiple range tests by Duncan's procedure. One way Anova was used to calculate the p-value Results:After fini shing, the Ra,Rq,Rz and Rt values showed a tendency to decline to levels much inferior to the values obtained after the preparation of the specimens. Ra values of group III specimens were slightly higher and the increase was significant. The highest Rt value [5.29] obtained after polishing is below the lowest roughness values [7.42] obtained after finishing the specimens. Conclusions: Finishing and polishing procedures have a significant role in reducing the roughness of ceramics.Following abrasion with diamond point to simulate clinical adjustment the roughness values doubled when compared to the initial reading.Ra, Rq,Rz and Rt values suggest that Sof lex is the most efficient of all the systems tested followed by auto glazing.After the final diamond paste polishing, sof lex group specimens showed the best finish and auto glazed specimens showed a value almost as equal to the so flex group. How to cite this article: Aravind P, Razak PA, Francis PG, Issac JK, Shanoj RP, Sasikumar TP. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficiency of Four Ceramics Finishing Systems. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):59-64. PMID:24324306

  8. Enhancing Surface Finish of Additively Manufactured Titanium and Cobalt Chrome Elements Using Laser Based Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gora, Wojciech S.; Tian, Yingtao; Cabo, Aldara Pan; Ardron, Marcus; Maier, Robert R. J.; Prangnell, Philip; Weston, Nicholas J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers the possibility of creating a complex free form object as a single element, which is not possible using traditional mechanical machining. Unfortunately the typically rough surface finish of additively manufactured parts is unsuitable for many applications. As a result AM parts must be post-processed; typically mechanically machined and/or and polished using either chemical or mechanical techniques (both of which have their limitations). Laser based polishing is based on remelting of a very thin surface layer and it offers potential as a highly repeatable, higher speed process capable of selective area polishing, and without any waste problems (no abrasives or liquids). In this paper an in-depth investigation of CW laser polishing of titanium and cobalt chrome AM elements is presented. The impact of different scanning strategies, laser parameters and initial surface condition on the achieved surface finish is evaluated.

  9. Computer Simulation of Stress-Strain State of Pipeline Section Affected by Abrasion Due to Mechanical Impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, P. V.; Afanas’ev, R. G.; Burkova, S. P.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the effect of abrasive wear of the pipeline section occurred due to mechanical impurities in the transported gas flow. The approaches to the detection of the maximum specific wear of the pipeline wall and the geometry of abrasion are the main problems of computer simulation described in this paper.

  10. Abrasive drill for resilient materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Resilient materials normally present problem in obtaining accurate and uniform hole size and position. Tool is fabricated from stiff metal rod such as tungsten or carbon steel that has diameter slightly smaller than required hole. Piercing/centering point is ground on one end of rod. Rod is then plasma-sprayed (flame-sprayed) with suitable hard abrasive coating. High-speed, slow-feed operation of tool is necessary for accurate holes, and this can be done with drill press, hard drill, or similar machines.

  11. Wear characterization of abrasive waterjet nozzles and nozzle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanduri, Madhusarathi

    Parameters that influence nozzle wear in the abrasive water jet (AWJ) environment were identified and classified into nozzle geometric, AWJ system, and nozzle material categories. Regular and accelerated wear test procedures were developed to study nozzle wear under actual and simulated conditions, respectively. Long term tests, using garnet abrasive, were conducted to validate the accelerated test procedure. In addition to exit diameter growth, two new measures of wear, nozzle weight loss and nozzle bore profiles were shown to be invaluable in characterizing and explaining the phenomena of nozzle wear. By conducting nozzle wear tests, the effects of nozzle geometric, and AWJ system parameters on nozzle wear were systematically investigated. An empirical model was developed for nozzle weight loss rate. To understand the response of nozzle materials under varying AWJ system conditions, erosion tests were conducted on samples of typical nozzle materials. The effect of factors such as jet impingement angle, abrasive type, abrasive size, abrasive flow rate, water pressure, traverse speed, and target material was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on eroded samples as well as worn nozzles to understand the wear mechanisms. The dominant wear mechanism observed was grain pullout. Erosion models were reviewed and along the lines of classical erosion theories a semi-empirical model, suitable for erosion of nozzle materials under AWJ impact, was developed. The erosion data correlated very well with the developed model. Finally, the cutting efficiency of AWJ nozzles was investigated in conjunction with nozzle wear. The cutting efficiency of a nozzle deteriorates as it wears. There is a direct correlation between nozzle wear and cutting efficiency. The operating conditions that produce the most efficient jets also cause the most wear in the nozzle.

  12. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  13. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Gorin, A.H.; Seals, R.D.

    1994-11-22

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  14. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Gorin, Andrew H.; Seals, Roland D.

    1994-01-01

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  15. Cotton Fabric Properties with Water-Repellent Finishing via Sol-Gel Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaoxia; Li, Mao; Wu, Min; Chen, Li

    The properties of the cotton fabric with water-repellence finishing by sol method with the hexadecyltrimethoxysilane as additive were observed. The cotton fabrics were immersed in the prepared sols with double dip and double nip dried at 90°C, annealed at 160°C for 3 min. The water repellence and the physical properties such as gas permeability, bending properties, beetling properties, tensile strength, elongation at break, abrasion resistance, and anti-crease properties of the cotton fabrics were investigated. The results showed that anti-crease and tensile strength were improved. However, the abrasion resistance of the cotton fabrics decreased in some way. Both the bending and beetling properties measurement proved that the handle of the treated cotton fabrics changed stiffness. For the dyed fabrics by the water-repellent finishing, the hue was slightly changed, the deeper color was achieved. There is no adverse effect for treated fabric by water-repellent finishing on the fastness.

  16. Cleaning power and abrasivity of European toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Wülknitz, P

    1997-11-01

    For 41 toothpastes available to European consumers in 1995, the cleaning efficacy was evaluated in comparison with abrasivity on dentin (RDA value). For cleaning power assessment, a modified pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) measurement method was developed. The method is characterized by a five-day tea-staining procedure on bovine front teeth slabs on a rotating wheel, standardized brushing of the slabs in a V8 cross-brushing machine, and brightness measurement by a chromametric technique. All tested products were in accordance with the new DIN/ISO standard 11,609 for toothpastes in terms of dentin abrasivity. Not a single product exceeded an RDA value of 200. The majority of toothpastes (80%) had an RDA value below 100. Only three products surpassed the reference in cleaning power. Most products (73%) had a cleaning power (PCR value) between 20 and 80. The correlation between cleaning power and dentin abrasion was low (r = 0.66), which can be explained with the different influence on dentin and stains by factors like abrasive type, particle surface and size, as well as the chemical influence of other toothpaste ingredients. Some major trends could be shown on the basis of abrasive types. The ratio PCR to RDA was rather good in most silica-based toothpastes. A lower ratio was found in some products containing calcium carbonate or aluminum trihydrate as the only abrasive. The addition of other abrasives, such as polishing alumina, showed improved cleaning power. Some active ingredients, especially sequenstrants such as sodium tripolyphosphate or AHBP, also improve the PCR/RDA ratio by stain-dissolving action without being abrasive. The data for some special anti-stain products did not differ significantly from standard products. Compared with data measured in 1988, a general trend toward reduced abrasivity without loss of cleaning efficacy could be noticed on the European toothpaste market. This may be mostly due to the increased use of high-performance abrasives such

  17. Erosion, cavitation, and abrasion resistance of choke trim materials

    SciTech Connect

    Seger, F.O.; Maroofian, I.

    1984-05-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to determine the relative erosion, abrasion and cavitation resistance characteristics of selected materials. Testing was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions to simulate service conditions encountered in production and injection chokes. The testing effort is ongoing. The data accumulated allow informed material selection of conventional and novel trim for all chokes, valves, flow metering orifices, fixed beans and other devices used during drilling, completion and production of offshore and onshore oil and gas wells. Sintered silicon carbide, and tungsten carbide with minimum binder content were the most erosion and abrasion resistant of the materials tested. Cobalt base alloys bar and nickelchrome alloy 625 bar proved to be most cavitation resistant.

  18. Abrasive-waterjet machining of ceramic-coated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashish, M.; Whalen, J.

    1991-09-01

    This paper addresses an experimental investigation on the feasibility of using abrasive-waterjets (AWJs) for the precision drilling of small-diameter holes in advanced aircraft engine components. These components are sprayed with ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC), and the required holes are typically 0.025 inch in diameter, with a drilling angle of 25 deg. The parameters of the AWJ were varied to study their effects on both quantitative and qualitative hole drilling parameters. The unique techniques of assisting the abrasive feed process, ramping the waterjet pressure, during drilling, and varying the jet dwell time after piercing were effectively implemented to control hole quality and size. The results of the experiments indicate the accuracy and repeatability of the AWJ technique in meeting the air flow and hole size requirements. Production parts were drilled for prototype engine testing.

  19. Manipulating Mechanics and Chemistry in Precision Optics Finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    Deterministic processing is critical to modern precision optics finishing. Put simply, determinism is the ability to predict an outcome before carrying out an activity. With the availability of computer numerically controlled (CNC) equipment and sophisticated software algorithms, it is now possible to grind and polish optics from a variety of materials to surface shape accuracies of ~20 nm peak-to-valley (p-v), with surface roughness values (measured on white light interferometers over 250 um x 350 um areas) to sub-nm root-mean-square (rms) levels. In the grinding phase the capability now exists to estimate removal rates, surface roughness, and the depth of subsurface damage (SSD) for a previously unprocessed material, knowing its Young's modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness. An understanding of how chemistry aids in the abrasive-driven removal of material from the surface during polishing is also critical, Recent polishing process research reveals the importance of chemistry, specifically slurry pH, for preventing particle agglomeration in order to achieve smooth surface finishes with conventional pad or pitch laps. New sub-aperture polishing processes like magnetorheoogical finishing (MRF) can smooth and shape flat, spherical, aspheric and free-form surfaces within a few process iterations. Difficult to finish optical materials like soft polymer polymethyl methacrylate, microstructured polycrystalline zinc sulfide, and water soluble single-crystal potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) can be finished with MRF. The key is the systematic alteration of MR fluid chemistry and mechanics (i.e. the abrasive) to match the unique physical properties of each workpiece.

  20. The abrasion and impact-abrasion behavior of austempered ductile irons

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Lerner, Y.S.

    1998-01-01

    Austempering of ductile irons has led to a new class of irons, Austempered Ductile Irons (ADIs), with improved mechanical strength and fracture toughness lacking in gray cast irons. Laboratory wear tests have been used to evaluate the abrasive and impact-abrasive wear behavior of a suite of ADIs. The use of high-stress, two-body abrasion, low-stress, three-body abrasion, and impact-abrasion tests provides a clear picture of the abrasive wear behavior of the ADIs and the mechanisms of material removal. When combined with hardness measurements, fracture toughness and a knowledge of the microstructure of the ADIs, the overall performance can be assessed relative to more wear resistant materials such as martensitic steels and high-chromium white cast irons

  1. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as...

  2. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as...

  3. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as...

  4. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as...

  5. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as...

  6. Abrasion by aeolian particles: Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Marshall, J. R.; White, B. R.; Pollack, J. B.; Marshall, J.; Krinsley, D.

    1984-01-01

    Estimation of the rate of aeolian abrasion of rocks on Mars requires knowledge of: (1) particle flux, (2) susceptibilities to abrasion of various rocks, and (3) wind frequencies on Mars. Fluxes and susceptibilities for a wide range of conditions were obtained in the laboratory and combined with wind data from the Viking meteorology experiment. Assuming an abundant supply of sand-sized particles, estimated rates range up to 2.1 x 10 to the minus 2 power cm of abrasion per year in the vicinity of Viking Lander 1. This rate is orders of magnitude too great to be in agreement with the inferred age of the surface based on models of impact crater flux. The discrepancy in the estimated rate of abrasion and the presumed old age of the surface cannot be explained easily by changes in climate or exhumation of ancient surfaces. The primary reason is thought to be related to the agents of abrasion. At least some sand-sized (approx. 100 micrometers) grains appear to be present, as inferred from both lander and orbiter observations. High rates of abrasion occur for all experimental cases involving sands of quartz, basalt, or ash. However, previous studies have shown that sand is quickly comminuted to silt- and clay-sized grains in the martian aeolian regime. Experiments also show that these fine grains are electrostatically charged and bond together as sand-sized aggregates. Laboratory simulations of wind abrasion involving aggregates show that at impact velocities capable of destroying sand, aggregates from a protective veneer on the target surface and can give rise to extremely low abrasion rates.

  7. Kinetic energy density and agglomerate abrasion rate during blending of agglomerates into powders.

    PubMed

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Rubingh, Carina M; Tran, Thanh N; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2012-01-23

    Problems related to the blending of a cohesive powder with a free flowing bulk powder are frequently encountered in the pharmaceutical industry. The cohesive powder often forms lumps or agglomerates which are not dispersed during the mixing process and are therefore detrimental to blend uniformity. Achieving sufficient blend uniformity requires that the blending conditions are able to break up agglomerates, which is often an abrasion process. This study was based on the assumption that the abrasion rate of agglomerates determines the required blending time. It is shown that the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed is a relevant parameter which correlates with the abrasion rate of agglomerates. However, aspects related to the strength of agglomerates should also be considered. For this reason the Stokes abrasion number (St(Abr)) has been defined. This parameter describes the ratio between the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed and the work of fracture of the agglomerate. The St(Abr) number is shown to predict the abrasion potential of agglomerates in the dry-mixing process. It appeared possible to include effects of filler particle size and impeller rotational rate into this concept. A clear relationship between abrasion rate of agglomerates and the value of St(Abr) was demonstrated.

  8. Air abrasion: an old technology reborn.

    PubMed

    Berry, E A; Eakle, W S; Summitt, J B

    1999-08-01

    Recently, air abrasion has experienced a rebirth in restorative dentistry. Originally developed in the late 1940s, the principle of air abrasion is the imparting of kinetic energy to tiny aluminum oxide particles that are projected by a stream of compressed air or gas and expelled from a small nozzle. The force generated by the relatively hard particles striking a relatively hard surface is sufficient to cut into that surface. In the last decade, more than a dozen models of air abrasion units have been introduced into the marketplace and more are on the way. Manufacturers have developed air abrasion instruments that offer a broad range of features, from small table-top units to self-contained systems with compressors, vacuums, and curing lights. The costs range dramatically--from $1,000 to $20,000 or more--depending on the complexity of the features and attachments. Manufacturers make a variety of claims to support the value of this technology to the practicing dentist. A term often used to describe one of the benefits of air abrasion is microdentistry. The claim is that smaller, less invasive tooth preparations may be accomplished using air abrasion than with a traditional bur and air turbine. This may be true in some instances, but it would certainly depend on the operator's experience and ability to visually discern fine detail. Other claims about air abrasion are that it can be used to cut into tooth structure without local anesthesia and that it should be used on all stained grooves or fissures to determine if incipient carious lesions are present. Despite the limited number of clinical studies, the popularity of air abrasion continues to grow. To gain additional insight about these claims and to see what might be on the horizon for this technology, I spoke with three highly respected educators who are recognized for their expertise in air abrasion. What they said should give the reader a better understanding of how air abrasion might augment restorative

  9. CFD Based Erosion Modelling of Abrasive Waterjet Nozzle using Discrete Phase Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim Kamarudin, Naqib; Prasada Rao, A. K.; Azhari, Azmir

    2016-02-01

    In Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) machining, the nozzle is the most critical component that influences the performance, precision and economy. Exposure to a high speed jet and abrasives makes it susceptible to wear erosion which requires for frequent replacement. The present works attempts to simulate the erosion of the nozzle wall using computational fluid dynamics. The erosion rate of the nozzle was simulated under different operating conditions. The simulation was carried out in several steps which is flow modelling, particle tracking and erosion rate calculation. Discrete Phase Method (DPM) and K-ε turbulence model was used for the simulation. Result shows that different operating conditions affect the erosion rate as well as the flow interaction of water, air and abrasives. The simulation results correlates well with past work.

  10. Urolithiasis in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D G D; Vrielinck, J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Deprez, P

    2004-11-01

    Urolithiasis in sows and neonatal pigs is well-known, but information on its occurrence and impact in finishing pigs is sparse. This study reports three outbreaks of urolithiasis in finishing pigs. In one herd, no symptoms were observed, whereas in the other herds the presence of calculi caused obstruction of the urinary tract resulting in death. Using infra-red spectroscopy, the predominant mineral-type found in the uroliths was calcium carbonate (calcite). Only small amounts of calcium oxalate (< 1%) could be detected. A high urinary pH, small abnormalities in the mineral composition of the feed and insufficient drinking water were the most important risk factors identified. To prevent urolithiasis, it is important to ensure adequate water intake, to provide a balanced mineral diet, and to avoid urinary tract infections.

  11. Abrasion resistance of medical glove materials.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Donna L; Schwerin, Matthew R; Kisielewski, Richard W; Kotz, Richard M; Chaput, Maria P; Varney, George W; To, Theresa M

    2004-01-15

    Due to the increasing demand for nonlatex medical gloves in the health-care community, there is a need to assess the durability of alternative glove materials. This study examines durability characteristics of various glove materials by abrasion resistance testing. Natural rubber latex (latex), polyvinyl chloride (vinyl), acrylonitrile butadiene (nitrile), polychloroprene (neoprene), and a styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS) were tested. All test specimens, with the exception of the vinyl, were obtained from surgical gloves. Unaged out-of-the-box specimens as well as those subjected to various degrees of artificial aging were included in the study. After the abrasion sequence, the barrier integrity of the material was assessed through the use of a static leak test. Other traditional tests performed on these materials were viral penetration to validate the abrasion data and tear testing for comparative purposes. The results indicate that specific glove-material performance is dependent upon the particular test under consideration. Most notably, abrasion, even in controlled nonsevere conditions, may compromise to varying degrees the barrier integrity of latex, vinyl, SEBS, nitrile, and neoprene glove materials. However, as evidenced by the results of testing three brands of neoprene gloves, the abrasion resistance of any one glove material may be significantly affected by variations in production processes. PMID:14689500

  12. Advanced cleaning by mass finishing

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, M.W.

    1983-10-01

    This paper describes a testing program that examined the effectiveness of vibratory finishing for removing a variety of radioactively contaminated soils. The vibratory finishing process was studied by measuring the radiation levels of the test material, the lining of the vibratory finishing tub, and the media. Many soils including corrosion products, scale, oil, grease and paint were removed by the vibratory finishing process. The results of this program indicate that vibratory finishing should be an effective cleaning process for a variety of manufacturing operations.

  13. Mechanics of the pad-abrasive-wafer contact in chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkaya, Dincer

    2009-12-01

    In chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), a rigid wafer is forced on a rough, elastomeric polishing pad, while a slurry containing abrasive particles flows through the interface. The applied pressure on the wafer is carried partially by the 2-body pad-wafer contact (direct contact) and partially by the 3-body contact of pad, wafer and abrasive particles ( particle contact). The fraction of the applied pressure carried by particle contacts is an important factor affecting the material removal rate (MRR) as the majority of the material is removed by the abrasive particles trapped between the pad asperities and the wafer. In this thesis, the contact of a rough, deformable pad and a smooth, rigid wafer in the presence of rigid abrasive particles at the contact interface is investigated by using contact mechanics and finite element (FE) modeling. The interactions between the pad, the wafer and the abrasive particles are modeled at different scales of contact, starting from particle level interactions, and gradually expanding the contact scale to the multi-asperity contact of pad and wafer. The effect of surface forces consisting of van der Waals and electrical double layer forces acting between the wafer and the abrasive particles are also investigated in this work. The wear rate due to each abrasive particle is calculated based on the wafer-abrasive particle contact force, and by considering adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms. A passivated layer on the wafer surface with a hardness and thickness determined by the chemical effects is modeled, in order to characterize the effect of chemical reactions between slurry and wafer on the MRR. The model provides accurate predictions for the MRR as a function of pad related parameters; pad elastic modulus, pad porosity and pad topography, particle related parameters; particle size and concentration, and slurry related parameters; slurry pH, thickness and hardness of the passivated surface layer of wafer. A good qualitative

  14. Friction and abrasion of elastomeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.

    1975-01-01

    An abrasion apparatus is described. Experimental measurements are reported for four representative elastomeric materials, including a typical high-quality tire tread material and a possible replacement material for aircraft tire treads based on transpolypentenamer (TPPR). Measurements are carried out at different levels of frictional work input, corresponding to different severities of wear, and at both ambient temperature and at 100 C. Results indicate the marked superiority in abrasion resistance of the material based on TPPR, especially at 100 C, in comparison with the other materials examined.

  15. Universal scaling relations for pebble abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, K. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The process of abrasion of gravel in bed load transport results from particle-to-particle collisions, where the energy involved is sufficient to cause chipping and spallation but not fragmentation of parent grains. The removed rock material is not infinitesimal; daughter products as large as coarse sand can be produced. Although previous work has shown that lithology, grain shape, and energy of collision are contributing factors that control abrasion rates of river-bed material, little is known regarding the relationship between these factors and diminution rates. Here we explicitly isolate and investigate how these three factors influence rates of abrasion and the size distribution of daughter products, with laboratory experiments. The apparatus is a double pendulum (Newton's cradle) that produces well-controlled binary collisions. A high-speed camera precisely measures collision energy, while mass of parent rocks. and the size and shape distributions of daughter products, are measured periodically. We examined abrasion of initially square-cut 'rocks' as they underwent successive collisions in the binary collision apparatus. We have examined mass loss rate for varied lithologies, and observe a similar power-law relationship between impact energy and mass abraded. When normalized by sensible material properties, mass loss curves for all materials collapse onto a single curve, suggesting that the underlying mechanics of abrasion for different materials are the same. The relationship does not display the linear trend expected from pure energetics, and we suggest that this is a shape effect as protruding - and hence easily eroded - corners are worn away. Analysis of daughter-product particle size distributions for different lithology fragments - including natural rocks and also bricks - show the same functional form. Surprisingly, it is the power-law relation expected for brittle materials undergoing fragmentation. This suggests that brittle fracture theory also

  16. An in-vitro investigation of the effects of variable operating parameters on alumina air-abrasion cutting characteristics.

    PubMed

    Paolinelis, George; Banerjee, Avijit; Watson, Timothy F

    2009-01-01

    Air-abrasion is a tooth preparation technology developed in the 1940s that is currently gaining popularity due to its compatibility with adhesive restorations. Variables, including propellant pressure, powder flow rate, nozzle angle and distance to the tooth surface abrasion time, can affect the cutting rate of the air-abrasion unit. A static setup and a more clinically realistic dynamic experimental setup have been used to assess the effect of these parameters of the cutting rate on an enamel analogue. By keeping each parameter fixed, its effect on the cutting rate was examined. The results showed that increasing the propellant pressure (20-100 PSI) caused an almost linear increase in the cutting rate in both setups. Increasing the powder flow rate (0.5 - 3 g/minute) concurrently increased the powder flow and caused an increase in the cutting rate but with a plateau differing for the different propellant pressures. The nozzle angles producing the highest cutting rates were 60 degrees and 75 degrees for static and dynamic cutting, respectively, with smaller and larger angles producing lower rates. Increasing abrasion time in static cutting and the nozzle advancement rate in dynamic cutting both caused an increase in the cutting rate. These findings are relevant for both clinicians, who might wish to alter the cutting rate of their instrument, and researchers, who should always control the numerous parameters in studies involving air-abrasion in order to control the variables, which can influence the end effect of air-abrasion.

  17. Sliding-gate valve for use with abrasive materials

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Jr., William J.; Carter, Charles R.; Griffith, Richard A.; Loomis, Richard B.; Notestein, John E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a flow and pressure-sealing valve for use with abrasive solids. The valve embodies special features which provide for long, reliable operating lifetimes in solids-handling service. The valve includes upper and lower transversely slidable gates, contained in separate chambers. The upper gate provides a solids-flow control function, whereas the lower gate provides a pressure-sealing function. The lower gate is supported by means for (a) lifting that gate into sealing engagement with its seat when the gate is in its open and closed positions and (b) lowering the gate out of contact with its seat to permit abrasion-free transit of the gate between its open and closed positions. When closed, the upper gate isolates the lower gate from the solids. Because of this shielding action, the sealing surface of the lower gate is not exposed to solids during transit or when it is being lifted or lowered. The chamber containing the lower gate normally is pressurized slightly, and a sweep gas is directed inwardly across the lower-gate sealing surface during the vertical translation of the gate.

  18. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing... that contains an abrasive material, such as silica pumice, intended to remove debris from the...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing... that contains an abrasive material, such as silica pumice, intended to remove debris from the...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing... that contains an abrasive material, such as silica pumice, intended to remove debris from the...

  1. History of magnetorheological finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2011-06-01

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic method for producing complex optics with figure accuracy <50 nm and surface roughness <1 nm. MRF was invented at the Luikov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer in Minsk, Belarus in the late 1980s by a team led by William Kordonski. When the Soviet Union opened up, New York businessman Lowell Mintz was invited to Minsk in 1990 to explore possibilities for technology transfer. Mintz was told of the potential for MRF, but did not understand whether it had value. Mintz was referred to Harvey Pollicove at the Center for Optics Manufacturing of the University of Rochester. As a result of their conversation, they sent Prof. Steve Jacobs to visit Minsk and evaluate MRF. From Jacobs' positive findings, and with support from Lowell Mintz, Kordonski and his colleagues were invited in 1993 to work at the Center for Optics Manufacturing with Jacobs and Don Golini to refine MRF technology. A "preprototype" finishing machine was operating by 1994. Prof. Greg Forbes and doctoral student Paul Dumas developed algorithms for deterministic control of MRF. In 1996, Golini recognized the commercial potential of MRF, secured investment capital from Lowell Mintz, and founded QED Technologies. The first commercial MRF machine was unveiled in 1998. It was followed by more advanced models and by groundbreaking subaperture stitching interferometers for metrology. In 2006, QED was acquired by and became a division of Cabot Microelectronics. This paper recounts the history of the development of MRF and the founding of QED Technologies.

  2. The rock abrasion record at Gale Crater: Mars Science Laboratory results from Bradbury Landing to Rocknest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, N.T.; Calef, F.J.; Hallett, B.W.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Lanza, N.L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Newman, C.E.; Blaney, D.L.; de Pablo, M.A.; Kocurek, G.A.; Langevin, Y.; Lewis, K.W.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Pinet, P.; Renno, N.O.; Rice, CM.S.; Richardson, M.E.; Sautter, V.; Sletten, R.S.; Wiens, R.C.; Yingst, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ventifacts, rocks abraded by wind-borne particles, are found in Gale Crater, Mars. In the eastward drive from “Bradbury Landing” to “Rocknest,” they account for about half of the float and outcrop seen by Curiosity's cameras. Many are faceted and exhibit abrasion textures found at a range of scales, from submillimeter lineations to centimeter-scale facets, scallops, flutes, and grooves. The drive path geometry in the first 100 sols of the mission emphasized the identification of abrasion facets and textures formed by westerly flow. This upwind direction is inconsistent with predictions based on models and the orientation of regional dunes, suggesting that these ventifact features formed from very rare high-speed winds. The absence of active sand and evidence for deflation in the area indicates that most of the ventifacts are fossil features experiencing little abrasion today.

  3. Understanding Characteristic of Abrasion of Refractory Lining Caused by Bath Oscillation in BOF Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Li, Mingming; Kuang, S. B.; Zou, Zongshu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the refractory abrasion occurring widely inside basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. The mechanism of refractory abrasion is examined numerically referring to the bath oscillation with regard to flows, turbulence and wall shear stress inside a BOF. The simulation results reveal that the refractory abrasion tends to occur on the wall region between the slag/atmosphere and slag/metal interfaces due to the oscillation of the bath in the blowing process, which generally promotes slag-line erosion. The decreased nozzle angle, and either increased lance height or operation pressure can lead to more serious refractory erosion that occurs more likely during the slag-making period in the operation of BOF.

  4. The rock abrasion record at Gale Crater: Mars Science Laboratory results from Bradbury Landing to Rocknest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Calef, F. J.; Hallet, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Lanza, N. L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Newman, C. E.; Blaney, D. L.; Pablo, M. A.; Kocurek, G. A.; Langevin, Y.; Lewis, K. W.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Pinet, P.; Renno, N. O.; Rice, M. S.; Richardson, M. E.; Sautter, V.; Sletten, R. S.; Wiens, R. C.; Yingst, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Ventifacts, rocks abraded by wind-borne particles, are found in Gale Crater, Mars. In the eastward drive from "Bradbury Landing" to "Rocknest," they account for about half of the float and outcrop seen by Curiosity's cameras. Many are faceted and exhibit abrasion textures found at a range of scales, from submillimeter lineations to centimeter-scale facets, scallops, flutes, and grooves. The drive path geometry in the first 100 sols of the mission emphasized the identification of abrasion facets and textures formed by westerly flow. This upwind direction is inconsistent with predictions based on models and the orientation of regional dunes, suggesting that these ventifact features formed from very rare high-speed winds. The absence of active sand and evidence for deflation in the area indicates that most of the ventifacts are fossil features experiencing little abrasion today.

  5. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exceeded. (j) All employees using abrasive wheels shall be protected by eye protection equipment in accordance with the requirements of subpart I of this part except when adequate eye protection is afforded by eye shields which are permanently attached to the bench or floor stand....

  6. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... miners shall use in accordance with 30 CFR 56.5005 or 57.5005 respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed in a totally enclosed device with the miner outside the device. (b) Underground areas of underground mines. Silica sand or...

  7. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... miners shall use in accordance with 30 CFR 56.5005 or 57.5005 respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed in a totally enclosed device with the miner outside the device. (b) Underground areas of underground mines. Silica sand or...

  8. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... miners shall use in accordance with 30 CFR 56.5005 or 57.5005 respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed in a totally enclosed device with the miner outside the device. (b) Underground areas of underground mines. Silica sand or...

  9. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... miners shall use in accordance with 30 CFR 56.5005 or 57.5005 respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed in a totally enclosed device with the miner outside the device. (b) Underground areas of underground mines. Silica sand or...

  10. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... miners shall use in accordance with 30 CFR 56.5005 or 57.5005 respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed in a totally enclosed device with the miner outside the device. (b) Underground areas of underground mines. Silica sand or...

  11. Advanced cleaning by mass finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, M. W.

    1983-10-01

    The effectiveness of vibratory finishing for removing a variety of radioactively contaminated soils was investigated by measuring the radiation levels of the test material, the lining of the vibratory finishing tub, and the media. Many soils including corrosion products, scale, oil, grease and paint were removed from steels, aluminum, polyvinyl chloride, plexiglass, glass and flexible materials such as rubber. Zinc, copper, and lead were not cleaned. Results indicate that vibratory finishing should be an effective cleaning process or a variety of manufacturing operations.

  12. Property-process relations in simulated clinical abrasive adjusting of dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ling

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports on property-process correlations in simulated clinical abrasive adjusting of a wide range of dental restorative ceramics using a dental handpiece and diamond burs. The seven materials studied included four mica-containing glass ceramics, a feldspathic porcelain, a glass-infiltrated alumina, and a yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia. The abrasive adjusting process was conducted under simulated clinical conditions using diamond burs and a clinical dental handpiece. An attempt was made to establish correlations between process characteristics in terms of removal rate, chipping damage, and surface finish and material mechanical properties of hardness, fracture toughness and Young's modulus. The results show that the removal rate is mainly a function of hardness, which decreases nonlinearly with hardness. No correlations were noted between the removal rates and the complex relations of hardness, Young's modulus and fracture toughness. Surface roughness was primarily a linear function of diamond grit size and was relatively independent of materials. Chipping damage in terms of the average chipping width decreased with fracture toughness except for glass-infiltrated alumina. It also had higher linear correlations with critical strain energy release rates (R²=0.66) and brittleness (R²=0.62) and a lower linear correlation with indices of brittleness (R²=0.32). Implications of these results can provide guidance for the microstructural design of dental ceramics, optimize performance, and guide the proper selection of technical parameters in clinical abrasive adjusting conducted by dental practitioners.

  13. Dust transport and abrasion assessment within simulated standing vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues are useful in protecting the top soil from depletion and abrasion due to wind erosion. A wind tunnel study was done to measure sand transport and abrasion energies within the simulated artificial standing vegetation. Wind profiles, relative abrasion energies and rates of sand dischar...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abrasive wheels and tools. 1926.303 Section 1926.303 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.303 Abrasive wheels... Institute, B7.1-1970, Safety Code for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, and paragraph (d)...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  19. Wheel Abrasion Experiment Conducted on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1998-01-01

    Sojourner rover showing Lewis' wheel abrasion experiment. The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft soft-landed on Mars on July 4, 1997. Among the many experiments on its small Sojourner rover are three technology experiments from the NASA Lewis Research Center, including the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The WAE was designed, built, delivered, and operated on Mars by a team of engineers and scientists from Lewis' Photovoltaics and Space Environments Branch. This experiment collected data to assess wheel surface wear on the Sojourner. It used a specially designed rover wheel, with thin films (200 to 1000 angstroms) of aluminum, nickel, and platinum deposited on black, anodized aluminum strips attached to the rover's right center wheel. As the wheel spun in the Martian soil, a photovoltaic sensor monitored changes in film reflectivity. These changes indicated abrasion of the metal films by Martian surface material. Rolling wear data were accumulated by the WAE. Also, at frequent intervals, all the rover wheels, except the WAE test wheel, were locked to hold the rover stationary while the test wheel alone was spun and dug into the Martian regolith. These tests created wear conditions more severe than simple rolling. The WAE will contribute substantially to our knowledge of Martian surface characteristics. Marked abrasion would indicate a surface composed of hard, possibly sharply edged grains, whereas lack of abrasion would suggest a somewhat softer surface. WAE results will be correlated with ground simulations to determine which terrestrial materials behave most like those on Mars. This knowledge will enable a deeper understanding of erosion processes on Mars and the role they play in Martian surface evolution. Preliminary results show that electrostatic charging of the rover wheels sometimes caused dust to accumulate on the WAE wheel, making interpretation of the reflectance data problematic. If electrostatic charging is the mechanism for dust attraction, this indicates

  20. Abrasion-Resistant Technology and its Prospect for CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Li, Y. J.; Wang, L. J.; Liu, S. H.; Dou, Q. R.

    In recent years, CFB boilers (CFBB) have been widely used in the commercial power plants due to its environmental benefits, high combustion efficiency, wide coal flexibility, and some other advantages. At the same time, the abrasion problem, the greatest weakness of this kind of boiler, has been gradually exposed in its application process. The abrasion, particularly on key parts such as the heating surface of water-cooled wall, furnace corners, separator entrance, seriously restricts the long-period operation ability of the CFBB. This article discusses current development status for various abrasion resistant refractory materials used in a CFBB. Some comments are provided for developing new high-performance abrasion resistant refractory materials and rapid-repaired materials according to the abrasion principle and the abrasion on different parts, as well as the economical and environmental requirements for the material. The abrasion solution and operation period of CFBB can be better improved given realization.

  1. The effect of bleaching on toothbrush abrasion of resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Hila; Ameri, Hamideh; Eslami, Samaneh; Mirzaeepoor, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This experimental study was designed to focus on the effects of bleaching on toothbrush abrasion in three types of composites with different filler size. Materials and Methods: Forty eight disks were prepared from three types of composite and divided into 6 groups. In the first three groups the abrasion test was done. The remaining groups were bleached and the abrasion test was performed. The weight of the samples before and after abrasion was measured. Statistical analysis was done with one-way ANOVA and Duncan test. Results: There was a significant difference in abrasion of composites with different filler size (P < 0.05). The most amount of abrasion was observed in Z100 after being bleached. An increase in abrasion was noticed in all three types of tested composite after bleaching. Conclusion: According to the findings, it is suggested to use a nano filled resin composite for restoration if the bleaching treatment is required. PMID:23349570

  2. A novel approach to abrasion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.A.; Mohr, P.B.; Leider, H.R.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1988-03-01

    The high abrasion and impact loads characteristic of many technologies require frequent maintenance or special materials. Conventional approaches to protection have used either extremely hard coatings or complaint elastomeric coatings. The former are typically ceramic or ceramic-like surfaces produced by direct deposition or by in situ formation by oxidation, carburization or nitriding. Ceramic coatings are very good against abrasion, but are vulnerable to impact damage. Elastomeric coatings have excellent impact resistance and are capable of withstanding deformation; however, they are limited in thermal range and chemical resistance. It is possible to combine the desirable properties of both types by using ''hair,'' a structure in which an extremely hard material can be simultaneously elastic and compliant by virture of a very high L/D ratio. We have demonstrated the good performance of carbon fiber ''hair'' in resisting damage from impacting particles and have identified a probable failure mechanism. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Loose abrasive slurries for optical glass lapping

    SciTech Connect

    Neauport, Jerome; Destribats, Julie; Maunier, Cedric; Ambard, Chrystel; Cormont, Philippe; Pintault, B.; Rondeau, Olivier

    2010-10-20

    Loose abrasive lapping is widely used to prepare optical glass before its final polishing. We carried out a comparison of 20 different slurries from four different vendors. Slurry particle sizes and morphologies were measured. Fused silica samples were lapped with these different slurries on a single side polishing machine and characterized in terms of surface roughness and depth of subsurface damage (SSD). Effects of load, rotation speed, and slurry concentration during lapping on roughness, material removal rate, and SSD were investigated.

  4. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.

    1984-11-29

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  5. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  6. Permanent flame retardant finishing of textiles by allyl-functionalized polyphosphazenes.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Knittel, Dierk; Gutmann, Jochen S; Opwis, Klaus

    2015-05-13

    Despite their excellent flame retardant properties, polyphosphazenes are currently not used as flame retardant agents for textile finishing, because a permanent fixation on the substrate surface has failed so far. Here, we present the successful synthesis and characterization of a noncombustible and foam-forming polyphosphazene derivative, that can be immobilized durably on cotton and different cotton/polyester blended fabrics using photoinduced grafting reactions. The flame retardant properties are improved, a higher limiting oxygen index is found, and the modified textiles pass several standardized flammability tests. As flame retardant mechanism a synergistic effect between the immobilized polyphosphazene and the textile substrate was observed. The polyphosphazene finishing induces an earlier decomposition of the material with a reduced mass loss in thermogravimetric analysis. The decomposition of cotton and polyester leads to the formation of phosphorus oxynitride, which forms a protecting barrier layer on the fiber surface. In addition, the permanence of the flame retardant finishing was proven by laundry and abrasion tests. PMID:25902050

  7. Permanent flame retardant finishing of textiles by allyl-functionalized polyphosphazenes.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Knittel, Dierk; Gutmann, Jochen S; Opwis, Klaus

    2015-05-13

    Despite their excellent flame retardant properties, polyphosphazenes are currently not used as flame retardant agents for textile finishing, because a permanent fixation on the substrate surface has failed so far. Here, we present the successful synthesis and characterization of a noncombustible and foam-forming polyphosphazene derivative, that can be immobilized durably on cotton and different cotton/polyester blended fabrics using photoinduced grafting reactions. The flame retardant properties are improved, a higher limiting oxygen index is found, and the modified textiles pass several standardized flammability tests. As flame retardant mechanism a synergistic effect between the immobilized polyphosphazene and the textile substrate was observed. The polyphosphazene finishing induces an earlier decomposition of the material with a reduced mass loss in thermogravimetric analysis. The decomposition of cotton and polyester leads to the formation of phosphorus oxynitride, which forms a protecting barrier layer on the fiber surface. In addition, the permanence of the flame retardant finishing was proven by laundry and abrasion tests.

  8. Circular Signs of the Rock Abrasion Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image was taken by Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera, providing a circular sign of the success of the rover's first grinding of a rock. The round, shallow hole seen in this image is on a rock dubbed 'McKittrick,' located in the 'El Capitan' area of the larger outcrop near Opportunity's landing site.

    Opportunity used its rock abrasion tool to grind off a patch of rock 45.5 millimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter during the 30th martian day, or sol, of its mission (Feb. 23, 2004). The grinding exposed fresh rock for close inspection by the rover's microscopic imager and two spectrometers located on its robotic arm. The Honeybee Robotics team, which designed and operates the rock abrasion tool, determined the depth of the cut at 'McKittrick' to be 4.4 millimeters (0.17 inches) deep.

    On sol 34 (Feb. 27, 2004), the rover is scheduled to grind into its second target on the 'El Capitan' area, a rock dubbed 'Guadalupe' in the upper middle part of this image. The rock abrasion tools on both Mars Exploration Rovers were supplied by Honeybee Robotics, New York, N.Y.

  9. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milly, Hussam; Andiappan, Manoharan; Thompson, Ian; Banerjee, Avijit

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  10. Finishing and proof testing of windows for manned space craft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miska, Herbert A.

    1993-12-01

    The development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter in the early 1970s marked the first time that a fracture mechanics approach was taken to the design of the window systems of a manned space craft. Earlier vehicles were never subjected to repeated launch and re-entry and therefore fatigue or slow crack growth were not major concerns. The design and proof test methodology evolved at that time continues to be applied in the development of the window systems for the Space Station Freedom. A combination of fixed abrasive grinding, lapping, and chemical machining is employed on the fused silica window panes to insure that sub- surface damage is carefully controlled and minimized. All panes are proof tested under controlled atmospheric conditions which preclude crack growth during the test. This paper also covers some of the history of space craft window design, the rationale for the material choices as well as a review of the finishing and test methods employed.

  11. NICE3 Textile Finishing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    This new energy-saving approach to fabric finishing can help our domestic textile industry compete in an increasingly competitive global market. Learn how this new technology can lower your maintenance costs and increase your productivity.

  12. A review on nozzle wear in abrasive water jet machining application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syazwani, H.; Mebrahitom, G.; Azmir, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses a review on nozzle wear in abrasive water jet machining application. Wear of the nozzle becomes a major problem since it may affect the water jet machining performance. Design, materials, and life of the nozzle give significance effect to the nozzle wear. There are various parameters that may influence the wear rate of the nozzle such as nozzle length, nozzle inlet angle, nozzle diameter, orifice diameter, abrasive flow rate and water pressure. The wear rate of the nozzle can be minimized by controlling these parameters. The mechanism of wear in the nozzle is similar to other traditional machining processes which uses a cutting tool. The high pressure of the water and hard abrasive particles may erode the nozzle wall. A new nozzle using a tungsten carbide-based material has been developed to reduce the wear rate and improve the nozzle life. Apart from that, prevention of the nozzle wear has been achieved using porous lubricated nozzle. This paper presents a comprehensive review about the wear of abrasive water jet nozzle.

  13. A new dimension to conservative dentistry: Air abrasion

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vivek S; Khatavkar, Roheet A

    2010-01-01

    Air abrasion dentistry has evolved over a period of time from a new concept of an alternative means of cavity preparation to an essential means of providing a truly conservative preparation for preservation of a maximal sound tooth structure. The development of bonded restorations in combination with air abrasion dentistry provides a truly minimal intervention dentistry. This article reviews the development of air abrasion, its clinical uses, and the essential accessories required for its use. PMID:20582212

  14. Low stress abrasive wear behavior of a hardfaced steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, R.; Prasad, B. K.; Jha, A. K.; Modi, O. P.; Das, S.; Yegneswaran, A. H.

    1998-04-01

    A plain carbon steel was overlayed with a wear-resistant hardfacing alloy by manual arc welding. Low stress abrasive wear tests were conducted with an ASTM rubber wheel abrasion tester using crushed silica and as the abrasive medium. The wear rate decreased with sliding distance, and there was an overall improvement in the abrasive wear resistance as a result of overlaying. The wear behavior of the samples has been discussed in terms of microstructural features while the examination of wear surface and subsurface regions provides insight into the wear mechanisms.

  15. Machining human dentin by abrasive water jet drilling.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Philipp; Tegtmeyer, Sven; Biskup, Christian; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Stiesch, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this experimental in-vitro study was to investigate the machining of human dentin using an abrasive water jet and to evaluate the influence of different abrasives and water pressures on the removal rate. Seventy-two human teeth had been collected after extraction and randomly divided into six homogeneous groups (n=12). The teeth were processed in the area of root dentin with an industrial water jet device. Different abrasives (saccharose, sorbitol, xylitol) and water pressures (15 or 25 MPa) were used in each group. Dimensions of dentin removal were analysed using a stripe projection microscope and both drilling depth as well as volume of abrasion were recorded. Morphological analyses of the dentin cavities were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both drilling depth and volume of abrasion were significantly influenced by the abrasive and the water pressure. Depending on these parameters, the drilling depth averaged between 142 and 378 μm; the volume of abrasion averaged between 0.07 and 0.15 mm3. Microscopic images revealed that all cavities are spherical and with clearly defined margins. Slight differences between the abrasives were found with respect to the microroughness of the surface of the cavities. The results indicate that abrasive water jet machining is a promising technique for processing human dentin.

  16. Machining human dentin by abrasive water jet drilling.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Philipp; Tegtmeyer, Sven; Biskup, Christian; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Stiesch, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this experimental in-vitro study was to investigate the machining of human dentin using an abrasive water jet and to evaluate the influence of different abrasives and water pressures on the removal rate. Seventy-two human teeth had been collected after extraction and randomly divided into six homogeneous groups (n=12). The teeth were processed in the area of root dentin with an industrial water jet device. Different abrasives (saccharose, sorbitol, xylitol) and water pressures (15 or 25 MPa) were used in each group. Dimensions of dentin removal were analysed using a stripe projection microscope and both drilling depth as well as volume of abrasion were recorded. Morphological analyses of the dentin cavities were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both drilling depth and volume of abrasion were significantly influenced by the abrasive and the water pressure. Depending on these parameters, the drilling depth averaged between 142 and 378 μm; the volume of abrasion averaged between 0.07 and 0.15 mm3. Microscopic images revealed that all cavities are spherical and with clearly defined margins. Slight differences between the abrasives were found with respect to the microroughness of the surface of the cavities. The results indicate that abrasive water jet machining is a promising technique for processing human dentin. PMID:24642975

  17. Mars Pathfinder Wheel Abrasion Experiment Ground Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Siebert, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sent a mission to the martian surface, called Mars Pathfinder. The mission payload consisted of a lander and a rover. The primary purpose of the mission was demonstrating a novel entry, descent, and landing method that included a heat shield, a parachute, rockets, and a cocoon of giant air bags. Once on the surface, the spacecraft returned temperature measurements near the Martian surface, atmosphere pressure, wind speed measurements, and images from the lander and rover. The rover obtained 16 elemental measurements of rocks and soils, performed soil-mechanics, atmospheric sedimentation measurements, and soil abrasiveness measurements.

  18. Fluid bed dryer efficient with abrasive copper concentrate

    SciTech Connect

    Marczeski, C.D.; Hodel, A.E.

    1985-11-01

    Thermally efficient dryers were needed to remove 11-12% moisture from very fine (70%, -325 mesh), copper concentrate at Asarco, Inc., in Hayden, AZ. More than 128 t/hr of the wet, dust-like material produced by the copper mine's grinders had to be made bone dry (0.1% moisture) before being fed to a flash smelting furnace. Two 12 ft diam fluidized bed dryers, each with a capacity of 64 wet t/hr, were installed to dry the copper concentrate. Each dryer's push/pull air system employs a 1250 hp fluidizing air fan to provide air at 80 in (wc) static pressure. A natural gas fired heater raises the air temperature to 600/sup 0/F to dry the dense (100 lb/cu ft bulk density) ore. The dense, wet copper concentrate is fed to the dryer from the top, countercurrent to the flow of the light, dry product. Drying begins when the wet feed reaches the fluidized bed of gravel rock. Lighter, dried material is conveyed by the air back to the top of the dryer and out through a duct to the baghouse. The throughput of the dryer is determined by the wetness of the concentrate and the temperature of the fluidizing air. Asarco, Inc. has found the fluid bed drying system simple and efficient to operate. Fuel gas consumption of the dryer is on the order of 1000 cu ft/ton of wet feed. The abrasion resistant lining provided in the dryer (a hard brick lining in the rock bed zone; castable refractory in the top and in the ducting) and ceramic tiles at the inlet of the dust collector have been effective in long term operation with the highly abrasive product.

  19. The Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) Crystal with Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Fang; Xu, Min; Wang, Chao; Li, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Yunfei; Wang, Baorui; Tang, Guangping; Yue, Xiaobin

    2016-02-01

    The cubic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with sharp horns that display the size distribution between 100 and 200 nm are utilized to substitute the magnetic sensitive medium (carbonyl iron powders, CIPs) and abrasives (CeO2/diamond) simultaneously which are widely employed in conventional magnetorheological finishing fluid. The removal rate of this novel fluid is extremely low compared with the value of conventional one even though the spot of the former is much bigger. This surprising phenomenon is generated due to the small size and low saturation magnetization ( M s) of Fe3O4 and corresponding weak shear stress under external magnetic field according to material removal rate model of magnetorheological finishing (MRF). Different from conventional D-shaped finishing spot, the low M s also results in a shuttle-like spot because the magnetic controllability is weak and particles in the fringe of spot are loose. The surface texture as well as figure accuracy and PSD1 (power spectrum density) of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) is greatly improved after MRF, which clearly prove the feasibility of substituting CIP and abrasive with Fe3O4 in our novel MRF design.

  20. The Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) Crystal with Fe3O4 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fang; Xu, Min; Wang, Chao; Li, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Yunfei; Wang, Baorui; Tang, Guangping; Yue, Xiaobin

    2016-12-01

    The cubic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with sharp horns that display the size distribution between 100 and 200 nm are utilized to substitute the magnetic sensitive medium (carbonyl iron powders, CIPs) and abrasives (CeO2/diamond) simultaneously which are widely employed in conventional magnetorheological finishing fluid. The removal rate of this novel fluid is extremely low compared with the value of conventional one even though the spot of the former is much bigger. This surprising phenomenon is generated due to the small size and low saturation magnetization (M s) of Fe3O4 and corresponding weak shear stress under external magnetic field according to material removal rate model of magnetorheological finishing (MRF). Different from conventional D-shaped finishing spot, the low M s also results in a shuttle-like spot because the magnetic controllability is weak and particles in the fringe of spot are loose. The surface texture as well as figure accuracy and PSD1 (power spectrum density) of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) is greatly improved after MRF, which clearly prove the feasibility of substituting CIP and abrasive with Fe3O4 in our novel MRF design. PMID:26858161

  1. Analysis of finishing reactive distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, J.; Aguirre, P.; Frey, T.; Stichlmair, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method to deal with the design and the synthesis of finishing reactive distillation columns with one reactive core, two rectifying sections, and one stripping section is presented. The attention of the work is concentrated on three subjects: (1) the feasibility of a given separation at both finite and total reflux operation; (2) the minimum energy demand operation; (3) the distribution of the reaction between the reactor and the finishing reactive column. The design problem presents the same grade of difficulty as that found in the design of conventional extractive columns. A geometric based method is used to explain key features of reactive distillation. Here, the relation between the reaction yield and the distillate flow rate plays a role similar to that of the entrainer flow in extractive distillation. Hence, special attention is given to the behavior of the profiles inside the rectifying section below the reactive core. The methodology is illustrated using the well-known MTBE case study.

  2. Comparative study for surface topography of bone drilling using conventional drilling and loose abrasive machining.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmeet; Jain, Vivek; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2015-03-01

    Drilling through the bone is a complicated process in orthopaedic surgery. It involves human as a part of the work so it needs better perfection and quality which leads to the sustainability. Different studies were carried out on this curious topic and some interesting results were obtained, which help the orthopaedic surgeon on the operation table. Major problems faced during bone drilling were crack initiation, thermal necrosis and burr formation. The surface topography of the bone is an indirect indication for the sustainability of bone joint. In this study, a comparison is made between conventional and a loose abrasive unconventional drilling technique for the surface characterization of the bone. The attempt has been made to show the feasibility of bone drilling with non-conventional technique and its aftereffect on the bone structure. The burr formation during conventional bone drilling was found to be more which leads to problems such as crack initiation and thermal necrosis. Scanning electrode microscope and surface roughness tester were used to characterize the surface of the fine drilled bone specimen and the results testified quite better surface finish and least crack formation while drilling with loose abrasive unconventional technique.

  3. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a) General requirements—(1) Machine guarding. Abrasive wheels shall be used only on machines provided with... omitted; and (ii) The spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as...

  4. Abrasion of 6 dentifrices measured by vertical scanning interference microscopy

    PubMed Central

    PASCARETTI-GRIZON, Florence; MABILLEAU, Guillaume; CHAPPARD, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The abrasion of dentifrices is well recognized to eliminate the dental plaque. The aims of this study were to characterize the abrasive powders of 6 dentifrices (3 toothpastes and 3 toothpowders) and to measure the abrasion on a test surface by Vertical Scanning Interference microscopy (VSI). Material and Methods Bright field and polarization microscopy were used to identify the abrasive particles on the crude dentifrices and after prolonged washes. Scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis characterized the shape and nature of the particles. Standardized and polished blocks of poly(methylmethacrylate) were brushed with a commercial electric toothbrush with the dentifrices. VSI quantified the mean roughness (Ra) and illustrated in 3D the abraded areas. Results Toothpastes induced a limited abrasion. Toothpowders induced a significantly higher roughness linked to the size of the abrasive particles. One powder (Gencix® produced a high abrasion when used with a standard testing weight. However, the powder is based on pumice particles covered by a plant homogenate that readily dissolves in water. When used in the same volume, or after dispersion in water, Ra was markedly reduced. Conclusion Light and electron microscopy characterize the abrasive particles and VSI is a new tool allowing the analysis of large surface of abraded materials. PMID:24212995

  5. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.303 Abrasive wheels and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abrasive wheels and tools. 1926.303 Section 1926.303...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.303 Abrasive wheels and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abrasive wheels and tools. 1926.303 Section 1926.303...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.303 Abrasive wheels and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abrasive wheels and tools. 1926.303 Section 1926.303...

  8. Soybean seedlings tolerate abrasion from air-propelled grit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New tools for controlling weeds would be useful for soybean production in organic systems. Air-propelled abrasive grit is one such tool that performs well for in-row weed control in corn, but crop safety in soybean is unknown. We examined responses to abrasion by corn-cob grit of soybean seedlings a...

  9. Studies on parametric optimization for abrasive water jet machining of Al7075-TiB2 in-situ composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavya, J. T.; Keshavamurthy, R.; Pradeep Kumar, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    The study focuses on optimization and determination of significant process parameter for Abrasive Water Jet Machining of Al7075-TiB2metal matrix composite. Al-TiB2 metal matrix composite is synthesized by stir casting using in-situ technique. Optimization of machining parameters is done using Taguchi's L25orthogonal array for the experimental trials, with cutting speed, stand-off distance and Abrasive Flow rate as input parameters at five different levels. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) method is used for identifying the effect of machining parameters on volumetric material removal rate, surface roughness and dimensional accuracy. Then the results are validated by conducting verification experiments.

  10. Prepolishing and finishing of optical surfaces using fluid jet polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messelink, Wilhelmus A. C. M.; Waeger, Reto; Wons, Torsten; Meeder, Mark; Heiniger, Kurt C.; Faehnle, Oliver W.

    2005-09-01

    The footprint of the Fluid Jet Polishing process is determined by the shape of the nozzle as well as by the orientation of the slurry beam with respect to the local surface normal. Besides, no tool wear occurs and the footprint remains constant during the manufacturing process allowing shape corrections in a deterministic way. To that aim, FJP has been implemented on a CNC machine and applied for both shaping of previously polished aspheres and polishing of fine ground a-spheres. In this paper, results will be presented showing the application of FJP as a sub-aperture shape correction method. Besides, experimental data will be reported demonstrating FJP's capability of polishing previously fine ground surfaces. The wear rate depends on the sharpness of the abrasives and their kinetic energy. It can thus be adjusted by various parameters, among others the applied pressure, slurry concentration and abrasive sizes. In this paper, an additional process parameter is identified allowing the application of the same polishing compound for wear rates ranging from nanometers to micrometers. This large wear range is achieved by mixing a well controlled amount of gas into the slurry flow allowing the abrasives to travel at higher speeds.

  11. Design of an impact abrasion testing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Beeley, P. R.; Baker, A. J.

    1994-04-01

    By using a cam-flat follower-impact shaft with a crank-flat rotating anvil system, the machine to be described can create various impact abrasion conditions to simulate a large range of industrial situations encountered in this field. The main features of the machine are the long working life of the flat rotating anvil, which works in the same way as that of the disk in a pin-on-disk wear tester, and the accurate control of both the impact energy delivered to the specimen and the total sliding distance of the specimen on the anvil. Statistical analysis of test results on the machine with EN24 steel and cast high manganese steel shows that the uncertainty of the population mean is within +/- 4.7% of the sample mean under a 95% confidence level of student distribution, which indicates a very good accuracy of test.

  12. Hydro-abrasive erosion: Problems and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, K.

    2014-03-01

    The number of hydro power plants with hydro-abrasive erosion is increasing worldwide. An overall approach is needed to minimize the impact of this phenomenon. Already at the start of the planning phase an evaluation should be done to quantify the erosion and the impact on the operation. For this, the influencing parameters and their impact on the erosion have to be known. The necessary information for the evaluation comprises among others the future design, the particle parameters of the water, which will pass the turbine, and the power plant owner's framework for the future operation like availability or maximum allowable efficiency loss, before an overhaul needs to be done. Based on this evaluation of the erosion, an optimised solution can then be found, by analysing all measures in relation to investments, energy production and maintenance costs as decision parameters. Often a more erosion-resistant design, instead of choosing the turbine design with the highest efficiency, will lead to higher revenue. The paper will discuss the influencing parameters on hydro-abrasive erosion and the problems to acquire this information. There are different optimisation possibilities, which will be shown in different case studies. One key aspect to reduce the erosion and prolong the operation time of the components is to coat all relevant parts. But it is very important that this decision is taken early in the design stage, as the design has to be adapted to the requirements of the coating process. The quality of coatings and their impact on the operation will be discussed in detail in the paper as due to the non-availability of standards many questions arise in projects.

  13. Kerf modelling in abrasive waterjet milling using evolutionary computation and ANOVA techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberdi, A.; Rivero, A.; Carrascal, A.; Lamikiz, A.

    2012-04-01

    Many researchers demonstrated the capability of Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) technology for precision milling operations. However, the concurrence of several input parameters along with the stochastic nature of this technology leads to a complex process control, which requires a work focused in process modelling. This research work introduces a model to predict the kerf shape in AWJ slot milling in Aluminium 7075-T651 in terms of four important process parameters: the pressure, the abrasive flow rate, the stand-off distance and the traverse feed rate. A hybrid evolutionary approach was employed for kerf shape modelling. This technique allowed characterizing the profile through two parameters: the maximum cutting depth and the full width at half maximum. On the other hand, based on ANOVA and regression techniques, these two parameters were also modelled as a function of process parameters. Combination of both models resulted in an adequate strategy to predict the kerf shape for different machining conditions.

  14. Effects of nanodiamond abrasive friability in experimental MR fluids with phosphate laser glass LHG-8 and other optical glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroote, Jessica E.; Marino, Anne E.; Wilson, John P.; Spencer, Kathleen E.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2005-09-01

    Research is currently being conducted to better understand the role that nanodiamond abrasives play in the removal process of Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF). The following presents removal rate data for a set of six optical glasses that were spotted (not polished out) with four different MR fluids, as well as texturing/smoothing data for phosphate laser glass LHG-8. Three of the fluids contained nanodiamonds with varying friability levels and the fourth fluid was an abrasive-free fluid that was used as a baseline for comparison. The medium friability nanodiamonds were found to be the most efficient in removing material on LHG-8, and the three silicate glasses, FS, BK-7 and FD-60. The high friability nanodiamond fluid was the most efficient for removal with the titanium and fluro- phosphate glasses EFDS-1 and FCD-1. With this nanodiamond the removal rates of all six glasses followed a mechanical figure of merit. The presence of nanodiamonds in the MR fluid greatly affected the surface texture of LHG-8. The abrasive-free MR fluid caused severe pitting that was either reduced or eliminated once the nanodiamonds were added to the fluid.

  15. Dimensioning, Tolerancing, and Machine Finishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, George C.

    Intended for use with the vocational education student interested in technical drawing, this guide provides answers to questions relating to dimensioning and tolerancing machine drawings. It also gives examples of standard dimensioning practices, tolerancing applications, and finish applications. The problems and examples presented are based on…

  16. Concrete Finisher Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the concrete finishing program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee structure; local…

  17. Surface finishing. [for aircraft wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzler, J. A.; Heffernan, J. T.; Fehrenkamp, L. G.; Lee, W. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A surface of an article adapted for relative motion with a fluid environment is finished by coating the surface with a fluid adhesive. The adhesive is covered with a sheet of flexible film material under tension, and the adhesive is set while maintaining tension on the film material.

  18. Effect of temperature and O-ring gland finish on sealing ability of Viton V747-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lach, Cynthia L.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the redesign project of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM) following the Challenger accident, the field joint was redesigned to minimize the relative joint motion caused by internal motor pressurization during ignition. The O-ring seals and glands for the field joint were designed both to accommodate structural deflections and to promote pressure-assisted sealing. Tests were conducted in various face seal fixtures to evaluate the ability of Viton V747-75 O-rings to seal for a range of temperatures and surface finishes of the redesigned O-ring gland. The effect of surface finish on the sealing performance and wear characteristics of the O-rings was evaluated during simulated launch conditions that included low-frequency vibrations, gap openings, and rapid pressurizations. The effect of contamination on the sealing performance was also investigated. The O-rings sealed throughout the 75 deg F leak check test and for the seal tests from 50 deg F to 120 deg F for the range of surface finishes investigated. Although abrasions were found in the O-rings from pressurization against the rougher finishes, these abrasions were not detrimental to sealing. Below 50 deg F, Viton V747-75 O-rings were insufficiently resilient to track the test gap opening.

  19. Mechanics, kinematics and geometry of pebble abrasion from binary collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    As sediment is transported downstream as bedload, it collides with the bed causing sharp edges to chip and wear away, rounding the rock through the process of abrasion. Previous work has linked abrasion to downstream fining and rounding of grains, however, there has been little attempt to understand the underlying kinematics of abrasion. Furthermore, most studies neglect the fine particle produced during the abrasion process, as the initial grain gets smaller and rounder. In this research, we preform well-controlled laboratory experiments to determine the functional dependence between impact energy and mass lost from abrasion. We use a double-pendulum "Newton's Cradle" set-up to examine the abrasion between two grains and with a high-speed camera, we can quantify the impact energies during collision. Results from experiments verify that mass loss is proportional to kinetic energy. We define a material parameter that incorporates material density, Young's modulus, and tensile stress and show that this parameter is directly related to the proportionality between mass loss and energy. We identify an initial region of the mass loss curves in which abrasion is independent of energy and material properties; results suggest this region is determined by shape. We show that grain size distributions of daughter products are universal and independent of material; they follow a Weibull distribution, which is expected distribution from brittle fracture theory. Finally, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show a thin damage zone near the surface, suggesting that collision energy is attenuated over some small skin depth. Overall, we find that pebble abrasion by collision can be characterized by two universal scaling relations - the mass loss versus energy curves and the size distribution of daughter products. Results will be useful for estimating expected abrasion rates in the field, and additionally demonstrate that low-energy collisions produce large quantities of sand

  20. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  1. Method for forming an abrasive surface on a tool

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; White, Rickey L.; Swindeman, Catherine J.; Kahl, W. Keith

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating a tool used in cutting, grinding and machining operations, is provided. The method is used to deposit a mixture comprising an abrasive material and a bonding material on a tool surface. The materials are propelled toward the receiving surface of the tool substrate using a thermal spray process. The thermal spray process melts the bonding material portion of the mixture, but not the abrasive material. Upon impacting the tool surface, the mixture or composition solidifies to form a hard abrasive tool coating.

  2. Evaluation of the surface roughness in dental ceramics submitted to different finishing and polishing methods.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alex C; Oliveira, Mario C S; Lima, Emilena M C X; Rambob, Isabel; Leite, Mariana

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic restorations have been widely used in dentistry. These restorations often require intraoral adjustment with diamond burs after their cementation causing increasing roughness of the ceramic surface. Consequently some finishing and polishing methods have been used to minimize this occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the roughness of the ceramic surfaces submitted to different finishing and polishing methods. 144 specimens of VITAVM(®)7, VM(®)9 and VM(®)13 (VITA Zahnfabrik) ceramics were fabricated and submitted to grinding using diamond burs. They were then divided into 15 groups (five of each ceramic type). Groups 1, 6 and 11-positive control (Glaze); Groups 2, 7 and 12-negative control (no polishing); Groups 3, 8 and 13-polished with abrasive rubbers (Edenta), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 4, 9 and 14-polished with abrasive rubbers (Shofu), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 5, 10 and 15-polished with aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M-ESPE), felt disc and diamond polishing paste. The roughness of the samples surfaces were measured using the rugosimeter Surfcorder SE 1700 and the data were submitted to statistical analysis using ANOVA and Tukey test at a level of significance of 5 %. There was statistically significance difference between the positive control groups and the other groups in all the ceramic types. Mechanical finishing and polishing methods were not able to provide a surface as smooth as the glazed surface for the tested ceramics. To assist dental practitioners to select the best finishing and polishing methods for the final adjustment of the ceramic restorations.

  3. Evaluation of the surface roughness in dental ceramics submitted to different finishing and polishing methods.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alex C; Oliveira, Mario C S; Lima, Emilena M C X; Rambob, Isabel; Leite, Mariana

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic restorations have been widely used in dentistry. These restorations often require intraoral adjustment with diamond burs after their cementation causing increasing roughness of the ceramic surface. Consequently some finishing and polishing methods have been used to minimize this occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the roughness of the ceramic surfaces submitted to different finishing and polishing methods. 144 specimens of VITAVM(®)7, VM(®)9 and VM(®)13 (VITA Zahnfabrik) ceramics were fabricated and submitted to grinding using diamond burs. They were then divided into 15 groups (five of each ceramic type). Groups 1, 6 and 11-positive control (Glaze); Groups 2, 7 and 12-negative control (no polishing); Groups 3, 8 and 13-polished with abrasive rubbers (Edenta), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 4, 9 and 14-polished with abrasive rubbers (Shofu), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 5, 10 and 15-polished with aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M-ESPE), felt disc and diamond polishing paste. The roughness of the samples surfaces were measured using the rugosimeter Surfcorder SE 1700 and the data were submitted to statistical analysis using ANOVA and Tukey test at a level of significance of 5 %. There was statistically significance difference between the positive control groups and the other groups in all the ceramic types. Mechanical finishing and polishing methods were not able to provide a surface as smooth as the glazed surface for the tested ceramics. To assist dental practitioners to select the best finishing and polishing methods for the final adjustment of the ceramic restorations. PMID:24431749

  4. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  5. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  6. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  7. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  8. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  9. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  10. The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, C.S.; Selleck, C.B.

    1990-08-01

    The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is developing four areas of technology required for automated deburring, chamfering, and blending of machined edges: (1) the automatic programming of robot trajectories and deburring processes using information derived from a CAD database, (2) the use of machine vision for locating the workpiece coupled with force control to ensure proper tool contact, (3) robotic deburring, blending, and machining of precision chamfered edges, and (4) in-process automated inspection of the formed edge. The Laboratory, its components, integration, and results from edge finishing experiments to date are described here. Also included is a discussion of the issues regarding implementation of the technology in a production environment. 24 refs., 17 figs.

  11. Rock Cutting Depth Model Based on Kinetic Energy of Abrasive Waterjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae-Min; Cho, Gye-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Abrasive waterjets are widely used in the fields of civil and mechanical engineering for cutting a great variety of hard materials including rocks, metals, and other materials. Cutting depth is an important index to estimate operating time and cost, but it is very difficult to predict because there are a number of influential variables (e.g., energy, geometry, material, and nozzle system parameters). In this study, the cutting depth is correlated to the maximum kinetic energy expressed in terms of energy (i.e., water pressure, water flow rate, abrasive feed rate, and traverse speed), geometry (i.e., standoff distance), material (i.e., α and β), and nozzle system parameters (i.e., nozzle size, shape, and jet diffusion level). The maximum kinetic energy cutting depth model is verified with experimental test data that are obtained using one type of hard granite specimen for various parameters. The results show a unique curve for a specific rock type in a power function between cutting depth and maximum kinetic energy. The cutting depth model developed here can be very useful for estimating the process time when cutting rock using an abrasive waterjet.

  12. Gusev crater: direction of active winds derived from the Mars Exploration Rover Rock Abrasion Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, R.; Gorevan, S.; Thompson, S. D.; Whelley, P.; Squyres, S.; Arvidson, R.

    2004-05-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) are not instrumented to measure winds directly, but might be able to give insight into wind directions using other techniques. The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) on the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD) on the Mars rover, Spirit, was used to remove dust and cut into a basaltic rock named Adirondack in Gusev crater on Sol 34 of mission operations. The rock abrasion operation occurred between about 1223 hr and 1518 hr in the afternoon (local solar time) and left a cavity 2.68 mm deep. An image taken after the abrasion operation showed that the rock cuttings were asymmetrically distributed around the cavity and over the rock in a direction suggesting that the cuttings were transported away from the cavity by winds. The distribution pattern (and the inferred wind) is being compared with results from wind tunnel simulations conducted prior to the mission to assess the wind-flow patterns as a function of rock, rover, and IDD positions with respect to the wind. The wind direction inferred from the RAT cuttings are also being compared with wind directions suggested by aeolian bedforms and albedo patterns seen from MER and from orbit, and with directions predicted by a model of the atmosphere for winds at mid-day in Gusev crater.

  13. Estimating Rock Strength Parameters from Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) Grinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, B. J.; Bridges, N. T.; Cohen, J.; Hurowitz, J.; Lennon, A.

    2011-03-01

    We have developed an empirical correlation between rock abrasion tool (RAT) grind energy and compressive strength. This correlation can be used to infer the physical properties of rocks ground by the MER rovers on Mars.

  14. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  17. Computed tomography to quantify tooth abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofmehl, Lukas; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Filippi, Andreas; Hotz, Gerhard; Berndt-Dagassan, Dorothea; Kramis, Simon; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography, also termed digital volume tomography, has become a standard technique in dentistry, allowing for fast 3D jaw imaging including denture at moderate spatial resolution. More detailed X-ray images of restricted volumes for post-mortem studies in dental anthropology are obtained by means of micro computed tomography. The present study evaluates the impact of the pipe smoking wear on teeth morphology comparing the abraded tooth with its contra-lateral counterpart. A set of 60 teeth, loose or anchored in the jaw, from 12 dentitions have been analyzed. After the two contra-lateral teeth were scanned, one dataset has been mirrored before the two datasets were registered using affine and rigid registration algorithms. Rigid registration provides three translational and three rotational parameters to maximize the overlap of two rigid bodies. For the affine registration, three scaling factors are incorporated. Within the present investigation, affine and rigid registrations yield comparable values. The restriction to the six parameters of the rigid registration is not a limitation. The differences in size and shape between the tooth and its contra-lateral counterpart generally exhibit only a few percent in the non-abraded volume, validating that the contralateral tooth is a reasonable approximation to quantify, for example, the volume loss as the result of long-term clay pipe smoking. Therefore, this approach allows quantifying the impact of the pipe abrasion on the internal tooth morphology including root canal, dentin, and enamel volumes.

  18. Method of protecting surfaces from abrasion and abrasion resistant articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1988-06-09

    Surfaces of fabricated structures are protected from damage by impacting particulates by a coating of hard material formed as a mass of thin flexible filaments having root ends secured to the surface and free portions which can flex and overlap to form a resilient cushioning mat which resembles hair or fur. The filamentary coating covers the underlying surface with hard abrasion resistance material while also being compliant and capable of local accommodation to particle impacts. The coating can also function as thermal and/or acoustical insulation and has a friction reducing effect. 11 figs.

  19. [Dependence of the dentinal abrasion of human teeth on their microhardness].

    PubMed

    Remizov, S M; Pruzhanskiĭ, L Iu

    1989-01-01

    The dentin resistance against abrasion was studied as related to its microhardness. Sections of 15 intact teeth were investigated (central upper incisors). Water suspensions (40% weight-to weight) of dicalcium phosphate (DCP, FRG; and DKF-1 and DKF-2, USSR) were used as abrasives. Dentin microhardness was measured with a PMT-3 device, and abrasion assessed with profilographic technique. Dentin abrasion was related to its microhardness and to the kind of abrasive used. Dentin abrasion increased as its microhardness decreased. DCF showed minimal abrasive effect, DKF-2 had maximal effect with DKF-1 keeping the intermediate position.

  20. Analysis of Abrasive Blasting of DOP-26 Iridium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, Evan Keith; Zhang, Wei; Ulrich, George B

    2012-01-01

    The effects of abrasive blasting on the surface geometry and microstructure of DOP-26 iridium alloy (Ir-0.3% W-0.006% Th 0.005% Al) have been investigated. Abrasive blasting has been used to control emissivity of components operating at elevated temperature. The effects of abrasive blasting conditions on surface morphology were investigated both experimentally and by numerical modeling. The simplified model, based on finite element analysis of a single angular particle impacting on Ir alloy disk, calculates the surface deformation and residual strain distribution. The experimental results and modeling results both indicate that the surface geometry is not sensitive to the abrasive blast process conditions of nozzle pressure and standoff distance considered in this study. On the other hand, the modeling results suggest that the angularity of the abrasive particle has an important role in determining surface geometry, which in turn, affects the emissivity. Abrasive blasting causes localized surface strains and localized recrystallization, but it does not affect grain size following extended exposure at elevated temperature. The dependence of emissivity of the DOP-26 alloy on mean surface slope follows a similar trend to that reported for pure iridium.

  1. Recent developments in finishing of deep concave, aspheric, and plano surfaces utilizing the UltraForm 5-axes computer controlled system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambrick, Scott; Bechtold, Mike; DeFisher, Scott; Mohring, David; Meisenzahl, Joe

    2009-05-01

    OptiPro Systems has developed a robust 5-axes computer controlled platform, for implementation of the sub-aperture UltraForm Finishing (UFF) process specifically focused on finishing AlON, spinel and transparent polycrystalline alumina (PCA) steep concave, convex and ogive shaped infrared domes and aspheres. Traditional manufacturing of optical components typically involves a three-stage process: grinding, lapping and polishing. The lapping and polishing stages are focused at reducing the surface roughness while preserving the integrity of the form acquired during grinding. Polishing of non spherical and irregular shapes is nearly impossible using traditional full aperture techniques. However, finishing these non-spherical and irregular shapes is possible using UltraForm Finishing. A brief description of the evolution of the UltraForm hardware and processes will be presented, with the current hardware developments. A review of the results with regard to form/figure and roughness improvements on glass, AlON and transparent PCA will be presented using a variety of grinding and finishing abrasives. Differences in the abrasive materials, some bound, and others loose in a slurry have a large impact on the process cycle time and resultant surface roughness.

  2. Temperature Control of Hot Strip Finishing Mill with Inter Stand Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Kunio; Anbe, Yoshiharu; Imanari, Hiroyuki

    It is important for hot strip mill to keep finishing mill delivery temperature to it’s target value because of yield strength and tensile strength of rolled strip. We propose a new method for finishing mill delivery temperature control (FDTC) of a hot strip mill using inter stand strip coolant (ISC). FDTC consists of initial setting (before threading) values calculation of ISC flow rate and finishing mill speed, feed forward FDTC (FF-FDTC) and feedback FDTC (FB-FDTC). The mathematical strip temperature model of finishing mill was identified using normal operating data and some tests. Actual mill application with 7 stands finishing mill showed good FDTC results and also it made possible to increase rolling speed which increase production rate.

  3. Experimental Study of Bedrock Incision Processes by Both Suspended Load and Bedload Abrasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatanantavet, P.; Whipple, K. X.; Adams, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Channel incision into bedrock by both suspended load and bedload abrasions plays an important role in mountain landscape evolution. The study of erosion processes in both sediment transport regimes and their competition is therefore critical. Here we explored the dependence of experimental bedrock erosion rate on channel bed slope, water discharge, sediment flux, grain size, alluvial bed cover, and evolving channel morphology by slowly abrading weak concrete “bedrock.” In our flume, we are able to independently control bedload, suspended load, and water fluxes as well as channel slope. In the case of bedload, we also used a high-speed camera to track the saltation trajectories of coarse gravels on a smooth bed in another set of experiments and proposed new scaling relationships by including bed roughness and channel slope (separately from shear stress) for grain saltation velocity, height and length. In the case of bedload abrasion, we found that (1) all else held constant, erosion rate can (but not always) increase with channel slope in both smooth and rough bed conditions, (2) erosion rate increases with increasing grain size, and (3) erosion rate is insensitive to increasing water discharge. Thus shear stress is an inadequate metric for saltation dynamics and abrasion. In the case of suspended load abrasion, we found that (1) all else held constant, erosion occurred more in the planar bed condition than in the rough bed condition (deep grooves/slot canyons) because the erosion rate is strongly dependent on the near-bed flow (particle) velocity, (2) erosion rate increases with increasing sediment flux, and (3) perturbations (e.g., boulders) to the flow (thus creating turbulence/eddy) can greatly enhance the erosional efficiency. All else held constant (including bed morphology), the erosion rates by suspended load can account for 1.0 - 20 % (excluding the effect of flow perturbations) of those found in bedload erosion for the same sediment flux. Furthermore

  4. In vitro effect of air-abrasion operating parameters on dynamic cutting characteristics of alumina and bio-active glass powders.

    PubMed

    Milly, H; Austin, R S; Thompson, I; Banerjee, A

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry advocates the maintenance of all repairable tooth structures during operative caries management in combination with remineralization strategies. This study evaluated the effect of air-abrasion operating parameters on its cutting efficiency/pattern using bio-active glass (BAG) powder and alumina powder as a control in order to develop its use as a minimally invasive operative technique. The cutting efficiency/pattern assessment on an enamel analogue, Macor, was preceded by studying the powder flow rate (PFR) of two different commercial intraoral air-abrasion units with differing powder-air admix systems. The parameters tested included air pressure, powder flow rate, nozzle-substrate distance, nozzle angle, shrouding the air stream with a curtain of water, and the chemistry of abrasive powder. The abraded troughs were scanned and analyzed using confocal white light profilometry and MountainsMap surface analysis software. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way and repeated-measures analysis of variance tests (p=0.05). The air-abrasion unit using a vibration mechanism to admix the abrasive powder with the air stream exhibited a constant PFR regardless of the set air pressure. Significant differences in cutting efficiency were observed according to the tested parameters (p<0.05). Alumina powder removed significantly more material than did BAG powder. Using low air pressure and suitable consideration of the effect of air-abrasion parameters on cutting efficiency/patterns can improve the ultraconservative cutting characteristics of BAG air-abrasion, thereby allowing an introduction of this technology for the controlled cleaning/removal of enamel, where it is indicated clinically.

  5. System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries

    DOEpatents

    Kasper, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    A system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

  6. Abrasive tip treatment for use on compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    A co-spray process was used which simultaneously but separately introduces abrasive grits and metal matrix powder into the plasma stream and entraps the abrasive grits within a molten matrix to form an abrasive coating as the matrix material solidifies on test specimen surfaces. Spray trials were conducted to optimize spray parameter settings for the various matrix/grit combinations before actual spraying of the test specimens. Rub, erosion, and bond adhesion tests were conducted on the coated specimens in the as-sprayed condition as well as on coated specimens that were aged for 100 hours at a temperature of 866K (1100 F). Microscopic examinations were performed to determine the coating abrasive-particle content, the size and shape of the adhesive particles in the coating, and the extent of compositional or morphological changes resulting from the aging process. A nickel chromium/aluminum composite with No. 150 size (0.002 to 0.005 inch) silicon carbide grits was selected as the best matrix/abrasive combination of the candidates surveyed for coating compressor blade tips.

  7. Rock Abrasion Tool Exhibits the Deep Red Pigment of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    During recent soil-brushing experiments, the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit became covered with dust, as shown here. An abundance of iron oxide minerals in the dust gave the device a reddish-brown veneer. Investigators were using the rock abrasion tool to uncover successive layers of soil in an attempt to reveal near-surface stratigraphy. Afterward, remnant dirt clods were visible on both the bit and the brush of the tool. Designers of the rock abrasion tool at Honeybee Robotics and engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a plan to run the brush on the rock abrasion tool in reverse to dislodge the dirt and return the tool to normal operation. Subsequent communications with the rover revealed that the procedure is working and the rock abrasion tool remains healthy.

    Spirit acquired this approximately true-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 893rd sol, or Martian day (July 8, 2006). The image combines exposures taken through three of the camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 430 nanometers.

  8. Microleakage of compomer restorations in primary teeth after preparation with bur or air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Aysegül, Olmez; Nurhan, Oztas; Haluk, Bodur; Dilek, Tüfekçioglu

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the degree of marginal leakage of a compomer in Class V cavities of human primary molars prepared by a conventional dental bur and air abrasion with or without acid etching. Fifty-six non-carious extracted primary molars were randomly divided into four groups (n=14) to be prepared by four techniques: Group-1: Bur followed by acid etching: Class V cavity preparations were placed on the buccal surfaces of each tooth using a high-speed handpiece. The preparations were 1.5-mm deep, 3-mm long and 2-mm wide, with the occlusal margin in enamel and the cervical margin extending 0.5 mm below the cementoenamel junction. The preparations were acid etched with 37% phosphoric acid starting at the enamel margins for 30 seconds and rinsed with water for 20 seconds. The preparations were then restored with Compoglass F. 2-Group 2: Bur: The preparations and the treatment procedures were the same as in Group 1, with the exception of 37% phosphoric acid application. Group 3: Air abrasion followed by acid etching: Class V cavity preparations were placed on the buccal surfaces of each tooth using a handpiece of an air-abrasive system (PrepStart, Danville Engineering). The system was supplied with dry compressed air at 80 psi. In all tests, the air-abrasion system was operated with an 80 degrees-angle handpiece tip and 50-mm aluminum oxide particles. A tip with a 0.38-mm inner diameter was used at a 2-mm distance. The treatment procedures were the same as in Groups 1 and 2. Group 4: Air abrasion: The preparations and treatment procedures were the same as in Group 3, with the exception of 37% phosphoric acid. After finishing the restorations, the teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. The samples were thermocycled for 500 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with a dwell time of 30 seconds. The samples were then immersed in 0.5 percent basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. The surface-adhered dye was then rinsed in tap

  9. Integration of magnetorheological finishing (MRF) technology for ultraprecision optical manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Ashley M. H.; Chan, Norman S. W.; Louie, Derek C. H.; Li, Li-Man

    2003-05-01

    Magneto-rheological-finishing (MRF) technology is capable of substantially improving the surface figure of spherical lens to about 1/20 wavelength. Nonetheless, since MRF technology is an ultra-fine polishing process, in which only less than a few microns of material will be removed per cycle, time for making an aspheric surface from a best-fit sphere can be very significant. The situation can be worse if the surface profile is considerably deviated from its best-fit spherical surface. This is not desirable for actual production, and thus a manufacturing cell is proposed to enhance the efficiency of the high precision lens manufacturing process. On the other hand, MRF was suggested to be an alternative for lapping of surface of ceramic lens mould insert. Rather than using the abrasive particles in typical lapping process, the magnetized slurry in MRF is moved past the rotating surface of mould insert locally under the computer-control process so as to achieve the desired surface form accuracy.

  10. Accurately measuring dynamic coefficient of friction in ultraform finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Dennis; Echaves, Samantha; Pidgeon, Brendan; Travis, Nathan; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    UltraForm Finishing (UFF) is a deterministic sub-aperture computer numerically controlled grinding and polishing platform designed by OptiPro Systems. UFF is used to grind and polish a variety of optics from simple spherical to fully freeform, and numerous materials from glasses to optical ceramics. The UFF system consists of an abrasive belt around a compliant wheel that rotates and contacts the part to remove material. This work aims to accurately measure the dynamic coefficient of friction (μ), how it changes as a function of belt wear, and how this ultimately affects material removal rates. The coefficient of friction has been examined in terms of contact mechanics and Preston's equation to determine accurate material removal rates. By accurately predicting changes in μ, polishing iterations can be more accurately predicted, reducing the total number of iterations required to meet specifications. We have established an experimental apparatus that can accurately measure μ by measuring triaxial forces during translating loading conditions or while manufacturing the removal spots used to calculate material removal rates. Using this system, we will demonstrate μ measurements for UFF belts during different states of their lifecycle and assess the material removal function from spot diagrams as a function of wear. Ultimately, we will use this system for qualifying belt-wheel-material combinations to develop a spot-morphing model to better predict instantaneous material removal functions.

  11. Abrasion of Candidate Spacesuit Fabrics by Simulated Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rogers, Kerry J.; Sheehy, Brennan H.

    2009-01-01

    A protocol has been developed that produced the type of lunar soil abrasion damage observed on Apollo spacesuits. This protocol was then applied to four materials (Kevlar (DuPont), Vectran (Kuraray Co., Ltd.), Orthofabric, and Tyvek (DuPont)) that are candidates for advanced spacesuits. Three of the four new candidate fabrics (all but Vectran) were effective at keeping the dust from penetrating to layers beneath. In the cases of Kevlar and Orthofabric this was accomplished by the addition of a silicone layer. In the case of Tyvek, the paper structure was dense enough to block dust transport. The least abrasive damage was suffered by the Tyvek. This was thought to be due in large part to its non-woven paper structure. The woven structures were all abraded where the top of the weave was struck by the abrasive. Of these, the Orthofabric suffered the least wear, with both Vectran and Kevlar suffering considerably more extensive filament breakage.

  12. Abrasive wear and surface roughness of contemporary dental composite resin.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-min; Zhang, Hongyu; Choe, Hyo-Sun; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Hong, Guang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abrasive wear and surface roughness of 20 currently available commercial dental composite resins, including nanofilled, supra-nanofilled, nanohybrid and microhybrid composite resins. The volume loss, maximum vertical loss, surface roughness (R(a)) and surface morphology [Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] were determined after wear. The inorganic filler content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The result showed that the volume loss and vertical loss varied among the materials. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) of wear volume loss and filler content (wt%) was 0.283. SEM micrographs revealed nanofilled composites displayed a relatively uniform wear surfaces with nanoclusters protrusion, while the performance of nanohybrid composites varied. The abrasive wear resistance of contemporary dental composite resins is material-dependent and cannot be deduced from its category, filler loading and composite matrix; The abrasive wear resistance of some flowable composites is comparable to the universal/posterior composite resins.

  13. Analysis of silt abrasion of the impeller ring in a centrifugal pump with J-grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Z. D.; Wang, Z. Y.; Guo, Z. W.; Dong, J.; Lu, J.

    2016-05-01

    The water flow and movement of silt in a prototype double-suction centrifugal pump was simulated using an Euler-Lagrange multiphase flow model. J-Grooves were adopted to protect the impeller ring from silt abrasion. The influence of J-grooves on the silt concentration and pump efficiency was analyzed. The results show that the radial component of the relative velocity around the impeller ring is too low to move the silt out of the spacing between the impeller plate and the casing. The high silt concentration around the impeller ring is the major contributor to silt abrasion of the impeller ring. The J-grooves induce two strong vortices, which increase the radial component of the relative velocity of water and reduce the silt concentration around the impeller ring, but additional friction losses are introduced and the pump efficiency is decreased. Optimization of the number and shape of J-grooves decreases losses in the efficiency of the pump, and effectively protects the impeller ring. Case 4 was found the most effective configuration in this study.

  14. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand polished....

  15. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand polished....

  16. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand polished....

  17. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand polished....

  18. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand polished....

  19. METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFPPT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Tool (MFFPPT) is being developed to allow the metal finishing industry an easy method to evaluate potential pollution prevention options. In order to reduce the quantity of pollutants generated by a process, the sources of pollutants within ...

  20. First-order control of surface roughness at three scales: boundary layer dynamics, tracer dispersion and pebble abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerolmack, D. J.; Litwin, K. L.; Phillips, C. B.; Martin, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    In many situations it may be appropriate to treat surfaces as smooth and particles as spherical, however here we focus on scenarios in which the roughness of the surface exerts a first-order control on flow and transport dynamics. We describe three vignettes at three different scales: (1) roughness transitions and resulting sediment transport dynamics over ~10-km distance in a desert dune field; (2) reach-scale river bed roughness and its influence on dispersion of tracer particles in bed load; and (3) the control of particle surface roughness on the nature and rate of pebble abrasion. For (1), we show how the abrupt transition from a flat surface to a dune field may be treated as a step increase in the aerodynamic roughness parameter - so long as the spatial scale considered is significantly larger than that of an individual dune. This increase causes a spatial decline in the boundary stress downwind that may be understood using simple boundary layer theory, resulting in a factor of three decrease in the sand flux over a distance of kilometers. For (2), laboratory and field studies of tracer particles in bed load indicate that they undergo short flights separated by long rest periods having a power-law tail - even in steady flows. We hypothesize that for near-threshold transport - which predominates is coarse-grained rivers - particles become trapped in 'wells' produced by surface roughness, and their rest time is controlled by the time for the surface to scour down and release them. Laboratory observations support this hypothesis, while comparison to non-geophysical 'flows' indicates that these dynamics are generic to transport in disordered systems. Finally, for (3) we report laboratory experiments by our group and others showing how abrasion rate decreases with decreasing particle roughness. Geometric models quantitatively support the intuition that locations of high positive curvature on pebble surfaces are more susceptible to abrasion; as they are

  1. JSC Metal Finishing Waste Minimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Erica

    2003-01-01

    THe paper discusses the following: Johnson Space Center (JSC) has achieved VPP Star status and is ISO 9001 compliant. The Structural Engineering Division in the Engineering Directorate is responsible for operating the metal finishing facility at JSC. The Engineering Directorate is responsible for $71.4 million of space flight hardware design, fabrication and testing. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility processes flight hardware to support the programs in particular schedule and mission critical flight hardware. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility is operated by Rothe Joint Venture. The Facility provides following processes: anodizing, alodining, passivation, and pickling. JSC Metal Finishing Facility completely rebuilt in 1998. Total cost of $366,000. All new tanks, electrical, plumbing, and ventilation installed. Designed to meet modern safety, environmental, and quality requirements. Designed to minimize contamination and provide the highest quality finishes.

  2. Friability and crushing strength of micrometer-size diamond abrasives used in microgrinding of optical glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yiyang; Takahashi, Toshio; Quesnel, David J.; Funkenbusch, Paul D.

    1996-04-01

    In abrasive grinding, the properties of the abrasives and their response to impact loading play a significant role in determining the results achievable. For micrometer-size diamond abrasives used for bound-abrasive microgrinding of optical glass, friability testing is used to estimate the related particle properties. Friability and crushing strength of diamond abrasives are estimated based on the data from comminution of sample powders on a commercial SPEX mixer/mill. Different diamond abrasives as well as a CBN abrasive are tested. Evolution of powder size and size distribution with comminution time is characterized with a HORIBA laser scattering analyzer. Correlation is established for the impact stress and the probability of fracture during comminution. This study demonstrates how to combine the ease of data acquisition found in a conventional friability test with the capability of predicting specific mechanical properties normally found only by crushing individual abrasive particles.

  3. Bound-abrasive grinding and polishing of surfaces of optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, Yuriy D.; Filatov, Olexandr Yu.; Monteil, Guy; Heisel, Uwe; Storchak, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Problems of efficiency and quality improvement of diamond-abrasive finishing of optical materials by tools with bounded polishing powders, including diamond powder, are considered. The dependences of the particle number on the diffusion angle and coordinate of the contact have been derived in the studies of the dynamics of collision and diffusion of slime particles. The coordinate dependence of the flat surface roughness of glass K8 optics in fine diamond grinding has been described. Interaction and dispersion of deterioration particles in a contact zone of the tool and the processed sample in the course of polishing is described and the dispersion structure of deterioration particles of the tool on slime particles and on deterioration particles is explained oscillatory. It is shown a that differential dispersion section of deterioration particles on slime particles is not less than on deterioration particles and is maximum at corners of dispersion close to 0° and 180° on the central sites of a contact zone. Coordinate dependence of the full dispersion section of deterioration particles of the tool and dependence of microprofile height of the processed surface on circular zones radius are calculated.

  4. Profilometric analysis of two composite resins’ surface repolished after tooth brush abrasion with three polishing systems

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Mudit; Ganesh, Arathi; Balagopal, Suresh; Kaur, Gurleen

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of three polishing protocols that could be implemented at recall on the surface roughness of two direct esthetic restorative materials. Materials and Methods: Specimens (n = 40) measuring 8 mm (length) × 5 mm (width) × 4 mm (height) were fabricated in an acrylic mold using two light-cured resin-based materials (microfilled composite and microhybrid composite). After photopolymerization, all specimens were finished and polished with one of three polishing protocols (Enhance, One Gloss, and Sof-Lex polishing systems). The average surface roughness of each treated specimen was determined using 3D optical profilometer. Next all specimens were brushed 60,000 times with nylon bristles at 7200 rpm using crosshead brushing device with equal parts of toothpaste and water used as abrasive medium. The surface roughness of each specimen was measured after brushing followed by repolishing with one of three polishing protocols, and then, the final surface roughness values were determined. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way and two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD). Significant difference (P < 0.05) in surface roughness was observed. Simulated brushing following initial polishing procedure significantly roughened the surface of restorative material (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Polishing protocols can be used to restore a smooth surface on esthetic restorative materials following simulated tooth brushing. PMID:23956531

  5. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.303 Abrasive wheels and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain...

  6. 9 CFR 311.14 - Abrasions, bruises, abscesses, pus, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abrasions, bruises, abscesses, pus, etc. 311.14 Section 311.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... excised, leaving only sound, normal tissue, which may be passed for human food. Any organ or other part...

  7. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA ON DENTIN EROSION AND ABRASION

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Melissa Thiemi; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Rios, Daniela; Hannas, Angélica Reis; Attin, Thomas; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This in situ study evaluated the protective effect of green tea on dentin erosion (ERO) and erosion-abrasion (ABR). Material and methods: Ten volunteers wore intraoral palatal appliances with bovine dentin specimens subjected to ERO or ERO + toothbrushing abrasion performed immediately (ERO+I-ABR) or 30 min after erosion (ERO+30-min-ABR). During 2 experimental 5-day crossover phases, the volunteers rinsed with green tea or water (control, 1 min) between each erosive (5 min, cola drink) and abrasive challenge (30 s, toothbrushing), 4x/day. Dentin wear was measured by profilometry. Results: The green tea reduced the dentin wear significantly for all conditions compared to control. ERO+I-ABR led to significantly higher wear than ERO, but it was not significantly different from ERO+30-min-ABR. ERO+30-min-ABR provoked significant higher wear than ERO, only for the placebo treatment. Conclusions: From the results of the present study, it may be concluded that green tea reduces the dentin wear under erosive/abrasive conditions. PMID:20027426

  8. Development of a thermal reclamation system for spent blasting abrasive

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, B.B.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Abrasive blasting is the most economical method for paint removal from large surface areas such as the hulls and tanks of oceangoing vessels. Tens of thousands of tons of spent abrasive are generated annually by blasting operations in private and US Navy shipyards. Some of this material is classified as hazardous waste, and nearly all of it is currently being either stockpiled or disposed in landfills. The rapid decline in available landfill space and corresponding rise in landfill tipping fees pose a severe problem for shipyard operators throughout the US. This paper discusses the results of a research and development program initiated by the Institute of Gas Technology and supported by the US Navy to develop and test a fluidized-bed thermal reclamation system for spent abrasive waste minimization. Bench- and pilot-scale reclaimer tests and reclaimed abrasive performance tests are described along with the current status of a program to build and test a 5-ton/hour prototype reclaimer at a US Navy shipyard.

  9. Potential of Air-Propelled Abrasives for Selective Weed Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel forms of selective weed control are needed by many types of growers, but especially organic growers who are restricted from using synthetic herbicides. Abrasive grit made from corn cobs was expelled from a sand blaster at 517 kPa pressure and aimed at seedlings of common lambsquarters and corn...

  10. Brushing abrasion of luting cements under neutral and acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Buchalla, W; Attin, T; Hellwig, E

    2000-01-01

    Four resin based materials (Compolute Aplicap, ESPE; Variolink Ultra, Vivadent; C&B Metabond, Parkell and Panavia 21, Kuraray), two carboxylate cements (Poly-F Plus, Dentsply DeTrey and Durelon Maxicap, ESPE), two glass-ionomer cements (Fuji I, GC and Ketac-Cem Aplicap, ESPE), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, 3M) one polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Cem, Dentsply DeTrey) and one zinc phosphate cement (Harvard, Richter & Hoffmann) were investigated according to their brushing resistance after storage in neutral and acidic buffer solutions. For this purpose 24 cylindrical acrylic molds were each filled with the materials. After hardening, the samples were stored for seven days in 100% relative humidity and at 37 degrees C. Subsequently, they were ground flat and polished. Then each specimen was covered with an adhesive tape leaving a 4 mm wide window on the cement surface. Twelve samples of each material were stored for 24 hours in a buffer solution with a pH of 6.8. The remaining 12 samples were placed in a buffer with a pH of 3.0. All specimens were then subjected to a three media brushing abrasion (2,000 strokes) in an automatic brushing machine. Storage and brushing were performed three times. After 6,000 brushing strokes per specimen, the tape was removed. Brushing abrasion was measured with a computerized laser profilometer and statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's Standardized Range Test (p < or = 0.05). The highest brushing abrasion was found for the two carboxylate cements. The lowest brushing abrasion was found for one resin based material, Compolute Aplicap. With the exception of three resin-based materials, a lower pH led to a higher brushing abrasion.

  11. The grain-size distribution of pyroclasts: Primary fragmentation, conduit sorting or abrasion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, U.; Schauroth, J.; Taddeucci, J.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions expel a mixture of pyroclasts and lithics. Pyroclasts, fragments of the juvenile magma, record the state of the magma at fragmentation in terms of porosity and crystallinity. The grain size distribution of pyroclasts is generally considered to be a direct consequence of the conditions at magma fragmentation that is mainly driven by gas overpressure in bubbles, high shear rates, contact with external water or a combination of these factors. Stress exerted by any of these processes will lead to brittle fragmentation by overcoming the magma's relaxation timescale. As a consequence, most pyroclasts exhibit angular shapes. Upon magma fragmentation, the gas pyroclast mixture is accelerated upwards and eventually ejected from the vent. The total grain size distribution deposited is a function of fragmentation conditions and transport related sorting. Porous pyroclasts are very susceptible to abrasion by particle-particle or particle-conduit wall interaction. Accordingly, pyroclastic fall deposits with angular clasts should proof a low particle abrasion upon contact to other surfaces. In an attempt to constrain the degree of particle interaction during conduit flow, monomodal batches of washed pyroclasts have been accelerated upwards by rapid decompression and subsequently investigated for their grain size distribution. In our set-up, we used a vertical cylindrical tube without surface roughness as conduit. We varied grain size (0.125-0.25; 0.5-1; 1-2 mm), porosity (0; 10; 30 %), gas-particle ratio (10 and 40%), conduit length (10 and 28 cm) and conduit diameter (2.5 and 6 cm). All ejected particles were collected after settling at the base of a 3.3 m high tank and sieved at one sieve size below starting size (half-Φ). Grain size reduction showed a positive correlation with starting grain size, porosity and overpressure at the vent. Although milling in a volcanic conduit may take place, porous pyroclasts are very likely to be a primary product

  12. NCMS PWB Surface Finishes Team project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kokas, J.; DeSantis, C.; Wenger, G.

    1996-04-01

    The NCMS PWB Surface Finishes Consortium is just about at the end of the five year program. Dozens of projects related to surface finishes and PWB solder-ability were performed by the team throughout the program, and many of them are listed in this paper. They are listed with a cross reference to where and when a technical paper was presented describing the results of the research. However, due to time and space constraints, this paper can summarize the details of only three of the major research projects accomplished by the team. The first project described is an ``Evaluation of PWB Surface Finishes.`` It describes the solderability, reliability, and wire bondability of numerous surface finishes. The second project outlined is an ``Evaluation of PWB Solderability Test Methods.`` The third project outlined is the ``Development and Evaluation of Organic Solderability Preservatives.``

  13. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-05-24

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  14. The Adolescent Who Does Not Finish Anything.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breiner, Sander J.

    1985-01-01

    Practical information for therapists who deal with adolescents who do not finish tasks is presented. The relationship of task incompletion to neurosis, psychosis, depression, homosexuality, and drug abuse is described, and techniques and guidelines for treatment are provided. (Author)

  15. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  16. Methodology of evaluation of abrasive tool wear with the use of laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lipiński, Dariusz; Kacalak, Wojciech; Tomkowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Grinding is one of the basic precise material removal methods. Abrasive and shape wear, as well as smearing of the tools' active surface handicap the processing results. The loss of cutting capacity in abrasive tools or alteration of their shape influences the surface quality and precision of the workpiece dimensions and its shape. Evaluation of the abrasive tool surface is the basic criterion of forecasting the tools' durability and the process results. The applied method of laser scanning made determination of the surface coordinates and subsequently of its geometric features with micrometric accuracy possible. Using the information on the abrasive tool surface geometric structure, a methodology of evaluation of the level of changes in geometric features of the tool during the grinding process was developed. Criteria for evaluation of the level of abrasive grains attritious wear, the degree of smearing of the abrasive tool surface and evaluation of the cutting capability of the abrasive tools were determined. The developed method allowed for evaluation of the level of abrasive tools' wear, and subsequently formed foundations for assessment of the influence of the grinding parameters on the durability of abrasive tools, evaluation of the influence of the parameters of the process of shaping the abrasive tools' active surfaces on their geometric characteristics and evaluation of the level of correlation between the monitored process parameters and the degree of the abrasive tools' wear.

  17. Sectioning of contaminated components for decontamination by vibratory finishing and electropolishing

    SciTech Connect

    Fetrow, L.K.; Allen, R.P.

    1981-09-01

    This report summarizes work conducted to develop, adapt, and evaluate a variety of techniques for sectioning glove boxes, chemical processing equipment, pipes, ducts, and other contaminated components in preparation for decontamination by vibratory finishing and electropolishing. These sectioning studies were conducted with a special 10-ft x 20-ft x 10-ft stainless-steel, walk-in glove box equipped for either hands-on operation via gloves and personnel entry, or remote operation using master slave manipulators and a bridge crane. Several sectioning techniques have been evaluated with respect to effectiveness, versatility, secondary waste generation, and capability for remote operation. The methods include wet and dry plasma arc torch cutting, mechanical sawing and nibbling, abrasive cutting, and hydraulic shearing and punching. The results of these comparison studies show that the plasma arc torch is a very rapid and effective metal cutting tool for size reduction applications. However, its use to prepare material for decontamination should be minimized because of problems with smoke generation, torch manipulation, waste generation, and entrainment of contamination. Mechanical saws eliminate all but the waste generation problem, but are very slow and labor intensive. Mechanical nibblers are fast and produce a waste form that can be decontaminated, but are limited with respect to the geometry and thickness of material that can be sectioned. High-speed abrasive saws provide high cutting rates, but produce nontreatable waste from the cut as well as from blade wear. Hydraulic shearing rapidly produces sectioned material in the small sizes required for decontamination by vibratory finishing. The kerf material also can be decontaminated. However, the glove box first must be sectioned into relatively narrow strips by one of the other techniques.

  18. Abrasive Wear Study of NiCrFeSiB Flame Sprayed Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Satpal

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, abrasive wear behavior of NiCrFeSiB alloy coating on carbon steel was investigated. The NiCrFeSiB coating powder was deposited by flame spraying process. The microstructure, porosity and hardness of the coatings were evaluated. Elemental mapping was carried out in order to study the distribution of various elements in the coating. The abrasive wear behavior of these coatings was investigated under three normal loads (5, 10 and 15 N) and two abrasive grit sizes (120 and 320 grit). The abrasive wear rate was found to increase with the increase of load and abrasive size. The abrasive wear resistance of coating was found to be 2-3 times as compared to the substrate. Analysis of the scanning electron microscope images revealed cutting and plowing as the material removal mechanisms in these coatings under abrasive wear conditions used in this investigation.

  19. Deterministic magnetorheological finishing of optical aspheric mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ci; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Li, Shengyi; Shi, Feng

    2009-05-01

    A new method magnetorheological finishing (MRF) used for deterministical finishing of optical aspheric mirrors is applied to overcome some disadvantages including low finishing efficiency, long iterative time and unstable convergence in the process of conventional polishing. Based on the introduction of the basic principle of MRF, the key techniques to implement deterministical MRF are also discussed. To demonstrate it, a 200 mm diameter K9 class concave asphere with a vertex radius of 640mm was figured on MRF polish tool developed by ourselves. Through one process about two hours, the surface accuracy peak-to-valley (PV) is improved from initial 0.216λ to final 0.179λ and root-mean-square (RMS) is improved from 0.027λ to 0.017λ (λ = 0.6328um ). High-precision and high-efficiency convergence of optical aspheric surface error shows that MRF is an advanced optical manufacturing method that owns high convergence ratio of surface figure, high precision of optical surfacing, stabile and controllable finishing process. Therefore, utilizing MRF to finish optical aspheric mirrors determinately is credible and stabile; its advantages can be also used for finishing optical elements on varieties of types such as plane mirrors and spherical mirrors.

  20. Self inflicted corneal abrasions due to delusional parasitosis

    PubMed Central

    Meraj, Adeel; Din, Amad U; Larsen, Lynn; Liskow, Barry I

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of self inflicted bilateral corneal abrasions and skin damage due to ophthalmic and cutaneous delusional parasitosis. A male in his 50s presented with a 10 year history of believing that parasites were colonizing his skin and biting into his skin and eyes. The patient had received extensive medical evaluations that found no evidence that symptoms were due to a medical cause. He was persistent in his belief and had induced bilateral corneal abrasions and skin damage by using heat lamps and hair dryers in an attempt to disinfect his body. The patient was treated with olanzapine along with treatment for his skin and eyes. His delusional belief system persisted but no further damage to his eyes and skin was noted on initial follow-up. PMID:22689836

  1. Wheel Abrasion Experiment Metals Selection for Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Hoffman, Richard; Hill, Maria M.; Kaloyeros, Alain E.

    1996-01-01

    A series of metals was examined for suitability for the Wheel Abrasion Experiment, one of ten microrover experiments of the Mars Pathfinder Mission. The seven candidate metals were: Ag, Al, Au, Cu, Ni, Pt, and W. Thin films of candidate metals from 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer thick were deposited on black anodized aluminum coupons by e-beam and resistive evaporation and chemical vapor deposition. Optical, corrosion, abrasion, and adhesion criteria were used to select Al, Ni, and Pt. A description is given of the deposition and testing of thin films, followed by a presentation of experimental data and a brief discussion of follow-on testing and flight qualification.

  2. A physically-based abrasive wear model for composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gun Y.; Dharan, C.K.H.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2001-05-01

    A simple physically-based model for the abrasive wear of composite materials is presented based on the mechanics and mechanisms associated with sliding wear in soft (ductile) matrix composites containing hard (brittle) reinforcement particles. The model is based on the assumption that any portion of the reinforcement that is removed as wear debris cannot contribute to the wear resistance of the matrix material. The size of this non-contributing portion of the reinforcement is estimated by modeling the three primary wear mechanisms, specifically plowing, interfacial cracking and particle removal. Critical variables describing the role of the reinforcement, such as its relative size and the nature of the matrix/reinforcement interface, are characterized by a single contribution coefficient, C. Predictions are compared with the results of experimental two-body (pin-on drum) abrasive wear tests performed on a model aluminum particulate-reinforced epoxy matrix composite material.

  3. Abrasion Testing of Critical Components of Hydrokinetic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, Monty; Ali, Muhammad; Ravens, Tom

    2013-12-06

    The objective of the Abrasion Testing of Critical Components of Hydrokinetic Devices (Project) was to test critical components of hydrokinetic devices in waters with high levels of suspended sediment – information that is widely applicable to the hydrokinetic industry. Tidal and river sites in Alaska typically have high suspended sediment concentrations. High suspended sediment also occurs in major rivers and estuaries throughout the world and throughout high latitude locations where glacial inputs introduce silt into water bodies. In assessing the vulnerability of technology components to sediment induced abrasion, one of the greatest concerns is the impact that the sediment may have on device components such as bearings and seals, failures of which could lead to both efficiency loss and catastrophic system failures.

  4. Controlling abrasion in coal prep plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, W.

    1996-12-31

    Maintenance departments in many industries are continually battling the daily fires that run costs up and productivity down. Many plants have equipment that must operate under wet sliding conditions which can lead to accelerated wear of the equipment. Electric power generating plants, for example, have ongoing maintenance concerns for piping, chutes, hoppers, heat exchangers, and valves. Pulp and paper plants have heavy maintenance on: plate screens, conical bottoms of blow tanks, chutes, and augers. Coal handling equipment is often subjected to wet sliding conditions. Utility and coal prep plants can have serious flow problems if an improper structural or wear material is selected. Vibrating screens, chutes, surge bin feeders, conical distributors, screw conveyors, and cyclones are some of the components that must resist the ravages of corrosion and wear. This paper will address many of the issues that affect the life of plant components under wet sliding conditions. Environmental effects and material effects will be examined. Since the material of construction is most times the easier to change, the paper will concentrate on this subject. Such factors as: hardness, surface roughness, corrodent, and material of construction will be explored. Both controlled laboratory studies and real world service evaluations will be presented.

  5. Occlusive Dressings and the Healing of Standardized Abrasions

    PubMed Central

    Beam, Joel W

    2008-01-01

    Context: Acute skin trauma during sport participation, resulting in partial-thickness abrasions, is common. The limited investigations focusing on the acute wound environment and dressing techniques and the subsequent lack of evidence-based standards complicate clinical wound care decisions. Objective: To examine the effects of occlusive dressings on healing of standardized, partial-thickness abrasions. Design: Controlled, counterbalanced, repeated-measures design. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen healthy women (n  =  10) and men (n  =  6). Intervention(s): Four standardized, partial-thickness abrasions were inflicted. Film, hydrogel, and hydrocolloid occlusive dressings and no dressing (control) were applied. Participants returned on postwound days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 for digital imaging. Wound healing time was measured by change in wound contraction (cm2) and change in wound color (chromatic red) and luminance in red, green, and blue color values. Main Outcome Measure(s): Wound contraction, color (chromatic red), and luminance. Results: A day-by-dressing interaction was found for wound contraction, color, and luminance. Post hoc testing indicated that the film and hydrocolloid dressings produced greater wound contraction than the hydrogel and no dressing on days 7 and 10. Film, hydrogel, and hydrocolloid dressings also resulted in greater wound contraction than the control on day 14. Hydrocolloid dressings produced smaller measures of color and greater measures of luminance than no dressing on day 7. Film, hydrogel, and hydrocolloid dressings also resulted in smaller measures of color and greater measures of luminance compared with no dressing on days 10 and 14. Conclusions: When compared with the control (no dressing), the film, hydrogel, and hydrocolloid occlusive dressings were associated with a faster healing rate of partial-thickness abrasions across time measured by wound contraction, color, and luminance

  6. Abrasion of eroded root dentine brushed with different toothpastes.

    PubMed

    De Menezes, Márcio; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Hara, Anderson Takeo; Messias, Danielle Cristine Furtado; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2004-09-01

    This study evaluated the surface roughness change and wear provided by different dentifrices on root dentine previously exposed to erosive challenges. According to a randomized complete block design, 150 slabs of bovine root dentine (6 x 3 x 2 mm) were ground flat and polished. In an area of 4 x 3 mm on the dentine surface, specimens were submitted to five erosive/abrasive events, each one composed by: exposure to Sprite Diet or distilled water for 5 min, then to a remineralizing solution for 1 min, and simulation of 5,000 brushing strokes. Four dentifrices--regular (RE), baking soda (BS), whitening (WT) and tartar control (TC)--and distilled water (CO), used as control, were compared. Final texture and the wear depth were evaluated using a profilometer. ANOVA did not show significant interaction, indicating that the effect of dentifrices on both surface roughness change and wear did not depend on whether or not the dentine was eroded ( p>0.05). There was no difference between abrasion of eroded and sound dentine. The Tukey's test revealed that WT, BS and TC provided the highest increase in surface roughness differing from RE and CO. TC yielded the deepest wear of root dentine, whereas RE and CO, the shallowest. No significant difference in wear among BS, TC and WT were observed. Within the limitations of this study, the data showed that abrasion of both eroded and sound root dentine was dependent on the dentifrice used. PMID:15146320

  7. Shotcup petal abrasions in close range .410-caliber shotgun injuries.

    PubMed

    Dowling, G P; Dickinson, J A; Cooke, C T

    1988-01-01

    Shotcup petal abrasions centered around a shotgun wound of entrance are generally thought to occur at a range of 30 to 90 cm. A suicidal .410-caliber shotgun injury of the right eye is described in which typical petal abrasions were noted around the entrance wound. However, significant soot deposition around the wound suggested that the range of fire was less than 30 cm and perhaps closer to 15 cm. Test-firing of the weapon and ammunition used by the decedent showed some spread of the shotcup petals at a range of 7.5 cm, progressing to maximum spread at 30 to 52.5 cm. Further testing with other .410 ammunition, containing shotcups, confirmed the spread of shotcup petals at ranges less than 30 cm, irrespective of manufacturer, shotshell length, and birdshot size. When a variety of shotguns were tested, it was found that one weapon with a very short barrel and cylinder bore did not exhibit petal spread until a range of 30 cm was reached. The remaining shotguns, with longer barrels and full choke, all demonstrated definite petal spread at a range of 12.5 cm. The long, narrow configuration of .410 shotcup petals may explain their early spread and the production of petal abrasions at ranges of less than 30 cm.

  8. Dressing methods for grinding wheels made of superhard abrasive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spur, G.

    As a result of the increase in the use of difficult-to-machine materials more and more machining tasks are falling within the sphere of grinding. Since the requirements that must be met by the working accuracy under conditions of high productivity of the working cycle are becoming ever more stringent, high-capacity grinding tools are essential. The development of new, superhard abrasives has provided the necessary conditions for achieving technological and economic advantages in the machining of high-alloy materials. In this context cubic crystalline boron nitride (CBN) is used as an abrasive in a number of new fields. After diamond, CBN is the hardest abrasive. While the machining of hard metals is still the field in which diamond grinding wheels are used, the use of CBN grinding wheels in the machining of high alloy, heated treated high-speed steel offers technological and economic advantages. The principal reasons for this are to be found in the fact that CBN does not have a chemical affinity to the alloying elements of the steel, but has a greater thermal stability than diamond.

  9. Abrasion of Candidate Spacesuit Fabrics by Simulated Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rogers, Kerry J.; Sheehy, Brennan H.

    2009-01-01

    A protocol has been developed that produced the type of lunar soil abrasion damage observed on Apollo spacesuits. This protocol was then applied to four materials (Kevlar(Registered TradeMark), Vectran(Registered TradeMark), Orthofabric, and Tyvek(Registered TradeMark)) that are candidates for advanced spacesuits. Three of the four new candidate fabrics (all but Vectran(Registered TradeMark)) were effective at keeping the dust from penetrating to layers beneath. In the cases of Kevlar(Registered TradeMark) and Orthofabric this was accomplished by the addition of a silicone layer. In the case of Tyvek , the paper structure was dense enough to block dust transport. The least abrasive damage was suffered by the Tyvek(Registered TradeMark). This was thought to be due in large part to its non-woven paper structure. The woven structures were all abraded where the top of the weave was struck by the abrasive. Of these, the Orthofabric suffered the least wear, with both Vectran(Registered TradeMark) and Kevlar(Registered TradeMark) suffering considerably more extensive filament breakage.

  10. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Melissa H X; Hill, Robert G; Anderson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38-80 μm) versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm) in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p < 0.05) despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine. PMID:26697067

  11. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Melissa H. X.; Hill, Robert G.; Anderson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38–80 μm) versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm) in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p < 0.05) despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine. PMID:26697067

  12. Basic research needs and opportunities at the solid-solid interface - Adhesion, abrasion and polymer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowkes, F. M.; Butler, B. L.; Schissel, P.; Butler, G. B.; Hartman, J. S.; Hoffman, R. W.; Inal, O. T.; Miller, W. G.; Tompkins, H. G.; Delollis, N. J.

    1982-04-01

    Solid-solid interfaces in solar technologies such as photovoltaics, mirrored surfaces, and absorbers in flate plate collectors are examined theoretically along with degradation and protective measures. The energetics of adhesion are modeled in terms of intermolecular forces such as covalent and electrostatic bonds. Finite element analyses are noted to be useful for calculating the stress fields in layered solar cells, although inclusion of plastic flow and relaxation processes is not yet possible. The effects of physical degradation of protective coatings and front surfaces of reflectors are outlined, and research in abrasion-erosion resistance, particulate deposition resistance, and detergents for washing solar surfaces is indicated. Finally, polymeric coatings are discussed for solar cells and for wind turbine blades for providing environmental protection.

  13. Effect of Burnishing Parameters on Surface Finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirsat, Uddhav; Ahuja, Basant; Dhuttargaon, Mukund

    2016-06-01

    Burnishing is cold working process in which hard balls are pressed against the surface, resulting in improved surface finish. The surface gets compressed and then plasticized. This is a highly finishing process which is becoming more popular. Surface quality of the product improves its aesthetic appearance. The product made up of aluminum material is subjected to burnishing process during which kerosene is used as a lubricant. In this study factors affecting burnishing process such as burnishing force, speed, feed, work piece diameter and ball diameter are considered as input parameters while surface finish is considered as an output parameter In this study, experiments are designed using 25 factorial design in order to analyze the relationship between input and output parameters. The ANOVA technique and F-test are used for further analysis.

  14. Rounding of Clasts by Abrasion and Comminution in Pyroclastic Density Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, A.; Manga, M.; Dufek, J.

    2009-12-01

    Abrasion and comminution of pumice clasts during the propagation of pyroclastic density currents has long been recognized as a potential source for the enhanced production of volcanic ash. The amount of ash produced in-situ can potentially affect runout distance, deposit sorting, the volume of ash introduced in the upper atmosphere, and internal pore pressure. Such ash production should be reflected in the roundness of clasts. We performed experimental measurements to determine the relationship between particle roundness (measured in two-dimensions by how close each particle’s area to perimeter squared ratio is to a circle’s) and mass loss caused by particle-particle interactions. We use airfall pumice from Medicine Lake, and clasts from flow deposits at Taupo and Mount St Helens. We find that average sample roundness reaches a maximum value once particles lose between 10 and 70% of their mass. The most texturally homogeneous clasts (Taupo) become the most round. We compared our experimental measurements with the roundness of clasts in the May 18, 1980 pyroclastic flow units at Mount St Helens, deposited 4.5-8 km from the vent. The roundness measurements of these clasts are close to the experimentally determined maximum values, suggesting that a significant amount of ash may have been produced in-situ within the flow. Numerical multiphase flow simulations for conditions similar to this eruption (Dufek and Manga, JGR 2008) are consistent with this conclusion.

  15. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on polishing removal rate in CMP with various abrasives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, R.; Ramanathan, S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide in chemical mechanical planarization slurries for shallow trench isolation was investigated. The various abrasives used in this study were ceria, silica, alumina, zirconia, titania, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride. Hydrogen peroxide suppresses the polishing of silicon dioxide and silicon nitride surfaces by ceria abrasives. The polishing performances of other abrasives were either unaffected or enhanced slightly with the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The ceria abrasives were treated with hydrogen peroxide, and the polishing of the work surfaces with the treated abrasive shows that the inhibiting action of hydrogen peroxide is reversible. It was found that the effect of hydrogen peroxide as an additive is a strong function of the nature of the abrasive particle.

  16. Toward Magnetorheological Finishing of Magnetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shafrir, S.N.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2007-10-24

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a precision finishing process traditionally limited to processing only nonmagnetic materials, e.g., optical glasses, ceramics, polymers, and metals. Here we demonstrate that MRF can be used for material removal from magnetic material surfaces. Our approach is to place an MRF spot on machined surfaces of magnetic WC-Co materials. The resulting surface roughness is comparable to that produced on nonmagnetic materials. This spotting technique may be used to evaluate the depth of subsurface damage, or deformed layer, induced by earlier manufacturing steps, such as grinding and lapping.

  17. A Profilometric Study to Assess the Role of Toothbrush and Toothpaste in Abrasion Process

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar Singh, Siddharth; Gupta, Anjali; Roy, Sayak; Sareen, Mohit; Khajuria, Sarang

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Despite of many studies conducted on toothbrushes and toothpaste to find out the culprit for abrasion, there is no clear cut evidence to pin point the real cause for abrasion. Purpose An in vitro assessment of the role of different types of toothbrushes (soft/ medium/hard) in abrasion process when used in conjunction with and without a dentifrice. Materials and Method Forty five freshly extracted, sound, human incisor teeth were collected for this study. Enamel specimens of approximately 9 mm2 were prepared by gross trimming of extracted teeth using a lathe machine (Baldor 340 Dental lathe; Ohio, USA). They were mounted on separate acrylic bases. The specimens were divided into three groups, each group containing 15 mounted specimens. Group 1 specimens were brushed with soft toothbrush; Group 2 brushed with medium toothbrush and Group 3 with hard toothbrush. Initially, all the mounted specimens in each group were brushed using dentifrice and then the same procedure was repeated with water as control. Profilometric readings were recorded pre and post to tooth brushing and the differences in readings served as proxy measure to assess surface abrasion. These values were then compared to each other. Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test were performed. Results The results showed that brushing, with water alone, caused less abrasion than when toothpaste was added (p< 0.008). When brushed with water, the harder toothbrush caused more abrasion (higher Ra-value), but when toothpaste was added, the softer toothbrush caused more abrasion (p< 0.001). Conclusion Besides supporting the fact that toothpaste is needed to create a significant abrasion, this study also showed that a softer toothbrush can cause more abrasion than harder ones. The flexibility of bristles is only secondary to abrasion process and abrasivity of dentifrice has an important role in abrasion process. PMID:26535407

  18. Surface roughness and wear of resin cements after toothbrush abrasion.

    PubMed

    Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Ordoñéz-Aguilera, Juan Fernando; Maenosono, Rafael Massunari; Volú, Fernanda Lessa Amaral; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2015-01-01

    Increased surface roughness and wear of resin cements may cause failure of indirect restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the surface roughness change and the vertical wear of four resin cements subjected to mechanical toothbrushing abrasion. Ten rectangular specimens (15 × 5 × 4 mm) were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions for each group (n = 10): Nexus 3, Kerr (NX3); RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE (ARC); RelyX U100, 3M ESPE (U100); and Variolink II, Ivoclar/Vivadent (VL2). Initial roughness (Ra, µm) was obtained through 5 readings with a roughness meter. Specimens were then subjected to toothbrushing abrasion (100,000 cycles), and further evaluation was conducted for final roughness. Vertical wear (µm) was quantified by 3 readings of the real profile between control and brushed surfaces. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The Pearson correlation test was performed between the surface roughness change and wear (p < 0.05). The mean values of initial/final roughness (Ra, µm)/wear (µm) were as follows: NX3 (0.078/0.127/23.175); ARC (0.086/0.246/20.263); U100 (0.296/0.589/16.952); and VL2 (0.313/0.512/22.876). Toothbrushing abrasion increased surface roughness and wear of all resin cements tested, although no correlation was found between those variables. Vertical wear was similar among groups; however, it was considered high and may lead to gap formation in indirect restorations.

  19. Surface roughness and wear of resin cements after toothbrush abrasion.

    PubMed

    Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Ordoñéz-Aguilera, Juan Fernando; Maenosono, Rafael Massunari; Volú, Fernanda Lessa Amaral; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2015-01-01

    Increased surface roughness and wear of resin cements may cause failure of indirect restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the surface roughness change and the vertical wear of four resin cements subjected to mechanical toothbrushing abrasion. Ten rectangular specimens (15 × 5 × 4 mm) were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions for each group (n = 10): Nexus 3, Kerr (NX3); RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE (ARC); RelyX U100, 3M ESPE (U100); and Variolink II, Ivoclar/Vivadent (VL2). Initial roughness (Ra, µm) was obtained through 5 readings with a roughness meter. Specimens were then subjected to toothbrushing abrasion (100,000 cycles), and further evaluation was conducted for final roughness. Vertical wear (µm) was quantified by 3 readings of the real profile between control and brushed surfaces. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The Pearson correlation test was performed between the surface roughness change and wear (p < 0.05). The mean values of initial/final roughness (Ra, µm)/wear (µm) were as follows: NX3 (0.078/0.127/23.175); ARC (0.086/0.246/20.263); U100 (0.296/0.589/16.952); and VL2 (0.313/0.512/22.876). Toothbrushing abrasion increased surface roughness and wear of all resin cements tested, although no correlation was found between those variables. Vertical wear was similar among groups; however, it was considered high and may lead to gap formation in indirect restorations. PMID:25466330

  20. Aeolian Abrasion at the Curiosity Landing Site: Clues to the Role of Wind in Landscape Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Le Mouélic, S.; Hallet, B.; Newman, C. E.; Rice, M. S.; Blaney, D. L.; Calef, F. J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Langevin, Y.; Lewis, K. W.; Maurice, S.; Pinet, P. C.; Wiens, R. C.; de Pablo, M.; Renno, N. O.

    2013-12-01

    The broad scale geomorphology of Gale Crater reflects diverse aeolian processes, from airfall settling that likely deposited much of the upper and some of the lower units of Mt. Sharp, to evidence of extensive wind exhumation and removal of material exterior to the mound, to active dunes on the crater floor. The integrated effect of aeolian sand transport can also be examined on a much smaller scale by the study of ventifacts, rocks that have been abraded by windborne particles. A diversity of ventifacts are found along Curiosity's traverse through the upper 'hummocky' (HY) geomorphic unit and the lower Yellowknife Bay (YKB) sedimentary rocks. The textures are analogous to abrasion features found on Earth and include cm-scale facets, keels, elongated pits, grooves, flutes, and basal sills. High-resolution images from ChemCam's Remote Micro-Imager also show mm-scale lineations. Evidence of differential erosion is common, with HY conglomerates (e.g., Hottah, Link) and the YKB Sheepbed mudstone unit containing distinct wind tails in the lee of resistant pebbles, and bedding features within Rocknest 3, the YKB Shaler sandstone unit, and other layered rocks displaying prominent ridge-groove topography. ChemCam LIBS depth profile data so far show no strong evidence for chemical differences in the elemental composition between abraded and non-abraded surfaces (as determined from qualitative assessment), as might be expected if there were rock coatings or weathering rinds undergoing active abrasion. Preliminary measurements of ventifact texture and wind tail orientations indicate sandblasting in HY and YKB from predominantly southwesterly and northerly directions, respectively. Based on meso-scale models of current winds and REMS results, SW flow is uncommon whereas N winds are frequent. Compositional and textural information from the suite of MSL instruments indicate that HY rocks are dominated by various types of basalt (either as whole rocks or the resistant clasts in

  1. The effect of abrasion on corrosion of dental Co-Cr alloys. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    de Melo, J F; Gjerdet, N R; Erichsen, E S

    1985-05-01

    The effect of abrasion on corrosion of two dental Co-Cr alloys was investigated in vitro. The metals were abraded with a toothbrush and with a piece of tooth enamel. Changes in corrosion potentials and metal release due to the abrasion were measured. Abrasion by tooth enamel caused a persistent drop in corrosion potentials. The release of both chromium and, in particular, cobalt was higher than during brushing. The two alloys tested did not significantly differ with regard to mode and rate of corrosion. It was demonstrated that the corrosion behavior of electrochemically passive dental alloys was affected by abrasion of a magnitude normally encountered during clinical service. PMID:3863447

  2. Heat sealable, flame and abrasion resistant coated fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Flame retardant, abrasion resistant elastomeric compositions are disclosed which are comprised of thermoplastic polyurethane polymer and flame retarding amounts of a filler selected from decabromodiphenyloxide and antimony oxide in a 3:1 weight ratio, and decabromodiphenyloxide, antimony oxide, and ammonium polyphosphate in a 3:1:3 weight ratio respectively. Heat sealable coated fabrics employing such elastomeric compositions as coating film are produced by dissolving the elastomeric composition to form a solution, casting the solution onto a release paper and drying it to form an elastomeric film. The film is then bonded to a woven, knitted, or felted fabric.

  3. Diffuse corneal abrasion after ocular exposure to laundry detergent pod.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Rachel E; Baum, Carl R; Aronson, Paul L

    2015-02-01

    Although ocular injury from alkaline household cleaning products is well described, there is less known about the significance and extent of injury with ocular exposure to detergent pods. We report a 12-month-old with diffuse corneal abrasion caused by ocular contact with a laundry detergent pod. In addition to the known risks with aspiration with detergent pods, the potential for severe ocular injury is important for parents and clinicians to recognize. Children with ocular exposure to detergent pods should seek immediate medical care.

  4. Solution of the Roth-Marques-Durian rotational abrasion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bryan Gin-Ge

    2011-03-01

    We solve the rotational abrasion model of Roth, Marques, and Durian [Phys. Rev. EPRLTAO1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.83.031303 83, 031303 (2011)], a one-dimensional quasilinear partial differential equation resembling the inviscid Burgers equation with the unusual feature of a step function factor as a coefficient. The complexity of the solution is primarily in keeping track of the cases in the piecewise function that results from certain amputation and interpolation processes, so we also extract from it a model of an evolving planar tree graph that tracks the evolution of the coarse features of the contour.

  5. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    PubMed

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishers. Ovarian tumour in a calf . Abortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herd. Parasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheep. Outbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheep. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26993450

  6. Why Do Photo Finish Images Look Weird?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregorcic, Bor; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with effects that appear on photographs of rotating objects when taken by a photo finish camera, a rolling shutter camera or a computer scanner. These effects are very similar to Roget's palisade illusion. A simple quantitative analysis of the images is also provided. The effects are explored using a computer scanner in a way that…

  7. Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, M.W.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Allen, R.P.

    1980-10-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic disposal. Other benefits include exposure reduction for decontamination personnel and reduced risk of environmental contamination. Laboratory-scale studies showed that vibratory finishing can rapidly reduce the contamination level of transuranic-contaminated stainless steel and Plexiglas to well below the 10-nCi/g limit. The capability of vibratory finishing as a decontamination process was demonstrated on a large scale. The first decontamination demonstration was conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor, where a vibratory finisher was installed to reduce personnel exposure during the summer outage. Items decontaminated included fuel spacers, process-tube end caps, process-tube inserts, pump parts, ball-channel inspection tools and miscellaneous hand tools. A second demonstration is currently being conducted in the decontamination facility at the Hanford 231-Z Building. During this demonstration, transuranic-contaminated material from decommissioned plutonium facilities is being decontaminated to <10 nCi/g to minimize the volume of material that will require geologic disposal. Items that are being decontaminated include entire glove boxes, process-hood structural material and panels, process tanks, process-tank shields, pumps, valves and hand tools used during the decommissioning work.

  8. APPROACHING ZERO DISCHARGE IN SURFACE FINISHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides guidance to surface finishing manufacturers on control technologies and process changes for approaching zero discharge (AZD). AZD is a key theme underlying the Strategic Goals Program (SGP). The SGP is a cooperative effort between the EPA nd the American El...

  9. AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS FROM SWINE FINISHING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents results from two new studies at swine finishing facilities. (NOTE: Concentrated anaimal feeding operations (CAFOs) are being examined in several regions of the U.S. as major sources of ammonia and particulate matter precursors. EPA's National Risk Management Re...

  10. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    PubMed

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishers. Ovarian tumour in a calf . Abortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herd. Parasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheep. Outbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheep. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).

  11. The Effect of Air Density on Sand Transport Structures and the Adobe Abrasion Profile: A Field Wind-Tunnel Experiment Over a Wide Range of Altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Dong, Zhibao; Zu, Ruiping; Zhang, Kecun; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Shengbo

    2013-11-01

    Aeolian sand transport results from interactions between the surface and the airflow above. Air density strongly constrains airflow characteristics and the resulting flow of sand, and therefore should not be neglected in sand transport models. In the present study, we quantify the influence of air density on the sand flow structure, sand transport rate, adobe abrasion profiles, and abrasion rate using a portable wind-tunnel in the field. For a given wind speed, the flow's ability to transport sand decreases at low air density, so total sand transport decreases, but the saltation height increases. Thus, the damage to human structures increases compared with what occurs at lower altitudes. The adobe abrasion rate by the cloud of blowing sand decreases exponentially with increasing height above the surface, while the wind erosion and dust emission intensity both increase with increasing air density. Long-term feedback processes between air density and wind erosion suggest that the development of low-altitude areas due to long-term deflation plays a key role in dust emission, and will have a profound significance for surface Aeolian processes and geomorphology.

  12. Prediction Of Abrasive And Diffusive Tool Wear Mechanisms In Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tool wear prediction is regarded as very important task in order to maximize tool performance, minimize cutting costs and improve the quality of workpiece in cutting. In this research work, an experimental campaign was carried out at the varying of cutting conditions with the aim to measure both crater and flank tool wear, during machining of an AISI 1045 with an uncoated carbide tool P40. Parallel a FEM-based analysis was developed in order to study the tool wear mechanisms, taking also into account the influence of the cutting conditions and the temperature reached on the tool surfaces. The results show that, when the temperature of the tool rake surface is lower than the activation temperature of the diffusive phenomenon, the wear rate can be estimated applying an abrasive model. In contrast, in the tool area where the temperature is higher than the diffusive activation temperature, the wear rate can be evaluated applying a diffusive model. Finally, for a temperature ranges within the above cited values an adopted abrasive-diffusive wear model furnished the possibility to correctly evaluate the tool wear phenomena.

  13. Attrition and abrasion models for oil shale process modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Aldis, D.F.

    1991-10-25

    As oil shale is processed, fine particles, much smaller than the original shale are created. This process is called attrition or more accurately abrasion. In this paper, models of abrasion are presented for oil shale being processed in several unit operations. Two of these unit operations, a fluidized bed and a lift pipe are used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycle-Solid (HRS) process being developed for the above ground processing of oil shale. In two reports, studies were conducted on the attrition of oil shale in unit operations which are used in the HRS process. Carley reported results for attrition in a lift pipe for oil shale which had been pre-processed either by retorting or by retorting then burning. The second paper, by Taylor and Beavers, reported results for a fluidized bed processing of oil shale. Taylor and Beavers studied raw, retorted, and shale which had been retorted and then burned. In this paper, empirical models are derived, from the experimental studies conducted on oil shale for the process occurring in the HRS process. The derived models are presented along with comparisons with experimental results.

  14. Air abrasion experiments in U-Pb dating of zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldich, S.S.; Fischer, L.B.

    1986-01-01

    Air abrasion of zircon grains can remove metamict material that has lost radiogenic Pb and zircon overgrowths that were added during younger events and thereby improve the precision of the age measurements and permit closer estimates of the original age. Age discordance that resulted from a single disturbance of the U-Pb isotopic decay systems, as had been demonstrated by T.E. Krogh, can be considerably reduced, and, under favorable conditions, the ages brought into concordancy. Two or more events complicate the U-Pb systematics, but a series of abrasion experiments can be helpful in deciphering the geologic history and in arriving at a useful interpretation of the probable times of origin and disturbances. In east-central Minnesota, U.S.A., Penokean tonalite gneiss is dated at 1869 ?? 5 Ma, and sheared granite gneiss is shown to have been a high-level granite intrusion at 1982 ?? 5 Ma in the McGrath Gneiss precursor. Tonalite gneiss and a mafic granodiorite in the Rainy Lake area, Ontario, Canada, are dated at 2736 ?? 16 and 2682 ?? 4 Ma, respectively. The tonalitic phase of the Morton Gneiss, southwestern Minnesota, is dated at 3662 ?? 42 Ma. ?? 1986.

  15. Abrasion resistant coating and method of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Sordelet, Daniel J.; Besser, Matthew F.

    2001-06-05

    An abrasion resistant coating is created by adding a ductile phase to a brittle matrix phase during spray coating where an Al--Cu--Fe quasicrystalline phase (brittle matrix) and an FeAl intermetallic (ductile phase) are combined. This composite coating produces a coating mostly of quasicrystal phase and an inter-splat layer of the FeAl phase to help reduce porosity and cracking within the coating. Coatings are prepared by plasma spraying unblended and blended quasicrystal and intermetallic powders. The blended powders contain 1, 5, 10 and 20 volume percent of the intermetallic powders. The unblended powders are either 100 volume percent quasicrystalline or 100 volume percent intermetallic; these unblended powders were studied for comparison to the others. Sufficient ductile phase should be added to the brittle matrix to transform abrasive wear mode from brittle fracture to plastic deformation, while at the same time the hardness of the composite should not be reduced below that of the original brittle phase material.

  16. Abrasion Resistant Coating and Method of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Sordelet, Daniel J.; Besser, Matthew F.

    1999-06-25

    An abrasion resistant coating is created by adding a ductile phase to a brittle matrix phase during spray coating where an Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline phase (brittle matrix) and an FeAl intermetallic (ductile phase) are combined. This composite coating produces a coating mostly of quasicrystal phase and an inter-splat layer of the FeAl phase to help reduce porosity and cracking within the coating. Coatings are prepared by plasma spraying unblended and blended quasicrystal and intermetallic powders. The blended powders contain 1, 5, 10 and 20 volume percent of the intermetallic powders. The unblended powders are either 100 volume percent quasicrystalline or 100 volume percent intermetallic; these unblended powders were studied for comparison to the others. Sufficient ductile phase should be added to the brittle matrix to transform abrasive wear mode from brittle fracture to plastic deformation, while at the same time the hardness of the composite should not be reduced below that of the original brittle phase material.

  17. Improved Microbe Assembly and Finishing Using 454 8kb Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Buhay, Christian

    2010-06-03

    Christian Buhay from Baylor College of Medicine's Human Genome Sequencing Center discusses microbial genome finishing strategies on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  18. Process monitoring evaluation and implementation for the wood abrasive machining process.

    PubMed

    Saloni, Daniel E; Lemaster, Richard L; Jackson, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    Wood processing industries have continuously developed and improved technologies and processes to transform wood to obtain better final product quality and thus increase profits. Abrasive machining is one of the most important of these processes and therefore merits special attention and study. The objective of this work was to evaluate and demonstrate a process monitoring system for use in the abrasive machining of wood and wood based products. The system developed increases the life of the belt by detecting (using process monitoring sensors) and removing (by cleaning) the abrasive loading during the machining process. This study focused on abrasive belt machining processes and included substantial background work, which provided a solid base for understanding the behavior of the abrasive, and the different ways that the abrasive machining process can be monitored. In addition, the background research showed that abrasive belts can effectively be cleaned by the appropriate cleaning technique. The process monitoring system developed included acoustic emission sensors which tended to be sensitive to belt wear, as well as platen vibration, but not loading, and optical sensors which were sensitive to abrasive loading. PMID:22163477

  19. Monitoring of the Abrasion Processes (by the Example of Alakol Lake, Republic of Kazakhstan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abitbayeva, Ainagul; Valeyev, Adilet; Yegemberdiyeva, Kamshat; Assylbekova, Aizhan; Ryskeldieva, Aizhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the abrasion processes in the regions of dynamically changing Alakol lake shores. Using the field method, methods of positioning by the GPS receiver and interpretation of remote sensing data, the authors determined that abrasion processes actively contributed to the formation the modern landscape, causing the…

  20. Potential Use of Abrasive Air-Propelled Agricultural Residues for Weed Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new postemergence weed control tactic is proposed for organic production systems that results in plant abrasion and death upon assault from abrasive grits propelled by compressed air. Grit derived from granulated walnut shells was delivered by a sand blaster at 517 kPa at distances of 30 to 60 cm ...

  1. Process Monitoring Evaluation and Implementation for the Wood Abrasive Machining Process

    PubMed Central

    Saloni, Daniel E.; Lemaster, Richard L.; Jackson, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Wood processing industries have continuously developed and improved technologies and processes to transform wood to obtain better final product quality and thus increase profits. Abrasive machining is one of the most important of these processes and therefore merits special attention and study. The objective of this work was to evaluate and demonstrate a process monitoring system for use in the abrasive machining of wood and wood based products. The system developed increases the life of the belt by detecting (using process monitoring sensors) and removing (by cleaning) the abrasive loading during the machining process. This study focused on abrasive belt machining processes and included substantial background work, which provided a solid base for understanding the behavior of the abrasive, and the different ways that the abrasive machining process can be monitored. In addition, the background research showed that abrasive belts can effectively be cleaned by the appropriate cleaning technique. The process monitoring system developed included acoustic emission sensors which tended to be sensitive to belt wear, as well as platen vibration, but not loading, and optical sensors which were sensitive to abrasive loading. PMID:22163477

  2. Cutting Tools, Files and Abrasives. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on cutting tools, files, and abrasives is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify and explain the proper use and care of various knives, saws, snips, chisels, and abrasives. The module may contain some or all of the…

  3. Solidification/stabilization of spent abrasives and use as nonstructural concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Brabrand, D.J.; Loehr, R.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Tons of spent abrasives result each year from the removal of old paint from bridges. Because the spent abrasives contain metals from the paint, some spent abrasives may be considered hazardous by the Toxicity Characteristic (TC) criteria. Incorporation of the spent blasting abrasives in nonstructural concrete (rip-rap, dolphins) offers an opportunity to recycle the spent abrasives while immobilizing potentially leachable metals. This study focused on the Portland Cement Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) of spent blasting abrasives taken from a bridge located in Southeast Texas. The study examined (a) the cadmium, chromium, and lead concentrations in extracts obtained by using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and (b) the compressive strengths of Portland Cement mixes that contained different amounts of the spent abrasives. Performance was measured by meeting the TC criteria as well as the requirements for compressive strength. Study results indicated that considerable quantities of these spent abrasives can be solidified/stabilized while reducing the leachability of cadmium, chromium, and lead and producing compressive strengths over 6,895 kN/m[sup 2] (1,000 psi).

  4. Characterization of M40J Desized and Finished Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Gosau, Jan-M.; Shin, E. Eugene; McCorkle, Linda; O'Malley, Michelle; Sutter, James K.; Wheeler, Don

    1990-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on desized and finished M40J carbon fibers shown. The topics include: 1) Program Goals and Prior Year Results Summary; 2) Continuous Desizing and Finishing System Development; 3) Characterizzation of Desized and Finished M40J Carbon Fibers and 4) Conclusions and Future Work.

  5. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Finish of surface joints. 18.33 Section 18.33... Requirements § 18.33 Finish of surface joints. Flat surfaces between bolt holes that form any part of a flame... § 18.31(a)(6). All metal surfaces forming a flame-arresting path shall be finished during...

  6. Nearly Finished Genomes Produced Using Gel Microdroplet Culturing (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Fitzsimmons, Michael [LANL

    2016-07-12

    Michael Fitzsimmons from Los Alamos National Laboratory gives a talk titled "Nearly Finished Genomes Produced Using Gel Microdroplet Culturing" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  7. Nearly Finished Genomes Produced Using Gel Microdroplet Culturing (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Michael Fitzsimmons from Los Alamos National Laboratory gives a talk titled "Nearly Finished Genomes Produced Using Gel Microdroplet Culturing" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  8. A review of engineering control technology for exposures generated during abrasive blasting operations.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2004-10-01

    This literature review presents information on measures for controlling worker exposure to toxic airborne contaminants generated during abrasive blasting operations occurring primarily in the construction industry. The exposures of concern include respirable crystalline silica, lead, chromates, and other toxic metals. Unfortunately, silica sand continues to be widely used in the United States as an abrasive blasting medium, resulting in high exposures to operators and surrounding personnel. Recently, several alternative abrasives have emerged as potential substitutes for sand, but they seem to be underused Some of these abrasives may pose additional metal exposure hazards. In addition, several new and improved technologies offer promise for reducing or eliminating exposures; these include wet abrasive blasting, high-pressure water jetting, vacuum blasting, and automated/robotic systems. More research, particularly field studies, is needed to evaluate control interventions in this important and hazardous operation.

  9. Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Mary J.

    1992-01-01

    The Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application is in support of the Abrasion Resistance Materials Screening Test. The fundamental assumption made for the SEM abrasion analysis was that woven fabrics to be used as the outermost layer of the protective overgarment in the design of the future, planetary space suits perform best when new. It is the goal of this study to determine which of the candidate fabrics was abraded the least in the tumble test. The sample that was abraded the least will be identified at the end of the report as the primary candidate fabric for further investigation. In addition, this analysis will determine if the abrasion seen by the laboratory tumbled samples is representative of actual EVA Apollo abrasion.

  10. Grain decoration in aluminum oxynitride (ALON) from polishing on bound abrasive laps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Leslie L.; Marino, Anne E.; Hayes, Jennifer C.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (ALON) is a polycrystalline material that has proven difficult to polish due to its grain structure. Bound abrasives are an effective means for polishing ALON, and work is being done with them to obtain good surfaces, with reasonable removal rates. Laps consisting of abrasives bound in epoxy matrices were created for polishing ALON. The effects of varying abrasive type, abrasive concentration, lap shape, coolant and load were studied. Metrology procedures were developed to monitor different aspects of the grain structure and numerically evaluate grain boundary decoration. Strategies were developed to polish ALON at acceptable rates with reasonably good surface quality. Work is directed toward finding optimal bound abrasive lap formulations that can be fabricated into ring and/or contour tools for testing on CNC machining platforms.

  11. Grain decoration in aluminum oxynitride (ALON) from polishing on bound abrasive laps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Anne E.; Hayes, Jennifer; Gregg, Leslie L.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (ALON) is a material with desirable qualities for a variety of applications that has proven difficult to polish because of its grain structure. Bound abrasives may prove to be an effective means of polishing it, and work is being done with them to obtain good surfaces on ALON, with reasonable removal rates. Laps consisting of abrasives bound in epoxy matrices have been created for polishing ALON. The effects of varying abrasive type, abrasive concentration, lap shape, coolant and load are being studied. Metrology procedures are being developed to monitor different aspects of the grain structure and numerically evaluate its decoration. Strategies have been developed to polish ALON at acceptable rates with reasonably good surface quality. Work is directed toward finding optimal bound abrasive lap formulations that can be fabricated into ring and/or contour tools for testing on CNC machining platforms.

  12. Hybrid organic/inorganic coatings for abrasion resistance on plastic and metal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J.; Jordens, K.; Wilkes, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    Novel abrasion resistant coatings have been successfully prepared by the sol-gel method. These materials are spin coated onto bisphenol-A polycarbonate, diallyl diglycol carbonate resin (CR-39) sheet, aluminum, and steel substrates and are thermally cured to obtain a transparent coating of a few microns in thickness. Following the curing, the abrasion resistance is measured and compared with an uncoated control. It was found that these hybrid organic/inorganic networks partially afford excellent abrasion resistance to the polycarbonate substrates investigated. In addition to having excellent abrasion resistance comparable to current commercial coatings, some newly developed systems are also UV resistant. Similar coating formulations applied to metals can greatly improve the abrasion resistance despite the fact that the coatings are lower in density than their substrates.

  13. Sequence finishing and mapping of Drosophila melanogasterheterochromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Kennedy, Cameron; Acevedo,David; Evans-Holm, Martha; Frise, Erwin; Wan, Kenneth H.; Park, Soo; Mendez-Lago, Maria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Villasante, Alfredo; Dimitri,Patrizio; Karpen, Gary H.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2007-06-15

    Genome sequences for most metazoans are incomplete due tothe presence of repeated DNA in the pericentromeric heterochromatin. Theheterochromatic regions of D. melanogaster contain 20 Mb of sequenceamenable to mapping, sequence assembly and finishing. Here we describethe generation of 15 Mb of finished or improved heterochromatic sequenceusing available clone resources and assembly and mapping methods. We alsoconstructed a BAC-based physical map that spans approximately 13 Mb ofthe pericentromeric heterochromatin, and a cytogenetic map that positionsapproximately 11 Mb of BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds in specificchromosomal locations. The integrated sequence assembly and maps greatlyimprove our understanding of the structure and composition of this poorlyunderstood fraction of a metazoan genome and provide a framework forfunctional analyses.

  14. Why do photo finish images look weird?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorcic, Bor; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2012-09-01

    This paper deals with effects that appear on photographs of rotating objects when taken by a photo finish camera, a rolling shutter camera or a computer scanner. These effects are very similar to Roget's palisade illusion. A simple quantitative analysis of the images is also provided. The effects are explored using a computer scanner in a way that is also suitable for a student project activity.

  15. Agile robotic edge finishing system research

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes a new project undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories to develop an agile, automated, high-precision edge finishing system. The project has a two-year duration and was initiated in October, 1994. This project involves re-designing and adding additional capabilities to an existing finishing workcell at Sandia; and developing intelligent methods for automating process definition and for controlling finishing processes. The resulting system will serve as a prototype for systems that will be deployed into highly flexible automated production lines. The production systems will be used to produce a wide variety of products with limited production quantities and quick turnaround requirements. The prototype system is designed to allow programming, process definition, fixture re-configuration, and process verification to be performed off-line for new products. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) models of the part will be used to assist with the automated process development and process control tasks. To achieve Sandia`s performance goals, the system will be employ advanced path planning, burr prediction expert systems, automated process definition, statistical process models in a process database, and a two-level control scheme using hybrid position-force control and fuzzy logic control. In this paper, we discuss the progress and the planned system development under this project.

  16. Fatigue Testing of Abrasive Water Jet Cut Titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E.; Williford, Ralph E.

    2009-06-08

    Battelle Memorial Institute as part of its U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830 to operate the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provides technology assistance to qualifying small businesses in association with a Technology Assistance Program (TAP). Qualifying companies are eligible to receive a set quantity of labor associated with specific technical assistance. Having applied for a TAP agreement to assist with fatigue characterization of Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cut titanium specimens, the OMAX Corporation was awarded TAP agreement 09-02. This program was specified to cover dynamic testing and analysis of fatigue specimens cut from titanium alloy Ti-6%Al-4%V via AWJ technologies. In association with the TAP agreement, a best effort agreement was made to characterize fatigue specimens based on test conditions supplied by OMAX.

  17. Separation and quantitation of hazardous wastes from abrasive blast media.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J Y; Jeong, M L

    2001-01-01

    A sample of glass bead abrasive blasting material (ABM) waste, received from Robins Air Force Base (Georgia), was examined to determine whether the waste could be rendered nonhazardous by separating paint contaminants from the ABM. The sample was analyzed with size distribution and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure. A Microtrac analyzer was used to measure the size of fine particles (-325 Tyler mesh), and scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to identify the nature of the contaminants in the ABM waste. Tests using froth flotation, magnetic separation, desliming, and acid washing were conducted to develop a process for removing the contaminants. A pilot plant test using the developed process rendered 82.1% or the ABM waste material nonhazardous.

  18. Wire blade development for Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique (FAST) slicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.; Smith, M. B.

    1982-02-01

    A low cost, effective slicing method is essential to make ingot technology viable for photovoltaics in terrestrial applications. The fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) combines the advantages of the three commercially developed techniques. In its development stage FAST demonstrated cutting effectiveness of 10 cm and 15 cm diameter workpieces. Wire blade development is still the critical element for commercialization of FAST technology. Both impregnated and electroplated wire blades have been developed; techniques have been developed to fix diamonds only in the cutting edge of the wire. Electroplated wires show the most near term promise and this approach is emphasized. With plated wires it has been possible to control the size and shape of the electroplating, it is expected that this feature reduces kerf and prolongs the life of the wirepack.

  19. Wire blade development for Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique (FAST) slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.; Smith, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    A low cost, effective slicing method is essential to make ingot technology viable for photovoltaics in terrestrial applications. The fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) combines the advantages of the three commercially developed techniques. In its development stage FAST demonstrated cutting effectiveness of 10 cm and 15 cm diameter workpieces. Wire blade development is still the critical element for commercialization of FAST technology. Both impregnated and electroplated wire blades have been developed; techniques have been developed to fix diamonds only in the cutting edge of the wire. Electroplated wires show the most near term promise and this approach is emphasized. With plated wires it has been possible to control the size and shape of the electroplating, it is expected that this feature reduces kerf and prolongs the life of the wirepack.

  20. Estimating rock compressive strength from Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) grinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, B. J.; Bridges, N. T.; Cohen, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Lennon, A.; Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.

    2013-06-01

    Each Mars Exploration Rover carries a Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) whose intended use was to abrade the outer surfaces of rocks to expose more pristine material. Motor currents drawn by the RAT motors are related to the strength and hardness of rock surfaces undergoing abrasion, and these data can be used to infer more about a target rock's physical properties. However, no calibration of the RAT exists. Here, we attempt to derive an empirical correlation using an assemblage of terrestrial rocks and apply this correlation to data returned by the rover Spirit. The results demonstrate a positive correlation between rock strength and RAT grind energy for rocks with compressive strengths less than about 150 MPa, a category that includes all but the strongest intact rocks. Applying this correlation to rocks abraded by Spirit's RAT, the results indicate a large divide in strength between more competent basaltic rocks encountered in the plains of Gusev crater (Adirondack-class rocks) and the weaker variety of rock types measured in the Columbia Hills. Adirondack-class rocks have estimated compressive strengths in the range of 70-130 MPa and are significantly less strong than fresh terrestrial basalts; this may be indicative of a degree of weathering-induced weakening. Rock types in the Columbia Hills (Wishstone, Watchtower, Clovis, and Peace class) all have compressive strengths <50 MPa and are consistent with impactites or volcanoclastic materials. In general, when considered alongside chemical, spectral, and rock textural data, these inferred compressive strength results help inform our understanding of rock origins and modification history.

  1. The surface finish of light-cured composite resin materials.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, S K; Henderson, L J

    1993-01-01

    A necessity for any dental restorative material is its ability to take and maintain a smooth surface finish. Composite resin restorative materials with fillers and matrix of differing hardness are difficult to finish and polish. The use of aluminum trioxide discs is a popular and acceptable method of finishing composite restorative materials where the material is accessible. Burs and stones are used for finishing and polishing inaccessible areas. This study was undertaken to compare the surface finish of composite resin restorative material when finished with white stones, superfine diamond burs and aluminum trioxide discs. The finished surface was measured with a profilometer and the roughness average value used to compare the surfaces. The aluminum trioxide discs gave the best and most consistent results. It was possible to attain similar results with the superfine diamond bur. However, the results were highly variable. None of the methods used achieved the smoothness of composite resin cured against a transparent matrix.

  2. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics.

    PubMed

    Riveros, Raul E; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3+/-2.5nmrms to 5.7+/-0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  3. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3{+-}2.5nmrms to 5.7{+-}0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  4. A novel magnetic field-assisted polishing method using magnetic compound slurry and its performance in mirror surface finishing of miniature V-grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youliang; Wu, Yongbo; Mitsuyoshi, Nomura

    2016-05-01

    A novel magnetic field-assisted polishing technique was proposed for finishing 3D structured surface using a magnetic compound (MC) slurry. The MC slurry was prepared by blending carbonyl-iron-particles, abrasive grains and α-cellulose into a magnetic fluid which contains nano-scale magnetite particles. An experimental setup was constructed firstly by installing an oscillation worktable and a unit onto a polishing machine. Then, experimental investigations were conducted on oxygen-free copper workpiece with parallel distributed linear V-grooves to clarify the influence of the polishing time and abrasive impact angle on the grooves surface qualities. It was found that (1) the groove form accuracy, i.e. the form retention rate η varied with the polishing locations. Although the form retention rate η deteriorated during the polishing process, the final η was greater than 99.4%; (2) the effective impact angle θm affected the material removal and form accuracy seriously. An increase of the absolute value θm resulted with an increase of material removal rate and a decrease of the form accuracy; (3) the work-surface roughness decreased more than 6 times compared with the original surface after MC slurry polishing. These results confirmed the performance of the proposed new magnetic field-assisted polishing method in the finishing of 3D-structured surface.

  5. Quantitative image analysis for evaluating the abrasion resistance of nanoporous silica films on glass

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Karsten H.; Karlsson, Stefan; Limbach, Rene; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    The abrasion resistance of coated glass surfaces is an important parameter for judging lifetime performance, but practical testing procedures remain overly simplistic and do often not allow for direct conclusions on real-world degradation. Here, we combine quantitative two-dimensional image analysis and mechanical abrasion into a facile tool for probing the abrasion resistance of anti-reflective (AR) coatings. We determine variations in the average coated area, during and after controlled abrasion. Through comparison with other experimental techniques, we show that this method provides a practical, rapid and versatile tool for the evaluation of the abrasion resistance of sol-gel-derived thin films on glass. The method yields informative data, which correlates with measurements of diffuse reflectance and is further supported by qualitative investigations through scanning electron microscopy. In particular, the method directly addresses degradation of coating performance, i.e., the gradual areal loss of antireflective functionality. As an exemplary subject, we studied the abrasion resistance of state-of-the-art nanoporous SiO2 thin films which were derived from 5–6 wt% aqueous solutions of potassium silicates, or from colloidal suspensions of SiO2 nanoparticles. It is shown how abrasion resistance is governed by coating density and film adhesion, defining the trade-off between optimal AR performance and acceptable mechanical performance. PMID:26656260

  6. Relationships Between Abrasive Wear, Hardness, and Surface Grinding Characteristics of Titanium-Based Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Jolly, Brian C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to support the development of grinding models for titanium metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by investigating possible relationships between their indentation hardness, low-stress belt abrasion, high-stress belt abrasion, and the surface grinding characteristics. Three Ti-based particulate composites were tested and compared with the popular titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The three composites were a Ti-6Al-4V-based MMC with 5% TiB{sub 2} particles, a Ti-6Al-4V MMC with 10% TiC particles, and a Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-7.5%W binary alloy matrix that contained 7.5% TiC particles. Two types of belt abrasion tests were used: (a) a modified ASTM G164 low-stress loop abrasion test, and (b) a higher-stress test developed to quantify the grindability of ceramics. Results were correlated with G-ratios (ratio of stock removed to abrasives consumed) obtained from an instrumented surface grinder. Brinell hardness correlated better with abrasion characteristics than microindentation or scratch hardness. Wear volumes from low-stress and high-stress abrasive belt tests were related by a second-degree polynomial. Grindability numbers correlated with hard particle content but were also matrix-dependent.

  7. Influence of Corrosion on the Abrasion of Cutter Steels Used in TBM Tunnelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espallargas, N.; Jakobsen, P. D.; Langmaack, L.; Macias, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abrasion on tunnel boring machine (TBM) cutters may be critical in terms of project duration and costs. Several researchers are currently studying the degradation of TBM cutter tools used for excavating hard rock, soft ground and loose soil. So far, the primary focus of this research has been directed towards abrasive wear. Abrasive wear is a very common process in TBM excavation, but with a view to the environment in which the tools are working, corrosion may also exert an influence. This paper presents a selection of techniques that can be used to evaluate the influence of corrosion on abrasion on TBM excavation tools. It also presents the influence of corrosion on abrasive wear for some initial tests, with constant steel and geomaterial and varying properties of the excavation fluids (soil conditioners, anti-abrasion additives and water). The results indicate that the chloride content in the water media greatly influences the amount of wear, providing evidence of the influence of corrosion on the abrasion of the cutting tools. The presence of conditioning additives tailored to specific rock or soil conditions reduces wear. However, when chloride is present in the water, the additives minimise wear rates but fail to suppress corrosion of the cutting tools.

  8. Characterization and dispersion of pollutant releases from the abrasive blasting of lead paint from steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Rana, B.

    1999-07-01

    The characterization of airborne and spent material for abrasive blasting of steel paint was performed as part of the Environmental Impact Statement for Lead Paint Removal Operations on New York City Department of Transportation Bridges1. Laboratory tests were performed on painted steel components of the Williamsburg Bridge, to determine the sizes of particles typically released into the air as aerosol and onto the ground as bulk material, as a result of accidental releases from abrasive blasting operations. Two of the most commonly used abrasives for paint removal on steel structures, recyclable steel grit and expendable abrasives were subjected to the laboratory tests. The results of the tests were used to determine the percentage of existing paint and abrasive which becomes airborne and the resultant particle size distributions, which were employed in the air quality concentration and deposition modeling for the EIS. Particle size distributions of the airborne material indicated that the profiles of airborne lead and particulate matter have a mean particle size between 15 and 21 microns. Spent abrasives and paint chips that settle on the floor are larger in size with a mean diameter greater than 259 microns, although up to 6% of this material has a mean diameter less than 50 microns. The percentage of paint and expendable abrasives that become airborne as a result of abrasive blasting were estimated to be as high as 9.0 and 12.4%, respectively. Potential release rates were derived for total accumulation (duration of the project), annual, quarterly, 24-hour, and 1-hour time averaging periods for abrasives, lead, and other metals. Pollutant releases were simulated as individual sources at multiple release heights with the Environment Protection Agency's ISC3ST model for six representative bridges near potential places of public exposure.

  9. Three-Body Abrasion Testing Using Lunar Dust Simulants to Evaluate Surface System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Budinski, Kenneth G.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Klaus, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous unexpected operational issues relating to the abrasive nature of lunar dust, such as scratched visors and spacesuit pressure seal leaks, were encountered during the Apollo missions. To avoid reoccurrence of these unexpected detrimental equipment problems on future missions to the Moon, a series of two- and three-body abrasion tests were developed and conducted in order to begin rigorously characterizing the effect of lunar dust abrasiveness on candidate surface system materials. Two-body scratch tests were initially performed to examine fundamental interactions of a single particle on a flat surface. These simple and robust tests were used to establish standardized measurement techniques for quantifying controlled volumetric wear. Subsequent efforts described in the paper involved three-body abrasion testing designed to be more representative of actual lunar interactions. For these tests, a new tribotester was developed to expose samples to a variety of industrial abrasives and lunar simulants. The work discussed in this paper describes the three-body hardware setup consisting of a rotating rubber wheel that applies a load on a specimen as a loose abrasive is fed into the system. The test methodology is based on ASTM International (ASTM) B611, except it does not mix water with the abrasive. All tests were run under identical conditions. Abraded material specimens included poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), hardened 1045 steel, 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and 1018 steel. Abrasives included lunar mare simulant JSC- 1A-F (nominal size distribution), sieved JSC-1A-F (<25 m particle diameter), lunar highland simulant NU-LHT-2M, alumina (average diameter of 50 m used per ASTM G76), and silica (50/70 mesh used per ASTM G65). The measured mass loss from each specimen was converted using standard densities to determine total wear volume in cm3. Abrasion was dominated by the alumina and the simulants were only similar to the silica (i.e., sand) on the softer materials of

  10. Abrasive wear by coal-fueled diesel engine and related particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, L.K. )

    1992-09-01

    The development of commercially viable diesel engines that operate directly on pulverized coal-fuels will require solution to the problem of severe abrasive wear. The purpose of the work described in this report was to investigate the nature of the abrasive wear problem. Analytical studies were carried out to determine the characteristics of the coal-fuel and associated combustion particles responsible for abrasion. Laboratory pinon-disk wear tests were conducted on oil-particle mixtures to determine the relationship between wear rate and a number of different particle characteristics, contact parameters, specimen materials properties, and other relevant variables.

  11. Abrasion-erosion resistance of concrete made with two aggregates, Stonewall Jackson Dam, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, T. C.

    1983-09-01

    The resistance to abrasion-erosion of two concretes made with different coarse aggregates was evaluated. The aggregates used were selected as being representative of those that may be selected for use during construction of Stonewall Jackson Dam. The two coarse aggregates were limestones from different sources. All other concrete ingredients were identical for the two mixtures. Both concretes showed very high abrasion-erosion losses when tested using the Corps of Engineers standard test method. A recommendation was made that coarse aggregates with better wear-resistant properties be selected for use in areas of the structure that may be subjected to abrasion-erosion.

  12. High Resolution Laser Scanning Techniques for Rock Abrasion and Texture Analyses on Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Razdan, A.; Greeley, R.; Laity, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Aeolian abrasion is operative in many arid locations on Earth and is probably the dominant rock erosion process in the current Martian environment. Therefore, understanding the controlling parameters and rates of aeolian abrasion provides 1) insight into the stability of rocks on planetary surfaces and the environments under which the rocks abrade, and 2) a link between ventifact (a rock abraded by windblown particles) morphology and: a) abrasion conditions, b) possible ancient environments under which the rocks were abraded, and c) rock properties. promising and we plan further investigations in the wind tunnel and field. Our intent here is to discuss the basic technique, initial results, and upcoming plans.

  13. Plasma-polymerized coating for polycarbonate: Single-layer, abrasion resistant, and antireflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, Theodore

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-polymerized vinyl trimethoxy silane films were deposited on transparent polycarbonate substrates. The adherent, clear films protected the substrates from abrasion and also served as antireflection coatings. Post-treatment of the vinyl trimethoxy silane films in an oxygen glow discharge further improved their abrasion resistance. The coatings were characterized by elemental analysis of the bulk, ESCA analysis of the surface, transmission, thickness, abrasion resistance, haze, and adhesion. This patented process is currently used by the world's largest manufacturers of non-prescription sunglasses to protect the plastic glasses from scratching and thereby to increase their useful lifetime.

  14. Surface assessment and modification of concrete using abrasive blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millman, Lauren R.

    Composite systems are applied to concrete substrates to strengthen and extend the service life. Successful restoration or rehabilitation requires surface preparation prior to the application of the overlay. Surface coatings, waterproofing systems, and other external surface applications also require surface preparation prior to application. Abrasive blast media is often used to clean and uniformly roughen the substrate. The appropriate surface roughness is necessary to facilitate a strong bond between the existing substrate and overlay. Thus, surface modification using abrasive blast media (sand and dry ice), their respective environmental effects, surface roughness characterization prior to and after blasting, and the adhesion between the substrate and overlay are the focus of this dissertation. This dissertation is comprised of an introduction, a literature review, and four chapters, the first of which addresses the environmental effects due to abrasive blasting using sand, water, and dry ice. The assessment considered four response variables: carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel and energy consumption, and project duration. The results indicated that for sand blasting and water jetting, the primary factor contributing to environmental detriment was CO22 emissions from vehicular traffic near the construction site. The second chapter is an analysis of the International Concrete Repair Institute's (ICRI) concrete surface profiles (CSPs) using 3-D optical profilometry. The primary objective was to evaluate the suitability of approximating the 3-D surface (areal) parameters with those extracted from 2-D (linear) profiles. Four profile directions were considered: two diagonals, and lines parallel and transverse to the longitudinal direction of the mold. For any CSP mold, the estimation of the 3-D surface roughness using a 2-D linear profile resulted in underestimation and overestimation errors exceeding 50%, demonstrating the inadequacy of 2-D linear profiles to

  15. Finishing bacterial genome assemblies with Mix

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Among challenges that hamper reaping the benefits of genome assembly are both unfinished assemblies and the ensuing experimental costs. First, numerous software solutions for genome de novo assembly are available, each having its advantages and drawbacks, without clear guidelines as to how to choose among them. Second, these solutions produce draft assemblies that often require a resource intensive finishing phase. Methods In this paper we address these two aspects by developing Mix , a tool that mixes two or more draft assemblies, without relying on a reference genome and having the goal to reduce contig fragmentation and thus speed-up genome finishing. The proposed algorithm builds an extension graph where vertices represent extremities of contigs and edges represent existing alignments between these extremities. These alignment edges are used for contig extension. The resulting output assembly corresponds to a set of paths in the extension graph that maximizes the cumulative contig length. Results We evaluate the performance of Mix on bacterial NGS data from the GAGE-B study and apply it to newly sequenced Mycoplasma genomes. Resulting final assemblies demonstrate a significant improvement in the overall assembly quality. In particular, Mix is consistent by providing better overall quality results even when the choice is guided solely by standard assembly statistics, as is the case for de novo projects. Availability Mix is implemented in Python and is available at https://github.com/cbib/MIX, novel data for our Mycoplasma study is available at http://services.cbib.u-bordeaux2.fr/mix/. PMID:24564706

  16. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) STABILIZATION & PACKAGING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2004-01-14

    Fluor Hanford is pleased to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Stabilization and Packaging Project (SPP) for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2004. The SPP thermally stabilized and/or packaged nearly 18 metric tons (MT) of plutonium and plutonium-bearing materials left in PFP facilities from 40 years of nuclear weapons production and experimentation. The stabilization of the plutonium-bearing materials substantially reduced the radiological risk to the environment and security concerns regarding the potential for terrorists to acquire the non-stabilized plutonium products for nefarious purposes. The work was done In older facilities which were never designed for the long-term storage of plutonium, and required working with materials that were extremely radioactive, hazardous, pyrophoric, and In some cases completely unique. I n some Instances, one-of-a-kind processes and equipment were designed, installed, and started up. The SPP was completed ahead of schedule, substantially beating all Interim progress milestone dates set by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) and in the Hanford Site's Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), and finished $1-million under budget.

  17. Preference for starting and finishing behavior patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Shimp, C P; Sabulsky, S L; Childers, L J

    1989-01-01

    Pigeon's key pecking was reinforced with food in two experiments in which the correspondence between preference for starting one of two reinforced behavior patterns and the likelihood of finishing it subsequently was examined. Reinforcers were scheduled according to concurrent schedules for two classes of interresponse times, modified such that reinforcers followed a center-key peck terminating either a shorter interresponse time started by a left-key peck or a longer interresponse time started by a right-key peck. In Experiment 1, the times when reinforcers potentially were available were not discriminated, whereas in Experiment 2 they were. Absolute reinforced pattern durations were varied. The relative frequency of starting a particular pattern was highly correlated with relative frequency of that completed pattern in both experiments. Other relations between starting and finishing a pattern depended on whether reinforced interresponse times were discriminated. For instance, preference for starting a pattern sometimes correlated negatively with the likelihood of subsequently completing it. The present experiments are described as capturing part of the ordinary language meaning of "intention," according to which an organism's behavior at one moment sets the occasion for an observer to say that the organism "intends" in the future to engage in one behavior rather than another. PMID:2584918

  18. Chemical-abrasion SIMS dating of zircon from the Eocene Caetano caldera, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, J.; Watts, K. E.; John, D. A.; Henry, C. D.; Coble, M. A.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Eocene Caetano caldera in northern Nevada formed during eruption of ~1100 km3 of crystal-rich rhyolite. Miocene extension cut the caldera into a set of fault blocks that expose minor pre-caldera volcanic rocks, two units of intracaldera Caetano Tuff up to 4 km thick, ash-flow tuff feeder dikes and ring-fracture intrusions, caldera collapse breccias, and post-collapse resurgent intrusions. Single-crystal 40Ar/39Ar sanidine dates on all parts of the caldera system overlap, yielding a 34.01 ± 0.05 Ma (n=17, Fish Canyon sanidine = 28.201 Ma) age for the eruption. 40Ar/39Ar dating also documents several preceding episodes of magmatism: 35.69 ± 0.06 Ma (sanidine, n =13) rhyolite dikes in the nearby Cortez gold district, 35.21 ± 0.18 Ma (plagioclase, n=1) andesite lava underlying Caetano Tuff, and a 38.90 ± 0.11 Ma (biotite, n=1), dacite dike in the northeastern caldera wall. Extensive U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon from both the Cortez dikes and all phases of the Caetano system suggests continuous magmatism from 40-34 Ma. However, all samples contain at least some—sometimes many—zircons with U-Pb ages younger than the 34.0 Ma argon age. To determine if anomalously young zircon ages are due to Pb-loss, we analyzed representative samples of the upper Caetano Tuff and the Redrock Canyon resurgent pluton with and without chemical abrasion to mitigate Pb-loss. Bulk zircon separates were annealed at 850°C for 48 hours, then chemically abraded with 10:1 HF/HNO3 vapor in a Parr bomb at 225°C for 8 hours, based on protocols outlined by Mattinson (2005). Both treated and untreated zircons from the same sample were mounted in epoxy and polished to their midsections, then imaged on the SEM using BSE and CL. The SHRIMP-RG at Stanford University was used to determine U-Pb ages and trace element concentrations in single spots for ~25 to 30 individual zircons per sample, using a round-robin procedure and two zircon age standards (R33 and 080) to monitor external precision

  19. Surface roughness and gloss of current CAD/CAM resin composites before and after toothbrush abrasion.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Saiki, Osamu; Nogawa, Hiroshi; Hiraba, Haruto; Okazaki, Tomoyo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gloss and surface roughness behaviors of newly developed CAD/CAM composite blocks with different filler contents and characteristics. The gloss and surface roughness were quantified before and after a toothbrush dentifrice abrasion test; the results were compared to the gloss and surface roughness of a ceramic CAD/CAM block. Knoop hardness was determined before abrasion test. The results were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey HSD, and Dunnett t test (p<0.05). The rank order of Knoop hardness was as follows: Vita Mark II>Vita Enamic>Gradia block>Shofu Block HC, Lava Ultimate≥Katana Avencia block≥Cerasmart. After toothbrush abrasion, a significant difference in the gloss unit was detected between the Shofu Block HC material and the ceramic block. The Ra and Rz of the Cerasmart and Shofu Block HC materials were significantly larger than those of the ceramic block after toothbrush abrasion.

  20. Abrasion and deformed layer formation of manganese-zinc ferrite in sliding contact with lapping tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and the deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite simulated heads during contact with lapping tapes. The crystaline state of the head is changed drastically during the abrasion process. Crystalline states ranging from nearly amorphous to highly textured polycrystalline can be produced on the wear surface of a single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite head. The total thickness of the deformed layer was approximately 0.8 microns. This thickness increased as the load and abrasive grit size increased. The anisotropic wear of the ferrite was found to be inversely proportional to the hardness of the wear surface. The wear was lower in the order 211 111 10 0110. The wear of the ferrite increased markedly with an increase in sliding velocity and abrasive grit size.

  1. Summary of Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) Results Pertinent to the Mars Exploration Rover Science Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, P. W.; Carlson, L. E.; Chu, P. C.; Davis, K. R.; Gorevan, S.; Kusack, A. G.; Myrick, T. M.; Wilson, J. J.

    2005-03-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) serves as the sample preparation device on the Mars Exploration Rover payload, grinding a circular spot on the order of millimeters deep into a rock face to remove surface layers, preparing the rock for observation.

  2. Abrasion resistance of biaxially oriented polypropylene films coated with nanocomposite hard coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Yaofeng; Fu, Yaqin

    2013-11-01

    KMnO4-treated, functionalized, biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films coated with nano-silica hybrid material were synthesized. The abrasion resistance of the films was examined using a reciprocating fabric abrasion tester. Functional groups were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Contact angle measurements were performed on the BOPP film surface to quantify the effectiveness of the functionalization. Results indicate that the abrasion resistance and roughness of the composite film were significantly affected by the modification of the BOPP film. Water surface contact angle of the modified BOPP films decreased from 90.1° to 71.4°,when KMnO4 concentration increased from 0 M to 0.25 M. Wettability of the BOPP films clearly improved after KMnO4 treatment. Abrasion resistance of the functionalized films coated with hybrid materials improved by 27.4% compared with that of the original film.

  3. [Experimental analysis of finishing lines in ceramometal restorations].

    PubMed

    Gascón, F; Gil, J A; Fons, A; Badal, R

    1990-11-01

    The preparation is the first step of any tooth reconstruction. The biological integration of the protesis is depending on the marginal adaptation (finish line of the preparation), occlusal adaptation (occlusal reduction), longevity of the restoration (retention and luting) and esthetics. The effect the two finish line of the preparation is studied using experimental design. In porcelain-fused-to-metal the finish line of the preparation in chanfer is superior at the beveled shoulder, because proportioning better marginal adaptation. PMID:2076124

  4. [Experimental analysis of finishing lines in ceramometal restorations].

    PubMed

    Gascón, F; Gil, J A; Fons, A; Badal, R

    1990-11-01

    The preparation is the first step of any tooth reconstruction. The biological integration of the protesis is depending on the marginal adaptation (finish line of the preparation), occlusal adaptation (occlusal reduction), longevity of the restoration (retention and luting) and esthetics. The effect the two finish line of the preparation is studied using experimental design. In porcelain-fused-to-metal the finish line of the preparation in chanfer is superior at the beveled shoulder, because proportioning better marginal adaptation.

  5. Recent Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Rock Abrasion Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, J.; Paulsen, G.; Davis, K.; Gorevan, S.; Zacny, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) serves as the sample preparation device on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) science payload. The RAT grinds Martian rock in a cylindrical volume, 45 mm in diameter and to a depth of up to 10 mm. This grinding action is intended to remove the altered outer layers of rock as well as overlying surface fines in preparation for imaging and spectral observations. In addition to acting as a facilitator for other instruments in the MER payload, RAT telemetry acquired during grinding may be used to assess the physical properties of the rocks that it grinds. RAT instruments on both Spirit and Opportunity have continued to operate and return useful data since 2004, despite minor problems that have recently occurred. The RAT on Spirit has recently been used for a purpose outside its original design capabilities: brushing away thin layers of loose soil without solid rock underneath. By progressing into the soil a few millimeters at a time, the RAT has been instrumental in helping to reveal the stratigraphy of this soft material. These results have helped in assessing soil properties and in turn will facilitate extrication of Spirit from its current location. Recent results from the Mars Exploration Rovers are presented along with data from laboratory RAT testing.

  6. Recent Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Rock Abrasion Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusack, A.; Zacny, K.; Gorevan, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) serves as the sample preparation device on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) science payload. The RAT grinds a circular area 45 millimeter in diameter and to a depth of 0-15 mm into Martian rock. This is intended to remove the altered outer layers of rock as well as overlying surface fines in preparation for imaging and spectral observations. In addition to acting as a facilitator for other instruments, RAT telemetry acquired during grinding may be used to assess the physical properties of the rocks that it grinds. The most direct rock measurement extractable from the RAT grinding process is the energy expended per unit of rock volume removed. This has been termed the RAT Specific Grind Energy (SGE) and in terms of rock bulk physical properties, correlates roughly with unconfined compressive strength. Recent results from the Mars Exploration Rovers will be presented as will comparisons between Earth rocks and Martian rocks in terms of their SGEs and other physical properties. Although SGE is an uncommon metric for rock physical properties, the SGE calculated from the RAT engineering data, and linked with data from other instruments in the payload, represent the most comprehensive database yet created of the physical properties of Martian rocks. RAT SGE continues to be helpful in understanding the geologic history of Mars and will be of great value in instrument design for future Mars missions.

  7. Recent Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Rock Abrasion Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusack, A.; Zacny, K.; Gorevan, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) serves as the sample preparation device on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) science payload. The RAT grinds a circular area 45 millimeter in diameter and to a depth of 0-15 mm into Martian rock. This is intended to remove the altered outer layers of rock as well as overlying surface fines in preparation for imaging and spectral observations. In addition to acting as a facilitator for other instruments, RAT telemetry acquired during grinding may be used to assess the physical properties of the rocks that it grinds. The most direct rock measurement extractable from the RAT grinding process is the energy expended per unit of rock volume removed. This has been termed the RAT Specific Grind Energy (SGE) and in terms of rock bulk physical properties, correlates roughly with unconfined compressive strength. Recent results from the Mars Exploration Rovers will be presented as will comparisons between Earth rocks and Martian rocks in terms of their SGEs and other physical properties. Although SGE is an uncommon metric for rock physical properties, the SGE calculated from the RAT engineering data, and linked with data from other instruments in the payload, represent the most comprehensive database yet created of the physical properties of Martian rocks. RAT SGE continues to be helpful in understanding the geologic history of Mars and will be of great value in instrument design for future Mars missions.

  8. Experimental investigation of the abrasive crown dynamics in orbital atherectomy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yihao; Belmont, Barry; Shih, Albert J

    2016-07-01

    Orbital atherectomy is a catheter-based minimally invasive procedure to modify the plaque within atherosclerotic arteries using a diamond abrasive crown. This study was designed to investigate the crown motion and its corresponding contact force with the vessel. To this end, a transparent arterial tissue-mimicking phantom made of polyvinyl chloride was developed, a high-speed camera and image processing technique were utilized to visualize and quantitatively analyze the crown motion in the vessel phantom, and a piezoelectric dynamometer measured the forces on the phantom during the procedure. Observed under typical orbital atherectomy rotational speeds of 60,000, 90,000, and 120,000rpm in a 4.8mm caliber vessel phantom, the crown motion was a combination of high-frequency rotation at 1000, 1500, and 1660.4-1866.1Hz and low-frequency orbiting at 18, 38, and 40Hz, respectively. The measured forces were also composed of these high and low frequencies, matching well with the rotation of the eccentric crown and the associated orbital motion. The average peak force ranged from 0.1 to 0.4N at different rotational speeds. PMID:27160429

  9. The cleaning of float glass and how it affects the corrosion of finished mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Goggin, R.; Pohlman, S.; Russell, P.

    1981-10-01

    The basic concept of solar energy thermal conversion concentrator systems relies on the use of reflective surfaces. These are typically silvered glass mirrors made using a wet chemical process. A typical wet chemical process includes the cleaning of the float glass, sensitization with stannous chloride, application of a silver film, deposition of a copper film, and application of a protective paint coating. To evaluate the effect of each process variable, facilities were developed to duplicate the mirroring procedure. They were then utilized to provide precise control over each step. The results so far indicate that the cleaning step is most critical to the durability of the finished product. Several cleaning procedures were assessed, and utilizing a felt block with pumice as an abrasive proved to be most effective. It is thought that the pumice removes the surface ''gel'' layer of glass, as well as dirt, grease, and any other contaminants present, allowing better adhesion of the silver to the glass surface. A poorly prepared sheet of glass can result in a poor adhesive bond between the silver film and the glass substrate and subsequent rapid deterioration of the reflectance of the mirror.

  10. Effects of varying machine stiffness and contact area in UltraForm Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Dennis E.; Echaves, Samantha; Pidgeon, Brendan; Travis, Nathan; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    UltraForm Finishing (UFF) is a deterministic, subaperture, computer numerically controlled, grinding and polishing platform designed by OptiPro Systems. UFF is used to grind and polish a variety optics from simple spherical to fully freeform, and numerous materials from glasses to optical ceramics. The UFF system consists of an abrasive belt around a compliant wheel that rotates and contacts the part to remove material. This work aims to measure the stiffness variations in the system and how it can affect material removal rates. The stiffness of the entire system is evaluated using a triaxial load cell to measure forces and a capacitance sensor to measure deviations in height. Because the wheel is conformal and elastic, the shapes of contact areas are also of interest. For the scope of this work, the shape of the contact area is estimated via removal spot. The measured forces and removal spot area are directly related to material removal rate through Preston's equation. Using our current testing apparatus, we will demonstrate stiffness measurements and contact areas for a single UFF belt during different states of its lifecycle and assess the material removal function from spot diagrams as a function of wear. This investigation will ultimately allow us to make better estimates of Preston's coefficient and develop spot-morphing models in an effort to more accurately predict instantaneous material removal functions throughout the lifetime of a belt.

  11. Plasma polymerized coating for polycarbonate: single layer, abrasion resistant, and antireflection.

    PubMed

    Wydeven, T

    1977-03-01

    Plasma polymerized vinyltrimethoxy silane films were deposited on transparent polycarbonate substrates. The adherent, clear films protected the substrates from abrasion and also served as antireflection coatings. Posttreatment of the vinyltrimethoxy silane films in an oxygen glow discharge further improved the abrasion resistance. ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) and ir transmission spectra of some films were recorded, and an elemental analysis of the films was obtained.

  12. Patient preference: conventional rotary handpieces or air abrasion for cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    Malmström, Hans S; Chaves, Yvette; Moss, Mark E

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients should accept the use of the air abrasion technique over the conventional handpiece due to the reduced need for anesthesia. Technologies for both air abrasion and the conventional rotary handpiece have, in recent decades, seen major improvements, but there are no recent scientific publications that evaluate the patient's preference for these two technologies when performing a cavity preparation. This study determined the patient's preference for air abrasion or the rotary handpiece for removing occlusal fissure carious lesions in mandibular premolars. Ten healthy subjects 18 years of age or older were recruited from the General Dentistry Clinic of the University of Rochester Eastman Dental Center, with fissure caries at a DEJ depth of similar size (determined by radiographs and clinical examination) in any two mandibular premolars in opposite quadrants. Within each subject, the two methods of caries removal were randomly assigned. In one premolar, air abrasion was used for cavity preparation, and in the other premolar, a conventional rotary handpiece was used. At each visit prior to treatment, the patients were instructed to complete the Emotional Status (ES) questionnaire (SUNY University at Buffalo Craniofacial Pain Clinic) to assess differences in their emotional status between appointments. At each appointment, when the restorative treatment was completed, patients were instructed to rate their pain on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A technique preference questionnaire was given after the second appointment. The subjects rated the perception of pain as significantly lower (p < 0.05) when using air abrasion (6.0 mm versus 29.6 mm). All of the patients preferred air abrasion over conventional rotary handpieces. None of the patients required anesthesia and there was no indication that the emotional status influenced the result. Air abrasion was the preferred method of cavity preparation when removing fissural caries in

  13. Three-body abrasive wear characteristics under reciprocating motion of CFRP in vibrating environment

    SciTech Connect

    Teraoka, Sadakazu; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi; Nakagawa, Tatsuo

    1996-12-31

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been widely used in industry because of their attractive mechanical characteristics. Such CFRP parts are invariably subjected to three-body wear due to small indentations and machine vibrations. In this study, the wear characteristics under the three-body condition and the abrasive wear of CFRP were investigated by using a vibrating environment and silicon carbide abrasive grains.

  14. Plasma polymerized coating for polycarbonate - Single layer, abrasion resistant, and antireflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.

    1977-01-01

    Plasma polymerized vinyltrimethoxy silane films were deposited on transparent polycarbonate substrates. The adherent, clear films protected the substrates from abrasion and also served as antireflection coatings. Posttreatment of the vinyltrimethoxy silane films in an oxygen glow discharge further improved the abrasion resistance. ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) and IR transmission spectra of some films were recorded, and an elemental analysis of the films was obtained.

  15. 6. FACTORY BUILDING, WITH FINISHED PRODUCT WAREHOUSE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FACTORY BUILDING, WITH FINISHED PRODUCT WAREHOUSE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  16. Dressing of diamond grinding wheels by abrasive water jet for freeform optical surface grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Peng; Li, Chengwu; Huang, Chuanzhen; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Hongtao; Liu, Zengwen

    2014-08-01

    During the ultra-precision grinding of a large aperture mirror made of RB-SiC, the grinding wheel becomes dull rapidly, which will lead to an increase of grinding force and a decrease of grinding ratio. In this paper, diamond grinding sticks were dressed with micro SiC abrasive water jet and water jet. Through single factorial experiments, the influence of jet pressure on the dressing performance was investigated. To analyze and evaluate the effect of dressing quantitatively, the 3D roughness and the wheel topography were measured and compared with laser scanning confocal microscope before and after dressing. The experimental results show that the abrasive grains are well protruded from binder and the distribution of the abrasive grains becomes uniform after dressing by abrasive water jet when the dressing parameters are properly selected. The dressing performance of abrasive water jet is much better than water jet. For dressing ultra-fine grit size wheels, the abrasive size of the jet should be smaller than the wheel grit size to achieve a better result. The jet pressure is an obvious influence factor of the surface topography.

  17. A light-scattering study of Al2O3 abrasives of various grit sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinson, Yuli W.; Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Sorensen, Christopher M.

    2016-09-01

    We report light scattering phase function measurements for irregularly shaped Al2O3 abrasive powders of various grit sizes. Q-space analysis is applied to the angular scattering to reveal a forward scattering regime, Guinier regime, power law regime with quantifiable exponents, and an enhanced backscattering regime. The exponents of the power laws for Al2O3 abrasives decrease with increasing internal coupling parameter ρ ‧ , which is in agreement with previous observations for other irregular particles. Unlike other dust particles previously studied showing single power laws under Q-space analysis, the largest three abrasives, for which ρ ‧ ≳ 100 , showed a kink in the power law, which is possibly due to the higher degree of symmetry for the abrasives than for all the particles studied previously. Direct comparison of the 1200, 1000, and 800 grit abrasive scattering to scattering by corresponding spheres shows that the scatterings approximately coincide at the spherical particle qR ≃ ρ ‧ crossover point. Furthermore, the scattering at the maximum qR = 2 kR by the irregularly shaped abrasives is close to the geometric centers of the glories of the spheres.

  18. The effectiveness of a modified hydrochloric acid-quartz-pumice abrasion technique on fluorosis stains: a case report.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, G

    1998-02-01

    Endemic dental fluorosis is a form of enamel hypoplasia characterized by moderate-to-severe staining of the tooth surface. Since 1916, numerous investigators have used hydrochloric acid alone on fluorosis stains. More recently, 18% hydrochloric acid-pumice microabrasion has been used to achieve color modification. The main disadvantage of this procedure is the high concentration and low viscosity of hydrochloric acid, which can cause damage to oral and dental tissues. To eliminate this problem, quartz particles can be mixed with the hydrochloric acid. The quartz particles prevent the hydrochloric acid from flowing uncontrollablely by altering it to a gel-like form. A modified 18% hydrochloric acid-quartz-pumice abrasion technique was used to remove fluorine stains from vital teeth in a teenager.

  19. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z. ); Church, E.L. . Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment MECA Abrasion Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Anderson, M. S.; Hinde, B. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Pike, W. T.; Marshall, J.; Meloy, T. P.; Cobbly, T.

    1999-09-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) experiment, an instrument suite to be flown on Mars Surveyor 2001, will include a tool for doing simple mineralogical scratch and streak tests on particles from the Martian regolith. The Abrasion Tool will be applied to particles that adhere to highly polished substrates of various hardnesses. Granular soil components will be subjected to a compressive force of about 3 N using a leaf spring. The spring will be applied with a paraffin actuator capable of a 0.76 mm throw to achieve a maximum displacement of about 7.5 mm at the tip of the tool. The pressure per grain will be dependent on the grain size, the number of grains that adhere to the substrate and the number of grains in compression. The pressure per particle is expected to be on the order of 100 MPa - 1 GPa. The MECA sample wheel containing the substrates will be rotated after the particles are placed in compression to produce scratches or pits. A primary goal of the Abrasion Tool is to identify quartz (Mohs' hardness = 7) using substrates of varying hardnesses. Quartz is considered hazardous to future human explorers of Mars because it can cause silicosis of the lungs if it is of respirable size. It is also hazardous to machinery, structures, and space suits because of its ability to abrade and scratch surfaces. Since large quantities of minerals harder than quartz are not expected, any scratches produced on polished quartz substrates might be reasonably attributed to quartz particles, although there may be minerals such as impact metamorphic diamond in the soils. Careful calibration of the tool will be necessary to ensure that grains are not overloaded; for example, a steel ball pressed into glass will produce a Hertzian fracture, even though it is softer than glass. Other minerals, such as magnetite (Mohs'hardness = 6.5) have been shown to scratch glass ceramics such as Zerodur (Mohs' hardness = 6.5). Thus, minerals can be differentiated: note that

  1. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment MECA Abrasion Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Anderson, M. S.; Hinde, B. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Pike, W. T.; Marshall, J.; Meloy, T. P.; Cobbly, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) experiment, an instrument suite to be flown on Mars Surveyor 2001, will include a tool for doing simple mineralogical scratch and streak tests on particles from the Martian regolith. The Abrasion Tool will be applied to particles that adhere to highly polished substrates of various hardnesses. Granular soil components will be subjected to a compressive force of about 3 N using a leaf spring. The spring will be applied with a paraffin actuator capable of a 0.76 mm throw to achieve a maximum displacement of about 7.5 mm at the tip of the tool. The pressure per grain will be dependent on the grain size, the number of grains that adhere to the substrate and the number of grains in compression. The pressure per particle is expected to be on the order of 100 MPa - 1 GPa. The MECA sample wheel containing the substrates will be rotated after the particles are placed in compression to produce scratches or pits. A primary goal of the Abrasion Tool is to identify quartz (Mohs' hardness = 7) using substrates of varying hardnesses. Quartz is considered hazardous to future human explorers of Mars because it can cause silicosis of the lungs if it is of respirable size. It is also hazardous to machinery, structures, and space suits because of its ability to abrade and scratch surfaces. Since large quantities of minerals harder than quartz are not expected, any scratches produced on polished quartz substrates might be reasonably attributed to quartz particles, although there may be minerals such as impact metamorphic diamond in the soils. Careful calibration of the tool will be necessary to ensure that grains are not overloaded; for example, a steel ball pressed into glass will produce a Hertzian fracture, even though it is softer than glass. Other minerals, such as magnetite (Mohs'hardness = 6.5) have been shown to scratch glass ceramics such as Zerodur (Mohs' hardness = 6.5). Thus, minerals can be differentiated: note that

  2. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Abrasion Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Anderson, M. S.; Hinde, B. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Pike, W. T.; Marshall, J. R.; Meloy, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) experiment, an instrument suite to be flown on Mars Surveyor 2001, will include a tool for doing simple mineralogical scratch and streak tests on particles from the Martian regolith. The Abrasion Tool will be applied to particles that adhere themselves to highly polished substrates of various hardnesses. Granular soil components will be subjected to a compressive force of about 3 N using a leaf spring. The spring will be applied with a paraffin actuator capable of a 0.76 mm throw to achieve a maximum displacement of about 7.5 mm at the tip of the tool. The pressure per grain will be dependent on the grain size, the number of grains that adhere to the substrate and the number of grains in compression. The pressure per particle is expected to be on the order of 100 MPa - 1 GPa. The MECA sample wheel containing the substrates will be rotated after the particles are placed in compression to produce scratches or pits. A primary goal of the Abrasion Tool is to identify quartz (Mohs' hardness = 7) using substrates of varying hardnesses. Quartz is considered hazardous to future human explorers of Mars because it can cause silicosis of the lungs if it is of respirable size. It is also hazardous to machinery, structures, and space suits because of its ability to abrade and scratch surfaces. Since large quantities of minerals harder than quartz are not expected, any scratches produced on polished quartz substrates might be reasonably attributed to quartz particles, although there may be minerals such as impact metamorphic diamond in the soils. Careful calibration of the tool will be necessary to ensure that grains are not overloaded; for example, a steel ball pressed into glass will produce a Hertzian fracture, even though it is softer than glass. Other minerals, such as magnetite (Mohs' hardness = 6.5) have been shown to scratch glass ceramics such as Zerodur (Mohs' hardness = 6.5). Thus, minerals can be differentiated

  3. Hydro- abrasive jet machining modeling for computer control and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppetti, R.; Jovane, F.

    1993-06-01

    Use of hydro-abrasive jet machining (HAJM) for machining a wide variety of materials—metals, poly-mers, ceramics, fiber-reinforced composites, metal-matrix composites, and bonded or hybridized mate-rials—primarily for two- and three-dimensional cutting and also for drilling, turning, milling, and deburring, has been reported. However, the potential of this innovative process has not been explored fully. This article discusses process control, integration, and optimization of HAJM to establish a plat-form for the implementation of real-time adaptive control constraint (ACC), adaptive control optimiza-tion (ACO), and CAD/CAM integration. It presents the approach followed and the main results obtained during the development, implementation, automation, and integration of a HAJM cell and its computer-ized controller. After a critical analysis of the process variables and models reported in the literature to identify process variables and to define a process model suitable for HAJM real-time control and optimi-zation, to correlate process variables and parameters with machining results, and to avoid expensive and time-consuming experiments for determination of the optimal machining conditions, a process predic-tion and optimization model was identified and implemented. Then, the configuration of the HAJM cell, architecture, and multiprogramming operation of the controller in terms of monitoring, control, process result prediction, and process condition optimization were analyzed. This prediction and optimization model for selection of optimal machining conditions using multi-objective programming was analyzed. Based on the definition of an economy function and a productivity function, with suitable constraints relevant to required machining quality, required kerfing depth, and available resources, the model was applied to test cases based on experimental results.

  4. Using frictional power to model LSST removal with conventional abrasives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Richard G.; Hubler, William H.

    2015-08-01

    The stressed lap on the Large Polishing Machine (LPM) at the University of Arizona Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab has recently been used to polish the M1 and M3 surfaces of the 8.4-m mirror for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Loadcells in the three 4-bar links that connect this lap to the spindle of the machine allow the translational forces and torque on the lap to be measured once a second. These force readings and all other available machine parameters are recorded in history files that can be used to create a 2D removal map from one or more polishing runs. While the Preston equation has been used for many years to predict removal in a conventional polishing process, we have adopted a new equation that assumes that removal is proportional to the energy that is transferred from the lap to the substrate via friction. Specifically, the instantaneous removal rate at any point is defined to be the product of four parameters - an energy conversion factor which we call the Allen coefficient, the coefficient of friction, the lap pressure, and the speed of the lap. The Allen coefficient is the ratio of volumetric removal to frictional energy for a particular combination of pad material, abrasive, and substrate. Because our calculations take into account changes in the coefficient of friction between the lap and mirror, our 2D removal maps usually correlate well with optical data. Removal maps for future polishing strokes are created in simulations that track the position and speed of individual lap pads.

  5. MicroFinish Topographer: surface finish metrology for large and small optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Robert E.

    2011-09-01

    The MicroFinish Topographer (MFT) is the result of an interest in directly measuring the surface roughness of large optics without the need for using replicas that may degrade the measurement data and that contaminate the surface. Once the MFT proved itself on large optics it was immediately suggested that a similar device should be designed for small optics. All this really took was turning the original MFT upside down and placing small specimens on a holder. This one device tests samples from 10 mm diameter to 10 m with phase measuring interferometry that does not need vibration isolation. Further, the MFT form factor makes it ideal for use in doing on-machine surface finish metrology.

  6. 7 CFR 58.525 - Storage of finished product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage of finished product. 58.525 Section 58.525... Procedures § 58.525 Storage of finished product. Cottage cheese after packaging shall be promptly stored at a... distribution and storage prior to sale the product should be maintained at a temperature of 45 °F. or...

  7. 7 CFR 58.525 - Storage of finished product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage of finished product. 58.525 Section 58.525... Procedures § 58.525 Storage of finished product. Cottage cheese after packaging shall be promptly stored at a... distribution and storage prior to sale the product should be maintained at a temperature of 45 °F. or...

  8. 7 CFR 58.525 - Storage of finished product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Storage of finished product. 58.525 Section 58.525... Procedures § 58.525 Storage of finished product. Cottage cheese after packaging shall be promptly stored at a... distribution and storage prior to sale the product should be maintained at a temperature of 45 °F. or...

  9. 16 CFR 1508.7 - Construction and finishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Construction and finishing. 1508.7 Section 1508.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.7 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood...

  10. 16 CFR 1508.7 - Construction and finishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction and finishing. 1508.7 Section 1508.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.7 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood...

  11. NATIONAL METAL FINISHING ENVIRONMENTAL R&D PLAN - AN UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an update to the National Metal Finishing Environmental R&D Plan (EPA/600/R-97/095), dated September 1997. The 1997 Plan and Update are available on the National Metal Finishing Resource Center's web site, www.nmfrc.org. The primary purpose in preparing an up...

  12. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-06

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex.

  13. Investigating selective transport and abrasion on an alluvial fan using quantitative grain size and shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, K. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Selective sorting and abrasion are the two major fluvial processes that are attributed to the downstream fining of sediments in rivers and alluvial fans. Selective transport is the process by which smaller grains are preferentially transported downstream while larger grains are deposited closer to the source. Abrasion is defined by the production of fine sediments and sand that occurs by saltation of gravel, where particle-to-particle collisions supply the energy required to break apart grains. We hypothesize that abrasion results in the gradual fining of large grains and the production of fine sands and silts, while sorting accounts for the differences in transport of these two grain-size fractions produced from abrasion, thereby creating the abrupt gravel-sand transition observed in many channel systems. In this research, we explore both selective transport and abrasion processes on the Dog Canyon alluvial fan near Alamogordo, New Mexico. We complete an extensive grain size analysis down the main channel of the fan employing an image-based technique that utilizes an autocorrelation process. We also characterize changes in grain shape using standard shape parameters, as well as Fourier analysis, which allows the study of contributions of grain roughness on a variety of length scales. Sorting appears to dominate the upper portion of the fan; the grain-size distribution narrows moving downstream until reaching a point of equal mobility, at which point sorting ceases. Abrasion exerts a subtle but persistent effect on grains during transport down the fan. Shape analysis reveals that particles become more rounded by the removal of small-scale textural features, a process that is expected to only modestly influence grain size of gravel, but should produce significant quantities of sand. This study provides a better understanding of the importance of grain abrasion and sorting on the downstream fining of channel grains in an alluvial fan, as well as an improved knowledge

  14. Protein sources for finishing calves as affected by management system.

    PubMed

    Sindt, M H; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Vieselmeyer, B A

    1993-03-01

    Two beef production systems were evaluated in conjunction with an evaluation of escape protein sources for finishing calves. Two hundred forty crossbred steers and 80 crossbred heifer calves (BW = 267 +/- 2 kg) were split into two groups: 1) control, finished (207 d) after a 3-wk feedlot adjustment period and 2) grazing cornstalks for 74 d after a 3-wk feedlot adjustment period, then finished (164 d). Finishing treatments were sources and proportions of supplemental CP: 1) urea 100%; 2) soybean meal (SBM) 100%; 3) blood meal (BM) 50%, urea 50%; 4) feather meal (FTH) 50%, urea 50%; 5) SBM 50%, FTH 25%, urea 25%; 6) SBM 25%, FTH 38%, urea 37%; 7) FTH 25%, BM 25%, urea 50%, and 8) FTH 38%, BM 13%, urea 50%. Treatments 1 to 8 were fed in dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets. Treatments 9 and 10 were supplement Treatments 1 and 7 fed in diets based on high-moisture corn. Calves finished after a 74-d period of grazing cornstalks consumed more feed (P < .01) and gained faster (P < .01) but were less efficient (P < .05) than calves finished directly after weaning. Although not statistically different, calves finished after grazing cornstalks and supplemented with natural protein in the feedlot were 7% more efficient than calves supplemented with urea alone. Efficiency of calves finished directly after weaning was similar for calves supplemented with natural protein or urea alone. Supplementing SBM/FTH/urea or BM/FTH/urea improved feed efficiency compared with supplementing FTH/urea alone. These data suggest that allowing calves to graze cornstalks before finishing is a possible management option, but this system may require more metabolizable protein in the finishing diet to maximize feed efficiency if the calves are expressing compensatory growth. PMID:8463161

  15. Failure of a novel silicone–polyurethane copolymer (Optim™) to prevent implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead insulation abrasions

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Robert G.; Abdelhadi, Raed H.; McGriff, Deepa M.; Kallinen Retel, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to determine if Optim™, a unique copolymer of silicone and polyurethane, protects Riata ST Optim and Durata implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads (SJM, St Jude Medical Inc., Sylmar, CA, USA) from abrasions that cause lead failure. Methods and results We searched the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Manufacturers and User Device Experience (MAUDE) database on 13 April 2012 using the simple search terms ‘Riata ST Optim™ abrasion analysis’ and ‘Durata abrasion analysis’. Lead implant time was estimated by subtracting 3 months from the reported lead age. The MAUDE search returned 15 reports for Riata ST Optim™ and 37 reports for Durata leads, which were submitted by SJM based on its analyses of returned leads for clinical events that occurred between December 2007 and January 2012. Riata ST Optim™ leads had been implanted 29.1 ± 11.7 months. Eight of 15 leads had can abrasions and three abrasions were caused by friction with another device, most likely another lead. Four of these abrasions resulted in high-voltage failures and one death. One failure was caused by an internal insulation defect. Durata leads had been implanted 22.2 ± 10.6 months. Twelve Durata leads had can abrasions, and six leads had abrasions caused by friction with another device. Of these 18 can and other device abrasions, 13 (72%) had electrical abnormalities. Low impedances identified three internal insulation abrasions. Conclusions Riata ST Optim™ and Durata ICD leads have failed due to insulation abrasions. Optim™ did not prevent these abrasions, which developed ≤4 years after implant. Studies are needed to determine the incidence of these failures and their clinical implications. PMID:22915789

  16. Combined effect of end-rounded versus tapered bristles and a dentifrice on plaque removal and gingival abrasion.

    PubMed

    Caporossi, Leonardo Stephan; Dutra, Danilo Antonio Milbradt; Martins, Maritieli Righi; Prochnow, Emilia Pithan; Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha; Kantorski, Karla Zanini

    2016-01-01

    Two previous clinical studies evaluated the effect of end-rounded versus tapered bristles of soft manual brushes on the removal of plaque and gingival abrasion. However, the combined effect of an abrasive dentifrice on these outcomes has yet to be understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare the incidence of gingival abrasion and the degree of plaque removal obtained after the use of toothbrushes with tapered or end-rounded bristles in the presence or absence of an abrasive dentifrice. The study involved a randomized, single-blind, crossover model (n = 39) with a split-mouth design. Subjects were instructed to refrain from performing oral hygiene procedures for 72 hours. Quadrants were randomized and subjects brushed with both types of toothbrushes using a dentifrice (relative dentin abrasion = ± 160). Plaque and gingival abrasion were assessed before and after brushing. After 7 days, the experiment was repeated without the dentifrice. The average reduction in plaque scores and the average increase in the number of abrasion sites were assessed by repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni's post-hoc tests. End-rounded bristles removed significantly more plaque than tapered bristles, regardless of the use of a dentifrice. The dentifrice did not improve plaque removal. In the marginal area (cervical free gingiva), no difference in the incidence of gingival abrasion was detected between toothbrush types when used with a dentifrice (p ≥ 0.05). However, the dentifrice increased the incidence of abrasion (p < 0.001), irrespective of the toothbrush type tested. End-rounded bristles therefore removed plaque more effectively without causing a higher incidence of gingival abrasion when compared with tapered bristles. An abrasive dentifrice can increase the incidence of abrasion, and should be used with caution by individuals who are at risk of developing gingival recession. PMID:26981758

  17. Pollution prevention and water conservation in metals finishing operations

    SciTech Connect

    O`Shaughnessy, J.; Clark, W.; Lizotte, R.P. Jr.; Mikutel, D.

    1996-11-01

    Attleboro, Massachusetts is the headquarters of the Materials and Controls Group of Texas Instruments Incorporated (Texas Instruments). In support of their activities, Texas Instruments operates a number of metal finishing and electroplating processes. The water supply and the wastewater treatment requirements are supplied throughout the facility from a central location. Water supply quality requirements varies with each manufacturing operation. As a result, manufacturing operations are classified as either high level or a lower water quality. The facility has two methods of wastewater treatment and disposal. The first method involves hydroxide and sulfide metals precipitation prior to discharge to a surface water. The second method involves metals precipitation, filtration, and discharge via sewer to the Attleboro WTF. The facility is limited to a maximum wastewater discharge of 460,000 gallons per day to surface water under the existing National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. There is also a hydraulic flow restriction on pretreated wastewater that is discharged to the Attleboro WTF. Both of these restrictions combined with increased production could cause the facility to reach the treatment capacity. The net effect is that wastewater discharge problems are becoming restrictive to the company`s growth. This paper reviews Texas Instruments efforts to overcome these restrictions through pollution prevention and reuse practices rather than expansion of end of pipe treatment methods.

  18. Phosphorus requirement of finishing feedlot calves.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Brink, D; Orth, M W; Whittet, K M

    2002-06-01

    Dietary P supplied to feedlot cattle is important because an inadequate supply will compromise performance, whereas excess P may harm the environment. However, P requirements of feedlot cattle are not well documented. Therefore, 45 steer calves (265.2+/-16.6 kg) were individually fed to determine the P required for gain and bone integrity over a 204-d finishing period. The basal diet consisted of 33.5% high-moisture corn, 30% brewers grits, 20% corn bran, 7.5% cottonseed hulls, 3% tallow, and 6% supplement. Treatments consisted of 0.16 (no supplemental inorganic P), 0.22, 0.28, 0.34, and 0.40% P (DM basis). Supplemental P was provided by monosodium phosphate top-dressed to the daily feed allotment. Blood was sampled every 56 d to assess P status. At slaughter, phalanx and metacarpal bones were collected from the front leg to determine bone ash and assess P resorption from bone. Dry matter intake and ADG did not change linearly (P > 0.86) or quadratically (P > 0.28) due to P treatment. Feed efficiency was not influenced (P > 0.30) by P treatment and averaged 0.169. Plasma inorganic P averaged across d 56 to 204 responded quadratically, with calves fed 0.16% P having the lowest concentration of plasma inorganic P. However, plasma inorganic P concentration (5.7 mg/dL) for steers fed 0.16% P is generally considered adequate. Total bone ash weight was not influenced by dietary P for phalanx (P = 0.19) or metacarpal bones (P = 0.37). Total P intake ranged from 14.2 to 35.5 g/d. The NRC (1996) recommendation for these calves was 18.7 g/d, assuming 68% absorption. Based on performance results, P requirements for finishing calves is < 0.16% of diet DM or 14.2 g/d. Based on these observations, we suggest that typical grain-based feedlot cattle diets do not require supplementation of inorganic mineral P to meet P requirements.

  19. 40 CFR 425.10 - Applicability; description of the hair pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING... finished leather by chemically dissolving the hide hair, chrome tanning, and retan-wet finishing....

  20. The effect of heat treatment on the gouging abrasion resistance of alloy white cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Are, I. R. S.; Arnold, B. K.

    1995-02-01

    A series of heat treatments was employed to vary the microstructure of four commercially important alloy white cast irons, the wear resistance of which was then assessed by the ASTM jaw-crusher gouging abrasion test. Compared with the as-cast condition, standard austenitizing treatments produced a substantial increase in hardness, a marked decrease in the retained aus-tenite content in the matrix, and, in general, a significant improvement in gouging abrasion resistance. The gouging abrasion resistance tended to decline with increasing austenitizing tem-perature, although the changes in hardness and retained austenite content varied, depending on alloy composition. Subcritical heat treatment at 500 ° following hardening reduced the retained austenite content to values less than 10 pct, and in three of the alloys it caused a significant fall in both hardness and gouging abrasion resistance. The net result of the heat treatments was the development of optimal gouging abrasion resistance at intermediate levels of retained aus-tenite. The differing responses of the alloys to both high-temperature austenitizing treatments and to subcritical heat treatments at 500 ° were related to the effects of the differing carbon and alloying-element concentrations on changes in the M s temperature and secondary carbide precipitation.

  1. Effect of Internal Limiting Membrane Abrasion on Retinal Tissues in Macular Holes

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David R. P.; Chin, Eric K.; Tarantola, Ryan M.; Folk, James C.; Boldt, H. Culver; Skeie, Jessica M.; Mullins, Robert F.; Russell, Stephen R.; Mahajan, Vinit B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify the structural and histological effects of a Tano diamond-dusted membrane scraper (DDMS) on the retinal surface after internal limiting membrane (ILM) abrasion in macular hole surgery. Methods. Institutional experimental study was performed in 11 eyes. All eyes underwent ILM abrasion in the operating room with a DDMS for macular hole repair as an alternative to traditional ILM peeling. Three human donor eyes underwent an identical procedure in the laboratory. Retinal tissues were removed by ILM abrasion with a DDMS during vitrectomy for macular hole repair and retinal tissues remaining in human donor eyes. Main outcome measures were microscopic and immunohistological characteristics of instrument tip tissues and retinal structure after ILM abrasion. Results. The tips of the Tano DDMS showed evidence of cellular membranes and ILM removal. The retinas showed distinct areas of lamellar ILM removal without penetration of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Conclusions. Application of the Tano DDMS instrument is sufficient to remove membranes from the surface of the ILM and layers of the ILM without disruption of the underlying RNFL. Internal limiting membrane abrasion can be a useful and effective alternative to complete ILM removal for macular surgery. PMID:26024069

  2. Effect of carbonitride precipitates on the abrasive wear behaviour of hardfacing alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ke; Yu, Shengfu; Li, Yingbin; Li, Chenglin

    2008-06-01

    Hardfacing alloy of martensitic stainless steel expect higher abradability to be achieved through the addition of nitrogen being provided by the fine scale precipitation of complex carbonitride particles. Niobium and titanium as the most effective carbonitride alloying elements were added in the Fe-Cr13-Mn-N hardfacing alloy to get carbonitride precipitates. Carbonitride was systematically studied by optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and energy spectrum analysis. Abrasive wear resistance of hardfacing alloy in as-welded and heat-treated conditions was tested by using the belt abrasion test apparatus where the samples slide against the abrasive belt. It is found that carbonitride particles in the hardfacing alloy are complex of Cr, Ti and Nb distributing on the grain boundary or matrix of the hardfacing alloy with different number and size in as-welded and heat-treated conditions. A large number of carbonitrides can be precipitated with very fine size (nanoscale) after heat treatment. As a result, the homogeneous distribution of very fine carbonitride particles can significantly improve the grain-abrasion wear-resisting property of the hardfacing alloy, and the mass loss is plastic deformation with minimum depth of grooving by abrasive particles and fine delamination.

  3. The effect of erosion and abrasion on surface properties of composite resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoleriu, S.; Andrian, S.; Pancu, G.; Nica, I.; Munteanu, A.; Balan, A.; Iovan, G.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the surface roughness of two commercial composite resins submitted to erosive attack, to abrasive wear and to association of erosive and abrasive challenge. Standardized samples of G-snial anterior (GC Company) and Essentia (GC Company) composite resins were randomly split in 6 groups. In group 1 the samples were maintained in artificial saliva until the evaluation of surface roughness. In group 2 the samples were submitted only to erosive attack, in group 3 only to abrasive challenge and in groups 4,5, and 6 the erosive attack was followed by abrasive challenge immediately (group 4), 30 minutes after the erosive attack (group 5) and one hour after the erosive attack (group 6). The specimens were evaluated using surface roughness measuring tester SJ-210 (Mitutoyo Corporation, Japan) and the mean surface roughness values (Ra, μm) of each specimen were registered. A significantly increase of both composite resins surface roughness was recorded after erosive attack and abrasive challenge. Toothbrushing 60 minutes after acidic contact determined no significant differences in surface roughness of composite resins.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Gingival Depigmentation using Tetrafluoroethane Cryosurgery and Gingival Abrasion Technique: Two Years Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santhosh; Bhat, G. Subraya; Bhat, K. Mahalinga

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A comparative evaluation of the gingival depigmentation by using Tetrafluoroethane cryosurgery and the gingival abrasion technique – 2 years of follow up. Material and Methods: Ten systemically healthy patients who were aged 18 to 36 years were selected for the study. Tetrafluoroethane was used for the cryosurgical depigmentation and the gingival abrasion technique used a coarse flame shaped bur. The presence or absence of pigmentation was tabulated, based on the GPI (Gingival Pigmentation Index). For the statistical analysis, Freidman’s test was used. Results: The keratinization was completed within a week after the application of the cryogen and about 10 days after the gingival abrasion technique was done. The statistical analysis which was done after 90th, 180th days and 2 years. The p-value which was obtained (p<.001) showed the superiority of cryosurgery over the gingival abrasion. During the follow up period, no side effects were seen for both the techniques and the improved aesthetics was maintained upto 2 years. Conclusion: The use of cryogen Tetrafluoroethane is easy, practical and inexpensive as compared to gingival abrasion, due to its high rate of recurrence. Hence, it is more acceptable to the patients and the operator. Further studies are needed to assess the long term effectiveness of the cryosurgical method of depigmentation. PMID:23543863

  5. Assessment of the abrasion potential of pesticide-treated seeds using the Heubach test

    PubMed Central

    Zwertvaegher, Ingrid K. A.; Foqué, Dieter; Devarrewaere, Wouter; Verboven, Pieter; Nuyttens, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During sowing of pesticide-treated seeds, pesticide-laden dust and abraded seed particles may be emitted to the environment, possibly leading to environmental contamination and posing health risks. In many countries there is currently no legislation concerning the acceptable amount of dust of treated seeds. This study aimed to gain insight in the abrasion potential of available pesticide-treated seeds and its associated factors. The abrasion potential of 45 seed samples of 7 different species (viz. sugar beet, oat, barley, wheat, spelt, pea, and maize) was determined using the Heubach test and amounts of dust were expressed as g 100 kgseeds −1, g 100,000 seeds−1, and g ha−1. The abrasion potential fell generally within the boundaries of maximum permissible values adopted by different countries. Species, seed treatment company, number of active ingredient (AIs) and combination of AIs had significant effects on the abrasion potential, whereas little or no effect of agitation and conservation was found. However, species were situated differently with respect to each other depending on the unit in which the abrasion potential was expressed. A standard unit that takes into account the species’ seed rate is suggested to give the fairest assessment of dust drift risk and would allow international comparison. PMID:27812241

  6. Sliding and Abrasive Wear Behavior of WC-CoCr Coatings with Different Carbide Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Lalit; Arora, Navneet

    2013-02-01

    This study examines the sliding and abrasive wear behaviors of high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed WC-CoCr coatings with different WC grain sizes. The HVOF coating deposition was assisted by in-flight particle temperature and velocity measurement system. The powder feedstocks and their corresponding coatings were characterized by means of XRD and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope analysis. Hardness, porosity, and indentation fracture toughness of these coatings were calculated and compared with each other. Sliding wear resistance of these coatings was calculated using pin-on-disk tribometer (ASTM G99-90). The two-body abrasion was quantified by sliding the samples over silicon carbide (SiC) abrasive paper bonded to a rotating flat disk of auto-polisher. The mechanism of materials' removal in both the sliding and abrasive wears was studied and discussed on microstructural investigations. It was observed that fine grain WC-CoCr cermet coating exhibits higher sliding and abrasive wear resistances as compared with conventional cermet coating.

  7. Hybrid layer thickness and morphology: Influence of cavity preparation with air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Barceleiro, Marcos Oliveira; de Mello, Jose Benedicto; Porto, Celso Luis de Angelis; Dias, Katia Regina Hostilio Cervantes; de Miranda, Mauro Sayao

    2011-01-01

    Dentinal surfaces prepared with air abrasion have considerably different characteristics from those prepared with conventional instruments. Different hybrid layer morphology and thickness occur, which can result in differences in the quality of restorations placed on dentinal surfaces prepared with a diamond bur compared to surfaces prepared using air abrasion. The objective of this study was to compare the hybrid layer thickness and morphology formed utilizing Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (SBMP) on dentin prepared with a diamond bur in a high-speed handpiece and on dentin prepared using air abrasion. Flat dentin surfaces obtained from five human teeth were prepared using each method, then treated with the dentin adhesive system according to manufacturer's instructions. After a layer of composite was applied, specimens were sectioned, flattened, polished, and prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Ten different measurements of hybrid layer thickness were obtained along the bonded surface in each specimen. SBMP produced a 3.43 ± 0.75 µm hybrid layer in dentin prepared with diamond bur. This hybrid layer was regular and found consistently. In the air abrasion group, SBMP produced a 4.94 ± 1.28 µm hybrid layer, which was regular and found consistently. Statistical ANOVA (P = 0.05) indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the groups. These data indicate that the air abrasion, within the parameters used in this study, provides a thick hybrid layer formation.

  8. Hybrid layer thickness and morphology: Influence of cavity preparation with air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Barceleiro, Marcos Oliveira; de Mello, Jose Benedicto; Porto, Celso Luis de Angelis; Dias, Katia Regina Hostilio Cervantes; de Miranda, Mauro Sayao

    2011-01-01

    Dentinal surfaces prepared with air abrasion have considerably different characteristics from those prepared with conventional instruments. Different hybrid layer morphology and thickness occur, which can result in differences in the quality of restorations placed on dentinal surfaces prepared with a diamond bur compared to surfaces prepared using air abrasion. The objective of this study was to compare the hybrid layer thickness and morphology formed utilizing Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (SBMP) on dentin prepared with a diamond bur in a high-speed handpiece and on dentin prepared using air abrasion. Flat dentin surfaces obtained from five human teeth were prepared using each method, then treated with the dentin adhesive system according to manufacturer's instructions. After a layer of composite was applied, specimens were sectioned, flattened, polished, and prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Ten different measurements of hybrid layer thickness were obtained along the bonded surface in each specimen. SBMP produced a 3.43 ± 0.75 µm hybrid layer in dentin prepared with diamond bur. This hybrid layer was regular and found consistently. In the air abrasion group, SBMP produced a 4.94 ± 1.28 µm hybrid layer, which was regular and found consistently. Statistical ANOVA (P = 0.05) indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the groups. These data indicate that the air abrasion, within the parameters used in this study, provides a thick hybrid layer formation. PMID:22313931

  9. Quantitative evaluation of the cutting quality and abrasive resistance of scalers.

    PubMed

    Kaya, H; Fujimura, T; Kimura, S

    1995-01-01

    An automatic scaling apparatus that simulated the scaling process of hand instrumentation was developed to quantitatively analyze the cutting quality and abrasive resistance of scalers. We first tested 4 synthetic resins as the abraded material. Of the 4 synthetic resins tested, polycarbonate resin proved most similar to dentin. The effects of lateral scaling forces (700, 500, and 300 dyne) and scaler angles (70 degrees to 95 degrees) on the cutting quality and abrasive resistance of scalers were evaluated quantitatively by the amount of the abraded material worn away in 1,000 strokes. Comparison of the 3 scaling forces showed a greater amount of abrasion at higher force than that at lower force. This suggests that the decrease in the amount due to abrasion could be compensated by increasing the lateral scaling force. Regarding the scaler angle, results indicated that the amount of material removed increased with an increase of the scaler angle up to 70 degrees, but then rapidly decreased at an angle of 90 degrees or more. The most effective scaling angle was 87 degrees, and this was not affected by scaling force. These results suggest that a greater amount of removal could be obtained at a scaling angle of 87 degrees and a scaling force of 700 dyne. The present findings suggested the automatic scaling apparatus could be a useful tool for quantitatively evaluating the cutting quality and abrasive resistance of scalers.

  10. Ultrasound for wool dyeing and finishing.

    PubMed

    McNeil, S J; McCall, R A

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ultrasound at 35-39 kHz on several wool dyeing and finishing processes have been investigated as a way of reducing environmental impact. Ultrasound improved the effectiveness of cleaning scoured wool in water and to a lesser extent in water-nonionic surfactant. Scanning electron microscopy did not indicate any surface damage. Fluorescence microscopy revealed increased levels of sulphydryl groups on the wool surface suggesting ultrasound caused the removal of thioester-bound lipids. Ultrasound pre-treatment increased the effectiveness of subsequent oxidative-reductive bleaching, but had no effect on the uptake of acid levelling and acid milling dyes. The pre-treatment retarded the uptake of reactive dye, possibly by increasing the crystallinity of the fibre or removing surface bound lipids. Ultrasound did not improve dyeing under conditions that are currently used in industry, but did show potential to reduce the chemical and energy requirements of dyeing wool with reactive and acid milling dyes, but not acid levelling dyes. PMID:20675174

  11. Metal finishing wastewater pressure filter optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Norford, S.W.; Diener, G.A.; Martin, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility, that uses precipitation and filtration which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. The LETF consists of three close-coupled treatment facilities: the Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF), which uses wastewater equalization, physical/chemical precipitation, flocculation, and filtration; the Chemical Treatment Facility (CTF), which slurries the filter cake generated from the DETF and pumps it to interim-StatuS RCRA storage tanks; and the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) which stores the waste from the CTF until the waste is stabilized/solidified for permanent disposal, 85% of the stored waste is from past nickel plating and aluminum canning of depleted uranium targets for the SRS nuclear reactors. Waste minimization and filtration efficiency are key to cost effective treatment of the supernate, because the waste filter cake generated is returned to the IT/SF. The DETF has been successfully optimized to achieve maximum efficiency and to minimize waste generation.

  12. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  13. Metal finishing wastewater pressure filter optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Norford, S.W.; Diener, G.A.; Martin, H.L.

    1992-12-31

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility, that uses precipitation and filtration which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. The LETF consists of three close-coupled treatment facilities: the Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF), which uses wastewater equalization, physical/chemical precipitation, flocculation, and filtration; the Chemical Treatment Facility (CTF), which slurries the filter cake generated from the DETF and pumps it to interim-StatuS RCRA storage tanks; and the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) which stores the waste from the CTF until the waste is stabilized/solidified for permanent disposal, 85% of the stored waste is from past nickel plating and aluminum canning of depleted uranium targets for the SRS nuclear reactors. Waste minimization and filtration efficiency are key to cost effective treatment of the supernate, because the waste filter cake generated is returned to the IT/SF. The DETF has been successfully optimized to achieve maximum efficiency and to minimize waste generation.

  14. Automatic tool path generation for finish machining

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Kwan S.; Loucks, C.S.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-03-01

    A system for automatic tool path generation was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for finish machining operations. The system consists of a commercially available 5-axis milling machine controlled by Sandia developed software. This system was used to remove overspray on cast turbine blades. A laser-based, structured-light sensor, mounted on a tool holder, is used to collect 3D data points around the surface of the turbine blade. Using the digitized model of the blade, a tool path is generated which will drive a 0.375 inch diameter CBN grinding pin around the tip of the blade. A fuzzified digital filter was developed to properly eliminate false sensor readings caused by burrs, holes and overspray. The digital filter was found to successfully generate the correct tool path for a blade with intentionally scanned holes and defects. The fuzzified filter improved the computation efficiency by a factor of 25. For application to general parts, an adaptive scanning algorithm was developed and presented with simulation results. A right pyramid and an ellipsoid were scanned successfully with the adaptive algorithm.

  15. Effect of silicone finishes on the burning behavior of polyester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyon, Julien Xavier Eric

    Polyester fibers are widely used as filling in home applications such as pillows or comforters. Silicone finishes can be used to reduce friction between fibers during processing or as softeners to impart a pleasant down like hand on the fibers. However, it has been reported that these added silicone-based finishes may have a negative effect on the burning behavior of polyester. This research examined the possible mechanisms that can modify the response of polyester fibers when subjected to a flame source. In this study, a spunbond needled polyester nonwoven substrate was treated with different commercial silicone-based finishes. A vertical flame test was used to compare the effect of silicone finishes on the burning behavior of polyester to the inherent burning behavior of untreated polyester. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were performed on spunbond polyester fabric samples to investigate the influence of silicone finishes on the thermal degradation of polyester in air. Residues from TGA were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with elemental analysis. Vertical flammability testing showed that even at a low level, the application of silicone-based finishes on a polyester substrate resulted in a dramatic increase of the flame propagation by preventing its inherent response to heat. Thermograms suggested that the silicone finishes had little or no effect on the thermal degradation of polyester substrates.

  16. An overview of plastic optical fiber end finishers at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Mishina, M.; Lindenmeyer, C.; Korienek, J.

    1993-11-01

    Several years ago the need for equipment to precisely finish the ends of plastic optical fibers was recognized. Many high energy physics experiments use thousands of these fibers which must be polished on one or both ends. A fast, easy-to-operate machine yielding repeatable finishes was needed. Three types of machines were designed and constructed that are in daily use at Fermilab, all finish the fiber ends by flycutting with a diamond tool. Althrough diamond flycutting of plastic is not new, the size and fragility of plastic optical fibers present several challenges.

  17. A study of the abrasive resistance of metal alloys with applications in dental prosthetic fixators.

    PubMed

    Gil, F J; Fernández, E; Manero, J M; Planell, J A; Sabrià, J; Cortada, M; Giner, L

    1995-01-01

    Wear is one of the main surface failure mechanisms in materials and it will play a leading role in substitutive dental biomaterials. The aim of the present study is to compare the abrasive wear of different metallic materials used in dental applications. The results show that the abrasive wear of alloys based on precious metals such as Pt, Pd, Au and Ag is higher than for Ti and Ti based alloys. The alloy with the highest wear resistance is the Co-Cr which exhibits as well the highest hardness and Young's modulus. Since the method corresponds to a well-established abrasive wear standard, the behaviour of the different materials can be easily compared.

  18. Abrasion-ablation model for neutron production in heavy ion reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1995-01-01

    In heavy ion reactions, neutron production at forward angles is observed to occur with a Gaussian shape that is centered near the beam energy and extends to energies well above that of the beam. This paper presents an abrasion-ablation model for making quantitative predictions of the neutron spectrum. To describe neutrons produced from the abrasion step of the reaction where the projectile and target overlap, the authors use the Glauber model and include effects of final-state interactions. They then use the prefragment mass distribution from abrasion with a statistical evaporation model to estimate the neutron spectrum resulting from ablation. Measurements of neutron production from Ne and Nb beams are compared with calculations, and good agreement is found.

  19. Influence of alumina and titanium dioxide coatings on abrasive wear resistance of AISI 1045 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Remolina, A.; Marulanda, J.

    2016-02-01

    This project aims to compare the behaviour of an AISI 1045 steel's abrasive wear resistance when is covered with aluminium oxide (Al2O3) or Titanium dioxide (TiO2), of nanometric size, using the technique of thermal hot spray, which allows to directly project the suspension particles on the used substrate. The tests are performed based on the ASTM G65-04 standard (Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Apparatus). The results show that the amount of, lost material increases linearly with the travelled distance; also determined that the thermal treatment of hardening-tempering and the alumina and titanium dioxide coatings decrease in average a 12.9, 39.6 and 29.3% respectively the volume of released material during abrasive wear test.

  20. Abrasive wear: The efects of fibres size on oil palm empty fruit bunch polyester composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasolang, S.; Kalam, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Suhadah, W. N.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to determine the effect of palm oil empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre size in dry sliding testing of polyester composite. These composite samples were produced by mixing raw OPEFB fibre with resin. The samples were prepared at different sizes of fibre (100, 125, 180 and 250μm). Abrasion Resistance Tester (TR-600) was used to carried out abrasive wear tests in dry sliding conditions. These tests were performed at room temperature for two different loads (10 and 30N) and at a constant sliding velocity of 1.4m/s. The specific wear rates of OPEFB polyester composites were obtained. The morphology of composite surface before and after tests was also examined using 3D microscope imaging. Preliminary work on thermal distribution at the abrasive wheel point was also conducted for selected samples.

  1. Photodetector Development for the Wheel Abrasion Experiment on the Sojourner Microrover of the Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Scheiman, David A.

    1997-01-01

    On-board the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, launched in December of 1996, is a small roving vehicle named Sojourner. On Sojourner is an experiment to determine the abrasive characteristics of the Martian surface, called the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The experiment works as follows: one of the wheels of the rover has a strip of black anodized aluminum bonded to the tread. The aluminum strip has thin coatings of aluminum, nickel and platinum deposited in patches. There are five (5) patches or samples of each metal, and the patches range in thickness from 200 A to 1000 A. The different metals were chosen for their differing hardness and their environmental stability. As the wheel is spun in the Martian soil, the thin patches of metal are abraded away, exposing the black anodization. The abrasion is monitored by measuring the amount of light reflected off of the samples. A photodetector was developed for this purpose, and that is the subject of this paper.

  2. Friction Process in the Presence of Hard Abrasive Particles — Cooperation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleksowicz, Selim; Mruk, Andrzej

    The paper presents the results of the investigation performed on a stand for model testing of the friction pair like a car disc brake. The tests were performed for the mating operation of a frictional node with the dosage of hard abrasive particles into the friction zone. Based on the observation of the phenomena in the friction zone and the analysis of the parameters describing operating conditions of a frictional node, physical models of the frictional node cooperation in the presence of hard abrasive particles have been proposed. During the tests, using the transparent material of a friction cover plate and a fast recording camera, a visual analysis of the material transfer in the friction zone was done. It allowed to positively verifying the proposed physical models of the frictional node cooperation in the presence of hard abrasive particles.

  3. 40 CFR 425.90 - Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish-splits subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE... resulting from any tannery which processes previously unhaired and tanned splits into finished leather...

  4. 40 CFR 463.30 - Applicability; description of the finishing water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing... the finishing water subcategory are processes where water comes in contact with the plastic...

  5. 40 CFR 463.30 - Applicability; description of the finishing water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing... the finishing water subcategory are processes where water comes in contact with the plastic...

  6. Considerations on the European Standard EN 14157 Test Methods: Abrasion Resistance of Natural Stones Used for Flooring in Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaca, Z.; Günes Yılmaz, N.; Goktan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, the Wide Wheel abrasion (WWA) test and the Böhme abrasion (BA) test are among the most widely used standard test methods for determining abrasion resistance of natural stones, the former being the reference test method in EN 14157 Standard. However, it is stated in the Annex-A (Informative) of EN 14157 Standard that very limited data are available to provide correlations between these two test methods. To be able to fill this gap, in this study, 25 different natural stones belonging to sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous groups were tested for their abrasion resistance as well as physico-mechanical properties. Also, for a better interpretation of abrasion resistance characteristics of the tested stone materials, relationships between abrasion resistance and physico-mechanical properties were statistically examined. A statistically significant linear correlation ( R 2 = 0.85; P value = 0.000) was established between the WWA test and the BA test, which could be used in practice for converting the measured abrasion resistance values from one testing method to another. It was also found that the correlation between these two test methods improved significantly ( R 2 = 0.93; P value = 0.001) when relatively high-porosity stone materials (porosity ≥1%) were separately evaluated. Both methods of abrasion resistance employed in the present study showed statistically significant linear correlations with uniaxial compressive strength and Brazilian tensile strength, the former proving to be a more influencing parameter on resistance to abrasion. Also, from the point view of representing actual abrasion mechanism of stone materials in practice, the necessity of simulating multi-directional foot traffic in abrasion testing methods was discussed. In this respect, the reference test method in the EN 14157 Standard was criticized for not fully meeting this requirement. It was also pointed out that the reference method could have some drawbacks when applied to coarse

  7. Comparison of methods for quantifying dental wear caused by erosion and abrasion.

    PubMed

    Passos, Vanara F; Melo, Mary A S; Vasconcellos, Andréa Araújo; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A; Santiago, Sérgio L

    2013-02-01

    Various methods have been applied to evaluate the effect of erosion and abrasion. So, the aim of this study was to check the applicability of stylus profilometry (SP), surface hardness (SH) and focus-variation 3D microscopy (FVM) to the analysis of human enamel and dentin subjected to erosion/abrasion. The samples were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 10): G1-enamel/erosion, G2-enamel/erosion plus abrasion, G3-dentin/erosion, and G4-dentin/erosion plus abrasion. The specimens were selected by their surface hardness, and they were subjected to cycles of demineralization (Coca-Cola®-60 s) and remineralization (artificial saliva-60 min). For groups G2 and G4, the remineralization procedures were followed by toothbrushing (150 strokes). The above cycle was repeated 3×/day during 5 days. The samples were assessed using SH, SP, and FVM. For each substrate, the groups were compared using an unpaired t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated (α = 5%). For enamel, both profilometry technique showed greater surface loss when the erosion and abrasion processes were combined (P <0.05). The correlation analysis did not reveal any relationships among SH, SP, and FVM to G2 and G4. There were significant correlation coefficients (-0.70 and -0.67) for the comparisons between the FVM and SH methods in enamel and dentin, respectively, in G1 and G3. Choosing the ideal technique for the analysis of erosion depends on the type of dental substrate. SP was not sufficiently sensitive to measure the effects on dentin of erosion or erosion/abrasion. However, SP, FVM and SH were adequate for the detection of tissue loss and demineralization in enamel. PMID:23129538

  8. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were badly abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub -layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This Paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, and shares the results and conclusions of the testing.

  9. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were severely abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub-layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, shares the results of the testing, and provides recommendations for future work.

  10. Electrocoagulation treatment of metal finishing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Odongo, Isabel E; McFarland, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Electrocoagulation has been found to be a consistent and reliable industrial wastewater treatment process capable of removing heavy metals to levels well below pretreatment discharge standards. Results from the testing of a 113 L/min pilot scale electrocoagulation unit indicated that electrocoagulation was capable of decreasing the cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations from 0.14, 18.1, and 0.06 parts per million (ppm) to 0.029, 0.039, and 0.020 ppm respectively, at a 1-min hydraulic retention time. In the presence of a strong chelating substance, electrocoagulation performance was found to be effective in reducing both chromium and nickel concentrations to levels well below discharge limits. At a pH of 8.0, chromium and nickel influent concentrations of 0.328 and 0.062 ppm, respectively, were reduced to 0.005 and 0.04 ppm. The electrocoagulation removal efficiency for chromium remained high at over 98% and appeared to be unaffected by the presence of chelating substances. Utilizing aluminum as the sacrificial anode improved the removal efficiency of targeted heavy metals when the industrial wastewater was treated under acidic conditions. At a pH of 5.6, the influent concentrations of the regulated heavy metals cadmium, chromium, and nickel were reduced from 0.55, 49.7, and 13.7 ppm, respectively, to 0.013, 2.7, and 0.8 ppm at a 1-min hydraulic retention time. The results of these tests suggest that the formation of ferric hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide through the electrocoagulation process may be an effective approach for treating metal finishing wastewaters.

  11. Subsurface mechanical damage during bound abrasive grinding of fused silica glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaineau, P.; André, D.; Laheurte, R.; Darnis, P.; Darbois, N.; Cahuc, O.; Neauport, J.

    2015-10-01

    The subsurface damage (SSD) introduced during bound abrasive grinding of fused silica glass was measured using a wet etch technique. Various process parameters and grinding configurations were studied. The relation between the SSD depth, the process parameters and forces applied by the grinding wheel on the sample was investigated and compared to a simulation using a discrete element method to model the grinding interface. The results reveal a relation between the SSD depth and the grinding forces normalized by the abrasive concentration. Regarding the creation of the SSD, numerical simulations indicate that only a small fraction of the largest particles in the diamond wheel are responsible for the depth of the damaged layer.

  12. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-arresting path shall be plane to within a maximum deviation of one-half the maximum clearance specified in § 18.31(a)(6). All metal surfaces forming a flame-arresting path shall be finished during...

  13. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-arresting path shall be plane to within a maximum deviation of one-half the maximum clearance specified in § 18.31(a)(6). All metal surfaces forming a flame-arresting path shall be finished during...

  14. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-arresting path shall be plane to within a maximum deviation of one-half the maximum clearance specified in § 18.31(a)(6). All metal surfaces forming a flame-arresting path shall be finished during...

  15. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-arresting path shall be plane to within a maximum deviation of one-half the maximum clearance specified in § 18.31(a)(6). All metal surfaces forming a flame-arresting path shall be finished during...

  16. Portable flooring protects finished surfaces, is easily moved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmody, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    To protect curved, finished surface and provide support for workmen, portable flooring has been made from rigid plastic foam blocks, faced with aluminum strips. Held together by nylon webbing, the flooring can be rolled up for easy carrying.

  17. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-12-03

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  18. Use of Optical Mapping in Bacterial Genome Finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dibyendu

    2010-06-03

    Dibyendu Kumar from the University of Florida discusses whole-genome optical mapping to help validate bacterial genome assemblies on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF KLEBSIELLA FROM TEXTILE FINISHING PLANT EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Klebsiella strains are found in abnormally high numbers in a stream receiving wastewater from a textile finishing plant. Representative strains are randomly selected to determine biochemical, serotype, and virulence patterns. All strains conform to the commonly accepted biochemic...

  20. Large planer for finishing smooth, flat surfaces of large pieces ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Large planer for finishing smooth, flat surfaces of large pieces of metal; in operating condition and used for public demonstrations. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  1. VIEW FROM DOWN STREAM OF ARCH IN ELEVATION. NOTE FINISHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM DOWN STREAM OF ARCH IN ELEVATION. NOTE FINISHED INTERIOR ARCH. SSW BY 205 DEGREES - Chasm Brook Bridge, Spanning Chasm Brook on West Sargent Mountain Carriage Road, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  2. 2. DETAIL VIEW OF JOURNAL LATHE, AXLE FINISHING AREA. Grinding ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW OF JOURNAL LATHE, AXLE FINISHING AREA. Grinding bearing diameters on locomotive axle. Norton grinder, 1942 (dated). Melvin Grassmeyer, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  3. 3. DETAIL VIEW OF JOURNAL LATHE, AXLE FINISHING AREA. Grinding ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL VIEW OF JOURNAL LATHE, AXLE FINISHING AREA. Grinding bearing diameters on locomotive axle. Norton grinder, 1942 (dated). Melvin Grassmeyer, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  4. 55. VIEW OF FINISHED CONCRETE COUNTERWEIGHT CAR SUPPORTED BY BLOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW OF FINISHED CONCRETE COUNTERWEIGHT CAR SUPPORTED BY BLOCK AND TACKLE ASSEMBLY LOOKING WEST, Date unknown, circa January 1948. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. NK cells are necessary for recovery of corneal CD11c+ dendritic cells after epithelial abrasion injury

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanisms controlling CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs during corneal epithelial wound healing were investigated in a murine model of corneal abrasion. Selective depletion of NKp46(+) CD3- NK cells that normally migrate into the cornea after epithelial abrasion resulted in >85% reduction of the epithelial CD1...

  6. Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with attention to the effects of reused abradant

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Dehoff, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    Abrasive wear is among the most common and costliest causes for material wastage, and it occurs in many forms. A simple method has been developed to quantify the response of metals and alloys to two-body wet abrasion. A metallographic polishing machine was modified to create a disk-on-flat sliding test rig. Adhesive-backed SiC grinding papers were used under fixed load and speed to rank the abrasive wear of seven alloy steels, some of which are candidates for drill cones for geothermal drilling. Standardized two-body abrasion tests, like those described in ASTM G132, feed unused abrasive into the contact; however, the current work investigated whether useful rankings could still be obtained with a simpler testing configuration in which specimens repeatedly slide on the same wear path under water-lubricated conditions. Tests using abrasive grit sizes of 120 and 180 resulted in the same relative ranking of the alloys although the coarser grit produced more total wear. Wear decreased when the same abrasive disk was re-used for up to five runs, but the relative rankings of the steels remained the same. This procedure was presented to ASTM Committee G2 on Wear and Erosion as a potential standard test for wet two-body abrasive wear.

  7. Impact of Abrasion on Mass Loss and Surface Appearance of Woven Fabrics Made with Injected Slub Yarn in Weft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Nemai Chandra; Mukhopadhyay, Arunangshu; Midha, Vinay Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Fancy yarn fabrics are susceptible to abrasive damage during washing and usage but the extent of damage varies with construction and type of fabric. In the present study, effect of different slub parameters viz. slub length, slub thickness and slub frequency of single base injected slub yarn on abrasive damage of woven fabrics has been studied when injected slub yarns are used in weft only. Abrasive damage has been assessed by two ways using loss in fabric mass and deterioration in fabric appearance due to abrasion. These two techniques provide entirely different effect of injected slub yarn parameters on abrasive damage of woven fabric. Fabric abrasion damage in terms of mass loss is not affected by slub thickness and damage is least when both slub length and slub frequency are at central/medium level. Under visual assessment it is observed that all the slub parameters have significant influence on abrasive damage of woven fabric. It is possible to have lower damage in surface appearance in spite of higher mass loss of fabric due to abrasion.

  8. 8. Finish line, marked by white poles, as viewed from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Finish line, marked by white poles, as viewed from infield tote board. Shown are all the best locations for viewing the finish line, including the Clubhouse on the left and Original Grandstand on the right. For a similar view taken in 1939 by a photographer for the Seattle Post-Intelligencer newspaper, see photo WA-201-24. (August 1993) - Longacres, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  9. An evaluation of wear of human enamel opposed by ceramics of different surface finishes

    PubMed Central

    Mulay, Gauri; Dugal, Ramandeep; Buhranpurwala, Murtuza

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Surface of porcelain restoration is a matter of clinical concern because of its abrasive action on the opposing enamel. Purpose: This study comparatively evaluated wear of enamel when opposed by three different surface finishes of ceramic. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 metal-ceramic discs (10 mm × 2 mm) with different surface finishes were fabricated. They were divided into four groups of autoglazed ceramic surface, over glazed ceramic surface, ceramic surface polished with Shofu polishing kit and ceramic surface polished with DFS polishing wheels and paste. Each group comprised of 15 discs. Sixty human teeth samples were prepared from freshly extracted, unrestored, caries free, nonattrited maxillary first premolars. Each tooth sample was weighed before wear testing using AT200 Mettler Toledo electronic analytical balance of 0.0001 g accuracy. Occlusal surfaces of these teeth were then abraded against the substrates in a wear machine for a total of 10,000 cycles. Each tooth sample was weighed after 5000 cycles and after the total of 10,000 cycles, respectively, using the same balance. Differences in weight of tooth samples before and after wear testing were evaluated statistically using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's correction for multiple group comparisons. Results: The values obtained for percentage weight loss after 10,000 cycles for over glazed ceramic surface were marginally higher than values obtained for autoglazed surface. It was observed that values obtained for percentage weight loss by polished ceramic after 10,000 cycles were statistically less as compared to the values obtained with autoglazed and over glazed ceramic surface (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the values obtained by polished ceramic surfaces of two different groups. Conclusion: Enamel wear produced by polished porcelain is substantially less than autoglazed and over glazed porcelain. No significant

  10. Prevalence of clinical signs of disease in Danish finisher pigs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, H H; Nielsen, E O; Hassing, A-G; Ersbøll, A K; Nielsen, J P

    2008-03-22

    Between December 1999 and February 2001, two visits, eight weeks apart, were made to 90 herds of Danish finisher pigs. The prevalence of clinical signs was recorded by three veterinary technicians from the Danish Bacon and Meat Council according to a standardised procedure; they had been trained and their observations were monitored and validated before and during the study. A total of 154,347 finisher pigs were examined and 22,136 clinical signs were recorded. Vices accounted for 43 per cent of the signs. The highest mean prevalence was observed for ear necrosis (4.44 per cent), followed by respiratory signs (2.17 per cent), lameness (1.92 per cent), other skin diseases (1.73 per cent), tail bites (1.26 per cent), umbilical hernia (0.78 per cent), flank bites (0.52 per cent), diarrhoea (0.27 per cent), respiratory distress (0.12 per cent), atrophic rhinitis (0.10 per cent), recumbency (0.09 per cent) and central nervous disease (0.05 per cent). The prevalence of atrophic rhinitis was higher in conventional herds than in specific pathogen-free herds. The prevalence of clinical signs of atrophic rhinitis was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg than among finishers weighing up to 50 kg, and the prevalence of respiratory signs was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg then among finishers weighing 76 to 100 kg. PMID:18359931

  11. Microstructural influence on abrasive wear resistance of high-strength, high-toughness medium-carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, C.K.; Thomas, G.

    1982-09-01

    A systematic study of abrasive wear resistance of Fe/Cr/Mn experimental steels has been carried out in two-body pin-on-disc abrasion tests. Silicon carbide, alumina, and quartz were used as abrasives. The relationships between microstructures, mechanical properties, and abrasive wear resistance for these experimental steels were studied. In addition, several commercial alloys were tested to provide a basis for comparison. Results show that dislocated lath martensite with continuous interlath film of retained austenite appears to be a desirable microstructure for good wear resistance. Grain refinement by double heat treatment was found to improve the toughness in the experimental steels but have little effect on the abrasive wear resistance. In general, superior tensile properties and wear resistance, without sacrifice in toughness, can be achieved by a lath martensitic microstructure. 8 figures.

  12. NK cells modulate the inflammatory response to corneal epithelial abrasion and thereby support wound healing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural killer cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that have crucial cytotoxic and regulatory roles in adaptive immunity and inflammation. Herein, we consider a role for these cells in corneal wound healing. After a 2-mm central epithelial abrasion of the mouse cornea, a subset of clas...

  13. Platelet response to corneal abrasion is necessary for acute inflammation and efficient re-epithelialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Adhesion molecules play a critical role in leukocyte emigration to wound sites, but differences are evident in different vascular beds. This study investigates the contributions of P-selectin to neutrophil emigration into the cornea following central epithelial abrasion. Methods: Re-epithel...

  14. Maintenance and preservation of concrete structures. Report 3: Abrasion-erosion resistance of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. C.

    1980-07-01

    This report describes a laboratory test program on abrasion-erosion resistance of concrete, including the development of a new underwater abrasion-erosion test method. This program was designed to evaluate the relative abrasion-erosion resistance of various materials considered for use in the repair of erosion-damaged concrete structures. The test program encompassed three concrete types (conventional concrete, fiber-reinforced concrete, and polymer concrete); seven aggregate types (limestone, chert, trap rock, quartzite, granite, siliceous gravel, and slag); three principal water-cement rations (0.72, 0.54, and 0.40); and six types of surface treatment (vacuum, polyurethane coating, acrylic mortar coating, epoxy mortar coating, furan resin mortar coating, and iron aggregate topping). A total of 114 specimens made from 41 batches of concrete was tested. Based on the test data obtained, a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of various parameters on the abrasion-erosion resistance of concrete was presented. Materials suitable for use in the repair of erosion-damaged concrete structures were recommended. Additional work to correlate the reported findings with field performance was formulated.

  15. Abrasion and fracture testing in a high-pressure hydrogen environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sneesby, G. V.; Walker, R. J.

    1969-01-01

    Two devices are necessary for abrasion and fracture testing of materials evaluated for storage of hydrogen at high pressure for long periods. The first device abrades tensile specimens. The second device tests for fracture toughness of metals. Both devices permit testing in both yield and failure modes in high pressure hydrogen.

  16. Investigation of abrasion in Al–MgO metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Muharr em Pul; Çalin, Recep; Gül, Ferhat

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the effects of reinforcement volume fractions on abrasive wear behavior were examined in Al–MgO reinforced metal matrix composites of 5%, 10% and 15% reinforcement – volume ratios produced by melt-stirring. Abrasive wear tests were carried out by 60, 80 and 100 mesh sized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} abrasive papers and pin-on-disc wear test apparatus under 10, 20 and 30 N loads at 0.2 m/s sliding speed. The mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture strength were determined. Subsequent to the wear tests, the microstructures of worn surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscope analyses. While increased MgO reinforcement volume fraction in the composite resulted increased hardness, fracture strength was determined to decrease. Additionally, it was found that increased MgO reinforcement volume fraction in the composite was accompanied with increased wear loss and porosity as well as reinforcement – volume ratio was identified to be significant determinants of abrasive wear behavior.

  17. PAGMan - propelled abrasive grit to manage weeds in soybean and corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New tools for controlling weeds would be useful for soybean and corn production in organic systems or in systems in which weeds developed resistance to multiple herbicides. Here we report on two developments: (i) the safety to soybean seedlings of using air-propelled abrasive grit (PAG) for managing...

  18. Air-propelled abrasive grit for postemergence in-row weed control in field corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic growers need additional tools for weed control. A new technique involving abrasive grit propelled by compressed air was tested in field plots. Grit derived from corn cobs was directed at seedlings of summer annual weeds growing at the bases of corn plants when the corn was at differing early...

  19. Platelet recruitment promotes keratocyte repopulation following corneal epithelial abrasion in the mouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corneal abrasion not only damages the epithelium but also induces stromal keratocyte death at the site of injury. While a coordinated cascade of inflammatory cell recruitment facilitates epithelial restoration, it is unclear if this cascade is necessary for keratocyte recovery. Since platelet and ne...

  20. IBPAT/OSHA Health and Safety Education Quiz Book. Painters, Abrasive Blasters, Tapers, Paint Makers, Floorcoverers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades, Washington, DC.

    Designed for use by instructors using the "Health and Safety Education Book" (International Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades/Occupational Safety and Health Act), this book contains quizzes specifically for painters, abrasive blasters, tapers, paint makers, and floorcoverers. Quizzes included in the book focus on testing areas such as (1)…

  1. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  6. Tribological properties of amorphous alloys and the role of surfaces in abrasive wear of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The research approach undertaken by the authors relative to the subject, and examples of results from the authors are reviewed. The studies include programs in adhesion, friction, and various wear mechanisms (adhesive and abrasive wear). The materials which have been studied include such ceramic and metallic materials as silicon carbide, ferrites, diamond, and amorphous alloys.

  7. Laser abrasion for cosmetic and medical treatment of facial actinic damage

    SciTech Connect

    David, L.M.; Lask, G.P.; Glassberg, E.; Jacoby, R.; Abergel, R.P.

    1989-06-01

    Previous studies have shown the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser to be effective in the treatment of actinic cheilitis. After CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion, normal skin and marked cosmetic improvement of the lip were noted. In our study, twenty-three patients were treated with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasions for cosmetic improvement of facial lines and actinic changes. Pre- and postoperative histopathologic examinations were made on two patients. Preoperative examination of specimens from actinically damaged skin showed atypical keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, with overlying dense compact orthokeratosis and parakeratosis. Abundant solar elastosis was seen in the papillary dermis. Postoperative histologic specimens showed a normal-appearing epidermis with fibrosis in the papillary dermis and minimal solar elastosis (about four weeks after laser treatment). At present, various modalities are available for the regeneration of the aged skin, including chemical peels and dermabrasion. Significantly fewer complications were noted with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion than with these methods. Thus, CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion can be useful in the cosmetic and medical treatment of the aged skin. Marked clinical and histologic improvement has been demonstrated.

  8. Intraoral leukoplakia, abrasion, periodontal breakdown, and tooth loss in a snuff dipper.

    PubMed

    Christen, A G; Armstrong, W R; McDaniel, R K

    1979-04-01

    Dentists should be aware that snuff dipping or chewing is increasing in southern states and perhaps in other sections of the United States. These habits can lead to clinical leukoplakia, gingival recession, tooth abrasion, and periodontal bone destruction. The possibility also exists that a malignant transformation of leukoplakia can develop in persons who use snuff and other forms of tobacco. PMID:285136

  9. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da; Ritchie, Robert O.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  10. Liquid abrasive grit blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, R.L.

    1993-10-01

    Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using the current decontamination techniques of chemical/water flushes and steam jet cleaning. With the curtailment of reprocessing at the ICPP, the focus of decontamination is shifting from maintenance for continued operation of the facilities to decommissioning. As decommissioning plans are developed, new decontamination methods must be used which result in higher decontamination factors and generate lower amounts of sodium-bearing secondary waste. The primary initiative of the WINCO Decontamination Development Program is the development of methods to eliminate/minimize the use of sodium-bearing decontamination chemicals. One method that was chosen for cold scoping studies during FY-93 was abrasive grit blasting. Abrasive grit blasting has been used in many industries and a vast amount of research and development has already been conducted. However, new grits, process improvements and ICPP applicability was investigated. This evaluation report is a summary of the research efforts and scoping tests using the liquid abrasive grit blasting decontamination technique. The purpose of these scoping tests was to determine the effectiveness of three different abrasive grits: plastic beads, glass beads and alumina oxide.

  11. Forecasting of operational indicators of grinding tools with the controlled form and orientation of abrasive grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkov, V. A.; Minkin, E. M.

    2015-09-01

    The interconnection of the abrasive grain front angle parameter with the form, orientation and wear out parameters is investigated. The form of the abrasive grains was estimated by means of form coefficient which represents the relation of diameters of the spheres described around contours of grains, to diameters of the spheres entered in them. The spatial orientation angle of the abrasive grains was defined between main (i.e. the biggest) axis of the grains and the cutting plane. It is established that, depending on an orientation angle at increase in a form coefficient of the abrasive grains can be either an increase or a decrease in the values of their front angles. In most cases, with an increase in a form coefficient of the oriented grinding grains (at orientation angles Θ=10°÷125°) the growth of their front angles is fixed. At tangential orientation of grains (Θ=0°) and at the close directions of orientation (Θ=135°÷80°) the return picture is observed. Also established that the longer the abrasive grain wears along the main axis and located in the tool body, the larger is its front angle. Besides that, the front angles of the abrasive grains reach the maximum positive values at orientation angles Θ=22.5°÷45°.Dependence of tension in grains during the work with parameters of their form, orientation and depth of embedment in the bundle is investigated. It was found that for all orientation angles of grains their tension significantly increases with an increase in their form coefficient. Besides that it is confirmed that the deeper the grain is in the bundle, the lower the tension is there. Also found that tension is minimal when the grains are tangential orientated. Further on increase the option of the grains in the direction of action of the cutting force follows. Such option of orientation is the most rational both from the point of view of minimization of tension, and for ensuring rational sizes of front angles of the abrasive grains. The

  12. The Effect of Pleural Abrasion on the Treatment of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Mo-yu; Cai, Shuang-qi; Chen, Yi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Pleural abrasion has been widely used to control the recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). However, controversy still exists regarding the advantages and disadvantages of pleural abrasion compared with other interventions in preventing the recurrence of PSP. Methods The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched up to December 15, 2014 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of pleural abrasion with those of other interventions in the treatment of PSP. The study outcomes included the PSP recurrence rate and the occurrence rate of adverse effects. Results Mechanical pleural abrasion and apical pleurectomy after thoracoscopic stapled bullectomy exhibited similarly persistent postoperative air leak occurrence rates (p = 0.978) and 1-year PSP recurrence rates (p = 0.821), whereas pleural abrasion led to reduced residual chest pain and discomfort (p = 0.001) and a smaller rate of hemothorax (p = 0.036) than did apical pleurectomy. However, the addition of minocycline pleurodesis to pleural abrasion did not reduce the pneumothorax recurrence rate compared with apical pleurectomy (3.8% for both procedures) but was associated with fewer complications. There was no statistical difference in the pneumothorax recurrence rate between mechanical pleural abrasion and chemical pleurodesis with minocycline on either an intention-to-treat basis (4 of 42 versus 0 of 42, p = 0.12; Fisher exact test) or after exclusions (2 of 40 versus 0 of 42, p = 0.24; Fisher exact test). Pleural abrasion plus minocycline pleurodesis also did not reduce the pneumothorax recurrence rate compared with pleural abrasion alone (p = 0.055). Moreover, pleural abrasion plus minocycline pleurodesis was associated with more intense acute chest pain. The postoperative overall recurrence rate in patients who underwent staple line coverage with absorbable cellulose mesh and fibrin glue was similar to that

  13. 40 CFR 410.40 - Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... woven fabric finishing subcategory. 410.40 Section 410.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.40 Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing... following types of textile mills: woven fabric finishers, which may include any or all of the following...

  14. Orthodontic treatment outcomes obtained by application of a finishing protocol

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Flórez, Alvaro; Barbosa-Lis, Diana María; Zapata-Noreña, Oscar Arturo; Marín-Velásquez, Julissa Andrea; Afanador-Bayona, Sergio Andrés

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the results of a finishing protocol implemented in patients treated in the Orthodontics graduate program at Universidad de Antioquia. Evaluation was carried out by means of the criteria set by the Objective Grading System (OGS) of the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO). Methods: Cast models and panoramic radiographs of 34 patients were evaluated. The intervention group (IG) consisted of 17 patients (19.88 ± 4.4 years old) treated under a finishing protocol. This protocol included training in finishing, application of a finishing guide, brackets repositioning and patient's follow-up. Results of the IG were compared to a control group of 17 patients (21.88 ± 7.0 years old) selected by stratified randomization without finishing intervention (CG). Results: The scores for both CG and IG were 38.00 ± 9.0 and 31.41 ± 9.6 (p = 0.048), respectively. The score improved significantly in the IG group, mainly regarding marginal ridges (CG: 5.59 ± 2.2; IG: 3.65 ± 1.8) (p = 0.009) and root angulation (CG: 7.59 ± 2.8; IG: 4.88 ± 2.6) (p = 0.007). Criteria that did not improve, but had the highest scores were: alignment (CG: 6.35 ± 2.7; IG: 6.82 ± 2.8) (p = 0.62) and buccolingual inclination (CG: 3.6 ± 5.88; IG: 5.29 ± 3.9) (p = 0.65). Conclusions: Standardization and implementation of a finishing protocol contributed to improve clinical performance in the Orthodontics graduate program, as expressed by occlusal outcomes. Greater emphasis should be given on the finishing phase to achieve lower scores in the ABO grading system. PMID:27275620

  15. Gingival abrasion and recession in manual and oscillating–rotating power brush users

    PubMed Central

    Rosema, NAM; Adam, R; Grender, JM; Van der Sluijs, E; Supranoto, SC; Van der Weijden, GA

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess gingival recession (GR) in manual and power toothbrush users and evaluate the relationship between GR and gingival abrasion scores (GA). Methods This was an observational (cross-sectional), single-centre, examiner-blind study involving a single-brushing exercise, with 181 young adult participants: 90 manual brush users and 91 oscillating–rotating power brush users. Participants were assessed for GR and GA as primary response variables. Secondary response variables were the level of gingival inflammation, plaque score reduction and brushing duration. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between number of recession sites and number of abrasions. Prebrushing (baseline) and post-brushing GA and plaque scores were assessed and differences analysed using paired tests. Two-sample t-test was used to analyse group differences; ancova was used for analyses of post-brushing changes with baseline as covariate. Results Overall, 97.8% of the study population had at least one site of ≥1 mm of gingival recession. For the manual group, this percentage was 98.9%, and for the power group, this percentage was 96.7% (P = 0.621). Post-brushing, the power group showed a significantly smaller GA increase than the manual group (P = 0.004); however, there was no significant correlation between number of recession sites and number of abrasions for either group (P ≥ 0.327). Conclusions Little gingival recession was observed in either toothbrush user group; the observed GR levels were comparable. Lower post-brushing gingival abrasion levels were seen in the power group. There was no correlation between gingival abrasion as a result of brushing and the observed gingival recession following use of either toothbrush. PMID:24871587

  16. Finished Prokaryotic Genome Assemblies from a Low-cost Combination of Short and Long Reads (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Yin, Shuangye (Broad Institute)

    2016-07-12

    Shuangye Yin on "Finished prokaryotic genome assemblies from a low-cost combination of short and long reads" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  17. Finished Prokaryotic Genome Assemblies from a Low-cost Combination of Short and Long Reads (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Shuangye

    2012-06-01

    Shuangye Yin on "Finished prokaryotic genome assemblies from a low-cost combination of short and long reads" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  18. WC-Co and Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in Low- and High-Stress Abrasive Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kašparová, Michaela; Zahálka, František; Houdková, Šárka

    2011-03-01

    The article deals with the evaluation of abrasive wear resistance and adhesive strength of thermally sprayed coatings. The main attention was paid to differences between low- and high-stress abrasive conditions of the measuring. Conclusions include the evaluation of specific properties of the WC-Co and the Cr3C2-NiCr High Velocity Oxygen Fuel coatings and the evaluation of the changes in the behavior of the abrasive media. Mainly, the relationship between the low- and high-stress abrasion conditions and the wear mechanism in the tested materials was described. For the wear test, the abrasive media of Al2O3 and SiO2 sands were chosen. During wear tests, the volume loss of the tested materials and the surface roughness of the wear tracks were measured. The wear tracks on the tested materials and abrasive sands' morphologies were observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. It was found that high-stress abrasive conditions change the coatings' behavior very significantly, particularly that of the Cr3C2-NiCr coating. Adhesive-cohesive properties of the coatings and relationships among individual structure particles were evaluated using tensile testing. It was found that the weak bond strength among the individual splats, structure particles, and phases plays a role in the poor wear resistance of the coatings.

  19. Comparison between PEEK and Ti6Al4V concerning micro-scale abrasion wear on dental applications.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, M; Buciumeanu, M; Henriques, B; Silva, F S; Souza, J C M; Gomes, J R

    2016-07-01

    In the oral cavity, abrasive wear is predictable at exposed tooth or restorative surfaces, during mastication and tooth brushing. Also, wear can occur at contacting surfaces between the Ti-based prosthetic structures and implants in presence of abrasive compounds from food or toothpaste. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare the abrasive wear resistance of PEEK and Ti6Al4V on three-body abrasion related to different hydrated silica content and loads. Surfaces of Ti6Al4V or PEEK cylinders (8mm diameter and 4mm height) were wet ground on SiC papers and then polished with 1µm diamond paste. After that, surfaces were ultrasonically cleaned in propyl alcohol for 15min and then in distilled water for 10min. Micro-scale abrasion tests were performed at 60rpm and on different normal loads (0.4, 0.8 or 1.2N) after 600 ball revolutions using suspensions with different weight contents of hydrated silica. After abrasive tests, wear scars on flat samples were measured to quantify the wear volume and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify the dominant wear mechanisms. Results showed a higher volume loss rate on PEEK than that recorded on Ti6Al4V,, when subjected to three-body abrasion tests involving hydrated silica suspensions. An increase in volume loss was noted on both tested materials when the abrasive content or load was increased. PEEK was characterized by less wear resistance than that on Ti6Al4V after micro-scale abrasion wear in contact with hydrated silica particles, as commonly found in toothpastes. PMID:26849309

  20. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Abrasion of mechanical components and fabrics by soil on Earth is typically minimized by the effects of atmosphere and water. Potentially abrasive particles lose sharp and pointed geometrical features through erosion. In environments where such erosion does not exist, such as the vacuum of the Moon, particles retain sharp geometries associated with fracturing of their parent particles by micrometeorite impacts. The relationship between hardness of the abrasive and that of the material being abraded is well understood, such that the abrasive ability of a material can be estimated as a function of the ratio of the hardness of the two interacting materials. Knowing the abrasive nature of an environment (abrasive)/construction material is crucial to designing durable equipment for use in such surroundings. The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement; in some cases, considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for de tailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness par ameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Further - more, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized

  1. Effect of tooth brushing and thermal cycling on a surface change of ceromers finished with different methods.

    PubMed

    Cho, L-R; Yi, Y-J; Heo, S-J

    2002-09-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of tooth brushing and thermal cycling on the surface lustre and surface roughness of three ceromer systems treated with different surface finishing methods. The ceromers studied were: (1). Artglass, (2). Targis, (3). Sculpture and (4). the control group, Z 100. Half of the Targis and Sculpture groups were polished and the rest were coated with staining and glazing solution, respectively. All specimens were subjected to thermocycling 10000 times. Tooth brushing abrasion tests were performed in a customized tooth-brushing machine with 500 g weight applied on a back-and-forth cycle for 20000 repetitions. The lustre determined by measuring the light reflection area and the average roughness was compared between groups and between pre- and post-test values. All materials showed a lower lustre and rougher surface after thermocycling and tooth brushing (P < 0.05). All ceromer specimens, except glazed Sculpture, showed a higher lustre and similar roughness to the control group. The post-brushing results revealed that glazed Sculpture presented discretely fallen out glaze coatings and had maximum change. However, stained Targis showed minimum change (P < 0.05) and polished Targis presented more changes than that of the staining treatment. It is therefore concluded that the glaze coatings for Sculpture don't exhibit long-term durability, while stain coatings for Targis acted like a protective layer.

  2. Early abrasion of outer silicone insulation after intracardiac lead friction in a patient with cardiac device-related infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Ząbek, Andrej; Małecka, Barbara; Kołodzińska, Agnieszka; Maziarz, Andrej; Lelakowski, Jacek; Kutarski, Andrej

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of a 76-year-old woman on a permanent pacing device, with early abrasion of silicone endocardial lead insulations complicated by lead-dependent infective endocarditis 13 months after placement of an implantable pulse generator. The leads were removed using transvenous technique with direct traction, and with no additional tools. In the previous report, a set of additional tools was used, and therefore intraoperative endocardial lead abrasions or mechanical damage of leads could have not been excluded. The present case undoubtedly proves that the friction of leads against each other may result in abrasions of insulation of the intracardiac section of the lead.

  3. Studies on Application of Aroma Finish on Silk Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipparagi, Sanganna Aminappa; Srinivasa, Thirumalappa; Das, Brojeswari; Naik, Subhas Venkatappa; Purushotham, Serampur Parappa

    2016-06-01

    Aromatic treatments on textiles have gained importance in the recent years. In the present article work has been done on fragrance finish application on silk material. Silk is an expensive natural fibre used for apparel purpose and known for its feel and appeal. Incorporation of fragrance material in silk product, will add more value to it. Present work focuses to impart durable aroma finish for silk products to be home washed or subjected to dry cleaning. Microencapsulated aroma chemical has been used for the treatment. Impregnation method, Exhaust method, Dip-Pad-Dry method and Spray method have been used to see the influence of application method on the uptake and performance. Evaluation of the aroma treated material has been done through subjective evaluation as per Odor Intensity Reference Scaling (OIRS). Effect of the aroma finishing on the physical properties of the fabric has also been studied. No adverse effect has been observed on the stiffness of the fabric after the aroma treatment.

  4. Relationship between Los Angeles attrition test and Nordic abrasion test of volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutilová, Kateřina; Prikryl, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Various volcanic rocks contribute significantly to the production of crushed stone in the Czech Republic. When used for road surfacing, results of Los Angeles attrition test (LA value below 25 or 30 depending on the mode of use) together with polished stone value are required. In the recent study, we have focused on the search for possible correlation between results obtained by Los Angeles attrition test and Nordic abrasion test, a test widely employed in Scandinavia. For the experimental study, a set of volcanic rocks from 36 active quarries was used. The rocks under study represent range of volcanic rocks from ultrabasic to acid members, formed form Neoproterozoic to Tertiary. The most favourable results of Los Angeles attrition test (i.e. the lowest LA values) were obtained for basalts (range of values 9.4-19.4) and spilites (range of values 8.4-14.9) which are in fact Neoproterozoic to Late Palaeozoic basalts affected by low grade metamorphism. Nordic abrasion test exhibited much broader range of values (6.4 to 36.9) with average value at 15.2 for basalts, resulting in weak coefficient of determination (0.19). . On contrary, narrow range of values from Nordic abrasion test of spilites (7.2-15.9), very similar to the range of LA values, is reflect in higher coefficient of determination (0.56). On contrary, the least favourable properties (LA values 12.3-29.2, Nordic abrasion 16.8-43.3) have been observed for a group of basic to intermediate rocks classified in older literature as melaphyres and diabases (ranging from basalts to trachyndesites and/or trachybasalts) of Palaeozoic age. However, in this specific group of volcanic rocks, the highest coefficient of determination (0.89) between both tests has been achieved. For volcanic rocks exhibiting acid composition (rhyolites and quartz porphyry), coefficient of determination between LA values (15.1-19.3) and Nordic abrasion test (7.3-21.9) is weak (0.42). The weakest relationship between LA values (14

  5. Abrasion and erosion testing of materials used in power production from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Tylczak, Joseph H.; Adler, Thomas A.; Rawers, James C.

    2003-09-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of studying abrasive wear, related to mineral testing, handling, and processing. The center has also been instrumental in the design and development of wear test procedures and equipment. Research capabilities at ARC include Pin-on-Drum, Pin-on-Disk, and Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel abrasion tests, Jaw Crusher gouging test, Ball-on-Ball Impact test, and Jet erosion tests. Abrasive and erosive wear studies have been used to develop both new alloys and improved heat treatments of commercial alloys. As part of ARC’s newest iteration on wear testing to evaluate materials for use in new and existing pulverized coal combustion and gasifier power systems, the ARC has designed and constructed a new High Temperature Hostile Atmosphere Erosion Wear Test (HAET). This new piece of test apparatus is designed for erosive particle velocities of 10-40 m/sec and temperatures from room temperature (23°C) to 800+°C, with special control over the gas atmosphere. A variable speed whirling arm design is used to vary the impact energy of the gravity fed erosive particles. The specimens are mounted at the edge of a disk and allow a full range of impingement angles to be selected. An electric furnace heats the specimens in an enclosed retort to the selected temperature. Tests include both oxidizing conditions and reducing conditions. A range of gases, including CO, CO2, CH4, H2, H2S, HCl, N2, O2, and SO2 can be mixed and delivered to the retort. During the erosion testing a stream of abrasive powder is delivered in front of the specimens. This apparatus is designed to use low abrasive fluxes, which simulate real operating conditions in commercial power plants. Currently ~270 μm SiO2 particles are being used to simulate the abrasive impurities typically found in coal. Since operators are always striving for longer lifetimes and higher operating temperatures, this apparatus can help elucidate mechanisms of wastage and identify superior

  6. Influence of surface finish on the cleanability of stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Frank, J F; Chmielewski, R

    2001-08-01

    Stainless steel for fabricating food processing equipment is available with various surface finishes. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of surface finish on cleanability. Nine samples of stainless steel, type 304, from various manufacturers including no finish (hot rolled and pickled), #4 finish, 2B mechanical polished, and electropolished were tested. Cleanability was assessed by using coupon samples soiled with either cultured milk inoculated with spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus or by growth of a Pseudomonas sp. biofilm. Samples were cleaned by immersion in a turbulent bath of 1.28% sodium hydroxide at 66 degrees C for 3 min followed by a sterile water rinse, neutralizing in 0.1% phosphoric acid for 30 s, rinsing in phosphate buffer, sanitizing in 100 ppm hypochlorite, neutralizing in sodium thiosulfate, and drying. To determine residual milk soil, coupon samples were covered with PM indicator agar and incubated for 25 h at 58 degrees C. Other coupons were subjected to an additional 10 soiling or cleaning cycles, and the residual protein was measured by using epifluorescent microscopy and image analysis. Results indicate that the spore count was more precise for measuring initial cleanability of the finished samples, and the protein residue determination was useful for determining the effect of repeated cleaning. Data on the removal of milk soil suggest that stainless steel should be purchased based on measures of surface defects rather than finish type. Surface defects, as determined using a surface roughness gauge, produced a correlation of 0.82 with spore counts. Data also indicated that biofilm was more difficult to remove than milk-based soil. PMID:11510656

  7. Micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of a biomedical Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in simulated physiological fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Yan; Huang, Weijiu; Chen, Xiaoli; He, Haoran

    2016-10-01

    The micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of the biomedical Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in Hank׳s solution with protein has been investigated using electrochemical measurements, tribological tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The potentiodynamic polarization tests showed that the corrosion potential (Ecorr) exhibits the maximum value at the abrasive concentration of 0.05gcm(-3) despite of the load level. The tribological results indicated that the total material loss of the Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy during micro-abrasion increased with the increasing abrasive concentration at a certain applied load. When the abrasive concentration is no more than 0.15gcm(-3), the total material loss increases with increasing load, while the total material loss exhibits the maximum value at a moderate load in case of higher abrasive concentration levels. This was ascribed to the three-body or two-body micro-abrasion-corrosion at different abrasive concentration levels. The wastage map, abrasion mode map and synergy map associated with the applied load and the abrasive concentration were constructed to evaluate the micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of the Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in potential biomedical applications.

  8. Effect of two different finishing systems on surface roughness of feldspathic and fluorapatite porcelains in ceramo-metal restorations: Comparative in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Anmol, Cherry; Soni, Sumeet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate and compare the effect of two ceramic finishing systems and diamond polishing paste on surface texture of two ceramic materials. Methodology: The 40 test specimens were randomly divided into two main groups (Group I and Group II). Which were subsequently veneered with feldspathic porcelain and fluorapatite leucite porcelain systems respectively. The samples in Test group I and Test group II were subjected to different abrasion and finishing systems (Soft Lex and White silicon and grey rubber respectively). The surface roughness of all the four groups was assessed qualitatively using the scanning Electron Microscope and profilometer. Results: The surface roughness of Feldspathic and fluorapetite porcelain increased after abrasion and finishing as compared to auto-glazed porcelin. The surface roughness was more in grey rubber disc group (Gp Ib) as compared to the soft lex disc groups. After polishing with the diamond paste, there was reduction in the surface roughness of both the disc groups. The Mean Ra values of the Feldspathic porcelain at three intervals were 0.52 ± 0.06, 0.54 ± 0.06, 0.32 ± 0.06 and 0.50 ± 0.04, 1.25 ± 0.10, 0.45 ± 0.6 respectively for grey rubber disc and soft lex groups. The Mean Ra values of Fluorapetite porcelain at three intervals were 0.40 ± 0.06, 0.52 ± 0.06, 0.30 ± 0.03 and 0.41 ± 0.04, 1.17 ± 0.09, 0.39 ± 0.07 respectively for grey rubber disc and soft lex groups. Discussion and Conclusion: The surface roughness was less in the polished samples as compared to the auto-glazed porcelain. The findings were more reinforcing in the soft lex group as compared to the white/grey rubber disc group. Between the two porcelain systems, the Fluorapatite leucite porcelain specimens exhibited better surface smoothness than feldspathic porcelain. PMID:24818090

  9. Bedform genesis in bedrock substrates: Insights into formative processes from a new experimental approach and the importance of suspension-dominated abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Daowei; Peakall, Jeff; Parsons, Dan; Chen, Zhongyuan; Averill, Heather Macdonald; Wignall, Paul; Best, Jim

    2016-02-01

    Bedrock channels are common in the natural environment, and bedrock channel erosion sets the pace of denudation in many river catchments. However, in comparison to the large number of studies concerning the formation of alluvial bedforms, relatively few investigations have concerned bedrock bedform genesis. Field-based analysis of sculptured forms within bedrock channels has been restricted notably by the slow rate of bedform development in such environments. Furthermore, only a limited number of flume-scale experiments have been conducted that attempt to simulate the genesis of sculpted bedforms in bedrock channels. This study demonstrates that optimisation of clay beds through analysis of clay strength enables the development of features analogous to bedrock river channel bedforms - even at a scale that is orders of magnitude smaller than some natural examples. Three sets of suspended sediment-laden experiments were carried out using hard, medium, and soft clay bed substrates. A suite of erosive bedforms (including potholes, flutes, and furrows) developed on all experimental beds. All observed erosional features have clear equivalents to those observed in natural bedrock rivers. Bed shear strength was found to be a significant factor for the genesis of different types of simulated bedrock bedforms in our experiments with other factors, such as flow velocity, bed slope, and flow depth held approximately constant. Importantly, in a subset of experiments performed with an absence of suspended sediment, fluid flow did not result in the erosion and development of bedforms in the clay bed. Hence, this work illustrates that abrasion by suspended sediments is the key process required for the formation of these simulated bedrock bedforms in our experiments, in the absence of bedload abrasion; other processes such as plucking, cavitation, and dissolution will have been negligible.

  10. Grinding force and microcrack density in abrasive machining of silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, H.H.K.; Wei, L.; Jahanmir, S.

    1995-12-01

    The relationship between grinding forces and the material`s resistance to microfracture is investigated in abrasive machining of silicon nitride ceramics. Surface grinding is performed on two forms of silicon nitride with different microstructures, and the grinding forces are measured. In addition, single-point scratching is performed on polished surfaces to amplify the damage associated with the action of an individual abrasive particle in grinding. A thermal wave measurement technique in then used on the cross sections to characterize the density of subsurface microcracks associated with scratching. Compared to a fine-grain silicon nitride, the density of microcracks in a coarse-grain silicon nitride is significantly larger, while the grinding force is smaller. The smaller grinding force for the coarse-grain silicon nitride is attributed to the ease of local intergranular microfracture and grain dislodgement during grinding. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Materials} {ital Research} {ital Society}.

  11. Influence of air abrasion tips and operation modes on enamel-cutting characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Peruchi, Cláudia; Santos-Pinto, Ary; Dias, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Ana Carolina Mascarenhas; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of air abrasion tips and system operation modes on enamel cutting. Methods: Forty bovine teeth were abraded with the air abrasion system Mach 4.1 for 10 and 15 seconds, employing conventional and sonic tips of 0.45-mm inner diameter and a 90° angle, and 27.5-μm aluminum oxide at 5.51 bar air pressure in continuous and pulsed modes. The width and depth of the resulting cuts were measured in SEM. Results: The multivariate analysis of variances revealed that, compared to the sonic tip, the conventional tip produced shallower cuts independent of the operation mode and the application period. Conclusions: The cutting patterns observed in this study suggest that the pulsed mode produced deeper cuts when both the conventional and sonic tips were used, and that the sonic tip cut more dental tissue than the conventional one. PMID:23408157

  12. Self-healing of the superhydrophobicity by ironing for the abrasion durable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingxia; Li, Jingye; Deng, Bo; Jiang, Haiqing; Wang, Ziqiang; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Xing, Chenyang; Li, Yongjin

    2013-10-01

    Self-healing of the superhydrophobic cotton fabric (SCF) obtained by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of lauryl methacrylate (LMA) and n-hexyl methacrylate (HMA), can be achieved by ironing. Through the steam ironing process, the superhydrophobicity of the SCFs will be regenerated even after the yarns are ruptured during the abrasion test under a load pressure of 44.8 kPa. SCFs made from LMA grafted cotton fabric can ultimately withstand at least 24,000 cycles of abrasion with periodic steam ironing. The FT-IR microscope results show that the migration of the polymethacrylates graft chains from the interior to the surface is responsible for the self-healing effect.

  13. A Study on 3-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Aluminium 8011 / Graphite Metal Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha Shankar, B.; Anil, K. C.; Patil, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    Metals and alloys have found their vital role in many applications like structural, corrosive, tribological, etc., in engineering environment. The alloys/composites having high strength to low weight ratio have gained attention of many researchers recently. In this work, graphite reinforced Aluminium 8011 metal matrix composite was prepared by conventional stir casting route, by varying the weight % of reinforcement. Uniform distribution of Graphite in matrix alloy was confirmed by optical micrographs. Prepared composite specimens were subjected to 3-body abrasive testing by varying applied load and time, the silica particles of 400 grit size were used as abrasive particles. It was observed that with the increase of weight% of Graphite the wear resistance of composite was also increasing and on comparison it was found that reinforced composite gives good wear resistance than base alloy.

  14. M"ossbauer study of corrosion and abrasion products in oil transporting pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Raul W.; Perez Mazariego, Jose Luis; Marquina, Vivianne; Marquina, Ma. Luisa; Ridaura, Rosalia; Martinez, Lorenzo

    2012-02-01

    It is known that one of the main technological problems in carbon steel oleoducts is the corrosion produced by different substances, such as water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, and microorganisms. In addition, if in such mixture there is sand, aggressive sludge can be form that abrasions material from the oleoduct. A room temperature M"ossbauer study of corroded material taken from different sites of oleoducts is presented. Most of the M"ossbauer spectra reveal the presence of nanoparticles, indicating that in these pipes the abrasion problem is severe. A preliminary identification of the oxidized samples suggests the presence of magnetite, and some Iron hydroxides. Further studies are in course in order to identify unambiguously the products present in the corroded materials.

  15. Self-healing of the superhydrophobicity by ironing for the abrasion durable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingxia; Li, Jingye; Deng, Bo; Jiang, Haiqing; Wang, Ziqiang; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Xing, Chenyang; Li, Yongjin

    2013-01-01

    Self-healing of the superhydrophobic cotton fabric (SCF) obtained by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of lauryl methacrylate (LMA) and n-hexyl methacrylate (HMA), can be achieved by ironing. Through the steam ironing process, the superhydrophobicity of the SCFs will be regenerated even after the yarns are ruptured during the abrasion test under a load pressure of 44.8 kPa. SCFs made from LMA grafted cotton fabric can ultimately withstand at least 24,000 cycles of abrasion with periodic steam ironing. The FT-IR microscope results show that the migration of the polymethacrylates graft chains from the interior to the surface is responsible for the self-healing effect. PMID:24135813

  16. Erosion and abrasion on dental structures undergoing at-home bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Meireles, Sônia Saeger; Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Dantas, Raquel Venâncio Fernandes; Botero, Tatiana; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves

    2011-01-01

    This review investigates erosion and abrasion in dental structures undergoing at- home bleaching. Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition that may be idiopathic or caused by a known acid source. Some bleaching agents have a pH lower than the critical level, which can cause changes in the enamel mineral content. Investigations have shown that at-home tooth bleaching with low concentrations of hydrogen or carbamide peroxide have no significant damaging effects on enamel and dentin surface properties. Most studies where erosion was observed were in vitro. Even though the treatment may cause side effects like sensitivity and gingival irritation, these usually disappear at the end of treatment. Considering the literature reviewed, we conclude that tooth bleaching agents based on hydrogen or carbamide peroxide have no clinically significant influence on enamel/dentin mineral loss caused by erosion or abrasion. Furthermore, the treatment is tolerable and safe, and any adverse effects can be easily reversed and controlled. PMID:23674914

  17. The effectiveness of the air-powder abrasive device on the tooth and periodontium: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kozlovsky, A; Soldinger, M; Sperling, I

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of the air-powder abrasive device (APAD) was reviewed from the current dental literature and found to be an excellent alternative to traditional methods for stain and plaque removal. Access to crowded teeth, grooves and involved furcation areas are easily obtainable with less operator fatigue. The APAD slurry produces different root surface abrasiveness, depending on the method of use. Extended maintenance periods of exposed root surface using the APAD can result in an enormous loss of root structure. To avoid permanent damage of the root, the device should be used with overlapping strokes and root exposure to the APAD slurry should be minimized. The device can be used for total cementum removal with less operator fatigue and more reproducibility than with hand instruments, leaving smooth and clean surfaces. In addition, the device may be a valuable tool in the detoxification of root surfaces during periodontal surgery.

  18. Process for producing a well-adhered durable optical coating on an optical plastic substrate. [abrasion resistant polymethyl methacrylate lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubacki, R. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A low temperature plasma polymerization process is described for applying an optical plastic substrate, such as a polymethyl methacrylate lens, with a single layer abrasive resistant coating to improve the durability of the plastic.

  19. Abrasive stripping square-wave voltammetry of blackberry, raspberry, strawberry, pomegranate, and sweet and blue potatoes.

    PubMed

    Komorsky-Lovrić, Šebojka; Novak, Ivana

    2011-08-01

    Electro-oxidation potentials of 7 fruits and vegetables were determined by abrasive stripping voltammetry. The responses were characterized by 2 peaks with maxima at 0.45 and 0.55 V compared with Ag/AgCl, respectively. Both electrode reactions appear reversible at a frequency of 8 Hz. They can be ascribed to anthocyanidins and ellagic acid as electroactive compounds. By this method, an antioxidative capacity of a certain plant can be quickly estimated without extraction of active components.

  20. Heat sealable, flame and abrasion resistant coated fabric. [clothing and containers for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Flame retardant, abrasion resistant elastomeric compositions are comprised of thermoplastic polyurethane polymer and flame retarding amounts of a filler selected from decabromodiphenyloxide and antimony oxide in a 3:1 weight ratio, and decabromodiphenyloxide, antimony oxide, and ammonium polyphosphate in a 3:1:3 weight ratio respectively. Coated fabrics employing such elastomeric compositions as coating film are flexible, lightweight, and air impermeable and can be made using heat or dielectric sealing procedures.

  1. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width as currently defined by the ASTM G 171 Standard. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement, in some cases considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for detailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness parameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Data are presented to show that different combinations of scratch tips and abraded materials can actually yield the same scratch width, but result in different volume displacement or removal measurements and therefore, the ZOI method is more discriminating than the ASTM method scratch width. Furthermore, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for our specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized manner, and not just by scratch width alone, is reinforced. This benefit is made apparent when a tip creates an intricate contour having multiple peaks and valleys within a single scratch. This work lays the foundation for updating scratch measurement standards to improve modeling and characterization of three-body abrasion test results.

  2. Abrasive Wear Resistance of Tool Steels Evaluated by the Pin-on-Disc Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, José Divo; Schopf, Roberto Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Present work examines tool steels abrasion wear resistance and the abrasion mechanisms which are one main contributor to failure of tooling in metal forming industry. Tooling used in cutting and metal forming processes without lubrication fails due to this type of wear. In the workshop and engineering practice, it is common to relate wear resistance as function of material hardness only. However, there are others parameters which influences wear such as: fracture toughness, type of crystalline structure and the occurrence of hard precipitate in the metallic matrix and also its nature. In the present investigation, the wear mechanisms acting in tool steels were analyzed and, by normalized tests, wear resistance performance of nine different types of tool steels were evaluated by pin-on-disc testing. Conventional tool steels commonly used in tooling such as AISI H13 and AISI A2 were compared in relation to tool steels fabricated by sintering process such as Crucible CPM 3V, CPM 9V and M4 steels. Friction and wear testing were carried out in a pin-on-disc automated equipment which pin was tool steel and the counter-face was a abrasive disc of silicon carbide. Normal load of 5 N, sliding velocity of 0.45 m/s, total sliding distance of 3000 m and room temperature were employed. The wear rate was calculated by the Archard's equation and from the plotted graphs of pin cumulated volume loss versus sliding distance. Specimens were appropriately heat treated by quenching and three tempering cycles. Percentage of alloying elements, metallographic analyses of microstructure and Vickers microhardness of specimens were performed, analyzed and correlated with wear rate. The work is concluded by the presentation of a rank of tool steel wear rate, comparing the different tool steel abrasion wear resistance: the best tool steel wear resistance evaluated was the Crucible CPM 9V steel.

  3. Abrasive Wear Performance of Aluminium Modified Epoxy-Glass Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Vikram G.; Mishra, Punyapriya; Al Dabbas, Hassan A.; Panda, H. S.; Fernandez, Johnathan Bruce

    2015-07-01

    For a long time, Aluminum filled epoxies molds have been used in rapid tooling process. These molds are very economical when applied in manufacturing of low volume of plastic parts. To improve the thermal conductivity of the material, the metallic filler material is added to it and the glass fiber improves the wear resistance of the material. These two important parameters establish the life of composites. The present work reports on abrasive wear behavior of Aluminum modified epoxy and glass fiber composite with 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of aluminum particles. Through pin on disc wear testing machine, we studied the wear behaviors of composites, and all these samples were fabricated by using hand layup process. Epoxy resin was used as matrix material which was reinforced with Glass fiber and Aluminum as filler. The composite with 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of Al was cast with dimensions 100 × 100 × 6 mm. The specimens were machined to a size of 6 × 6 × 4 mm for abrasive testing. Abrasive tests were carried out for different grit paper sizes, i.e., 150, 320, 600 at different sliding distance, i.e., 20, 40, 60 m at different loads of 5, 10 and 15 N and at constant speed. The weight loss due to wear was calculated along with coefficient of friction. Hardness was found using Rockwell hardness machine. The SEM morphology of the worn out surface wear was analyzed to understand the wear mechanism. Results showed that the addition of Aluminum particles was beneficial for low abrasive conditions.

  4. Effects of Different Lasers and Particle Abrasion on Surface Characteristics of Zirconia Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Arami, Sakineh; Tabatabae, Masoume Hasani; Namdar, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the surface of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) after surface treatment with lasers and airborne-particle abrasion. Materials and Methods: First, 77 samples of presintered zirconia blocks measuring 10 × 10 × 2 mm were made, sintered and polished. Then, they were randomly divided into 11 groups (n=7) and received surface treatments namely, Er:YAG laser irradiation with output power of 1.5, 2 and 2.5 W, Nd:YAG laser with output power of 1.5, 2 and 2.5 W, CO2 laser with output power of 3, 4 and 5 W, AL2O3 airborne-particle abrasion (50μ) and no treatment (controls). Following treatment, the parameters of surface roughness such as Ra, Rku and Rsk were evaluated using a digital profilometer and surface examination was done by SEM. Results: According to ANOVA and Tukey’s test, the mean surface roughness (Ra) after Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 2 and 2.5 W was significantly higher than other groups. Roughness increased with increasing output power of Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers. Treated surfaces by Er:YAG laser and air abrasion showed similar surface roughness. SEM micrographs showed small microcracks in specimens irradiated with Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers. Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser created a rough surface on the zirconia ceramic with many microcracks; therefore, its use is not recommended. Air abrasion method can be used with Er:YAG laser irradiation for the treatment of zirconia ceramic. PMID:24910700

  5. Inorganic-organic hybrid materials and abrasion resistant coatings based on a sol-gel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Betrabet, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Attempts to synthesize hybrid materials from polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO) end-functionalized with triethoxy silyl groups and, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) under basic conditions met with only partial success. The films obtained had low mechanical stability. In contrast, films with good mechanical stability were obtained when the TEOS was replaced with tritanium tetraisopropoxide (TIOPR). The microstructure of the TIOPR/PTMO hybrid synthesized under near neutral conditions was generally similar to the acid catalyzed PTMO/TIOPR hybrids. In another closely related study, the effect of subjecting acid catalyzed hybrid materials to aqueous and basic solutions was examined. Two chemically different systems were chosen which were namely the PTMO-TEOS system and the PTMO-TIOPR system. In addition to the difference in the reactivity between the TEOS and TIOPR, another point of differentiation was the relative solubility of the silicon oxide in basic aqueous solutions in contrast to the relative insolubility of the titanium oxide species in all but the very concentrated basic solutions. An application of the hybrid materials in the area of abrasion resistant coatings was also studied. The effects of the various organic structures on abrasion resistance, the extent of reaction and the mechanism of abrasion was examined. Various low molecular weight organics were functionalized triethoxy silyl groups and coated on polycarbonate and cured. They were then subjected to a Taber abrader test. The results showed that all the functionalized organics showed better abrasion resistance than the polycarbonate if sufficiently cured. NMR data showed that the reaction of the functionalized coatings was limited by vitrification and the extent of reaction was influenced by the basicity of the organic backbone. SEM observations of the abraded surfaces showed that the polycarbonate was abraded by a mechanism different from the functionalized coatings.

  6. Evaluation of planarization performance for a novel alkaline copper slurry under a low abrasive concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengting, Jiang; Yuling, Liu; Haobo, Yuan; Guodong, Chen; Weijuan, Liu

    2014-11-01

    A novel alkaline copper slurry that possesses a relatively high planarization performance is investigated under a low abrasive concentration. Based on the action mechanism of CMP, the feasibility of using one type of slurry in copper bulk elimination process and residual copper elimination process, with different process parameters, was analyzed. In addition, we investigated the regular change of abrasive concentration effect on copper and tantalum removal rate and within wafer non-uniformity (WIWNU) in CMP process. When the abrasive concentration is 3 wt%, in bulk elimination process, the copper removal rate achieves 6125 Å/min, while WIWNU is 3.5%, simultaneously. In residual copper elimination process, the copper removal rate is approximately 2700 Å/min, while WIWNU is 2.8%. Nevertheless, the tantalum removal rate is 0 Å/min, which indicates that barrier layer isn't eliminated in residual copper elimination process. The planarization experimental results show that an excellent planarization performance is obtained with a relatively high copper removal rate in bulk elimination process. Meanwhile, after residual copper elimination process, the dishing value increased inconspicuously, in a controllable range, and the wafer surface roughness is only 0.326 nm (sq < 1 nm) after polishing. By comparison, the planarization performance and surface quality of alkaline slurry show almost no major differences with two kinds of commercial acid slurries after polishing. All experimental results are conducive to research and improvement of alkaline slurry in the future.

  7. Nuclear-chemical methods in a hard tooth tissue abrasion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosman, A.; Spěváček, V.; Koníček, J.; Vopálka, D.; Houŝová, D.; Doležalová, L.

    1999-01-01

    The advanced method consists in implantation—labelling of the thin surface layers of the solid objects, e.g. hard tooth tissue, by atoms of suitable natural or artificial radionuclides. Nuclides from the uranium series were implanted into the surface by using nuclear recoil effect at alpha decay of 226Ra to 222Rn, alpha decay of 222Rn to RaA, alpha decay of RaA to RaB (beta-emitter) and further alpha or beta emitters. With regard to chosen alpha detection and to the half—lives of the radionuclides, there was actually measured the activity of 222Rn, RaA and RaC’ in the thin surface layer. This was followed by the laboratory simulation of the abrasion in the system of “toothbrush—various suspensions of the tooth-pastes—hard tooth tissue (or material standard—ivory)” in specially designed device—the dentoabrasionmeter. The activities of the tissue surface measured before and after abrasion were used for calculations of the relative drop of the surface activity. On this basis the influence of various tooth-pastes containing various abrasive substances was determined.

  8. Effect of consolidation on adhesive and abrasive wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Gul, Rizwan M; McGarry, Frederick J; Bragdon, Charles R; Muratoglu, Orhun K; Harris, William H

    2003-08-01

    Total hip replacement (THR) is widely performed to recover hip joint functions lost by trauma or disease and to relieve pain. The major cause of failure in THR is the wear of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component. The dominant wear mechanism in THR occurs through adhesion and abrasion. While poor consolidation of UHMWPE is known to increase the incidence of a different damage mode, delamination, which is the dominant wear mechanism in tibial inserts but uncommon in THR, the effect of consolidation on adhesive and abrasive wear of UHMWPE is not clear. In this study UHMWPE resin was subjected to hot isostatic pressing under a pressure of 138MPa at different temperatures (210 degrees C, 250 degrees C, and 300 degrees C) to achieve varying degrees of consolidation. The extent of consolidation was determined by optical microscopy using thin sections, and by scanning electron microscopy using cryofractured and solvent etched specimens. Wear behavior of the samples with varying degree of consolidation was determined using a bi-directional pin-on-disc machine simulating conditions in a hip joint. Increasing the processing temperature decreased the incidence of fusion defects and particle boundaries reflecting the powder flakes of the virgin resin, improving the consolidation. However, the bi-directional pin-on-disc wear rate did not change with the processing temperature, indicating that adhesive and abrasive wear is independent of the extent of consolidation in the range of parameters studied here. PMID:12763446

  9. Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Performance of Ni-Wc Composite Microwave Clad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Amit; Zafar, Sunny; Sharma, Apurbba Kumar

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, Ni-WC powder was deposited on mild steel substrate to develop clads through microwave hybrid heating technique. The cladding trials were carried out in an industrial microwave applicator at 1.1 kW for 540 s. The Ni-WC composite clads were characterized for microstructure and abrasive wear performance through combination of x-ray diffraction, electron and optical microscopy, microhardness, and wear tests. Phase analysis of the Ni-WC clad indicated the presence of stable carbides such as WC, W2C, Ni2W4C, and Fe6W6C. The microstructure study of the clad layer revealed the presence of a uniformly distributed interlocked WC-based reinforcement embedded in the Ni-based matrix. The average Vicker's microhardness in the clad layer was observed to be 1028 ± 90 HV, which was approximately three times the microhardness of the substrate. Abrasive wear resistance of the microwave clads was superior to the MS substrate. Abrasion was the main wear mechanism in the Ni-WC clads and the substrate samples. However, the presence of WC-based reinforcement in the composite clads reduced microcutting, resulting in enhanced wear resistance.

  10. Ergonomics of abrasive blasting: a comparison of high pressure water and steel shot.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Beth; Yuan, Lu; Fulmer, Scott

    2006-09-01

    Abrasive blasting with silica sand has long been associated with silicosis. Alternatives to sand are being used increasingly. While NIOSH has done extensive investigations of the respiratory effects of the substitutes for sand, the ergonomic effects of the substitutes have not been examined. Too often, hazards are shifted, and technologies that might save workers' lungs could do so at the expense of their musculoskeletal systems. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the ergonomic effects of alternatives to sand. Multiple methods, both qualitative and quantitative, were used to yield numerous kinds of data for the analysis of exposures to abrasive blasters. PATH, a method for quantifying ergonomic exposure in non-routine work, was combined with interviews with workers, biomechanical modeling and noise level readings to assess the ergonomics of two abrasive blasting operations: high-pressure water and steel shot. Advantages and disadvantages of each medium are discussed. High-pressure water was slightly less ergonomically stressful, environmentally cleaner, much quieter and less dusty that steel shot, and it was reported to be slower on those tasks where both media could be used.

  11. Adhesive interfaces of enamel and dentin prepared by air-abrasion at different distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinelatti, Michelle Alexandra; do Amaral, Thais Helena Andreolli; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the morphology of enamel and dentin/adhesive interfaces in cavities prepared by air-abrasion at different working distances. Thirty sound third human molars were selected and, on both their buccal and lingual surfaces, class V cavities were prepared by air-abrasion, at 2-, 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-mm working distances, or high-speed bur (control group). After preparation, all cavities were etched with 35% phosphoric acid gel and restored with Single Bond/Filtek Z-250. Buccal and lingual surfaces were separated and restorations sectioned in a buccolingual direction, providing two sections of each cavity, which were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that the distances of 6 and 8 mm promoted more homogeneous dentin/adhesive interfaces, with tags formation, and more uniform for enamel, which were similar to the control group. It may be concluded that the air-abrasion working distance can influence the morphology of enamel and dentin/adhesive interfaces, and the intermediate distances provided better adhesive interfaces.

  12. Soil abrasion and eolian dust production: Implications for iron partitioning and solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, D. S.; Peat, J. M.; McTainsh, G. H.; Boyd, P. W.; Hunter, K. A.

    2006-12-01

    Eolian dust is a source of iron for phytoplankton in many ocean areas, and there are complex pathways of atmospheric processing from soil to ocean. Overlooked parts of the pathways are the impact of large (>10 μm) grains (including a role as proxies for the behavior of smaller grains) and the effect of multiple cycles of uplift and abrasion in the dust source region. Partitioning (readily released, acid-leachable and refractory) and dissolution rates of iron were determined for an artificial dust (produced by abrading an Australian soil), untreated soil, abraded soil (after production of the artificial dust), and a natural Australian eolian dust sample taken during a dust storm. Readily released iron is not created during abrasion, and therefore the amount of readily released iron in a dust or dust-derived soil depends on processing events since the dust or soil last experienced an abrasion event. Our study develops a method for the partitioning of iron within airborne dusts and appears to be the first to consider the effect of multiple uplift events on iron partitioning.

  13. A comparative study of the abrasive wear behavior of MoSi[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, J.A.; Alman, D.E. . Albany Research Center)

    1995-03-01

    This study is a preliminary assessment of the abrasive wear behavior of monolithic MoSi[sub 2]. Comparisons with the wear behavior of other advanced materials, such as refractory metals, intermetallic compounds (i.e., TiAl, Fe[sub 3]Al), and ceramics (i.e., Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], ZrO[sub 2], and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]), are made. In general, the wear behavior of MoSi[sub 2] is similar to oxide ceramics, due in large part to the high relative hardness of the compound. However, as with most brittle materials, as the hardness of the abrasive increases relative to the hardness of the wearing material (i.e., MoSi[sub 2] abraded on garnet at 13 GPa versus abrasion on SiC at 24 GPa), volume wear increases; and the dominant wear mechanism changes, from one of primarily edge fracture to one combining micro-cutting with significant micro-fracture and grain pull-out.

  14. The surface quality of AWJ cut parts as a function of abrasive material reusing rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnakovszky, C.; Herghelegiu, E.; Radu, M. C.; Tampu, N. C.

    2015-11-01

    Abrasive water jet cutting (AWJ) has been extensively used during the last years to process a large variety of materials since it offers important advantages as a good quality of the processed surface, without heat affected zones, low environmental impact (no emission of dust or other compounds that endanger the health of the user), small induced mechanical stresses etc. The main disadvantage is the high cost of processing (cost of equipment and consumables). In view of this, the effects of reusing the abrasive material on the quality of processed surface are investigated in this paper. Two steel materials were used: OL 37 (S 235) with large applicability in machine building industry and 2P armor steel used in the arms industry. The reusing rate of the garnet abrasive material was: 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The quality of processed surface was quantified by the following parameters: width at the jet inlet (Li), width at the jet outlet (Lo), inclination angle (α), deviation from perpendicularity (u) and roughness (Ra).

  15. Influence of sodium content on the properties of bioactive glasses for use in air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Imran; Tylkowski, Maxi; Müller, Steffen; Janicki, Tomasz; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G

    2013-12-01

    Air abrasion is used in minimally invasive dentistry for preparing cavities, while removing no or little sound dentine or enamel, and the use of bioactive glass (rather than alumina) as an abrasive could aid in tooth remineralization. Melt-derived bioactive glasses (SiO2-P2O5-CaO-CaF2-Na2O) with low sodium content (0 to 10 mol% Na2O in exchange for CaO) for increased hardness, high phosphate content for high bioactivity and fluoride content for release of fluoride and formation of fluorapatite were produced, and particles between 38 and 80 µm in size were used for cutting soda-lime silicate glass microscope slides and human enamel. Vickers hardness increased with decreasing Na2O content, owing to a more compact silicate network in low sodium content glasses, resulting in shorter cutting times. Cutting times using bioactive glass were significantly longer than using the alumina control (29 µm) when tested on microscope slides; however, glasses showed more comparable results when cutting human enamel. The bioactive glasses formed apatite in Tris buffer within 6 h, which was significantly faster than Bioglass® 45S5 (24 h), suggesting that the hardness of the glasses makes them suitable for air abrasion application, while their high bioactivity and fluoride content make them of interest for tooth remineralization.

  16. Development and Testing of Abrasion Resistant Hard Coats For Polymer Film Reflectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Gee, R.; DiGrazia, M.

    2010-10-01

    Reflective polymer film technology can significantly reduce the cost of solar reflectors and installed Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants by both reduced material cost and lower weight. One challenge of polymer reflectors in the CSP environment pertains to contact cleaning methods typically used with glass mirrors. Such contact cleaning methods can scratch the surface of polymer reflectors and thereby reduce specular reflectance. ReflecTech, Inc. (a subsidiary of SkyFuel, Inc.) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to devise and develop an abrasion resistant coating (ARC) suitable for deposition onto polymer based mirror film. A number of candidate ARC products were identified as candidate formulations. Industrial collaborators prepared samples having their ARCs deposited onto ReflecTech Mirror Film pre-laminated to aluminum sheet substrates. Samples were provided for evaluation and subjected to baseline (unweathered) and accelerated exposure conditions and subsequently characterized for abrasion resistance and adhesion. An advanced ARC product has been identified that exhibits outstanding initial abrasion resistance and adhesion to ReflecTech Mirror Film. These properties were also retained after exposure to the various accelerated stress conditions. This material has been successfully manufactured as a 1.5 m wide roll-to-roll construction in a production environment.

  17. Influence of sodium content on the properties of bioactive glasses for use in air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Imran; Tylkowski, Maxi; Müller, Steffen; Janicki, Tomasz; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G

    2013-12-01

    Air abrasion is used in minimally invasive dentistry for preparing cavities, while removing no or little sound dentine or enamel, and the use of bioactive glass (rather than alumina) as an abrasive could aid in tooth remineralization. Melt-derived bioactive glasses (SiO2-P2O5-CaO-CaF2-Na2O) with low sodium content (0 to 10 mol% Na2O in exchange for CaO) for increased hardness, high phosphate content for high bioactivity and fluoride content for release of fluoride and formation of fluorapatite were produced, and particles between 38 and 80 µm in size were used for cutting soda-lime silicate glass microscope slides and human enamel. Vickers hardness increased with decreasing Na2O content, owing to a more compact silicate network in low sodium content glasses, resulting in shorter cutting times. Cutting times using bioactive glass were significantly longer than using the alumina control (29 µm) when tested on microscope slides; however, glasses showed more comparable results when cutting human enamel. The bioactive glasses formed apatite in Tris buffer within 6 h, which was significantly faster than Bioglass® 45S5 (24 h), suggesting that the hardness of the glasses makes them suitable for air abrasion application, while their high bioactivity and fluoride content make them of interest for tooth remineralization. PMID:24287337

  18. Defining an Abrasion Index for Lunar Surface Systems as a Function of Dust Interaction Modes and Variable Concentration Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected issues were encountered during the Apollo era of lunar exploration due to detrimental abrasion of materials upon exposure to the fine-grained, irregular shaped dust on the surface of the Moon. For critical design features involving contact with the lunar surface and for astronaut safety concerns, operational concepts and dust tolerance must be considered in the early phases of mission planning. To systematically define material selection criteria, dust interaction can be characterized by two-body or three-body abrasion testing, and subcategorically by physical interactions of compression, rolling, sliding and bending representing specific applications within the system. Two-body abrasion occurs when a single particle or asperity slides across a given surface removing or displacing material. Three-body abrasion occurs when multiple particles interact with a solid surface, or in between two surfaces, allowing the abrasives to freely rotate and interact with the material(s), leading to removal or displacement of mass. Different modes of interaction are described in this paper along with corresponding types of tests that can be utilized to evaluate each configuration. In addition to differential modes of abrasion, variable concentrations of dust in different zones can also be considered for a given system design and operational protocol. These zones include: (1) outside the habitat where extensive dust exposure occurs, (2) in a transitional zone such as an airlock or suitport, and (3) inside the habitat or spacesuit with a low particle count. These zones can be used to help define dust interaction frequencies, and corresponding risks to the systems and/or crew can be addressed by appropriate mitigation strategies. An abrasion index is introduced that includes the level of risk, R, the hardness of the mineralogy, H, the severity of the abrasion mode, S, and the frequency of particle interactions, F.

  19. Cubic boron nitride: Tools and abrasives. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning materials of cubic boron nitride (CBN) for machine tools and superhard abrasives. Included are methods of producing CBN compacts and abrasive structures for cutting tools, tool inserts, grinding wheels, wire drawing dies, gears, and drill bits. Bonding methods on various substrates are also presented. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Method and means for producing fluorocarbon finishes on fibrous structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, Madeline S. (Inventor); Stringham, Roger S. (Inventor); Fogg, Lawrence C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved process and apparatus is provided for imparting chemically bonded fluorocarbon finishes to textiles. In the process, the textiles are contacted with a gaseous mixture of fluoroolefins in an inert diluent gas in the presence of ultraviolet light under predetermined conditions.

  1. Graphic Arts: The Press and Finishing Processes. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course in graphic arts concentrating on printing presses and the finishing process for publications. Seven units of instruction cover the following topics: (1) offset press systems; (2) offset inks and dampening chemistry; (3) offset press operating procedures; (4) preventive maintenance…

  2. 71. September 1913 "No. 113. Some of the finished bitulithic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. September 1913 "No. 113. Some of the finished bitulithic or bituminous macadam road after being sanded and rolled, in the foreground. In the middle distance men are applying oil to incomplete section. In the far distance, roller is working on foundation course." - Crater Lake National Park Roads, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

  3. Effect of panel alignment and surface finish on bond strength

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.; Baker, W.E.

    1991-10-01

    The flexural strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of panel alignment and bond surface finish. Bond strength was shown to be highly dependent on both parameters with only a narrow range of values yielding a high strength bond. This study was performed for the heavy water-containing acrylic vessel for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector.

  4. DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN SOURCE AND FINISHED WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have occurred with the most notable being the 1993 episode in Milwaukee. As a result, the past decade has seen a massive effort expended on the development of methods to detect Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in source and finish...

  5. 16 CFR 1509.8 - Construction and finishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.8 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood surfaces of non-full-size baby cribs shall be smooth and free from splinters. (b) All wood parts of non-full-size baby cribs shall be free from splits, cracks, or other defects that might lead to...

  6. 16 CFR 1509.8 - Construction and finishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.8 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood surfaces of non-full-size baby cribs shall be smooth and free from splinters. (b) All wood parts of non-full-size baby cribs shall be free from splits, cracks, or other defects that might lead to...

  7. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmetal ProtectionAgenccy's Metal Finishing
    Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)

    William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D. , P.E. ; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, and Matthew Lorber

    The US Environmental Protection Agency completed the development of the first version of...

  8. Cement Finishing. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nama, Joe

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on cement finishing, available separately as CE 031 576. Introductory materials include a description of the components of the pre-apprenticeship project, discussion of teacher's role in students' completion of the modules, and scope and contents of Phase 2 training. Each…

  9. Carpentry and Finishing Procedures. Building Maintenance. Module II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Sam; Brunk, Art

    This curriculum guide, keyed to the building maintenance competency profile developed by industry and education professionals, provides three units on carpentry and finishing procedures. The first unit, Exterior Carpentry, contains the following lessons: carpentry safety procedures, ladder and scaffolding safety, door installation/repair,…

  10. Introduction to Concrete Finishing. Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach a competency-based introductory course in concrete finishing to students who have chosen to explore careers in construction. The following topics are covered in the course's three instructional units: concrete materials, concrete tools, and applied skills. Each unit contains some or…

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plant assessment of confinement system bypass leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, J.D.

    1996-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to document walk-through`s of the safety class confinement systems at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In addition this document outlines the actions taken to assess the confinement system for bypass leakage as well as establishing disposition for discovered deficiencies at the PFP.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently the US EPA completed the development of the first version of the Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST) and has made this product available to the general public. MFFRST calculates the air emissions from a metal plating line and determines the risk to bot...

  13. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Finishing and Distribution Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the finishing and distribution cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards…

  14. Interior Finishes. Floors, Walls, Ceilings: Performance Criteria. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    A research program and the testing methods it developed are described, indicating the performance criteria of interior finishes for walls, ceilings and floors. Material exposure criteria are given with the probability of damage ratings for--(1) physical impact, (2) chemical damage, (3) biological, food and water damage. The relationship of…

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enhancement of the US Environmental Protection Agency's
    Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)

    William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D., P.E. , P.E.; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, Matt Lorber , Charles Peck , and Steve Schwartz, P.E., Q.E.P.3

    Recently, the US Environ...

  16. Tooth length and incisal wear and growth in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) fed diets of different abrasiveness.

    PubMed

    Müller, J; Clauss, M; Codron, D; Schulz, E; Hummel, J; Kircher, P; Hatt, J-M

    2015-06-01

    Dental diseases are among the most important reasons for presenting guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and other rodents to veterinary clinics, but the aetiopathology of this disease complex is unclear. Clinicians tend to believe that the ever-growing teeth of rabbits and rodents have a constant growth that needs to be worn down by the mastication of an appropriate diet. In this study, we tested the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness [due to both internal (phytoliths) and external abrasives (sand)] or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 guinea pigs on incisor growth and wear, and tooth length of incisors and cheek teeth. There was a positive correlation between wear and growth of incisors. Tooth lengths depended both on internal and external abrasives, but only upper incisors were additionally affected by the feeding of whole hay. Diet effects were most prominent in anterior cheek teeth, in particular M1 and m1. Cheek tooth angle did not become shallower with decreasing diet abrasiveness, suggesting that a lack of dietary abrasiveness does not cause the typical 'bridge formation' of anterior cheek teeth frequently observed in guinea pigs. The findings suggest that other factors than diet abrasiveness, such as mineral imbalances and in particular hereditary malocclusion, are more likely causes for dental problems observed in this species.

  17. Pulpal response to different pulp capping methods after pulp exposure by air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Cardenas-Duque, Lina Maria; Yoshida, Makoto; Goto, George

    2002-01-01

    Air abrasion is regaining popularity especially in the area of pediatric dentistry due to its ease of use and its advantages. Due to the lost of tactile information, while using this technique, there is an increased risk for pulpal exposure. On the other hand, Ca(OH)2 medicament has been proven to induce dentin bridge formation, but an adequate sealing seems to be even more important that the capping material used. The purpose of this study was two fold: to assess the pulpal response after pulpal exposure by air abrasion and to evaluate the healing potential after using Ca(OH)2 medicament or Liner Bond II as a capping agent. Two hundred sixteen teeth from mixed-bred dogs were used in this study. The teeth were divided into three groups, A) pulpal exposure by air-abrasion followed by sealing of the cavity with Liner Bond II, B) pulpal exposure by air-abrasion and Ca(OH)2 pulp capping and C) pulpal exposure by high-speed followed by air-abrasion and Ca(OH)2 pulp capping as a control group. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 14, 30 and 60 days and a histopathological evaluation was undertaken. After applying Analysis of Variance to compare the groups, it was observed that at earlier observation periods, the inflammatory criteria near the exposure site were different among the groups. As time elapsed, the inflammation was resolved in the pulp tissue, however, the odontoblastic layer and the dentin bridge formation had a highly statistically significant difference (p<0.001) among the various groups at all observation periods. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between the organization of the odontoblastic layer and the dentin bridge formation mainly after 30 days. It could be concluded that dentin bridge formation could be achieved with the use of Ca(OH) or Liner Bond II as capping agent with an adequate sealing. However, the formation is delayed especially when Liner Bond II is used as capping agent.

  18. Rock Abrasion as Seen by the MSL Curiosity Rover: Insights on Physical Weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N.; Day, M. D.; Le Mouelic, S.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Newsom, H. E.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Ullan, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mars is a dry planet, with actively blowing sand in many regions. In the absence of stable liquid water and an active hydrosphere, rates of chemical weathering are slow, such that aeolian abrasion is a dominant agent of landscape modification where sand is present and winds above threshold occur at sufficient frequency. Reflecting this activity, ventifacts, rocks that have been abraded by windborne particles, and wind-eroded outcrops, are common. They provide invaluable markers of the Martian wind record and insight into climate and landscape modification. Ventifacts are distributed along the traverse of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. They contain one or more diagnostic features and textures: Facets, keels, basal sills, elongated pits, scallops/flutes, grooves, rock tails, and lineations. Keels at the junction of facets are sharp enough to pose a hazard MSL's wheels in some areas. Geomorphic and textural patterns on outcrops indicate retreat of windward faces. Moonlight Valley and other depressions are demarcated by undercut walls and scree boulders, with the valley interiors containing fewer rocks, most of which show evidence for significant abrasion. Together, this suggests widening and undercutting of the valley walls, and erosion of interior rocks, by windblown sand. HiRISE images do not show any dark sand dunes in the traverse so far, in contrast to the large dune field to the south that is migrating up to 2 m per year. In addition, ChemCam shows that the rock Bathurst has a rind rich in mobile elements that would be removed in an abrading environment. This indicates that rock abrasion was likely more dominant in the past, a hypothesis consistent with rapid scarp retreat as suggested by the cosmogenic noble gases in Yellowknife Bay. Ventifacts and evidence for bedrock abrasion have also been found at the Pathfinder, Spirit, and Opportunity sites, areas, like the Curiosity traverse so far, that lack evidence for current high sand fluxes. Yardangs

  19. Minimal alterations on the enamel surface by micro-abrasion: in vitro roughness and wear assessments

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES, Marcela Charantola; MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; OLIVEIRA, Gabriela Ulian; FRANCO, Eduardo Batista; BASEGGIO, Wagner; WANG, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro changes on the enamel surface after a micro-abrasion treatment promoted by different products. Material and Methods: Fifty (50) fragments of bovine enamel (15 mm x 5 mm) were randomly assigned to five groups (n=10) according to the product utilized: G1 (control)= silicone polisher (TDV), G2= 37% phosphoric acid (3M/ESPE) + pumice stone (SS White), G3= Micropol (DMC Equipment), G4= Opalustre (Ultradent) and G5= Whiteness RM (FGM Dental Products). Roughness and wear were the responsible variables used to analyze these surfaces in four stages: baseline, 60 s and 120 s after the micro-abrasion and after polishing, using a Hommel Tester T1000 device. After the tests, a normal distribution of data was verified, with repeated ANOVA analyses (p≤0.05) which were used to compare each product in different stages. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied for individual comparisons between the products in each stage (p≤0.05). Results: Means and standard deviations of roughness and wear (mm) after all the promoted stages were: G1=7.26(1.81)/13.16(2.67), G2=2.02(0.62)/37.44(3.33), G3=1.81(0.91)/34.93(6.92), G4=1.92(0.29)/38.42(0.65) and G5=1.98(0.53)/33.45(2.66). At 60 seconds, all products tended to produce less surface roughness with a variable gradual decrease over time. After polishing, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups, except for G1. Independent of the product utilized, the enamel wear occurred after the micro-abrasion. Conclusions: In this in vitro study, enamel micro-abrasion presented itself as a conservative approach, regardless of the type of the paste compound utilized. These products promoted minor roughness alterations and minimal wear. The use of phosphoric acid and pumice stone showed similar results to commercial products for the micro-abrasion with regard to the surface roughness and wear. PMID:23739863

  20. Understanding litter decomposition in drylands: Is litter abrasion an important abiotic factor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, M.; Bravo-Garza, M. R.; Throop, H. L.; Duarte, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    Drylands comprise approximately 40% of global land cover and about 20% of global soil organic carbon (C) pool. Changes in dryland ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, could greatly influence global C cycling and climate change. Current models underestimate rates of litter decomposition in drylands, and little is known about the role and interactions of abiotic drivers in these systems. Research suggests leaf abrasion may play an important role on litter decomposition in drylands by increasing microbial activity or leaching. The Scrape Site at Jornada LTER was stripped of vegetation in 1991, leaving exposed soil that could serve as a source of sand particles to promote leaf abrasion on mesquite shrubs located downwind. This project examines the role that leaf abrasion, promoted in the field by wind erosion, and induced through laboratory simulations, will play in litter decomposition. We hypothesize that leaf abrasion will increase rates of litter decomposition due to facilitation of microbial colonization. Mesquite leaves were collected from two locations: down-wind from the Scrape Site and 80 meters away representing "field abraded" and "unabraded" treatments, respectively. For a "lab abraded" treatment, abrasion was performed by shaking leaves for 30 seconds with sand particles to simulate microscopic characteristics seen in "field abraded" treatment; this treatment resulted in an average leaf area loss of 3.267 %. Differences in decomposition rates among litter treatments were evaluated in a 16 week laboratory incubation. Litter was incubated at 22°C in airtight glass jars containing 50 g of soil (0.053 g water g-1 soil). Rapid colonization by fungi was apparent across treatments, but lab abraded litter showed the most abundant growth. Consequently, lab abraded litter treatment showed 20% and 30% times more accumulation of CO2 -C than field (P= 0.0008) and unabraded (P< 0.0001) litter treatments during the first 6 days of incubation. These results

  1. 40 CFR 63.5390 - How do I measure the HAP content of a finish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the HAP content of a finish, the reference method is EPA Method 311 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 63... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations Testing...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5395 - How do I measure the density of a finish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... density of a finish, the reference method is EPA Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60. You may use... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations Testing...

  3. 40 CFR 425.20 - Applicability; description of the hair save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING... cattle-like hides into finished leather by hair save unhairing, chrome tanning, and retan-wet finishing....

  4. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 410.40 - Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fabric finishing subcategory. 410.40 Section 410.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Woven Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.40 Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory....

  10. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carpet finishing subcategory. 410.60 Section 410.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carpet Finishing Subcategory § 410.60 Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory. The provisions of...

  11. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carpet finishing subcategory. 410.60 Section 410.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carpet Finishing Subcategory § 410.60 Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory. The provisions of...

  12. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carpet finishing subcategory. 410.60 Section 410.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carpet Finishing Subcategory § 410.60 Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory. The provisions of...

  13. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carpet finishing subcategory. 410.60 Section 410.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carpet Finishing Subcategory § 410.60 Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory. The provisions of...

  14. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carpet finishing subcategory. 410.60 Section 410.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carpet Finishing Subcategory § 410.60 Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory. The provisions of...

  15. 21 CFR 181.26 - Drying oils as components of finished resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Drying oils as components of finished resins. 181... Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.26 Drying oils as components of finished resins. Substances classified as drying oils, when migrating from food-packaging material (as components of finished...

  16. 40 CFR 410.40 - Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fabric finishing subcategory. 410.40 Section 410.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Woven Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.40 Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory....

  17. 40 CFR 410.50 - Applicability; description of the knit fabric finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fabric finishing subcategory. 410.50 Section 410.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Knit Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.50 Applicability; description of the knit fabric finishing subcategory....

  18. 40 CFR 410.40 - Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fabric finishing subcategory. 410.40 Section 410.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Woven Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.40 Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory....

  19. 40 CFR 410.40 - Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fabric finishing subcategory. 410.40 Section 410.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Woven Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.40 Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory....

  20. 40 CFR 141.510 - Is my system subject to the new finished water reservoir requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... finished water reservoir requirements? 141.510 Section 141.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Finished Water Reservoirs § 141.510 Is my system subject to the new finished water reservoir requirements? All subpart H systems which...

  1. 40 CFR 141.511 - What is required of new finished water reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reservoirs? 141.511 Section 141.511 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Finished Water Reservoirs § 141.511 What is required of new finished water reservoirs? If your system begins construction of a finished water reservoir on...

  2. 40 CFR 141.511 - What is required of new finished water reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reservoirs? 141.511 Section 141.511 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Finished Water Reservoirs § 141.511 What is required of new finished water reservoirs? If your system begins construction of a finished water reservoir on...

  3. 40 CFR 141.510 - Is my system subject to the new finished water reservoir requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... finished water reservoir requirements? 141.510 Section 141.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Finished Water Reservoirs § 141.510 Is my system subject to the new finished water reservoir requirements? All subpart H systems which...

  4. 40 CFR 141.510 - Is my system subject to the new finished water reservoir requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... finished water reservoir requirements? 141.510 Section 141.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Finished Water Reservoirs § 141.510 Is my system subject to the new finished water reservoir requirements? All subpart H systems which...

  5. 40 CFR 141.510 - Is my system subject to the new finished water reservoir requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... finished water reservoir requirements? 141.510 Section 141.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Finished Water Reservoirs § 141.510 Is my system subject to the new finished water reservoir requirements? All subpart H systems which...

  6. 40 CFR 141.511 - What is required of new finished water reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reservoirs? 141.511 Section 141.511 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Finished Water Reservoirs § 141.511 What is required of new finished water reservoirs? If your system begins construction of a finished water reservoir on...

  7. 40 CFR 141.510 - Is my system subject to the new finished water reservoir requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... finished water reservoir requirements? 141.510 Section 141.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Finished Water Reservoirs § 141.510 Is my system subject to the new finished water reservoir requirements? All subpart H systems which...

  8. 40 CFR 141.511 - What is required of new finished water reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reservoirs? 141.511 Section 141.511 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Finished Water Reservoirs § 141.511 What is required of new finished water reservoirs? If your system begins construction of a finished water reservoir on...

  9. 40 CFR 141.511 - What is required of new finished water reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reservoirs? 141.511 Section 141.511 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Finished Water Reservoirs § 141.511 What is required of new finished water reservoirs? If your system begins construction of a finished water reservoir on...

  10. Effect of Finishing System on Subcutaneous Fat Melting Point and Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 69) were used to determine the effect of finishing system on subcutaneous fat melting point and fatty acid composition. Three finishing systems were evaluated: 1) mixed pasture for 134 d [MP], 2) mixed pasture for 93 d and alfalfa for 41 d [AL], or 3) concentrate finishing f...

  11. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12). Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation. Results: No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987). There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1). Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918). However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives. PMID:25628694

  12. Growth and wear of incisor and cheek teeth in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) fed diets of different abrasiveness.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jacqueline; Clauss, Marcus; Codron, Daryl; Schulz, Ellen; Hummel, Jürgen; Fortelius, Mikael; Kircher, Patrick; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2014-06-01

    Although patterns of tooth wear are crucial in palaeo-reconstructions, and dental wear abnormalities are important in veterinary medicine, experimental investigations on the relationship between diet abrasiveness and tooth wear are rare. Here, we investigated the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness (due to both internal [phytoliths] and external abrasives [sand]) or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on incisor and premolar growth and wear, and incisor and cheek tooth length. Wear and tooth length differed between diets, with significant effects of both internal and external abrasives. While diet abrasiveness was linked to tooth length for all tooth positions, whole forage had an additional effect on upper incisor length only. Tooth growth was strongly related to tooth wear and differed correspondingly between diets and tooth positions. At 1.4-3.2 mm/week, the growth of cheek teeth measured in this study was higher than previously reported for rabbits. Dental abnormalities were most distinct on the diet with sand. This study demonstrates that concepts of constant tooth growth in rabbits requiring consistent wear are inappropriate, and that diet form (whole vs. pelleted) does not necessarily affect cheek teeth. Irrespective of the strong effect of external abrasives, internal abrasives have the potential to induce wear and hence exert selective pressure in evolution. Detailed differences in wear effects between tooth positions allow inferences about the mastication process. Elucidating feedback mechanisms that link growth to tooth-specific wear represents a promising area of future research.

  13. Using stream sediment lithology to explore the roles of abrasion and channel network structure in shaping downstream sediment yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, E. R.; Smith, M. E.; Pitlick, J.

    2012-12-01

    Both the flux and characteristics of stream sediment evolve downstream in response to variations in sediment supply, abrasion rate, and channel network structure. We use a simple erosion-abrasion mass balance to model the downstream evolution of sediment flux in two adjacent watersheds draining differing mixtures of soft and resistant rock types in the northern Rocky Mountains. Measurements of bed sediment grain size and lithology are used in conjunction with measured bed load and suspended load sediment fluxes to constrain the model. The results show that the downstream evolution in bed load flux and composition can be strongly influenced by subtle differences in underlying geology, which shapes both the abrasion characteristics and travel path lengths of individual rock types. In the Big Wood basin, abrasion rapidly reduces the size of soft sedimentary and volcanic rocks exposed in headwater areas, concentrating resistant granitic rocks in the stream bed and depressing bed load in favor of suspended load. Alternatively, in the North Fork Big Lost basin, volcanic and sedimentary lithologies are exposed throughout the catchment, and the bed material becomes dominated by erodible but resistant quartzitic sandstones. The result is a much higher bed load flux best modeled with modest abrasion rates. In both cases, the best-fit model can reproduce within 5% the composition of the stream bed substrate using realistic erosion and abrasion parameters. The results also demonstrate a strong linkage between modern hillslopes and channel systems even in these formerly glaciated landscapes, as the sediment signature of the primary streams reflects the systematic tapping of distinct source areas. While this work shows promise, measurement of the spatial patterns in the size and composition of bed and suspended load fluxes at locations throughout a channel network would better elucidate that relative importance of supply, sorting, and abrasion processes.

  14. The finished DNA sequence of human chromosome 12.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Steven E; Muzny, Donna M; Buhay, Christian J; Chen, Rui; Cree, Andrew; Ding, Yan; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Gill, Rachel; Gunaratne, Preethi; Harris, R Alan; Hawes, Alicia C; Hernandez, Judith; Hodgson, Anne V; Hume, Jennifer; Jackson, Andrew; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Kovar-Smith, Christie; Lewis, Lora R; Lozado, Ryan J; Metzker, Michael L; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Miner, George R; Montgomery, Kate T; Morgan, Margaret B; Nazareth, Lynne V; Scott, Graham; Sodergren, Erica; Song, Xing-Zhi; Steffen, David; Lovering, Ruth C; Wheeler, David A; Worley, Kim C; Yuan, Yi; Zhang, Zhengdong; Adams, Charles Q; Ansari-Lari, M Ali; Ayele, Mulu; Brown, Mary J; Chen, Guan; Chen, Zhijian; Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Davis, Clay; Delgado, Oliver; Dinh, Huyen H; Draper, Heather; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; Havlak, Paul; Jackson, Laronda R; Jacob, Leni S; Kelly, Susan H; Li, Li; Li, Zhangwan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wen; Lu, Jing; Maheshwari, Manjula; Nguyen, Bao-Viet; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Pasternak, Shiran; Perez, Lesette M; Plopper, Farah J H; Santibanez, Jireh; Shen, Hua; Tabor, Paul E; Verduzco, Daniel; Waldron, Lenee; Wang, Qiaoyan; Williams, Gabrielle A; Zhang, Jingkun; Zhou, Jianling; Allen, Carlana C; Amin, Anita G; Anyalebechi, Vivian; Bailey, Michael; Barbaria, Joseph A; Bimage, Kesha E; Bryant, Nathaniel P; Burch, Paula E; Burkett, Carrie E; Burrell, Kevin L; Calderon, Eliana; Cardenas, Veronica; Carter, Kelvin; Casias, Kristal; Cavazos, Iracema; Cavazos, Sandra R; Ceasar, Heather; Chacko, Joseph; Chan, Sheryl N; Chavez, Dean; Christopoulos, Constantine; Chu, Joseph; Cockrell, Raynard; Cox, Caroline D; Dang, Michelle; Dathorne, Stephanie R; David, Robert; Davis, Candi Mon'Et; Davy-Carroll, Latarsha; Deshazo, Denise R; Donlin, Jeremy E; D'Souza, Lisa; Eaves, Kristy A; Egan, Amy; Emery-Cohen, Alexandra J; Escotto, Michael; Flagg, Nicole; Forbes, Lisa D; Gabisi, Abdul M; Garza, Melissa; Hamilton, Cerissa; Henderson, Nicholas; Hernandez, Omar; Hines, Sandra; Hogues, Marilyn E; Huang, Mei; Idlebird, DeVincent G; Johnson, Rudy; Jolivet, Angela; Jones, Sally; Kagan, Ryan; King, Laquisha M; Leal, Belita; Lebow, Heather; Lee, Sandra; LeVan, Jaclyn M; Lewis, Lakeshia C; London, Pamela; Lorensuhewa, Lorna M; Loulseged, Hermela; Lovett, Demetria A; Lucier, Alice; Lucier, Raymond L; Ma, Jie; Madu, Renita C; Mapua, Patricia; Martindale, Ashley D; Martinez, Evangelina; Massey, Elizabeth; Mawhiney, Samantha; Meador, Michael G; Mendez, Sylvia; Mercado, Christian; Mercado, Iracema C; Merritt, Christina E; Miner, Zachary L; Minja, Emmanuel; Mitchell, Teresa; Mohabbat, Farida; Mohabbat, Khatera; Montgomery, Baize; Moore, Niki; Morris, Sidney; Munidasa, Mala; Ngo, Robin N; Nguyen, Ngoc B; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi O; Nwokenkwo, Stanley; Obregon, Melissa; Oguh, Maryann; Oragunye, Njideka; Oviedo, Rodolfo J; Parish, Bridgette J; Parker, David N; Parrish, Julia; Parks, Kenya L; Paul, Heidie A; Payton, Brett A; Perez, Agapito; Perrin, William; Pickens, Adam; Primus, Eltrick L; Pu, Ling-Ling; Puazo, Maria; Quiles, Miyo M; Quiroz, Juana B; Rabata, Dina; Reeves, Kacy; Ruiz, San Juana; Shao, Hongmei; Sisson, Ida; Sonaike, Titilola; Sorelle, Richard P; Sutton, Angelica E; Svatek, Amanda F; Svetz, Leah Anne; Tamerisa, Kavitha S; Taylor, Tineace R; Teague, Brian; Thomas, Nicole; Thorn, Rachel D; Trejos, Zulma Y; Trevino, Brenda K; Ukegbu, Ogechi N; Urban, Jeremy B; Vasquez, Lydia I; Vera, Virginia A; Villasana, Donna M; Wang, Ling; Ward-Moore, Stephanie; Warren, James T; Wei, Xuehong; White, Flower; Williamson, Angela L; Wleczyk, Regina; Wooden, Hailey S; Wooden, Steven H; Yen, Jennifer; Yoon, Lillienne; Yoon, Vivienne; Zorrilla, Sara E; Nelson, David; Kucherlapati, Raju; Weinstock, George; Gibbs, Richard A

    2006-03-16

    Human chromosome 12 contains more than 1,400 coding genes and 487 loci that have been directly implicated in human disease. The q arm of chromosome 12 contains one of the largest blocks of linkage disequilibrium found in the human genome. Here we present the finished sequence of human chromosome 12, which has been finished to high quality and spans approximately 132 megabases, representing approximately 4.5% of the human genome. Alignment of the human chromosome 12 sequence across vertebrates reveals the origin of individual segments in chicken, and a unique history of rearrangement through rodent and primate lineages. The rate of base substitutions in recent evolutionary history shows an overall slowing in hominids compared with primates and rodents. PMID:16541075

  15. Sensory quality of beef from different finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Resconi, V C; Campo, M M; Font i Furnols, M; Montossi, F; Sañudo, C

    2010-11-01

    Beef production under different local husbandry systems might have meat sensory quality implications for the marketing of these products abroad. In order to assess the effect of finishing diet systems on beef quality, a trained sensory taste panel assessed meat aged for 20 days from 80 Uruguayan Hereford steers that were finished on one of the following diets: T1=Pasture [4% of animal live weight (LW)], T2=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (0.6% LW)], T3=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (1.2% LW)], or T4=Concentrate plus hay ad libitum. Beef odour and flavour intensities decreased with an increase in the energy content of the diet. The meat from T2 had the lowest acid flavour and strange odours intensities. In general, steers fed only concentrate plus hay (T4) produced meat that had an inferior sensory quality because they had more pronounced off-flavours and was tougher. PMID:20696533

  16. Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing

    DOEpatents

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A

    2012-09-18

    A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.

  17. The finished DNA sequence of human chromosome 12.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Steven E; Muzny, Donna M; Buhay, Christian J; Chen, Rui; Cree, Andrew; Ding, Yan; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Gill, Rachel; Gunaratne, Preethi; Harris, R Alan; Hawes, Alicia C; Hernandez, Judith; Hodgson, Anne V; Hume, Jennifer; Jackson, Andrew; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Kovar-Smith, Christie; Lewis, Lora R; Lozado, Ryan J; Metzker, Michael L; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Miner, George R; Montgomery, Kate T; Morgan, Margaret B; Nazareth, Lynne V; Scott, Graham; Sodergren, Erica; Song, Xing-Zhi; Steffen, David; Lovering, Ruth C; Wheeler, David A; Worley, Kim C; Yuan, Yi; Zhang, Zhengdong; Adams, Charles Q; Ansari-Lari, M Ali; Ayele, Mulu; Brown, Mary J; Chen, Guan; Chen, Zhijian; Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Davis, Clay; Delgado, Oliver; Dinh, Huyen H; Draper, Heather; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; Havlak, Paul; Jackson, Laronda R; Jacob, Leni S; Kelly, Susan H; Li, Li; Li, Zhangwan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wen; Lu, Jing; Maheshwari, Manjula; Nguyen, Bao-Viet; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Pasternak, Shiran; Perez, Lesette M; Plopper, Farah J H; Santibanez, Jireh; Shen, Hua; Tabor, Paul E; Verduzco, Daniel; Waldron, Lenee; Wang, Qiaoyan; Williams, Gabrielle A; Zhang, Jingkun; Zhou, Jianling; Allen, Carlana C; Amin, Anita G; Anyalebechi, Vivian; Bailey, Michael; Barbaria, Joseph A; Bimage, Kesha E; Bryant, Nathaniel P; Burch, Paula E; Burkett, Carrie E; Burrell, Kevin L; Calderon, Eliana; Cardenas, Veronica; Carter, Kelvin; Casias, Kristal; Cavazos, Iracema; Cavazos, Sandra R; Ceasar, Heather; Chacko, Joseph; Chan, Sheryl N; Chavez, Dean; Christopoulos, Constantine; Chu, Joseph; Cockrell, Raynard; Cox, Caroline D; Dang, Michelle; Dathorne, Stephanie R; David, Robert; Davis, Candi Mon'Et; Davy-Carroll, Latarsha; Deshazo, Denise R; Donlin, Jeremy E; D'Souza, Lisa; Eaves, Kristy A; Egan, Amy; Emery-Cohen, Alexandra J; Escotto, Michael; Flagg, Nicole; Forbes, Lisa D; Gabisi, Abdul M; Garza, Melissa; Hamilton, Cerissa; Henderson, Nicholas; Hernandez, Omar; Hines, Sandra; Hogues, Marilyn E; Huang, Mei; Idlebird, DeVincent G; Johnson, Rudy; Jolivet, Angela; Jones, Sally; Kagan, Ryan; King, Laquisha M; Leal, Belita; Lebow, Heather; Lee, Sandra; LeVan, Jaclyn M; Lewis, Lakeshia C; London, Pamela; Lorensuhewa, Lorna M; Loulseged, Hermela; Lovett, Demetria A; Lucier, Alice; Lucier, Raymond L; Ma, Jie; Madu, Renita C; Mapua, Patricia; Martindale, Ashley D; Martinez, Evangelina; Massey, Elizabeth; Mawhiney, Samantha; Meador, Michael G; Mendez, Sylvia; Mercado, Christian; Mercado, Iracema C; Merritt, Christina E; Miner, Zachary L; Minja, Emmanuel; Mitchell, Teresa; Mohabbat, Farida; Mohabbat, Khatera; Montgomery, Baize; Moore, Niki; Morris, Sidney; Munidasa, Mala; Ngo, Robin N; Nguyen, Ngoc B; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi O; Nwokenkwo, Stanley; Obregon, Melissa; Oguh, Maryann; Oragunye, Njideka; Oviedo, Rodolfo J; Parish, Bridgette J; Parker, David N; Parrish, Julia; Parks, Kenya L; Paul, Heidie A; Payton, Brett A; Perez, Agapito; Perrin, William; Pickens, Adam; Primus, Eltrick L; Pu, Ling-Ling; Puazo, Maria; Quiles, Miyo M; Quiroz, Juana B; Rabata, Dina; Reeves, Kacy; Ruiz, San Juana; Shao, Hongmei; Sisson, Ida; Sonaike, Titilola; Sorelle, Richard P; Sutton, Angelica E; Svatek, Amanda F; Svetz, Leah Anne; Tamerisa, Kavitha S; Taylor, Tineace R; Teague, Brian; Thomas, Nicole; Thorn, Rachel D; Trejos, Zulma Y; Trevino, Brenda K; Ukegbu, Ogechi N; Urban, Jeremy B; Vasquez, Lydia I; Vera, Virginia A; Villasana, Donna M; Wang, Ling; Ward-Moore, Stephanie; Warren, James T; Wei, Xuehong; White, Flower; Williamson, Angela L; Wleczyk, Regina; Wooden, Hailey S; Wooden, Steven H; Yen, Jennifer; Yoon, Lillienne; Yoon, Vivienne; Zorrilla, Sara E; Nelson, David; Kucherlapati, Raju; Weinstock, George; Gibbs, Richard A

    2006-03-16

    Human chromosome 12 contains more than 1,400 coding genes and 487 loci that have been directly implicated in human disease. The q arm of chromosome 12 contains one of the largest blocks of linkage disequilibrium found in the human genome. Here we present the finished sequence of human chromosome 12, which has been finished to high quality and spans approximately 132 megabases, representing approximately 4.5% of the human genome. Alignment of the human chromosome 12 sequence across vertebrates reveals the origin of individual segments in chicken, and a unique history of rearrangement through rodent and primate lineages. The rate of base substitutions in recent evolutionary history shows an overall slowing in hominids compared with primates and rodents.

  18. 26. A battery of calender presses at work finishing magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. A battery of calender presses at work finishing magazine paper. After the coated paper has been dried and put into rolls, as shown in the preceding pictures, it is brought to the room shown here. A roll is put in the reel at the man's shoulder in the foreground and started through the machine. It passes between the two top rollers and then in and out between the succeeding rollers, until it reaches the bottom. Many tons' pressure have ironed it before it comes out and is rolled up again. This process gives it the finish that the National Geographic must have to maintain its high standard. (p.240.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  19. Effluent management for a metal finishing industry aiming zero discharge conditions.

    PubMed

    Babuna, Fatos Germirli; Kabdasli, Isik; Sözen, Seval; Orhon, Derin

    2006-01-01

    Technical applicability of zero discharge conditions is evaluated for the specific case of a large metal finishing industry located within the protection zone of a surface water body designated as a potential source for domestic water supply. Within the context of a sound water management strategy, a detailed process profile of the plant is established with relevant balance between water demand and wastewater generation. Quality restrictions for various water uses are identified. Wastewater flows are segregated depending on significant quality parameters. A comprehensive treatment scheme is defined for optimum wastewater recycle and reuse. Source allocation is made for the reuse of different streams of recycled wastewater. The study indicates that wastewater reuse can only be implemented with an efficiency of around 85-90% for the selected industry.

  20. Development of laser finishing for non-circular profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.W.; Sheng, P.S.

    1995-03-01

    A laser-based technique for finishing of non-circular cylindrical parts is presented. In this process, the frequency characteristics of a desired non-circular shape is extracted from a CAD through a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm and implemented through a CO{sub 2} laser machining system. A galvanometer-based scanner is used in the process to achieve programmable beam trajectories and high-speed finishing. An error estimation scheme can be developed to determine the final dimensional error of the non-circular profile. This process can be selected as both a batch production tool and a rapid prototyping tool based on the designated processing rate and precision. Initial experimental results include the production of two- and three-lobed profiles, as well as definition of part feature using higher-order harmonics, in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with corresponding R{sub a} values of less than 1 {mu}m. The machine tool elements and general procedure for non-circular laser finishing are also presented.