Science.gov

Sample records for abrasive slicing technique

  1. Wire blade development for Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique (FAST) slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.; Smith, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    A low cost, effective slicing method is essential to make ingot technology viable for photovoltaics in terrestrial applications. The fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) combines the advantages of the three commercially developed techniques. In its development stage FAST demonstrated cutting effectiveness of 10 cm and 15 cm diameter workpieces. Wire blade development is still the critical element for commercialization of FAST technology. Both impregnated and electroplated wire blades have been developed; techniques have been developed to fix diamonds only in the cutting edge of the wire. Electroplated wires show the most near term promise and this approach is emphasized. With plated wires it has been possible to control the size and shape of the electroplating, it is expected that this feature reduces kerf and prolongs the life of the wirepack.

  2. Recent developments in multi-wire fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST). [for low cost silicon wafer production from ingots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.; Smith, M. B.; Lynch, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Slicing is an important processing step for all technologies based on the use of ingots. A comparison of the economics of three slicing techniques shows that the fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) is superior to the internal diameter (ID) and the multiblade slurry (MBS) techniques. Factors affecting contact length are discussed, taking into account kerf width, rocking angle, ingot size, and surface speed. Aspects of blade development are also considered. A high concentration of diamonds on wire has been obtained in wire packs usd for FAST slicing. The material removal rate was found to be directly proportional to the pressure at the diamond tips.

  3. Silicon Ingot Casting - Heat Exchanger Method (HEM). Multi-Wire Slicing - Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique (Fast). Phase 4 Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Sheet Task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, F.

    1981-01-01

    The crystallinity of large HEM silicon ingots as a function of heat flow conditions is investigated. A balanced heat flow at the bottom of the ingot restricts spurious nucleation to the edge of the melted-back seed in contact with the crucible. Homogeneous resistivity distribution over all the ingot has been achieved. The positioning of diamonds electroplated on wirepacks used to slice silicon crystals is considered. The electroplating of diamonds on only the cutting edge is described and the improved slicing performance of these wires evaluated. An economic analysis of value added costs of HEM ingot casting and band saw sectioning indicates the projected add on cost of HEM is well below the 1986 allocation.

  4. Silicon Ingot Casting - Heat Exchanger Method Multi-wire Slicing - Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique. Phase 3 Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Sheet Task of the Low-cost Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    Several 20 cm diameter silicon ingots, up to 6.3 kg. were cast with good crystallinity. The graphite heat zone can be purified by heating it to high temperatures in vacuum. This is important in reducing costs and purification of large parts. Electroplated wires with 45 um synthetic diamonds and 30 um natural diamonds showed good cutting efficiency and lifetime. During slicing of a 10 cm x 10 cm workpiece, jerky motion occurred in the feed and rocking mechanisms. This problem is corrected and modifications were made to reduce the weight of the bladeheat by 50%.

  5. Resistance to abrasion of extrinsic porcelain esthetic characterization techniques.

    PubMed

    Chi, Woo J; Browning, William; Looney, Stephen; Mackert, J Rodway; Windhorn, Richard J; Rueggeberg, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    A novel esthetic porcelain characterization technique involves mixing an appropriate amount of ceramic colorants with clear, low-fusing porcelain (LFP), applying the mixture on the external surfaces, and firing the combined components onto the surface of restorations in a porcelain oven. This method may provide better esthetic qualities and toothbrush abrasion resistance compared to the conventional techniques of applying color-corrective porcelain colorants alone, or applying a clear glaze layer over the colorants. However, there is no scientific literature to support this claim. This research evaluated toothbrush abrasion resistance of a novel porcelain esthetic characterization technique by subjecting specimens to various durations of simulated toothbrush abrasion. The results were compared to those obtained using the conventional characterization techniques of colorant application only or colorant followed by placement of a clear over-glaze. Four experimental groups, all of which were a leucite reinforced ceramic of E TC1 (Vita A1) shade, were prepared and fired in a porcelain oven according to the manufacturer's instructions. Group S (stain only) was characterized by application of surface colorants to provide a definitive shade of Vita A3.5. Group GS (glaze over stain) was characterized by application of a layer of glaze over the existing colorant layer as used for Group S. Group SL (stain+LFP) was characterized by application of a mixture of colorants and clear low-fusing add-on porcelain to provide a definitive shade of Vita A3.5. Group C (Control) was used as a control without any surface characterization. The 4 groups were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing using a 1:1 water-to-toothpaste solution for a simulated duration of 32 years of clinical use. The amount of wear was measured at time intervals simulating every 4 years of toothbrushing. These parameters were evaluated longitudinally for all groups as well as compared at similar time points among

  6. Inter-slice Leakage Artifact Reduction Technique for Simultaneous Multi-Slice Acquisitions

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Stephen F.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Bhat, Himanshu; Wang, Dingxin; Wald, Lawrence L.; Setsompop, Kawin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Controlled aliasing techniques for simultaneously acquired EPI slices have been shown to significantly increase the temporal efficiency for both diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fMRI studies. The “slice-GRAPPA” (SG) method has been widely used to reconstruct such data. We investigate robust optimization techniques for SG to ensure image reconstruction accuracy through a reduction of leakage artifacts. Methods Split slice-GRAPPA (SP-SG) is proposed as an alternative kernel optimization method. The performance of SP-SG is compared to standard SG using data collected on a spherical phantom and in-vivo on two subjects at 3T. Slice accelerated and non-accelerated data were collected for a spin-echo diffusion weighted acquisition. Signal leakage metrics and time-series SNR were used to quantify the performance of the kernel fitting approaches. Results The SP-SG optimization strategy significantly reduces leakage artifacts for both phantom and in-vivo acquisitions. In addition, a significant boost in time-series SNR for in-vivo diffusion weighted acquisitions with in-plane 2× and slice 3× accelerations was observed with the SP-SG approach. Conclusion By minimizing the influence of leakage artifacts during the training of slice-GRAPPA kernels, we have significantly improved reconstruction accuracy. Our robust kernel fitting strategy should enable better reconstruction accuracy and higher slice-acceleration across many applications. PMID:23963964

  7. Aliasing Signal Separation of Superimposed Abrasive Debris Based on Degenerate Unmixing Estimation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tongyang; Wang, Shaoping; Zio, Enrico; Shi, Jian; Hong, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Leakage is the most important failure mode in aircraft hydraulic systems caused by wear and tear between friction pairs of components. The accurate detection of abrasive debris can reveal the wear condition and predict a system’s lifespan. The radial magnetic field (RMF)-based debris detection method provides an online solution for monitoring the wear condition intuitively, which potentially enables a more accurate diagnosis and prognosis on the aviation hydraulic system’s ongoing failures. To address the serious mixing of pipe abrasive debris, this paper focuses on the superimposed abrasive debris separation of an RMF abrasive sensor based on the degenerate unmixing estimation technique. Through accurately separating and calculating the morphology and amount of the abrasive debris, the RMF-based abrasive sensor can provide the system with wear trend and sizes estimation of the wear particles. A well-designed experiment was conducted and the result shows that the proposed method can effectively separate the mixed debris and give an accurate count of the debris based on RMF abrasive sensor detection. PMID:29543733

  8. Aliasing Signal Separation of Superimposed Abrasive Debris Based on Degenerate Unmixing Estimation Technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Tongyang; Wang, Shaoping; Zio, Enrico; Shi, Jian; Hong, Wei

    2018-03-15

    Leakage is the most important failure mode in aircraft hydraulic systems caused by wear and tear between friction pairs of components. The accurate detection of abrasive debris can reveal the wear condition and predict a system's lifespan. The radial magnetic field (RMF)-based debris detection method provides an online solution for monitoring the wear condition intuitively, which potentially enables a more accurate diagnosis and prognosis on the aviation hydraulic system's ongoing failures. To address the serious mixing of pipe abrasive debris, this paper focuses on the superimposed abrasive debris separation of an RMF abrasive sensor based on the degenerate unmixing estimation technique. Through accurately separating and calculating the morphology and amount of the abrasive debris, the RMF-based abrasive sensor can provide the system with wear trend and sizes estimation of the wear particles. A well-designed experiment was conducted and the result shows that the proposed method can effectively separate the mixed debris and give an accurate count of the debris based on RMF abrasive sensor detection.

  9. Slice sampling technique in Bayesian extreme of gold price modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami, Mohammad; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Yahya, Mohamed Hisham

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a simulation study of Bayesian extreme values by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo via slice sampling algorithm is implemented. We compared the accuracy of slice sampling with other methods for a Gumbel model. This study revealed that slice sampling algorithm offers more accurate and closer estimates with less RMSE than other methods . Finally we successfully employed this procedure to estimate the parameters of Malaysia extreme gold price from 2000 to 2011.

  10. Evaluation of techniques for slice sensitivity profile measurement and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Travis C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resulting full width at half maximum of slice sensitivity profiles (SSP) generated by several commercially available point response phantoms, and determine an appropriate imaging technique and analysis method. Four CT phantoms containing point response objects designed to produce a delta impulse signal used in this study: a Fluke CT‐SSP phantom, a Gammex 464, a CatPhan 600, and a Kagaku Micro Disc phantom. Each phantom was imaged using 120 kVp, 325 mAs, head scan field of view, 32×0.625 mm helical scan with a 20 mm beam width and a pitch of 0.969. The acquired images were then reconstructed into all available slice thicknesses (0.625 mm−5.0 mm). A computer program was developed to analyze the images of each dataset for generating a SSP from which the full width at half maximum (FWHM) was determined. Two methods for generating SSPs were evaluated and compared by choosing the mean vs. maximum value in the ROI, along with two methods for evaluating the FWHM of the SSP, linear interpolation and Gaussian curve fitting. FWHMs were compared with the manufacturer's specifications using percent error and z‐test with a significance value of p<0.05. The FWHMs from each phantom were not significantly different (p≥0.089) with an average error of 3.5%. The FWHMs from SSPs generated from the mean value were statistically different (p≤3.99×1013). The FWHMs from the different FWHM methods were not statistically different (p≤0.499). Evaluation of the SSP is dependent on the ROI value used. The maximum value from the ROI should be used to generate the SSP whenever possible. SSP measurement is independent of the phantoms used in this study. PACS number: 87. PMID:24710429

  11. UPb ages of zircon rims: A new analytical method using the air-abrasion technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Winegarden, D.L.; Walter, M.

    1990-01-01

    We present a new technique for directly dating, by conventional techniques, the rims of zircons. Several circumstances, such as a xenocrystic or inherited component in igneous zircon and metamorphic overgrowths on igneous cores, can result in grains with physically distinct age components. Pneumatic abrasion has been previously shown by Krogh to remove overgrowths and damaged areas of zircon, leaving more resistant and isotopically less disturbed parts available for analysis. A new abrader design, which is capable of very gently grinding only tips and interfacial edges of even needle-like grains, permits easy collection of abraded material for dating. Five examples demonstrate the utility of the "dust-collecting" technique, including two studies that compare conventional, ion microprobe and abrader data. Common Pb may be strongly concentrated in the outermost zones of many zircons and this Pb is not easily removed by leaching (even in weak HF). Thus, the benefit of removing only the outermost zones (and avoiding mixing of age components) is somewhat compromised by the much higher common Pb contents which result in less precise age determinations. A very brief abrasion to remove the high common Pb zones prior to collection of material for dating is selected. ?? 1990.

  12. Silicon Ingot Casting: Heat Exchanger Method. Multi-wire Slicing: Fixed Abrasine Slicing Technique, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    Ingot casting was scaled up to 16 cm by 16 cm square cross section size and ingots weighing up to 8.1 kg were cast. The high degree of crystallinity was maintained in the large ingot. For large sizes, the nonuniformity of heat treatment causes chipping of the surface of the ingot. Progress was made in the development of a uniform graded structure in the silica crucibles. The high speed slicer blade-head weight was reduced to 37 pounds, allowing surface speeds of up to 500 feet per minute. Slicing of 10 cm diameter workpieces at these speeds increased the through-put of the machine to 0.145 mm/min.

  13. The Reliability and Validity of the Thin Slice Technique: Observational Research on Video Recorded Medical Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Tanina S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Observational research using the thin slice technique has been routinely incorporated in observational research methods, however there is limited evidence supporting use of this technique compared to full interaction coding. The purpose of this study was to determine if this technique could be reliability coded, if ratings are…

  14. MSE spectrograph optical design: a novel pupil slicing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer shall be mainly devoted to perform deep, wide-field, spectroscopic surveys at spectral resolutions from ~2000 to ~20000, at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Simultaneous spectral coverage at low resolution is required, while at high resolution only selected windows can be covered. Moreover, very high multiplexing (3200 objects) must be obtained at low resolution. At higher resolutions a decreased number of objects (~800) can be observed. To meet such high demanding requirements, a fiber-fed multi-object spectrograph concept has been designed by pupil-slicing the collimated beam, followed by multiple dispersive and camera optics. Different resolution modes are obtained by introducing anamorphic lenslets in front of the fiber arrays. The spectrograph is able to switch between three resolution modes (2000, 6500, 20000) by removing the anamorphic lenses and exchanging gratings. Camera lenses are fixed in place to increase stability. To enhance throughput, VPH first-order gratings has been preferred over echelle gratings. Moreover, throughput is kept high over all wavelength ranges by splitting light into more arms by dichroic beamsplitters and optimizing efficiency for each channel by proper selection of glass materials, coatings, and grating parameters.

  15. A novel dehydration technique for carrot slices implementing ultrasound and vacuum drying methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Tao

    2016-05-01

    A novel drying technique using a combination of ultrasound and vacuum dehydration was developed to shorten the drying time and improve the quality of carrot slices. Carrot slices were dried with ultrasonic vacuum (USV) drying and vacuum drying at 65 °C and 75 °C. The drying rate was significantly influenced by the drying techniques and temperatures. Compared with vacuum drying, USV drying resulted in a 41-53% decrease in the drying time. The drying time for the USV and vacuum drying techniques at 75 °C was determined to be 140 and 340 min for carrot slices, respectively. The rehydration potential, nutritional value (retention of β-carotene and ascorbic acid), color, and textural properties of USV-dried carrot slices are predominately better compared to vacuum-dried carrot slices. Moreover, lower energy consumption was used in the USV technique. The drying data (time versus moisture ratio) were successfully fitted to Wang and Singh model. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Scratching technique for the study and analysis of soil surface abrasion mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Wanquan

    2007-11-01

    Aeolian abrasion is the most fundamental and active surface process that takes place in arid and semi-arid environments. Its nature is a wear process for wind blown grains impinging on a soil or sediment surface, which causes particles and aggregates to fracture from the soil surface through a series of plastic and brittle cracking deformation such as cutting, ploughing and brittle fracturing. Using a Universal Micro-Tribometer (UMT), a scratching test was carried out on six soil surfaces (sandy soil, sand loam, silt loam, loam, silt clay loam, and silt clay). The results indicate that traces of normal and tangential force vs. time show a jagged curve, which can reflect the plastic deformation and brittle fracturing of aggregates and particles of various sizes fractured from the soil surfaces. The jagged curve peaks, and the area enclosed underneath, may represent the bonding forces and bonding energies of some aggregates and grains on the soil surface, respectively. Connecting the scratching test with an impact abrasion experiment furthermore demonstrates that soil surface abrasion rates are proportional to the square of speeds of impacting particles and to the 2.6 power of mean soil grain size, and inversely proportional to the 1.5 power of specific surface abrasive energy or to the 1.7 power of specific surface hardness.

  17. Influence of Finishing and Polishing Techniques and Abrasion on Transmittance and Roughness of Composite Resins.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Pma; Ramos, T M; de Azevedo, C S; de Lima, E; de Souza, Shj; Turbino, M L; Cesar, P F; Matos, A B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of finishing and polishing systems and toothbrush abrasion on transmittance (T) and surface roughness (Ra) of three composite resins (Filtek Z350 XT, Tetric N-Ceram, and IPS Empress Direct). Eighteen resin disks (10 mm diameter × 2 mm thick) finished by polyester strips had initial surface smoothness recorded, representing phase 1 (P1). Specimens were divided into three groups (n=6) according to the finishing/polishing instrument used (OneGloss, TopGloss, and Sof-Lex) to compose phase 2 samples (P2). Then specimens were subjected to 514 cycles of toothbrush simulation using a toothpaste slurry, with a constant load applied to soft bristles, and were then washed (phase 3=P3). After each phase, the specimens were examined by an optical profiler and spectrophotometer to measure Ra and T. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey and Pearson tests. T values were statistically influenced by composite resin ( p=0.000) and phase of measurement ( p=0.000) factors, while the finishing/polishing system used ( p=0.741) did not affect T. On the other hand, Ra values were statistically affected by the factor finishing/polishing system ( p=0.000), but not by composite resin ( p=0.100) and phase of measurement ( p=0.451). Tetric N-Ceram and Empress Direct presented higher values of roughness when polished by OneGloss, while TopGloss and Sof-Lex showed a lower roughness. It can be concluded that composite resins transmitted more light after dental abrasion. Transmittance of composite resins was not modified by the distinct roughness created by finishing/polishing instruments.

  18. Corneal Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the doctor looks at the eye under a light that is filtered cobalt blue. The fluorescein causes the abrasion to glow bright green under the light. The doctor also might do a standard ophthalmic ...

  19. Global Free-tropospheric NO2 Abundances Derived Using a Cloud Slicing Technique from AURA OMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Choi, Y.; Duncan, B.N.; Vasilkov, A.; Krotkov, N.; Bucsela, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    We derive free-tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs) by applying a cloud-slicing technique to data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column versus the cloud scene pressure is proportional to the NO2 VMR. In this work, we use a sample of nearby OMI pixel data from a single orbit for the linear fit. The OMI data include cloud scene pressures from the rotational-Raman algorithm and above-cloud NO2 vertical column density (VCD) (defined as the NO2 column from the cloud scene pressure to the top of the atmosphere) from a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm. We compare OMI-derived NO2 VMRs with in situ aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in 2006. The agreement is generally within the estimated uncertainties when appropriate data screening is applied. We then derive a global seasonal climatology of free-tropospheric NO2 VMR in cloudy conditions. Enhanced NO2 in the free troposphere commonly appears near polluted urban locations where NO2 produced in the boundary layer may be transported vertically out of the boundary layer and then horizontally away from the source. Signatures of lightning NO2 are also shown throughout low and middle latitude regions in summer months. A profile analysis of our cloud-slicing data indicates signatures of lightning-generated NO2 in the upper troposphere. Comparison of the climatology with simulations from the global modeling initiative (GMI) for cloudy conditions (cloud optical depth less than10) shows similarities in the spatial patterns of continental pollution outflow. However, there are also some differences in the seasonal variation of free-tropospheric NO2 VMRs near highly populated regions and in areas affected by lightning-generated NOx.

  20. "Cloud Slicing" : A New Technique to Derive Tropospheric Ozone Profile Information from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A new technique denoted cloud slicing has been developed for estimating tropospheric ozone profile information. All previous methods using satellite data were only capable of estimating the total column of ozone in the troposphere. Cloud slicing takes advantage of the opaque property of water vapor clouds to ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Measurements of above-cloud column ozone from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are combined together with Nimbus 7 temperature humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure data to derive ozone column amounts in the upper troposphere. In this study tropical TOMS and THIR data for the period 1979-1984 are analyzed. By combining total tropospheric column ozone (denoted TCO) measurements from the convective cloud differential (CCD) method with 100-400 hPa upper tropospheric column ozone amounts from cloud slicing, it is possible to estimate 400-1000 hPa lower tropospheric column ozone and evaluate its spatial and temporal variability. Results for both the upper and lower tropical troposphere show a year-round zonal wavenumber 1 pattern in column ozone with largest amounts in the Atlantic region (up to approx. 15 DU in the 100-400 hPa pressure band and approx. 25-30 DU in the 400-1000 hPa pressure band). Upper tropospheric ozone derived from cloud slicing shows maximum column amounts in the Atlantic region in the June-August and September-November seasons which is similar to the seasonal variability of CCD derived TCO in the region. For the lower troposphere, largest column amounts occur in the September-November season over Brazil in South America and also southern Africa. Localized increases in the tropics in lower tropospheric ozone are found over the northern region of South America around August and off the west coast of equatorial Africa in the March-May season. Time series analysis for several regions in South America and Africa show an anomalous increase in ozone in the lower

  1. A motion compensation technique using sliced blocks and its application to hybrid video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Satoshi; Sasai, Hisao

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a new motion compensation method using "sliced blocks" in DCT-based hybrid video coding. In H.264 ? MPEG-4 Advance Video Coding, a brand-new international video coding standard, motion compensation can be performed by splitting macroblocks into multiple square or rectangular regions. In the proposed method, on the other hand, macroblocks or sub-macroblocks are divided into two regions (sliced blocks) by an arbitrary line segment. The result is that the shapes of the segmented regions are not limited to squares or rectangles, allowing the shapes of the segmented regions to better match the boundaries between moving objects. Thus, the proposed method can improve the performance of the motion compensation. In addition, adaptive prediction of the shape according to the region shape of the surrounding macroblocks can reduce overheads to describe shape information in the bitstream. The proposed method also has the advantage that conventional coding techniques such as mode decision using rate-distortion optimization can be utilized, since coding processes such as frequency transform and quantization are performed on a macroblock basis, similar to the conventional coding methods. The proposed method is implemented in an H.264-based P-picture codec and an improvement in bit rate of 5% is confirmed in comparison with H.264.

  2. Effect of TiO2/Al2O3 film coated diamond abrasive particles by sol-gel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weida; Wan, Long; Liu, Xiaopan; Li, Qiang; Wang, Zhiqi

    2011-04-01

    The diamond abrasive particles were coated with the TiO2/Al2O3 film by the sol-gel technique. Compared with the uncoated diamonds, the TiO2/Al2O3 film was excellent material for the protection of the diamonds. The results showed that the incipient oxidation temperature of the TiO2/Al2O3 film coated diamonds in air atmosphere was 775 °C, which was higher 175 °C than that of the uncoated diamonds. And the coated diamonds also had better the diamond's single particle compressive strength and the impact toughness than that of uncoated diamonds after sintering at 750 °C. For the vitrified bond grinding wheels, replacing the uncoated diamonds with the TiO2/Al2O3 film coated diamonds, the volume expansion of the grinding wheels decreased from 6.2% to 3.4%, the porosity decreased from 35.7% to 25.7%, the hardness increased from 61.2HRC to 66.5HRC and the grinding ratio of the vitrified bond grinding wheels to carbide alloy (YG8) increased from 11.5 to 19.1.

  3. Derivation of Tropospheric Column Ozone from the EPTOMS/GOES Co-Located Data Sets using the Cloud Slicing Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, C.; Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    A recently developed technique called cloud slicing used for deriving upper tropospheric ozone from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument combined together with temperature-humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) is no longer applicable to the Earth Probe TOMS (EPTOMS) because EPTOMS does not have an instrument to measure cloud top temperatures. For continuing monitoring of tropospheric ozone between 200-500hPa and testing the feasibility of this technique across spacecrafts, EPTOMS data are co-located in time and space with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 infrared data for 2001 and early 2002, covering most of North and South America (45S-45N and 120W-30W). The maximum column amounts for the mid-latitudinal sites of the northern hemisphere are found in the March-May season. For the mid-latitudinal sites of the southern hemisphere, the highest column amounts are found in the September-November season, although overall seasonal variability is smaller than those of the northern hemisphere. The tropical sites show the weakest seasonal variability compared to higher latitudes. The derived results for selected sites are cross validated qualitatively with the seasonality of ozonesonde observations and the results from THIR analyses over the 1979-1984 time period due to the lack of available ozonesonde measurements to study sites for 2001. These comparisons show a reasonably good agreement among THIR, ozonesonde observations, and cloud slicing-derived column ozone. With very limited co-located EPTOMS/GOES data sets, the cloud slicing technique is still viable to derive the upper tropospheric column ozone. Two new variant approaches, High-Low (HL) cloud slicing and ozone profile derivation from cloud slicing are introduced to estimate column ozone amounts using the entire cloud information in the troposphere.

  4. RF photo-injector beam energy distribution studies by slicing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippetto, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Musumeci, P.; Ronsivalle, C.

    2009-07-01

    The SPARC photo-injector is an R&D facility dedicated to the production of high brightness electron beams for radiation generation via FEL or Thomson scattering processes. It is the prototype injector for the recently approved SPARX project, aiming at the construction in the Frascati/University of Rome Tor Vergata area of a new high brightness electron linac for the generation of SASE-FEL radiation in the 1-10 nm wavelength range. The first phase of the SPARC project has been dedicated to the e-beam source characterization; the beam transverse and longitudinal parameters at the exit of the gun have been measured, and the photo-injector settings optimized to achieve best performance. Several beam dynamics topics have been experimentally studied in this first phase of operation, as, for example, the effect of photocathode driver laser beam shaping and the evolution of the beam transverse emittance. These studies have been made possible by the use of a novel diagnostic tool, the " emittance-meter" which enables the measurement of the transverse beam parameters at different positions along the propagation axis in the very interesting region at the exit of the RF gun. The new idea of extending the e-meter capabilities came out more recently. Information on the beam longitudinal phase space and correlations with the transverse planes can be retrieved by the slicing technique. In this paper, we illustrate the basic concept of the measurement together with simulations that theoretically validate the methodology. Some preliminary results are discussed and explained with the aid of code simulations.

  5. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Friday, June 29, 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... general dentist, who has been trained in restorative dentistry techniques, will perform any procedures that use air- ...

  6. An epidemiologic approach to toothbrushing and dental abrasion.

    PubMed

    Bergström, J; Lavstedt, S

    1979-02-01

    Abrasion lesions were recorded in 818 individuals representing the adult population of 430,000 residents of the Stockholm region, Sweden. The subjects were asked about toothbrushing habits, toothbrush quality and dentifrice usage; these factors were related to abrasion criteria. Abrasion was prevalent in 30% and wedge-like or deep depressions were observed in 12%. The relationship between abrasion and toothbrushing was evident, the prevalence and severity of abrasion being correlated to toothbrushing consumption. The importance of the toothbrushing technique for the development of abrasion lesions was elucidated. Horizontal brushing technique was strongly correlated to abrasion. It was demonstrated by treating the data with the statistical AID analysis that toothbrushing factors related to the individual (brushing frequency and brushing technique) exert a greater influence than material-oriented toothbrushing factor such as dentifrice abrasivity and bristle stiffness.

  7. Monitoring gap junctional communication in astrocytes from acute adult mouse brain slices using the gap-FRAP technique.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chenju; Teillon, Jérémy; Koulakoff, Annette; Berry, Hugues; Giaume, Christian

    2018-06-01

    Intercellular communication through gap junction channels plays a key role in cellular homeostasis and in synchronizing physiological functions, a feature that is modified in number of pathological situations. In the brain, astrocytes are the cell population that expresses the highest amount of gap junction proteins, named connexins. Several techniques have been used to assess the level of gap junctional communication in astrocytes, but so far they remain very difficult to apply in adult brain tissue. Here, using specific loading of astrocytes with sulforhodamine 101, we adapted the gap-FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching) to acute hippocampal slices from 9 month-old adult mice. We show that gap junctional communication monitored in astrocytes with this technique was inhibited either by pharmacological treatment with a gap junctional blocker or in mice lacking the two main astroglial connexins, while a partial inhibition was measured when only one connexin was knocked-out. We validate this approach using a mathematical model of sulforhodamine 101 diffusion in an elementary astroglial network and a quantitative analysis of the exponential fits to the fluorescence recovery curves. Consequently, we consider that the adaptation of the gap-FRAP technique to acute brain slices from adult mice provides an easy going and valuable approach that allows overpassing this age-dependent obstacle and will facilitate the investigation of gap junctional communication in adult healthy or pathological brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. "Direct DICOM Slice Landmarking" A Novel Research Technique to Quantify Skeletal Changes in Orthognathic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Almukhtar, Anas; Khambay, Balvinder; Ayoub, Ashraf; Ju, Xiangyang; Al-Hiyali, Ali; Macdonald, James; Jabar, Norhayati; Goto, Tazuko

    2015-01-01

    The limitations of the current methods of quantifying the surgical movements of facial bones inspired this study. The aim of this study was the assessment of the accuracy and reproducibility of directly landmarking of 3D DICOM images (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) to quantify the changes in the jaw bones following surgery. The study was carried out on plastic skull to simulate the surgical movements of the jaw bones. Cone beam CT scans were taken at 3mm, 6mm, and 9mm maxillary advancement; together with a 2mm, 4mm, 6mm and 8mm "down graft" which in total generated 12 different positions of the maxilla for the analysis. The movements of the maxilla were calculated using two methods, the standard approach where distances between surface landmarks on the jaw bones were measured and the novel approach where measurements were taken directly from the internal structures of the corresponding 3D DICOME slices. A one sample t-test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two methods of measurements for the y and z directions, however, the x direction showed a significant difference. The mean difference between the two absolute measurements were 0.34±0.20mm, 0.22±0.16mm, 0.18±0.13mm in the y, z and x directions respectively. In conclusion, the direct landmarking of 3D DICOM image slices is a reliable, reproducible and informative method for assessment of the 3D skeletal changes. The method has a clear clinical application which includes the analysis of the jaw movements "orthognathic surgery" for the correction of facial deformities.

  9. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images.

    PubMed

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P; Kuijer, Joost P A; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M; van de Ven, Peter M; Meine, Mathias; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; van Rossum, Albert C; Nijveldt, Robin

    2017-12-01

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. • Myocardial strain analysis could potentially improve patient selection for CRT. • Currently a well validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains is lacking. • The novel SLICE technique derives segmental strains from standard CMR cine images. • SLICE-derived strain markers of CRT response showed close agreement with CMR-TAG. • Future studies will focus on the prognostic value of SLICE in CRT candidates.

  10. Distribution of lacosamide in the rat brain assessed by in vitro slice technique.

    PubMed

    Gáll, Zsolt; Vancea, Szende

    2018-01-01

    Lacosamide is a newer anticonvulsant and is the only one that enhances the slow inactivation of voltage gated sodium channels. It is also claimed to have disease-modifying potential, but its pharmacokinetic properties have been much less discussed in the literature. In rats, lacosamide shows restricted distribution to tissues, and the brain-to-plasma partition coefficient (K p ) is only 0.553. In this study, the brain disposition of lacosamide was evaluated in rat brains, and its neuropharmacokinetic parameters (i.e., protein binding and intracellular accumulation) were assessed using in vitro methods. Brain slice experiments and brain homogenate binding studies were performed for several drugs acting on the central nervous system, and drugs were assayed by using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. By applying a combined approach, it was found that (1) the unbound volume of distribution in the brain for lacosamide (V u,brain  = 1.37) was lower than that of other classical anticonvulsants; (2) the unbound fraction of lacosamide in the brain (0.899) was slightly lower than its unbound fraction in plasma (0.96); (3) the unbound intracellular-to-extracellular concentration ratio of lacosamide was 1.233, meaning that lacosamide was accumulated in the intracellular space because of its physicochemical properties and zwitterionic structure; and (4) the unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of lacosamide was lower than the total brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (K p,uu,brain  = 0.42 vs. K p  = 0.553). In conclusion, the limited brain distribution of lacosamide is not related to its nonspecific protein-binding capacity; rather, an active transport mechanism across the blood-brain barrier may be involved, which reduces the anticonvulsant and/or antiepileptogenic actions of this drug.

  11. Any Way You Slice It—A Comparison of Confocal Microscopy Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Jonkman, James

    2015-01-01

    The confocal fluorescence microscope has become a popular tool for life sciences researchers, primarily because of its ability to remove blur from outside of the focal plane of the image. Several different kinds of confocal microscopes have been developed, each with advantages and disadvantages. This article will cover the grid confocal, classic confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM), the resonant scanning-CLSM, and the spinning-disk confocal microscope. The way each microscope technique works, the best applications the technique is suited for, the limitations of the technique, and new developments for each technology will be presented. Researchers who have access to a range of different confocal microscopes (e.g., through a local core facility) should find this paper helpful for choosing the best confocal technology for specific imaging applications. Others with funding to purchase an instrument should find the article helpful in deciding which technology is ideal for their area of research. PMID:25802490

  12. First Look at the Upper Tropospheric Ozone Mixing Ratio from OMI Estimated using the Cloud Slicing Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil; Joiner, Joanna; Vassilkov, Alexandra; Taylor, Steven; Yang, Kai; Ahn, Chang-Woo

    2004-01-01

    The Cloud Slicing technique has emerged as a powerful tool for the study of ozone in the upper troposphere. In this technique one looks at the variation with cloud height of the above-cloud column ozone derived from the backscattered ultraviolet instruments, such as TOMS, to determine the ozone mixing ratio. For this technique to work properly one needs an instrument with relatively good horizontal resolution with very good signal to noise in measuring above-cloud column ozone. In addition, one needs the (radiatively) effective cloud pressure rather than the cloud-top pressure, for the ultraviolet photons received by a satellite instrument are scattered from inside the cloud rather than from the top. For this study we use data from the OMI sensor, which was recently launched on the EOS Aura satellite. OMI is a W-Visible backscattering instrument with a nadir pixel size of 13 x 24 km. The effective cloud pressure is derived from a new algorithm based on Rotational Raman Scattering and O2-O2, absorption in the 340-400 nm band of OMI.

  13. [The application of air abrasion in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Mandinić, Zoran; Vulićević, Zoran R; Beloica, Milos; Radović, Ivana; Mandić, Jelena; Carević, Momir; Tekić, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    One of the main objectives of contemporary dentistry is to preserve healthy tooth structure by applying techniques of noninvasive treatment. Air abrasion is a minimally invasive nonmechanical technique of tooth preparation that uses kinetic energy to remove carious tooth structure. A powerful narrow stream of moving aluminum-oxide particles hit the tooth surface and they abrade it without heat, vibration or noise. Variables that affect speed of cutting include air pressure, particle size, powder flow, tip's size, angle and distance from the tooth. It has been proposed that air abrasion can be used to diagnose early occlusal-surface lesions and treat them with minimal tooth preparation using magnifier. Reported advantages of air abrasion include reduced noise, vibration and sensitivity. Air abrasion cavity preparations have more rounded internal contours than those prepared with straight burs. This may increase the longevity of placed restorations because it reduces the incidence of fractures and a consequence of decreased internal stresses. However, air abrasion cannot be used for all patients, i.e. in cases involving severe dust allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, recent extraction or other oral surgery, open wounds, advanced periodontal disease, recent placement of orthodontic appliances and oral abrasions, or subgingival caries removal. Many of these conditions increase the risk of air embolism in the oral soft tissues. Dust control is a challenge, and it necessitates the use of rubber dam, high-volume evacuation, protective masks and safety eyewear for both the patient and the therapist.

  14. Pulse sliced picosecond Ballistic Imaging and two planar elastic scattering: Development of the techniques and their application to diesel sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Sean Patrick Hynes

    A line of sight imaging technique was developed which utilized pulse slicing of laser pulses to shorten the duration of the parent laser pulse, thereby making time gating more effective at removing multiple scattered light. This included the development of an optical train which utilized a Kerr cell to selectively pass the initial part of the laser pulse while rejecting photons contained later within the pulse. This line of sight ballistic imaging technique was applied to image high-pressure fuel sprays injected into conditions typically encountered in a diesel combustion chamber. Varying the environmental conditions into which the fuel was injected revealed trends in spray behavior which depend on both temperature and pressure. Different fuel types were also studied in this experiment which demonstrated remarkably different shedding structures from one another. Additional experiments were performed to characterize the imaging technique at ambient conditions. The technique was modified to use two wavelengths to allow further rejection of scattered light. The roles of spatial, temporal and polarization filtration were examined by imaging an USAF 1951 line-pair target through a highly scattering field of polystyrene micro-spheres. The optical density of the scattering field was varied by both the optical path length and number densities of the spheres. The equal optical density, but with variable path length results demonstrated the need for an aggressively shorter pulse length to effectively image the distance scales typical encountered in the primary breakup regions of diesel sprays. Results indicate that the system performance improved via the use of two wavelengths. A final investigation was undertaken to image coherent light which has elastically scattered orthogonal to the direction of the laser pulse. Two wavelengths were focused into ˜150 micron sheets via a cylindrical lens and passed under the injector nozzle. The two sheets were adjustable spatially to

  15. System for slicing wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A newly patented process for slicing silicon wafers that has distinct advantages over methods now widely used is described. The primary advantage of the new system is that it allows the efficient slicing of a number of ingots simultaneously at high speed. The cutting action is performed mechanically, most often with diamond particles that are transported to the cutting zone by a fluid vehicle or have been made an integral part of the blade by plating or impregnation. The new system uses a multiple or ganged band saw, arranged and spaced so that each side, or length, segment of a blade element, or loop, provides a cutting function. Each blade is maintained precisely in position by guides as it enters and leaves each ingot. The cutting action is performed with a conventional abrasive slurry composed of diamond grit suspended in an oil- or water-based vehicle. The distribution system draws the slurry from the supply reservoir and pumps it to the injection tubes to supply it to each side of each ingot. A flush system is provided at the outer end of the work-station zone. In order to reduce potential damage, a pneumatically driven flushing fluid is provided.

  16. Slicing of silicon into sheet material. Silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, S. C.; Fleming, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Fabrication of a prototype large capacity multiple blade slurry saw is considered. Design of the bladehead which will tension up to 1000 blades, and cut a 45 cm long silicon ingot as large as 12 cm in diameter is given. The large blade tensioning force of 270,000 kg is applied through two bolts acting on a pair of scissor toggles, significantly reducing operator set-up time. Tests with an upside-down cutting technique resulted in 100% wafering yields and the highest wafer accuracy yet experienced with MS slicing. Variations in oil and abrasives resulted only in degraded slicing results. A technique of continuous abrasive slurry separation to remove silicon debris is described.

  17. [A modified intracellular labelling technique for high-resolution staining of neuron in 500 microm-thickness brain slice].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-liang; Liu, Guo-long; Sui, Jian-feng; Ruan, Huai-zhen; Xiong, Ying

    2007-05-01

    To develop simple but reliable intracellular labelling method for high-resolution visualization of the fine structure of single neurons in brain slice with thickness of 500 microm. Biocytin was introduced into neurons in 500 microm-thickness brain slices while blind whole cell recording. Following processed for histochemistry using the avidin-biotin-complex method, stained slices were mounted in glycerol on special glass slides. Labelled cells were digital photomicrographed every 30 microm and reconstructed with Adobe Photoshop software. After histochemistry, limited background staining was produced. The resolution was so high that fine structure, including branching, termination of individual axons and even spines of neurons could be identified in exquisite detail with optic microscope. With the help of software, the neurons of interest could be reconstructed from a stack of photomicrographs. The modified method provides an easy and reliable approach to revealing the detailed morphological properties of single neurons in 500 microm-thickness brain slice. Without requisition of special equipment, it is suited to be broadly applied.

  18. Valve for abrasive material

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Harold S.

    1982-01-01

    A ball valve assembly for controlling the flow of abrasive particulates including an enlarged section at the bore inlet and an enlarged section at the bore outlet. A refractory ceramic annular deflector is positioned in each of the enlarged sections, substantially extending the useful life of the valve.

  19. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  20. Abrasion resistant composition

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Keith D; Barnes, Christopher A; Henderson, Stephen L

    A surface covering composition of abrasion resistant character adapted for disposition in overlying bonded relation to a metal substrate. The surface covering composition includes metal carbide particles within a metal matrix at a packing factor of not less than about 0.6. Not less than about 40 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter in the range of +14-32 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix. Not less than about 3 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter of +60 mesh prior to introduction to themore » metal matrix.« less

  1. Slicing of silicon into sheet material: Silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, S. C.

    1976-01-01

    Multiblade slurry sawing is used to slice 10 cm diameter silicon ingots into wafers 0.024 cm thick using 0.050 cm of silicon per slice (0.026 cm kerf loss). Total slicing time is less than twenty hours, and 143 slices are produced simultaneously. Productivity (slice area per hour per blade) is shown as a function or blade load and thickness, and abrasive size. Finer abrasive slurries cause a reduction in slice productivity, and thin blades cause a reduction of wafer accuracy. Sawing induced surface damage is found to extend 18 microns into the wafer.

  2. Global Free Tropospheric NO2 Abundances Derived Using a Cloud Slicing Technique Applied to Satellite Observations from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Choi, Y.; Duncan, B. N.; Bucsela, E.

    2014-01-01

    We derive free-tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs) and stratospheric column amounts of NO2 by applying a cloud slicing technique to data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column versus the cloud scene pressure is proportional to the NO2 VMR. In this work, we use a sample of nearby OMI pixel data from a single orbit for the linear fit. The OMI data include cloud scene pressures from the rotational-Raman algorithm and above-cloud NO2 vertical column density (VCD) (defined as the NO2 column from the cloud scene pressure to the top-of-the-atmosphere) from a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm. Estimates of stratospheric column NO2 are obtained by extrapolating the linear fits to the tropopause. We compare OMI-derived NO2 VMRs with in situ aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in 2006. The agreement is generally within the estimated uncertainties when appropriate data screening is applied. We then derive a global seasonal climatology of free-tropospheric NO2 VMR in cloudy conditions. Enhanced NO2 in the free troposphere commonly appears near polluted urban locations where NO2 produced in the boundary layer may be transported vertically out of the boundary layer and then horizontally away from the source. Signatures of lightning NO2 are also shown throughout low and middle latitude regions in summer months. A profile analysis of our cloud slicing data indicates signatures of uplifted and transported anthropogenic NO2 in the middle troposphere as well as lightning-generated NO2 in the upper troposphere. Comparison of the climatology with simulations from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) for cloudy conditions (cloud optical thicknesses > 10) shows similarities in the spatial patterns of continental pollution outflow. However, there are also some differences in

  3. Functional testing of an inhalable nanoparticle based influenza vaccine using a human precision cut lung slice technique.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Vanessa; Schwarz, Katharina; Klee, Anna; Seehase, Sophie; Förster, Christine; Pfennig, Olaf; Jonigk, Danny; Fieguth, Hans-Gerd; Koch, Wolfgang; Warnecke, Gregor; Yusibov, Vidadi; Sewald, Katherina; Braun, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Annual outbreaks of influenza infections, caused by new influenza virus subtypes and high incidences of zoonosis, make seasonal influenza one of the most unpredictable and serious health threats worldwide. Currently available vaccines, though the main prevention strategy, can neither efficiently be adapted to new circulating virus subtypes nor provide high amounts to meet the global demand fast enough. New influenza vaccines quickly adapted to current virus strains are needed. In the present study we investigated the local toxicity and capacity of a new inhalable influenza vaccine to induce an antigen-specific recall response at the site of virus entry in human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). This new vaccine combines recombinant H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin (HAC1), produced in tobacco plants, and a silica nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery system. We found no local cellular toxicity of the vaccine within applicable concentrations. However higher concentrations of NP (≥10(3) µg/ml) dose-dependently decreased viability of human PCLS. Furthermore NP, not the protein, provoked a dose-dependent induction of TNF-α and IL-1β, indicating adjuvant properties of silica. In contrast, we found an antigen-specific induction of the T cell proliferation and differentiation cytokine, IL-2, compared to baseline level (152±49 pg/mg vs. 22±5 pg/mg), which could not be seen for the NP alone. Additionally, treatment with 10 µg/ml HAC1 caused a 6-times higher secretion of IFN-γ compared to baseline (602±307 pg/mg vs. 97±51 pg/mg). This antigen-induced IFN-γ secretion was further boosted by the adjuvant effect of silica NP for the formulated vaccine to a 12-fold increase (97±51 pg/mg vs. 1226±535 pg/mg). Thus we were able to show that the plant-produced vaccine induced an adequate innate immune response and re-activated an established antigen-specific T cell response within a non-toxic range in human PCLS at the site of virus entry.

  4. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  5. Physics of loose abrasive microgrinding.

    PubMed

    Golini, D; Jacobs, S D

    1991-07-01

    This study examined the physics of loose abrasive microgrinding (grinding with micron and submicron sized abrasives). More specifically, it focused on the transition from brittle to ductile mode grinding which occurs in this region of abrasive sizes. Process dependency on slurry chemistry was the primary area of emphasis and was studied for diamond abrasives varying in size from 3.0 to 0.75 microm on both ULE and Zerodur, with emphasis on ULE. Ductile mode grinding was achieved with smaller abrasives, as expected, however two significant discoveries were made. The first observation was that by simply changing slurry chemistry, it was possible to induce the transition from brittle fracture to ductile mode grinding in ULE. This transition point could be intentionally moved about for diamonds 3.0-0.75 microm in diameter. For any given abrasive size within these limits, either brittle fracture or ductile removal may be achieved, depending on the slurry used to suspend the diamonds. Several slurries were studied, including water, a series of homologous n-alcohols, and other solvents chosen for properties varying from molecular size to dielectric constant and zeta potential. The study revealed that this slurry dependency is primarily a Rebinder effect. The second finding was that a tremendous amount of surface stress is introduced in loose abrasive ductile mode grinding. This stress was observed when the Twyman Effect in ULE plates increased by a factor of 4 in the transition from the brittle to the ductile mode. An assessment of the cause of this stress is discussed.

  6. Thick Slice and Thin Slice Teaching Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tom, Gail; Tong, Stephanie Tom; Hesse, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Student-based teaching evaluations are an integral component to institutions of higher education. Previous work on student-based teaching evaluations suggest that evaluations of instructors based upon "thin slice" 30-s video clips of them in the classroom correlate strongly with their end of the term "thick slice" student evaluations. This study's…

  7. Urea Biosynthesis Using Liver Slices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a practical scheme to enable introductory biology students to investigate the mechanism by which urea is synthesized in the liver. The tissue-slice technique is discussed, and methods for the quantitative analysis of metabolites are presented. (Author/SL)

  8. Air-propelled abrasive grit can damage the perennial weed, quackgrass, Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New techniques are needed to control quackgrass in organic crops. With greater than or equal to 2 applications of abrasive air-propelled (800 kPa) corncob grit to 15 cm tall quackgrass tillers, regrowth was minimal at 5 weeks after treatment. Abrasive grits may be effective tools to help manage pere...

  9. Integrating interface slicing into software engineering processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a tool which was developed to facilitate software engineering. As previously presented, it was described in terms of its techniques and mechanisms. The integration of interface slicing into specific software engineering activities is considered by discussing a number of potential applications of interface slicing. The applications discussed specifically address the problems, issues, or concerns raised in a previous project. Because a complete interface slicer is still under development, these applications must be phrased in future tenses. Nonetheless, the interface slicing techniques which were presented can be implemented using current compiler and static analysis technology. Whether implemented as a standalone tool or as a module in an integrated development or reverse engineering environment, they require analysis no more complex than that required for current system development environments. By contrast, conventional slicing is a methodology which, while showing much promise and intuitive appeal, has yet to be fully implemented in a production language environment despite 12 years of development.

  10. A comprehensive and conservative approach for the restoration of abrasion and erosion. Part I: concepts and clinical rationale for early intervention using adhesive techniques.

    PubMed

    Dietschi, Didier; Argente, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Tooth wear represents a frequent pathology with multifactorial origins. Behavioral changes, unbalanced diet, various medical conditions and medications inducing acid regurgitation or influencing saliva composition and flow rate, trigger tooth erosion. Awake and sleep bruxism, which are widespread nowadays with functional disorders, induce attrition. It has become increasingly important to diagnose early signs of tooth wear so that proper preventive, and if needed, restorative measures are taken. Such disorders have biological, functional, and also esthetic consequences. Following a comprehensive clinical evaluation, treatment objectives, such as a proper occlusal and anatomical scheme as well as a pleasing smile line, are usually set on models with an anterior teeth full-mouth waxup, depending on the severity of tissue loss. Based on the new vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO), combinations of direct and indirect restorations can then help to reestablish anatomy and function. The use of adhesive techniques and resin composites has demonstrated its potential, in particular for the treatment of moderate tooth wear. Part I of this article reviews recent knowledge and clinical concepts dealing with the various forms of early restorative interventions and their potential to restrict ongoing tissue destruction.

  11. Abrasion of acrylic veneers by simulated toothbrushing.

    PubMed

    Xu, H C; Söremark, R; Wiktorsson, G; Wang, T; Liu, W Y

    1984-12-01

    The abrasion responses were tested on four acrylic veneer materials, K + B Plus, K + B 75, Isosit, and Ivocron. The studies were performed in two independent research laboratories. Two different brushing machines were used with an abrasive slurry. The results were used for comparing the degree of abrasion for the resin materials. Three analytical methods of measuring the degree of abrasive wear were used: surface profile measurement, microscopic evaluation, and measurement of loss of volume. Isosit showed the best abrasion resistance of the four materials tested.

  12. Parametric Trace Slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosu, Grigore (Inventor); Chen, Feng (Inventor); Chen, Guo-fang; Wu, Yamei; Meredith, Patrick O. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A program trace is obtained and events of the program trace are traversed. For each event identified in traversing the program trace, a trace slice of which the identified event is a part is identified based on the parameter instance of the identified event. For each trace slice of which the identified event is a part, the identified event is added to an end of a record of the trace slice. These parametric trace slices can be used in a variety of different manners, such as for monitoring, mining, and predicting.

  13. TH-EF-BRA-08: A Novel Technique for Estimating Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) From Multi-Slice Sparsely Sampled Cine Images Using Motion Modeling and Free Form Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Wang, C

    Purpose: To develop a technique to estimate on-board VC-MRI using multi-slice sparsely-sampled cine images, patient prior 4D-MRI, motion-modeling and free-form deformation for real-time 3D target verification of lung radiotherapy. Methods: A previous method has been developed to generate on-board VC-MRI by deforming prior MRI images based on a motion model(MM) extracted from prior 4D-MRI and a single-slice on-board 2D-cine image. In this study, free-form deformation(FD) was introduced to correct for errors in the MM when large anatomical changes exist. Multiple-slice sparsely-sampled on-board 2D-cine images located within the target are used to improve both the estimation accuracy and temporal resolution ofmore » VC-MRI. The on-board 2D-cine MRIs are acquired at 20–30frames/s by sampling only 10% of the k-space on Cartesian grid, with 85% of that taken at the central k-space. The method was evaluated using XCAT(computerized patient model) simulation of lung cancer patients with various anatomical and respirational changes from prior 4D-MRI to onboard volume. The accuracy was evaluated using Volume-Percent-Difference(VPD) and Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS) of the estimated tumor volume. Effects of region-of-interest(ROI) selection, 2D-cine slice orientation, slice number and slice location on the estimation accuracy were evaluated. Results: VCMRI estimated using 10 sparsely-sampled sagittal 2D-cine MRIs achieved VPD/COMS of 9.07±3.54%/0.45±0.53mm among all scenarios based on estimation with ROI-MM-ROI-FD. The FD optimization improved estimation significantly for scenarios with anatomical changes. Using ROI-FD achieved better estimation than global-FD. Changing the multi-slice orientation to axial, coronal, and axial/sagittal orthogonal reduced the accuracy of VCMRI to VPD/COMS of 19.47±15.74%/1.57±2.54mm, 20.70±9.97%/2.34±0.92mm, and 16.02±13.79%/0.60±0.82mm, respectively. Reducing the number of cines to 8 enhanced temporal resolution of VC-MRI by 25% while

  14. Silhouette-Slice Theorems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    necessary to define "canonical" * parameterizations. Examples of proposed parameterizations are Munge N...of a slice of the surface oriented along the vector CT on the surface is given by STr -(A4.24) 11 is clear from the above expression, that when a slice

  15. Effect of ceramic coating by aerosol deposition on abrasion resistance of a resin composite material.

    PubMed

    Taira, Yohsuke; Hatono, Hironori; Mizukane, Masahiro; Tokita, Masahiro; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol deposition (AD coating) is a novel technique to coat solid substances with a ceramic film. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of AD coating on abrasion resistance of a resin composite material. A 5-microm-thick aluminum oxide layer was created on the polymerized resin composite. The specimen was cyclically abraded using a toothbrush abrasion simulator for 100,000 cycles. Abraded surface was then measured with a profilometer to determine the average roughness (Ra) and maximum roughness (Rmax). It was found that abrasion cycling increased the Ra value of the No-AD-coating group, but decreased the Ra and Rmax values of the AD coating group. Moreover, the AD coating group showed significantly smaller Ra and Rmax values after 100,000 abrasion cycles as compared to the No-coating control group. Microscopic observation supported these findings. In conclusion, the resistance of the resin composite against toothbrush abrasion was improved by AD coating.

  16. Process Monitoring Evaluation and Implementation for the Wood Abrasive Machining Process

    PubMed Central

    Saloni, Daniel E.; Lemaster, Richard L.; Jackson, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Wood processing industries have continuously developed and improved technologies and processes to transform wood to obtain better final product quality and thus increase profits. Abrasive machining is one of the most important of these processes and therefore merits special attention and study. The objective of this work was to evaluate and demonstrate a process monitoring system for use in the abrasive machining of wood and wood based products. The system developed increases the life of the belt by detecting (using process monitoring sensors) and removing (by cleaning) the abrasive loading during the machining process. This study focused on abrasive belt machining processes and included substantial background work, which provided a solid base for understanding the behavior of the abrasive, and the different ways that the abrasive machining process can be monitored. In addition, the background research showed that abrasive belts can effectively be cleaned by the appropriate cleaning technique. The process monitoring system developed included acoustic emission sensors which tended to be sensitive to belt wear, as well as platen vibration, but not loading, and optical sensors which were sensitive to abrasive loading. PMID:22163477

  17. Field evidence of two-phase abrasion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K. L.; Szabo, T.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Domokos, G.

    2013-12-01

    The rounded shape of river rocks is clear evidence that abrasion due to bed load transport is a significant agent for mass loss. Its contribution to downstream fining, however, is typically assumed to be negligible - as diminution trends may be explained solely by size-selective transport. A recent theory has predicted that pebble abrasion occurs in two well separated phases: in Phase 1, an intially-polyhedral pebble rounds to the shape of an inscribed ellipsoid without any change in axis dimensions; in Phase II, axis dimensions are slowly reduced. Importantly, Phase I abrasion means that an initially-blocky pebble may lose up to half its mass without any apparent change in 'size', which is only measured as the length of a single pebble axis by most field researchers. We hypothesize that field studies have significantly underestimated the importance of abrasion because they do not quantify pebble shape, and we set out to demonstrate that two-phase abrasion occurs in a natural stream. Our study examines downstream trends in pebble size and shape along a 10-km stretch of the Rio Mameyes within the Luquillo Critical Zone observatory, where volcaniclastic cobbles and boulders are transported by bed load at slopes up to 10%. The upper reaches of the stream consist of alluviated bedrock valleys that preclude sediment storage and thus minimize size-selective transport, which allows us to isolate the effects of abrasion. The lower 5 km is an alluvial river in which size-selective transport becomes operative. We quantified the shape and size of thousands of pebbles along the profile using hand and image-based techniques. The data provide the first field validation of two-phase abrasion; in the bedrock reaches, pebbles clearly evolve toward ellipsoids without any significant change in axis dimensions (rounding), while in the lower reaches pebbles slowly reduce their axis dimensions with little or no change in roundness. Results also show that shape metrics determined from

  18. Casing window milling with abrasive fluid jet

    SciTech Connect

    Vestavik, O.M.; Fidtje, T.H.; Faure, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Methods for through tubing re-entry drilling of multilateral wells has a large potential for increasing hydrocarbon production and total recovery. One of the bottle-necks of this technology is initiation of the side-track by milling a window in the casing downhole. A new approach to this problem has been investigated in a joint industry project. An experimental set-up has been built for milling a 4 inch window in a 7 inch steel casing at surface in the laboratory. A specially designed bit developed at RIF using abrasive jet cutting technology has been used for the window milling. The bit has anmore » abrasive jet beam which is always directed in the desired side-track direction, even if the bit is rotating uniformly. The bit performs the milling with a combined mechanical and hydraulic jet action. The method has been successfully demonstrated. The experiments has shown that the window milling can be performed with very low WOB and torque, and that only small side forces are required to perform the operation. Casing milling has been performed without a whipstock, a cement plug has been the only support for the tool. The tests indicate that milling operations can be performed more efficiently with less time and costs than what is required with conventional techniques. However, the method still needs some development of the downhole motor for coiled tubing applications. The method can be used both for milling and drilling giving the advantage of improved rate of penetration, improved bit life and increased horizontal reach. The method is planned to be demonstrated downhole in the near future.« less

  19. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Gorin, A.H.; Seals, R.D.

    1994-11-22

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  20. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Gorin, Andrew H.; Seals, Roland D.

    1994-01-01

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  1. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  2. The virtual slice setup.

    PubMed

    Lytton, William W; Neymotin, Samuel A; Hines, Michael L

    2008-06-30

    In an effort to design a simulation environment that is more similar to that of neurophysiology, we introduce a virtual slice setup in the NEURON simulator. The virtual slice setup runs continuously and permits parameter changes, including changes to synaptic weights and time course and to intrinsic cell properties. The virtual slice setup permits shocks to be applied at chosen locations and activity to be sampled intra- or extracellularly from chosen locations. By default, a summed population display is shown during a run to indicate the level of activity and no states are saved. Simulations can run for hours of model time, therefore it is not practical to save all of the state variables. These, in any case, are primarily of interest at discrete times when experiments are being run: the simulation can be stopped momentarily at such times to save activity patterns. The virtual slice setup maintains an automated notebook showing shocks and parameter changes as well as user comments. We demonstrate how interaction with a continuously running simulation encourages experimental prototyping and can suggest additional dynamical features such as ligand wash-in and wash-out-alternatives to typical instantaneous parameter change. The virtual slice setup currently uses event-driven cells and runs at approximately 2 min/h on a laptop.

  3. Quantitative image analysis for evaluating the abrasion resistance of nanoporous silica films on glass

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Karsten H.; Karlsson, Stefan; Limbach, Rene; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    The abrasion resistance of coated glass surfaces is an important parameter for judging lifetime performance, but practical testing procedures remain overly simplistic and do often not allow for direct conclusions on real-world degradation. Here, we combine quantitative two-dimensional image analysis and mechanical abrasion into a facile tool for probing the abrasion resistance of anti-reflective (AR) coatings. We determine variations in the average coated area, during and after controlled abrasion. Through comparison with other experimental techniques, we show that this method provides a practical, rapid and versatile tool for the evaluation of the abrasion resistance of sol-gel-derived thin films on glass. The method yields informative data, which correlates with measurements of diffuse reflectance and is further supported by qualitative investigations through scanning electron microscopy. In particular, the method directly addresses degradation of coating performance, i.e., the gradual areal loss of antireflective functionality. As an exemplary subject, we studied the abrasion resistance of state-of-the-art nanoporous SiO2 thin films which were derived from 5–6 wt% aqueous solutions of potassium silicates, or from colloidal suspensions of SiO2 nanoparticles. It is shown how abrasion resistance is governed by coating density and film adhesion, defining the trade-off between optimal AR performance and acceptable mechanical performance. PMID:26656260

  4. Ripple artifact reduction using slice overlap in slice encoding for metal artifact correction.

    PubMed

    den Harder, J Chiel; van Yperen, Gert H; Blume, Ulrike A; Bos, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) significantly reduces metal artifacts. Yet, especially in techniques that use gradient selection, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC), a residual ripple artifact may be prominent. Here, an analysis is presented of the ripple artifact and of slice overlap as an approach to reduce the artifact. The ripple artifact was analyzed theoretically to clarify its cause. Slice overlap, conceptually similar to spectral bin overlap in multi-acquisition with variable resonances image combination (MAVRIC), was achieved by reducing the selection gradient and, thus, increasing the slice profile width. Time domain simulations and phantom experiments were performed to validate the analyses and proposed solution. Discontinuities between slices are aggravated by signal displacement in the frequency encoding direction in areas with deviating B0. Specifically, it was demonstrated that ripple artifacts appear only where B0 varies both in-plane and through-plane. Simulations and phantom studies of metal implants confirmed the efficacy of slice overlap to reduce the artifact. The ripple artifact is an important limitation of gradient selection based MSI techniques, and can be understood using the presented simulations. At a scan-time penalty, slice overlap effectively addressed the artifact, thereby improving image quality near metal implants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A profilometry-based dentifrice abrasion Method for V8 brushing machines. Part I: Introduction to RDA-PE.

    PubMed

    White, Donald J; Schneiderman, Eva; Colón, Ellen; St John, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and standardization of a profilometry-based method for assessment of dentifrice abrasivity called Radioactive Dentin Abrasivity - Profilometry Equivalent (RDA-PE). Human dentine substrates are mounted in acrylic blocks of precise standardized dimensions, permitting mounting and brushing in V8 brushing machines. Dentin blocks are masked to create an area of "contact brushing." Brushing is carried out in V8 brushing machines and dentifrices are tested as slurries. An abrasive standard is prepared by diluting the ISO 11609 abrasivity reference calcium pyrophosphate abrasive into carboxymethyl cellulose/glycerin, just as in the RDA method. Following brushing, masked areas are removed and profilometric analysis is carried out on treated specimens. Assessments of average abrasion depth (contact or optical profilometry) are made. Inclusion of standard calcium pyrophosphate abrasive permits a direct RDA equivalent assessment of abrasion, which is characterized with profilometry as Depth test/Depth control x 100. Within the test, the maximum abrasivity standard of 250 can be created in situ simply by including a treatment group of standard abrasive with 2.5x number of brushing strokes. RDA-PE is enabled in large part by the availability of easy-to-use and well-standardized modern profilometers, but its use in V8 brushing machines is enabled by the unique specific conditions described herein. RDA-PE permits the evaluation of dentifrice abrasivity to dentin without the requirement of irradiated teeth and infrastructure for handling them. In direct comparisons, the RDA-PE method provides dentifrice abrasivity assessments comparable to the gold industry standard RDA technique.

  6. Three-Body Abrasion Testing Using Lunar Dust Simulants to Evaluate Surface System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Budinski, Kenneth G.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Klaus, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous unexpected operational issues relating to the abrasive nature of lunar dust, such as scratched visors and spacesuit pressure seal leaks, were encountered during the Apollo missions. To avoid reoccurrence of these unexpected detrimental equipment problems on future missions to the Moon, a series of two- and three-body abrasion tests were developed and conducted in order to begin rigorously characterizing the effect of lunar dust abrasiveness on candidate surface system materials. Two-body scratch tests were initially performed to examine fundamental interactions of a single particle on a flat surface. These simple and robust tests were used to establish standardized measurement techniques for quantifying controlled volumetric wear. Subsequent efforts described in the paper involved three-body abrasion testing designed to be more representative of actual lunar interactions. For these tests, a new tribotester was developed to expose samples to a variety of industrial abrasives and lunar simulants. The work discussed in this paper describes the three-body hardware setup consisting of a rotating rubber wheel that applies a load on a specimen as a loose abrasive is fed into the system. The test methodology is based on ASTM International (ASTM) B611, except it does not mix water with the abrasive. All tests were run under identical conditions. Abraded material specimens included poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), hardened 1045 steel, 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and 1018 steel. Abrasives included lunar mare simulant JSC- 1A-F (nominal size distribution), sieved JSC-1A-F (<25 m particle diameter), lunar highland simulant NU-LHT-2M, alumina (average diameter of 50 m used per ASTM G76), and silica (50/70 mesh used per ASTM G65). The measured mass loss from each specimen was converted using standard densities to determine total wear volume in cm3. Abrasion was dominated by the alumina and the simulants were only similar to the silica (i.e., sand) on the softer materials of

  7. Abrasion by aeolian particles: Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Marshall, J. R.; White, B. R.; Pollack, J. B.; Marshall, J.; Krinsley, D.

    1984-01-01

    Estimation of the rate of aeolian abrasion of rocks on Mars requires knowledge of: (1) particle flux, (2) susceptibilities to abrasion of various rocks, and (3) wind frequencies on Mars. Fluxes and susceptibilities for a wide range of conditions were obtained in the laboratory and combined with wind data from the Viking meteorology experiment. Assuming an abundant supply of sand-sized particles, estimated rates range up to 2.1 x 10 to the minus 2 power cm of abrasion per year in the vicinity of Viking Lander 1. This rate is orders of magnitude too great to be in agreement with the inferred age of the surface based on models of impact crater flux. The discrepancy in the estimated rate of abrasion and the presumed old age of the surface cannot be explained easily by changes in climate or exhumation of ancient surfaces. The primary reason is thought to be related to the agents of abrasion. At least some sand-sized (approx. 100 micrometers) grains appear to be present, as inferred from both lander and orbiter observations. High rates of abrasion occur for all experimental cases involving sands of quartz, basalt, or ash. However, previous studies have shown that sand is quickly comminuted to silt- and clay-sized grains in the martian aeolian regime. Experiments also show that these fine grains are electrostatically charged and bond together as sand-sized aggregates. Laboratory simulations of wind abrasion involving aggregates show that at impact velocities capable of destroying sand, aggregates from a protective veneer on the target surface and can give rise to extremely low abrasion rates.

  8. Portable Device Slices Thermoplastic Prepregs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Beverly A.; Boston, Morton W.; Wilson, Maywood L.

    1993-01-01

    Prepreg slitter designed to slit various widths rapidly by use of slicing bar holding several blades, each capable of slicing strip of preset width in single pass. Produces material evenly sliced and does not contain jagged edges. Used for various applications in such batch processes involving composite materials as press molding and autoclaving, and in such continuous processes as pultrusion. Useful to all manufacturers of thermoplastic composites, and in slicing B-staged thermoset composites.

  9. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-03

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift successionmore » is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.« less

  10. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-01

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1-5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  11. Robust reflective pupil slicing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, Jeffrey T.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-07-01

    applicable to multi-fiber spectrometers to achieve similar enhancement. HTVS also provides the ability to anamorphically "stretch" the slit image in long-slit spectrometers, allowing the instrument designer to optimize the plate scale in the dispersion axis and cross-dispersion axes independently without sacrificing spatial information. This allows users to widen the input slit, with the associated gain of throughput and loss of spatial selectivity, while maintaining the spectral resolution of the spectrometer system. This "stretching" places increased requirements on detector focal plane height, as with image slicing techniques, but provides additional degrees of freedom to instrument designers to build the best possible spectrometer systems. We discuss the details of this technology for an astronomical context, covering the applicability from small telescope mounted spectrometers through long-slit imagers and radial-velocity engines. This powerful tool provides additional degrees of freedom when designing a spectrometer, enabling instrument designers to further optimize systems for the required scientific goals.

  12. [Polyethylene abrasion: cause or consequence of an endoprosthesis loosening? Investigations of firm and loosened hip implants].

    PubMed

    Busse, B; Niecke, M; Püschel, K; Delling, G; Katzer, A; Hahn, M

    2007-01-01

    Periprosthetic tissue was analysed by the combination of different investigation techniques without destruction. The localisation and geometry of polyethylene abrasion particles were determined quantitatively to differentiate between abrasion due to function and abrasion due to implant loosening. Non-polyethylene particles from implant components which contaminate the tissue were micro-analytically measured. The results will help us to understand loosening mechanisms and thus lead to implant optimisations. A non-destructive particle analysis using highly sensitive proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was developed to achieve a better histological allocation. Five autopsy cases with firmly fitting hip endoprosthesis (2 x Endo-Modell Mark III, 1 x St. Georg Mark II, LINK, Germany; 2 x Spongiosa Metal II, ESKA, Germany) were prepared as ground tissue specimens. Wear investigations were accomplished with a combined application of different microscopic techniques and microanalysis. The abrasion due to implant loosening was histologically evaluated on 293 loosened cup implants (St. Georg Mark II, LINK, Germany). Wear particles are heterogeneously distributed in the soft tissue. In cases of cemented prostheses, cement particles are dominating whereas metal particles could rarely be detected. The concentration of the alloy constituent cobalt (Co) is increased in the mineralised bone tissue. The measured co-depositions depend on the localisation and/or lifetime of an implant. Functional polyethylene (PE) abrasion needs to be differentiated from PE abrasion of another genesis (loosening, impingement) morphologically and by different tissue reactions. In the past a reduction of abrasion was targeted primarily by the optimisation of the bearing surfaces and tribology. The interpretation of our findings indicates that different mechanisms of origin in terms of tissue contamination with wear debris and the alloy should be included in the improvement of implants or implantation

  13. Organotypic Slice Cultures for Studies of Postnatal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mosa, Adam J.; Wang, Sabrina; Tan, Yao Fang; Wojtowicz, J. Martin

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a technique for studying hippocampal postnatal neurogenesis in the rodent brain using the organotypic slice culture technique. This method maintains the characteristic topographical morphology of the hippocampus while allowing direct application of pharmacological agents to the developing hippocampal dentate gyrus. Additionally, slice cultures can be maintained for up to 4 weeks and thus, allow one to study the maturation process of newborn granule neurons. Slice cultures allow for efficient pharmacological manipulation of hippocampal slices while excluding complex variables such as uncertainties related to the deep anatomic location of the hippocampus as well as the blood brain barrier. For these reasons, we sought to optimize organotypic slice cultures specifically for postnatal neurogenesis research. PMID:25867138

  14. An investigation into magnetic electrolytic abrasive turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdy, M. A. M.; Ismaeial, A. L.; Aly, F. F.

    2013-07-01

    The magnetic electrolytic abrasive turning (MEAT) process as a non-traditional machining is used to obtain surface finishing like mirror. MEAT provides one of the best alternatives for producing complex shapes with good finish in advanced materials used in aircraft and aerospace industries. The improvement of machining accuracy of MEAT continues to be a major challenge for modern industry. MEAT is a hybrid machining which combines two or more processes to remove material. The present research focuses on the development of precision electrochemical turning (ECT) under the effects of magnetic field and abrasives. The effect of magnetic flux density, electrochemical conditions and abrasive parameters on finishing efficiency and surface roughness are investigated. An empirical relationship is deduced.

  15. The effect of microstructure on abrasive wear of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kešner, A.; Chotëborský, R.; Linda, M.

    2017-09-01

    Abrasive wear of agricultural tools is one of the biggest problems in currently being. The amount of abrasive wear, depending on the microstructure, has been investigated in this work. Steels 25CrMo4 and 51CrV4 were used in this work to determine the effect of the microstructure on the abrasive wear. These steels are commonly used for components that have to withstand abrasive wear.SEM analysis was used to detect the microstructure. The standardized ASTM G65 method was used to compare the abrasive wear of steels. The results show that the abrasive wear depends on the microstructure of steels.

  16. Friction and abrasion of elastomeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.

    1975-01-01

    An abrasion apparatus is described. Experimental measurements are reported for four representative elastomeric materials, including a typical high-quality tire tread material and a possible replacement material for aircraft tire treads based on transpolypentenamer (TPPR). Measurements are carried out at different levels of frictional work input, corresponding to different severities of wear, and at both ambient temperature and at 100 C. Results indicate the marked superiority in abrasion resistance of the material based on TPPR, especially at 100 C, in comparison with the other materials examined.

  17. Mars Pathfinder: The Wheel Abrasion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE) will measure the amount of wear on wheel surfaces of the Mars Pathfinder rover. WAE uses thin films of Al, Ni, and Pt (ranging in thickness from 200 to 1000 angstroms) deposited on black, anodized Al strips attached to the rover wheel. As the wheel moves across the martian surface, changes in film reflectivity will be monitored by reflected sunlight. These changes, measured as output from a special photodetector mounted on the rover chassis, will be due to abrasion of the metal films by martian surface sand, dust, and clay.

  18. Optimization of Profile and Material of Abrasive Water Jet Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand Bala Selwin, K. P.; Ramachandran, S.

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this work is to study the behaviour of the abrasive water jet nozzle with different profiles and materials. Taguchi-Grey relational analysis optimization technique is used to optimize the value with different material and different profiles. Initially the 3D models of the nozzle are modelled with different profiles by changing the tapered inlet angle of the nozzle. The different profile models are analysed with different materials and the results are optimized. The optimized results would give the better result taking wear and machining behaviour of the nozzle.

  19. Abrasion of eroded and sound enamel by a dentifrice containing diamond abrasive particles

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J.; Hoegger, Vanessa G. M.; Attin, Thomas

    2017-07-24

    Eroded enamel is more susceptible to abrasive wear than sound enamel. New toothpastes utilizing diamond particles as abrasives have been developed. The present study investigated the abrasive wear of eroded enamel by three commercially available toothpastes (one containing diamond particles) and compared it to the respective wear of sound enamel caused by these toothpastes. Seventy-two bovine enamel samples were randomly allocated to six groups (S1–S3 and E1–E3; n=12). Samples were submitted to an abrasive (S1–S3) or erosion plus abrasion (E1–E3) cycling. Per cycle, all samples were brushed (abrasion; 20 brushing stokes) with the following toothpastes: S1/E1: Signal WHITE SYSTEM, S2/E2: elmex KARIESSCHUTZ and S3-E3: Candida WHITE DIAMOND (diamond particles). Groups E1–E3 were additionally eroded with HCl (pH 3.0) for 2 min before each brushing procedure. After 30, 60 and 90 cycles enamel wear was measured by surface profilometry. Within the same toothpaste and same number of cycles, enamel wear due to erosion plus abrasion was significantly higher than due to mere abrasion. After 30, 60 and 90 cycles, no significant difference in the wear in groups S1 and S2 was observed while the wear in group E1 was significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA, Scheffecyc) lower than that in group E2. After 90 cycles, wear in group S3 was about 5 times higher than that in group S2, while wear in group E3 was about 1.3 times higher than that in group E2. As compared to the other two investigated toothpastes, the dentifrice containing diamond particles caused slightly higher abrasive wear of eroded enamel and distinctly higher wear of sound enamel compared to the conventional toothpastes under investigation.

  20. The theory of interface slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a new tool which was developed to facilitate reuse-based software engineering, by addressing the following problems, needs, and issues: (1) size of systems incorporating reused modules; (2) knowledge requirements for program modification; (3) program understanding for reverse engineering; (4) module granularity and domain management; and (5) time and space complexity of conventional slicing. The definition of a form of static program analysis called interface slicing is addressed.

  1. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... crowns. The device is attached to a shank that is held by a handpiece. The device includes the abrasive...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing.... The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup). (b...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing.... The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup). (b...

  4. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing.... The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup). (b...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... crowns. The device is attached to a shank that is held by a handpiece. The device includes the abrasive...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... crowns. The device is attached to a shank that is held by a handpiece. The device includes the abrasive...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing.... The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup). (b...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... crowns. The device is attached to a shank that is held by a handpiece. The device includes the abrasive...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing.... The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup). (b...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... crowns. The device is attached to a shank that is held by a handpiece. The device includes the abrasive...

  11. Robotic edge machining using elastic abrasive tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, A. V.; Semyonov, E. N.; Belomestnykh, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article describes a robotic center designed for automation of finishing operations, and analyzes technological aspects of an elastic abrasive tool applied for edge machining. Based on the experimental studies, practical recommendations on the application of the robotic center for finishing operations were developed.

  12. Electrohydrodynamic drying of carrot slices.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changjiang; Lu, Jun; Song, Zhiqing

    2015-01-01

    Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique.

  13. Simultaneous multi-slice combined with PROPELLER.

    PubMed

    Norbeck, Ola; Avventi, Enrico; Engström, Mathias; Rydén, Henric; Skare, Stefan

    2018-08-01

    Simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging is an advantageous method for accelerating MRI scans, allowing reduced scan time, increased slice coverage, or high temporal resolution with limited image quality penalties. In this work we combine the advantages of SMS acceleration with the motion correction and artifact reduction capabilities of the PROPELLER technique. A PROPELLER sequence was developed with support for CAIPIRINHA and phase optimized multiband radio frequency pulses. To minimize the time spent on acquiring calibration data, both in-plane-generalized autocalibrating partial parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) and slice-GRAPPA weights for all PROPELLER blade angles were calibrated on a single fully sampled PROPELLER blade volume. Therefore, the proposed acquisition included a single fully sampled blade volume, with the remaining blades accelerated in both the phase and slice encoding directions without additional auto calibrating signal lines. Comparison to 3D RARE was performed as well as demonstration of 3D motion correction performance on the SMS PROPELLER data. We show that PROPELLER acquisitions can be efficiently accelerated with SMS using a short embedded calibration. The potential in combining these two techniques was demonstrated with a high quality 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 mm 3 resolution T 2 -weighted volume, free from banding artifacts, and capable of 3D retrospective motion correction, with higher effective resolution compared to 3D RARE. With the combination of SMS acceleration and PROPELLER imaging, thin-sliced reformattable T 2 -weighted image volumes with 3D retrospective motion correction capabilities can be rapidly acquired with low sensitivity to flow and head motion. Magn Reson Med 80:496-506, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Investigating selective transport and abrasion on an alluvial fan using quantitative grain size and shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, K. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Selective sorting and abrasion are the two major fluvial processes that are attributed to the downstream fining of sediments in rivers and alluvial fans. Selective transport is the process by which smaller grains are preferentially transported downstream while larger grains are deposited closer to the source. Abrasion is defined by the production of fine sediments and sand that occurs by saltation of gravel, where particle-to-particle collisions supply the energy required to break apart grains. We hypothesize that abrasion results in the gradual fining of large grains and the production of fine sands and silts, while sorting accounts for the differences in transport of these two grain-size fractions produced from abrasion, thereby creating the abrupt gravel-sand transition observed in many channel systems. In this research, we explore both selective transport and abrasion processes on the Dog Canyon alluvial fan near Alamogordo, New Mexico. We complete an extensive grain size analysis down the main channel of the fan employing an image-based technique that utilizes an autocorrelation process. We also characterize changes in grain shape using standard shape parameters, as well as Fourier analysis, which allows the study of contributions of grain roughness on a variety of length scales. Sorting appears to dominate the upper portion of the fan; the grain-size distribution narrows moving downstream until reaching a point of equal mobility, at which point sorting ceases. Abrasion exerts a subtle but persistent effect on grains during transport down the fan. Shape analysis reveals that particles become more rounded by the removal of small-scale textural features, a process that is expected to only modestly influence grain size of gravel, but should produce significant quantities of sand. This study provides a better understanding of the importance of grain abrasion and sorting on the downstream fining of channel grains in an alluvial fan, as well as an improved knowledge

  15. Fresh Slice Self-Seeding and Fresh Slice Harmonic Lasing at LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, J.W.

    We present results from the successful demonstration of fresh slice self-seeding at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).* The performance is compared with SASE and regular self-seeding at photon energy of 5.5 keV, resulting in a relative average brightness increase of a factor of 12 and a factor of 2 respectively. Following this proof-of-principle we discuss the forthcoming plans to use the same technique** for fresh slice harmonic lasing in an upcoming experiment. The demonstration of fresh slice harmonic lasing provides an attractive solution for future XFELs aiming to achieve high efficiency, high brightness X-ray pulses at high photon energiesmore » (>12 keV).***« less

  16. Abrasive wear behavior of in-situ RZ5-10wt%TiC composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Deepak; Mahapatra, M. M.; Harsha, S. P.

    2018-05-01

    RZ5 Magnesium alloys containing zinc, rare earth and zirconium are well-known to have high specific strength, good creep resistance widely used in aerospace components. The incorporation of hard ceramic strengthens RZ5 mg alloy. The RZ5-10wt%TiC composite has been fabricated in situ using RZ5 mg alloy as matrix and TiC as reinforcement by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) technique. This paper investigates the abrasive wear behavior of RZ5-10wt%TiC. Tests were performed using pin-on-disc apparatus against 600 grit abrasive paper by varying the sliding distance and applied load. The results showed improvement in the wear resistance of testing composite as compared to the unreinforced RZ5 Mg alloy. The coefficient of friction and weight loss increased linearly as applied load and sliding distance increased. The field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) showed dominate wear mechanisms: abrasion, ploughing grooves.

  17. Air-propelled abrasive grit for postemergence in-row weed control in field corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic growers need additional tools for weed control. A new technique involving abrasive grit propelled by compressed air was tested in field plots. Grit derived from corn cobs was directed at seedlings of summer annual weeds growing at the bases of corn plants when the corn was at differing early...

  18. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Slicing Undulator Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, P. A.; Glover, T. E.; Plate, D.

    2007-01-19

    A beamline optimized for the bunch slicing technique has been construction at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). This beamline includes an in-vacuum undulator, soft and hard x-ray beamlines and a femtosecond laser system. The soft x-ray beamline may operate in spectrometer mode, where an entire absorption spectrum is accumulated at one time, or in monochromator mode. The femtosecond laser system has a high repetition rate of 20 kHz to improve the average slicing flux. The performance of the soft x-ray branch of the ALS slicing undulator beamline will be presented.

  19. Brushing force of manual and sonic toothbrushes affects dental hard tissue abrasion.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Annette; Burkhard, John Patrik Matthias; Eggmann, Florin; Attin, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the brushing forces applied during in vivo toothbrushing with manual and sonic toothbrushes and to analyse the effect of these brushing forces on abrasion of sound and eroded enamel and dentin in vitro. Brushing forces of a manual and two sonic toothbrushes (low and high frequency mode) were measured in 27 adults before and after instruction of the respective brushing technique and statistically analysed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). In the in vitro experiment, sound and eroded enamel and dentin specimens (each subgroup n = 12) were brushed in an automatic brushing machine with the respective brushing forces using a fluoridated toothpaste slurry. Abrasion was determined by profilometry and statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA. Average brushing force of the manual toothbrush (1.6 ± 0.3 N) was significantly higher than for the sonic toothbrushes (0.9 ± 0.2 N), which were not significantly different from each other. Brushing force prior and after instruction of the brushing technique was not significantly different. The manual toothbrush caused highest abrasion of sound and eroded dentin, but lowest on sound enamel. No significant differences were detected on eroded enamel. Brushing forces of manual and sonic toothbrushes are different and affect their abrasive capacity. Patients with severe tooth wear and exposed and/or eroded dentin surfaces should use sonic toothbrushes to reduce abrasion, while patients without tooth wear or with erosive lesions confining only to enamel do not benefit from sonic toothbrushes with regard to abrasion.

  20. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.

    1984-11-29

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  1. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  2. Explosibility and Ignitability of Plastic Abrasive Media.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Polyplus Is an alpha cellulose filled urea formaldehyde with a hardness or 3.5. Type III is a urea melamine formaldehyde with a hardness of 4. A fourth...is a thermoplastic acrylic media and the Kopper’s media are thermoset formaldehydes . o The greatest potential for dust explosions is in the baghouss...type or plastio media trom E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company was also tested. This Type L Solidstrip plastic stripping abrasive is an acrylic resin

  3. Acute Hippocampal Slice Preparation and Hippocampal Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lein, Pamela J.; Barnhart, Christopher D.; Pessah, Isaac N.

    2012-01-01

    A major advantage of hippocampal slice preparations is that the cytoarchitecture and synaptic circuits of the hippocampus are largely retained. In neurotoxicology research, organotypic hippocampal slices have mostly been used as acute ex vivo preparations for investigating the effects of neurotoxic chemicals on synaptic function. More recently, hippocampal slice cultures, which can be maintained for several weeks to several months in vitro, have been employed to study how neurotoxic chemicals influence the structural and functional plasticity in hippocampal neurons. This chapter provides protocols for preparing hippocampal slices to be used acutely for electrophysiological measurements using glass microelectrodes or microelectrode arrays or to be cultured for morphometric assessments of individual neurons labeled using biolistics. PMID:21815062

  4. Dentin abrasivity of various desensitizing toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W H; Gröger, Ch; Bizhang, M; Naumova, E A

    2016-04-02

    The aim of this study was to compare the abrasivity of various commercially available toothpastes that claim to reduce dentin hypersensitivity. Dentin discs were prepared from 70 human extracted molars. The discs were etched with lemon juice for 5 min, and one half of the discs were covered with aluminum tape. Following this, they were brushed with 6 different toothpastes, simulating a total brushing time of 6 months. As a negative control, discs were brushed with tap water only. The toothpastes contained pro-arginine and calcium carbonate, strontium acetate, stannous fluoride, zinc carbonate and hydroxyapatite, new silica, or tetrapotassium pyrophosphate and hydroxyapatite. After brushing, the height differences between the control halves and the brushed halves were determined with a profilometer and statistically compared using a Mann-Whitney U test for independent variables. A significant difference (p < 0.001) in height difference between the controls and the toothpaste-treated samples was found in all cases, except for the stannous fluoride-containing toothpaste (p = 0.583). The highest abrasion was found in the toothpaste containing zinc carbonate and hydroxyapatite, and the lowest was found in the toothpaste containing pro-arginine and calcium carbonate. Desensitizing toothpastes with different desensitizing ingredients have different levels of abrasivity, which may have a negative effect on their desensitizing abilities over a long period of time.

  5. Tryptophan availability modulates serotonin release from rat hypothalamic slices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the tryptophan availability and serononin release from rat hypothalamus was investigated using a new in vitro technique for estimating rates at which endogenous serotonin is released spontaneously or upon electrical depolarization from hypothalamic slices superfused with a solution containing various amounts of tryptophan. It was found that the spontaneous, as well as electrically induced, release of serotonin from the brain slices exhibited a dose-dependent relationship with the tryptophan concentration of the superfusion medium.

  6. Do Abrasives Play a Role in Toothpaste Efficacy against Erosion/Abrasion?

    PubMed

    Ganss, Carolina; Möllers, Maike; Schlueter, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Abrasives may counteract the efficacy of anti-erosion toothpastes either due to physical effects or due to interaction with active agents. This study aimed to investigate whether the amount of abrasives is a determinant for the efficacy of Sn2+-containing toothpastes with or without chitosan additive. Enamel samples were eroded (0.50 wt% citric acid, pH 2.5; 6 × 2 min/day) on a shaking desk - 30/min in experiment 1 (E1) and 35/min in experiments 2 (E2) and 3 (E3) - and immersed in toothpaste slurries (2 × 2 min). Half of the samples were additionally brushed (15 s, load 200 g) within the immersion time. The toothpastes contained 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% silica. In E1 and E2 the active ingredients were F- (700 ppm as amine fluoride, 700 ppm as NaF) and Sn2+ (3,500 ppm as SnCl2); in E3 chitosan (0.5%) was additionally added. The placebo contained 20% silica. Tissue loss was determined profilometrically. In E1, slurries completely inhibited tissue loss; distinct surface deposits occurred. With brushing, tissue loss significantly increased up to an abrasive content of 10%, but decreased significantly with higher amounts; 20% silica revealed similar values as the abrasive-free formulation. In E2, all slurries inhibited tissue loss distinctly irrespective of the amounts of abrasives. With brushing, a similar trend as in E1 was observed but with much less efficacy. The chitosan-containing formulations in E3 were much more effective; similar results as in E1 were found. In conclusion, the amount of abrasives had no effect when toothpastes were applied as slurries, but played an important role with brushing. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Geometry Processing of Conventionally Produced Mouse Brain Slice Images.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Xu, Xiangmin; Gopi, M

    2018-04-21

    Brain mapping research in most neuroanatomical laboratories relies on conventional processing techniques, which often introduce histological artifacts such as tissue tears and tissue loss. In this paper we present techniques and algorithms for automatic registration and 3D reconstruction of conventionally produced mouse brain slices in a standardized atlas space. This is achieved first by constructing a virtual 3D mouse brain model from annotated slices of Allen Reference Atlas (ARA). Virtual re-slicing of the reconstructed model generates ARA-based slice images corresponding to the microscopic images of histological brain sections. These image pairs are aligned using a geometric approach through contour images. Histological artifacts in the microscopic images are detected and removed using Constrained Delaunay Triangulation before performing global alignment. Finally, non-linear registration is performed by solving Laplace's equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our methods provide significant improvements over previously reported registration techniques for the tested slices in 3D space, especially on slices with significant histological artifacts. Further, as one of the application we count the number of neurons in various anatomical regions using a dataset of 51 microscopic slices from a single mouse brain. To the best of our knowledge the presented work is the first that automatically registers both clean as well as highly damaged high-resolutions histological slices of mouse brain to a 3D annotated reference atlas space. This work represents a significant contribution to this subfield of neuroscience as it provides tools to neuroanatomist for analyzing and processing histological data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Slicing of silicon into sheet material. Silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project. Third quarterly report, September 20, 1976--December 19, 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, S.C.

    1976-12-27

    The stability of tensioned blades used in multiblade sawing does not seem to be the limitation in cutting with thin blades. So far, 0.010 cm thick blades have been totally unsuccessful. Recently, 0.015 cm blades have proven successful in wafering, offering an 0.005 cm reduction in the silicon used per slice. The failure of thin blades is characterized as a possible result of blade misalignment or from the inherent uncontrollability of the loose abrasive multiblade process. Corrective procedures will be employed in the assembly of packages to eliminate one type of blade misalignment. Two ingots were sliced with the samemore » batch of standard silicon carbide abrasive slurry to determine the useful lifetime of this expendable material. After 250 slices, the cutting efficiency had not degraded. Further tests will be continued to establish the maximum lifetime of both silicon carbide and boron carbide abrasive. Electron microscopy will be employed to evaluate the wear of abrasive particles in the failure of abrasive slurry. The surface damage of silicon wafers has been characterized as predominantly subsurface fracture. Damage with No. 600 SiC is between 10 and 15 microns into the wafer surface. This agrees well with previous investigations of damage from silicon carbide abrasive papers.« less

  9. Mars Pathfinder Wheel Abrasion Experiment Ground Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Siebert, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sent a mission to the martian surface, called Mars Pathfinder. The mission payload consisted of a lander and a rover. The primary purpose of the mission was demonstrating a novel entry, descent, and landing method that included a heat shield, a parachute, rockets, and a cocoon of giant air bags. Once on the surface, the spacecraft returned temperature measurements near the Martian surface, atmosphere pressure, wind speed measurements, and images from the lander and rover. The rover obtained 16 elemental measurements of rocks and soils, performed soil-mechanics, atmospheric sedimentation measurements, and soil abrasiveness measurements.

  10. Abrasion-Resistant Coating for Flexible Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mui, D.; Headding, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramic coating increases durability and heat resistance of flexible high-temperature insulation. Coating compatible with quartz-fabric insulation allowing it to remain flexible during and after repeated exposures to temperatures of 1,800 degree F (982 degree C). Prevents fabric from becoming brittle while increasing resistance to aerodynamic abrasion and loading. Coating consists of penetrating precoat and topcoat. Major ingredients high-purity colloidal silica binder and ground silica filler, which ensure stability and compatibility with fabric at high temperatures. Both precoat and topcoat cured at room temperature.

  11. Accelerated Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Brian A.; Chen, Weitian; Lu, Wenmiao; Alley, Marcus T.; Gold, Garry E.; Brau, Anja C. S.; Pauly, John M.; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate accelerated imaging with artifact reduction near metallic implants and different contrast mechanisms. Materials and Methods Slice-encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) is a modified spin echo sequence that uses view-angle tilting and slice-direction phase encoding to correct both in-plane and through-plane artifacts. Standard spin echo trains and short-TI inversion recovery (STIR) allow efficient PD-weighted imaging with optional fat suppression. A completely linear reconstruction allows incorporation of parallel imaging and partial Fourier imaging. The SNR effects of all reconstructions were quantified in one subject. 10 subjects with different metallic implants were scanned using SEMAC protocols, all with scan times below 11 minutes, as well as with standard spin echo methods. Results The SNR using standard acceleration techniques is unaffected by the linear SEMAC reconstruction. In all cases with implants, accelerated SEMAC significantly reduced artifacts compared with standard imaging techniques, with no additional artifacts from acceleration techniques. The use of different contrast mechanisms allowed differentiation of fluid from other structures in several subjects. Conclusion SEMAC imaging can be combined with standard echo-train imaging, parallel imaging, partial-Fourier imaging and inversion recovery techniques to offer flexible image contrast with a dramatic reduction of metal-induced artifacts in scan times under 11 minutes. PMID:20373445

  12. Accelerated slice encoding for metal artifact correction.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Brian A; Chen, Weitian; Lu, Wenmiao; Alley, Marcus T; Gold, Garry E; Brau, Anja C S; Pauly, John M; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2010-04-01

    To demonstrate accelerated imaging with both artifact reduction and different contrast mechanisms near metallic implants. Slice-encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) is a modified spin echo sequence that uses view-angle tilting and slice-direction phase encoding to correct both in-plane and through-plane artifacts. Standard spin echo trains and short-TI inversion recovery (STIR) allow efficient PD-weighted imaging with optional fat suppression. A completely linear reconstruction allows incorporation of parallel imaging and partial Fourier imaging. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) effects of all reconstructions were quantified in one subject. Ten subjects with different metallic implants were scanned using SEMAC protocols, all with scan times below 11 minutes, as well as with standard spin echo methods. The SNR using standard acceleration techniques is unaffected by the linear SEMAC reconstruction. In all cases with implants, accelerated SEMAC significantly reduced artifacts compared with standard imaging techniques, with no additional artifacts from acceleration techniques. The use of different contrast mechanisms allowed differentiation of fluid from other structures in several subjects. SEMAC imaging can be combined with standard echo-train imaging, parallel imaging, partial-Fourier imaging, and inversion recovery techniques to offer flexible image contrast with a dramatic reduction of metal-induced artifacts in scan times under 11 minutes. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Interfacing superhydrophobic silica nanoparticle films with graphene and thermoplastic polyurethane for wear/abrasion resistance.

    PubMed

    Naderizadeh, Sara; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Bayer, Ilker S

    2018-06-01

    Nanoparticle films are one of the most suitable platforms for obtaining sub-micrometer and nanometer dual-scale surface texture required for liquid repellency. The assembly of superhydrophobic nanoparticles into conformal and strongly adherent films having abrasion-induced wear resistance still poses a significant challenge. Various techniques have been developed over the years to render nanoparticle films with good liquid repellent properties and transparency. However, forming abrasion resistant superhydrophobic nanoparticle films on hard surfaces is challenging. One possibility is to partially embed or weld nanoparticles in thin thermoplastic primers applied over metals. Hexamethyldisilazane-functionalized fumed silica nanoparticle films spray deposited on aluminum surfaces were rendered abrasion resistant by thermally welding them into thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) primer applied a priori over aluminum. Different solvents, nanoparticle concentrations and annealing temperatures were studied to optimize nanoparticle film morphology and hydrophobicity. Thermal annealing at 150 °C enhanced stability and wear resistance of nanoparticle films. A thin thermal interface layer of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) between the primer and the nanoparticle film significantly improved superhydrophobic wear resistance after annealing. As such, superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with the GnPs thermal interface layer displayed superior abrasion-induced wear resistance under 20 kPa compared to films having no GnPs-based thermal interface. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Air-Abrasive Disinfection of Implant Surfaces in a Simulated Model of Periimplantitis.

    PubMed

    Quintero, David George; Taylor, Robert Bonnie; Miller, Matthew Braden; Merchant, Keith Roshanali; Pasieta, Scott Anthony

    2017-06-01

    This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the ability of air-powder abrasion to decontaminate dental implants. Twenty-six implants were inoculated with a Streptococcus sanguinis biofilm media in a novel periimplantitis defect model. Six implants served as controls, and 20 implants were disinfected with either the Cavitron JET Plus or the AIR-FLOW PERIO air-powder abrasion units. Residual bacteria were cultured, and colony forming units (CFUs) were totaled at 24 hours. As expected, negative control implant cultures showed no evidence of viable bacteria. Bacterial growth was observed on all positive control cultures, whereas only 15% of the experimental cultures displayed evidence of viable bacteria. The average CFU per streak for the positive control was 104 compared with a maximum of 10 and 4 CFUs for the Cavitron JET Plus and AIR-FLOW PERIO, respectively. There was a 99.9% reduction in bacteria for both air-powder abrasion instruments. Air-powder abrasion is an effective technique for the decontamination of dental implants, and the Cavitron JET Plus and AIR-FLOW PERIO are equally successful at eliminating viable bacteria from implant surfaces.

  15. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12). Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation. Results: No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987). There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1). Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918). However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives. PMID:25628694

  16. Trumpet slices in Kerr spacetimes.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Kenneth A; Baumgarte, Thomas W; Montero, Pedro J

    2014-12-31

    We introduce a new time-independent family of analytical coordinate systems for the Kerr spacetime representing rotating black holes. We also propose a (2+1)+1 formalism for the characterization of trumpet geometries. Applying this formalism to our new family of coordinate systems we identify, for the first time, analytical and stationary trumpet slices for general rotating black holes, even for charged black holes in the presence of a cosmological constant. We present results for metric functions in this slicing and analyze the geometry of the rotating trumpet surface.

  17. A Profilometry-Based Dentifrice Abrasion Method for V8 Brushing Machines Part II: Comparison of RDA-PE and Radiotracer RDA Measures.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Eva; Colón, Ellen; White, Donald J; St John, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the abrasivity of commercial dentifrices by two techniques: the conventional gold standard radiotracer-based Radioactive Dentin Abrasivity (RDA) method; and a newly validated technique based on V8 brushing that included a profilometry-based evaluation of dentin wear. This profilometry-based method is referred to as RDA-Profilometry Equivalent, or RDA-PE. A total of 36 dentifrices were sourced from four global dentifrice markets (Asia Pacific [including China], Europe, Latin America, and North America) and tested blindly using both the standard radiotracer (RDA) method and the new profilometry method (RDA-PE), taking care to follow specific details related to specimen preparation and treatment. Commercial dentifrices tested exhibited a wide range of abrasivity, with virtually all falling well under the industry accepted upper limit of 250; that is, 2.5 times the level of abrasion measured using an ISO 11609 abrasivity reference calcium pyrophosphate as the reference control. RDA and RDA-PE comparisons were linear across the entire range of abrasivity (r2 = 0.7102) and both measures exhibited similar reproducibility with replicate assessments. RDA-PE assessments were not just linearly correlated, but were also proportional to conventional RDA measures. The linearity and proportionality of the results of the current study support that both methods (RDA or RDA-PE) provide similar results and justify a rationale for making the upper abrasivity limit of 250 apply to both RDA and RDA-PE.

  18. Mars rover rock abrasion tool performance enhanced by ultrasonic technology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macartney, A.; Li, X.; Harkness, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Mars exploration Athena science goal is to explore areas where water may have been present on the early surface of Mars, and investigate the palaeo-environmental conditions of these areas in relation to the existence of life. The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) designed by Honeybee Robotics has been one of four key Athena science payload instruments mounted on the mechanical arm of the Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity Mars Exploration Rovers. Exposed rock surfaces weather and chemically alter over time. Although such weathered rock can present geological interest in itself, there is a limit to what can be learned. If the geological history of a landing site is to be constructed, then it is important to analyse the unweathered rock interior as clearly as possible. The rock abrasion tool's role is to substitute for a geologist's hammer, removing the weathered and chemically altered outer surface of rocks in order to view the pristine interior. The RAT uses a diamond resin standard common grinding technique, producing a 5mm depth grind with a relatively high surface roughness, achieved over a number of hours per grind and consumes approximately 11 watts of energy. This study assesses the benefits of using ultrasonic assisted grinding to improve surface smoothness. A prototype Micro-Optic UltraSonic Exfoliator (MOUSE) is tested on a range of rock types and demonstrates a number of advantages over the RAT. In addition to a smoother grind finish, these advantages include a lower rate of tool tip wear when using a tungsten carbide tip as opposed to diamond resin, less moving parts, a grind speed of minutes instead of hours, and a power consumption of only 1-5 Watts.

  19. Experimental Rock-on-Rock Abrasive Wear Under Aqueous Conditions: its Role in Subglacial Abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, E. H.; Lee, A. G.

    2003-12-01

    We have determined experimentally the rate of abrasive wear of rock on rock for a range of rock types as a function of normal stress and shear displacement. Unlike abrasive wear in fault zones, where wear products accumulate as a thickening gouge zone, in our experiments wear particles were removed by flowing water. The experiments are thus directly pertinent to one of the most important processes in subglacial erosion, and to some extent in river incision. Wear was produced between rotating discs machined from rock samples and measured from the progressive approach of the disc axes towards each other under various levels of normal load. Shear displacements of several km were produced. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the worn rock surfaces, and particle size distributions in wear products were characterized using a laser particle size analyzer. Rock types studied were sandstones of various porosities and cement characteristics, schists and a granite. In all cases abrasion rate decreased logarithmically with displacement by up to 2 orders of magnitude until a steady state was approached, but only after at least 1 km displacement. The more porous, less-well cemented rocks wore fastest. Amount of abrasion could be characterized quantitatively using an exponentially decaying plus a steady-state term. Wear rate increased non-linearly with normal contact stress, apparently to an asymptote defined by the unconfined compressive strength. Microstructural study showed that the well-cemented and/or lowest porosity rocks wore by progressive abrasion of grains without plucking, whereas whole grains were plucked out of weakly-cemented and/or more porous rocks. This difference in behavior was reflected in wear-product particle size distributions. Where whole-grain plucking was possible, wear products were dominated by particles of the original grain size rather than finer rock flour. Comparison of our results to glacier basal abrasive wear estimated

  20. Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain

    DOEpatents

    Plovnick, Ross; Celikkaya, Ahmet; Blake, Rodger D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

  1. 7 CFR 3201.66 - Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. 3201.66 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.66 Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. (a) Definition. Products designed..., in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased cuts, burns...

  2. 7 CFR 3201.66 - Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. 3201.66 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.66 Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. (a) Definition. Products designed..., in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased cuts, burns...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.66 - Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. 3201.66 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.66 Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. (a) Definition. Products designed..., in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased cuts, burns...

  4. Evaluation of abrasion resistance of pipe and pipe lining materials.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-09-01

    This project summarizes an evaluation of pipe material resistance to abrasion over a 5-year period (2001-2006) at a site known to be abrasive. : The key focus of the project was to gather more information to compare against existing guidance to desig...

  5. Dispersion-based Fresh-slice Scheme for Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Guetg, Marc

    The Fresh-slice technique improved the performance of several Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission Free-Electron laser schemes by granting selective control on the temporal lasing slice without spoiling the other electron bunch slices. So far, the implementation required a special insertion device to create the beam yaw, called dechirper. We demonstrate a novel scheme to enable Freshslice operation based on electron energy chirp and orbit dispersion that can be implemented at any free-electron laser facility without additional hardware.

  6. Slice regular functions of several Clifford variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiloni, R.; Perotti, A.

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a class of slice regular functions of several Clifford variables. Our approach to the definition of slice functions is based on the concept of stem functions of several variables and on the introduction on real Clifford algebras of a family of commuting complex structures. The class of slice regular functions include, in particular, the family of (ordered) polynomials in several Clifford variables. We prove some basic properties of slice and slice regular functions and give examples to illustrate this function theory. In particular, we give integral representation formulas for slice regular functions and a Hartogs type extension result.

  7. GT-5 Recovery Slice Cake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-29

    S65-51660 (29 Aug. 1965) --- Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (left) and L. Gordon Cooper Jr. prepare to slice into the huge cake prepared for them by the cooks onboard the aircraft carrier USS Lake Champlain. They are using ornamental Navy swords for knives.

  8. Tooth wear: attrition, erosion, and abrasion.

    PubMed

    Litonjua, Luis A; Andreana, Sebastiano; Bush, Peter J; Cohen, Robert E

    2003-06-01

    Attrition, erosion, and abrasion result in alterations to the tooth and manifest as tooth wear. Each classification acts through a distinct process that is associated with unique clinical characteristics. Accurate prevalence data for each classification are not available since indices do not necessarily measure one specific etiology, or the study populations may be too diverse in age and characteristics. The treatment of teeth in each classification will depend on identifying the factors associated with each etiology. Some cases may require specific restorative procedures, while others will not require treatment. A review of the literature points to the interaction of the three entities in the initiation and progression of lesions that may act synchronously or sequentially, synergistically or additively, or in conjunction with other entities to mask the true nature of tooth wear, which appears to be multifactorial.

  9. Characterization of fine abrasive particles for optical fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funkenbusch, Paul D.; Zhou, Y. Y.; Takahashi, Toshio; Quesnel, David J.; Lambropoulos, John C.

    1995-08-01

    Material removal during fine grinding operations is accomplished primarily by the action of individual abrasive particles on the glass surface. The mechanical properties of the abrasive are therefore important. Unfortunately it is difficult to directly measure the mechanical response of abrasives once they reach the scale of approximately 10 microns. As a result mechanical properties of fine abrasives are sometimes characterized in terms of an empirical `friability', based on the response of the abrasive to crushing by a metal ball in a vial. In this paper we report on modeling/experiments designed to more precisely quantify the mechanical properties of fine abrasives and ultimately to relate them to the conditions experienced by bound particles during grinding. Experiments have been performed on various types and sizes of diamond abrasives. The response of the particles is a strong function of the loading conditions and can be tracked by changing the testing parameters. Diamond size is also found to play a critical role, with finer diamonds less susceptible to fracture. A micromechanical model from the literature is employed estimate the forces likely to be seen during testing. We are also developing dynamic models to better predict the forces experienced during `friability' testing as a function of the testing parameters.

  10. Imaging of Brain Slices with a Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicator.

    PubMed

    Quicke, Peter; Barnes, Samuel J; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Functional fluorescence microscopy of brain slices using voltage sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFPs) allows large scale electrophysiological monitoring of neuronal excitation and inhibition. We describe the equipment and techniques needed to successfully record functional responses optical voltage signals from cells expressing a voltage indicator such as VSFP Butterfly 1.2. We also discuss the advantages of voltage imaging and the challenges it presents.

  11. Method for forming an abrasive surface on a tool

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; White, Rickey L.; Swindeman, Catherine J.; Kahl, W. Keith

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating a tool used in cutting, grinding and machining operations, is provided. The method is used to deposit a mixture comprising an abrasive material and a bonding material on a tool surface. The materials are propelled toward the receiving surface of the tool substrate using a thermal spray process. The thermal spray process melts the bonding material portion of the mixture, but not the abrasive material. Upon impacting the tool surface, the mixture or composition solidifies to form a hard abrasive tool coating.

  12. Ingot slicing machine and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Y. S. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An improved method for simultaneously slicing one or a multiplicity of boules of silicon into silicon wafers is described. A plurality of vertical stacks of horizontal saw blades of circular configuration are arranged in juxtaposed coaxial alignment. Each blade is characterized by having a cutting diameter slightly greater than the cutting diameter of the blade arranged immediately above, imparting a simultaneous rotation to the blades.

  13. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  14. Effect of abrasive grit size on wear of manganese-zinc ferrite under three-body abrasion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1987-01-01

    Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites under three-body abrasion. The abrasion mechanism of Mn-Zn ferrite changes drastically with the size of abrasive grits. With 15-micron (1000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion of Mn-Zn ferrite is due principally to brittle fracture; while with 4- and 2-micron (4000- and 6000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion is due to plastic deformation and fracture. Both microcracking and plastic flow produce polycrystalline states on the wear surfaces of single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites. Coefficient of wear, total thickness of the deformed layers, and surface roughness of the wear surfaces increase markedly with an increase in abrasive grit size. The total thicknesses of the deformed layers are 3 microns for the ferrite abraded by 15-micron SiC, 0.9 microns for the ferrite abraded by 4-micron SiC, and 0.8 microns for the ferrite abraded by 1-micron SiC.

  15. AMBER: a PIC slice code for DARHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Fawley, William

    1999-11-01

    The accelerator for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility will produce a 4-kA, 20-MeV, 2-μ s output electron beam with a design goal of less than 1000 π mm-mrad normalized transverse emittance and less than 0.5-mm beam centroid motion. In order to study the beam dynamics throughout the accelerator, we have developed a slice Particle-In-Cell code named AMBER, in which the beam is modeled as a time-steady flow, subject to self, as well as external, electrostatic and magnetostatic fields. The code follows the evolution of a slice of the beam as it propagates through the DARHT accelerator lattice, modeled as an assembly of pipes, solenoids and gaps. In particular, we have paid careful attention to non-paraxial phenomena that can contribute to nonlinear forces and possible emittance growth. We will present the model and the numerical techniques implemented, as well as some test cases and some preliminary results obtained when studying emittance growth during the beam propagation.

  16. Influence of Surface Abrasion on Creep and Shrinkage of Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2017-10-01

    Ballasted railway track is very suitable for heavy-rail networks because of its many superior advantages in design, construction, short- and long-term maintenance, sustainability, and life-cycle cost. The sleeper, which supports rail and distributes loads from rail to ballast, is a very important component of rail track system. Prestressed concrete is very popular used in manufacturing sleepers. Therefore, improved knowledge about design techniques for prestressed concrete (PC) sleepers has been developed. However, the ballast angularity causes differential abrasions on the soffit or bottom surface of sleepers. Furthermore, in sharp curves and rapid gradient change, longitudinal and lateral dynamics of rails increase the likelihood of abrasions in concrete sleepers. This paper presents a comparative investigation using a variety of methods to evaluate creep and shrinkage effects in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. The outcome of this study will improve the material design, which is very critical to the durability of railway track components.

  17. Organotypic slice cultures of human gastric and esophagogastric junction cancer.

    PubMed

    Koerfer, Justus; Kallendrusch, Sonja; Merz, Felicitas; Wittekind, Christian; Kubick, Christoph; Kassahun, Woubet T; Schumacher, Guido; Moebius, Christian; Gaßler, Nikolaus; Schopow, Nikolas; Geister, Daniela; Wiechmann, Volker; Weimann, Arved; Eckmann, Christian; Aigner, Achim; Bechmann, Ingo; Lordick, Florian

    2016-07-01

    Gastric and esophagogastric junction cancers are heterogeneous and aggressive tumors with an unpredictable response to cytotoxic treatment. New methods allowing for the analysis of drug resistance are needed. Here, we describe a novel technique by which human tumor specimens can be cultured ex vivo, preserving parts of the natural cancer microenvironment. Using a tissue chopper, fresh surgical tissue samples were cut in 400 μm slices and cultivated in 6-well plates for up to 6 days. The slices were processed for routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Cytokeratin stains (CK8, AE1/3) were applied for determining tumor cellularity, Ki-67 for proliferation, and cleaved caspase-3 staining for apoptosis. The slices were analyzed under naive conditions and following 2-4 days in vitro exposure to 5-FU and cisplatin. The slice culture technology allowed for a good preservation of tissue morphology and tumor cell integrity during the culture period. After chemotherapy exposure, a loss of tumor cellularity and an increase in apoptosis were observed. Drug sensitivity of the tumors could be assessed. Organotypic slice cultures of gastric and esophagogastric junction cancers were successfully established. Cytotoxic drug effects could be monitored. They may be used to examine mechanisms of drug resistance in human tissue and may provide a unique and powerful ex vivo platform for the prediction of treatment response. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The interactions between attrition, abrasion and erosion in tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Shellis, R Peter; Addy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear is the result of three processes: abrasion (wear produced by interaction between teeth and other materials), attrition (wear through tooth-tooth contact) and erosion (dissolution of hard tissue by acidic substances). A further process (abfraction) might potentiate wear by abrasion and/or erosion. Knowledge of these tooth wear processes and their interactions is reviewed. Both clinical and experimental observations show that individual wear mechanisms rarely act alone but interact with each other. The most important interaction is the potentiation of abrasion by erosive damage to the dental hard tissues. This interaction seems to be the major factor in occlusal and cervical wear. The available evidence is insufficient to establish whether abfraction is an important contributor to tooth wear in vivo. Saliva can modulate erosive/abrasive tooth wear, especially through formation of pellicle, but cannot prevent it. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Interaction between attrition,abrasion and erosion in tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; Shellis, R P

    2006-01-01

    Tooth wear is the result of three processes: abrasion (wear produced by interaction between teeth and other materials), attrition (wear through tooth-tooth contact) and erosion (dissolution of hard tissue by acidic substances). A further process (abfraction) might potentiate wear by abrasion and/or erosion. Both clinical and experimental observations show that individual wear mechanisms rarely act alone but interact with each other. The most important interaction is the potentiation of abrasion by erosive damage to the dental hard tissues. This interaction seems to be the major factor in occlusal and cervical wear. The available evidence seems insufficient to establish whether abfraction is an important contributor to tooth wear in vivo. Saliva can modulate erosive/abrasive tooth wear through formation of pellicle and by remineralisation but cannot prevent it.

  20. A Review on Parametric Analysis of Magnetic Abrasive Machining Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattri, Krishna; Choudhary, Gulshan; Bhuyan, B. K.; Selokar, Ashish

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic abrasive machining (MAM) process is a highly developed unconventional machining process. It is frequently used in manufacturing industries for nanometer range surface finishing of workpiece with the help of Magnetic abrasive particles (MAPs) and magnetic force applied in the machining zone. It is precise and faster than conventional methods and able to produce defect free finished components. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the recent advancement of MAM process carried out by different researcher till date. The effect of different input parameters such as rotational speed of electromagnet, voltage, magnetic flux density, abrasive particles size and working gap on the performances of Material Removal Rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) have been discussed. On the basis of review, it is observed that the rotational speed of electromagnet, voltage and mesh size of abrasive particles have significant impact on MAM process.

  1. Method of protecting surfaces from abrasion and abrasion resistant articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1988-06-09

    Surfaces of fabricated structures are protected from damage by impacting particulates by a coating of hard material formed as a mass of thin flexible filaments having root ends secured to the surface and free portions which can flex and overlap to form a resilient cushioning mat which resembles hair or fur. The filamentary coating covers the underlying surface with hard abrasion resistance material while also being compliant and capable of local accommodation to particle impacts. The coating can also function as thermal and/or acoustical insulation and has a friction reducing effect. 11 figs.

  2. Assessment of thermal spray coatings for wear and abrasion resistance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karode, Ishaan Nitin

    Thermal spray cermet and metallic coatings are extensively used for wear, abrasion and corrosion control in a variety of industries. The first part of the thesis focuses mainly on testing of sand erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings on carbon composites used in the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades. The test set-up employed is a sand blasting machine and is an effort to duplicate the in-flight conditions especially those encountered in hot arid conditions. The technique adopted follows the Department of Defence test method standard. Carbon Composites have excellent stiffness, strength and low weight/density. The strength to weight ratio is high. Hence, these are used in aerospace applications to a large extent. However, the biggest problem encountered with carbon composites is its low abrasion resistance as its surface is very weak. Hence, thermal spray coatings are used to improve the surface properties of CFRP. Zinc bond coats and WC-Co coatings were tested. However, high amount of thermal stresses were developed between the substrate and the coating due to large differences in the CTE's of the both, leading to high mass losses within two minutes and just 130 grams of sand sprayed on to the coatings with the sand blasting machine built; and hence the coatings with CC as a substrate could not qualify for the application. The second part of the thesis focuses on the assessment of different thermal spray coatings used for manufacture of mechanical seals in pumps and analyze the best coating material for the wear resistance application through detail quantification of material loss by block-on-ring test set-up. A machine based on Block-on-ring test set-up following ASTM G77 (Measurement of Adhesive wear resistance of thermal spray coatings) standards was built to duplicate the pump conditions. Thermally sprayed coated materials were tested in different conditions (Load, time, abrasive). WC-Co had the highest wear resistance (lower volume losses) and

  3. Surface Abrasive Torsion for Improved Mechanical Properties and Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Baek, Seung Mi; Lee, Seok Gyu; Yoon, Jae Ik; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2018-05-01

    A novel process of discrete surface abrasion during simple torsion (ST), named "surface abrasive torsion (SAT)," is proposed to overcome the limitation of ST, i.e., insufficient strain for severe plastic deformation (SPD) due to cracks initiated on the surface, by removing the roughened surface region. The effect of SAT on delayed crack initiation was explained using finite element simulations. Larger shear deformation applicable to the specimen in SAT than ST was demonstrated experimentally.

  4. Effect of nanofillers' size on surface properties after toothbrush abrasion.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Larissa M; Masouras, Konstantinos; Watts, David C; Pimenta, Luiz A; Silikas, Nick

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the effect of filler-particle size of experimental and commercial resin composites, undergoing toothbrush abrasion, on three surface properties: surface roughness (SR), surface gloss (G) and color stability (CS). Four model (Ivoclar/Vivadent) and one commercial resin composite (Tokuyama) with varying filler-size from 100-1000 nm were examined. Six discs (10 mm x 2 mm) from each product were prepared and mechanically polished. The samples were then submitted to 20,000 brushing strokes in a toothbrush abrasion machine. SR parameters (Ra, Rt and RSm), G, and CS were measured before and after toothbrush abrasion. Changes in SR and G were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, with Bonferroni post hoc test. CS values were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test (alpha=0.05). Initial G values ranged between 73-87 gloss units (GU) and were reduced after toothbrush abrasion to a range of 8-64 GU. Toothbrush abrasion resulted in significant modifications in SR and G amongst the materials tested, attributed to filler sizes. There was statistically significant difference in color (delta E* ranged from 0.38-0.88). Filler size did not affect color stability. Toothbrush abrasion resulted in rougher and matte surfaces for all materials tested. Although the individual differences in surface roughness among filler sizes were not always significant, the correlation showed a trend that larger filler sizes resulted in higher surface roughness after abrasion for the SR parameters Ra and Rt (r = 0.95; r = 0.93, respectively). RSm showed an increase after toothbrush abrasion for all resin composites, however no significant correlation was detected (r = 0.21).There was a significant correlation between G and Ra ratios (r = - 0.95).

  5. Dentifrice fluoride and abrasivity interplay on artificial caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Hani M; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    Incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces may be subjected to toothbrushing, potentially leading to remineralization and/or abrasive wear. The interplay of dentifrice abrasivity and fluoride on this process is largely unknown and was investigated on three artificially created lesions with different mineral content/distribution. 120 bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n = 10), resulting from the association of (1) lesion type [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC); carboxymethylcellulose solution (CMC); hydroxyethylcellulose gel (HEC)], (2) slurry abrasive level [low (REA 4/ RDA 69); high (REA 7/RDA 208)], and (3) fluoride concentration [0/275 ppm (14.5 mM) F as NaF]. After lesion creation, specimens were brushed in an automated brushing machine with the test slurries (50 strokes 2×/day). Specimens were kept in artificial saliva in between brushings and overnight. Enamel surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry after lesion creation, 1, 3 and 5 days. Two enamel sections (from baseline and post-brushing areas) were obtained and analyzed microradiographically. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 5%). Brushing with high-abrasive slurry caused more SL than brushing with low-abrasive slurry. For MeC and CMC lesions, fluoride had a protective effect on SL from day 3 on. Furthermore, for MeC and CMC, there was a significant mineral gain in the remaining lesions except when brushed with high-abrasive slurries and 0 ppm F. For HEC, a significant mineral gain took place when low-abrasive slurry was used with fluoride. The tested lesions responded differently to the toothbrushing procedures. Both slurry fluoride content and abrasivity directly impacted SL and mineral gain of enamel caries lesions.

  6. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag.

    PubMed

    Kura, Bhaskar; Kambham, Kalpalatha; Sangameswaran, Sivaramakrishnan; Potana, Sandhya

    2006-08-01

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions.

  7. Analysis of Abrasive Blasting of DOP-26 Iridium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, Evan Keith; Zhang, Wei; Ulrich, George B

    2012-01-01

    The effects of abrasive blasting on the surface geometry and microstructure of DOP-26 iridium alloy (Ir-0.3% W-0.006% Th 0.005% Al) have been investigated. Abrasive blasting has been used to control emissivity of components operating at elevated temperature. The effects of abrasive blasting conditions on surface morphology were investigated both experimentally and by numerical modeling. The simplified model, based on finite element analysis of a single angular particle impacting on Ir alloy disk, calculates the surface deformation and residual strain distribution. The experimental results and modeling results both indicate that the surface geometry is not sensitive to the abrasive blast processmore » conditions of nozzle pressure and standoff distance considered in this study. On the other hand, the modeling results suggest that the angularity of the abrasive particle has an important role in determining surface geometry, which in turn, affects the emissivity. Abrasive blasting causes localized surface strains and localized recrystallization, but it does not affect grain size following extended exposure at elevated temperature. The dependence of emissivity of the DOP-26 alloy on mean surface slope follows a similar trend to that reported for pure iridium.« less

  8. Slicing AADL Specifications for Model Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odenbrett, Maximilian; Nguyen, Viet Yen; Noll, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To combat the state-space explosion problem in model checking larger systems, abstraction techniques can be employed. Here, methods that operate on the system specification before constructing its state space are preferable to those that try to minimize the resulting transition system as they generally reduce peak memory requirements. We sketch a slicing algorithm for system specifications written in (a variant of) the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL). Given a specification and a property to be verified, it automatically removes those parts of the specification that are irrelevant for model checking the property, thus reducing the size of the corresponding transition system. The applicability and effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by analyzing the state-space reduction for an example, employing a translator from AADL to Promela, the input language of the SPIN model checker.

  9. Experimental investigation of the abrasive crown dynamics in orbital atherectomy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yihao; Belmont, Barry; Shih, Albert J

    2016-07-01

    Orbital atherectomy is a catheter-based minimally invasive procedure to modify the plaque within atherosclerotic arteries using a diamond abrasive crown. This study was designed to investigate the crown motion and its corresponding contact force with the vessel. To this end, a transparent arterial tissue-mimicking phantom made of polyvinyl chloride was developed, a high-speed camera and image processing technique were utilized to visualize and quantitatively analyze the crown motion in the vessel phantom, and a piezoelectric dynamometer measured the forces on the phantom during the procedure. Observed under typical orbital atherectomy rotational speeds of 60,000, 90,000, and 120,000rpm in a 4.8mm caliber vessel phantom, the crown motion was a combination of high-frequency rotation at 1000, 1500, and 1660.4-1866.1Hz and low-frequency orbiting at 18, 38, and 40Hz, respectively. The measured forces were also composed of these high and low frequencies, matching well with the rotation of the eccentric crown and the associated orbital motion. The average peak force ranged from 0.1 to 0.4N at different rotational speeds. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maximally slicing a black hole.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F.; Wahlquist, H.; Christensen, S.; Dewitt, B.; Smarr, L.; Tsiang, E.

    1973-01-01

    Analytic and computer-derived solutions are presented of the problem of slicing the Schwarzschild geometry into asymptotically flat, asymptotically static, maximal spacelike hypersurfaces. The sequence of hypersurfaces advances forward in time in both halves (u greater than or equal to 0, u less than or equal to 0) of the Kruskal diagram, tending asymptotically to the hypersurface r = 3/2 M and avoiding the singularity at r = 0. Maximality is therefore a potentially useful condition to impose in obtaining computer solutions of Einstein's equations.

  11. Abrasive wear of resin composites as related to finishing and polishing procedures.

    PubMed

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Ferracane, Jack L; Serra, Mônica C

    2005-07-01

    Finishing and polishing procedures may cause topographical changes and introduce subsurface microcracks in dental composite restoratives. Since both of these effects may contribute toward the kinetics of wear, the purpose of this study was to assess and correlate the wear and surface roughness of minifilled and nanofilled composites finished and polished by different methods. Specimens (n=10) made of a minifilled and a nanofilled composite were finished and polished with one of the four sequences: (1) tungsten carbide burs plus Al(2)O(3)-impregnated brush (CbBr) or (2) tungsten carbide burs plus diamond-impregnated cup (CbCp), (3) diamond burs plus brush (DmBr) or (4) diamond burs plus cup (DmCp). As a control, abrasive papers were used. After surface roughness had been quantified, three-body abrasion was simulated using the OHSU wear machine. The wear facets were then scanned to measure wear depth and post-testing roughness. All sets of data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests (alpha=0.05). Pearson's correlation test was applied to check for the existence of a relationship between pre-testing roughness and wear. Significantly smoother surfaces were attained with the sequences CbBr and CbCp, whereas DmCp yielded the roughest surface. Regardless of the finishing/polishing technique, the nanofilled composite exhibited the lowest pre-testing roughness and wear. There was no correlation between the surface roughness achieved after finishing/polishing procedures and wear (p=0.3899). Nano-sized materials may have improved abrasive wear resistance over minifilled composites. The absence of correlation between wear and surface roughness produced by different finishing/polishing methods suggests that the latter negligibly influences material loss due to three-body abrasion.

  12. Comparison between different interdental stripping methods and evaluation of abrasive strips: SEM analysis.

    PubMed

    Grippaudo, Cristina; Cancellieri, Daniela; Grecolini, Maria E; Deli, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological effects and the surface irregularities produced by different methods of mechanical stripping (abrasive strips and burs) and chemical stripping (37% orthophosphoric acid) and the surface changes following the finishing procedures (polishing strips) or the subsequent application of sealants, in order to establish the right stripping method that can guarantee the smoothest surface. We have also analysed the level of wear on the different abrasive strips employed, according to their structure. 160 proximal surfaces of 80 sound molar teeth extracted for orthodontic and periodontal reasons, were divided into: 1 control group with non-treated enamel proximal surfaces and 5 different groups according to the stripping method used, were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each one of the 5 treated groups was also divided into 3 different subgroups according to the finishing procedures or the subsequent application of sealants. The finishing stage following the manual reduction proves to be fundamental in reducing the number and depth of grooves created by the stripping. After the air rotor stripping method, the use of sealants is advised in order to obtain a smoother surface. The analysis of the combinations of mechanical and chemical stripping showed unsatisfactory results. Concerning the wear of the strips, we have highlighted a different abrasion degree for the different types of strips analysed with SEM. The enamel damages are limited only if the finishing procedure is applied, independently of the type of abrasive strip employed. It would be advisable, though clinically seldom possible, the use of sealants after the air rotor stripping technique. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  13. ERTS-1 image enhancement by optically combining density slices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapper, G. O.; Pease, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The technique of density slicing using a photographic film and its application to enhancement of ERTS-1 imagery has proved to be useful for mapping varigated areal phenomena and provides a useful supplement ot the I2S MiniAddcol viewing system. The intial experiments conducted with this film were encouraging, and indicated that this technique of density slicing using readily accessible darkroom facilities and simple darkroom procedures allows rapid, accurate, and facile interpretation of certain areal phenomena to be made from the imagery. The distribution of the tree yucca, Yucca brevifolia Jaegeriana, in the eastern Mojave Desert of Southern California and southern Nevada was used as an example to test the accuracy of the technique for mapping purposes. The distribution was mapped at a relatively high level of accuracy.

  14. Rock Abrasion Tool Exhibits the Deep Red Pigment of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    During recent soil-brushing experiments, the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit became covered with dust, as shown here. An abundance of iron oxide minerals in the dust gave the device a reddish-brown veneer. Investigators were using the rock abrasion tool to uncover successive layers of soil in an attempt to reveal near-surface stratigraphy. Afterward, remnant dirt clods were visible on both the bit and the brush of the tool. Designers of the rock abrasion tool at Honeybee Robotics and engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a plan to run the brush on the rock abrasion tool in reverse to dislodge the dirt and return the tool to normal operation. Subsequent communications with the rover revealed that the procedure is working and the rock abrasion tool remains healthy.

    Spirit acquired this approximately true-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 893rd sol, or Martian day (July 8, 2006). The image combines exposures taken through three of the camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 430 nanometers.

  15. Simultaneous Multi-Slice fMRI using Spiral Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Zahneisen, Benjamin; Poser, Benedikt A.; Ernst, Thomas; Stenger, V. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Parallel imaging methods using multi-coil receiver arrays have been shown to be effective for increasing MRI acquisition speed. However parallel imaging methods for fMRI with 2D sequences show only limited improvements in temporal resolution because of the long echo times needed for BOLD contrast. Recently, Simultaneous Multi-Slice (SMS) imaging techniques have been shown to increase fMRI temporal resolution by factors of four and higher. In SMS fMRI multiple slices can be acquired simultaneously using Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) and the overlapping slices are un-aliased using a parallel imaging reconstruction with multiple receivers. The slice separation can be further improved using the “blipped-CAIPI” EPI sequence that provides a more efficient sampling of the SMS 3D k-space. In this paper a blipped-spiral SMS sequence for ultra-fast fMRI is presented. The blipped-spiral sequence combines the sampling efficiency of spiral trajectories with the SMS encoding concept used in blipped-CAIPI EPI. We show that blipped spiral acquisition can achieve almost whole brain coverage at 3 mm isotropic resolution in 168 ms. It is also demonstrated that the high temporal resolution allows for dynamic BOLD lag time measurement using visual/motor and retinotopic mapping paradigms. The local BOLD lag time within the visual cortex following the retinotopic mapping stimulation of expanding flickering rings is directly measured and easily translated into an eccentricity map of the cortex. PMID:24518259

  16. Prepolishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeffler, Adrienne E.; Gregg, Leslie L.; Schoen, John M.; Fess, Edward M.; Hakiel, Michael; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Deterministic microgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-5μm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an Optipro CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

  17. Abrasion of Candidate Spacesuit Fabrics by Simulated Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rogers, Kerry J.; Sheehy, Brennan H.

    2009-01-01

    A protocol has been developed that produced the type of lunar soil abrasion damage observed on Apollo spacesuits. This protocol was then applied to four materials (Kevlar (DuPont), Vectran (Kuraray Co., Ltd.), Orthofabric, and Tyvek (DuPont)) that are candidates for advanced spacesuits. Three of the four new candidate fabrics (all but Vectran) were effective at keeping the dust from penetrating to layers beneath. In the cases of Kevlar and Orthofabric this was accomplished by the addition of a silicone layer. In the case of Tyvek, the paper structure was dense enough to block dust transport. The least abrasive damage was suffered by the Tyvek. This was thought to be due in large part to its non-woven paper structure. The woven structures were all abraded where the top of the weave was struck by the abrasive. Of these, the Orthofabric suffered the least wear, with both Vectran and Kevlar suffering considerably more extensive filament breakage.

  18. Feasibility Study on Cutting HTPB Propellants with Abrasive Water Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dayong; Bai, Yun

    2018-01-01

    Abrasive water jet is used to carry out the experiment research on cutting HTPB propellants with three components, which will provide technical support for the engineering treatment of waste rocket motor. Based on the reliability theory and related scientific research results, the safety and efficiency of cutting sensitive HTPB propellants by abrasive water jet were experimentally studied. The results show that the safety reliability is not less than 99.52% at 90% confidence level, so the safety is adequately ensured. The cooling and anti-friction effect of high-speed water jet is the decisive factor to suppress the detonation of HTPB propellant. Compared with pure water jet, cutting efficiency was increased by 5% - 87%. The study shows that abrasive water jets meet the practical use for cutting HTPB propellants.

  19. Aeolian abrasion on Venus: Preliminary results from the Venus simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Greeley, Ronald; Tucker, D. W.; Pollack, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of atmospheric pressure on aeolian abrasion was examined in the Venus Simulator with a constant temperature of 737 K. Both the rock target and the impactor were fine-grained basalt. The impactor was a 3 mm diameter angular particle chosen to represent a size of material that is entrainable by the dense Venusian atmosphere and potentially abrasive by virtue of its mass. It was projected at the target 10 to the 5 power times at a velocity of 0.7 m/s. The impactor showed a weight loss of approximately 1.2 x 10 to the -9 power gm per impact with the attrition occurring only at the edges. Results from scanning electron microscope analysis, profilometry, and weight measurement are summarized. It is concluded that particles can incur abrasion at Venusian temperatures even with low impact velocities expected for Venus.

  20. Study of Dominant Factors Affecting Cerchar Abrasivity Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami, Jamal; Ghasemi, Amireza; Alavi Gharahbagh, Ehsan; Dogruoz, Cihan; Dahl, Filip

    2014-09-01

    The Cerchar abrasion index is commonly used to represent rock abrasion for estimation of bit life and wear in various mining and tunneling applications. Although the test is simple and fast, there are some discrepancies in the test results related to the equipment used, condition of the rock surface, operator skills, and procedures used in conducting and measuring the wear surface. This paper focuses on the background of the test and examines the influence of various parameters on Cerchar testing including pin hardness, surface condition of specimens, petrographical and geomechanical properties, test speed, applied load, and method of measuring wear surface. Results of Cerchar tests on a set of rock specimens performed at different laboratories are presented to examine repeatability of the tests. In addition, the preliminary results of testing with a new device as a potential alternative testing system for rock abrasivity measurement are discussed.

  1. Twistor interpretation of slice regular functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavilla, Amedeo

    2018-01-01

    Given a slice regular function f : Ω ⊂ H → H, with Ω ∩ R ≠ ∅, it is possible to lift it to surfaces in the twistor space CP3 of S4 ≃ H ∪ { ∞ } (see Gentili et al., 2014). In this paper we show that the same result is true if one removes the hypothesis Ω ∩ R ≠ ∅ on the domain of the function f. Moreover we find that if a surface S ⊂CP3 contains the image of the twistor lift of a slice regular function, then S has to be ruled by lines. Starting from these results we find all the projective classes of algebraic surfaces up to degree 3 in CP3 that contain the lift of a slice regular function. In addition we extend and further explore the so-called twistor transform, that is a curve in Gr2(C4) which, given a slice regular function, returns the arrangement of lines whose lift carries on. With the explicit expression of the twistor lift and of the twistor transform of a slice regular function we exhibit the set of slice regular functions whose twistor transform describes a rational line inside Gr2(C4) , showing the role of slice regular functions not defined on R. At the end we study the twistor lift of a particular slice regular function not defined over the reals. This example shows the effectiveness of our approach and opens some questions.

  2. Pleurectomy versus pleural abrasion for primary spontaneous pneumothorax in children.

    PubMed

    Joharifard, Shahrzad; Coakley, Brian A; Butterworth, Sonia A

    2017-05-01

    Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) represents a common indication for urgent surgical intervention in children. First episodes are often managed with thoracostomy tube, whereas recurrent episodes typically prompt surgery involving apical bleb resection and pleurodesis, either via pleurectomy or pleural abrasion. The purpose of this study was to assess whether pleurectomy or pleural abrasion was associated with lower postoperative recurrence. The records of patients undergoing surgery for PSP between February 2005 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Recurrence was defined as an ipsilateral pneumothorax requiring surgical intervention. Bivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with recurrence. Fifty-two patients underwent 64 index operations for PSP (12 patients had surgery for contralateral pneumothorax, and each instance was analyzed separately). The mean age was 15.7±1.2years, and 79.7% (n=51) of patients were male. In addition to apical wedge resection, 53.1% (n=34) of patients underwent pleurectomy, 39.1% (n=25) underwent pleural abrasion, and 7.8% (n=5) had no pleural treatment. The overall recurrence rate was 23.4% (n=15). Recurrence was significantly lower in patients who underwent pleurectomy rather than pleural abrasion (8.8% vs. 40%, p<0.01). In patients who underwent pleural abrasion without pleurectomy, the relative risk of recurrence was 2.36 [1.41-3.92, p<0.01]. Recurrence of PSP is significantly reduced in patients undergoing pleurectomy compared to pleural abrasion. Level III, retrospective comparative therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of Acute Brain Slices Using an Optimized N-Methyl-D-glucamine Protective Recovery Method.

    PubMed

    Ting, Jonathan T; Lee, Brian R; Chong, Peter; Soler-Llavina, Gilberto; Cobbs, Charles; Koch, Christof; Zeng, Hongkui; Lein, Ed

    2018-02-26

    This protocol is a practical guide to the N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) protective recovery method of brain slice preparation. Numerous recent studies have validated the utility of this method for enhancing neuronal preservation and overall brain slice viability. The implementation of this technique by early adopters has facilitated detailed investigations into brain function using diverse experimental applications and spanning a wide range of animal ages, brain regions, and cell types. Steps are outlined for carrying out the protective recovery brain slice technique using an optimized NMDG artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) media formulation and enhanced procedure to reliably obtain healthy brain slices for patch clamp electrophysiology. With this updated approach, a substantial improvement is observed in the speed and reliability of gigaohm seal formation during targeted patch clamp recording experiments while maintaining excellent neuronal preservation, thereby facilitating challenging experimental applications. Representative results are provided from multi-neuron patch clamp recording experiments to assay synaptic connectivity in neocortical brain slices prepared from young adult transgenic mice and mature adult human neurosurgical specimens. Furthermore, the optimized NMDG protective recovery method of brain slicing is compatible with both juvenile and adult animals, thus resolving a limitation of the original methodology. In summary, a single media formulation and brain slicing procedure can be implemented across various species and ages to achieve excellent viability and tissue preservation.

  4. Preparation of Acute Brain Slices Using an Optimized N-Methyl-D-glucamine Protective Recovery Method

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Peter; Soler-Llavina, Gilberto; Cobbs, Charles; Koch, Christof; Zeng, Hongkui; Lein, Ed

    2018-01-01

    This protocol is a practical guide to the N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) protective recovery method of brain slice preparation. Numerous recent studies have validated the utility of this method for enhancing neuronal preservation and overall brain slice viability. The implementation of this technique by early adopters has facilitated detailed investigations into brain function using diverse experimental applications and spanning a wide range of animal ages, brain regions, and cell types. Steps are outlined for carrying out the protective recovery brain slice technique using an optimized NMDG artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) media formulation and enhanced procedure to reliably obtain healthy brain slices for patch clamp electrophysiology. With this updated approach, a substantial improvement is observed in the speed and reliability of gigaohm seal formation during targeted patch clamp recording experiments while maintaining excellent neuronal preservation, thereby facilitating challenging experimental applications. Representative results are provided from multi-neuron patch clamp recording experiments to assay synaptic connectivity in neocortical brain slices prepared from young adult transgenic mice and mature adult human neurosurgical specimens. Furthermore, the optimized NMDG protective recovery method of brain slicing is compatible with both juvenile and adult animals, thus resolving a limitation of the original methodology. In summary, a single media formulation and brain slicing procedure can be implemented across various species and ages to achieve excellent viability and tissue preservation. PMID:29553547

  5. Exposure to crystalline silica in abrasive blasting operations where silica and non-silica abrasives are used.

    PubMed

    Radnoff, Diane L; Kutz, Michelle K

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to respirable crystalline silica is a hazard common to many industries in Alberta but particularly so in abrasive blasting. Alberta occupational health and safety legislation requires the consideration of silica substitutes when conducting abrasive blasting, where reasonably practicable. In this study, exposure to crystalline silica during abrasive blasting was evaluated when both silica and non-silica products were used. The crystalline silica content of non-silica abrasives was also measured. The facilities evaluated were preparing metal products for the application of coatings, so the substrate should not have had a significant contribution to worker exposure to crystalline silica. The occupational sampling results indicate that two-thirds of the workers assessed were potentially over-exposed to respirable crystalline silica. About one-third of the measurements over the exposure limit were at the work sites using silica substitutes at the time of the assessment. The use of the silica substitute, by itself, did not appear to have a large effect on the mean airborne exposure levels. There are a number of factors that may contribute to over-exposures, including the isolation of the blasting area, housekeeping, and inappropriate use of respiratory protective equipment. However, the non-silica abrasives themselves also contain silica. Bulk analysis results for non-silica abrasives commercially available in Alberta indicate that many contain crystalline silica above the legislated disclosure limit of 0.1% weight of silica per weight of product (w/w) and this information may not be accurately disclosed on the material safety data sheet for the product. The employer may still have to evaluate the potential for exposure to crystalline silica at their work site, even when silica substitutes are used. Limited tests on recycled non-silica abrasive indicated that the silica content had increased. Further study is required to evaluate the impact of product recycling

  6. Comparative study for surface topography of bone drilling using conventional drilling and loose abrasive machining.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmeet; Jain, Vivek; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2015-03-01

    Drilling through the bone is a complicated process in orthopaedic surgery. It involves human as a part of the work so it needs better perfection and quality which leads to the sustainability. Different studies were carried out on this curious topic and some interesting results were obtained, which help the orthopaedic surgeon on the operation table. Major problems faced during bone drilling were crack initiation, thermal necrosis and burr formation. The surface topography of the bone is an indirect indication for the sustainability of bone joint. In this study, a comparison is made between conventional and a loose abrasive unconventional drilling technique for the surface characterization of the bone. The attempt has been made to show the feasibility of bone drilling with non-conventional technique and its aftereffect on the bone structure. The burr formation during conventional bone drilling was found to be more which leads to problems such as crack initiation and thermal necrosis. Scanning electrode microscope and surface roughness tester were used to characterize the surface of the fine drilled bone specimen and the results testified quite better surface finish and least crack formation while drilling with loose abrasive unconventional technique. © IMechE 2015.

  7. The luminosity function for the CfA redshift survey slices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Lapparent, Valerie; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1989-01-01

    The luminosity function for two complete slices of the extension of the CfA redshift survey is calculated. The nonparametric technique of Lynden-Bell (1971) and Turner (1979) is used to determine the shape for the luminosity function of the 12 deg slice of the redshift survey. The amplitude of the luminosity function is determined, taking large-scale inhomogeneities into account. The effects of the Malmquist bias on a magnitude-limited redshift survey are examined, showing that the random errors in the magnitudes for the 12 deg slice affect both the determination of the luminosity function and the spatial density constrast of large scale structures.

  8. Standardization of a Volumetric Displacement Measurement for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, K. W. Jr.; Kobrick, R. L.; Klaus, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    A limitation has been identified in the existing test standards used for making controlled, two-body abrasion scratch measurements based solely on the width of the resultant score on the surface of the material. A new, more robust method is proposed for analyzing a surface scratch that takes into account the full three-dimensional profile of the displaced material. To accomplish this, a set of four volume- displacement metrics was systematically defined by normalizing the overall surface profile to denote statistically the area of relevance, termed the Zone of Interaction. From this baseline, depth of the trough and height of the plowed material are factored into the overall deformation assessment. Proof-of-concept data were collected and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of this proposed methodology. This technique takes advantage of advanced imaging capabilities that allow resolution of the scratched surface to be quantified in greater detail than was previously achievable. When reviewing existing data analysis techniques for conducting two-body abrasive scratch tests, it was found that the ASTM International Standard G 171 specified a generic metric based only on visually determined scratch width as a way to compare abraded materials. A limitation to this method was identified in that the scratch width is based on optical surface measurements, manually defined by approximating the boundaries, but does not consider the three-dimensional volume of material that was displaced. With large, potentially irregular deformations occurring on softer materials, it becomes unclear where to systematically determine the scratch width. Specifically, surface scratches on different samples may look the same from a top view, resulting in an identical scratch width measurement, but may vary in actual penetration depth and/or plowing deformation. Therefore, two different scratch profiles would be measured as having identical abrasion properties, although they differ

  9. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the spindle speed at safe levels under all conditions of normal operation. (b) Guarding. (1) Grinding machines..., nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as portable saws. (c) Use of abrasive wheels...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the spindle speed at safe levels under all conditions of normal operation. (b) Guarding. (1) Grinding machines..., nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as portable saws. (c) Use of abrasive wheels...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the spindle speed at safe levels under all conditions of normal operation. (b) Guarding. (1) Grinding machines..., nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as portable saws. (c) Use of abrasive wheels...

  12. Propelled abrasive grit for weed control in organic silage corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed management in organic farming requires many strategies to accomplish acceptable control and maintain crop yields. This two-year field study used air propelled abrasive grit for in-row weed control in a silage corn system. Corncob grit was applied as a single application at corn vegetative growt...

  13. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Muller, Matt T.; Simpson, Lin J.

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended tomore » provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.« less

  14. Effect of air abrasion and polishing on primary molar fissures.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, T L; Menezes, L B R; Soares, F Z M; Rocha, R O

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of air abrasion and polishing on primary molar fissures under light microscopy. 15 exfoliated primary second molars were longitudinally sectioned and photographed under a stereomicroscope (40×; baseline evaluation). Sections were then randomly allocated into one of the two groups (n = 15) and treated by either air abrasion (aluminium oxide jet) or air polishing (sodium bicarbonate jet) for 30 s. After treatment, sections were washed with an air/water spray, dried with absorbent paper, and photographed as previously described (final evaluation). Baseline and final morphology were compared by two blinded examiners who evaluated changes in the width and depth of fissures. The percentage of changed fissures was analysed, and the two treatments were compared using the Mann-Whitney test (α = 0.01). Both air systems resulted in fissure changes in most (93.3 %) of the sections. No significant differences in fissure width changes were found between treatments, but when changes in fissure depth were evaluated, air polishing was found to be less damaging than air abrasion (p < 0.01). Air abrasion and polishing cause changes to the anatomical configuration of occlusal fissures of primary molars.

  15. Assessment of Rail Seat Abrasion Patterns and Environment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    Rail seat abrasion (RSA) of concrete ties is manifested by the loss of material under the rail seat area and, in extreme cases, results in loss of rail clip holding power, reverse rail cant, and gauge widening. RSA was measured in several curves on t...

  16. 9 CFR 311.14 - Abrasions, bruises, abscesses, pus, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abrasions, bruises, abscesses, pus, etc. 311.14 Section 311.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND...

  17. Rock Abrasion Tool Exhibits the Deep Red Pigment of Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-21

    This image shows the round, metallic working end of the rock abrasion tool at the end of a metallic cylinder. The flat grinding face, attached brush, and much of the smooth, metallic exterior of cylinder are covered with a deep reddish-brown layer of dust

  18. Unusually severe food poisoning from vanilla slices.

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, P. A.; Dobson, K. W.; Eyre, A.; McKendrick, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty six people suffered from severe vomiting and diarrhoea 15 min to 3 h after eating vanilla slices from the same bakery. Five patients were admitted to hospital, and one developed unusual skin lesions after admission. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in large numbers from vanilla slices of the same batch as those giving rise to symptoms, and from five faecal specimens obtained from affected persons. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis were also isolated from the slices. Unbaked custard provides an ideal environment for bacterial multiplication, especially when (as on this occasion) the ambient temperature is persistently high. PMID:6438231

  19. [Brushing abrasion of the enamel surface after erosion].

    PubMed

    Lipei, Chen; Xiangke, Ci; Xiaoyan, Ou

    2017-08-01

    Objective A study was conducted to compare the effect of different enamel remineralization periods after erosion on the depth of brushing abrasion. Methods Ten volunteers were selected for a 4-day experiment. A total of 60 enamels were randomly assigned into six groups (A-F) and placed in intraoral palatal devices. On the first day, the palatal devices were placed in oral cavity (24 h) . On the following three days, brushing experiments were performed extraorally, two times per day. The specific experimental method of brushing follows these next steps. First, the group F specimens were covered with a film of wax, and then acid etched for 2 min. Subsequently, the film of wax was detached. The groups from A to D were brushed after remineralization at the following time intervals: group A, 0 min; group B, 20 min; group C, 40 min; group D, 60 min. Erosion and remineralization were performed on group E, but without brushing. Remineralization was performed on group F, but without acid etching and brushing. The depth of enamel abrasion was determined by a mechanical profilometer. The surface morphology of the enamel blocks was observed using a scanning electron microscope. Results 1) The depth of abrasion was different in varied enamel remineralization time after acid etching. The statistical significant differences between groups were as follows. 2) When the time of enamel remineralization after acid etching was short, the surface depression in the electron microscope was deep, and the surface morphology was rough. Conclusion Brushing immediately after acid etching would cause much serious abrasion to the enamel surface. Brushing after 60 min can effectively reduce the abrasion of acid etching enamel.

  20. Study on design of light-weight super-abrasive wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, K.; Yanagihara, K.; Ogawa, M.

    2018-01-01

    Fixed-abrasive tool, also called a grinding wheel, is produced by furnacing abrasive compound which contains abrasive grains and binding powder such as vitrified materials or resins. Fixed-abrasive tool is installed on spindle of grinding machine. And it is given 1,800-2,000 min-1 of spindle rotation for the usage. The centrifugal fracture of the compound of fixed- abrasive tool is one of the careful respects in designing. In recent years, however, super-abrasive wheel as a fixed-abrasive tool has been developed and applied widely. One of the most characteristic respects is that metal is applied for the body of grinding-wheel. The strength to hold abrasive grain and the rigidity of wheel become stronger than those of general grinding wheel, also the lifespan of fixed-abrasive tool becomes longer. The weight of fixed-abrasive tool, however, becomes heavier. Therefore, when the super-abrasive wheel is used, the power consumption of spindle motor becomes larger. It also becomes difficult for the grinding-wheel to respond to sudden acceleration or deceleration. Thus, in order to reduce power consumption in grinding and to obtain quicker frequency response of super-abrasive wheel, the new wheel design is proposed. The design accomplishes 46% weight reduction. Acceleration that is one second quicker than that of conventional grinding wheel is obtained.

  1. Study of abrasive resistance of foundries models obtained with use of additive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovik, Evgeniy

    2017-10-01

    A problem of determination of resistance of the foundry models and patterns from ABS (PLA) plastic, obtained by the method of 3D printing with using FDM additive technology, to abrasive wear and resistance in the environment of foundry sand mould is considered in the present study. The description of a technique and equipment for tests of castings models and patterns for wear is provided in the article. The manufacturing techniques of models with the use of the 3D printer (additive technology) are described. The scheme with vibration load was applied to samples tests. For the most qualitative research of influence of sandy mix on plastic, models in real conditions of abrasive wear have been organized. The results also examined the application of acrylic paintwork to the plastic model and a two-component coating. The practical offers and recommendation on production of master models with the use of FDM technology allowing one to reach indicators of durability, exceeding 2000 cycles of moulding in foundry sand mix, are described.

  2. Cochlear Implant Electrode Localization Using an Ultra-High Resolution Scan Mode on Conventional 64-Slice and New Generation 192-Slice Multi-Detector Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Matthew L; Leng, Shuai; Diehn, Felix E; Witte, Robert J; Krecke, Karl N; Grimes, Josh; Koeller, Kelly K; Bruesewitz, Michael R; McCollough, Cynthia H; Lane, John I

    2017-08-01

    A new generation 192-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) clinical scanner provides enhanced image quality and superior electrode localization over conventional MDCT. Currently, accurate and reliable cochlear implant electrode localization using conventional MDCT scanners remains elusive. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric temporal bones were implanted with full-length cochlear implant electrodes. Specimens were subsequently scanned with conventional 64-slice and new generation 192-slice MDCT scanners utilizing ultra-high resolution modes. Additionally, all specimens were scanned with micro-CT to provide a reference criterion for electrode position. Images were reconstructed according to routine temporal bone clinical protocols. Three neuroradiologists, blinded to scanner type, reviewed images independently to assess resolution of individual electrodes, scalar localization, and severity of image artifact. Serving as the reference standard, micro-CT identified scalar crossover in one specimen; imaging of all remaining cochleae demonstrated complete scala tympani insertions. The 192-slice MDCT scanner exhibited improved resolution of individual electrodes (p < 0.01), superior scalar localization (p < 0.01), and reduced blooming artifact (p < 0.05), compared with conventional 64-slice MDCT. There was no significant difference between platforms when comparing streak or ring artifact. The new generation 192-slice MDCT scanner offers several notable advantages for cochlear implant imaging compared with conventional MDCT. This technology provides important feedback regarding electrode position and course, which may help in future optimization of surgical technique and electrode design.

  3. Photosynthesis and Respiration in Leaf Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how leaf slices provide an inexpensive material for illustrating several fundamental points about the biochemistry of photosynthesis and respiration. Presents experiments that illustrate the effects of photon flux density and herbicides and carbon dioxide concentration. (DDR)

  4. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 5; Abrasion: Plowing and Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    Chapter 5 discusses abrasion, a common wear phenomenon of great economic importance. It has been estimated that 50% of the wear encountered in industry is due to abrasion. Also, it is the mechanism involved in the finishing of many surfaces. Experiments are described to help in understanding the complex abrasion process and in predicting friction and wear behavior in plowing and/or cutting. These experimental modelings and measurements used a single spherical pin (asperity) and a single wedge pin (asperity). Other two-body and three-body abrasion studies used hard abrasive particles.

  5. Research on operation mode of abrasive grain during grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T. N.; Dement’ev, V. B.; Nikitina, O. V.

    2018-03-01

    The processing of materials by cutting with an abrasive tool is carried out by means of thousands of grains bonded together as a single whole. The quality of the abrasive tool is defined by cutting properties of abrasive grains and depends on features of spreading the temperature field in time and in the abrasive grain volume. Grains are exposed to heating and cooling during work. It leads to undesired effects such as a decrease of durability of grain retention in the binder, hardness, intensification of diffusion and oxidation processes between the binder and the grain, the occurrence of considerable temperature stresses in the grain itself. The obtained equation which allows calculation of temperature field of grain for one rotation of grinding wheel shows that the temperature of the wheel depends on grinding modes and thermophysical properties of abrasive material. Thus, as the time of contact of grain with processed material increases, the temperature in the cutting area rises. As thermophysical properties increase, the temperature in cutting area decreases. Thermal working conditions are determined to be different from each other depending on contact time of the grain and the material. For example, in case of creep-feed grinding, the peak value of temperature is higher than during multistep grinding; the depth of expansion is greater. While the speed of the thermal process in creep-feed grinding is 2-3 times lower than in multistep grinding, the gradient reduces 3-4 times. The analysis of machining methods shows that creep-feed grinding ensures greater depth of grain heating, a smaller heating rate and a reduced velocity gradient. It causes a decrease of probable allotropic modifications and prevents from occurring of heat strokes - cracking of grains due to high temperature falls. Consequently, it is necessary to employ creep-feed grinding to increase the efficiency of abrasive tool employing. Three operation modes of grinding wheel including blunting, full

  6. Study of process of trueing diamond grinding wheels on metal bonds by method of free abrasive after processing of leucosapphire blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedonin, O. N.; Handozhko, A. V.; Fedukov, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of mechanical processing, in particular, grinding products from leucosapphire, is considered. The main problem with this treatment is the need to adjust the diamond tool. One of the methods of tool trueing using loose abrasive technique is considered. The results of a study on restoring the tool cutting ability, its shape and profile after straightening are given.

  7. Development of Abrasion-Resistant Coating for Solar Reflective Films. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-247

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Matthew

    The purpose of this CRADA is to develop an abrasion-resistant coating, suitable for use on polymeric-based reflective films (e.g., the ReflecTech reflective film), that allows for improved scratch resistance and enables the use of aggressive cleaning techniques (e.g., direct contact methods like brushing) without damaging the specular reflectance properties of the reflective film.

  8. A z-gradient array for simultaneous multi-slice excitation with a single-band RF pulse.

    PubMed

    Ertan, Koray; Taraghinia, Soheil; Sadeghi, Alireza; Atalar, Ergin

    2018-07-01

    Multi-slice radiofrequency (RF) pulses have higher specific absorption rates, more peak RF power, and longer pulse durations than single-slice RF pulses. Gradient field design techniques using a z-gradient array are investigated for exciting multiple slices with a single-band RF pulse. Two different field design methods are formulated to solve for the required current values of the gradient array elements for the given slice locations. The method requirements are specified, optimization problems are formulated for the minimum current norm and an analytical solution is provided. A 9-channel z-gradient coil array driven by independent, custom-designed gradient amplifiers is used to validate the theory. Performance measures such as normalized slice thickness error, gradient strength per unit norm current, power dissipation, and maximum amplitude of the magnetic field are provided for various slice locations and numbers of slices. Two and 3 slices are excited by a single-band RF pulse in simulations and phantom experiments. The possibility of multi-slice excitation with a single-band RF pulse using a z-gradient array is validated in simulations and phantom experiments. Magn Reson Med 80:400-412, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Self inflicted corneal abrasions due to delusional parasitosis

    PubMed Central

    Meraj, Adeel; Din, Amad U; Larsen, Lynn; Liskow, Barry I

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of self inflicted bilateral corneal abrasions and skin damage due to ophthalmic and cutaneous delusional parasitosis. A male in his 50s presented with a 10 year history of believing that parasites were colonizing his skin and biting into his skin and eyes. The patient had received extensive medical evaluations that found no evidence that symptoms were due to a medical cause. He was persistent in his belief and had induced bilateral corneal abrasions and skin damage by using heat lamps and hair dryers in an attempt to disinfect his body. The patient was treated with olanzapine along with treatment for his skin and eyes. His delusional belief system persisted but no further damage to his eyes and skin was noted on initial follow-up. PMID:22689836

  10. The worn dentition--pathognomonic patterns of abrasion and erosion.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the dental literature has revealed various causes of tooth wear, yet it has failed to provide a conclusive method of differentiation and diagnosis of the condition. The categories of tooth wear encountered most commonly in dental practice are abrasion and erosion. The major causes of wear from abrasion are bruxism and toothpaste abuse, and the major causes of wear from erosion are regurgitation, coke-swishing and fruit-mulling. Through in-depth clinical study of these causes, this paper provides a diagnostic system that will enable dental professionals to determine and differentiate the exact aetiology of the worn dentition simply by the recognition of the pathognomonic wear patterns on diagnostic casts, which are based upon the position and quantity of the non-carious loss of tooth structure.

  11. Design of a new abrasive slurry jet generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. C.; Shi, L. L.; Guo, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    With the advantages of a low system working pressure, good jet convergence and high cutting quality, abrasive slurry jet (ASJ) has broad application prospects in material cutting and equipment cleaning. Considering that the generator plays a crucial role in ASJ system, the paper designed a new type ASJ generator using an electric oil pump, a separate plunger cylinder, and a spring energized seal. According to the determining of structure shape, size and seal type, a new ASJ generator has been manufactured out and tested by a series of experiments. The new generator separates the abrasive slurry from the dynamic hydraulic oil, which can improve the service life of the ASJ system. And the new ASJ system can reach 40 MPa and has good performance in jet convergence, which deserves to popularization and application in materials machining.

  12. Abrasion resistance of muscovite in aeolian and subaqueous transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Calvin J.; Struble, Alexander; Whitmore, John H.

    2017-02-01

    Complementary aeolian and subaqueous transport experiments showed a trend in muscovite abrasion that may be useful for identifying ancient sandstones as aeolian or subaqueous in origin. We found that our experimental aeolian processes pulverized the micas quickly, while our subaqueous processes did not. In a pair of abrasion resistance experiments conducted with micaceous quartz sand, it was found that large muscovite grains were (1) reduced by aeolian processes to less than 500 μm in just 4 days, and (2) preserved by subaqueous processes to 610 ± 90 μm even after 356 days. At 20 days of aeolian transport no loose micas could be found even under the microscope, but after a year of subaqueous transport loose muscovite grains could still be seen with the naked eye. Thus, the occurrence and character of micas in a sandstone, particularly muscovite, may be helpful in determining the ancient depositional process.

  13. Wheel Abrasion Experiment Metals Selection for Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Hoffman, Richard; Hill, Maria M.; Kaloyeros, Alain E.

    1996-01-01

    A series of metals was examined for suitability for the Wheel Abrasion Experiment, one of ten microrover experiments of the Mars Pathfinder Mission. The seven candidate metals were: Ag, Al, Au, Cu, Ni, Pt, and W. Thin films of candidate metals from 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer thick were deposited on black anodized aluminum coupons by e-beam and resistive evaporation and chemical vapor deposition. Optical, corrosion, abrasion, and adhesion criteria were used to select Al, Ni, and Pt. A description is given of the deposition and testing of thin films, followed by a presentation of experimental data and a brief discussion of follow-on testing and flight qualification.

  14. Investigation of wear resistance of polyurethanes in abrasive soil mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napiórkowski, Jerzy; Ligier, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of polyurethane wear in different abrasive soil masses. Two types of polyurethanes of various chemical compositions and untreated 38GSA steel were tested, the latter being used as a reference standard. The study was conducted in natural soil mass at a "rotating bowl" stand. Relative wear resistance was determined from measurements of mass wear for the materials under study. The condition of the surface of the materials under wear test was analysed.

  15. Standardization of a Volumetric Displacement Measurement for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    A limitation has been identified in the existing test standards used for making controlled, two-body abrasion scratch measurements based solely on the width of the resultant score on the surface of the material. A new, more robust method is proposed for analyzing a surface scratch that takes into account the full three-dimensional profile of the displaced material. To accomplish this, a set of four volume displacement metrics are systematically defined by normalizing the overall surface profile to statistically denote the area of relevance, termed the Zone of Interaction (ZOI). From this baseline, depth of the trough and height of the ploughed material are factored into the overall deformation assessment. Proof of concept data were collected and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of this proposed methodology. This technique takes advantage of advanced imaging capabilities that now allow resolution of the scratched surface to be quantified in greater detail than was previously achievable. A quantified understanding of fundamental particle-material interaction is critical to anticipating how well components can withstand prolonged use in highly abrasive environments, specifically for our intended applications on the surface of the Moon and other planets or asteroids, as well as in similarly demanding, harsh terrestrial settings

  16. Adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms in ion implanted metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-03-01

    The distinction between adhesive and abrasive wear processes was introduced originally by Burwell during the nineteen-fifties, though some authors prefer to classify wear according to whether it is mild or severe. It is argued here that, on the basis of the performance of a variety of ion implanted metal surfaces, exposed to different modes of wear, the Burwell distinction is a valid one which, moreover, enables us to predict under which circumstances a given treatment will perform well. It is shown that, because wear rates under abrasive conditions are very sensitive to the ratio of the hardness of the surface to that of the abrasive particles, large increases in working life are attainable as a result of ion implantation. Under adhesive wear conditions, the wear rate appears to fall inversely as the hardness increases, and it is advantageous to implant species which will create and retain a hard surface oxide or other continuous film in order to reduce metal-metal contact. By the appropriate combination of physico-chemical changes in an implanted layer it has been possible to reduce wear rates by up to three orders of magnitude. Such rates compensate for the shallow depths achievable by ion implantation.

  17. Surface characterization of current composites after toothbrush abrasion.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Rena; Jin, Jian; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji; Hickel, Reinhard; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the surface roughness and the gloss of current composites before and after toothbrush abrasion. We assessed forty dimensionally standardized composite specimens (n=8/group) from five composites: two nanohybrids (i. e., IPS Empress Direct Enamel and IPS Empress Direct Dentin), two microhybrids (i. e., Clearfil AP-X and Filtek Z250) and one organically modified ceramics (Admira). All of the specimens were polished with 4000-grid silicon carbide papers. Surface roughness was measured with a profilometer and gloss was measured with a glossmeter before and after powered toothbrush abrasion with a 1:1 slurry (dentifrice/tap water) at 12,000 strokes in a toothbrush simulator. There was a significant increase in the surface roughness and a reduction in gloss after toothbrush abrasion in all of the composites except Clearfil AP-X (p<0.05). Simple regression analysis showed that there was not an association between the surface roughness and the gloss (R(2)=0.191, p<0.001).

  18. The role of erosion, abrasion and attrition in tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Michele E; Rees, Gareth D

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing clinical awareness of erosion of enamel and dentine by dietary acids and the consequent increased susceptibility to physical wear. Enamel erosion is characterized by acid-mediated surface softening that, if unchecked, will progress to irreversible loss of surface tissue, potentially exposing the underlying dentine. In comparison, dentine erosion is less well understood as the composition and microstructure are more heterogeneous. Factors which affect the erosive potential of a solution include pH, titratable acidity, common ion concentrations, and frequency and method of exposure. Abrasion and attrition are sources of physical wear and are commonly associated with tooth brushing and tooth-to-tooth contact, respectively. A combination of erosion and abrasion or attrition exacerbates wear; however, further research is required to understand the role of fluoride in protecting mineralized tissues from such processes. Abrasive wear may be seen in a wide range of patients, whereas attritive loss is usually seen in individuals with bruxism. Wear processes are implicated in the development of dentine hypersensitivity. Saliva confers the major protective function against wear due to its role in pellicle formation, buffering, acid clearance, and hard tissue remineralization. This review focuses on the physiochemical factors impacting tooth wear.

  19. Development of underwater cutting system by abrasive water-jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demura, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi

    1993-09-01

    The technology to cut objects in the ocean's depths with abrasive water jets was examined for possible application in view of the greater water depths and sophistication involved in work on the ocean floor today. A test model was developed to study this technology's safety and practicability. The test model was designed for use at great water depths and has functions and a configuration that are unlike equipment used on land. A continuous, stable supply of abrasive is a distinctive design feature. In land applications, there had been problems with plugged tubes and an uneven supply. For this reason, the abrasive was converted to slurry form, and a continuous pressurized tube pump system was adopted for supply to the nozzle head. Also, a hydraulic motor that does not employ oil or electric power was used to provide an underwater drive that is environment-friendly. The report outlines the technology's general design concept including its distinctive functions and its configuration for use at great depths, and the report provides great detail on the equipment.

  20. Fractographic and three body abrasion behaviour of Al-Garnet-C hybrid chill cast composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandekar, Nityanand; Prasad, M. G. Anantha

    2017-08-01

    Fractographic and tribological behaviour of hybrid composite of aluminum alloy LM13 matrix with garnet and carbon was investigated. Conventional stir casting technique was used to fabricate the composites with chill cast technique. Various chill materials like Copper, Steel, Iron and Silicon carbide were used to improve the directional solidification. The garnet being added ranges from 3 to 12 wt-% in steps of 3wt-% and constant 3wt-% of carbon. The experiment evaluates the mechanical, fractographic and three body abrasion behaviour of the hybrid composites for various parameters of load, garnet and chills. Microstructural characterization of the composite samples revealed a uniform distribution of reinforcements with minimum clustering. SEM was used for examine worn surfaces. The addition of garnet and carbon reinforcement decreases the wear rate of hybrid composites. Fracture behaviour showed the changes from ductile mode to brittle mode of failure. Further, directional chilling with copper chill improves the wear resistance of the composites.

  1. Slice profile effects in 2D slice-selective MRI of hyperpolarized nuclei.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Martin H; Teh, Kevin; Parra-Robles, Juan; Lee, Kuan J; Wild, Jim M

    2010-02-01

    This work explores slice profile effects in 2D slice-selective gradient-echo MRI of hyperpolarized nuclei. Two different sequences were investigated: a Spoiled Gradient Echo sequence with variable flip angle (SPGR-VFA) and a balanced Steady-State Free Precession (SSFP) sequence. It is shown that in SPGR-VFA the distribution of flip angles across the slice present in any realistically shaped radiofrequency (RF) pulse leads to large excess signal from the slice edges in later RF views, which results in an undesired non-constant total transverse magnetization, potentially exceeding the initial value by almost 300% for the last RF pulse. A method to reduce this unwanted effect is demonstrated, based on dynamic scaling of the slice selection gradient. SSFP sequences with small to moderate flip angles (<40 degrees ) are also shown to preserve the slice profile better than the most commonly used SPGR sequence with constant flip angle (SPGR-CFA). For higher flip angles, the slice profile in SSFP evolves in a manner similar to SPGR-CFA, with depletion of polarization in the center of the slice. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological temperature during brain slicing enhances the quality of acute slice preparations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiwei; Uusisaari, Marylka Y.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that brain dissection and slicing using solutions warmed to near-physiological temperature (~ +34°C), greatly enhance slice quality without affecting intrinsic electrophysiological properties of the neurons. Improved slice quality is seen not only when using young (<1 month), but also mature (>2.5 month) mice. This allows easy in vitro patch-clamp experimentation using adult deep cerebellar nuclear slices, which until now have been considered very difficult. As proof of the concept, we compare intrinsic properties of cerebellar nuclear neurons in juvenile (<1 month) and adult (up to 7 months) mice, and confirm that no significant developmental changes occur after the fourth postnatal week. The enhanced quality of brain slices from old animals facilitates experimentation on age-related disorders as well as optogenetic studies requiring long transfection periods. PMID:23630465

  3. Controls on wind abrasion patterns through a fractured bedrock landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, J. P.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Wind abrasion is an important geomorphic process for understanding arid landscape evolution on Earth and interpreting the post-fluvial history of Mars. Both the presence and orientation of wind-abraded landforms provide potentially important constraints on paleo-climatic conditions; however, such interpretations can be complicated by lithologic and structural heterogeneity. To explore the influence of pre-existing structure on wind abrasion, we exploit a natural experiment along the 10.2 Ma Lower Rio San Pedro ignimbrite in northern Chile. Here, a 3.2 Ma andesite flow erupted from Cerro de las Cuevas and deposited atop the ignimbrite, supplying wind-transportable sediment and initiating a phase of downwind abrasion. Additionally, the lava flow provides a continually varying degree of upwind topographic shielding along the ignimbrite that is reflected in a range of surface morphologies. Where fully shielded the ignimbrite surface is partially blanketed by sediment. However, as relief decreases the surface morphology shifts from large polygonal structures that emerge due to the concentration of wind abrasion along pre-existing fracture sets, to polygons that are bisected by wind-parallel grooves that cross-cut fracture sets, to linear sets of yardangs. We reconstruct the ignimbrite surface using a high-resolution digital elevation model, and calculate erosion rates ranging from 0.002 to 0.45 mm/kyr that vary strongly with degree of topographic shielding (R2 = 0.97). We use measured abrasion rates together with nearby weather station data to estimate the nondimensional Rouse number and Inertial Parameter for a range of particle sizes. From these calculations, we hypothesize that the change from fracture-controlled to flow-controlled morphology reflects increases in the grain size and inertia of particles in the suspension cloud. Where the ignimbrite experiences persistent high winds, large particles may travel in suspension and are largely insensitive to topographic

  4. The abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded enamel.

    PubMed

    Mosquim, Victor; Martines Souza, Beatriz; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Wang, Linda; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded bovine enamel samples in respect to erosive tooth wear. 72 bovine crowns were embedded, polished and subjected to the baseline profile analysis. The samples were then protected in 2/3 of the enamel surface and were randomly assigned to six groups (n= 12/group): G1: Oral-B 3D White, G2: Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White, G3: Sorriso Xtreme White 4D, G4: Colgate Luminous White, G5: Crest (conventional toothpaste), G6:erosion only (control). All samples were submitted to an erosive pH cycling (4 x 90 seconds in 0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, per day) and abrasive challenges (2 x 15 seconds, per day) for 7 days. After the first and the last daily cycles, the samples were subjected to abrasive challenges, using a toothbrushing machine, soft toothbrushes and slurry of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). Between the challenges, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva. The final profile was obtained and overlaid to the baseline profile for the calculation of the erosive tooth wear (μm). The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (P< 0.05). G1 promoted the highest enamel wear (3.68±1.06 μm), similarly to G3 (3.17± 0.80 μm) and G4 (3.44± 1.29 μm). G3 and G4 performed similarly between them and compared with G5 (2.35± 1.44 μm). G2 (1.51± 0.95 μm) and G6 (0.85± 0.36 μm) showed the lowest enamel wear, which did not differ between them and from G5. Oral-B 3D White showed the highest abrasive potential while Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White showed the lowest abrasive potential on eroded enamel in vitro. This study showed that some commercial whitening toothpastes, especially those containing pyrophosphate associated with hydrated silica, enhanced enamel erosive wear.

  5. Tectonic slicing of subducting oceanic crust along plate interfaces: Numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruh, J. B.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Agard, Ph.; Burov, E.; Gerya, T.

    2015-10-01

    Multikilometer-sized slivers of high-pressure low-temperature metamorphic oceanic crust and mantle are observed in many mountain belts. These blueschist and eclogite units were detached from the descending plate during subduction. Large-scale thermo-mechanical numerical models based on finite difference marker-in-cell staggered grid technique are implemented to investigate slicing processes that lead to the detachment of oceanic slivers and their exhumation before the onset of the continental collision phase. In particular, we investigate the role of the serpentinized subcrustal slab mantle in the mechanisms of shallow and deep crustal slicing. Results show that spatially homogeneous serpentinization of the sub-Moho slab mantle leads to complete accretion of oceanic crust within the accretionary wedge. Spatially discontinuous serpentinization of the slab mantle in form of unconnected patches can lead to shallow slicing of the oceanic crust below the accretionary wedge and to its deep slicing at mantle depths depending on the patch length, slab angle, convergence velocity and continental geothermal gradient. P-T paths obtained in this study are compared to natural examples of shallow slicing of the Crescent Terrane below Vancouver Island and deeply sliced crust of the Lago Superiore and Saas-Zermatt units in the Western Alps.

  6. Colour improvement and stability of white spot lesions following infiltration, micro-abrasion, or fluoride treatments in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yetkiner, Enver; Wegehaupt, Florian; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    White spot lesions (WSLs) are unwelcome side effects of fixed appliances that compromise the treatment outcome. Recently, infiltration of WSLs has been introduced as a viable treatment alternative. The objective was to evaluate the colour improvement of WSLs and their stability against discolouration following infiltration, fluoride, or micro-abrasion treatments in vitro. Artificial WSLs were created in bovine enamel (N = 96) using acidic buffer solution (pH 5, 10 days) and were randomly allocated to four groups. Specimens were treated with infiltration (Icon, DMG), fluoride (Elmex Caries Protection, GABA), and micro-abrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent) or remained untreated (control). Groups were discoloured for 24 hours in tea or tea + citric acid. Colour components and visible colour change (L*, a*, b*, ΔE) were measured spectrophotometrically on following time points: baseline, after WSL formation, after treatment, and during discolouration (8, 16, and 24 hours). Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. WSL formation increased (L*) in all groups. Only infiltration reduced this effect to baseline. Highest ΔE improvement was obtained by infiltration and micro-abrasion followed by fluoride. This improvement was stable only for infiltration during discolouration. L*, a*, and b* changed significantly during discolouration in all groups except infiltration. Within the same treatment group, discolouration solutions did not differ significantly. In vitro testing cannot replicate the actual mode of colour improvement or stability but can be used for ranking materials and techniques. Infiltration and micro-abrasion treatments were capable of diminishing the whitish appearance of WSLs. Only infiltrated WSLs were stable following discolouration challenge. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Control technology for crystalline silica exposures in construction: wet abrasive blasting.

    PubMed

    Golla, Vijay; Heitbrink, William

    2004-03-01

    This study was designed to document the effect that wet abrasive blasting has on reducing worker exposure to crystalline silica, which has been associated with silicosis and premature death. In this study, worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica was monitored during wet abrasive blasting on the exterior walls of a parking garage to remove surface concrete and expose the underlying aggregate. In this process a wet sand mix comprised of 80% dry sand and 20% water was used. Sampling and analysis revealed that the geometric mean respirable quartz concentration was 0.2 mg/m(3) for workers conducting abrasive blasting and 0.06 mg/m(3) for helpers. When abrasive blasting was conducted in areas that apparently had reduced natural ventilation, dust exposures appeared to increase. When compared with other published data, this case study suggests that wet abrasive blasting causes less exposure to crystalline silica than dry abrasive blasting.

  8. Study of Effect of Impacting Direction on Abrasive Nanometric Cutting Process with Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junye; Meng, Wenqing; Dong, Kun; Zhang, Xinming; Zhao, Weihong

    2018-01-01

    Abrasive flow polishing plays an important part in modern ultra-precision machining. Ultrafine particles suspended in the medium of abrasive flow removes the material in nanoscale. In this paper, three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the effect of impacting direction on abrasive cutting process during abrasive flow polishing. The molecular dynamics simulation software Lammps was used to simulate the cutting of single crystal copper with SiC abrasive grains at different cutting angles (0o-45o). At a constant friction coefficient, we found a direct relation between cutting angle and cutting force, which ultimately increases the number of dislocation during abrasive flow machining. Our theoretical study reveal that a small cutting angle is beneficial for improving surface quality and reducing internal defects in the workpiece. However, there is no obvious relationship between cutting angle and friction coefficient.

  9. Study of Effect of Impacting Direction on Abrasive Nanometric Cutting Process with Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Junye; Meng, Wenqing; Dong, Kun; Zhang, Xinming; Zhao, Weihong

    2018-01-11

    Abrasive flow polishing plays an important part in modern ultra-precision machining. Ultrafine particles suspended in the medium of abrasive flow removes the material in nanoscale. In this paper, three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the effect of impacting direction on abrasive cutting process during abrasive flow polishing. The molecular dynamics simulation software Lammps was used to simulate the cutting of single crystal copper with SiC abrasive grains at different cutting angles (0 o -45 o ). At a constant friction coefficient, we found a direct relation between cutting angle and cutting force, which ultimately increases the number of dislocation during abrasive flow machining. Our theoretical study reveal that a small cutting angle is beneficial for improving surface quality and reducing internal defects in the workpiece. However, there is no obvious relationship between cutting angle and friction coefficient.

  10. Separation of parallel encoded complex-valued slices (SPECS) from a single complex-valued aliased coil image.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Daniel B; Bruce, Iain P; Nencka, Andrew S; Hyde, James S; Kociuba, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Achieving a reduction in scan time with minimal inter-slice signal leakage is one of the significant obstacles in parallel MR imaging. In fMRI, multiband-imaging techniques accelerate data acquisition by simultaneously magnetizing the spatial frequency spectrum of multiple slices. The SPECS model eliminates the consequential inter-slice signal leakage from the slice unaliasing, while maintaining an optimal reduction in scan time and activation statistics in fMRI studies. When the combined k-space array is inverse Fourier reconstructed, the resulting aliased image is separated into the un-aliased slices through a least squares estimator. Without the additional spatial information from a phased array of receiver coils, slice separation in SPECS is accomplished with acquired aliased images in shifted FOV aliasing pattern, and a bootstrapping approach of incorporating reference calibration images in an orthogonal Hadamard pattern. The aliased slices are effectively separated with minimal expense to the spatial and temporal resolution. Functional activation is observed in the motor cortex, as the number of aliased slices is increased, in a bilateral finger tapping fMRI experiment. The SPECS model incorporates calibration reference images together with coefficients of orthogonal polynomials into an un-aliasing estimator to achieve separated images, with virtually no residual artifacts and functional activation detection in separated images. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thin-Slice Perception Develops Slowly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Benjamin; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Body language and facial gesture provide sufficient visual information to support high-level social inferences from "thin slices" of behavior. Given short movies of nonverbal behavior, adults make reliable judgments in a large number of tasks. Here we find that the high precision of adults' nonverbal social perception depends on the slow…

  12. Detecting Psychopathy from Thin Slices of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that features of psychopathy can be reliably and validly detected by lay raters from "thin slices" (i.e., small samples) of behavior. Brief excerpts (5 s, 10 s, and 20 s) from interviews with 96 maximum-security inmates were presented in video or audio form or in both modalities combined. Forty raters used…

  13. Shoe heel abrasion and its possible biomechanical cause: a transversal study with infantry recruits.

    PubMed

    Baumfeld, Daniel; Raduan, Fernando C; Macedo, Benjamim; Silva, Thiago Alexandre Alves; Baumfeld, Tiago; Favato, Danilo Fabrino; de Andrade, Marco Antonio Percope; Nery, Caio

    2015-11-19

    Excessive shoe heel abrasion is of concern to patients and shoe manufacturers, but little scientific information is available about this feature and its possible causes. The purpose of this study was to relate this phenomenon with biomechanical factors that could predispose to shoe heel abrasion. Ninety-seven recruits (median age 25) were enrolled in this study. Shoe abrasion was assessed manually with a metric plastic tape on the posterior part of the heel that comes in contact with the ground. The number of sprains, foot alignment, and calf muscle shortening (Silfverskiold test) was also assessed in order to relate it with shoe heel abrasion. After using our exclusion criteria, 86 recruits and 172 were considered for this study. The most common abrasion site was the lateral portion of the heel surface (50 %). Forty-four percent of the participants had neutral hind-foot alignment and 39 % had valgus alignment. Twenty-six (30 %) patients have had previous ankle or foot sprains. Neutral foot was related with less calf muscle shortening. On the other hand, valgus hind-foot alignment was more associated with Achilles shortening (p < 0.05). Patients with neutral alignment were associated with more uniform shoe heel abrasion and varus feet were associated with more central and lateral abrasion (p < 0.05). The pattern of shoe heel abrasion was not statistically related with calf muscle shortening nor with number of sprains. This study was able to correlate shoe heel abrasion with biomechanical causes (neutral alignment-uniform abrasion/varus alignment-central and lateral abrasion). More effort has to be done to continue evaluating outsole abrasion with its possible biomechanical cause in order to predict and treat possible associated injuries.

  14. The change in retentive force of magnetic attachment by abrasion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanjin; Tawada, Yasuyuki; Hata, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Fumihiko

    2008-07-01

    Magnets are frequently applied to removable dentures as retentive attachments. A magnet-retained removable overdenture might be slightly shifted from side to side by eccentric movement in the mouth, and the surface of magnetic attachment may be worn as a result. However, the relationship between the retentive force of magnetic attachment and its surface abrasion has not been reported. The purpose of this research is to investigate this relationship. Ten Mgfit DX 400 magnetic attachments for natural tooth roots were used for this experiment. The magnetic attachments were embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin, and ten pairs of specimens were fabricated. A 5-mm repeated gliding motion was applied on each pair of specimens until 30 000, 50 000, or 90 000 cycles had been achieved. The abrasion machine was under 5 kg loading, and the slide speed was 60 times/min. The retentive force of magnetic attachment was measured with a tension gauge at (1) before gliding; (2) after 30 000 gliding cycles; (3)after 50 000 gliding cycles; or (4) after 90 000 gliding cycles. The average change of retentive force of ten magnetic attachments after 30 000, 50 000, and 90 000 gliding cycles was 0.016 N, 0.003 N, and -0.008 N, respectively. The change was statistically analyzed using a paired-sample t test, which showed that the number of gliding cycles did not affect the retentive force of magnetic attachment significantly. The surface of magnetic attachment after gliding was observed by a microscope, and the abrasion of this attachment surface is clearly seen.

  15. Final Technical Report: Development of an Abrasion-Resistant Antisoiling Coating for Front-Surface Reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Randy C.

    A high-performance reflective film has been successfully developed for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) solar concentrators. Anti-soiling properties and abrasion resistance have been incorporated into the reflector to reduce reflector cleaning costs and to enhance durability. This approach has also resulted in higher reflectance and improved specularity. From the outset of this project we focused on the use of established high-volume roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques to achieve low manufacturing costs on a per ubit area basis. Roll-to-roll manufacturng equipment has a high capital cost so there is an entire industry devoted to roll-to-roll “toll” manufacturing, where the equipment is operated “around themore » clock” to produce a multitude of products for a large variety of uses. Using this approach, the reflective film can be manufactured by toll coaters/converters on an as-needed basis.« less

  16. Heat sealable, flame and abrasion resistant coated fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Flame retardant, abrasion resistant elastomeric compositions are disclosed which are comprised of thermoplastic polyurethane polymer and flame retarding amounts of a filler selected from decabromodiphenyloxide and antimony oxide in a 3:1 weight ratio, and decabromodiphenyloxide, antimony oxide, and ammonium polyphosphate in a 3:1:3 weight ratio respectively. Heat sealable coated fabrics employing such elastomeric compositions as coating film are produced by dissolving the elastomeric composition to form a solution, casting the solution onto a release paper and drying it to form an elastomeric film. The film is then bonded to a woven, knitted, or felted fabric.

  17. Baking soda as an abrasive in toothpastes: Mechanism of action and safety and effectiveness considerations.

    PubMed

    Hara, Anderson T; Turssi, Cecilia P

    2017-11-01

    Toothpastes can be formulated with different abrasive systems, depending on their intended clinical application. This formulation potentially affects their effectiveness and safety and, therefore, requires proper understanding. In this article, the authors focused on abrasive aspects of toothpastes containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), which have gained considerable attention because of their low abrasivity and good compatibility, while providing clinical effectiveness (further detailed in the other articles of this special issue). The authors first appraised the role of toothpaste abrasivity on tooth wear, exploring some underlying processes and the existing methods to determine toothpaste abrasivity. The authors reviewed the available data on the abrasivity of toothpastes containing baking soda and reported a summary of findings highlighting the clinical implications. On the basis of the collected evidence, baking soda has an intrinsic low-abrasive nature because of its comparatively lower hardness in relation to enamel and dentin. Baking soda toothpastes also may contain other ingredients, which can increase their stain removal effectiveness and, consequently, abrasivity. Even those formulations have abrasivity well within the safety limit regulatory agencies have established and, therefore, can be considered safe. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Characteristics of LTP Induced in Hippocampal Slices Are Dependent on Slice-Recovery Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godaux, Emile; Ris, Laurence; Capron, Brigitte; Sindic, Christian

    2006-01-01

    In area CA1 of hippocampal slices which are allowed to recover from slicing "in interface" and where recordings are carried out in interface, a single 1-sec train of 100-Hz stimulation triggers a short-lasting long-term potentiation (S-LTP), which lasts 1-2 h, whereas multiple 1-sec trains induce a long-lasting LTP (L-LTP), which lasts several…

  19. Prediction Of Abrasive And Diffusive Tool Wear Mechanisms In Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tool wear prediction is regarded as very important task in order to maximize tool performance, minimize cutting costs and improve the quality of workpiece in cutting. In this research work, an experimental campaign was carried out at the varying of cutting conditions with the aim to measure both crater and flank tool wear, during machining of an AISI 1045 with an uncoated carbide tool P40. Parallel a FEM-based analysis was developed in order to study the tool wear mechanisms, taking also into account the influence of the cutting conditions and the temperature reached on the tool surfaces. The results show that, when the temperature of the tool rake surface is lower than the activation temperature of the diffusive phenomenon, the wear rate can be estimated applying an abrasive model. In contrast, in the tool area where the temperature is higher than the diffusive activation temperature, the wear rate can be evaluated applying a diffusive model. Finally, for a temperature ranges within the above cited values an adopted abrasive-diffusive wear model furnished the possibility to correctly evaluate the tool wear phenomena.

  20. Sliding-gate valve for use with abrasive materials

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Jr., William J.; Carter, Charles R.; Griffith, Richard A.; Loomis, Richard B.; Notestein, John E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a flow and pressure-sealing valve for use with abrasive solids. The valve embodies special features which provide for long, reliable operating lifetimes in solids-handling service. The valve includes upper and lower transversely slidable gates, contained in separate chambers. The upper gate provides a solids-flow control function, whereas the lower gate provides a pressure-sealing function. The lower gate is supported by means for (a) lifting that gate into sealing engagement with its seat when the gate is in its open and closed positions and (b) lowering the gate out of contact with its seat to permit abrasion-free transit of the gate between its open and closed positions. When closed, the upper gate isolates the lower gate from the solids. Because of this shielding action, the sealing surface of the lower gate is not exposed to solids during transit or when it is being lifted or lowered. The chamber containing the lower gate normally is pressurized slightly, and a sweep gas is directed inwardly across the lower-gate sealing surface during the vertical translation of the gate.

  1. Abrasion resistant coating and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Sordelet, Daniel J.; Besser, Matthew F.

    2001-06-05

    An abrasion resistant coating is created by adding a ductile phase to a brittle matrix phase during spray coating where an Al--Cu--Fe quasicrystalline phase (brittle matrix) and an FeAl intermetallic (ductile phase) are combined. This composite coating produces a coating mostly of quasicrystal phase and an inter-splat layer of the FeAl phase to help reduce porosity and cracking within the coating. Coatings are prepared by plasma spraying unblended and blended quasicrystal and intermetallic powders. The blended powders contain 1, 5, 10 and 20 volume percent of the intermetallic powders. The unblended powders are either 100 volume percent quasicrystalline or 100 volume percent intermetallic; these unblended powders were studied for comparison to the others. Sufficient ductile phase should be added to the brittle matrix to transform abrasive wear mode from brittle fracture to plastic deformation, while at the same time the hardness of the composite should not be reduced below that of the original brittle phase material.

  2. Air abrasion experiments in U-Pb dating of zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldich, S.S.; Fischer, L.B.

    1986-01-01

    Air abrasion of zircon grains can remove metamict material that has lost radiogenic Pb and zircon overgrowths that were added during younger events and thereby improve the precision of the age measurements and permit closer estimates of the original age. Age discordance that resulted from a single disturbance of the U-Pb isotopic decay systems, as had been demonstrated by T.E. Krogh, can be considerably reduced, and, under favorable conditions, the ages brought into concordancy. Two or more events complicate the U-Pb systematics, but a series of abrasion experiments can be helpful in deciphering the geologic history and in arriving at a useful interpretation of the probable times of origin and disturbances. In east-central Minnesota, U.S.A., Penokean tonalite gneiss is dated at 1869 ?? 5 Ma, and sheared granite gneiss is shown to have been a high-level granite intrusion at 1982 ?? 5 Ma in the McGrath Gneiss precursor. Tonalite gneiss and a mafic granodiorite in the Rainy Lake area, Ontario, Canada, are dated at 2736 ?? 16 and 2682 ?? 4 Ma, respectively. The tonalitic phase of the Morton Gneiss, southwestern Minnesota, is dated at 3662 ?? 42 Ma. ?? 1986.

  3. Abrasion and Fragmentation Processes in Marly Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bouteiller, C.; Naaim, F.; Mathys, N.; Lave, J.; Kaitna, R.

    2009-04-01

    In the highly erosive marly catchments of Draix (Southern Alps, France), downstream fining of sediments has been observed and can not be explained by selective sorting. Moreover, high concentrations of suspended fine sediment (up to 800 g/L) are measured during flood events in these basins. These observations lead to the hypothesis that abrasion and fragmentation of marly sediments during transport play an important role in the production of fine sediments. Several experiments are conducted in order to quantify these processes: material from the river bed is introduced into the water flow in a circular flume as well as in a large scale rotating drum. Abrasion rates range from 5 to 15%/km, depending on the lithology: marls from the upper basin are more erosive than those from the lower basin. Modifications of grain size distribution in the rough fraction are also observed. Field measurements are also conducted. Downstream of the main marly sediment sources, the river bed is composed of marls and limestone pebbles. We have sampled the river bed for analysis of grain size distribution and lithology. First results show a decrease of the proportion of marls along the river bed. This is in accordance with the high erosion rates observed in our laboratory experiments. Further investigations are planned in order to study more precisely marl grain size distribution, especially in the finer fraction.

  4. Abrasive-assisted Nickel Electroforming Process with Moving Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    REN, Jianhua; ZHU, Zengwei; XIA, Chunqiu; QU, Ningsong; ZHU, Di

    2017-03-01

    In traditional electroforming process for revolving parts with complex profiles, the drawbacks on surface of deposits, such as pinholes and nodules, will lead to varying physical and mechanical properties on different parts of electroformed components. To solve the problem, compositely moving cathode is employed in abrasive-assisted electroforming of revolving parts with complicated profiles. The cathode translates and rotates simultaneously to achieve uniform friction effect on deposits without drawbacks. The influences of current density and translation speed on the microstructure and properties of the electroformed nickel layers are investigated. It is found that abrasive-assisted electroforming with compound cathode motion can effectively remove the pinholes and nodules, positively affect the crystal nucleation, and refine the grains of layer. The increase of current density will lead to coarse microstructure and lower micro hardness, from 325 HV down to 189 HV. While, faster translational linear speed produces better surface quality and higher micro hardness, from 236 HV up to 283 HV. The weld-ability of the electroformed layers are also studied through the metallurgical analysis of welded joints between nickel layer and 304 stainless steel. The electrodeposited nickel layer shows fine performance in welding. The novel compound motion of cathode promotes the mechanical properties and refines the microstructure of deposited layer.

  5. Abrasion Plus Local Fibrin Sealant Instillation Produces Pleurodesis Similar to Pleurectomy in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Evaldo; de Carvalho, Marcus V H; Ventureli, Tiago R; Fruchi, Andre J; Lazaro, Ariane; do Carmo, Deborah C; Barreto, Thayssa Y A S; Dias, Bruno V B; Acencio, Milena M P; Teixeira, Lisete R; Light, Richard W

    2016-09-01

    Pleurodesis performed either by pleurectomy or pleural abrasion is recommended in the approach to primary spontaneous pneumothorax to avoid recurrence. However, the efficacy of parietal pleural abrasion in producing pleurodesis is questioned. This study aims to determine the efficacy of apical abrasion alone, abrasion plus fibrin sealant application, and pleurectomy in producing pleurodesis in rabbits. Rabbits were subjected to video-assisted thoracic surgery alone (control) or to video-assisted thoracic surgery with apical gauze abrasion, abrasion plus fibrin sealant instillation, or apical pleurectomy. Blood samples were collected preoperatively and 48 h and 28 days postoperatively to measure total leukocytes (white blood cell count), neutrophil counts, and serum interleukin (IL)-8 levels. After 28 days the animals were sacrificed for macroscopic evaluation of the degree of apical pleurodesis and microscopic evaluation of local pleural fibrosis and collagen deposition. White blood cell and neutrophil counts were similar in all groups, whereas the serum IL-8 level peaked at 48 h in all groups and decreased after 28 days, except in the pleurectomy group. After 28 days the abrasion plus fibrin sealant and pleurectomy groups had significantly more pleural adhesions, pleural fibrosis, and collagen deposition than the abrasion alone group, mainly due to thick mature fibers. Abrasion with local fibrin sealant instillation is as effective as pleurectomy in producing pleurodesis in rabbits. Apical pleurectomy elicits a more persistent elevation of serum IL-8 levels than apical abrasion alone or abrasion plus fibrin adhesive instillation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of fiber treatment on abrasive wear properties of palm fiber reinforced epoxy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Muhammad Firdaus Abdul; Bakar, Mimi Azlina Abu; Kasolang, Salmiah; Ahmad, Mohamad Ali

    2017-12-01

    Oil palm industries generate at least 30 million tons of lignocellulosic biomass annually in the form of oil palm trunks (OPT), empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm fronds (OPF) and palm pressed fibres (PPF). The palm fiber is one of the natural fibers used as reinforcement in composite materials in order to decrease environmental issues and promotes utilization of renewable resources. This paper presents a study on the effect of alkaline treatment on wear properties of palm fiber reinforced epoxy resin composite. Abrasive wear testing was deployed to investigate the wear profile of the composite surfaces. Testing was carried out which focused on the effect of alkaline treatment to the palm fiber under different amounts of fiber loading i.e. 1 wt%, 3 wt%, 5 wt% and 7 wt%. The palm fibers were soaked into 6 % of alkaline solution or natrium hydroxide (NaOH) for 12 hours. The fiber was treated in order to remove amorphous materials such as hemicelluloses, lignins and pectins of the fiber. The wear test samples were fabricated using hand lay-up technique and cured at room temperature for 24 hours. Surface roughness of the composite material was also measured using the surface measuring instrument. Dry sliding wear test was performed at room temperature at a constant velocity of 1.4 m/s with a constant load of 10 N by using the Abrasion Test Machine. Result shows that 5 wt% and 7 wt% treated palm fiber loadings have better specific wear rate compared to lower fiber loadings. The finding of this study contributes towards material development and utilization in promoting `waste into wealth' which is in line with national aspiration.

  7. Comparative study of talc poudrage versus pleural abrasion for the treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax†

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Merino, Sergio; Congregado, Miguel; Gallardo, Gregorio; Jimenez-Merchan, Rafael; Trivino, Ana; Cozar, Fernando; Lopez-Porras, Marta; Loscertales, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is a pathology mainly affecting healthy young patients. Clinical guidelines do not specify the type of pleurodesis that should be conducted, due to the lack of comparative studies on the different techniques. The aim of this study was to compare talc poudrage and pleural abrasion in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax. A retrospective comparative study was performed, including 787 patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax. The 787 patients were classified into two groups: Group A (pleural abrasion) n = 399 and Group B (talc pleurodesis) n = 388. The variables studied were recurrence, surgical time, morbidity and in-hospital length of stay. Statistical analysis was done by an unpaired t-test and Fisher's exact test (SSPS 18.0). Statistically significant differences were observed in the variables: surgical time (A: 46 ± 12.3; B: 37 ± 11.8 min; P < 0.001); length of stay (A: 4.7 ± 2.5; B: 4.3 ± 1.8 days; P = 0.01); apical air camera (A: 25; B: 4; P < 0.001); pleural effusion (A: 6; B: 0; P = 0.05). Talc poudrage shows shorter surgical times and length of stay, and lower re-intervention rates. Morbidity is lower in patients with talc poudrage. Statistically significant differences were not observed in recurrence, persistent air leaks, atelectasis and haemothorax. PMID:22514256

  8. A Novel Slicing Method for Thin Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Fu, Xuemei; Xie, Songlin; Jiang, Yishu; Guan, Guozhen; Wang, Bingjie; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-08-01

    Thin and flexible supercapacitors with low cost and individual variation are fabricated by a new and efficient slicing method. Tunable output voltage and energy can be realized with a high specific capacitance of 248.8 F g(-1) or 150.8 F cm(-3) , which is well maintained before and after bending. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A simple water-immersion condenser for imaging living brain slices on an inverted microscope.

    PubMed

    Prusky, G T

    1997-09-05

    Due to some physical limitations of conventional condensers, inverted compound microscopes are not optimally suited for imaging living brain slices with transmitted light. Herein is described a simple device that converts an inverted microscope into an effective tool for this application by utilizing an objective as a condenser. The device is mounted on a microscope in place of the condenser, is threaded to accept a water immersion objective, and has a slot for a differential interference contrast (DIC) slider. When combined with infrared video techniques, this device allows an inverted microscope to effectively image living cells within thick brain slices in an open perfusion chamber.

  10. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko; Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana

    2009-12-25

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing livemore » cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.« less

  11. Monitoring of the Abrasion Processes (by the Example of Alakol Lake, Republic of Kazakhstan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abitbayeva, Ainagul; Valeyev, Adilet; Yegemberdiyeva, Kamshat; Assylbekova, Aizhan; Ryskeldieva, Aizhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the abrasion processes in the regions of dynamically changing Alakol lake shores. Using the field method, methods of positioning by the GPS receiver and interpretation of remote sensing data, the authors determined that abrasion processes actively contributed to the formation the modern landscape, causing the…

  12. Abrasive wear of ceramic wear protection at ambient and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, M.; Adam, K.; Tumma, M.; Alessio, K. O.

    2017-05-01

    Ceramic wear protection is often applied in abrasive conditions due to their excellent wear resistance. This is especially necessary in heavy industries conveying large amounts of raw materials, e.g. in steel industry. Some plants also require material transport at high temperatures and velocities, making the need of temperature stable and abrasion resistant wear protection necessary. Various types and wear behaviour of ceramic protection are known. Hence, the goal of this study is to identify the best suitable ceramic materials for abrasive conditions in harsh environments at temperatures up to 950°C and severe thermal gradients. Chamottes, known for their excellent thermal shock resistance are compared to high abrasion resistant ceramic wear tiles and a cost efficient cement-bounded hard compound. Testing was done under high-stress three-body abrasion regime with a modified ASTM G65 apparatus enabling for investigations up to ~950°C. Thereto heated abrasive is introduced into the wear track and also preheated ceramic samples were used and compared to ambient temperature experiments. Results indicate a significant temperature influence on chamottes and the hard compound. While the chamottes benefit from temperature increase, the cement-bounded hard compound showed its limitation at abrasive temperatures of 950°C. The high abrasion resistant wear tiles represented the materials with the best wear resistance and less temperature influence in the investigated range.

  13. Modeling of Micro Deval abrasion loss based on some rock properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capik, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Ali Osman

    2017-10-01

    Aggregate is one of the most widely used construction material. The quality of the aggregate is determined using some testing methods. Among these methods, the Micro Deval Abrasion Loss (MDAL) test is commonly used for the determination of the quality and the abrasion resistance of aggregate. The main objective of this study is to develop models for the prediction of MDAL from rock properties, including uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, point load index, Schmidt rebound hardness, apparent porosity, void ratio Cerchar abrasivity index and Bohme abrasion test are examined. Additionally, the MDAL is modeled using simple regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis based on the rock properties. The study shows that the MDAL decreases with the increase of uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, point load index, Schmidt rebound hardness and Cerchar abrasivity index. It is also concluded that the MDAL increases with the increase of apparent porosity, void ratio and Bohme abrasion test. The modeling results show that the models based on Bohme abrasion test and L type Schmidt rebound hardness give the better forecasting performances for the MDAL. More models, including the uniaxial compressive strength, the apparent porosity and Cerchar abrasivity index, are developed for the rapid estimation of the MDAL of the rocks. The developed models were verified by statistical tests. Additionally, it can be stated that the proposed models can be used as a forecasting for aggregate quality.

  14. Solidification/stabilization of spent abrasives and use as nonstructural concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Brabrand, D.J.; Loehr, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Tons of spent abrasives result each year from the removal of old paint from bridges. Because the spent abrasives contain metals from the paint, some spent abrasives may be considered hazardous by the Toxicity Characteristic (TC) criteria. Incorporation of the spent blasting abrasives in nonstructural concrete (rip-rap, dolphins) offers an opportunity to recycle the spent abrasives while immobilizing potentially leachable metals. This study focused on the Portland Cement Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) of spent blasting abrasives taken from a bridge located in Southeast Texas. The study examined (a) the cadmium, chromium, and lead concentrations in extracts obtained by using the Toxicity Characteristicmore » Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and (b) the compressive strengths of Portland Cement mixes that contained different amounts of the spent abrasives. Performance was measured by meeting the TC criteria as well as the requirements for compressive strength. Study results indicated that considerable quantities of these spent abrasives can be solidified/stabilized while reducing the leachability of cadmium, chromium, and lead and producing compressive strengths over 6,895 kN/m[sup 2] (1,000 psi).« less

  15. Two-photon imaging in living brain slices.

    PubMed

    Mainen, Z F; Maletic-Savatic, M; Shi, S H; Hayashi, Y; Malinow, R; Svoboda, K

    1999-06-01

    Two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has become the tool of choice for high-resolution fluorescence imaging in intact neural tissues. Compared with other optical techniques, TPLSM allows high-resolution imaging and efficient detection of fluorescence signal with minimal photobleaching and phototoxicity. The advantages of TPLSM are especially pronounced in highly scattering environments such as the brain slice. Here we describe our approaches to imaging various aspects of synaptic function in living brain slices. To combine several imaging modes together with patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings we found it advantageous to custom-build an upright microscope. Our design goals were primarily experimental convenience and efficient collection of fluorescence. We describe our TPLSM imaging system and its performance in detail. We present dynamic measurements of neuronal morphology of neurons expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and GFP fusion proteins as well as functional imaging of calcium dynamics in individual dendritic spines. Although our microscope is a custom instrument, its key advantages can be easily implemented as a modification of commercial laser scanning microscopes. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Maintaining network activity in submerged hippocampal slices: importance of oxygen supply.

    PubMed

    Hájos, Norbert; Ellender, Tommas J; Zemankovics, Rita; Mann, Edward O; Exley, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J; Freund, Tamás F; Paulsen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Studies in brain slices have provided a wealth of data on the basic features of neurons and synapses. In the intact brain, these properties may be strongly influenced by ongoing network activity. Although physiologically realistic patterns of network activity have been successfully induced in brain slices maintained in interface-type recording chambers, they have been harder to obtain in submerged-type chambers, which offer significant experimental advantages, including fast exchange of pharmacological agents, visually guided patch-clamp recordings, and imaging techniques. Here, we investigated conditions for the emergence of network oscillations in submerged slices prepared from the hippocampus of rats and mice. We found that the local oxygen level is critical for generation and propagation of both spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple oscillations and cholinergically induced fast oscillations. We suggest three ways to improve the oxygen supply to slices under submerged conditions: (i) optimizing chamber design for laminar flow of superfusion fluid; (ii) increasing the flow rate of superfusion fluid; and (iii) superfusing both surfaces of the slice. These improvements to the recording conditions enable detailed studies of neurons under more realistic conditions of network activity, which are essential for a better understanding of neuronal network operation.

  17. Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Mary J.

    1992-01-01

    The Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application is in support of the Abrasion Resistance Materials Screening Test. The fundamental assumption made for the SEM abrasion analysis was that woven fabrics to be used as the outermost layer of the protective overgarment in the design of the future, planetary space suits perform best when new. It is the goal of this study to determine which of the candidate fabrics was abraded the least in the tumble test. The sample that was abraded the least will be identified at the end of the report as the primary candidate fabric for further investigation. In addition, this analysis will determine if the abrasion seen by the laboratory tumbled samples is representative of actual EVA Apollo abrasion.

  18. Behaviors of 40Cr steel treated by laser quenching on impact abrasive wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhikai; Zhu, Qinghai; Wang, Jing; Yun, Xiao; He, Bing; Luo, Jingshuai

    2018-07-01

    In present work, laser quenching had been carried out to improve the impact abrasive wear resistance of 40Cr steel. The distinct microstructure between original and quenched region was demonstrated after laser quenching. Since the effect of temperature and cooling rate, the phase combinations were apparently different for quenched layer in depth. The impact abrasive wear resistance of sample was experimentally investigated and the improved level was assessed in light of the average mass loss of three repetitive tests. Worn surface was detected by means of SEM, OM and EDS, and results showed that three typical failure modes were performed during the processing of impact abrasive wear, including abrasive wear, impact effect and rolling contact fatigue. Basing on the different worn surface profile, the mainly failure mode was respectively pointed out for matrix and quenched sample, which was significantly in accordance with the result of impact abrasive wear.

  19. Wear resistance and mechanisms of composite hardfacings at abrasive impact erosion wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhenkov, A.; Viljus, M.; Simson, T.; Tarbe, R.; Saarna, M.; Casesnoves, F.

    2017-05-01

    Tungsten carbide based hardmetal containing sprayed and melted composite hardfacings are prospective for protection against abrasive wear. For selection of abrasive wear resistant hardfacings under intensive impact wear conditions, both mechanical properties (hardness, fracture toughness, etc.) and abrasive wear conditions (type of abrasive, impact velocity, etc.) should be considered. This study focuses on the wear (wear rate and mechanisms) of thick metal-matrix composite hardfacings with hardmetal (WC-Co) reinforcement produced by powder metallurgy technology. The influence of the hardmetal reinforcement type on the wear resistance at different abrasive impact erosion wear (AIEW) conditions was studied. An optimal reinforcement for various wear conditions is described. Based on wear mechanism studies, a mathematical model for wear prediction was drafted.

  20. A Profilometry-Based Dentifrice Abrasion Method for V8 Brushing Machines Part III: Multi-Laboratory Validation Testing of RDA-PE.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Eva; Colón, Ellen L; White, Donald J; Schemehorn, Bruce; Ganovsky, Tara; Haider, Amir; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Morrow, Brian R; Srimaneepong, Viritpon; Chumprasert, Sujin

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported on progress toward the refinement of profilometry-based abrasivity testing of dentifrices using a V8 brushing machine and tactile or optical measurement of dentin wear. The general application of this technique may be advanced by demonstration of successful inter-laboratory confirmation of the method. The objective of this study was to explore the capability of different laboratories in the assessment of dentifrice abrasivity using a profilometry-based evaluation technique developed in our Mason laboratories. In addition, we wanted to assess the interchangeability of human and bovine specimens. Participating laboratories were instructed in methods associated with Radioactive Dentin Abrasivity-Profilometry Equivalent (RDA-PE) evaluation, including site visits to discuss critical elements of specimen preparation, masking, profilometry scanning, and procedures. Laboratories were likewise instructed on the requirement for demonstration of proportional linearity as a key condition for validation of the technique. Laboratories were provided with four test dentifrices, blinded for testing, with a broad range of abrasivity. In each laboratory, a calibration curve was developed for varying V8 brushing strokes (0, 4,000, and 10,000 strokes) with the ISO abrasive standard. Proportional linearity was determined as the ratio of standard abrasion mean depths created with 4,000 and 10,000 strokes (2.5 fold differences). Criteria for successful calibration within the method (established in our Mason laboratory) was set at proportional linearity = 2.5 ± 0.3. RDA-PE was compared to Radiotracer RDA for the four test dentifrices, with the latter obtained by averages from three independent Radiotracer RDA sites. Individual laboratories and their results were compared by 1) proportional linearity and 2) acquired RDA-PE values for test pastes. Five sites participated in the study. One site did not pass proportional linearity objectives. Data for this site are

  1. Wear model simulating clinical abrasion on composite filling materials.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Gaute Floer; Taxt-Lamolle, Sébastien F; Haugen, Håvard J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a wear model for testing composite filling materials with abrasion properties closer to a clinical situation. In addition, the model was used to evaluate the effect of filler volume and particle size on surface roughness and wear resistance. Each incisor tooth was prepared with nine identical standardized cavities with respect to depth, diameter, and angle. Generic composite of 3 different filler volumes and 3 different particle sizes held together with the same resin were randomly filled in respective cavities. A multidirectional wet-grinder with molar cusps as antagonist wore the surface of the incisors containing the composite fillings in a bath of human saliva at a constant temperature of 37°C. The present study suggests that the most wear resistant filling materials should consist of medium filling content (75%) and that particles size is not as critical as earlier reported.

  2. Abrasive slurry jet cutting model based on fuzzy relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, C. H.; Guo, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    The cutting process of pre-mixed abrasive slurry or suspension jet (ASJ) is a complex process affected by many factors, and there is a highly nonlinear relationship between the cutting parameters and cutting quality. In this paper, guided by fuzzy theory, the fuzzy cutting model of ASJ was developed. In the modeling of surface roughness, the upper surface roughness prediction model and the lower surface roughness prediction model were established respectively. The adaptive fuzzy inference system combines the learning mechanism of neural networks and the linguistic reasoning ability of the fuzzy system, membership functions, and fuzzy rules are obtained by adaptive adjustment. Therefore, the modeling process is fast and effective. In this paper, the ANFIS module of MATLAB fuzzy logic toolbox was used to establish the fuzzy cutting model of ASJ, which is found to be quite instrumental to ASJ cutting applications.

  3. RETROSPECTIVE DETECTION OF INTERLEAVED SLICE ACQUISITION PARAMETERS FROM FMRI DATA

    PubMed Central

    Parker, David; Rotival, Georges; Laine, Andrew; Razlighi, Qolamreza R.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize slice excitation leakage to adjacent slices, interleaved slice acquisition is nowadays performed regularly in fMRI scanners. In interleaved slice acquisition, the number of slices skipped between two consecutive slice acquisitions is often referred to as the ‘interleave parameter’; the loss of this parameter can be catastrophic for the analysis of fMRI data. In this article we present a method to retrospectively detect the interleave parameter and the axis in which it is applied. Our method relies on the smoothness of the temporal-distance correlation function, which becomes disrupted along the axis on which interleaved slice acquisition is applied. We examined this method on simulated and real data in the presence of fMRI artifacts such as physiological noise, motion, etc. We also examined the reliability of this method in detecting different types of interleave parameters and demonstrated an accuracy of about 94% in more than 1000 real fMRI scans. PMID:26161244

  4. Test chamber and forensic microscopy investigation of the transfer of brominated flame retardants into indoor dust via abrasion of source materials.

    PubMed

    Rauert, C; Harrad, S; Suzuki, G; Takigami, H; Uchida, N; Takata, K

    2014-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been detected in indoor dust in many studies, at concentrations spanning several orders of magnitude. Limited information is available on the pathways via which BFRs migrate from treated products into dust, yet the different mechanisms hypothesized to date may provide an explanation for the range of reported concentrations. In particular, transfer of BFRs to dust via abrasion of particles or fibers from treated products may explain elevated concentrations (up to 210 mg g(-1)) of low volatility BFRs like decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). In this study, an indoor dust sample containing a low concentration of hexabromocyclododecane, or HBCD, (110 ng g(-1) ΣHBCDs) was placed on the floor of an in-house test chamber. A fabric curtain treated with HBCDs was placed on a mesh shelf 3 cm above the chamber floor and abrasion induced using a stirrer bar. This induced abrasion generated fibers of the curtain, which contaminated the dust, and ΣHBCD concentrations in the dust increased to between 4020 and 52 500 ng g(-1) for four different abrasion experiment times. The highly contaminated dust (ΣHBCD at 52 500 ng g(-1)) together with three archived dust samples from various UK microenvironments, were investigated with forensic microscopy techniques. These techniques included Micro X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy, scanning emission microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with further BFR analysis on LC-MS/MS. Using these techniques, fibers or particles abraded from a product treated with BFRs were identified in all dust samples, thereby accounting for the elevated concentrations detected in the original dust (3500 to 88 800 ng g(-1) ΣHBCD and 24 000 to 1,438 000 ng g(-1) for BDE-209). This study shows how test chamber experiments alongside forensic microscopy techniques, can provide valuable insights into the pathways via which BFRs contaminate indoor dust. Copyright

  5. Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE).

    PubMed

    Kozicki, Bartłomiej; Takara, Hidehiko; Tsukishima, Yukio; Yoshimatsu, Toshihide; Yonenaga, Kazushige; Jinno, Masahiko

    2010-10-11

    We describe experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE) architecture. We employ optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation format and bandwidth-variable optical cross-connects (OXC) to generate, transmit and receive optical paths with bandwidths of up to 1 Tb/s. We experimentally demonstrate elastic optical path setup and spectrally-efficient transmission of multiple channels with bit rates ranging from 40 to 140 Gb/s between six nodes of a mesh network. We show dynamic bandwidth scalability for optical paths with bit rates of 40 to 440 Gb/s. Moreover, we demonstrate multihop transmission of a 1 Tb/s optical path over 400 km of standard single-mode fiber (SMF). Finally, we investigate the filtering properties and the required guard band width for spectrally-efficient allocation of optical paths in SLICE.

  6. Abrasive rolling effects on material removal and surface finish in chemical mechanical polishing analyzed by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Lina; Guo, Dan; Luo, Jianbin; Lu, Xinchun; Xie, Guoxin

    2011-04-01

    In an abrasive chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, materials were considered to be removed by abrasive sliding and rolling. Abrasive sliding has been investigated by many molecular dynamics (MD) studies; while abrasive rolling was usually considered to be negligible and therefore was rarely investigated. In this paper, an MD simulation was used to study the effects of abrasive rolling on material removal and surface finish in the CMP process. As the silica particle rolled across the silicon substrate, some atoms of the substrate were dragged out from their original positions and adhered to the silica particle, leaving some atomic vacancies on the substrate surface. Meanwhile, a high quality surface could be obtained. During the abrasive rolling process, the influencing factors of material removal, e.g., external down force and driving force, were also discussed. Finally, MD simulations were carried out to examine the effects of abrasive sliding on material removal under the same external down force as abrasive rolling. The results showed that the ability of abrasive rolling to remove material on the atomic scale was not notably inferior to that of abrasive sliding. Therefore, it can be proposed that both abrasive sliding and rolling play important roles in material removal in the abrasive CMP of the silicon substrate.

  7. Comparison of shear bond strength and surface structure between conventional acid etching and air-abrasion of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Olsen, M E; Bishara, S E; Damon, P; Jakobsen, J R

    1997-11-01

    Recently, air-abrasion technology has been examined for potential applications within dentistry, including the field of orthodontics. The purpose of this study was to compare the traditional acid-etch technique with an air-abrasion surface preparation technique, with two different sizes of abrading particles. The following parameters were evaluated: (a) shear bond strength, (b) bond failure location, and (c) enamel surface preparation, as viewed through a scanning electron microscope. Sixty extracted human third molars were pumiced and divided into three groups of 20. The first group was etched with a 37% phosphoric acid gel for 30 seconds, rinsed for 30 seconds, and dried for 20 seconds. The second and third groups were air-abraded with (a) a 50 microm particle and (b) a 90 microm particle of aluminum oxide, with the Micro-etcher microabrasion machine (Danville Engineering Inc.). All three groups had molar stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded to the buccal surface of each tooth with Transbond XT bonding system (3M Unitek). A Zwick Universal Testing Machine (Calitek Corp.) was used to determine shear bond strengths. The analysis of variance was used to compare the three groups. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was used to evaluate the residual adhesive on the enamel after bracket removal. The chi square test was used to evaluate differences in the ARI scores among the groups. The significance for all tests was predetermined at p < or = 0.05. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in shear bond strength among the three groups (p = 0.0001). The Duncan Multiple Range test showed a significant decrease in shear bond strength in the air-abraded groups. The chi square test revealed significant differences among the ARI scores of the acid-etched group and the air-abraded groups (chi(2) = 0.0001), indicating no adhesive remained on the enamel surface after debonding when air-abrasion was used. In conclusion, the current findings indicate that

  8. Exploring high dimensional free energy landscapes: Temperature accelerated sliced sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Shalini; Nair, Nisanth N.

    2017-03-01

    Biased sampling of collective variables is widely used to accelerate rare events in molecular simulations and to explore free energy surfaces. However, computational efficiency of these methods decreases with increasing number of collective variables, which severely limits the predictive power of the enhanced sampling approaches. Here we propose a method called Temperature Accelerated Sliced Sampling (TASS) that combines temperature accelerated molecular dynamics with umbrella sampling and metadynamics to sample the collective variable space in an efficient manner. The presented method can sample a large number of collective variables and is advantageous for controlled exploration of broad and unbound free energy basins. TASS is also shown to achieve quick free energy convergence and is practically usable with ab initio molecular dynamics techniques.

  9. Examining the Complex Regulation and Drug-Induced Plasticity of Dopamine Release and Uptake Using Voltammetry in Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Fast scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices (slice voltammetry) has been used over the last several decades to increase substantially our understanding of the complex local regulation of dopamine release and uptake in the striatum. This technique is routinely used for the study of changes that occur in the dopamine system associated with various disease states and pharmacological treatments, and to study mechanisms of local circuitry regulation of dopamine terminal function. In the context of this Review, we compare the relative advantages of voltammetry using striatal slice preparations versus in vivo preparations, and highlight recent advances in our understanding of dopamine release and uptake in the striatum specifically from studies that use slice voltammetry in drug-naïve animals and animals with a history of psychostimulant self-administration. PMID:23581570

  10. Microhardness evaluation of silorane and methacrylate composites submitted to erosion and abrasion processes

    PubMed Central

    Gazola, Eloá Aguiar; Rego, Marcos Augusto; Brandt, William Cunha; D’Arce, Maria Beatriz Freitas; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane Suzy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness number (KHN) of methacrylate (MC) and silorane (SC) composites after being submitted to erosion and abrasion processes. Material and methods: Forty samples were made with each composite: MC and SC. The samples were divided into eight groups (n = 10) according to the type of composite (G1–G4, MC; G5–G8, SC) and the beverages involved in the erosion process (G1 and G5 – Control (C), without erosion, with abrasion; G2 and G6 – Orange Juice (OJ), abrasion; G3 and G7 – Smirnoff Ice® (SI), abrasion; G4 and G8 – Gatorade® (GA), abrasion). The KHN test was performed 24 h after the last cycle of erosion/abrasion. Results: The MC groups showed smaller KHN values for the SI group (p < 0.05) when compared to the Control and OJ groups; however, for the SC groups, no differences were found (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Methacrylate composite when submitted to acidic beverages erosive challenge combined with abrasive process might alter its surface microhardness. However, the beverages used in the present study were not able to interfere in silorane composite surface microhardness. PMID:28642903

  11. Investigation into the mechanisms of closed three-body abrasive wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer-Joyce, R. S.; Sayles, R. S.; Ioannides, E.

    1994-06-01

    Contacting components frequently fail by abrasion caused by solid contaminants in the lubricant. This process can be classified as a closed three-body abrasive wear process. The mechanisms by which trapped particles cause material removal are not fully understood. This paper describes tests using model elastohydrodynamic contacts to study these mechanisms. An optical elastohydrodynamic lubrication rig has been used to study the deformation and fracture of ductile and brittle lubricant-borne debris. A ball-on-disk machine was used to study the behavior of the particles in partially sliding contacts. Small diamond particles were used as abrasives since these were thought not to break down in the contact; wear could then be directly related to particles of a known size. The particles were found to embed in the softer surface and to scratch the harder. The mass of material worn from the ball surface was approximately proportional to the particle sliding distance and abrasive concentration. Small particles tumbled through the contact, while larger particles ploughed. Mass loss was found to increase with abrasive particle size. Individual abrasion scratches have been measured and related to the abrading particle. A simple model of the abrasive process has been developed and compared with experimental data. The discrepancies are thought to be the result of the uncertainty about the entrainment of particles into the contact.

  12. Study of Abrasive Wear Volume Map for PTFE and PTFE Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, H.; Sen, U.; Mimaroglu, A.

    2007-11-01

    The potential of this work is based on consideration of wear volume map for the evaluation of abrasive wear performance of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and PTFE composites. The fillers used in the composite are 25% bronze, 35% graphite and 17% glass fibre glass (GFR). The influence of filler materials, abrasion surface roughness and applied load values on abrasive wear performance of PTFE and PTFE composites were studied and evaluated. Experimental abrasive wear tests were carried out at atmospheric condition on pin-on-disc wear tribometer. Tests were performed under 4, 6, 8 and 10 N load values, travelling speed of 1 m/sec and abrasion surface roughness values of 5, 20 and 45 µm. Wear volume maps were obtained and the results showed that the lowest wear volume rate for PTFE is reached using GFR filler. Furthermore, the results also showed that the higher is the applied load and the roughness of the abrasion surface, the higher is the wear rate. Finally it is also concluded that abrasive wear process mechanism include ploughing and cutting mechanisms.

  13. Relationships Between Abrasive Wear, Hardness, and Surface Grinding Characteristics of Titanium-Based Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Jolly, Brian C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to support the development of grinding models for titanium metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by investigating possible relationships between their indentation hardness, low-stress belt abrasion, high-stress belt abrasion, and the surface grinding characteristics. Three Ti-based particulate composites were tested and compared with the popular titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The three composites were a Ti-6Al-4V-based MMC with 5% TiB{sub 2} particles, a Ti-6Al-4V MMC with 10% TiC particles, and a Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-7.5%W binary alloy matrix that contained 7.5% TiC particles. Two types of belt abrasion tests were used: (a) a modified ASTM G164 low-stress loop abrasion test, and (b)more » a higher-stress test developed to quantify the grindability of ceramics. Results were correlated with G-ratios (ratio of stock removed to abrasives consumed) obtained from an instrumented surface grinder. Brinell hardness correlated better with abrasion characteristics than microindentation or scratch hardness. Wear volumes from low-stress and high-stress abrasive belt tests were related by a second-degree polynomial. Grindability numbers correlated with hard particle content but were also matrix-dependent.« less

  14. Evaluation of Needle Gun and Abrasive Blasting Technologies in Bridge Paint Removal Practices.

    PubMed

    Randall, Paul M; Kranz, Paul B; Sonntag, Mary L; Stadelmaier, James E

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews the results of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study that assessed needle gun technology as an alternative to conventional abrasive blasting technology to remove lead-based paint from steel bridges in western New York State. The study analyzed the operational and logistical aspects as they relate to worker health and safety, environmental protection, hazardous waste generation, and costs as compared to those arising from conventional abrasive blasting. In this 1992 EPA study, the costs and the product quality aspects favored conventional abrasive blasting over the needle gun technology for removing lead paint. However, abrasive blasting exposed workers to airborne lead levels that exceeded Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), as well as emitting high levels of lead-contaminated dusts and debris into the environment. It was estimated that more than 500 lbs of lead-contaminated spent abrasives and paint waste were released into the environment during paint removal operations. The needle gun system reduced (up to 97.5%) the generation of hazardous waste and the airborne concentrations (up to 99%) of respirable dusts and lead-containing particulates generated during paint removal operations. However, labor costs for the needle gun were three times higher than those for abrasive blasting primarily because of slower production rates that necessitated more operating personnel. The higher labor costs of the needle gun are partially offset by the increased costs associated with the expendable abrasive blast media and hazardous waste disposal. In the EPA study, the productivity of the needle gun system was 12.2 ft 2 /hr vs. 147.5 ft 2 /hr for abrasive blasting. A post blast was needed for the needle gun system to meet surface preparation specifications. When factoring in the costs of full containment structures to meet OSHA's 1993 Lead Exposure in Construction regulation

  15. Brain Slice Staining and Preparation for Three-Dimensional Super-Resolution Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Gudheti, Manasa V.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2018-01-01

    Localization microscopy techniques – such as photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), fluorescent PALM (FPALM), ground state depletion (GSD), and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) – provide the highest precision for single molecule localization currently available. However, localization microscopy has been largely limited to cell cultures due to the difficulties that arise in imaging thicker tissue sections. Sample fixation and antibody staining, background fluorescence, fluorophore photoinstability, light scattering in thick sections, and sample movement create significant challenges for imaging intact tissue. We have developed a sample preparation and image acquisition protocol to address these challenges in rat brain slices. The sample preparation combined multiple fixation steps, saponin permeabilization, and tissue clarification. Together, these preserve intracellular structures, promote antibody penetration, reduce background fluorescence and light scattering, and allow acquisition of images deep in a 30 μm thick slice. Image acquisition challenges were resolved by overlaying samples with a permeable agarose pad and custom-built stainless steel imaging adapter, and sealing the imaging chamber. This approach kept slices flat, immobile, bathed in imaging buffer, and prevented buffer oxidation during imaging. Using this protocol, we consistently obtained single molecule localizations of synaptic vesicle and active zone proteins in three-dimensions within individual synaptic terminals of the striatum in rat brain slices. These techniques may be easily adapted to the preparation and imaging of other tissues, substantially broadening the application of super-resolution imaging. PMID:28924666

  16. Adaptation of Microplate-based Respirometry for Hippocampal Slices and Analysis of Respiratory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, Rosemary A.; Clerc, Pascaline; Hwang, Hyehyun; Mehrabian, Zara; Bittman, Kevin; Chen, Hegang; Polster, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple neurodegenerative disorders are associated with altered mitochondrial bioenergetics. Although mitochondrial O2 consumption is frequently measured in isolated mitochondria, isolated synaptic nerve terminals (synaptosomes), or cultured cells, the absence of mature brain circuitry is a remaining limitation. Here we describe the development of a method that adapts the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer (XF24) for the microplate-based measurement of hippocampal slice O2 consumption. As a first evaluation of the technique, we compared whole slice bioenergetics to previous measurements made with synaptosomes or cultured neurons. We found that mitochondrial respiratory capacity and O2 consumption coupled to ATP synthesis could be estimated in cultured or acute hippocampal slices with preserved neural architecture. Mouse organotypic hippocampal slices oxidizing glucose displayed mitochondrial O2 consumption that was well-coupled, as determined by the sensitivity to the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin. However stimulation of respiration by uncoupler was modest (<120% of basal respiration) compared to previous measurements in cells or synaptosomes, although enhanced slightly (to ~150% of basal respiration) by the acute addition of the mitochondrial complex I-linked substrate pyruvate. These findings suggest a high basal utilization of respiratory capacity in slices and a limitation of glucose-derived substrate for maximal respiration. The improved throughput of microplate-based hippocampal respirometry over traditional O2 electrode-based methods is conducive to neuroprotective drug screening. When coupled with cell type-specific pharmacology or genetic manipulations, the ability to efficiently measure O2 consumption from whole slices should advance our understanding of mitochondrial roles in physiology and neuropathology. PMID:21520220

  17. Slicing Method for curved façade and window extraction from point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iman Zolanvari, S. M.; Laefer, Debra F.

    2016-09-01

    Laser scanning technology is a fast and reliable method to survey structures. However, the automatic conversion of such data into solid models for computation remains a major challenge, especially where non-rectilinear features are present. Since, openings and the overall dimensions of the buildings are the most critical elements in computational models for structural analysis, this article introduces the Slicing Method as a new, computationally-efficient method for extracting overall façade and window boundary points for reconstructing a façade into a geometry compatible for computational modelling. After finding a principal plane, the technique slices a façade into limited portions, with each slice representing a unique, imaginary section passing through a building. This is done along a façade's principal axes to segregate window and door openings from structural portions of the load-bearing masonry walls. The method detects each opening area's boundaries, as well as the overall boundary of the façade, in part, by using a one-dimensional projection to accelerate processing. Slices were optimised as 14.3 slices per vertical metre of building and 25 slices per horizontal metre of building, irrespective of building configuration or complexity. The proposed procedure was validated by its application to three highly decorative, historic brick buildings. Accuracy in excess of 93% was achieved with no manual intervention on highly complex buildings and nearly 100% on simple ones. Furthermore, computational times were less than 3 sec for data sets up to 2.6 million points, while similar existing approaches required more than 16 hr for such datasets.

  18. Low contrast detection in abdominal CT: comparing single-slice and multi-slice tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba, Alexandre; Racine, Damien; Viry, Anaïs.; Verdun, Francis R.; Schmidt, Sabine; Bochud, François O.

    2017-03-01

    Image quality assessment is crucial for the optimization of computed tomography (CT) protocols. Human and mathematical model observers are increasingly used for the detection of low contrast signal in abdominal CT, but are frequently limited to the use of a single image slice. Another limitation is that most of them only consider the detection of a signal embedded in a uniform background phantom. The purpose of this paper was to test if human observer performance is significantly different in CT images read in single or multiple slice modes and if these differences are the same for anatomical and uniform clinical images. We investigated detection performance and scrolling trends of human observers of a simulated liver lesion embedded in anatomical and uniform CT backgrounds. Results show that observers don't take significantly benefit of additional information provided in multi-slice reading mode. Regarding the background, performances are moderately higher for uniform than for anatomical images. Our results suggest that for low contrast detection in abdominal CT, the use of multi-slice model observers would probably only add a marginal benefit. On the other hand, the quality of a CT image is more accurately estimated with clinical anatomical backgrounds.

  19. Optical-model abrasion cross sections for high-energy heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    Within the context of eikonal scattering theory, a generalized optical model potential approximation to the nucleus-nucleus multiple scattering series is used in an abrasion-ablation collision model to predict abrasion cross sections for relativistic projectile heavy ions. Unlike the optical limit of Glauber theory, which cannot be used for very light nuclei, the abrasion formalism is valid for any projectile target combination at any incident kinetic energy for which eikonal scattering theory can be utilized. Results are compared with experimental results and predictions from Glauber theory.

  20. Target correlation effects on neutron-nucleus total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Second order optical model solutions to the elastic scattering amplitude were used to evaluate total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections for neutron nucleus scattering. Improved agreement with experimental data for total and absorption cross sections is found when compared with first order (coherent approximation) solutions, especially below several hundred MeV. At higher energies, the first and second order solutions are similar. There are also large differences in abrasion cross section calculations; these differences indicate a crucial role for cluster knockout in the abrasion step.

  1. New vibration-assisted magnetic abrasive polishing (VAMAP) method for microstructured surface finishing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiang; Kum, Chun Wai; Au, Ka Hing; Tan, Zhi'En Eddie; Wu, Hu; Liu, Kui

    2016-06-13

    In order to polish microstructured surface without deteriorating its profile, we propose a new vibration-assisted magnetic abrasive polishing (VAMAP) method. In this method, magnetic force guarantees that the magnetic abrasives can well contact the microstructured surface and access the corners of microstructures while vibration produces a relative movement between microstructures and magnetic abrasives. As the vibration direction is parallel to the microstructures, the profile of the microstructures will not be deteriorated. The relation between vibration and magnetic force was analyzed and the feasibility of this method was experimentally verified. The results show that after polishing, the surface finish around microstructures was significantly improved while the profile of microstructures was well maintained.

  2. Surface assessment and modification of concrete using abrasive blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millman, Lauren R.

    Composite systems are applied to concrete substrates to strengthen and extend the service life. Successful restoration or rehabilitation requires surface preparation prior to the application of the overlay. Surface coatings, waterproofing systems, and other external surface applications also require surface preparation prior to application. Abrasive blast media is often used to clean and uniformly roughen the substrate. The appropriate surface roughness is necessary to facilitate a strong bond between the existing substrate and overlay. Thus, surface modification using abrasive blast media (sand and dry ice), their respective environmental effects, surface roughness characterization prior to and after blasting, and the adhesion between the substrate and overlay are the focus of this dissertation. This dissertation is comprised of an introduction, a literature review, and four chapters, the first of which addresses the environmental effects due to abrasive blasting using sand, water, and dry ice. The assessment considered four response variables: carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel and energy consumption, and project duration. The results indicated that for sand blasting and water jetting, the primary factor contributing to environmental detriment was CO22 emissions from vehicular traffic near the construction site. The second chapter is an analysis of the International Concrete Repair Institute's (ICRI) concrete surface profiles (CSPs) using 3-D optical profilometry. The primary objective was to evaluate the suitability of approximating the 3-D surface (areal) parameters with those extracted from 2-D (linear) profiles. Four profile directions were considered: two diagonals, and lines parallel and transverse to the longitudinal direction of the mold. For any CSP mold, the estimation of the 3-D surface roughness using a 2-D linear profile resulted in underestimation and overestimation errors exceeding 50%, demonstrating the inadequacy of 2-D linear profiles to

  3. Thin-Slice Measurement of Wisdom

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chao S.; Ferrari, Michel; Wang, Qiandong; Woodruff, Earl

    2017-01-01

    Objective Measurement of Wisdom within a short period of time is vital for both the public interest (e.g., understanding a presidential election) and research (e.g., testing factors that facilitate wisdom development). A measurement of emotion associated with wisdom would be especially informative; therefore, a novel Thin-Slice measurement of wisdom was developed based on the Berlin Paradigm. For about 2 min, participants imagined the lens of a camera as the eyes of their friend/teacher whom they advised about a life dilemma. Verbal response and facial expression were both recorded by a camera: verbal responses were then rated on both the Berlin Wisdom criteria and newly developed Chinese wisdom criteria; facial expressions were analyzed by the software iMotion FACET module. Results showed acceptable inter-rater and inter-item reliability for this novel paradigm. Moreover, both wisdom ratings were not significantly correlated with Social desirability, and the Berlin wisdom rating was significantly negatively correlated with Neuroticism; feeling of surprise was significantly positively correlated with both wisdom criteria ratings. Our results provide the first evidence of this Thin-slice Wisdom Paradigm’s reliability, its immunity to social desirability, and its validity for assessing candidates’ wisdom within a short timeframe. Although still awaiting further development, this novel Paradigm contributes to an emerging Universal Wisdom Paradigm applicable across cultures. PMID:28861016

  4. Comparison of 640-Slice Multidetector Computed Tomography Versus 32-Slice MDCT for Imaging of the Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis Lamina.

    PubMed

    Norris, Joseph M; Kishikova, Lyudmila; Avadhanam, Venkata S; Koumellis, Panos; Francis, Ian S; Liu, Christopher S C

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy of 640-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for detecting osteo-odonto laminar resorption in the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) compared with the current standard 32-slice MDCT. Explanted OOKP laminae and bone-dentine fragments were scanned using 640-slice MDCT (Aquilion ONE; Toshiba) and 32-slice MDCT (LightSpeed Pro32; GE Healthcare). Pertinent comparisons including image quality, radiation dose, and scanning parameters were made. Benefits of 640-slice MDCT over 32-slice MDCT were shown. Key comparisons of 640-slice MDCT versus 32-slice MDCT included the following: percentage difference and correlation coefficient between radiological and anatomical measurements, 1.35% versus 3.67% and 0.9961 versus 0.9882, respectively; dose-length product, 63.50 versus 70.26; rotation time, 0.175 seconds versus 1.000 seconds; and detector coverage width, 16 cm versus 2 cm. Resorption of the osteo-odonto lamina after OOKP surgery can result in potentially sight-threatening complications, hence it warrants regular monitoring and timely intervention. MDCT remains the gold standard for radiological assessment of laminar resorption, which facilitates detection of subtle laminar changes earlier than the onset of clinical signs, thus indicating when preemptive measures can be taken. The 640-slice MDCT exhibits several advantages over traditional 32-slice MDCT. However, such benefits may not offset cost implications, except in rare cases, such as in young patients who might undergo years of radiation exposure.

  5. Finite slice analysis (FINA) of sliced and velocity mapped images on a Cartesian grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. O. F.; Amarasinghe, C.; Foley, C. D.; Rombes, N.; Gao, Z.; Vogels, S. N.; van de Meerakker, S. Y. T.; Suits, A. G.

    2017-08-01

    Although time-sliced imaging yields improved signal-to-noise and resolution compared with unsliced velocity mapped ion images, for finite slice widths as encountered in real experiments there is a loss of resolution and recovered intensities for the slow fragments. Recently, we reported a new approach that permits correction of these effects for an arbitrarily sliced distribution of a 3D charged particle cloud. This finite slice analysis (FinA) method utilizes basis functions that model the out-of-plane contribution of a given velocity component to the image for sequential subtraction in a spherical polar coordinate system. However, the original approach suffers from a slow processing time due to the weighting procedure needed to accurately model the out-of-plane projection of an anisotropic angular distribution. To overcome this issue we present a variant of the method in which the FinA approach is performed in a cylindrical coordinate system (Cartesian in the image plane) rather than a spherical polar coordinate system. Dubbed C-FinA, we show how this method is applied in much the same manner. We compare this variant to the polar FinA method and find that the processing time (of a 510 × 510 pixel image) in its most extreme case improves by a factor of 100. We also show that although the resulting velocity resolution is not quite as high as the polar version, this new approach shows superior resolution for fine structure in the differential cross sections. We demonstrate the method on a range of experimental and synthetic data at different effective slice widths.

  6. SLICE/MARC-O: Description of Services. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Libraries, Oklahoma City.

    Following the discussions of: what is SLICE, what is MARC, what is MARC-O, and what is SLICE/MARC-O are descriptions of the five services offered by SLICE/MARC-O. These services are: (1) cataloging data search and print, (2) MARC record and search and copy, (3) standard S.D.I. current awareness, (4) custom S.D.I. current awareness and (5) SLICE…

  7. Thin slices of child personality: Perceptual, situational, and behavioral contributions.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Kushner, Shauna C; Rule, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether thin-slice ratings of child personality serve as a resource-efficient and theoretically valid measurement of child personality traits. We extended theoretical work on the observability, perceptual accuracy, and situational consistency of childhood personality traits by examining intersource and interjudge agreement, cross-situational consistency, and convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of thin-slice ratings. Forty-five unacquainted independent coders rated 326 children's (ages 8-12) personality in 1 of 15 thin-slice behavioral scenarios (i.e., 3 raters per slice, for over 14,000 independent thin-slice ratings). Mothers, fathers, and children rated children's personality, psychopathology, and competence. We found robust evidence for correlations between thin-slice and mother/father ratings of child personality, within- and across-task consistency of thin-slice ratings, and convergent and divergent validity with psychopathology and competence. Surprisingly, thin-slice ratings were more consistent across situations in this child sample than previously found for adults. Taken together, these results suggest that thin slices are a valid and reliable measure to assess child personality, offering a useful method of measurement beyond questionnaires, helping to address novel questions of personality perception and consistency in childhood. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Constant mean curvature slicings of Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Heinzle, J. Mark

    2011-04-15

    We investigate existence, uniqueness, and the asymptotic properties of constant mean curvature (CMC) slicings in vacuum Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with positive cosmological constant. Since these spacetimes violate the strong energy condition, most of the general theorems on CMC slicings do not apply. Although there are in fact Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with a unique CMC foliation or CMC time function, we prove that there also exist Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes with an arbitrary number of (families of) CMC slicings. The properties of these slicings are analyzed in some detail.

  9. [Design and accuracy analysis of upper slicing system of MSCT].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rongjian

    2013-05-01

    The upper slicing system is the main components of the optical system in MSCT. This paper focuses on the design of upper slicing system and its accuracy analysis to improve the accuracy of imaging. The error of slice thickness and ray center by bearings, screw and control system were analyzed and tested. In fact, the accumulated error measured is less than 1 microm, absolute error measured is less than 10 microm. Improving the accuracy of the upper slicing system contributes to the appropriate treatment methods and success rate of treatment.

  10. Optimization and application of influence function in abrasive jet polishing.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoze; Li, Shengyi; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang

    2010-05-20

    We analyze the material removal mechanism of abrasive jet polishing (AJP) technology, based on the fluid impact dynamics theory. Combined with the computational fluid dynamics simulation and process experiments, influence functions at different impingement angles are obtained, which are not of a regular Gaussian shape and are unfit for the corrective figuring of optics. The influence function is then optimized to obtain an ideal Gaussian shape by rotating the oblique nozzle, and its stability is validated through a line scanning experiment. The fluctuation of the influence function can be controlled within +/-5%. Based on this, we build a computed numerically controlled experimental system for AJP, and one flat BK7 optical glass with a diameter of 20mm is polished. After two iterations of polishing, the peak-to-valley value decreases from 1.43lambda (lambda=632.8nm in this paper) to 0.294lambda, and the rms value decreases from 0.195lambda to 0.029lambda. The roughness of this polished surface is within 2nm. The experimental result indicates that the optimized influence function is suitable for precision optics figuring and polishing.

  11. Abrasive wear of Hilong BoTN hardfacings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, L.; Fedorov, S.; Sadovnikov, A.; Ivanova, Y.; Voronina, M.

    2018-02-01

    The spread of steels, which are used to produce locks of steel drill pipes, adversely affects their wear resistance, which, in combination with low hardness of HV 2400 ... 2800 MPa as well as of the thread of screw, results in low wear resistance and the need for their reconstruction at the pipe control shop. An efficient way of improving the quality of drill pipe jonts is to hard-face them by the outside diameter with wear-resistant materials (hardbanding). One of the companies engaged in the development of hardfacing materials and hardbanding is Hilong (China) with weld seams of the brand BoTn. According to the results of the studies the following conclusion can be made: hardfacing increases the durability of the hardware, contributing to an increase in wear resistance of locks of DP under the conditions of abrasive action of aggressive geological formations; the usage of DP without wear-resistant weld seams is impermissible, because their further operation, as part of the drill-stem, can lead to emergency consequences; application of the pipes with the hardfacing collars together with the collars without hardfacing, due to varying degree of wear of jonts in the drill-stem, is also impermissible.

  12. Abrasion-set limits on Himalayan gravel flux.

    PubMed

    Dingle, Elizabeth H; Attal, Mikaël; Sinclair, Hugh D

    2017-04-26

    Rivers sourced in the Himalayan mountain range carry some of the largest sediment loads on the planet, yet coarse gravel in these rivers vanishes within approximately 10-40 kilometres on entering the Ganga Plain (the part of the North Indian River Plain containing the Ganges River). Understanding the fate of gravel is important for forecasting the response of rivers to large influxes of sediment triggered by earthquakes or storms. Rapid increase in gravel flux and subsequent channel bed aggradation (that is, sediment deposition by a river) following the 1999 Chi-Chi and 2008 Wenchuan earthquakes reduced channel capacity and increased flood inundation. Here we present an analysis of fan geometry, sediment grain size and lithology in the Ganga Basin. We find that the gravel fluxes from rivers draining the central Himalayan mountains, with upstream catchment areas ranging from about 350 to 50,000 square kilometres, are comparable. Our results show that abrasion of gravel during fluvial transport can explain this observation; most of the gravel sourced more than 100 kilometres upstream is converted into sand by the time it reaches the Ganga Plain. These findings indicate that earthquake-induced sediment pulses sourced from the Greater Himalayas, such as that following the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, are unlikely to drive increased gravel aggradation at the mountain front. Instead, we suggest that the sediment influx should result in an elevated sand flux, leading to distinct patterns of aggradation and flood risk in the densely populated, low-relief Ganga Plain.

  13. Disposal of metal fragments released during polycrystalline slicing by multi-wire saw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutouchent-Guerfi, N.; Drouiche, N.; Medjahed, S.; Ould-Hamou, M.; Sahraoui, F.

    2016-08-01

    The environmental and economic impacts linked with solar systems are largely based on discharges of slurry generated during the various stages of sawing and cutting ingots. These discharges into the environment are subject to the general regulations on hazardous and special industrial waste disposal. Therefore, they should not be abandoned or burned in open air. The cutting of Silicon ingots leads to the production of Silicon wafers additional costs, losing more than 30% of Silicon material. Abrasive grains (Silicon Carbide) trapped between the wire and the block of Silicon need to be removed by various mechanisms to be later evacuated by slurry fragments. In the interest of decreasing operational costs during polycrystalline ingot slicing at Semiconductors Research Center, and, avoid environmental problems; it is necessary to recover the solar grade Silicon from the Silicon sawing waste. For this reason, the removal of metal fragments has become a preliminary requirement to regenerate the slurry; in addition, the solid phase needs to be separated from the liquid phase after the dissolution PEG with the solvent. In the present study, magnetic separation and centrifugation methods were adopted for metals removal, followed by the analysis of some operating parameters such as: washing time, pH, and initial concentration of Silicon. Finally, analytical, morphological and basic methods were performed in order to evaluate the efficiency of the process undertaken.

  14. Report D : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for infrastructure elements - creep, shrinkage and abrasion resistance.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    Concrete specimens were fabricated for shrinkage, creep, and abrasion resistance : testing. Variations of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and conventional concrete were : all tested. The results were compared to previous similar testing programs an...

  15. Effect of dried sunflower seeds on incisal edge abrasion: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Rath, Avita; Ramamurthy, Priyadarshini H; Fernandes, Bennete Aloysius; Sidhu, Preena

    2017-01-01

    Tooth surface loss (TSL) is a complex phenomenon characterized by the loss of hard tooth structure at various locations of the teeth, usually due to more than one factor. TSL due to abrasion can be significant in patients consuming coarse, abrasive diet. The present case reports an interesting incisal edge abrasion in a female patient, attributed to a particular dietary behavior of long-term consumption of sunflower seeds. All her family members and most of the people from her native place were also reported to have similar lesions by the patient. Larger epidemiological studies to assess the prevalence and severity of such abrasive lesions in geographic areas with this particular dietary habit need to be carried out so that people may be made aware and educated about alternative ways of eating sunflower seeds that will not cause any form of tooth wear.

  16. Abrasion-resistant concrete mix designs for precast bridge deck panels.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-08-01

    The report documents laboratory investigations undertaken to develop high performance concrete (HPC) for precast and pre-stressed bridge deck components that would reduce the life-cycle cost of bridges by improving the studded tire wear (abrasion) re...

  17. Abrasion and deformed layer formation of manganese-zinc ferrite in sliding contact with lapping tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and the deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite simulated heads during contact with lapping tapes. The crystaline state of the head is changed drastically during the abrasion process. Crystalline states ranging from nearly amorphous to highly textured polycrystalline can be produced on the wear surface of a single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite head. The total thickness of the deformed layer was approximately 0.8 microns. This thickness increased as the load and abrasive grit size increased. The anisotropic wear of the ferrite was found to be inversely proportional to the hardness of the wear surface. The wear was lower in the order 211 111 10 0110. The wear of the ferrite increased markedly with an increase in sliding velocity and abrasive grit size.

  18. Characterization of the Micro-Abrasive Wear in Coatings of TaC-HfC/Au for Biomedical Implants

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Pablo; Yate, Luis; Sandoval, Mercy; Caballero, Jose

    2017-01-01

    The object of this work was the deposition of a Ta-Hf-C thin film with a gold interlayer on stainless steel, via the physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique, in order to evaluate the properties of different systems subjected to micro-abrasive wear phenomena generated by alumina particles in Ringer's solution. The surface characterization was performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The crystallographic phases exhibited for each coating were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). As a consequence of modifying the composition of Ta-Hf there was evidence of an improvement in the micro-abrasive wear resistance and, for each system, the wear constants that confirm the enhancement of the surface were calculated. Likewise, these surfaces can be bioactive, generating an alternative to improve the biological fixation of the implants, therefore, the coatings of TaC-HfC/Au contribute in the development of the new generation of orthopedic implants. PMID:28773207

  19. Effects of chemical composite, puffing temperature and intermediate moisture content on physical properties of potato and apple slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabtaing, S.; Paengkanya, S.; Tanthong, P.

    2017-09-01

    Puffing technique is the process that can improve texture and volumetric of crisp fruit and vegetable. However, the effect of chemical composite in foods on puffing characteristics is still lack of study. Therefore, potato and apple slices were comparative study on their physical properties. Potato and apple were sliced into 2.5 mm thickness and 2.5 cm in diameter. Potato slices were treated by hot water for 2 min while apple slices were not treatment. After that, they were dried in 3 steps. First step, they were dried by hot air at temperature of 90°C until their moisture content reached to 30, 40, and 50 % dry basis. Then they were puffed by hot air at temperature of 130, 150, and 170°C for 2 min. Finally, they were dried again by hot air at temperature of 90°C until their final moisture content reached to 4% dry basis. The experimental results showed that chemical composite of food affected on physical properties of puffed product. Puffed potato had higher volume ratio than those puffed apple because potato slices contains starch. The higher starch content provided more hard texture of potato than those apples. Puffing temperature and moisture content strongly affected on the color, volume ratio, and textural properties of puffed potato slices. In addition, the high drying rate of puffed product observed at high puffing temperature and higher moisture content.

  20. Linear measurements in 2-dimensional pelvic floor imaging: the impact of slice tilt angles on measurement reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Hoyte, L; Ratiu, P

    2001-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging techniques have improved the study of female pelvic dysfunction. However, disagreements between magnetic resonance measurements and their derived 3-dimensional reconstructions were noted. We tested the hypothesis that these discrepancies stemmed from variations in magnetic resonance acquisition angle. Images from the pelvis of the Visible Human Female (a thinly sliced cadaveric image data set) were obtained. Slices in the axial plane were rotated around pivot points in the pelvis to yield a set of similar-appearing para-axial images. A parameter that described the maximum anterior-posterior dimension of the levator hiatus was defined. This levator hiatus parameter was measured on all of the rotated images and compared with an expected value that was calculated from trigonometry. The levator hiatus was also measured on a group of similar-appearing slices rotated slightly around a defined point. In 1 group of slices, expected levator hiatus variation was 1.5 to 6.1%, whereas measured variation was 4% to 15%. Among the similar-appearing rotated slices, 4.8% to 16.0% variations were seen in the levator hiatus. Identical measurements made on radiologic images can vary widely. Slice acquisition must be standardized to avoid errors in data comparison.

  1. Feasibility and Economics Study of the Treatment, Recycling and Disposal of Spent Abrasives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-09

    compression, and film stripping. The recycling performance testing plan is summarized in Table 2. (The test plan is discussed in detail in Appendix B: Law...D1188 Yes Yes Immersion Compression ................... ASTM C4867 Yes Yes Film Stripping................................... CalTrans 302 Yes Yes...from 10% to 20% for aluminum oxide abrasives, and 15% to 30% for garnet abrasives. 9 Data Intepretation SSPC-AB 1 requires that the conductivitiy of

  2. Characterization of Conventional and High-Translucency Y-TZP Dental Ceramics Submitted to Air Abrasion.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Guimarães, Renato Bastos; Noronha-Filho, Jaime Dutra; Botelho, Glauco Dos Santos; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes; Silva, Eduardo Moreira da

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of air-abrasion on t®m phase transformation, roughness, topography and the elemental composition of three Y-TZP (Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal) dental ceramics: two conventional (Lava Frame and IPS ZirCad) and one with high-translucency (Lava Plus). Plates obtained from sintered blocks of each ceramic were divided into four groups: AS (as-sintered); 30 (air-abrasion with 30 mm Si-coated Al2O3 particles); 50 (air-abrasion with 50 mm Al2O3 particles) and 150 (air-abrasion with 150 mm Al2O3 particles). After the treatments, the plates were submitted to X-ray diffractometry; 3-D profilometry and SEM/EDS. The AS surfaces were composed of Zr and t phases. All treatments produced t®m phase transformation in the ceramics. The diameter of air-abrasion particles influenced the roughness (150>50>30>AS) and the topography. SEM analysis showed that the three treatments produced groove-shaped microretentions on the ceramic surfaces, which increased with the diameter of air-abrasion particles. EDS showed a decrease in Zr content along with the emergence of O and Al elements after air-abrasion. Presence of Si was also detected on the plates air-abraded with 30 mm Si-coated Al2O3 particles. It was concluded that irrespective of the type and diameter of the particles, air-abrasion produced t®m phase transformation, increased the roughness and changed the elemental composition of the three Y-TZP dental ceramics. Lava Plus also behaved similarly to the conventional Y-TZP ceramics, indicating that this high translucency ceramic could be more suitable to build monolithic ceramic restorations in the aesthetic restorative dentistry field.

  3. Abrasive Wear of Four Direct Restorative Materials by Standard and Whitening Dentifrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    after an acidic challenge . Enamel loss was significantly greater when erosive and abrasive effects were combined. They concluded that acid-softened...surrounding soft tissues. Another benefit of restoration is the elimination of a challenging area for the patient and hygienist to clean. These areas...abrasion challenge ; the resin cement with the smallest sized filler particles had the smallest weight loss and maintained the smoothest surface of all the

  4. Preparing Fresh Retinal Slices from Adult Zebrafish for Ex Vivo Imaging Experiments.

    PubMed

    Giarmarco, Michelle M; Cleghorn, Whitney M; Hurley, James B; Brockerhoff, Susan E

    2018-05-09

    The retina is a complex tissue that initiates and integrates the first steps of vision. Dysfunction of retinal cells is a hallmark of many blinding diseases, and future therapies hinge on fundamental understandings about how different retinal cells function normally. Gaining such information with biochemical methods has proven difficult because contributions of particular cell types are diminished in the retinal cell milieu. Live retinal imaging can provide a view of numerous biological processes on a subcellular level, thanks to a growing number of genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors. However, this technique has thus far been limited to tadpoles and zebrafish larvae, the outermost retinal layers of isolated retinas, or lower resolution imaging of retinas in live animals. Here we present a method for generating live ex vivo retinal slices from adult zebrafish for live imaging via confocal microscopy. This preparation yields transverse slices with all retinal layers and most cell types visible for performing confocal imaging experiments using perfusion. Transgenic zebrafish expressing fluorescent proteins or biosensors in specific retinal cell types or organelles are used to extract single-cell information from an intact retina. Additionally, retinal slices can be loaded with fluorescent indicator dyes, adding to the method's versatility. This protocol was developed for imaging Ca 2+ within zebrafish cone photoreceptors, but with proper markers it could be adapted to measure Ca 2+ or metabolites in Müller cells, bipolar and horizontal cells, microglia, amacrine cells, or retinal ganglion cells. The retinal pigment epithelium is removed from slices so this method is not suitable for studying that cell type. With practice, it is possible to generate serial slices from one animal for multiple experiments. This adaptable technique provides a powerful tool for answering many questions about retinal cell biology, Ca 2+ , and energy homeostasis.

  5. Mangrove Cultivation For Dealing With Coastal Abrasion Case Study Of Karangsong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatimatuzzahroh, Feti; Hadi, Sudharto P.; Purnaweni, Hartuti

    2018-02-01

    Coastal abrasion is consequence from destructive waves and sea current. One of cause is human intervention. The effort to solve of abrasion is by mangrove cultivation. Mangroves are halophyte plant that can restrain the sea wave. Mangrove cultivation required participation community that give awareness the importance of mangrove in coastal sustainability. Mangroves in coastal Karangsong, Indramayu west java, in 2007 was through abrasion approximately 127.30 ha. Mangrove cultivation in Karangsong has been replanting since 1998 to 2003, but there was no maintenance and management. In 2007 until 2015 Karangsong replanting mangroves and has been succeed. Karangsong became the center of mangrove study for west java area in 2015. This achievement is result of cooperation between community, NGO, and local government. In addition, this effort made not only overcome the abrasion problem but also give community awareness about the importance of mangrove cultivation in preventing coastal abrasion throughout community development. This paper reviews abrasion in Karangsong and the impact for local community and empowerment in mangrove cultivation. To achieve the success mangrove cultivation required community development approach from planning process, planting, maintenance and management.

  6. Kinetic energy density and agglomerate abrasion rate during blending of agglomerates into powders.

    PubMed

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Rubingh, Carina M; Tran, Thanh N; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2012-01-23

    Problems related to the blending of a cohesive powder with a free flowing bulk powder are frequently encountered in the pharmaceutical industry. The cohesive powder often forms lumps or agglomerates which are not dispersed during the mixing process and are therefore detrimental to blend uniformity. Achieving sufficient blend uniformity requires that the blending conditions are able to break up agglomerates, which is often an abrasion process. This study was based on the assumption that the abrasion rate of agglomerates determines the required blending time. It is shown that the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed is a relevant parameter which correlates with the abrasion rate of agglomerates. However, aspects related to the strength of agglomerates should also be considered. For this reason the Stokes abrasion number (St(Abr)) has been defined. This parameter describes the ratio between the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed and the work of fracture of the agglomerate. The St(Abr) number is shown to predict the abrasion potential of agglomerates in the dry-mixing process. It appeared possible to include effects of filler particle size and impeller rotational rate into this concept. A clear relationship between abrasion rate of agglomerates and the value of St(Abr) was demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance evaluation of a 64-slice CT system with z-flying focal spot.

    PubMed

    Flohr, T; Stierstorfer, K; Raupach, R; Ulzheimer, S; Bruder, H

    2004-12-01

    The meanwhile established generation of 16-slice CT systems enables routine sub-millimeter imaging at short breath-hold times. Clinical progress in the development of multidetector row CT (MDCT) technology beyond 16 slices can more likely be expected from further improvement in spatial and temporal resolution rather than from a mere increase in the speed of volume coverage. We present an evaluation of a recently introduced 64-slice CT system (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany), which uses a periodic motion of the focal spot in longitudinal direction (z-flying focal spot) to double the number of simultaneously acquired slices. This technique acquires 64 overlapping 0.6 mm slices per rotation. The sampling scheme corresponds to that of a 64 x 0.3 mm detector, with the goal of improved longitudinal resolution and reduced spiral artifacts. After an introduction to the detector design, we discuss the basics of z-flying focal spot technology (z-Sharp). We present phantom and specimen scans for performance evaluation. The measured full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the thinnest spiral slice is 0.65 mm. All spiral slice widths are almost independent of the pitch, with deviations of less than 0.1 mm from the nominal value. Using a high-resolution bar pattern phantom (CATPHAN, Phantom Laboratories, Salem, NY), the longitudinal resolution can be demonstrated to be up to 15 lp/cm at the isocenter independent of the pitch, corresponding to a bar diameter of 0.33 mm. Longitudinal resolution is only slightly degraded for off-center locations. At a distance of 100 mm from the isocenter, 14 lp/cm can be resolved in the z-direction, corresponding to a bar diameter of 0.36 mm. Spiral "windmill" artifacts presenting as hyper- and hypodense structures around osseous edges are effectively reduced by the z-flying focal spot technique. Cardiac scanning benefits from the short gantry rotation time of 0.33 s, providing up to 83 ms temporal resolution with 2-segment ECG

  8. Improvement in thin cirrus retrievals using an emissivity-adjusted CO2 slicing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Menzel, W. Paul

    2002-09-01

    CO2 slicing has been generally accepted as a useful algorithm for determining cloud top pressure (CTP) and effective cloud amount (ECA) for tropospheric clouds above 600 hPa. To date, the technique has assumed that the surface emissivity is that of a blackbody in the long-wavelength infrared radiances and that the cloud emissivities in spectrally close bands are approximately equal. The modified CO2 slicing algorithm considers adjustments of both surface emissivity and cloud emissivity ratio. Surface emissivity is adjusted according to the surface types. The ratio of cloud emissivities in spectrally close bands is adjusted away from unity according to radiative transfer calculations. The new CO2 slicing algorithm is examined with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS) CO2 band radiance measurements over thin clouds and validated against Cloud Lidar System (CLS) measurements of the same clouds; it is also applied to Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Sounder data to study the overall impact on cloud property determinations. For high thin clouds an improved product emerges, while for thick and opaque clouds there is little change. For very thin clouds, the CTP increases by about 10-20 hPa and RMS (root mean square bias) difference is approximately 50 hPa; for thin clouds, the CTP increase is about 10 hPa bias and RMS difference is approximately 30 hPa. The new CO2 slicing algorithm places the clouds lower in the troposphere.

  9. Increased glutamate-stimulated norepinephrine release from prefrontal cortex slices of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Russell, V A; Wiggins, T M

    2000-12-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have behavioral characteristics (hyperactivity, impulsiveness, poorly sustained attention) similar to the behavioral disturbances of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have previously shown that dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems are disturbed in the prefrontal cortex of SHR compared to their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats. It was of interest to determine whether the underlying neural circuits that use glutamate as a neurotransmitter function normally in the prefrontal cortex of SHR. An in vitro superfusion technique was used to demonstrate that glutamate caused a concentration-dependent stimulation of [3H]norepinephrine release from rat prefrontal cortex slices. Glutamate (100 microM and 1 mM) caused significantly greater release of norepinephrine from prefrontal cortex slices of SHR than from control slices. The effect of glutamate was not mediated by NMDA receptors, since NMDA (10 and 100 microM) did not exert any effect on norepinephrine release and MK-801 (10 microM) did not antagonize the effect of 100 microM glutamate. These results demonstrate that glutamate stimulates norepinephrine release from rat prefrontal cortex slices and that this increase is enhanced in SHR. The results are consistent with the suggestion that the noradrenergic system is overactive in prefrontal cortex of SHR, the animal model for ADHD.

  10. Very high-resolution spectroscopy for extremely large telescopes using pupil slicing and adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Jacques M; Andersen, Torben E; Owner-Petersen, Mette

    2007-03-05

    Under seeing limited conditions very high resolution spectroscopy becomes very difficult for extremely large telescopes (ELTs). Using adaptive optics (AO) the stellar image size decreases proportional with the telescope diameter. This makes the spectrograph optics and hence its resolution independent of the telescope diameter. However AO for use with ELTs at visible wavelengths require deformable mirrors with many elements. Those are not likely to be available for quite some time. We propose to use the pupil slicing technique to create a number of sub-pupils each of which having its own deformable mirror. The images from all sub-pupils are combined incoherently with a diameter corresponding to the diffraction limit of the sub-pupil. The technique is referred to as "Pupil Slicing Adaptive Optics" or PSAO.

  11. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Abrasion Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Anderson, M. S.; Hinde, B. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Pike, W. T.; Marshall, J. R.; Meloy, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) experiment, an instrument suite to be flown on Mars Surveyor 2001, will include a tool for doing simple mineralogical scratch and streak tests on particles from the Martian regolith. The Abrasion Tool will be applied to particles that adhere themselves to highly polished substrates of various hardnesses. Granular soil components will be subjected to a compressive force of about 3 N using a leaf spring. The spring will be applied with a paraffin actuator capable of a 0.76 mm throw to achieve a maximum displacement of about 7.5 mm at the tip of the tool. The pressure per grain will be dependent on the grain size, the number of grains that adhere to the substrate and the number of grains in compression. The pressure per particle is expected to be on the order of 100 MPa - 1 GPa. The MECA sample wheel containing the substrates will be rotated after the particles are placed in compression to produce scratches or pits. A primary goal of the Abrasion Tool is to identify quartz (Mohs' hardness = 7) using substrates of varying hardnesses. Quartz is considered hazardous to future human explorers of Mars because it can cause silicosis of the lungs if it is of respirable size. It is also hazardous to machinery, structures, and space suits because of its ability to abrade and scratch surfaces. Since large quantities of minerals harder than quartz are not expected, any scratches produced on polished quartz substrates might be reasonably attributed to quartz particles, although there may be minerals such as impact metamorphic diamond in the soils. Careful calibration of the tool will be necessary to ensure that grains are not overloaded; for example, a steel ball pressed into glass will produce a Hertzian fracture, even though it is softer than glass. Other minerals, such as magnetite (Mohs' hardness = 6.5) have been shown to scratch glass ceramics such as Zerodur (Mohs' hardness = 6.5). Thus, minerals can be differentiated

  12. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment MECA Abrasion Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Anderson, M. S.; Hinde, B. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Pike, W. T.; Marshall, J.; Meloy, T. P.; Cobbly, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) experiment, an instrument suite to be flown on Mars Surveyor 2001, will include a tool for doing simple mineralogical scratch and streak tests on particles from the Martian regolith. The Abrasion Tool will be applied to particles that adhere to highly polished substrates of various hardnesses. Granular soil components will be subjected to a compressive force of about 3 N using a leaf spring. The spring will be applied with a paraffin actuator capable of a 0.76 mm throw to achieve a maximum displacement of about 7.5 mm at the tip of the tool. The pressure per grain will be dependent on the grain size, the number of grains that adhere to the substrate and the number of grains in compression. The pressure per particle is expected to be on the order of 100 MPa - 1 GPa. The MECA sample wheel containing the substrates will be rotated after the particles are placed in compression to produce scratches or pits. A primary goal of the Abrasion Tool is to identify quartz (Mohs' hardness = 7) using substrates of varying hardnesses. Quartz is considered hazardous to future human explorers of Mars because it can cause silicosis of the lungs if it is of respirable size. It is also hazardous to machinery, structures, and space suits because of its ability to abrade and scratch surfaces. Since large quantities of minerals harder than quartz are not expected, any scratches produced on polished quartz substrates might be reasonably attributed to quartz particles, although there may be minerals such as impact metamorphic diamond in the soils. Careful calibration of the tool will be necessary to ensure that grains are not overloaded; for example, a steel ball pressed into glass will produce a Hertzian fracture, even though it is softer than glass. Other minerals, such as magnetite (Mohs'hardness = 6.5) have been shown to scratch glass ceramics such as Zerodur (Mohs' hardness = 6.5). Thus, minerals can be differentiated: note that

  13. Target recognition for ladar range image using slice image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wenze; Han, Shaokun; Wang, Liang

    2015-12-01

    A shape descriptor and a complete shape-based recognition system using slice images as geometric feature descriptor for ladar range images are introduced. A slice image is a two-dimensional image generated by three-dimensional Hough transform and the corresponding mathematical transformation. The system consists of two processes, the model library construction and recognition. In the model library construction process, a series of range images are obtained after the model object is sampled at preset attitude angles. Then, all the range images are converted into slice images. The number of slice images is reduced by clustering analysis and finding a representation to reduce the size of the model library. In the recognition process, the slice image of the scene is compared with the slice image in the model library. The recognition results depend on the comparison. Simulated ladar range images are used to analyze the recognition and misjudgment rates, and comparison between the slice image representation method and moment invariants representation method is performed. The experimental results show that whether in conditions without noise or with ladar noise, the system has a high recognition rate and low misjudgment rate. The comparison experiment demonstrates that the slice image has better representation ability than moment invariants.

  14. Brevetoxin Depresses Synaptic Transmission in Guinea Pig Hippocampal Slices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Brevetoxin depresses synaptic transmission in guinea pig hippocampal slices. Brain Res Bull 31(1/2) 201-207, 1993.--Extracellular recordings were...obtained from area CA1 of guinea pig hippocampal slices. PbTx-3, a brevetoxin fraction isolated from the red tide dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis, was

  15. Performance Analysis of Abrasive Waterjet Machining Process at Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, M.; Gebremariam, MA; Hamedon, Z.; Azhari, A.

    2018-03-01

    Normally, a commercial waterjet cutting machine can generate water pressure up to 600 MPa. This range of pressure is used to machine a wide variety of materials. Hence, the price of waterjet cutting machine is expensive. Therefore, there is a need to develop a low cost waterjet machine in order to make the technology more accessible for the masses. Due to its low cost, such machines may only be able to generate water pressure at a much reduced rate. The present study attempts to investigate the performance of abrasive water jet machining process at low cutting pressure using self-developed low cost waterjet machine. It aims to study the feasibility of machining various materials at low pressure which later can aid in further development of an effective low cost water jet machine. A total of three different materials were machined at a low pressure of 34 MPa. The materials are mild steel, aluminium alloy 6061 and plastics Delrin®. Furthermore, a traverse rate was varied between 1 to 3 mm/min. The study on cutting performance at low pressure for different materials was conducted in terms of depth penetration, kerf taper ratio and surface roughness. It was found that all samples were able to be machined at low cutting pressure with varied qualities. Also, the depth of penetration decreases with an increase in the traverse rate. Meanwhile, the surface roughness and kerf taper ratio increase with an increase in the traverse rate. It can be concluded that a low cost waterjet machine with a much reduced rate of water pressure can be successfully used for machining certain materials with acceptable qualities.

  16. Toothbrushing abrasion susceptibility of enamel and dentin bleached with calcium-supplemented hydrogen peroxide gel.

    PubMed

    Borges, A B; Santos, L F T F; Augusto, M G; Bonfiette, D; Hara, A T; Torres, C R G

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate enamel and dentin susceptibility to toothbrushing abrasion, after bleaching with 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) gel supplemented or not with 0.5% calcium gluconate (Ca). Toothbrushing was performed immediately and 1h after bleaching, with two suspensions (high and low abrasivity). Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were divided into 12 groups (n=10) according to the bleaching gel (with and without Ca), slurry abrasivity (high or low) and elapsed time after bleaching (immediately and after 1h). As control, a group was not bleached, but abraded. The treatment cycle (7 d) consisted of bleaching (1h) and toothbrushing (135 strokes/day) immediatelly or after 1h of artificial saliva exposure. Surface roughness and surface loss (μm) were measured by profilometry and analysed by three-way ANOVA (5%). Surface roughness means were significantly influenced by slurry abrasivity (p<0.0001). For enamel loss, significant triple interaction was observed (p<0.0001). HP-bleached groups and immediately brushed with high-abrasive slurry exhibited increased loss (1.41±0.14) compared to other groups (μm). Control and HP+Ca-bleached groups brushed after 1h with low abrasive slurry presented the lowest loss (0.21±0.03/0.27±0.02). For dentin loss, significant interaction was observed for bleaching and interval factors (p<0.001). 7.5%HP-bleached groups and immediately brushed showed significantly higher loss (8.71±2.45) than the other groups. It was concluded that surface roughness increased when high abrasive was used, independently of bleaching. 7.5%HP increased enamel and dentin loss, mainly with high abrasive slurries. Calcium supplementation of bleaching gel reduced surface loss. Additionally, in order to minimize tooth wear susceptibility, it is recommended to delay brushing after bleaching. After bleaching gel application, postponing toothbrushing is recommended, as well as brushing with low abrasive dentifrices. Additionally

  17. Effect of Experimental Variables of Abrasive Wear on 3D Surface Roughness and Wear Rate of Al-4.5 % Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Mallik, Manab; Mandal, Nilrudra; Dutta, Samik; Roy, Himadri; Lohar, Aditya Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This investigation was primarily carried out to examine the abrasive wear behavior of as cast Al-4.5 % Cu alloy. Wear tests have been carried out using an abrasive wear machine with emery paper embedded with SiC particles acting as abrasive medium. The experiments were planned using central composite design, with, load, cycle and grit size as input variables, whereas wear rate and 3D roughness were considered as output variable. Analysis of variance was applied to check the adequacy of the mathematical model and their respective parameters. Microstructural investigations of the worn surfaces have been carried out to explain the observed results and to understand the wear micro-mechanisms as per the planned experiments. Desirability function optimization technique was finally employed to optimize the controlling factors. The observed results revealed that, grit size plays a significant role in the variation of wear rate and 3D roughness as compared to load and cycles. Based on the significance of interactions, the regression equations were derived and verified further with a number of confirmation runs to assess the adequacy of the model. A close agreement (±10 %) between the predicted and experimentally measured results was obtained from this investigation.

  18. Activation of Magnesium Lignosulfonate and Kraft Lignin: Influence on the Properties of Phenolic Resin-Based Composites for Potential Applications in Abrasive Materials

    PubMed Central

    Klapiszewski, Lukasz; Jamrozik, Artur; Strzemiecka, Beata; Matykiewicz, Danuta; Voelkel, Adam; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium lignosulfonate and kraft lignin were activated by different oxidizing agents for use in phenolic resin composites used for the production of abrasive components. The physicochemical properties of the oxidized materials were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis (DMTA) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The homogeneity of the model abrasive composites containing the studied products was assessed based on observations obtained using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). FTIR and XPS analysis of the oxidized products indicated that the activation process leads mainly to the formation of carbonyl groups. The IGC technique was used to assess changes in the surface energy and the acid–base properties of the studied biopolymers. The changes in the acid–base properties suggest that more groups acting as electron donors appear on the oxidized surface of the materials. DMTA studies showed that the model composites with 5% magnesium lignosulfonate oxidized by H2O2 had the best thermomechanical properties. Based on the results it was possible to propose a hypothetical mechanism of the oxidation of the natural polymers. The use of such oxidized products may improve the thermomechanical properties of abrasive articles. PMID:28594358

  19. RF slice profile effects in magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taehwa; Han, Dongyeob; Kim, Min-Oh; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The radio frequency (RF) slice profile effects on T1 and T2 estimation in magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) are investigated with respect to time-bandwidth product (TBW), flip angle (FA) level and field inhomogeneities. Signal evolutions are generated incorporating the non-ideal slice selective excitation process using Bloch simulation and matched to the original dictionary with and without the non-ideal slice profile taken into account. For validation, phantom and in vivo experiments are performed at 3T. Both simulations and experiments results show that T1 and T2 error from non-ideal slice profile increases with increasing FA level, off-resonance, and low TBW values. Therefore, RF slice profile effects should be compensated for accurate determination of the MR parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A survey of program slicing for software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    This research concerns program slicing which is used as a tool for program maintainence of software systems. Program slicing decreases the level of effort required to understand and maintain complex software systems. It was first designed as a debugging aid, but it has since been generalized into various tools and extended to include program comprehension, module cohesion estimation, requirements verification, dead code elimination, and maintainence of several software systems, including reverse engineering, parallelization, portability, and reuse component generation. This paper seeks to address and define terminology, theoretical concepts, program representation, different program graphs, developments in static slicing, dynamic slicing, and semantics and mathematical models. Applications for conventional slicing are presented, along with a prognosis of future work in this field.

  1. Effects of Load and Speed on Wear Rate of Abrasive Wear for 2014 Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabas, D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the normal load and sliding speed on wear rate of two-body abrasive wear for 2014 Al Alloy were investigated in detail. In order to understand the variation in wear behaviour with load and speed, wear tests were carried out at a sliding distance of 11 m, a speed of 0.36 m/s, a duration of 30 s and loads in the range 3-11 N using 220 grit abrasive paper, and at a speed range 0.09-0.90 m/s, a load of 5 N and an average sliding distance of 11 m using abrasive papers of 150 grit size under dry friction conditions. Before the wear tests, solution treatment of the 2014 Al alloy was carried out at temperatures of 505 and 520 °C for 1 h in a muffle furnace and then quenched in cold water at 15 °C. Later, the ageing treatment was carried out at 185 °C for 8 h in the furnace. Generally, wear rate due to time increased linearly and linear wear resistance decreased with increasing loads. However, the wear rate was directly proportional to the load up to a critical load of 7 N. After this load, the slope of the curves decreased because the excessive deformation of the worn surface and the instability of the abrasive grains began to increase. When the load on an abrasive grain reaches a critical value, the groove width is about 0.17 of the abrasive grain diameter, and the abrasive grains begin to fail. The wear rate due to time increased slightly as the sliding speed increased in the range 0.09-0.90 m/s. The reason for this is that changes arising from strain rate and friction heating are expected with increasing sliding speeds.

  2. Impact of dentifrice abrasivity and remineralization time on erosive tooth wear in vitro.

    PubMed

    Buedel, Sarah; Lippert, Frank; Zero, Domenick T; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the in vitro effects of simulated dentifrice slurry abrasivity (L-low, M-medium and H-high) and remineralization time (0, 30, 60 and 120 minutes) on erosive tooth wear. Enamel and root dentin specimens were prepared from bovine incisors (n= 8) and submitted to a cycling protocol including erosion, remineralization at the test times, and brushing with each of the tested slurries, for 5 days. Dental surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry. Data was analyzed using mixed-model ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD tests (alpha= 0.05). SL generally increased along with the increase in slurry abrasive level, with significance dependent upon the specific substrate and remineralization times. H showed the highest SL on both enamel and dentin; remineralization for 30 minutes reduced SL significantly (P< 0.05), but only for enamel. M showed intermediate SL values, with remineralization benefit clearly seen only after 120 minutes of remineralization (P< 0.05). L caused the least SL for both enamel and dentin, which was further reduced after remineralization for 120 and 30 minutes, respectively (both P< 0.05). Overall, root dentin had significantly higher SL than enamel. Less abrasive dentifrice slurries were able to reduce toothbrushing abrasion on both enamel and root dentin. This protection was enhanced by remineralization for all abrasive levels on enamel, but only for L on root dentin. High-risk erosion patients should avoid highly abrasive toothpastes, as remineralization can only partially compensate for their deleterious effects on eroded dental surfaces. Lower abrasive toothpastes are recommended. Copyright©American Journal of Dentistry.

  3. Thin-slice perception develops slowly.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Body language and facial gesture provide sufficient visual information to support high-level social inferences from "thin slices" of behavior. Given short movies of nonverbal behavior, adults make reliable judgments in a large number of tasks. Here we find that the high precision of adults' nonverbal social perception depends on the slow development, over childhood, of sensitivity to subtle visual cues. Children and adult participants watched short silent clips in which a target child played with Lego blocks either in the (off-screen) presence of an adult or alone. Participants judged whether the target was playing alone or not; that is, they detected the presence of a social interaction (from the behavior of one participant in that interaction). This task allowed us to compare performance across ages with the true answer. Children did not reach adult levels of performance on this task until 9 or 10 years of age, and we observed an interaction between age and video reversal. Adults and older children benefitted from the videos being played in temporal sequence, rather than reversed, suggesting that adults (but not young children) are sensitive to natural movement in social interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The hypothalamic slice approach to neuroendocrinology.

    PubMed

    Hatton, G I

    1983-07-01

    The magnocellular peptidergic cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei comprise much of what is known as the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system and is involved in several functions, including body fluid balance, parturition and lactation. While we have learned much from experiments in vivo, they have not produced a clear understanding of some of the crucial features associated with the functioning of this system. In particular, questions relating to the osmosensitivity of magnocellular neurones and the mechanism(s) by which their characteristic firing patterns are generated have not been answered using the older approaches. Electrophysiological studies with brain slices present direct evidence for osmosensitivity, and perhaps even osmoreceptivity, of magnocellular neurones. Other evidence indicates that the phasic bursting patterns of activity associated with vasopressin-releasing neurones (a) occur in the absence of patterned chemical synaptic input, (b) may be modulated by electrotonic conduction across gap junctions connecting magnocellular neurones and (c) are likely to be generated by endogenous membrane currents. These results make untenable the formerly held idea that phasic bursting activity is dependent upon recurrent synaptic inhibition.

  5. Effect of tooth brush abrasion and thermo-mechanical loading on direct and indirect veneer restorations.

    PubMed

    Rosentritt, Martin; Sawaljanow, Alexander; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Preis, Verena

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated toothbrush abrasion and in vitro aging on ceramic (indirect technique) and composite veneers (direct technique). Identical composite and individual human incisors were restored with industrially preformed composite veneers, indirectly produced ceramic veneers, and direct composite restorations. Surface roughness was determined before and after tooth brushing. A 5-year period of oral service was simulated by thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML). After TCML, all specimens were examined with microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Specimens without failures during TCML were loaded until failure. analysis of variance; Bonferroni's post hoc analysis, Kaplan-Meier-Log Rank test (α = 0.05). Tooth brushing yielded a non-significant increase (p = 0.560) in roughness in all materials (industrial veneer, 0.12+/-0.07 μm, direct restoration, 0.18+/-0.14 μm, ceramic, 0.35+/-0.16 μm). No significant differences in roughness could be determined between the materials, neither before nor after testing (p < 0.001). After TCML of artificial teeth, direct and preformed composite veneers on composite teeth showed no failures or damages. Two ceramic veneers showed cracking in the labial area. After TCML of human teeth, transmission microscopy indicated a facial crack in a ceramic veneer and chipping in the cervical area of a preformed veneer. Two direct composite veneers lost retention. No significantly different survival rates were found between the three veneer groups. Fracture force on human teeth varied between 527.8+/-132.4 N (ceramic), 478.3+/-165.4 N (preformed composite), and 605.0+/-263.5 N (direct composite). All materials revealed comparable wear resistance. Indirect ceramic, direct restorative composite, and preformed composite veneers showed comparable failure rates and satisfying longevity. The results indicate similar longevity of the chosen materials for veneer restorations.

  6. Comparative evaluation of enamel abrasivity by toothbrush and velcro: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Saroj Kumar; Javdekar, Sadashiv Bhaskar; Dhir, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Context: Plaque control has been shown to be pivotal in maintaining the optimal periodontal health. Mechanical plaque control is the most popular option for establishing the optimal oral health. Toothbrushes have been the novel tool for mechanical cleansing. However, the abrasive potential of the toothbrushes on the enamel surface is an area in gray. Aims: The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the abrasivity of the toothbrush versus the velcro fasteners. Materials and Methods: The mounted teeth of both the groups were subjected to abrasion test, and the tooth surfaces were observed for the possible abrasions from the oscillating strokes (toothbrush) and frictional contacts (hook and loop velcro) and examined under the scanning electron microscope. Results: Comparative assessment of both velcro (hook and loop) and toothbrush bristles did not reveal any evidence of abrasion on the tooth specimens. Conclusions: Veclro fasteners are safe and qualitatively at par to the manual toothbrush for their efficacy and efficiency in teeth cleansing PMID:26229264

  7. Release of carbon nanotubes from an epoxy-based nanocomposite during an abrasion process.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Chu, Bryan T T; Buha, Jelena; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2012-07-03

    The abrasion behavior of an epoxy/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite was investigated. An experimental setup has been established to perform abrasion, particle measurement, and collection all in one. The abraded particles were characterized by particle size distribution and by electron microscopy. The abrasion process was carried out with a Taber Abraser, and the released particles were collected by a tube for further investigation. The particle size distributions were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and revealed four size modes for all measured samples. The mode corresponding to the smallest particle sizes of 300-400 nm was measured with the SMPS and showed a trend of increasing size with increasing nanofiller content. The three measured modes with particle sizes from 0.6 to 2.5 μm, measured with the APS, were similar for all samples. The measured particle concentrations were between 8000 and 20,000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the SMPS and between 1000 and 3000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the APS. Imaging by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that free-standing individual CNTs and agglomerates were emitted during abrasion.

  8. Air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tastepe, Ceylin S; van Waas, Rien; Liu, Yuelian; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method for peri-implantitis based on the existing literature. A PubMed search was conducted to find articles that reported on air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method for peri-implantitis. The studies evaluated cleaning efficiency and surface change as a result of the method. Furthermore, cell response toward the air powder abrasive-treated discs, reosseointegration, and clinical outcome after treatment is also reported. The PubMed search resulted in 27 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. In vitro cleaning efficiency of the method is reported to be high. The method resulted in minor surface changes on titanium specimens. Although the air powder abrasive-treated specimens showed sufficient levels of cell attachment and cell viability, the cell response decreased compared with sterile discs. Considerable reosseointegration between 39% and 46% and improved clinical parameters were reported after treatment when applied in combination with surgical treatment. The results of the treatment are influenced by the powder type used, the application time, and whether powder was applied surgically or nonsurgically. The in vivo data on air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method is not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions. However, in vitro results allow the clinician to consider the method as a promising option for implant surface cleaning in peri-implantitis treatment.

  9. A Study on Postmortem Wound Dating by Gross and Histopathological Examination of Abrasions

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, Javaregowda; Harish, Sathyanarayana; Mangala, Gouri S.R.; Hugar, Basappa S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Abrasions are the most common blunt force injuries. The precise dating of injury is extremely important in forensic medicine practice. As we know, the wound healing occurs in well-orchestrated sequence, consisting of inflammation, proliferation, and maturation. A study of occurrence of such phases will help in understanding the sequence of events in wound healing. In this context, this study of wound dating from gross and microscopic level was taken. Materials and Methods Postmortem study of wound dating by gross and histopathological examination of abrasions was carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine, in M.S. Ramaiah Medical College. A total of 101 abrasions were correlated to time frame the occurrence of different gross changes and microscopic changes that follow the blunt trauma. Abrasions ranging from 0 hour to a maximum of 45 days were studied. Results The gross changes of abrasions were in correlation with the microscopic changes; however, the role of the comorbid conditions is significant because the results showed variations with respect to healing process. Conclusions This study signifies that, if naked eye examination is studied along with histopathological examination, the reliability and accuracy of dating of wound increase. Whenever accurate determination of age is required, the autopsy surgeon can subject the samples for histopathological examination and correlate before opining the age of injury. PMID:28418938

  10. Micro-Abrasion Wear Resistance of Borided 316L Stainless Steel and AISI 1018 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reséndiz-Calderon, C. D.; Rodríguez-Castro, G. A.; Meneses-Amador, A.; Campos-Silva, I. E.; Andraca-Adame, J.; Palomar-Pardavé, M. E.; Gallardo-Hernández, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The 316L stainless steel has high corrosion resistance but low tribological performance. In different industrial sectors (biomedical, chemical, petrochemical, and nuclear engineering), improvement upon wear resistance of 316L stainless steel components using accessible and inexpensive methods is critical. The AISI 1018 steel is widely used in industry, but its tribological performance is not the best among steels. Therefore, in this study the behavior of the borided 316L stainless steel and 1018 steel is evaluated under micro-abrasion wear. The boriding was carried out at 1223 K over 6 h of exposure time, resulting in a biphase layer composed of FeB/Fe2B phases. In order to evaluate Fe2B phase with no influence from FeB phase, AISI 1018 steel samples were borided at 1273 K for over 20 min and then diffusion annealed at 1273 K over 2 h to obtain a Fe2B mono-phase layer. Micro-abrasion wear resistance was evaluated by a commercial micro-abrasion testing rig using a mix of F-1200 SiC particles with deionized water as abrasive slurry. The obtained wear rates for FeB and Fe2B phases and for the 316L stainless steel were compared. Wear resistance of 316L stainless steel increases after boriding. The wear mechanisms for both phases and for the stainless steel were identified. Also, transient conditions for rolling and grooving abrasion were determined for the FeB and Fe2B phases.

  11. A Study on Postmortem Wound Dating by Gross and Histopathological Examination of Abrasions.

    PubMed

    Vinay, Javaregowda; Harish, Sathyanarayana; Mangala, Gouri S R; Hugar, Basappa S

    2017-06-01

    Abrasions are the most common blunt force injuries. The precise dating of injury is extremely important in forensic medicine practice. As we know, the wound healing occurs in well-orchestrated sequence, consisting of inflammation, proliferation, and maturation.A study of occurrence of such phases will help in understanding the sequence of events in wound healing. In this context, this study of wound dating from gross and microscopic level was taken. Postmortem study of wound dating by gross and histopathological examination of abrasions was carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine, in M.S. Ramaiah Medical College. A total of 101 abrasions were correlated to time frame the occurrence of different gross changes and microscopic changes that follow the blunt trauma. Abrasions ranging from 0 hour to a maximum of 45 days were studied. The gross changes of abrasions were in correlation with the microscopic changes; however, the role of the comorbid conditions is significant because the results showed variations with respect to healing process. This study signifies that, if naked eye examination is studied along with histopathological examination, the reliability and accuracy of dating of wound increase. Whenever accurate determination of age is required, the autopsy surgeon can subject the samples for histopathological examination and correlate before opining the age of injury.

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Flow in Abrasive Water Jet Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, S.; Sathish, S.; Jothi Prakash, V. M.; Gopalakrishnan, T.

    2017-03-01

    Abrasive water jet cutting is one of the most recently developed non-traditional manufacturing technologies. In this machining, the abrasives are mixed with suspended liquid to form semi liquid mixture. The general nature of flow through the machining, results in fleeting wear of the nozzle which decrease the cutting performance. The inlet pressure of the abrasive water suspension has main effect on the major destruction characteristics of the inner surface of the nozzle. The aim of the project is to analyze the effect of inlet pressure on wall shear and exit kinetic energy. The analysis could be carried out by changing the taper angle of the nozzle, so as to obtain optimized process parameters for minimum nozzle wear. The two phase flow analysis would be carried by using computational fluid dynamics tool CFX. It is also used to analyze the flow characteristics of abrasive water jet machining on the inner surface of the nozzle. The availability of optimized process parameters of abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) is limited to water and experimental test can be cost prohibitive. In this case, Computational fluid dynamics analysis would provide better results.

  13. Cracking of porcelain surfaces arising from abrasive grinding with a dental air turbine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chee W; Waddell, J Neil; Lyons, Karl M; Swain, Michael V

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate porcelain cracking induced by abrasive grinding with a conventional dental air turbine and abrasive diamond burs. Four commercially available porcelains were examined-Wieland ALLUX, Wieland ZIROX, IPS e.max Ceram, and IPS Empress Esthetic Veneering porcelain. Sixty discs of each porcelain type were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions, followed by an auto-glaze cycle. Abrasive grinding using fine, extra-fine, and ultra-fine diamond burs was carried out, using a conventional dental air turbine. The grinding parameters were standardized with regard to the magnitude of the force applied, rotational speed of the diamond bur, and flow rate of the water coolant. A testing apparatus was used to control the magnitude of force applied during the grinding procedure. The ground surfaces were then examined under scanning electron microscope. Cracking was seen for all porcelain types when ground with the fine bur. Cracking was not seen for specimens ground with the extra-fine or the ultra-fine bur. Wet abrasive grinding with a conventional dental air turbine and fine grit diamond burs has the potential to cause cracking in the four porcelain types tested. Similar abrasive grinding with smaller grit size particles does not cause similar observable cracking. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. Finishing of display glass for mobile electronics using 3M Trizact diamond tile abrasive pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lianbin; Fletcher, Tim; Na, Tee Koon; Sventek, Bruce; Romero, Vince; Lugg, Paul S.; Kim, Don

    2010-10-01

    This paper will describe a new method being used during the finishing of glass displays for mobile electronics including mobile hand held devices and notebook computers. The new method consists of using 3M TrizactTM Diamond Tile Abrasive Pads. TrizactTM Diamond Tile is a structured fixed abrasive grinding technology developed by 3M Company. The TrizactTM Diamond Tile structured abrasive pad consists of an organic (polymeric binder) - inorganic (abrasive mineral, i.e., diamond) composite that is used with a water-based coolant. TrizactTM Diamond Tile technology can be applied in both double and single side grinding applications. A unique advantage of TrizactTM Diamond Tile technology is the combination of high stock removal and low sub-surface damage. Grinding results will be presented for both 9 micron and 20 micron grades of TrizactTM Diamond Tile abrasive pads used to finish several common display glasses including Corning GorillaTM glass and Soda Lime glass.

  15. Dependence of Non-Prestonian Behavior of Ceria Slurry with Anionic Surfactant on Abrasive Concentration and Size in Shallow Trench Isolation Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun‑Goo; Kim, Dae‑Hyeong; Katoh, Takeo; Kim, Sung‑Jun; Paik, Ungyu; Park, Jea‑Gun

    2006-05-01

    The dependencies of the non-Prestonian behavior of ceria slurry with anionic surfactant on the size and concentration of abrasive particles were investigated by performing chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) experiments using blanket wafers. We found that not only the abrasive size but also the abrasive concentration with surfactant addition influences the non-Prestonian behavior. Such behavior is clearly exhibited with small abrasive sizes and a higher concentrations of abrasives with surfactant addition, because the abrasive particles can locally contact the film surface more effectively with applied pressure. We introduce a factor to quantify these relations with the non-Prestonian behavior of a slurry. For ceria slurry, this non-Prestonian factor, βNP, was determined to be almost independent of the abrasive concentration for a larger size and a smaller weight conentration of abrasive particles, but it increased with the surfactant concentration for a smaller size and a higher concentration of abrasives with surfactant addition.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition reveals endogenous nicotinic modulation of glutamate inputs to CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons in hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Alkondon, Manickavasagom; Albuquerque, Edson X.; Pereira, Edna F.R.

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the neurotoxicological effects of soman, a potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and a chemical warfare agent, is not clear. This is partly due to a poor understanding of the role of AChE in brain nAChR-mediated functions. To test the hypothesis that AChE inhibition builds sufficient acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain and facilitates nAChR-dependent glutamate transmission, we used whole-cell patch-clamp technique to record spontaneous glutamate excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) from CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons (SRI) in hippocampal slices. First, the frequency, amplitude and kinetics of EPSCs recorded from slices of control guinea pigs were compared to those recorded from slices of guinea pigs after a single injection of the irreversible AChE inhibitor soman (25.2 μg/kg, s.c.). Second, EPSCs were recorded from rat hippocampal slices before and after their superfusion with the reversible AChE inhibitor donepezil (100 nM). The frequency of EPSCs was significantly higher in slices taken from guinea pigs 24 h but not 7 days after the soman injection than in slices from control animals. In 52% of the rat hippocampal slices tested, bath application of donepezil increased the frequency of EPSCs. Further, exposure to donepezil increased both burst-like and large-amplitude EPSCs, and increased the proportion of short (20–100 ms) inter-event intervals. Donepezil’s effects were suppressed significantly in presence of 10 μM mecamylamine or 10 nM methyllycaconitine. These results support the concept that AChE inhibition is able to recruit nAChR-dependent glutamate transmission in the hippocampus and such a mechanism can contribute to the acute neurotoxicological actions of soman. PMID:23511125

  17. Evaluation of Multilayer Cloud Detection Using a MODIS CO2-Slicing Algorithm With CALIPSO-CloudSat Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viudez-Mora, Antonio; Kato, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluates the multilayer cloud (MCF) algorithm based on CO2-slicing techniques against CALISPO-CloudSat (CLCS) measurement. This evaluation showed that the MCF underestimates the presence of multilayered clouds compared with CLCS and are retrained to cloud emissivities below 0.8 and cloud optical septs no larger than 0.3.

  18. The mouse cerebellar cortex in organotypic slice cultures: an in vitro model to analyze the consequences of mutations and pathologies on neuronal survival, development, and function.

    PubMed

    Lonchamp, Etienne; Dupont, Jean-Luc; Beekenkamp, Huguette; Poulain, Bernard; Bossu, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Thin acute slices and dissociated cell cultures taken from different parts of the brain have been widely used to examine the function of the nervous system, neuron-specific interactions, and neuronal development (specifically, neurobiology, neuropharmacology, and neurotoxicology studies). Here, we focus on an alternative in vitro model: brain-slice cultures in roller tubes, initially introduced by Beat Gähwiler for studies with rats, that we have recently adapted for studies of mouse cerebellum. Cultured cerebellar slices afford many of the advantages of dissociated cultures of neurons and thin acute slices. Organotypic slice cultures were established from newborn or 10-15-day-old mice. After 3-4 weeks in culture, the slices flattened to form a cell monolayer. The main types of cerebellar neurons could be identified with immunostaining techniques, while their electrophysiological properties could be easily characterized with the patch-clamp recording technique. When slices were taken from newborn mice and cultured for 3 weeks, aspects of the cerebellar development were displayed. A functional neuronal network was established despite the absence of mossy and climbing fibers, which are the two excitatory afferent projections to the cerebellum. When slices were made from 10-15-day-old mice, which are at a developmental stage when cerebellum organization is almost established, the structure and neuronal pathways were intact after 3-4 weeks in culture. These unique characteristics make organotypic slice cultures of mouse cerebellar cortex a valuable model for analyzing the consequences of gene mutations that profoundly alter neuronal function and compromise postnatal survival.

  19. Fresh-slice multicolour X-ray free-electron lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Lutman, Alberto A.; Maxwell, Timothy J.; MacArthur, James P.; ...

    2016-10-24

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) provide femtosecond X-ray pulses with a narrow energy bandwidth and unprecedented brightness. Ultrafast physical and chemical dynamics, initiated with a site-specific X-ray pulse, can be explored using XFELs with a second ultrashort X-ray probe pulse. However, existing double-pulse schemes are complicated, difficult to customize or provide only low-intensity pulses. Here we present the novel fresh-slice technique for multicolour pulse production, wherein different temporal slices of an electron bunch lase to saturation in separate undulator sections. This method combines electron bunch tailoring from a passive wakefield device with trajectory control to provide multicolour pulses. The fresh-slice schememore » outperforms existing techniques at soft X-ray wavelengths. It produces femtosecond pulses with a power of tens of gigawatts and flexible colour separation. The pulse delay can be varied from temporal overlap to almost one picosecond. As a result, we also demonstrate the first three-colour XFEL and variably polarized two-colour pulses.« less

  20. Multi-slice ptychography with large numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Ozturk, Hande; Yan, Hanfei; He, Yan

    Here, the highly convergent x-ray beam focused by multilayer Laue lenses with large numerical apertures is used as a three-dimensional (3D) probe to image layered structures with an axial separation larger than the depth of focus. Instead of collecting weakly scattered high-spatial-frequency signals, the depth-resolving power is provided purely by the intense central cone diverged from the focused beam. Using the multi-slice ptychography method combined with the on-the-fly scan scheme, two layers of nanoparticles separated by 10 μm are successfully reconstructed with 8.1 nm lateral resolution and with a dwell time as low as 0.05 s per scan point. Thismore » approach obtains high-resolution images with extended depth of field, which paves the way for multi-slice ptychography as a high throughput technique for high-resolution 3D imaging of thick samples.« less

  1. Multi-slice ptychography with large numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

    DOE PAGES

    Ozturk, Hande; Yan, Hanfei; He, Yan; ...

    2018-05-09

    Here, the highly convergent x-ray beam focused by multilayer Laue lenses with large numerical apertures is used as a three-dimensional (3D) probe to image layered structures with an axial separation larger than the depth of focus. Instead of collecting weakly scattered high-spatial-frequency signals, the depth-resolving power is provided purely by the intense central cone diverged from the focused beam. Using the multi-slice ptychography method combined with the on-the-fly scan scheme, two layers of nanoparticles separated by 10 μm are successfully reconstructed with 8.1 nm lateral resolution and with a dwell time as low as 0.05 s per scan point. Thismore » approach obtains high-resolution images with extended depth of field, which paves the way for multi-slice ptychography as a high throughput technique for high-resolution 3D imaging of thick samples.« less

  2. Pre-polishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeffer, Adrienne E.

    2003-05-01

    Deterministic micorgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-51.tm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an OptiproTM CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Nozzle in Abrasive Water Jet Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, S.; Chandresekaran, M.; Muthuraman, V.; Sathish, S.

    2017-03-01

    Abrasive water jet cutting is one of the most recently developed non-traditional manufacturing technologies. The general nature of flow through the machining, results in rapid wear of the nozzle which decrease the cutting performance. It is well known that the inlet pressure of the abrasive water suspension has main effect on the erosion characteristics of the inner surface of the nozzle. The objective of the project is to analyze the effect of inlet pressure on wall shear and exit kinetic energy. The analysis would be carried out by varying the inlet pressure of the nozzle, so as to obtain optimized process parameters for minimum nozzle wear. The two phase flow analysis would be carried by using computational fluid dynamics tool CFX. The availability of minimized process parameters such as of abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) is limited to water and experimental test can be cost prohibitive.

  4. The rock abrasion record at Gale Crater: Mars Science Laboratory results from Bradbury Landing to Rocknest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, N.T.; Calef, F.J.; Hallett, B.W.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Lanza, N.L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Newman, C.E.; Blaney, D.L.; de Pablo, M.A.; Kocurek, G.A.; Langevin, Y.; Lewis, K.W.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Pinet, P.; Renno, N.O.; Rice, CM.S.; Richardson, M.E.; Sautter, V.; Sletten, R.S.; Wiens, R.C.; Yingst, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ventifacts, rocks abraded by wind-borne particles, are found in Gale Crater, Mars. In the eastward drive from “Bradbury Landing” to “Rocknest,” they account for about half of the float and outcrop seen by Curiosity's cameras. Many are faceted and exhibit abrasion textures found at a range of scales, from submillimeter lineations to centimeter-scale facets, scallops, flutes, and grooves. The drive path geometry in the first 100 sols of the mission emphasized the identification of abrasion facets and textures formed by westerly flow. This upwind direction is inconsistent with predictions based on models and the orientation of regional dunes, suggesting that these ventifact features formed from very rare high-speed winds. The absence of active sand and evidence for deflation in the area indicates that most of the ventifacts are fossil features experiencing little abrasion today.

  5. Photodetector Development for the Wheel Abrasion Experiment on the Sojourner Microrover of the Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Scheiman, David A.

    1997-01-01

    On-board the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, launched in December of 1996, is a small roving vehicle named Sojourner. On Sojourner is an experiment to determine the abrasive characteristics of the Martian surface, called the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The experiment works as follows: one of the wheels of the rover has a strip of black anodized aluminum bonded to the tread. The aluminum strip has thin coatings of aluminum, nickel and platinum deposited in patches. There are five (5) patches or samples of each metal, and the patches range in thickness from 200 A to 1000 A. The different metals were chosen for their differing hardness and their environmental stability. As the wheel is spun in the Martian soil, the thin patches of metal are abraded away, exposing the black anodization. The abrasion is monitored by measuring the amount of light reflected off of the samples. A photodetector was developed for this purpose, and that is the subject of this paper.

  6. Abrasion-ablation model for neutron production in heavy ion reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1995-01-01

    In heavy ion reactions, neutron production at forward angles is observed to occur with a Gaussian shape that is centered near the beam energy and extends to energies well above that of the beam. This paper presents an abrasion-ablation model for making quantitative predictions of the neutron spectrum. To describe neutrons produced from the abrasion step of the reaction where the projectile and target overlap, the authors use the Glauber model and include effects of final-state interactions. They then use the prefragment mass distribution from abrasion with a statistical evaporation model to estimate the neutron spectrum resulting from ablation. Measurements of neutron production from Ne and Nb beams are compared with calculations, and good agreement is found.

  7. Metabolic Therapy for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in a Dish: Investigating Mechanisms of Ketogenic Diet using Electrophysiological Recordings in Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Masahito Jr.; Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1) direct application of ketone bodies; (2) mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique; and (3) reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet–fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT), pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy. PMID:27847463

  8. Effects of irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on sliced ham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hye; Song, Kyung Bin

    2011-11-01

    To examine the effects of fumaric acid and electron beam irradiation on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat meat products, sliced ham was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The inoculated ham slices were treated with 0.5% fumaric acid or electron beam irradiation at 2 kGy. Fumaric acid treatment reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium by approximately 1 log CFU/g compared to control populations. In contrast, electron beam irradiation decreased the populations of S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.78 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation is a better and appropriate technique for improving the microbial safety of sliced ham.

  9. Transmission of 2.5 Gbit/s Spectrum-sliced WDM System for 50 km Single-mode Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Nasim; Aljunid, Sayed Alwee; Ahmad, R. Badlisha; Fadil, Hilal Adnan; Rashid, Mohd Abdur

    2011-06-01

    The transmission of a spectrum-sliced WDM channel at 2.5 Gbit/s for 50 km of single mode fiber using an system channel spacing only 0.4 nm is reported. We have investigated the system performance using NRZ modulation format. The proposed system is compared with conventional system. The system performance is characterized as the bit-error-rate (BER) received against the system bit rates. Simulation results show that the NRZ modulation format performs well for 2.5 Gbit/s system bit rates. Using this narrow channel spectrum-sliced technique, the total number of multiplexed channels can be increased greatly in WDM system. Therefore, 0.4 nm channel spacing spectrum-sliced WDM system is highly recommended for the long distance optical access networks, like the Metro Area Network (MAN), Fiber-to-the-Building (FTTB) and Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH).

  10. Graph-based retrospective 4D image construction from free-breathing MRI slice acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Ciesielski, Krzysztof C.; McDonough, Joseph M.; Mong, Andrew; Campbell, Robert M.

    2014-03-01

    4D or dynamic imaging of the thorax has many potential applications [1, 2]. CT and MRI offer sufficient speed to acquire motion information via 4D imaging. However they have different constraints and requirements. For both modalities both prospective and retrospective respiratory gating and tracking techniques have been developed [3, 4]. For pediatric imaging, x-ray radiation becomes a primary concern and MRI remains as the de facto choice. The pediatric subjects we deal with often suffer from extreme malformations of their chest wall, diaphragm, and/or spine, as such patient cooperation needed by some of the gating and tracking techniques are difficult to realize without causing patient discomfort. Moreover, we are interested in the mechanical function of their thorax in its natural form in tidal breathing. Therefore free-breathing MRI acquisition is the ideal modality of imaging for these patients. In our set up, for each coronal (or sagittal) slice position, slice images are acquired at a rate of about 200-300 ms/slice over several natural breathing cycles. This produces typically several thousands of slices which contain both the anatomic and dynamic information. However, it is not trivial to form a consistent and well defined 4D volume from these data. In this paper, we present a novel graph-based combinatorial optimization solution for constructing the best possible 4D scene from such data entirely in the digital domain. Our proposed method is purely image-based and does not need breath holding or any external surrogates or instruments to record respiratory motion or tidal volume. Both adult and children patients' data are used to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the reconstructed 4D scenes are smooth and consistent spatially and temporally, agreeing with known shape and motion of the lungs.

  11. Robust Transmission of H.264/AVC Streams Using Adaptive Group Slicing and Unequal Error Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomos, Nikolaos; Argyropoulos, Savvas; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V.; Strintzis, Michael G.

    2006-12-01

    We present a novel scheme for the transmission of H.264/AVC video streams over lossy packet networks. The proposed scheme exploits the error-resilient features of H.264/AVC codec and employs Reed-Solomon codes to protect effectively the streams. A novel technique for adaptive classification of macroblocks into three slice groups is also proposed. The optimal classification of macroblocks and the optimal channel rate allocation are achieved by iterating two interdependent steps. Dynamic programming techniques are used for the channel rate allocation process in order to reduce complexity. Simulations clearly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over other recent algorithms for transmission of H.264/AVC streams.

  12. The effects of an airborne-particle abrasion and silica-coating on the bond strength between grooved titanium alloy temporary cylinders and provisional veneering materials.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ann Yu-Chieh; Sharma, Arun B; Watanabe, Larry G; Finzen, Frederick C

    2011-03-01

    Even though mechanical retentive features, such as grooves, are incorporated into the surface of titanium alloy temporary cylinders, a reliable bond to veneering provisional materials is not always achievable for screw-retained provisional implant restorations. There is insufficient information about the effect of tribochemical silica coating on the bond strength between provisional materials and grooved titanium alloy temporary cylinders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of an airborne-particle abrasion and silica-coating technique on the bond strength between grooved titanium alloy temporary cylinders and provisional veneering bisphenol-A glycidyl methacrylate and polymethyl methacrylate materials. Forty grooved titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) internal connection implant temporary cylinders were used. A disc of veneering material (7.1 × 3.4 mm) was created around the midsection of each cylinder. Forty specimens were divided into 4 groups (n=10): group NoTxPMMA, no surface treatment and polymethyl methacrylate veneering material; group NoTxBisGMA, no surface treatment and BisGMA veneering material; group AbPMMA, airborne-particle abrasion, silica-coating surface treatment (Rocatec), and polymethyl methacrylate; and group AbBisGMA, airborne-particle abrasion, silica-coating surface treatment (Rocatec), and BisGMA. Each specimen was subjected to ultimate shear load testing at the interface of the veneering material and the temporary cylinder in a universal testing machine at a constant crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Data were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA (α=.05) followed by post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. Each specimen underwent surface observation with a light microscope at ×40 magnification to compare fracture patterns. Airborne-particle abrasion and silica-coating surface treatment significantly lowered the shear bond strength (P<.05). The type of provisional material did not significantly affect the shear bond strength, with or

  13. Communication: Time- and space-sliced velocity map electron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Fan, Lin; Winney, Alexander H.; Li, Wen

    2014-12-01

    We develop a new method to achieve slice electron imaging using a conventional velocity map imaging apparatus with two additional components: a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed digitizer. The setup was previously shown to be capable of 3D detection and coincidence measurements of ions. Here, we show that when this method is applied to electron imaging, a time slice of 32 ps and a spatial slice of less than 1 mm thick can be achieved. Each slice directly extracts 3D velocity distributions of electrons and provides electron velocity distributions that are impossible or difficult to obtain with a standard 2D imaging electron detector.

  14. METHOXYCHLOR METABOLISM AND VITELLOGENINESIS IN MALE RAINBOW TROUT LIVER SLICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of vitellogenesis (VTG) in male fish has become an accepted biomarker for xenoestrogenicity. This study utilized the male rainbow trout liver slice model to determine the estrogenicity of parent compound, methoxychlor (MXC) and metabolites, di-hydroxy methoxychlor (HPTE...

  15. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were severely abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub-layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, shares the results of the testing, and provides recommendations for future work.

  16. Impact Capacity Reduction in Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers with Surface Abrasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Li, Dan; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2017-10-01

    Railway sleepers (also called ‘railroad tie’ in North America) embedded in ballasted railway tracks are a main part of railway track structures. Its important role is to transfer the loads evenly from the rails to a wider area of ballast bed and to secure rail gauge and enable safe passages of rolling stocks. By nature, railway infrastructure is nonlinear, evidenced by its behaviours, geometry and alignment, wheel-rail contact and operational parameters such as tractive efforts. Based on our critical review, the dynamic behaviour of railway sleepers has not been fully investigated, especially when the sleepers are deteriorated by excessive wears. In fact, the ballast angularity causes differential abrasions on the soffit or bottom surface of sleepers (especially at railseat zone). Furthermore, in sharp curves and rapid gradient change, longitudinal and lateral dynamics of rails increase the likelihood of railseat abrasions in concrete sleepers due to the unbalanced loading conditions. This paper presents a structural capacity of concrete sleepers under dynamic transient loading. The modified compression field theory for ultimate strength design of concrete sleepers under impact loading will be highlighted in this study. The influences of surface abrasions, including surface abrasion and soffit abrasion, on the dynamic behaviour of prestressed concrete sleepers, are firstly highlighted. The outcome of this study will improve the rail maintenance and inspection criteria in order to establish appropriate and sensible remote track condition monitoring network in practice. Moreover, this study will also improve the understanding of the fundamental dynamic behaviour of prestressed concrete sleepers with surface abrasions. The insight into these behaviours will not only improve safety and reliability of railway infrastructure but will enhance the structural safety of other concrete structures.

  17. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were badly abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub -layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This Paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, and shares the results and conclusions of the testing.

  18. Impact of brushing force on abrasion of acid-softened and sound enamel.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, A; Köwing, L; Attin, T

    2007-11-01

    The study aimed to analyse the effects of different brushing loads on abrasion of acid-softened and sound enamel surfaces. Sound and acid-softened surfaces of each 10 human enamel samples were submitted to brushing abrasion in an automatic brushing machine at 1.5 N (A), 2.5 N (B), 3.5 N (C) or 4.5 N (D) brushing load. Prior to abrasion, demineralisation of half of each enamel surface was performed by storage in hydrochloric acid (pH 2.0) for 60s. Brushing was carried out (1000 strokes) using a manual toothbrush and toothpaste slurry in a ratio of 1:3. Enamel loss was measured after 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 1000 brushing strokes (BS). Pre- and post-brushing values of Knoop indentation length (5 indentations each sample) were measured and mean enamel loss was calculated from the change in indentation depth. Within- and between-group comparisons were performed by ANOVA and t-test followed by Bonferroni-correction. Enamel loss of acid-softened surfaces was significantly influenced by the brushing load applied and was mostly significantly higher in group D (10-1000 BS: 225-462 nm) compared to A (10-1000 BS: 164-384), B (10-1000 BS: 175-370 nm) and C (10-1000 BS: 191-396 nm). Abrasion of acid-softened enamel was fourfold higher compared to sound surfaces. Sound enamel was significantly influenced by the brushing force at 20-200 brushing strokes only, but revealed no significant differences between groups A-D. Brushing load influences abrasion of briefly eroded enamel, but might be of minor importance for abrasion of sound enamel surfaces.

  19. Cardiac tissue slices: preparation, handling, and successful optical mapping

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ken; Lee, Peter; Mirams, Gary R.; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Borg, Thomas K.; Gavaghan, David J.; Kohl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac tissue slices are becoming increasingly popular as a model system for cardiac electrophysiology and pharmacology research and development. Here, we describe in detail the preparation, handling, and optical mapping of transmembrane potential and intracellular free calcium concentration transients (CaT) in ventricular tissue slices from guinea pigs and rabbits. Slices cut in the epicardium-tangential plane contained well-aligned in-slice myocardial cell strands (“fibers”) in subepicardial and midmyocardial sections. Cut with a high-precision slow-advancing microtome at a thickness of 350 to 400 μm, tissue slices preserved essential action potential (AP) properties of the precutting Langendorff-perfused heart. We identified the need for a postcutting recovery period of 36 min (guinea pig) and 63 min (rabbit) to reach 97.5% of final steady-state values for AP duration (APD) (identified by exponential fitting). There was no significant difference between the postcutting recovery dynamics in slices obtained using 2,3-butanedione 2-monoxime or blebistatin as electromechanical uncouplers during the cutting process. A rapid increase in APD, seen after cutting, was caused by exposure to ice-cold solution during the slicing procedure, not by tissue injury, differences in uncouplers, or pH-buffers (bicarbonate; HEPES). To characterize intrinsic patterns of CaT, AP, and conduction, a combination of multipoint and field stimulation should be used to avoid misinterpretation based on source-sink effects. In summary, we describe in detail the preparation, mapping, and data analysis approaches for reproducible cardiac tissue slice-based investigations into AP and CaT dynamics. PMID:25595366

  20. Cardiac tissue slices: preparation, handling, and successful optical mapping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ken; Lee, Peter; Mirams, Gary R; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Borg, Thomas K; Gavaghan, David J; Kohl, Peter; Bollensdorff, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac tissue slices are becoming increasingly popular as a model system for cardiac electrophysiology and pharmacology research and development. Here, we describe in detail the preparation, handling, and optical mapping of transmembrane potential and intracellular free calcium concentration transients (CaT) in ventricular tissue slices from guinea pigs and rabbits. Slices cut in the epicardium-tangential plane contained well-aligned in-slice myocardial cell strands ("fibers") in subepicardial and midmyocardial sections. Cut with a high-precision slow-advancing microtome at a thickness of 350 to 400 μm, tissue slices preserved essential action potential (AP) properties of the precutting Langendorff-perfused heart. We identified the need for a postcutting recovery period of 36 min (guinea pig) and 63 min (rabbit) to reach 97.5% of final steady-state values for AP duration (APD) (identified by exponential fitting). There was no significant difference between the postcutting recovery dynamics in slices obtained using 2,3-butanedione 2-monoxime or blebistatin as electromechanical uncouplers during the cutting process. A rapid increase in APD, seen after cutting, was caused by exposure to ice-cold solution during the slicing procedure, not by tissue injury, differences in uncouplers, or pH-buffers (bicarbonate; HEPES). To characterize intrinsic patterns of CaT, AP, and conduction, a combination of multipoint and field stimulation should be used to avoid misinterpretation based on source-sink effects. In summary, we describe in detail the preparation, mapping, and data analysis approaches for reproducible cardiac tissue slice-based investigations into AP and CaT dynamics. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Improved biochemical preservation of lung slices during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Bull, D A; Connors, R C; Reid, B B; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-05-15

    Development of lung preservation solutions typically requires whole-organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that lung slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat lungs were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 500 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in the following solutions: University of Wisconsin (UW), Euro-Collins (EC), low-potassium-dextran (LPD), Kyoto (K), normal saline (NS), or a novel lung preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Lung biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamol ATP/mg wet wt) and capacity for protein synthesis (cpm/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as means +/- SD. ATP content was significantly higher in the lung slices stored in NPS compared with all other solutions at each time point (P < 0.0001). Protein synthesis was significantly higher in the lung slices stored in NPS compared with all other solutions at 6, 12, and 18 h of preservation (P < 0.05). This lung slice model allows the rapid and efficient screening of lung preservation solutions and their components using quantifiable biochemical endpoints. Using this model, we have developed a novel solution that improves the biochemical preservation of lung slices during cold storage. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Improved biochemical preservation of heart slices during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Bull, D A; Reid, B B; Connors, R C; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-01-01

    Development of myocardial preservation solutions requires the use of whole organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that myocardial slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat hearts were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 200 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in one of the following solutions: Columbia University (CU), University of Wisconsin (UW), D5 0.2% normal saline with 20 meq/l KCL (QNS), normal saline (NS), or a novel cardiac preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Myocardial biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamoles ATP/mg wet weight) and capacity for protein synthesis (counts per minute (cpm)/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 hours), and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as the mean +/- standard deviation. ATP content was higher in the heart slices stored in the NPS compared to all other solutions at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours of cold storage (p < 0.05). Capacity for protein synthesis was higher in the heart slices stored in the NPS compared to all other solutions at 6, 12, and 18 hours of cold storage (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS This myocardial slice model allows the rapid and efficient screening of cardiac preservation solutions and their components using quantifiable biochemical endpoints. Using this model, we have developed a novel preservation solution which improves the biochemical function of myocardial slices during cold storage.

  3. A Unified Approach to Diffusion Direction Sensitive Slice Registration and 3-D DTI Reconstruction From Moving Fetal Brain Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Fogtmann, Mads; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Kroenke, Christopher; Cheng, Xi; Chapman, Teresa; Wilm, Jakob; Rousseau, François

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to 3-D diffusion tensor image (DTI) reconstruction from multi-slice diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of the moving fetal brain. Motion scatters the slice measurements in the spatial and spherical diffusion domain with respect to the underlying anatomy. Previous image registration techniques have been described to estimate the between slice fetal head motion, allowing the reconstruction of 3-D a diffusion estimate on a regular grid using interpolation. We propose Approach to Unified Diffusion Sensitive Slice Alignment and Reconstruction (AUDiSSAR) that explicitly formulates a process for diffusion direction sensitive DW-slice-to-DTI-volume alignment. This also incorporates image resolution modeling to iteratively deconvolve the effects of the imaging point spread function using the multiple views provided by thick slices acquired in different anatomical planes. The algorithm is implemented using a multi-resolution iterative scheme and multiple real and synthetic data are used to evaluate the performance of the technique. An accuracy experiment using synthetically created motion data of an adult head and a experiment using synthetic motion added to sedated fetal monkey dataset show a significant improvement in motion-trajectory estimation compared to a state-of-the-art approaches. The performance of the method is then evaluated on challenging but clinically typical in utero fetal scans of four different human cases, showing improved rendition of cortical anatomy and extraction of white matter tracts. While the experimental work focuses on DTI reconstruction (second-order tensor model), the proposed reconstruction framework can employ any 5-D diffusion volume model that can be represented by the spatial parameterizations of an orientation distribution function. PMID:24108711

  4. Inter-slice bidirectional registration-based segmentation of the prostate gland in MR and CT image sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Khalvati, Farzad, E-mail: farzad.khalvati@uwaterloo.ca; Tizhoosh, Hamid R.; Salmanpour, Aryan

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation and volume estimation of the prostate gland in magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images are necessary steps in diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of prostate cancer. This paper presents an algorithm for the prostate gland volume estimation based on the semiautomated segmentation of individual slices in T2-weighted MR and CT image sequences. Methods: The proposedInter-Slice Bidirectional Registration-based Segmentation (iBRS) algorithm relies on interslice image registration of volume data to segment the prostate gland without the use of an anatomical atlas. It requires the user to mark only three slices in a given volume dataset, i.e., themore » first, middle, and last slices. Next, the proposed algorithm uses a registration algorithm to autosegment the remaining slices. We conducted comprehensive experiments to measure the performance of the proposed algorithm using three registration methods (i.e., rigid, affine, and nonrigid techniques). Results: The results with the proposed technique were compared with manual marking using prostate MR and CT images from 117 patients. Manual marking was performed by an expert user for all 117 patients. The median accuracies for individual slices measured using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) were 92% and 91% for MR and CT images, respectively. The iBRS algorithm was also evaluated regarding user variability, which confirmed that the algorithm was robust to interuser variability when marking the prostate gland. Conclusions: The proposed algorithm exploits the interslice data redundancy of the images in a volume dataset of MR and CT images and eliminates the need for an atlas, minimizing the computational cost while producing highly accurate results which are robust to interuser variability.« less

  5. Inter-slice bidirectional registration-based segmentation of the prostate gland in MR and CT image sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Khalvati, Farzad, E-mail: farzad.khalvati@uwaterloo.ca; Tizhoosh, Hamid R.; Salmanpour, Aryan

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation and volume estimation of the prostate gland in magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images are necessary steps in diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of prostate cancer. This paper presents an algorithm for the prostate gland volume estimation based on the semiautomated segmentation of individual slices in T2-weighted MR and CT image sequences. Methods: The proposedInter-Slice Bidirectional Registration-based Segmentation (iBRS) algorithm relies on interslice image registration of volume data to segment the prostate gland without the use of an anatomical atlas. It requires the user to mark only three slices in a given volume dataset, i.e., themore » first, middle, and last slices. Next, the proposed algorithm uses a registration algorithm to autosegment the remaining slices. We conducted comprehensive experiments to measure the performance of the proposed algorithm using three registration methods (i.e., rigid, affine, and nonrigid techniques). Results: The results with the proposed technique were compared with manual marking using prostate MR and CT images from 117 patients. Manual marking was performed by an expert user for all 117 patients. The median accuracies for individual slices measured using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) were 92% and 91% for MR and CT images, respectively. The iBRS algorithm was also evaluated regarding user variability, which confirmed that the algorithm was robust to interuser variability when marking the prostate gland. Conclusions: The proposed algorithm exploits the interslice data redundancy of the images in a volume dataset of MR and CT images and eliminates the need for an atlas, minimizing the computational cost while producing highly accurate results which are robust to interuser variability.« less

  6. Abrasion Resistance and Mechanical Properties of Waste-Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Roller-compacted Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildizel, S. A.; Timur, O.; Ozturk, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    The potential use of waste glass fibers in roller-compacted concrete (RCC) was investigated with the aim to improve its performance and reduce environmental effects. The research was focused on the abrasion resistance and compressive and flexural strengths of the reinforced concrete relative to those of reference mixes without fibers. The freeze-thaw resistance of RCC mixes was also examined. It was found that the use of waste glass fibers at a rate of 2 % increased the abrasion resistance of the RCC mixes considerably.

  7. Experimental Evidence that Abrasion of Carbonate Sand is a Significant Source of Carbonate Mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trower, L.; Kivrak, L.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate mud is a major sedimentary component of modern and ancient tropical carbonate environments, yet its enigmatic origin remains debated. Early views on the origin of carbonate mud considered the abrasion of carbonate sand during sediment transport as a possible mechanism. In recent decades, however, prevailing thought has generally settled on a binary explanation: 1) precipitation of aragonite needles within the water column, and 2) post-mortem dispersal of biological aragonite, in particular from algae, and perhaps aided by fish. To test these different hypotheses, we designed a model and a set of laboratory experiments to quantify the rates of mud production associated with sediment transport. We adapted a recent model of ooid abrasion rate to predict the rate of mud production by abrasion of carbonate sand as a function of grain size and sediment transport mode. This model predicts large mud production rates, ranging from 103 to 104 g CaCO3/m2/yr for typical grain sizes and transport conditions. These rate estimates are at least one order of magnitude more rapid than the 102 g CaCO3/m2/yr estimates for other mechanisms like algal biomineralization, indicating that abrasion could produce much larger mud fluxes per area as other mechanisms. We tested these estimates using wet abrasion mill experiments; these experiments generated mud through mechanical abrasion of both ooid and skeletal carbonate sand for grain sizes ranging from 250 µm to >1000 µm over a range of sediment transport modes. Experiments were run in artificial seawater, including a series of controls demonstrating that no mud was produced via homogenous nucleation and precipitation in the absence of sand. Our experimental rates match the model predictions well, although we observed small systematic differences in rates between abrasion ooid sand and skeletal carbonate sand that likely stems from innate differences in grain angularity. Electron microscopy of the experimental products revealed

  8. Abrasive wear response of TIG-melted TiC composite coating: Taguchi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleque, M. A.; Bello, K. A.; Adebisi, A. A.; Dube, A.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, Taguchi design of experiment approach has been applied to assess wear behaviour of TiC composite coatings deposited on AISI 4340 steel substrates by novel powder preplacement and TIG torch melting processes. To study the abrasive wear behaviour of these coatings against alumina ball at 600° C, a Taguchi’s orthogonal array is used to acquire the wear test data for determining optimal parameters that lead to the minimization of wear rate. Composite coatings are developed based on Taguchi’s L-16 orthogonal array experiment with three process parameters (welding current, welding speed, welding voltage and shielding gas flow rate) at four levels. In this technique, mean response and signal-to-noise ratio are used to evaluate the influence of the TIG process parameters on the wear rate performance of the composite coated surfaces. The results reveal that welding voltage is the most significant control parameter for minimizing wear rate while the current presents the least contribution to the wear rate reduction. The study also shows the best optimal condition has been arrived at A3 (90 A), B4 (2.5 mm/s), C3 (30 V) and D3 (20 L/min), which gives minimum wear rate in TiC embedded coatings. Finally, a confirmatory experiment has been conducted to verify the optimized result and shows that the error between the predicted values and the experimental observation at the optimal condition lies within the limit of 4.7 %. Thus, the validity of the optimum condition for the coatings is established.

  9. A simple method for multiday imaging of slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Armin H; Rubel, Edwin W

    2010-01-01

    The organotypic slice culture (Stoppini et al. A simple method for organotypic cultures of nervous tissue. 1991;37:173-182) has become the method of choice to answer a variety of questions in neuroscience. For many experiments, however, it would be beneficial to image or manipulate a slice culture repeatedly, for example, over the course of many days. We prepared organotypic slice cultures of the auditory brainstem of P3 and P4 mice and kept them in vitro for up to 4 weeks. Single cells in the auditory brainstem were transfected with plasmids expressing fluorescent proteins by way of electroporation (Haas et al. Single-cell electroporation for gene transfer in vivo. 2001;29:583-591). The culture was then placed in a chamber perfused with oxygenated ACSF and the labeled cell imaged with an inverted wide-field microscope repeatedly for multiple days, recording several time-points per day, before returning the slice to the incubator. We describe a simple method to image a slice culture preparation during the course of multiple days and over many continuous hours, without noticeable damage to the tissue or photobleaching. Our method uses a simple, inexpensive custom-built insulator constructed around the microscope to maintain controlled temperature and uses a perfusion chamber as used for in vitro slice recordings. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Generalized Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuang-Ren; Jiang, Dazong; Yang, Kevin; Yang, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The cone-beam reconstruction theory has been proposed by Kirillov in 1961, Tuy in 1983, Feldkamp in 1984, Smith in 1985, Pierre Grangeat in 1990. The Fourier slice theorem is proposed by Bracewell 1956, which leads to the Fourier image reconstruction method for parallel-beam geometry. The Fourier slice theorem is extended to fan-beam geometry by Zhao in 1993 and 1995. By combining the above mentioned cone-beam image reconstruction theory and the above mentioned Fourier slice theory of fan-beam geometry, the Fourier slice theorem in cone-beam geometry is proposed by Zhao 1995 in short conference publication. This article offers the details of the derivation and implementation of this Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam geometry. Especially the problem of the reconstruction from Fourier domain has been overcome, which is that the value of in the origin of Fourier space is 0/0. The 0/0 type of limit is proper handled. As examples, the implementation results for the single circle and two perpendicular circle source orbits are shown. In the cone-beam reconstruction if a interpolation process is considered, the number of the calculations for the generalized Fourier slice theorem algorithm is O(N^4), which is close to the filtered back-projection method, here N is the image size of 1-dimension. However the interpolation process can be avoid, in that case the number of the calculations is O(N5).

  11. Microleakage of class V resin composite restorations after bur, air-abrasion or Er:YAG laser preparation.

    PubMed

    Corona, S A; Borsatto, M; Dibb, R G; Ramos, R P; Brugnera, A; Pécora, J D

    2001-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the microleakage of Class V resin composite restorations placed in cavities prepared with a high-speed dental bur, air-abrasion or Er:YAG laser. Twenty sound extracted human third molars were selected and randomly assigned to four equal Groups (n=10): Group I, cavities were cut by dental drill at high-speed; Group II, aluminum oxide air-abrasion was used for cavity preparation, and in Groups III and IV, cavities were prepared by Er:YAG laser. Following cavity preparation, Groups I and II were acid-etched, Group III was treated only by Er:YAG laser and Group IV was conditioned by Er:YAG laser followed by acid-etching. Cavities were restored (Single Bond + Z-100) and the teeth stored for seven days in distilled water. Then, the restorations were polished and the specimens thermocycled, immersed in a 0.2% Rhodamine solution, sectioned and analyzed for leakage at the occlusal (enamel) and cervical (dentin/cementum) interfaces using an optical microscope connected to a video camera. The images were digitized and software was utilized for microleakage assessment. Upon analyzing the results, statistically significant differences (p<0.01) between the occlusal and cervical regions for all groups was observed, and, as a rule, there was better marginal sealing at the enamel margins. The highest degree of infiltration was observed for cavities prepared and treated exclusively by Er:YAG (Group III). The other experimental groups showed statistical similarities in the amount of marginal leakage at the enamel margins. However, at the cervical margins, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between Group I and the remaining groups. None of the techniques completely eliminated marginal microleakage at the dentin/ cementum margins.

  12. Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with attention to the effects of reused abradant

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Dehoff, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    Abrasive wear is among the most common and costliest causes for material wastage, and it occurs in many forms. A simple method has been developed to quantify the response of metals and alloys to two-body wet abrasion. A metallographic polishing machine was modified to create a disk-on-flat sliding test rig. Adhesive-backed SiC grinding papers were used under fixed load and speed to rank the abrasive wear of seven alloy steels, some of which are candidates for drill cones for geothermal drilling. Standardized two-body abrasion tests, like those described in ASTM G132, feed unused abrasive into the contact; however, the currentmore » work investigated whether useful rankings could still be obtained with a simpler testing configuration in which specimens repeatedly slide on the same wear path under water-lubricated conditions. Tests using abrasive grit sizes of 120 and 180 resulted in the same relative ranking of the alloys although the coarser grit produced more total wear. Wear decreased when the same abrasive disk was re-used for up to five runs, but the relative rankings of the steels remained the same. This procedure was presented to ASTM Committee G2 on Wear and Erosion as a potential standard test for wet two-body abrasive wear.« less

  13. NK cells are necessary for recovery of corneal CD11c+ dendritic cells after epithelial abrasion injury

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mechanisms controlling CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs during corneal epithelial wound healing were investigated in a murine model of corneal abrasion. Selective depletion of NKp46(+) CD3- NK cells that normally migrate into the cornea after epithelial abrasion resulted in >85% reduction of the epithelial CD1...

  14. Supervised neural network classification of pre-sliced cooked pork ham images using quaternionic singular values.

    PubMed

    Valous, Nektarios A; Mendoza, Fernando; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2010-03-01

    The quaternionic singular value decomposition is a technique to decompose a quaternion matrix (representation of a colour image) into quaternion singular vector and singular value component matrices exposing useful properties. The objective of this study was to use a small portion of uncorrelated singular values, as robust features for the classification of sliced pork ham images, using a supervised artificial neural network classifier. Images were acquired from four qualities of sliced cooked pork ham typically consumed in Ireland (90 slices per quality), having similar appearances. Mahalanobis distances and Pearson product moment correlations were used for feature selection. Six highly discriminating features were used as input to train the neural network. An adaptive feedforward multilayer perceptron classifier was employed to obtain a suitable mapping from the input dataset. The overall correct classification performance for the training, validation and test set were 90.3%, 94.4%, and 86.1%, respectively. The results confirm that the classification performance was satisfactory. Extracting the most informative features led to the recognition of a set of different but visually quite similar textural patterns based on quaternionic singular values. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anatomisation with slicing: a new privacy preservation approach for multiple sensitive attributes.

    PubMed

    Susan, V Shyamala; Christopher, T

    2016-01-01

    An enormous quantity of personal health information is available in recent decades and tampering of any part of this information imposes a great risk to the health care field. Existing anonymization methods are only apt for single sensitive and low dimensional data to keep up with privacy specifically like generalization and bucketization. In this paper, an anonymization technique is proposed that is a combination of the benefits of anatomization, and enhanced slicing approach adhering to the principle of k-anonymity and l-diversity for the purpose of dealing with high dimensional data along with multiple sensitive data. The anatomization approach dissociates the correlation observed between the quasi identifier attributes and sensitive attributes (SA) and yields two separate tables with non-overlapping attributes. In the enhanced slicing algorithm, vertical partitioning does the grouping of the correlated SA in ST together and thereby minimizes the dimensionality by employing the advanced clustering algorithm. In order to get the optimal size of buckets, tuple partitioning is conducted by MFA. The experimental outcomes indicate that the proposed method can preserve privacy of data with numerous SA. The anatomization approach minimizes the loss of information and slicing algorithm helps in the preservation of correlation and utility which in turn results in reducing the data dimensionality and information loss. The advanced clustering algorithms prove its efficiency by minimizing the time and complexity. Furthermore, this work sticks to the principle of k-anonymity, l-diversity and thus avoids privacy threats like membership, identity and attributes disclosure.

  16. Refinements to HIRS CO2 Slicing Algorithm with Results Compared to CALIOP and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, R.; Menzel, P.

    2012-12-01

    This poster reports on the refinement of a cloud top property algorithm using High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) measurements. The HIRS sensor has been flown on fifteen satellites from TIROS-N through NOAA-19 and MetOp-A forming a continuous 30 year cloud data record. Cloud Top Pressure and effective emissivity (cloud fraction multiplied by cloud emissivity) are derived using the 15 μm spectral bands in the CO2 absorption band, implementing the CO2 slicing technique which is strong for high semi-transparent clouds but weak for low clouds with little thermal contrast from clear skies. We report on algorithm adjustments suggested from MODIS cloud record validations and the inclusion of collocated AVHRR cloud fraction data from the PATMOS-x algorithm. Reprocessing results for 2008 are shown using NOAA-18 HIRS and collocated CALIOP data for validation, as well as comparisons to MODIS monthly mean values. Adjustments to the cloud algorithm include (a) using CO2 slicing for all ice and mixed phase clouds and infrared window determinations for all water clouds, (b) determining the cloud top pressure from the most opaque CO2 spectral band pair seeing the cloud, (c) reducing the cloud detection threshold for the CO2 slicing algorithm to include conditions of smaller radiance differences that are often due to thin ice clouds, and (d) identifying stratospheric clouds when an opaque band is warmer than a less opaque band.

  17. A sandwich-like differential B-dot based on EACVD polycrystalline diamond slice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Yu, Y.; Xu, L.; Zhou, H. Y.; Qiu, C. J.

    2018-06-01

    In this article, we present a method of mass production of a standardized high-performance differential B-dot magnetic probe together with the magnetic field measurement in a pulsed current device with the current up to hundreds of kilo-Amperes. A polycrystalline diamond slice produced in an Electron Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition device is used as the base and insulating material to imprint two symmetric differential loops for the magnetic field measurement. The SP3 carbon bond in the cubic lattice structure of diamond is confirmed by Raman spectra. The thickness of this slice is 20 μm. A gold loop is imprinted onto each surface of the slice by using the photolithography technique. The inner diameter, width, and thickness of each loop are 0.8 mm, 50 μm, and 1 μm, respectively. It provides a way of measuring the pulsed magnetic field with a high spatial and temporal resolution, especially in limited space. This differential magnetic probe has demonstrated a very good common-mode rejection rate through the pulsed magnetic field measurement.

  18. Interpolation of 3D slice volume data for 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littley, Samuel; Voiculescu, Irina

    2017-03-01

    Medical imaging from CT and MRI scans has become essential to clinicians for diagnosis, treatment planning and even prevention of a wide array of conditions. The presentation of image data volumes as 2D slice series provides some challenges with visualising internal structures. 3D reconstructions of organs and other tissue samples from data with low scan resolution leads to a `stepped' appearance. This paper demonstrates how to improve 3D visualisation of features and automated preparation for 3D printing from such low resolution data, using novel techniques for morphing from one slice to the next. The boundary of the starting contour is grown until it matches the boundary of the ending contour by adapting a variant of the Fast Marching Method (FMM). Our spoke based approach generates scalar speed field for FMM by estimating distances to boundaries with line segments connecting the two boundaries. These can be regularly spaced radial spokes or spokes at radial extrema. We introduce clamped FMM by running the algorithm outwards from the smaller boundary and inwards from the larger boundary and combining the two runs to achieve FMM growth stability near the two region boundaries. Our method inserts a series of uniformly distributed intermediate contours between each pair of consecutive slices from the scan volume thus creating smoother feature boundaries. Whilst hard to quantify, our overall results give clinicians an evidently improved tangible and tactile representation of the tissues, that they can examine more easily and even handle.

  19. Design and evaluation of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete mixes, report D : creep, shrinkage, and abrasion resistance of HVFA concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect on shrinkage, creep, : and abrasion resistance of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete. The HVFA concrete : test program consisted of comparing the shrinkage, creep, and abrasion performance...

  20. AUTORADIOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS ON AGAR PLATES OF ANTIGENS FROM SUB CELLULAR FRACTIONS OF RAT LIVER SLICES

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, W. S.; Perlmann, P.; Hultin, T.

    1961-01-01

    Slices of rat livers were incubated with 14C amino acids, homogenized, and subjected to differential centrifugation. The microsomes were further extracted with the non-ionic detergent Lubrol W and with EDTA. These extracts and the microsome free "cell sap," freed from the pH 5 precipitable fraction, were subsequently reacted with antisera using agar diffusion techniques. The antisera employed were obtained from rabbits injected with different subcellular fractions of rat liver or with rat serum proteins. When the agar diffusion plates were autoradiographed it was found that some of the precipitates were radioactive while others were not. Control experiments indicated that this labeling was due to the specific incorporation of 14C amino acids into various rat liver antigens during incubation of the slices rather than to a non-specific adsorption of radioactive material to the immunological precipitates. When the slices were incubated with the isotope for up to 30 minutes, the serum proteins which could be extracted from the microsomes with the detergent were strongly labeled, as were a number of additional microsomal antigens of unknown significance. In contrast, the serum proteins present in the cell sap were only weakly labeled. Most of the typical cell sap proteins, both those precipitable and those soluble at pH 5, seemed to remain unlabeled. No consistently reproducible results were obtained with the EDTA extracts of the ribosomal residues remaining after extraction of the microsomes with the detergent. Incubation of the liver slices for longer periods (up to 120 minutes) led to a strong labeling of the serum proteins in the cell sap as well as to the appearance of labeling in additional cell sap proteins. The results are discussed with regard to the subcellular site of synthesis and the metabolism of the different antigens. PMID:13772607

  1. Recording and Modulation of Epileptiform Activity in Rodent Brain Slices Coupled to Microelectrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, Gabriella; Colombi, Ilaria; Chiappalone, Michela

    2018-05-15

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common partial complex epileptic syndrome and the least responsive to medications. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising approach when pharmacological treatment fails or neurosurgery is not recommended. Acute brain slices coupled to microelectrode arrays (MEAs) represent a valuable tool to study neuronal network interactions and their modulation by electrical stimulation. As compared to conventional extracellular recording techniques, they provide the added advantages of a greater number of observation points and a known inter-electrode distance, which allow studying the propagation path and speed of electrophysiological signals. However, tissue oxygenation may be greatly impaired during MEA recording, requiring a high perfusion rate, which comes at the cost of decreased signal-to-noise ratio and higher oscillations in the experimental temperature. Electrical stimulation further stresses the brain tissue, making it difficult to pursue prolonged recording/stimulation epochs. Moreover, electrical modulation of brain slice activity needs to target specific structures/pathways within the brain slice, requiring that electrode mapping be easily and quickly performed live during the experiment. Here, we illustrate how to perform the recording and electrical modulation of 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-induced epileptiform activity in rodent brain slices using planar MEAs. We show that the brain tissue obtained from mice outperforms rat brain tissue and is thus better suited for MEA experiments. This protocol guarantees the generation and maintenance of a stable epileptiform pattern that faithfully reproduces the electrophysiological features observed with conventional field potential recording, persists for several hours, and outlasts sustained electrical stimulation for prolonged epochs. Tissue viability throughout the experiment is achieved thanks to the use of a small-volume custom recording chamber allowing for laminar flow and

  2. Development of a method to evaluate glutamate receptor function in rat barrel cortex slices.

    PubMed

    Lehohla, M; Russell, V; Kellaway, L; Govender, A

    2000-12-01

    The rat is a nocturnal animal and uses its vibrissae extensively to navigate its environment. The vibrissae are linked to a highly organized part of the sensory cortex, called the barrel cortex which contains spiny neurons that receive whisker specific thalamic input and distribute their output mainly within the cortical column. The aim of the present study was to develop a method to evaluate glutamate receptor function in the rat barrel cortex. Long Evans rats (90-160 g) were killed by cervical dislocation and decapitated. The brain was rapidly removed, cooled in a continuously oxygenated, ice-cold Hepes buffer (pH 7.4) and sliced using a vibratome to produce 0.35 mm slices. The barrel cortex was dissected from slices corresponding to 8.6 to 4.8 mm anterior to the interaural line and divided into rostral, middle and caudal regions. Depolarization-induced uptake of 45Ca2+ was achieved by incubating test slices in a high K+ (62.5 mM) buffer for 2 minutes at 35 degrees C. Potassium-stimulated uptake of 45Ca2+ into the rostral region was significantly lower than into middle and caudal regions of the barrel cortex. Glutamate had no effect. NMDA significantly increased uptake of 45Ca2+ into all regions of the barrel cortex. The technique is useful in determining NMDA receptor function and will be applied to study differences between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) that are used as a model for attention deficit disorder and their normotensive control rats.

  3. Apical bud toughness tests and tree sway movements to examine crown abrasion: preliminary results

    Treesearch

    Tyler Brannon; Wayne Clatterbuck

    2012-01-01

    Apical bud toughness differences were examined for several species to determine if crown abrasion affects shoot growth of determinate and indeterminate species during stand development. Determinate buds will set and harden after initial shoot elongation in the spring, while the indeterminate shoots form leaves from the apical meristem continuously based on the...

  4. Study of abrasive wear process of lining of grinding chamber of vortex-acoustic disperser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelygin, D. N.

    2018-03-01

    The theoretical and experimental studies of the process of gas-abrasive wear of the lining of a vortex-acoustic disperser made it possible to establish the conditions and patterns of their occurrence and also to develop proposals for its reduction.

  5. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  6. Spent coffee grounds as air-propelled abrasive grit for weed control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) represent a significant food waste residue. Value-added uses for this material would be beneficial. Gritty agricultural residues, such as corncob grit, can be employed as abrasive air-propelled agents for organically-compatible postemergence shredding of weed seedlings sel...

  7. Propelled abrasive grit applications for weed management in transitional corn grain production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed control is challenging to farmers who are transitioning from production systems that use synthetic herbicides to organic systems. A two-year field study examined weed control efficacy and corn grain yield of air-propelled corncob grit abrasion for in-row weed control. Grits were applied based o...

  8. Tribological properties of multifunctional coatings with Shape Memory Effect in abrasive wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blednova, Zh. M.; Dmitrenko, D. V.; Balaev, E. U. O.

    2018-01-01

    The article gives research results of the abrasive wear process on samples made of Steel 1045, U10 and with applied composite surface layer "Nickel-Multicomponent material with Shape Memory Effect (SME) based on TiNi". For the tests we have chosen TiNiZr, which is in the martensite state and TiNiHfCu, which is in the austenitic state at the test temperature. The formation of the surface layer was carried out by high-speed oxygen-fuel deposition in a protective atmosphere of argon. In the wear test, Al2O3 corundum powder was used as an abrasive. It is shown that the wear rate of samples with a composite surface layer of multicomponent materials with SME is significantly reduced in comparison with the base, which is explained by reversible phase transformations of the surface layer with SME. After carrying out the additional surface plastic deformation (SPD), the resistance of the laminated composition to abrasion wear has greatly enhanced, due to the reinforcing effect of the SPD. It is recommended for products working in conditions of abrasive wear and high temperatures to use the complex formation technology of the surface composition "steel-nickel-material with high-temperature SME", including preparation of the substrate surface and the deposited material, high-speed spraying in the protective atmosphere of argon, followed by SPD.

  9. Neural network approximation of tip-abrasion effects in AFM imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, Peter; Yacoot, Andrew; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Krüger-Sehm, Rolf

    2008-06-01

    The abrasion (wear) of tips used in scanning force microscopy (SFM) directly influences SFM image quality and is therefore of great relevance to quantitative SFM measurements. The increasing implementation of automated SFM measurement schemes has become a strong driving force for increasing efforts towards the prediction of tip wear, as it needs to be ensured that the probe is exchanged before a level of tip wear is reached that adversely affects the measurement quality. In this paper, we describe the identification of tip abrasion in a system of SFM measurements. We attempt to model the tip-abrasion process as a concatenation of a mapping from the measured AFM data to a regression vector and a nonlinear mapping from the regressor space to the output space. The mapping is formed as a basis function expansion. Feedforward neural networks are used to approximate this mapping. The one-hidden layer network gave a good quality of fit for the training and test sets for the tip-abrasion system. We illustrate our method with AFM measurements of both fine periodic structures and randomly oriented sharp features and compare our neural network results with those obtained using other methods.

  10. Influence of different toothpaste abrasives on the bristle end-rounding quality of toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, G J P L; de Aveiro, J M; Pavone, C; Marcantonio, R A C

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of different toothpaste abrasives on the bristle wear and bristle tip morphology of toothbrushes with different degrees of hardness. Ninety samples of bovine incisor teeth were used in this study. The samples were randomly divided into three groups according to the bristle hardness of the toothbrush used: soft bristles (S); extra-soft bristles (ES); hard bristles (H). The toothbrushes of each group were randomly divided into six subgroups with five toothbrushes each, according to the abrasive of the toothpaste used in the simulation: Negative control (distilled water); toothpaste 1 (silica); toothpaste 2 (hydrated silica); toothpaste 3 (calcium carbonate, calcium bicarbonate and silica); toothpaste 4 (tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, silica and titanium dioxide); toothpaste 5 (calcium carbonate). The samples were placed in a toothbrushing simulating machine that simulating three months of brushing. The toothbrush bristles were evaluated by the bristle wear index, and the bristle tips morphology was evaluated by the bristle tip morphology index. The ES brush presented the highest bristle wear among the toothbrushes. Additionally, the S brushes showed better morphology of the bristles followed by ES and H brushes. The type of abrasive only influenced the bristle tip morphology of the ES brushes. The toothpaste 3 induced the worse bristle tip morphology than all the other toothpastes. Different abrasives have influence only on the bristle tip morphology of the ES brushes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Optical tools for high-throughput screening of abrasion resistance of combinatorial libraries of organic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Chisholm, Bret J.; Olson, Daniel R.; Brennan, Michael J.; Molaison, Chris A.

    2002-02-01

    Design, validation, and implementation of an optical spectroscopic system for high-throughput analysis of combinatorially developed protective organic coatings are reported. Our approach replaces labor-intensive coating evaluation steps with an automated system that rapidly analyzes 8x6 arrays of coating elements that are deposited on a plastic substrate. Each coating element of the library is 10 mm in diameter and 2 to 5 micrometers thick. Performance of coatings is evaluated with respect to their resistance to wear abrasion because this parameter is one of the primary considerations in end-use applications. Upon testing, the organic coatings undergo changes that are impossible to quantitatively predict using existing knowledge. Coatings are abraded using industry-accepted abrasion test methods at single-or multiple-abrasion conditions, followed by high- throughput analysis of abrasion-induced light scatter. The developed automated system is optimized for the analysis of diffusively scattered light that corresponds to 0 to 30% haze. System precision of 0.1 to 2.5% relative standard deviation provides capability for the reliable ranking of coatings performance. While the system was implemented for high-throughput screening of combinatorially developed organic protective coatings for automotive applications, it can be applied to a variety of other applications where materials ranking can be achieved using optical spectroscopic tools.

  12. ICAM-1 mediates surface contact between neutrophils and keratocytes following corneal epithelial abrasion in the mouse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corneal epithelial abrasion elicits an inflammatory response involving neutrophil (PMN) recruitment from the limbal vessels into the corneal stroma. These migrating PMNs make surface contact with collagen and stromal keratocytes. Using mice deficient in PMN integrin CD18, we previously showed that P...

  13. Martian and Terrestrial Rock Abrasion from Wind Tunnel and Field Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Greeley, R.; Eddlemon, E.; Laity, J. E.; Meyer, C.; Phoreman, J.; White, B. R.

    2003-01-01

    Earth and Mars exhibit ventifacts, rocks that have been abraded by saltating sand. Previous theoretical and laboratory studies have determined abrasion susceptibilities of rocks as a function of sand type and impact angle and rock material strengths. For the last two years we have been engaged in wind tunnel and field studies to better understand the fundamental factors which control and influence rock abrasion and ventifact formation on Earth and Mars. In particular, we are examining: 1) What types of rocks (composition, texture, and shape) preferentially erode and what are the relative rates of one type vs. another? 2) What are the controlling factors of the aeolian sand cloud (flux, particle speed, surface roughness, etc) which favor rock abrasion?, 3) How do specific ventifact characteristics tie into their mode of formation and rock properties? We find several important factors: 1) Initial rock shape controls the rate of abrasion, with steeper faces abrading faster than shallower ones. The relationship is partly dependent on angle-dependent flux (proportional to sin[theta]) but exhibits additional non-linear effects from momentum transfer efficiency and rebound effects that vary with incidence angle. 2) Irregular targets with pits or grooves abrade at greater rates than targets with smooth surfaces, with indentations generally enlarging with time. Surfaces become rougher with time. 3) Targets also abrade via slope retreat, which is roughly dependent on the slope of the front face. The formation of basal sills is common, as observed on terrestrial and Martian ventifacts.

  14. Erosion of enamel by non-carbonated soft drinks with and without toothbrushing abrasion.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, C A; Parker, D M; Addy, M; Barbour, M E

    2006-10-07

    To investigate how enamel loss due to erosion, and due to cycling of erosion and abrasion, depends on compositional parameters of soft drinks, and particularly whether the thickness of the erosive softened layer is a function of drink composition. University dental hospital research laboratory in the UK, 2004. Six drinks were chosen based on their popularity and composition: apple juice, orange juice, apple drink, orange drink, cranberry drink and 'ToothKind' blackcurrant drink. Group A samples (n = 36) were exposed to soft drinks at 36 degrees C for six consecutive 10 minute periods. Group B samples (n = 36) were subjected to alternating erosion and toothbrushing, repeated six times. Enamel loss was measured using optical profilometry. Group A: significant enamel loss was seen for all drinks (p < 0.001). Erosion was correlated with pH and calcium concentration but not phosphate concentration or titratable acidity. Group B: significant additional material loss due to toothbrush abrasion occurred with all drinks. Abrasive enamel loss differed between the drinks and was positively correlated with drink erosive potential. Enamel loss by erosion is exacerbated by subsequent abrasion. The amount of softened enamel removed by toothbrushing is a function of the chemical composition of the erosive medium.

  15. Laser abrasion for cosmetic and medical treatment of facial actinic damage

    SciTech Connect

    David, L.M.; Lask, G.P.; Glassberg, E.

    1989-06-01

    Previous studies have shown the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser to be effective in the treatment of actinic cheilitis. After CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion, normal skin and marked cosmetic improvement of the lip were noted. In our study, twenty-three patients were treated with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasions for cosmetic improvement of facial lines and actinic changes. Pre- and postoperative histopathologic examinations were made on two patients. Preoperative examination of specimens from actinically damaged skin showed atypical keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, with overlying dense compact orthokeratosis and parakeratosis. Abundant solar elastosis was seen in the papillary dermis.more » Postoperative histologic specimens showed a normal-appearing epidermis with fibrosis in the papillary dermis and minimal solar elastosis (about four weeks after laser treatment). At present, various modalities are available for the regeneration of the aged skin, including chemical peels and dermabrasion. Significantly fewer complications were noted with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion than with these methods. Thus, CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion can be useful in the cosmetic and medical treatment of the aged skin. Marked clinical and histologic improvement has been demonstrated.« less

  16. Tribological properties of amorphous alloys and the role of surfaces in abrasive wear of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The research approach undertaken by the authors relative to the subject, and examples of results from the authors are reviewed. The studies include programs in adhesion, friction, and various wear mechanisms (adhesive and abrasive wear). The materials which have been studied include such ceramic and metallic materials as silicon carbide, ferrites, diamond, and amorphous alloys.

  17. NK cells modulate the inflammatory response to corneal epithelial abrasion and thereby support wound healing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural killer cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that have crucial cytotoxic and regulatory roles in adaptive immunity and inflammation. Herein, we consider a role for these cells in corneal wound healing. After a 2-mm central epithelial abrasion of the mouse cornea, a subset of clas...

  18. Platelet recruitment promotes keratocyte repopulation following corneal epithelial abrasion in the mouse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corneal abrasion not only damages the epithelium but also induces stromal keratocyte death at the site of injury. While a coordinated cascade of inflammatory cell recruitment facilitates epithelial restoration, it is unclear if this cascade is necessary for keratocyte recovery. Since platelet and ne...

  19. IBPAT/OSHA Health and Safety Education Quiz Book. Painters, Abrasive Blasters, Tapers, Paint Makers, Floorcoverers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades, Washington, DC.

    Designed for use by instructors using the "Health and Safety Education Book" (International Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades/Occupational Safety and Health Act), this book contains quizzes specifically for painters, abrasive blasters, tapers, paint makers, and floorcoverers. Quizzes included in the book focus on testing areas such as (1)…

  20. The efficacy of a highly concentrated fluoride dentifrice on bovine enamel subjected to erosion and abrasion.

    PubMed

    Rios, Daniela; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Polo, Renata Ocon Braga; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas; Buzalaf, Marilia Afonso Rabelo

    2008-12-01

    Researchers have proposed the use of fluoride for the prevention of enamel wear; however, only limited information is available about the impact of fluoridated dentifrices. Because tooth wear is a well-recognized dental problem, the authors conducted an in situ, ex vivo study to assess the efficacy of a highly concentrated fluoride dentifrice on bovine enamel subjected to erosion and abrasion. The authors conducted a double-blind, crossover in situ study consisting of three phases (seven days each). In each phase, the authors tested one of the dentifrices (5,000 parts per million fluoride [F]; 1,100 ppm F; no F). They performed erosive challenges with the use of cola drink (60 seconds, four times per day) and abrasive challenges via toothbrushing (30 seconds, four times per day). The authors determined the enamel loss via profilometry. The authors tested the data by using two-way analysis of variance (P < .05). For the erosion-plus-abrasion condition, the study results showed that enamel wear was significantly higher than that with erosion alone. The findings showed no significant differences between the dentifrices regarding enamel wear. Within the in situ, ex vivo conditions of this study, the authors concluded that the highly concentrated fluoride dentifrice did not have a protective effect on enamel against erosion and erosion plus toothbrushing abrasion. Patients at risk of developing enamel erosion should benefit from preventive measures other than fluoride dentifrice, because even a highly concentrated fluoride dentifrice does not appear to prevent enamel erosion.

  1. Rates of Eolian Rock Abrasion in the Ice-Free Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallet, B.; Malin, M. C.; Sletten, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Eolian abrasion is a principal surface process in dry regions of Earth and Mars and there is evidence for wind processes active on Venus and Titan. Rock abrasion also has practical significance in diverse fields ranging from preservation of cultural material (artifacts, monuments) to damage of solar panels and windshields in arid regions. Despite its scientific and practical importance, and there have ben only few studies that define rates of rock abrasion quantitatively under natural conditions. Herein we report abrasion rates that have been exceptionally well characterized through a unique long-term (30+-year) field experiment in the ice-free McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. In 1983 and 1984, over 5000 rock targets of several lithologies (25.4 mm-diameter and 5 mm-thick disks of dolerite, basalt, tuff and sandstone) were installed at five heights (7,14, 21, 35, and 70 cm) facing the 4 cardinal directions at 10 locations (one additional site contains fewer targets). Sequential collections of rock targets exposed to abrasion enable definition of mass loss after 1, 5, 10, 30 and 31 years of exposure; the latter were retrieved during the 2014-2015 season. The abrasion rates generally show striking consistency for each lithology at any site; the multiple targets permit definition of intrinsic differences in mass loss. The rates vary considerably from site to site owing to differences in availability of transportable sediment, wind regime, and surface roughness, and at each site, owing to target orientation relative to the dominant winds and, secondarily, to height above the ground. For the hardest targets, basalt and dolerite, mass loss in 30+ years ranged from essentially zero at some sites to 1/3 of the deployed mass (2.59 g; equivalent to a rock thickness >1.8 mm) where abrasion was most active (Site 7, Central Wright Valley). The tuff targets showed the greatest mass loss, and in many cases were entirely abraded away by the end of the experiment.Current work is

  2. Effect of etching and airborne particle abrasion on the microstructure of different dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Sophr, Ana Maria; de Goes, Mario Fernando; Sobrinho, Lourenço Correr; Chan, Daniel C N

    2003-05-01

    The ceramic composition and microstructure surface of all-ceramic restorations are important components of an effective bonding substrate. Both hydrofluoric acid etching and airborne aluminum oxide particle abrasion produce irregular surfaces necessary for micromechanical bonding. Although surface treatments of feldspathic and leucite porcelains have been studied previously, the high alumina-containing and lithium disilicate ceramics have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the surface topography of 6 different ceramics after treatment with either hydrofluoric acid etching or airborne aluminum oxide particle abrasion. Five copings each of IPS Empress, IPS Empress 2 (0.8 mm thick), Cergogold (0.7 mm thick), In-Ceram Alumina, In-Ceram Zirconia, and Procera (0.8 mm thick) were fabricated following the manufacturer's instructions. Each coping was longitudinally sectioned into 4 equal parts by a diamond disk. The resulting sections were then randomly divided into 3 groups depending on subsequent surface treatments: Group 1, specimens without additional surface treatments, as received from the laboratory (control); Group 2, specimens treated by use of airborne particle abrasion with 50-microm aluminum oxide; and Group 3, specimens treated with 10% hydrofluoric acid etching (20 seconds for IPS Empress 2; 60 seconds for IPS Empress and Cergogold; and 2 minutes for In-Ceram Alumina, In-Ceram Zirconia, and Procera). Airborne particle abrasion changed the morphologic surface of IPS Empress, IPS Empress 2, and Cergogold ceramics. The surface topography of these ceramics exhibited shallow irregularities not evident in the control group. For Procera, the 50-microm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion produced a flattened surface. Airborne particle abrasion of In-Ceram Alumina and In-Ceram Zirconia did not change the morphologic characteristics and the same shallows pits found in the control group remained. For IPS Empress 2, 10% hydrofluoric

  3. From synchrotron radiation to lab source: advanced speckle-based X-ray imaging using abrasive paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-02-01

    X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques provide complementary and inaccessible information compared to conventional X-ray absorption or visible light imaging. However, such methods typically require sophisticated experimental apparatus or X-ray beams with specific properties. Recently, an X-ray speckle-based technique has shown great potential for X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a simple experimental arrangement. However, it still suffers from either poor resolution or the time consuming process of collecting a large number of images. To overcome these limitations, in this report we demonstrate that absorption, dark-field, phase contrast, and two orthogonal differential phase contrast images can simultaneously be generated by scanning a piece of abrasive paper in only one direction. We propose a novel theoretical approach to quantitatively extract the above five images by utilising the remarkable properties of speckles. Importantly, the technique has been extended from a synchrotron light source to utilise a lab-based microfocus X-ray source and flat panel detector. Removing the need to raster the optics in two directions significantly reduces the acquisition time and absorbed dose, which can be of vital importance for many biological samples. This new imaging method could potentially provide a breakthrough for numerous practical imaging applications in biomedical research and materials science.

  4. The Effect of Pleural Abrasion on the Treatment of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Mo-yu; Cai, Shuang-qi; Chen, Yi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Pleural abrasion has been widely used to control the recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). However, controversy still exists regarding the advantages and disadvantages of pleural abrasion compared with other interventions in preventing the recurrence of PSP. Methods The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched up to December 15, 2014 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of pleural abrasion with those of other interventions in the treatment of PSP. The study outcomes included the PSP recurrence rate and the occurrence rate of adverse effects. Results Mechanical pleural abrasion and apical pleurectomy after thoracoscopic stapled bullectomy exhibited similarly persistent postoperative air leak occurrence rates (p = 0.978) and 1-year PSP recurrence rates (p = 0.821), whereas pleural abrasion led to reduced residual chest pain and discomfort (p = 0.001) and a smaller rate of hemothorax (p = 0.036) than did apical pleurectomy. However, the addition of minocycline pleurodesis to pleural abrasion did not reduce the pneumothorax recurrence rate compared with apical pleurectomy (3.8% for both procedures) but was associated with fewer complications. There was no statistical difference in the pneumothorax recurrence rate between mechanical pleural abrasion and chemical pleurodesis with minocycline on either an intention-to-treat basis (4 of 42 versus 0 of 42, p = 0.12; Fisher exact test) or after exclusions (2 of 40 versus 0 of 42, p = 0.24; Fisher exact test). Pleural abrasion plus minocycline pleurodesis also did not reduce the pneumothorax recurrence rate compared with pleural abrasion alone (p = 0.055). Moreover, pleural abrasion plus minocycline pleurodesis was associated with more intense acute chest pain. The postoperative overall recurrence rate in patients who underwent staple line coverage with absorbable cellulose mesh and fibrin glue was similar to that

  5. Aeolian Rat Tails (ARTs): A New Morphological Indicator of Abrasion Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, E. A.; Hugenholtz, C.; Barchyn, T.

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian rat tails (ARTs) are a previously undocumented aeolian abrasion feature observed on ignimbrite surfaces in the Puna Plateau of Northwest Argentina and bare morphological similarity to small-scale features on Mars. We describe the terrestrial features and present an evolutionary sequence from inception to demise. ARTs are regionally-ubiquitous and characterized by a windward abrasion-resistant lithic clast and a downwind-tapering tail. The size of ARTs is controlled by the diameter of the windward lithic clast, observed on the sub-decimeter to meter scale. Their distribution throughout the Campo de Piedra Pómez, and adjacent regions is determined by the ignimbrite clast content. ARTs develop under a uni-modal abrasion direction when lithic clasts are eroded out of the ignimbrite matrix, protrude from the surface, and shelter material directly behind the clast. As the surrounding material is eroded away, a downwind-tapered tail develops. Continued erosion of the adjacent surface leads to the undercutting of clasts, liberating them from the feature where, if small enough, the clasts can be transported downwind, leading to the destruction of the tail and ultimately the feature. This evolutionary sequence accounts not only for the morphology of the feature, but also the presence of loose clasts on the ignimbrite surface, which plays a role in the development of other enigmatic landforms in the area, such as periodic bedrock ridges, yardangs, and megaripples. The significance of the identification of ARTs is due to the necessity of uni-modal abrasion direction for their development, thereby making their orientation a diagnostic indicator of long-term aeolian abrasion direction. ARTs are likely analogs of features identified by MSL Curiosity Rover on Mars, possibly providing information on past and present wind regimes.

  6. The importance of measuring toothpaste abrasivity in both a quantitative and qualitative way

    PubMed Central

    Tellefsen, Georg; Johannsen, Annsofi; Liljeborg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the relative abrasivity of different toothpastes and polishing pastes both qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and methods. Acrylic plates were exposed to brushing in a brushing machine with a toothpaste/water slurry for 1 and 6 h. Twelve different toothpastes were used and also four different polishing pastes. The results were evaluated using a profilometer after 1 and 6 h of brushing (corresponding to 2000 and 12 000 double strokes, respectively). A surface roughness value (Ra-value) and also a volume loss value were calculated from the profilometer measurements. These values were then correlated to each other. An unpaired t-test for the difference in the abrasion values between the toothpastes and the abrasion values over time was used. Results. The polishing paste RDA® 170 yielded higher Ra-values than RDA 250®, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing (1.01 ± 0.22 and 8.99 ± 1.55 compared to 0.63 ± 0.26 and 7.83 ± 5.89, respectively) as well as volume loss values (3.71 ± 0.17 and 20.20 ± 2.41 compared to 2.15 ± 1.41 and 14.79 ± 11.76, respectively), thus poor correlations between the RDA and Ra and Volume loss values were shown. Among the toothpastes, Apotekets® showed the highest Ra value after 1 h of brushing and Pepsodent® whitening after 6 h of brushing. Pepsodent® whitening also showed the highest volume loss values, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing. Conclusion. This study emphasizes the importance of not only considering the RDA value, but also a roughness value, when describing the abrasivity of a toothpaste. Furthermore, it can be concluded that so called ‘whitening' toothpastes do not necessarily have a higher abrasive effect than other toothpastes. PMID:22746180

  7. Abrasion resistance of direct and indirect resins as a function of a sealant veneer.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Caneppele, Taciana Marco; Rocha, Daniel Maranha; Màximo Araujo, Maria Amelia; Valera, Màrcia Carneiro; Salazar Marocho, Susana MarIa

    2014-01-01

    Abrasive wear is one of the most common type of wear that not only affect teeth, as also dental restorations. Thus to investigate one of the etiological factors as tooth brushing procedure is clinical relevant in order to select the best material combination that may prevent damage of resin dental restoration's abrasion. This study evaluated the influence of tooth brushing on mass loss and surface roughness of direct Venus (Vs) and indirect Signum (Sg) resin composites, with and without a surface sealant, Fortify (F). Twenty-four specimens were prepared with each resin composite, using their proprietary curing units, according to manufacturer's instructions. All the specimens were polished and ultrasonically cleaned in distilled water for 5 minutes. Half of the specimens of each resin (n = 12) were covered with F (Vs F and Sg F ), except for the control (C) specimens (Vs C and Sg C ), which were not sealed. Mass loss (ML) as well as surface roughness (Ra ) was measured for all the specimens. Then, the specimens were subjected to toothbrush-dentifrice abrasion, using a testing machine for 67.000 brushing strokes, in an abrasive slurry. After brushing simulation, the specimens were removed from the holder, rinsed thoroughly and blot dried with soft absorbent paper. The abrasion of the material was quantitatively determined with final measurements of ML and surface roughness, using the method described above. ML data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the analysis indicated that resin composites were not statistically different; however, the specimens sealed with F showed higher ML. Ra mean values of the groups Vs F and Sg F significantly increased. Tooth brushing affects mainly the roughness of the direct and indirect resin composites veneered with a sealant.

  8. Gingival abrasion and recession in manual and oscillating-rotating power brush users.

    PubMed

    Rosema, N A M; Adam, R; Grender, J M; Van der Sluijs, E; Supranoto, S C; Van der Weijden, G A

    2014-11-01

    To assess gingival recession (GR) in manual and power toothbrush users and evaluate the relationship between GR and gingival abrasion scores (GA). This was an observational (cross-sectional), single-centre, examiner-blind study involving a single-brushing exercise, with 181 young adult participants: 90 manual brush users and 91 oscillating-rotating power brush users. Participants were assessed for GR and GA as primary response variables. Secondary response variables were the level of gingival inflammation, plaque score reduction and brushing duration. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between number of recession sites and number of abrasions. Prebrushing (baseline) and post-brushing GA and plaque scores were assessed and differences analysed using paired tests. Two-sample t-test was used to analyse group differences; ancova was used for analyses of post-brushing changes with baseline as covariate. Overall, 97.8% of the study population had at least one site of ≥1 mm of gingival recession. For the manual group, this percentage was 98.9%, and for the power group, this percentage was 96.7% (P = 0.621). Post-brushing, the power group showed a significantly smaller GA increase than the manual group (P = 0.004); however, there was no significant correlation between number of recession sites and number of abrasions for either group (P ≥ 0.327). Little gingival recession was observed in either toothbrush user group; the observed GR levels were comparable. Lower post-brushing gingival abrasion levels were seen in the power group. There was no correlation between gingival abrasion as a result of brushing and the observed gingival recession following use of either toothbrush. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Gingival abrasion and recession in manual and oscillating–rotating power brush users

    PubMed Central

    Rosema, NAM; Adam, R; Grender, JM; Van der Sluijs, E; Supranoto, SC; Van der Weijden, GA

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess gingival recession (GR) in manual and power toothbrush users and evaluate the relationship between GR and gingival abrasion scores (GA). Methods This was an observational (cross-sectional), single-centre, examiner-blind study involving a single-brushing exercise, with 181 young adult participants: 90 manual brush users and 91 oscillating–rotating power brush users. Participants were assessed for GR and GA as primary response variables. Secondary response variables were the level of gingival inflammation, plaque score reduction and brushing duration. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between number of recession sites and number of abrasions. Prebrushing (baseline) and post-brushing GA and plaque scores were assessed and differences analysed using paired tests. Two-sample t-test was used to analyse group differences; ancova was used for analyses of post-brushing changes with baseline as covariate. Results Overall, 97.8% of the study population had at least one site of ≥1 mm of gingival recession. For the manual group, this percentage was 98.9%, and for the power group, this percentage was 96.7% (P = 0.621). Post-brushing, the power group showed a significantly smaller GA increase than the manual group (P = 0.004); however, there was no significant correlation between number of recession sites and number of abrasions for either group (P ≥ 0.327). Conclusions Little gingival recession was observed in either toothbrush user group; the observed GR levels were comparable. Lower post-brushing gingival abrasion levels were seen in the power group. There was no correlation between gingival abrasion as a result of brushing and the observed gingival recession following use of either toothbrush. PMID:24871587

  10. The importance of measuring toothpaste abrasivity in both a quantitative and qualitative way.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Gunnar; Tellefsen, Georg; Johannsen, Annsofi; Liljeborg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relative abrasivity of different toothpastes and polishing pastes both qualitatively and quantitatively. Acrylic plates were exposed to brushing in a brushing machine with a toothpaste/water slurry for 1 and 6 h. Twelve different toothpastes were used and also four different polishing pastes. The results were evaluated using a profilometer after 1 and 6 h of brushing (corresponding to 2000 and 12 000 double strokes, respectively). A surface roughness value (Ra-value) and also a volume loss value were calculated from the profilometer measurements. These values were then correlated to each other. An unpaired t-test for the difference in the abrasion values between the toothpastes and the abrasion values over time was used. The polishing paste RDA® 170 yielded higher Ra-values than RDA 250®, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing (1.01 ± 0.22 and 8.99 ± 1.55 compared to 0.63 ± 0.26 and 7.83 ± 5.89, respectively) as well as volume loss values (3.71 ± 0.17 and 20.20 ± 2.41 compared to 2.15 ± 1.41 and 14.79 ± 11.76, respectively), thus poor correlations between the RDA and Ra and Volume loss values were shown. Among the toothpastes, Apotekets® showed the highest Ra value after 1 h of brushing and Pepsodent® whitening after 6 h of brushing. Pepsodent® whitening also showed the highest volume loss values, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing. This study emphasizes the importance of not only considering the RDA value, but also a roughness value, when describing the abrasivity of a toothpaste. Furthermore, it can be concluded that so called 'whitening' toothpastes do not necessarily have a higher abrasive effect than other toothpastes.

  11. [Research strategies in standard decoction of medicinal slices].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-Lin; Liu, An; Li, Qi; Toru, Sugita; Zhu, Guang-Wei; Sun, Yi; Dai, Yun-Tao; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Tie-Jun; Takehisa, Tomoda; Liu, Chang-Xiao

    2016-04-01

    This paper discusses the research situation of the standard decoction of medicinal slices at home and abroad. Combined with the experimental data, the author proposes that the standard decoction of medicinal slices is made of single herb using standard process which should be guided by the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, based on clinical practice and referred to modern extraction method with a standard process. And the author also proposes the principles of establishing the specification of process parameters and quality standards and established the basis of drug efficacy material and biological reference. As a standard material and standard system, the standard decoction of medicinal slices can provide standards for clinical medication, standardize the use of the new type of medicinal slices especially for dispensing granules, which were widely used in clinical. It can ensure the accuracy of drugs and consistency of dose, and to solve current supervision difficulties. Moreover the study of standard decoction of medicinal slices will provide the research on dispensing granules, traditional Chinese medicine prescription standard decoction and couplet medicines standard decoction a useful reference. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. [Standardization of production of process Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix slices].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen-Yang; Wang, Ying-Zi; Nie, Rui-Jie; Zhang, Jing-Zhen; Wang, Si-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Notopterol, isoimperatorin, volatile oil and extract (water and ethanol) were used as the research objects in this study to investigate the effects of different softening method, slice thickness and drying methods on the quality of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix slices, and the experimental data were analyzed by homogeneous distance evaluation method. The results showed that different softening, cutting and drying processes could affect the content of five components in Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix incisum. The best processing technology of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix slices was as follows: non-medicinal parts were removed; mildewed and rot as well as moth-eaten parts were removed; washed by the flowing drinking water; stacked in the drug pool; moistening method was used for softening, where 1/8 volume of water was sprayed for every 1 kg of herbs every 2 h; upper part of herbs covered with clean and moist cotton, and cut into thick slices (2-4 mm) after 12 h moistening until appropriate softness, then received blast drying for 4 h at 50 ℃, and turned over for 2 times during the drying. The process is practical and provides the experimental basis for the standardization of the processing of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, with great significance to improve the quality of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix slices. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. The preliminary exploration of 64-slice volume computed tomography in the accurate measurement of pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi-Jun; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Hai-Tao; Lu, Jun-Ying; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Meng, Fan-Jie; Cao, Bin; Zi, Xue-Rong; Han, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Yu-Huan

    2013-09-01

    Using computed tomography (CT) to rapidly and accurately quantify pleural effusion volume benefits medical and scientific research. However, the precise volume of pleural effusions still involves many challenges and currently does not have a recognized accurate measuring. To explore the feasibility of using 64-slice CT volume-rendering technology to accurately measure pleural fluid volume and to then analyze the correlation between the volume of the free pleural effusion and the different diameters of the pleural effusion. The 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique was used to measure and analyze three parts. First, the fluid volume of a self-made thoracic model was measured and compared with the actual injected volume. Second, the pleural effusion volume was measured before and after pleural fluid drainage in 25 patients, and the volume reduction was compared with the actual volume of the liquid extract. Finally, the free pleural effusion volume was measured in 26 patients to analyze the correlation between it and the diameter of the effusion, which was then used to calculate the regression equation. After using the 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique to measure the fluid volume of the self-made thoracic model, the results were compared with the actual injection volume. No significant differences were found, P = 0.836. For the 25 patients with drained pleural effusions, the comparison of the reduction volume with the actual volume of the liquid extract revealed no significant differences, P = 0.989. The following linear regression equation was used to compare the pleural effusion volume (V) (measured by the CT volume-rendering technique) with the pleural effusion greatest depth (d): V = 158.16 × d - 116.01 (r = 0.91, P = 0.000). The following linear regression was used to compare the volume with the product of the pleural effusion diameters (l × h × d): V = 0.56 × (l × h × d) + 39.44 (r = 0.92, P = 0.000). The 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique can

  14. Imaging neuronal responses in slice preparations of vomeronasal organ expressing a genetically encoded calcium sensor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Limei; Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Yu, Qingfeng Elden; Qiu, Qiang; Kim, Sangseong; Yu, C Ron

    2011-12-06

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects chemosensory signals that carry information about the social, sexual and reproductive status of the individuals within the same species. These intraspecies signals, the pheromones, as well as signals from some predators, activate the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) with high levels of specificity and sensitivity. At least three distinct families of G-protein coupled receptors, V1R, V2R and FPR, are expressed in VNO neurons to mediate the detection of the chemosensory cues. To understand how pheromone information is encoded by the VNO, it is critical to analyze the response profiles of individual VSNs to various stimuli and identify the specific receptors that mediate these responses. The neuroepithelia of VNO are enclosed in a pair of vomer bones. The semi-blind tubular structure of VNO has one open end (the vomeronasal duct) connecting to the nasal cavity. VSNs extend their dendrites to the lumen part of the VNO, where the pheromone cues are in contact with the receptors expressed at the dendritic knobs. The cell bodies of the VSNs form pseudo-stratified layers with V1R and V2R expressed in the apical and basal layers respectively. Several techniques have been utilized to monitor responses of VSNs to sensory stimuli. Among these techniques, acute slice preparation offers several advantages. First, compared to dissociated VSNs, slice preparations maintain the neurons in their native morphology and the dendrites of the cells stay relatively intact. Second, the cell bodies of the VSNs are easily accessible in coronal slice of the VNO to allow electrophysiology studies and imaging experiments as compared to whole epithelium and whole-mount preparations. Third, this method can be combined with molecular cloning techniques to allow receptor identification. Sensory stimulation elicits strong Ca2+ influx in VSNs that is indicative of receptor activation. We thus develop transgenic mice that express G-CaMP2 in the olfactory sensory

  15. An overview of 5G network slicing architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiang; Wang, Xiaolei; Lv, Yingying

    2018-05-01

    With the development of mobile communication technology, the traditional single network model has been unable to meet the needs of users, and the demand for differentiated services is increasing. In order to solve this problem, the fifth generation of mobile communication technology came into being, and as one of the key technologies of 5G, network slice is the core technology of network virtualization and software defined network, enabling network slices to flexibly provide one or more network services according to users' needs[1]. Each slice can independently tailor the network functions according to the requirements of the business scene and the traffic model and manage the layout of the corresponding network resources, to improve the flexibility of network services and the utilization of resources, and enhance the robustness and reliability of the whole network [2].

  16. Development of feedback-speed-control system of fixed-abrasive tool for mat-surface fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagihara, K.; Kita, R.

    2018-01-01

    This study deals with the new method to fabricate a mat-surface by using fixed-abrasive tool. Mat-surface is a surface with microscopic irregularities whose dimensions are close to the wavelengths of visible light (400-700 nanometers). In order to develop the new method to fabricate mat-surface without pre-masking and large scale back up facility, utilization of fixed-abrasive tool is discussed. The discussion clarifies that abrasives in shot blasting are given kinetic energy along to only plunge-direction while excluding traverse-direction. If the relative motion between tool and work in fixed-abrasive process can be realized as that in blasting, mat-surface will be accomplished with fixed-abrasive process. To realize the proposed idea, new surface-fabrication system to which is adopted feedback-speed-control of abrasive wheel has been designed. The system consists of micro-computer unit (MPU), work-speed sensor, fixed-abrasive wheel, and wheel driving unit. The system can control relative speed between work and wheel in optimum range to produce mat-surface. Finally experiment to verify the developed system is carried out. The results of experiments show that the developed system is effective and it can produce the surface from grinding to mat-surface seamlessly.

  17. Fast parallel algorithm for slicing STL based on pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xulong; Lin, Feng; Yao, Bo

    2016-05-01

    In Additive Manufacturing field, the current researches of data processing mainly focus on a slicing process of large STL files or complicated CAD models. To improve the efficiency and reduce the slicing time, a parallel algorithm has great advantages. However, traditional algorithms can't make full use of multi-core CPU hardware resources. In the paper, a fast parallel algorithm is presented to speed up data processing. A pipeline mode is adopted to design the parallel algorithm. And the complexity of the pipeline algorithm is analyzed theoretically. To evaluate the performance of the new algorithm, effects of threads number and layers number are investigated by a serial of experiments. The experimental results show that the threads number and layers number are two remarkable factors to the speedup ratio. The tendency of speedup versus threads number reveals a positive relationship which greatly agrees with the Amdahl's law, and the tendency of speedup versus layers number also keeps a positive relationship agreeing with Gustafson's law. The new algorithm uses topological information to compute contours with a parallel method of speedup. Another parallel algorithm based on data parallel is used in experiments to show that pipeline parallel mode is more efficient. A case study at last shows a suspending performance of the new parallel algorithm. Compared with the serial slicing algorithm, the new pipeline parallel algorithm can make full use of the multi-core CPU hardware, accelerate the slicing process, and compared with the data parallel slicing algorithm, the new slicing algorithm in this paper adopts a pipeline parallel model, and a much higher speedup ratio and efficiency is achieved.

  18. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Abrasion of mechanical components and fabrics by soil on Earth is typically minimized by the effects of atmosphere and water. Potentially abrasive particles lose sharp and pointed geometrical features through erosion. In environments where such erosion does not exist, such as the vacuum of the Moon, particles retain sharp geometries associated with fracturing of their parent particles by micrometeorite impacts. The relationship between hardness of the abrasive and that of the material being abraded is well understood, such that the abrasive ability of a material can be estimated as a function of the ratio of the hardness of the two interacting materials. Knowing the abrasive nature of an environment (abrasive)/construction material is crucial to designing durable equipment for use in such surroundings. The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement; in some cases, considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for de tailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness par ameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Further - more, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized

  19. Regioselective Biolistic Targeting in Organotypic Brain Slices Using a Modified Gene Gun

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Jason; Nagy, Andras; Henderson, Jeffrey T.; O'Brien, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Transfection of DNA has been invaluable for biological sciences and with recent advances to organotypic brain slice preparations, the effect of various heterologous genes could thus be investigated easily while maintaining many aspects of in vivo biology. There has been increasing interest to transfect terminally differentiated neurons for which conventional transfection methods have been fraught with difficulties such as low yields and significant losses in viability. Biolistic transfection can circumvent many of these difficulties yet only recently has this technique been modified so that it is amenable for use in mammalian tissues. New modifications to the accelerator chamber have enhanced the gene gun's firing accuracy and increased its depths of penetration while also allowing the use of lower gas pressure (50 psi) without loss of transfection efficiency as well as permitting a focused regioselective spread of the particles to within 3 mm. In addition, this technique is straight forward and faster to perform than tedious microinjections. Both transient and stable expression are possible with nanoparticle bombardment where episomal expression can be detected within 24 hr and the cell survival was shown to be better than, or at least equal to, conventional methods. This technique has however one crucial advantage: it permits the transfection to be localized within a single restrained radius thus enabling the user to anatomically isolate the heterologous gene's effects. Here we present an in-depth protocol to prepare viable adult organotypic slices and submit them to regioselective transfection using an improved gene gun. PMID:25407047

  20. Behaviour of L. monocytogenes in sliced, vacuum-packed mortadella

    PubMed Central

    Bersot, Luciano dos Santos; Gillio, Cíntia; Tavolaro, Paula; Landgraf, Mariza; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy; Destro, Maria Teresa

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth of naturally occurring L. monocytogenes in sliced, vacuum-packed mortadella samples during storage at 5°C until the expiration date. Tukey’s test indicated that counts of L. monocytogenes on 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days of storage were significantly different (p<0.05), indicating growth during shelf life. In three trials, the mean increase was 1.72 log cycles. Vacuum packing and storage under refrigeration were not effective in controlling the growth of L. monocytogenes in sliced mortadella, indicating that good manufacturing practices and implemented HACCP programs are essential to assure safety of this product. PMID:24031257

  1. Oxidative Damage in the Guinea Pig Hippocampal Slice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Original Contribution OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN THE GUINEA PIG HIPPOCAMPAL SLICE TIRRY C. Pnt.N1.iAR’ and KATIlRNN L. Nt-t-t- Physiology Department. Armed Forces...responses in the hippocampal slice isolated from the brains of guinea pigs . Electrical stim- ulation of afferents to neurons of the CA I region of...from the brains be secreted by the microglia invading a region of in- of euthanized male Hartley guinea pigs as previously Jury. ’ Another possible

  2. Regulation of Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) Limb Blastema Cell Proliferation by Nerves and BMP2 in Organotypic Slice Culture.

    PubMed

    Lehrberg, Jeffrey; Gardiner, David M

    2015-01-01

    We have modified and optimized the technique of organotypic slice culture in order to study the mechanisms regulating growth and pattern formation in regenerating axolotl limb blastemas. Blastema cells maintain many of the behaviors that are characteristic of blastemas in vivo when cultured as slices in vitro, including rates of proliferation that are comparable to what has been reported in vivo. Because the blastema slices can be cultured in basal medium without fetal bovine serum, it was possible to test the response of blastema cells to signaling molecules present in serum, as well as those produced by nerves. We also were able to investigate the response of blastema cells to experimentally regulated changes in BMP signaling. Blastema cells responded to all of these signals by increasing the rate of proliferation and the level of expression of the blastema marker gene, Prrx-1. The organotypic slice culture model provides the opportunity to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal co-regulation of pathways in order to induce and enhance a regenerative response.

  3. Regulation of Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) Limb Blastema Cell Proliferation by Nerves and BMP2 in Organotypic Slice Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lehrberg, Jeffrey; Gardiner, David M.

    2015-01-01

    We have modified and optimized the technique of organotypic slice culture in order to study the mechanisms regulating growth and pattern formation in regenerating axolotl limb blastemas. Blastema cells maintain many of the behaviors that are characteristic of blastemas in vivo when cultured as slices in vitro, including rates of proliferation that are comparable to what has been reported in vivo. Because the blastema slices can be cultured in basal medium without fetal bovine serum, it was possible to test the response of blastema cells to signaling molecules present in serum, as well as those produced by nerves. We also were able to investigate the response of blastema cells to experimentally regulated changes in BMP signaling. Blastema cells responded to all of these signals by increasing the rate of proliferation and the level of expression of the blastema marker gene, Prrx-1. The organotypic slice culture model provides the opportunity to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal co-regulation of pathways in order to induce and enhance a regenerative response. PMID:25923915

  4. Precision Cut Mouse Lung Slices to Visualize Live Pulmonary Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lyons-Cohen, Miranda R.; Thomas, Seddon Y.; Cook, Donald N.; Nakano, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    SHORT ABSTRACT We describe a method for generating precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) and immunostaining them to visualize the localization of various immune cell types in the lung. Our protocol can be extended to visualize the location and function of many different cell types under a variety of conditions. LONG ABSTRACT Inhalation of allergens and pathogens elicits multiple changes in a variety of immune cell types in the lung. Flow cytometry is a powerful technique for quantitative analysis of cell surface proteins on immune cells, but it provides no information on the localization and migration patterns of these cells within the lung. Similarly, in vitro chemotaxis assays can be performed to study the potential of cells to respond to chemotactic factors in vitro, but these assays do not reproduce the complex environment of the intact lung. In contrast to these aforementioned techniques, the location of individual cell types within the lung can be readily visualized by generating precision-cut lung slices (PCLS), staining them with commercially available, fluorescently tagged antibodies, and visualizing the sections by confocal microscopy. PCLS can be used for both live and fixed lung tissue, and the slices can encompass areas as large as a cross section of an entire lobe. We have used this protocol to successfully visualize the location of a wide variety of cell types in the lung, including distinct types of dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, T cells and B cells, as well as structural cells such as lymphatic, endothelial, and epithelial cells. The ability to visualize cellular interactions, such as those between dendritic cells and T cells, in live, three-dimensional lung tissue, can reveal how cells move within the lung and interact with one another at steady state and during inflammation. Thus, when used in combination with other procedures, such as flow cytometry and quantitative PCR, PCLS can contribute to a comprehensive understanding of cellular

  5. Micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of a biomedical Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in simulated physiological fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Yan; Huang, Weijiu; Chen, Xiaoli; He, Haoran

    2016-10-01

    The micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of the biomedical Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in Hank׳s solution with protein has been investigated using electrochemical measurements, tribological tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The potentiodynamic polarization tests showed that the corrosion potential (Ecorr) exhibits the maximum value at the abrasive concentration of 0.05gcm(-3) despite of the load level. The tribological results indicated that the total material loss of the Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy during micro-abrasion increased with the increasing abrasive concentration at a certain applied load. When the abrasive concentration is no more than 0.15gcm(-3), the total material loss increases with increasing load, while the total material loss exhibits the maximum value at a moderate load in case of higher abrasive concentration levels. This was ascribed to the three-body or two-body micro-abrasion-corrosion at different abrasive concentration levels. The wastage map, abrasion mode map and synergy map associated with the applied load and the abrasive concentration were constructed to evaluate the micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of the Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in potential biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. To Evaluate Effect of Airborne Particle Abrasion using Different Abrasives Particles and Compare Two Commercial Available Zirconia on Flexural Strength on Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Hari A; Pasha, Naveed; Hilal, Mohammed; Amarnath, G S; Kundapur, Vinaya; Anand, M; Singh, Sumeet

    2017-06-01

    airborne-particle abrasion using 50 µm Al 2 O 3 particles and 50 µm silica coated Al 2 O 3 are applied to the upper and lower surfaces of the specimens. Each specimen is held under a pressure of 30 psi for 15 seconds at a direction perpendicular to the surface and at a distance of 30mm with an airborne particle abrasion device for the specimens in the airborne particle abraded groups. Heat treatments were performed at a starting temperature of 500°C, heating rate of 100°c/ min, ending at a temperature of 1000°C and 15 minutes holding time without vacuum for the specimens in the group 4, 5, 9 and 10. Airborne-particle abrasion mimicking the preparation for cementation was applied to the lower surfaces with 50 µm alumina and silica coated alumina particles for the specimens in the groups 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The specimens were cleaned for 15 minutes in an ultrasonic bath containing distilled water. To determine the fracture strength, a disc of 10 mm diameter was used to place 3 hardened steel balls of 3 mm diameter separated each other by 120 degrees (described in the ISO standard 6872 for dental ceramics). Each specimen was centrally placed on this disc. The lower surface mimicking the internal surface of zirconia was the tension side, facing the supporting device testing, while the upper surface mimicking the external surface of the zirconia core was loaded with a flat punch (1 mm in diameter). A universal testing machine was used to perform the test at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. The failure stress was calculated with the equation listed in ISO 6872. The results were then statistically analyzed. A post hoc test was used for pair wise comparisons. The mean fracture strength of commercially available Zirconia Ceramill (AMANNGIRBACH) showed a significant higher value compared to the ZR-White (UPCERA) Zirconia ( P <0.001), Airborne abrasion treatment to the specimens showed a significant difference between the abraded groups and the control group ( P <0.001); further

  7. To Evaluate Effect of Airborne Particle Abrasion using Different Abrasives Particles and Compare Two Commercial Available Zirconia on Flexural Strength on Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Hari A.; Pasha, Naveed; Hilal, Mohammed; Amarnath, G. S.; Kundapur, Vinaya; Anand, M; Singh, Sumeet

    2017-01-01

    specimens each. Heat treatment after airborne-particle abrasion using 50 µm Al2O3 particles and 50 µm silica coated Al2O3 are applied to the upper and lower surfaces of the specimens. Each specimen is held under a pressure of 30 psi for 15 seconds at a direction perpendicular to the surface and at a distance of 30mm with an airborne particle abrasion device for the specimens in the airborne particle abraded groups. Heat treatments were performed at a starting temperature of 500°C, heating rate of 100°c/ min, ending at a temperature of 1000°C and 15 minutes holding time without vacuum for the specimens in the group 4, 5, 9 and 10. Airborne-particle abrasion mimicking the preparation for cementation was applied to the lower surfaces with 50 µm alumina and silica coated alumina particles for the specimens in the groups 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The specimens were cleaned for 15 minutes in an ultrasonic bath containing distilled water. To determine the fracture strength, a disc of 10 mm diameter was used to place 3 hardened steel balls of 3 mm diameter separated each other by 120 degrees (described in the ISO standard 6872 for dental ceramics). Each specimen was centrally placed on this disc. The lower surface mimicking the internal surface of zirconia was the tension side, facing the supporting device testing, while the upper surface mimicking the external surface of the zirconia core was loaded with a flat punch (1 mm in diameter). A universal testing machine was used to perform the test at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. The failure stress was calculated with the equation listed in ISO 6872. The results were then statistically analyzed. A post hoc test was used for pair wise comparisons. Result: The mean fracture strength of commercially available Zirconia Ceramill (AMANNGIRBACH) showed a significant higher value compared to the ZR-White (UPCERA) Zirconia (P<0.001), Airborne abrasion treatment to the specimens showed a significant difference between the abraded groups and the

  8. METHOXYCHLOR METABOLISM AND VITELLOGENESIS IN MALE RAINBOW TROUT LIVER SLICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) in male fish has become an accepted biomarker to xenoestrogenicity. This study utilized the male rainbow trout liver slice model to determine the estrogenicity of parent compound, methoxychlor (MXC) and metabolites, di-hydroxy methoxychlor (HPTE) a...

  9. Automatic Solitary Lung Nodule Detection in Computed Tomography Images Slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentana, I. W. B.; Jawas, N.; Asri, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Lung nodule is an early indicator of some lung diseases, including lung cancer. In Computed Tomography (CT) based image, nodule is known as a shape that appears brighter than lung surrounding. This research aim to develop an application that automatically detect lung nodule in CT images. There are some steps in algorithm such as image acquisition and conversion, image binarization, lung segmentation, blob detection, and classification. Data acquisition is a step to taking image slice by slice from the original *.dicom format and then each image slices is converted into *.tif image format. Binarization that tailoring Otsu algorithm, than separated the background and foreground part of each image slices. After removing the background part, the next step is to segment part of the lung only so the nodule can localized easier. Once again Otsu algorithm is use to detect nodule blob in localized lung area. The final step is tailoring Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the nodule. The application has succeed detecting near round nodule with a certain threshold of size. Those detecting result shows drawback in part of thresholding size and shape of nodule that need to enhance in the next part of the research. The algorithm also cannot detect nodule that attached to wall and Lung Chanel, since it depend the searching only on colour differences.

  10. Hexose transport by brain slices: further studies on energy dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle-Lillegard, J.; Gold, B.I.

    1983-04-01

    We studied the uptake of (/sup 3/H)2-deoxyglucose ((/sup 3/H)2DG) by slices of rat cerebral cortex in vitro as a model of glucose transport by brain. Slices were incubated with (/sup 3/H)2DG, or with L-(/sup 3/H)glucose as a marker for diffusion; the difference between (/sup 3/H)2DG uptake and L-(/sup 3/H)glucose uptake was defined as net (/sup 3/H)2DG transport. Net (/sup 3/H)2DG transport was a function of incubation temperature, with an estimated temperature coefficient of 1.87 from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C. The net uptake of (/sup 3/H)2DG was not inhibited by phlorizin or phloretin in concentrations well above themore » reported Ki of these inhibitors for hexose uptake in other systems. To examine the hypothesis that (/sup 3/H)2DG transport by brain slices is dependent on mitochondrial energy, we studied net (/sup 3/H)2DG uptake by slices which had been preincubated in media designed to alter intracellular ATP stores. The transport process was very sensitive to inhibition by DNP, but the correlation between (/sup 3/H)2DG transport and ATP levels was unclear. In contrast to our published hypothesis that the transport process required mitochondrial energy, these data indicate that dependence on energy is not absolute.« less

  11. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    PubMed

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  12. Interactive Simulation of Hardwood Log Veneer Slicing Using CT Images

    Treesearch

    Daniel L Schmoldt; Pei Li; Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    Veneer producers must make critical processing decisions based solely on external examination of logs. Unlike sawlog breakdown, however, little research has investigated ways in which veneer logs can best be flitched and sliced for increased value. This gap exists largely due to the variety of ways in which veneer is produced and used and the variety of buyers that...

  13. A study on practical use of underwater abrasive water jet cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Demura, Kenji

    1993-09-01

    The practicality of underwater abrasive water jet cutting technology was studied in experiments. A study of abrasives in slurried form showed that optimum polymer concentration can be selected to suit underwater conditions. For the long-distance transport of slurry from the ocean surface to the ocean floor, a direct supply system by hose proved to be practical. This system takes advantage of the insolubility of the slurry in water due to a difference in specific gravity. For cutting thick steel plate at great ocean depths, a simulation with a pressurized container revealed the requirements for actual cutting. Confirmation of remote cutting operations will become the most important technology in field applications. Underwater sound vibration characteristics were found to change significantly in direct response to modifications in cutting conditions. This will be important basic data to develop an effective sensoring method.

  14. A Study on 3-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Aluminium 8011 / Graphite Metal Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha Shankar, B.; Anil, K. C.; Patil, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    Metals and alloys have found their vital role in many applications like structural, corrosive, tribological, etc., in engineering environment. The alloys/composites having high strength to low weight ratio have gained attention of many researchers recently. In this work, graphite reinforced Aluminium 8011 metal matrix composite was prepared by conventional stir casting route, by varying the weight % of reinforcement. Uniform distribution of Graphite in matrix alloy was confirmed by optical micrographs. Prepared composite specimens were subjected to 3-body abrasive testing by varying applied load and time, the silica particles of 400 grit size were used as abrasive particles. It was observed that with the increase of weight% of Graphite the wear resistance of composite was also increasing and on comparison it was found that reinforced composite gives good wear resistance than base alloy.

  15. Correlating field and laboratory rates of particle abrasion, Rio Medio, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, P. J.; Sklar, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    River bed sediments commonly fine downstream due to a combination of particle abrasion, selective transport of finer grains, and fining of the local sediment supply from hillslopes and tributaries. Particle abrasion rates can be directly measured in the laboratory using tumbling barrels and annular flumes, however, scaling experimental particle abrasion rates to the field has proven difficult due to the confounding effects of selective transport and local supply variations. Here we attempt to correlate laboratory and field rates of particle abrasion in a field setting where these confounding effects can be controlled. The Rio Medio, which flows westward from the crest of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in north central New Mexico, is one of several streams studied by John P. Miller in the early 1960's. Several kilometers downstream of its headwaters, the river crosses the Picuris-Pecos fault. Upstream of the fault the river receives quartzite, sandstone and shale clasts from the Ortega Formation, while downstream sediments are supplied by the Embudo Granite. Because the upstream lithologies are not resupplied downstream of the fault, any observed fining of these clasts should be due only to abrasion and selective transport. We hypothesize that we can account for the effects of selective transport by comparing relative fining rates for the different upstream lithologies from both the field and a laboratory tumbler. By correlating laboratory abrasion rates with rock strength, we can predict the relative fining rates due solely to abrasion expected in the field; differences between the predicted and observed fining rates could then be attributed to selective transport. We used point counts to measure bed surface sediment grain size distributions at 15 locations along a 25 kilometer reach of the Rio Medio, beginning just downstream of the fault and ending upstream of a developed area with disturbed channel conditions. We recorded intermediate particle diameter as well

  16. Erosion and abrasion on dental structures undergoing at-home bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Meireles, Sônia Saeger; Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Dantas, Raquel Venâncio Fernandes; Botero, Tatiana; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves

    2011-01-01

    This review investigates erosion and abrasion in dental structures undergoing at- home bleaching. Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition that may be idiopathic or caused by a known acid source. Some bleaching agents have a pH lower than the critical level, which can cause changes in the enamel mineral content. Investigations have shown that at-home tooth bleaching with low concentrations of hydrogen or carbamide peroxide have no significant damaging effects on enamel and dentin surface properties. Most studies where erosion was observed were in vitro. Even though the treatment may cause side effects like sensitivity and gingival irritation, these usually disappear at the end of treatment. Considering the literature reviewed, we conclude that tooth bleaching agents based on hydrogen or carbamide peroxide have no clinically significant influence on enamel/dentin mineral loss caused by erosion or abrasion. Furthermore, the treatment is tolerable and safe, and any adverse effects can be easily reversed and controlled. PMID:23674914

  17. Self-healing of the superhydrophobicity by ironing for the abrasion durable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingxia; Li, Jingye; Deng, Bo; Jiang, Haiqing; Wang, Ziqiang; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Xing, Chenyang; Li, Yongjin

    2013-01-01

    Self-healing of the superhydrophobic cotton fabric (SCF) obtained by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of lauryl methacrylate (LMA) and n-hexyl methacrylate (HMA), can be achieved by ironing. Through the steam ironing process, the superhydrophobicity of the SCFs will be regenerated even after the yarns are ruptured during the abrasion test under a load pressure of 44.8 kPa. SCFs made from LMA grafted cotton fabric can ultimately withstand at least 24,000 cycles of abrasion with periodic steam ironing. The FT-IR microscope results show that the migration of the polymethacrylates graft chains from the interior to the surface is responsible for the self-healing effect. PMID:24135813

  18. Degradation of the Crystalline Structure of ZnS Ceramics under Abrasive Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, I. P.; Dunaev, A. A.; Chmel, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    Stability of optical elements based on ZnS ceramics to dust and rain erosion is usually estimated from the loss of material mass in a directional flow of solid particles or atmospheric precipitates. In this case, the mechanism of degradation and fracture of the surface layer of an optical element is not considered. The photoluminescence (PL) method was used for investigating the crystal lattice response to the abrasive action and the formation of cleavage in ZnS ceramics, which differ in manufacturing technology and, accordingly, in the grain size by two orders of magnitude. It is shown that during abrasive treatment of samples, their spectra exhibit changes typical of degradation of the crystal lattice of material grains. The PL spectra of cleavage surfaces reveal almost complete degradation of the structure of crystallite grains with a size from 1-2 to 100-200 μm.

  19. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width as currently defined by the ASTM G 171 Standard. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement, in some cases considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for detailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness parameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Data are presented to show that different combinations of scratch tips and abraded materials can actually yield the same scratch width, but result in different volume displacement or removal measurements and therefore, the ZOI method is more discriminating than the ASTM method scratch width. Furthermore, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for our specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized manner, and not just by scratch width alone, is reinforced. This benefit is made apparent when a tip creates an intricate contour having multiple peaks and valleys within a single scratch. This work lays the foundation for updating scratch measurement standards to improve modeling and characterization of three-body abrasion test results.

  20. Heat sealable, flame and abrasion resistant coated fabric. [clothing and containers for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Flame retardant, abrasion resistant elastomeric compositions are comprised of thermoplastic polyurethane polymer and flame retarding amounts of a filler selected from decabromodiphenyloxide and antimony oxide in a 3:1 weight ratio, and decabromodiphenyloxide, antimony oxide, and ammonium polyphosphate in a 3:1:3 weight ratio respectively. Coated fabrics employing such elastomeric compositions as coating film are flexible, lightweight, and air impermeable and can be made using heat or dielectric sealing procedures.

  1. Framework for assessing key variable dependencies in loose-abrasive grinding and polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.S.; Aikens, D.M.; Brown, N.J.

    1995-12-01

    This memo describes a framework for identifying all key variables that determine the figuring performance of loose-abrasive lapping and polishing machines. This framework is intended as a tool for prioritizing R&D issues, assessing the completeness of process models and experimental data, and for providing a mechanism to identify any assumptions in analytical models or experimental procedures. Future plans for preparing analytical models or performing experiments can refer to this framework in establishing the context of the work.

  2. Toothbrush abrasion, simulated tongue friction and attrition of eroded bovine enamel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Overweg, E; Ruben, J L; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2006-05-01

    Enamel erosion results in the formation of a softened layer that is susceptible to disruption by mechanical factors such as brushing abrasion, tongue friction and attrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the individual contribution of those mechanical insults to the enamel loss caused by dental erosion. Forty two bovine enamel samples were randomly divided into seven groups (n=6 per group) that were submitted to 3cycles of one of the following regimes: erosion and remineralization (er/remin); toothbrush abrasion and remineralization (abr/remin); erosion, toothbrush abrasion and remineralization (er/abr/remin); attrition and remineralization (at/remin); erosion, attrition and remineralization (er/at/remin); simulated tongue friction and remineralization (tg/remin); erosion, simulated tongue friction and remineralization (er/tg/remin). Erosion took place in a demineralization solution (50mM citric acid, pH 3) for 10min under agitation. Brushing abrasion, tongue friction and attrition were simulated for 1min using a home-made wear device. Remineralization was carried out in artificial saliva for 2h. Enamel loss was quantified using optical profilometry. One-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference between the amounts of enamel lost due to the different wear regimes (p

  3. Relating the physical properties of volcanic rocks to the characteristics of ash generated by experimental abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckland, Hannah M.; Eychenne, Julia; Rust, Alison C.; Cashman, Katharine V.

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between clasts in pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) generate volcanic ash that can be dispersed to the atmosphere in co-PDC plumes, and due to its small size, is far-travelled. We designed a series of experiments to determine the effects of pyroclast vesicularity and crystal content on the efficiency and type of ash generated by abrasion. Two different pyroclastic materials were used: (1) basaltic-andesite pyroclasts from Fuego volcano (Guatemala) with 26-46% vesicularity and high groundmass crystallinity and (2) tephri-phonolite Avellino pumice (Vesuvius, Italy) with 55-75% vesicularity and low groundmass crystallinity. When milled, both clast types produced bimodal grain size distributions with fine ash modes between 4 and 5φ (32-63 μm). Although the vesicular Avellino pumice typically generated more ash than the denser Fuego pyroclasts, the ash-generating potential of a single pyroclast was independent of density, and instead governed by heterogeneous crystal and vesicle textures. One consequence of these heterogeneities was to cause the vesicular Avellino clasts to split in addition to abrading, which further enhanced abrasion efficiency. The matrix characteristics also affected ash shape and componentry, which will influence the elutriation and transport properties of ash in the atmosphere. The experimental abrasion successfully replicated some of the characteristics of natural co-PDC ash samples, as shown by similarities in the Adherence Factor, which measures the proportion of attached matrix on phenocrysts, of both the experimentally generated ash and natural co-PDC ash samples. Our results support previous studies, which have shown that abrasion is an effective mechanism for generating fine ash that is similar in size ( 5φ; 30 μm) to that found in co-PDC deposits. We further show that both the abundance and nature (shape, density, components, size distribution) of those ash particles are strongly controlled by the matrix properties of

  4. Performance analysis of cutting graphite-epoxy composite using a 90,000psi abrasive waterjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choppali, Aiswarya

    Graphite-epoxy composites are being widely used in many aerospace and structural applications because of their properties: which include lighter weight, higher strength to weight ratio and a greater flexibility in design. However, the inherent anisotropy of these composites makes it difficult to machine them using conventional methods. To overcome the major issues that develop with conventional machining such as fiber pull out, delamination, heat generation and high tooling costs, an effort is herein made to study abrasive waterjet machining of composites. An abrasive waterjet is used to cut 1" thick graphite epoxy composites based on baseline data obtained from the cutting of ¼" thick material. The objective of this project is to study the surface roughness of the cut surface with a focus on demonstrating the benefits of using higher pressures for cutting composites. The effects of major cutting parameters: jet pressure, traverse speed, abrasive feed rate and cutting head size are studied at different levels. Statistical analysis of the experimental data provides an understanding of the effect of the process parameters on surface roughness. Additionally, the effect of these parameters on the taper angle of the cut is studied. The data is analyzed to obtain a set of process parameters that optimize the cutting of 1" thick graphite-epoxy composite. The statistical analysis is used to validate the experimental data. Costs involved in the cutting process are investigated in term of abrasive consumed to better understand and illustrate the practical benefits of using higher pressures. It is demonstrated that, as pressure increased, ultra-high pressure waterjets produced a better surface quality at a faster traverse rate with lower costs.

  5. Abrasive Wear Resistance of Tool Steels Evaluated by the Pin-on-Disc Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, José Divo; Schopf, Roberto Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Present work examines tool steels abrasion wear resistance and the abrasion mechanisms which are one main contributor to failure of tooling in metal forming industry. Tooling used in cutting and metal forming processes without lubrication fails due to this type of wear. In the workshop and engineering practice, it is common to relate wear resistance as function of material hardness only. However, there are others parameters which influences wear such as: fracture toughness, type of crystalline structure and the occurrence of hard precipitate in the metallic matrix and also its nature. In the present investigation, the wear mechanisms acting in tool steels were analyzed and, by normalized tests, wear resistance performance of nine different types of tool steels were evaluated by pin-on-disc testing. Conventional tool steels commonly used in tooling such as AISI H13 and AISI A2 were compared in relation to tool steels fabricated by sintering process such as Crucible CPM 3V, CPM 9V and M4 steels. Friction and wear testing were carried out in a pin-on-disc automated equipment which pin was tool steel and the counter-face was a abrasive disc of silicon carbide. Normal load of 5 N, sliding velocity of 0.45 m/s, total sliding distance of 3000 m and room temperature were employed. The wear rate was calculated by the Archard's equation and from the plotted graphs of pin cumulated volume loss versus sliding distance. Specimens were appropriately heat treated by quenching and three tempering cycles. Percentage of alloying elements, metallographic analyses of microstructure and Vickers microhardness of specimens were performed, analyzed and correlated with wear rate. The work is concluded by the presentation of a rank of tool steel wear rate, comparing the different tool steel abrasion wear resistance: the best tool steel wear resistance evaluated was the Crucible CPM 9V steel.

  6. Process for producing a well-adhered durable optical coating on an optical plastic substrate. [abrasion resistant polymethyl methacrylate lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubacki, R. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A low temperature plasma polymerization process is described for applying an optical plastic substrate, such as a polymethyl methacrylate lens, with a single layer abrasive resistant coating to improve the durability of the plastic.

  7. Toothbrush abrasion of paint-on resins for shade modification and crown resins: effect of water absorption.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Koichi; Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Kanie, Takahito; Ban, Seiji

    2004-06-01

    In order to investigate the clinical application of paint-on resins, the effect of water absorption on toothbrush abrasion and light transmittance of ten crown resins including three paint-on resins was examined. Water absorption into each material ranged from 0.29 to 0.89 mg/cm2 after storage in distilled-water for 6 weeks and their hardnesses decreased by 3.5-22.3%. Maximum surface roughness (Rmax) of the materials stored in distilled water for 6 weeks increased with an increasing number of toothbrush abrasion cycles and ranged from 1.9 to 10.5 microm after 100,000 cycles. Also, Maximum depth and weight loss as an indicator of the amount of each material lost by abrasion showed similar behaviors similar to Rmax. These results indicated that the abrasion resistance of paint-on resins was located in the middle among all materials examined.

  8. Theoretical study on removal rate and surface roughness in grinding a RB-SiC mirror with a fixed abrasive.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Xuejun

    2009-02-10

    This paper is based on a microinteraction principle of fabricating a RB-SiC material with a fixed abrasive. The influence of the depth formed on a RB-SiC workpiece by a diamond abrasive on the material removal rate and the surface roughness of an optical component are quantitatively discussed. A mathematical model of the material removal rate and the simulation results of the surface roughness are achieved. In spite of some small difference between the experimental results and the theoretical anticipation, which is predictable, the actual removal rate matches the theoretical prediction very well. The fixed abrasive technology's characteristic of easy prediction is of great significance in the optical fabrication industry, so this brand-new fixed abrasive technology has wide application possibilities.

  9. Fan beam image reconstruction with generalized Fourier slice theorem.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuangren; Yang, Kang; Yang, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    For parallel beam geometry the Fourier reconstruction works via the Fourier slice theorem (or central slice theorem, projection slice theorem). For fan beam situation, Fourier slice can be extended to a generalized Fourier slice theorem (GFST) for fan-beam image reconstruction. We have briefly introduced this method in a conference. This paper reintroduces the GFST method for fan beam geometry in details. The GFST method can be described as following: the Fourier plane is filled by adding up the contributions from all fanbeam projections individually; thereby the values in the Fourier plane are directly calculated for Cartesian coordinates such avoiding the interpolation from polar to Cartesian coordinates in the Fourier domain; inverse fast Fourier transform is applied to the image in Fourier plane and leads to a reconstructed image in spacial domain. The reconstructed image is compared between the result of the GFST method and the result from the filtered backprojection (FBP) method. The major differences of the GFST and the FBP methods are: (1) The interpolation process are at different data sets. The interpolation of the GFST method is at projection data. The interpolation of the FBP method is at filtered projection data. (2) The filtering process are done in different places. The filtering process of the GFST is at Fourier domain. The filtering process of the FBP method is the ramp filter which is done at projections. The resolution of ramp filter is variable with different location but the filter in the Fourier domain lead to resolution invariable with location. One advantage of the GFST method over the FBP method is in short scan situation, an exact solution can be obtained with the GFST method, but it can not be obtained with the FBP method. The calculation of both the GFST and the FBP methods are at O(N^3), where N is the number of pixel in one dimension.

  10. Rock Cutting Depth Model Based on Kinetic Energy of Abrasive Waterjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae-Min; Cho, Gye-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Abrasive waterjets are widely used in the fields of civil and mechanical engineering for cutting a great variety of hard materials including rocks, metals, and other materials. Cutting depth is an important index to estimate operating time and cost, but it is very difficult to predict because there are a number of influential variables (e.g., energy, geometry, material, and nozzle system parameters). In this study, the cutting depth is correlated to the maximum kinetic energy expressed in terms of energy (i.e., water pressure, water flow rate, abrasive feed rate, and traverse speed), geometry (i.e., standoff distance), material (i.e., α and β), and nozzle system parameters (i.e., nozzle size, shape, and jet diffusion level). The maximum kinetic energy cutting depth model is verified with experimental test data that are obtained using one type of hard granite specimen for various parameters. The results show a unique curve for a specific rock type in a power function between cutting depth and maximum kinetic energy. The cutting depth model developed here can be very useful for estimating the process time when cutting rock using an abrasive waterjet.

  11. Effect of consolidation on adhesive and abrasive wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Gul, Rizwan M; McGarry, Frederick J; Bragdon, Charles R; Muratoglu, Orhun K; Harris, William H

    2003-08-01

    Total hip replacement (THR) is widely performed to recover hip joint functions lost by trauma or disease and to relieve pain. The major cause of failure in THR is the wear of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component. The dominant wear mechanism in THR occurs through adhesion and abrasion. While poor consolidation of UHMWPE is known to increase the incidence of a different damage mode, delamination, which is the dominant wear mechanism in tibial inserts but uncommon in THR, the effect of consolidation on adhesive and abrasive wear of UHMWPE is not clear. In this study UHMWPE resin was subjected to hot isostatic pressing under a pressure of 138MPa at different temperatures (210 degrees C, 250 degrees C, and 300 degrees C) to achieve varying degrees of consolidation. The extent of consolidation was determined by optical microscopy using thin sections, and by scanning electron microscopy using cryofractured and solvent etched specimens. Wear behavior of the samples with varying degree of consolidation was determined using a bi-directional pin-on-disc machine simulating conditions in a hip joint. Increasing the processing temperature decreased the incidence of fusion defects and particle boundaries reflecting the powder flakes of the virgin resin, improving the consolidation. However, the bi-directional pin-on-disc wear rate did not change with the processing temperature, indicating that adhesive and abrasive wear is independent of the extent of consolidation in the range of parameters studied here.

  12. Influence of sodium content on the properties of bioactive glasses for use in air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Imran; Tylkowski, Maxi; Müller, Steffen; Janicki, Tomasz; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G

    2013-12-01

    Air abrasion is used in minimally invasive dentistry for preparing cavities, while removing no or little sound dentine or enamel, and the use of bioactive glass (rather than alumina) as an abrasive could aid in tooth remineralization. Melt-derived bioactive glasses (SiO2-P2O5-CaO-CaF2-Na2O) with low sodium content (0 to 10 mol% Na2O in exchange for CaO) for increased hardness, high phosphate content for high bioactivity and fluoride content for release of fluoride and formation of fluorapatite were produced, and particles between 38 and 80 µm in size were used for cutting soda-lime silicate glass microscope slides and human enamel. Vickers hardness increased with decreasing Na2O content, owing to a more compact silicate network in low sodium content glasses, resulting in shorter cutting times. Cutting times using bioactive glass were significantly longer than using the alumina control (29 µm) when tested on microscope slides; however, glasses showed more comparable results when cutting human enamel. The bioactive glasses formed apatite in Tris buffer within 6 h, which was significantly faster than Bioglass® 45S5 (24 h), suggesting that the hardness of the glasses makes them suitable for air abrasion application, while their high bioactivity and fluoride content make them of interest for tooth remineralization.

  13. Release of copper-amended particles from micronized copper-pressure-treated wood during mechanical abrasion.

    PubMed

    Civardi, Chiara; Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kaiser, Jean-Pierre; Hirsch, Cordula; Mucchino, Claudio; Wichser, Adrian; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2016-11-28

    We investigated the particles released due to abrasion of wood surfaces pressure-treated with micronized copper azole (MCA) wood preservative and we gathered preliminary data on its in vitro cytotoxicity for lung cells. The data were compared with particles released after abrasion of untreated, water (0% MCA)-pressure-treated, chromated copper (CC)-pressure-treated wood, and varnished wood. Size, morphology, and composition of the released particles were analyzed. Our results indicate that the abrasion of MCA-pressure-treated wood does not cause an additional release of nanoparticles from the unreacted copper (Cu) carbonate nanoparticles from of the MCA formulation. However, a small amount of released Cu was detected in the nanosized fraction of wood dust, which could penetrate the deep lungs. The acute cytotoxicity studies were performed on a human lung epithelial cell line and human macrophages derived from a monocytic cell line. These cell types are likely to encounter the released wood particles after inhalation. Our findings indicate that under the experimental conditions chosen, MCA does not pose a specific additional nano-risk, i.e. there is no additional release of nanoparticles and no specific nano-toxicity for lung epithelial cells and macrophages.

  14. Property-process relations in simulated clinical abrasive adjusting of dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ling

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports on property-process correlations in simulated clinical abrasive adjusting of a wide range of dental restorative ceramics using a dental handpiece and diamond burs. The seven materials studied included four mica-containing glass ceramics, a feldspathic porcelain, a glass-infiltrated alumina, and a yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia. The abrasive adjusting process was conducted under simulated clinical conditions using diamond burs and a clinical dental handpiece. An attempt was made to establish correlations between process characteristics in terms of removal rate, chipping damage, and surface finish and material mechanical properties of hardness, fracture toughness and Young's modulus. The results show that the removal rate is mainly a function of hardness, which decreases nonlinearly with hardness. No correlations were noted between the removal rates and the complex relations of hardness, Young's modulus and fracture toughness. Surface roughness was primarily a linear function of diamond grit size and was relatively independent of materials. Chipping damage in terms of the average chipping width decreased with fracture toughness except for glass-infiltrated alumina. It also had higher linear correlations with critical strain energy release rates (R²=0.66) and brittleness (R²=0.62) and a lower linear correlation with indices of brittleness (R²=0.32). Implications of these results can provide guidance for the microstructural design of dental ceramics, optimize performance, and guide the proper selection of technical parameters in clinical abrasive adjusting conducted by dental practitioners. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tooth brush abrasion of paint-on resins for shade modification of crown and bridge resins.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Koichi; Ban, Seiji; McCabe, John F

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness and resistance to toothbrush abrasion of three experimental paint-on composite resins developed for the shade modification of crown and bridge resins. The paint-on resins had less filler volume fraction than restorative composites or the crown and bridge resins and consequently were of low viscosity. The maximum surface roughness (Rmax) and the maximum depth loss by abrasion for the paint-on resins following 40,000 cycles of brushing ranged from 2.45 to 4.07 microm and 8.63 to 13.67 microm, respectively. Rmax values were 37.7-67.5% lower than that for the crown and bridge resin subjected to the same test. Wear depth was 19.9-49.4% lower than for the crown and bridge resin. These results suggest that the paint-on resins are expected to have adequate resistance to toothbrush abrasion and may therefore be suitable for clinical use.

  16. Drill Holes and Predation Traces versus Abrasion-Induced Artifacts Revealed by Tumbling Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Salamon, Mariusz A.; Trzęsiok, Dawid; Niedźwiedzki, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Drill holes made by predators in prey shells are widely considered to be the most unambiguous bodies of evidence of predator-prey interactions in the fossil record. However, recognition of traces of predatory origin from those formed by abiotic factors still waits for a rigorous evaluation as a prerequisite to ascertain predation intensity through geologic time and to test macroevolutionary patterns. New experimental data from tumbling various extant shells demonstrate that abrasion may leave holes strongly resembling the traces produced by drilling predators. They typically represent singular, circular to oval penetrations perpendicular to the shell surface. These data provide an alternative explanation to the drilling predation hypothesis for the origin of holes recorded in fossil shells. Although various non-morphological criteria (evaluation of holes for non-random distribution) and morphometric studies (quantification of the drill hole shape) have been employed to separate biological from abiotic traces, these are probably insufficient to exclude abrasion artifacts, consequently leading to overestimate predation intensity. As a result, from now on, we must adopt more rigorous criteria to appropriately distinguish abrasion artifacts from drill holes, such as microstructural identification of micro-rasping traces. PMID:23505530

  17. Neuronal network imaging in acute slices using Ca2+ sensitive bioluminescent reporter.

    PubMed

    Tricoire, Ludovic; Lambolez, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded indicators are valuable tools to study intracellular signaling cascades in real time using fluorescent or bioluminescent imaging techniques. Imaging of Ca(2+) indicators is widely used to record transient intracellular Ca(2+) increases associated with bioelectrical activity. The natural bioluminescent Ca(2+) sensor aequorin has been historically the first Ca(2+) indicator used to address biological questions. Aequorin imaging offers several advantages over fluorescent reporters: it is virtually devoid of background signal; it does not require light excitation and interferes little with intracellular processes. Genetically encoded sensors such as aequorin are commonly used in dissociated cultured cells; however it becomes more challenging to express them in differentiated intact specimen such as brain tissue. Here we describe a method to express a GFP-aequorin (GA) fusion protein in pyramidal cells of neocortical acute slices using recombinant Sindbis virus. This technique allows expressing GA in several hundreds of neurons on the same slice and to perform the bioluminescence recording of Ca(2+) transients in single neurons or multiple neurons simultaneously.

  18. Abrasion properties of self-suspended hairy titanium dioxide nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiao-xia; Liu, Si; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xiao-jing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Ya-ming; Li, Shi-yun

    2017-11-01

    Considering the excellent solubility of pyrrolidone ring organic compounds, the synthesized N-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl- N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone chlorides was tethered onto titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to improve dispersion of TiO2, and then polyethylene oxide (PEO) oligomer through ion exchange embraced the tethered TiO2 to obtain a novel self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials without any solvent. A variety of techniques were carried out to illustrate the structure and properties of the self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials. It was found that TiO2 nanoparticles embody monodispersity in the hybrid system though the "false reunion" phenomenon occurring due to nonpermanent weak physical cross-linking. Remarkably, self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials exhibit lower viscosity, facilitating maneuverable and outstanding antifriction and wear resistance properties, due to the synergistic lubricating effect between spontaneously forming lubricating film and nano-lubrication of TiO2 cores, overcoming the deficiency of both solid and liquid lubricants. This make them promising candidates for the micro-electromechanic/nano-electromechanic systems (MEMS/NEMS).

  19. Defining an Abrasion Index for Lunar Surface Systems as a Function of Dust Interaction Modes and Variable Concentration Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected issues were encountered during the Apollo era of lunar exploration due to detrimental abrasion of materials upon exposure to the fine-grained, irregular shaped dust on the surface of the Moon. For critical design features involving contact with the lunar surface and for astronaut safety concerns, operational concepts and dust tolerance must be considered in the early phases of mission planning. To systematically define material selection criteria, dust interaction can be characterized by two-body or three-body abrasion testing, and subcategorically by physical interactions of compression, rolling, sliding and bending representing specific applications within the system. Two-body abrasion occurs when a single particle or asperity slides across a given surface removing or displacing material. Three-body abrasion occurs when multiple particles interact with a solid surface, or in between two surfaces, allowing the abrasives to freely rotate and interact with the material(s), leading to removal or displacement of mass. Different modes of interaction are described in this paper along with corresponding types of tests that can be utilized to evaluate each configuration. In addition to differential modes of abrasion, variable concentrations of dust in different zones can also be considered for a given system design and operational protocol. These zones include: (1) outside the habitat where extensive dust exposure occurs, (2) in a transitional zone such as an airlock or suitport, and (3) inside the habitat or spacesuit with a low particle count. These zones can be used to help define dust interaction frequencies, and corresponding risks to the systems and/or crew can be addressed by appropriate mitigation strategies. An abrasion index is introduced that includes the level of risk, R, the hardness of the mineralogy, H, the severity of the abrasion mode, S, and the frequency of particle interactions, F.

  20. Control of brushing variables for the in vitro assessment of toothpaste abrasivity using a novel laboratory model.

    PubMed

    Parry, Jason; Harrington, Edward; Rees, Gareth D; McNab, Rod; Smith, Anthony J

    2008-02-01

    Design and construct a tooth-brushing simulator incorporating control of brushing variables including brushing force, speed and temperature, thereby facilitating greater understanding of their importance in toothpaste abrasion testing methodologies. A thermostable orbital shaker was selected as a base unit and 16- and 24-specimen brushing rigs were constructed to fit inside, consisting of: a square bath partitioned horizontally to provide brushing channels, specimen holders for 25 mm diameter mounted specimens to fit the brushing channels and individually weighted brushing arms, able to support four toothbrush holders suspended over the brushing channels. Brush head holders consisted of individually weighted blocks of Delrin, or PTFE onto which toothbrush heads were fixed. Investigating effects of key design criteria involved measuring abrasion depths of polished human enamel and dentine. The brushing simulator demonstrated good reproducibility of abrasion on enamel and dentine across consecutive brushing procedures. Varying brushing parameters had a significant impact on wear results: increased brushing force demonstrated a trend towards increased wear, with increased reproducibility for greater abrasion levels, highlighting the importance of achieving sufficient wear to optimise accuracy; increasing brushing temperature demonstrated increased enamel abrasion for silica and calcium carbonate systems, which may be related to slurry viscosities and particle suspension; varying brushing speed showed a small effect on abrasion of enamel at lower brushing speed, which may indicate the importance of maintenance of the abrasive in suspension. Adjusting key brushing variables significantly affected wear behaviour. The brushing simulator design provides a valuable model system for in vitro assessment of toothpaste abrasivity and the influence of variables in a controlled manner. Control of these variables will allow more reproducible study of in vitro tooth wear processes.

  1. Abrasion Resistance of Nano Silica Modified Roller Compacted Rubbercrete: Cantabro Loss Method and Response Surface Methodology Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamu, Musa; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Shafiq, Nasir

    2018-04-01

    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) when used for pavement is subjected to skidding/rubbing by wheels of moving vehicles, this causes pavement surface to wear out and abrade. Therefore, abrasion resistance is one of the most important properties of concern for RCC pavement. In this study, response surface methodology was used to design, evaluate and analyze the effect of partial replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber, and addition of nano silica on the abrasion resistance of roller compacted rubbercrete (RCR). RCR is the terminology used for RCC pavement where crumb rubber was used as partial replacement to fine aggregate. The Box-Behnken design method was used to develop the mixtures combinations using 10%, 20%, and 30% crumb rubber with 0%, 1%, and 2% nano silica. The Cantabro loss method was used to measure the abrasion resistance. The results showed that the abrasion resistance of RCR decreases with increase in crumb rubber content, and increases with increase in addition of nano silica. The analysis of variance shows that the model developed using response surface methodology (RSM) has a very good degree of correlation, and can be used to predict the abrasion resistance of RCR with a percentage error of 5.44%. The combination of 10.76% crumb rubber and 1.59% nano silica yielded the best combinations of RCR in terms of abrasion resistance of RCR.

  2. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milly, Hussam; Andiappan, Manoharan; Thompson, Ian; Banerjee, Avijit

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required "time taken". BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  3. Evolution and diagnostic utility of aeolian rat-tails: A new type of abrasion feature on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, Elena A.; Hugenholtz, Christopher H.; Barchyn, Thomas E.

    2017-10-01

    Aeolian rat-tails (ARTs) are a previously undocumented, regionally-ubiquitous aeolian abrasion feature observed on matrix-supported ignimbrite surfaces in the Puna Plateau of Northwest Argentina. ARTs consist of an abrasion-resistant lithic clast projecting above the surface with a lee tail or 'keel' in the more erodible matrix. Size is controlled by the dimensions of the windward lithic clast, ranging from centimetre to meter scale; spatial density varies with clast content, which may reflect variations in ignimbrite facies. Field observations suggest ARTs follow a definable evolutionary sequence. First, an abrasion-resistant lithic clast contained within the ignimbrite is exposed to abrasion at the surface. Impacts from abrading particles erode the softer ignimbrite matrix adjacent to the clast. The clast shelters the leeward surface under a unimodal abrasion direction, creating a tail that tapers downwind and elongates as the clast emerges. Clasts become dislodged from the matrix as the surrounding surface erodes, ultimately destroying the feature if the clast is small enough to be mobilized directly by wind or impacting particles. This evolutionary sequence explains the morphology of ARTs and the presence of loose clasts on the ignimbrite surface, which contributes to the development of other landforms in the region, such as periodic bedrock ridges, yardangs, and megaripples. Satellite and rover images suggest similar features also exist on Mars. Because the formation and preservation of ARTs is contingent on unimodal abrasion direction, their orientation can be used as an indicator of long-term aeolian sediment transport direction.

  4. Characterization of cortical neuronal and glial alterations during culture of organotypic whole brain slices from neonatal and mature mice.

    PubMed

    Staal, Jerome A; Alexander, Samuel R; Liu, Yao; Dickson, Tracey D; Vickers, James C

    2011-01-01

    Organotypic brain slice culturing techniques are extensively used in a wide range of experimental procedures and are particularly useful in providing mechanistic insights into neurological disorders or injury. The cellular and morphological alterations associated with hippocampal brain slice cultures has been well established, however, the neuronal response of mouse cortical neurons to culture is not well documented. In the current study, we compared the cell viability, as well as phenotypic and protein expression changes in cortical neurons, in whole brain slice cultures from mouse neonates (P4-6), adolescent animals (P25-28) and mature adults (P50+). Cultures were prepared using the membrane interface method. Propidium iodide labeling of nuclei (due to compromised cell membrane) and AlamarBlue™ (cell respiration) analysis demonstrated that neonatal tissue was significantly less vulnerable to long-term culture in comparison to the more mature brain tissues. Cultures from P6 animals showed a significant increase in the expression of synaptic markers and a decrease in growth-associated proteins over the entire culture period. However, morphological analysis of organotypic brain slices cultured from neonatal tissue demonstrated that there were substantial changes to neuronal and glial organization within the neocortex, with a distinct loss of cytoarchitectural stratification and increased GFAP expression (p<0.05). Additionally, cultures from neonatal tissue had no glial limitans and, after 14 DIV, displayed substantial cellular protrusions from slice edges, including cells that expressed both glial and neuronal markers. In summary, we present a substantial evaluation of the viability and morphological changes that occur in the neocortex of whole brain tissue cultures, from different ages, over an extended period of culture.

  5. Assessment of left ventricular function and mass by MR imaging: a stereological study based on the systematic slice sampling procedure.

    PubMed

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Sahin, Bunyamin; Pagonidis, Konstantin; Damilakis, John

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to combine the stereological technique with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data for the volumetric and functional analysis of the left ventricle (LV). Cardiac MR examinations were performed in 13 consecutive subjects with known or suspected coronary artery disease. The end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume, ejection fraction (EF), and mass were estimated by stereology using the entire slice set depicting LV and systematic sampling intensities of 1/2 and 1/3 that provided samples with every second and third slice, respectively. The repeatability of stereology was evaluated. Stereological assessments were compared with the reference values derived by manually tracing the endocardial and epicardial contours on MR images. Stereological EDV and EF estimations obtained by the 1/3 systematic sampling scheme were significantly different from those by manual delineation (P < .05). No difference was observed between the reference values and the LV parameters estimated by the entire slice set or a sampling intensity of 1/2 (P > .05). For these stereological approaches, a high correlation (r(2) = 0.80-0.93) and clinically acceptable limits of agreement were found with the reference method. Stereological estimations obtained by both sample sizes presented comparable coefficient of variation values of 2.9-5.8%. The mean time for stereological measurements on the entire slice set was 3.4 ± 0.6 minutes and it was reduced to 2.5 ± 0.5 minutes with the 1/2 systematic sampling scheme. Stereological analysis on systematic samples of MR slices generated by the 1/2 sampling intensity provided efficient and quick assessment of LV volumes, function, and mass. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rock Abrasion as Seen by the MSL Curiosity Rover: Insights on Physical Weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N.; Day, M. D.; Le Mouelic, S.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Newsom, H. E.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Ullan, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mars is a dry planet, with actively blowing sand in many regions. In the absence of stable liquid water and an active hydrosphere, rates of chemical weathering are slow, such that aeolian abrasion is a dominant agent of landscape modification where sand is present and winds above threshold occur at sufficient frequency. Reflecting this activity, ventifacts, rocks that have been abraded by windborne particles, and wind-eroded outcrops, are common. They provide invaluable markers of the Martian wind record and insight into climate and landscape modification. Ventifacts are distributed along the traverse of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. They contain one or more diagnostic features and textures: Facets, keels, basal sills, elongated pits, scallops/flutes, grooves, rock tails, and lineations. Keels at the junction of facets are sharp enough to pose a hazard MSL's wheels in some areas. Geomorphic and textural patterns on outcrops indicate retreat of windward faces. Moonlight Valley and other depressions are demarcated by undercut walls and scree boulders, with the valley interiors containing fewer rocks, most of which show evidence for significant abrasion. Together, this suggests widening and undercutting of the valley walls, and erosion of interior rocks, by windblown sand. HiRISE images do not show any dark sand dunes in the traverse so far, in contrast to the large dune field to the south that is migrating up to 2 m per year. In addition, ChemCam shows that the rock Bathurst has a rind rich in mobile elements that would be removed in an abrading environment. This indicates that rock abrasion was likely more dominant in the past, a hypothesis consistent with rapid scarp retreat as suggested by the cosmogenic noble gases in Yellowknife Bay. Ventifacts and evidence for bedrock abrasion have also been found at the Pathfinder, Spirit, and Opportunity sites, areas, like the Curiosity traverse so far, that lack evidence for current high sand fluxes. Yardangs

  7. Effect of simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration on quality characteristics of carrot slices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the effects of various processing parameters on carrot slices exposed to infrared (IR) radiation heating for achieving simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD). The investigated parameters were product surface temperature, slice thickness and processing ti...

  8. Mathematical modelling of temperature effect on growth kinetics of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Tarlak, Fatih; Ozdemir, Murat; Melikoglu, Mehmet

    2018-02-02

    The growth data of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) stored between 4 and 28°C were obtained and fitted to three different primary models, known as the modified Gompertz, logistic and Baranyi models. The goodness of fit of these models was compared by considering the mean squared error (MSE) and the coefficient of determination for nonlinear regression (pseudo-R 2 ). The Baranyi model yielded the lowest MSE and highest pseudo-R 2 values. Therefore, the Baranyi model was selected as the best primary model. Maximum specific growth rate (r max ) and lag phase duration (λ) obtained from the Baranyi model were fitted to secondary models namely, the Ratkowsky and Arrhenius models. High pseudo-R 2 and low MSE values indicated that the Arrhenius model has a high goodness of fit to determine the effect of temperature on r max . Observed number of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushrooms from independent experiments was compared with the predicted number of Pseudomonas spp. with the models used by considering the B f and A f values. The B f and A f values were found to be 0.974 and 1.036, respectively. The correlation between the observed and predicted number of Pseudomonas spp. was high. Mushroom spoilage was simulated as a function of temperature with the models used. The models used for Pseudomonas spp. growth can provide a fast and cost-effective alternative to traditional microbiological techniques to determine the effect of storage temperature on product shelf-life. The models can be used to evaluate the growth behaviour of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushroom, set limits for the quantitative detection of the microbial spoilage and assess product shelf-life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Techniques A: continuous waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthan, J.

    1993-08-01

    In a vast amount of medical diseases the biochemical and physiological changes of soft tissues are hardly detectable by conventional techniques of diagnostic imaging (x- ray, ultrasound, computer tomography, and MRI). The detectivity is low and the technical efforts are tremendous. On the other hand these pathologic variations induce significant changes of the optical tissue parameters which can be detected. The corresponding variations of the scattered light can most easily be detected and evaluated by infrared diaphanoscopy, even on optical thick tissue slices.

  10. Current economic and sensitivity analysis for ID slicing of 4 inch and 6 inch diameter silicon ingots for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E. G.; Johnson, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The economics and sensitivities of slicing large diameter silicon ingots for photovoltaic applications were examined. Current economics and slicing add on cost sensitivities are calculated using variable parameters for blade life, slicing yield, and slice cutting speed. It is indicated that cutting speed has the biggest impact on slicing add on cost, followed by slicing yield, and by blade life as the blade life increases.

  11. The physiology of rodent beta-cells in pancreas slices.

    PubMed

    Rupnik, M

    2009-01-01

    Beta-cells in pancreatic islets form complex syncytia. Sufficient cell-to-cell electrical coupling seems to ensure coordinated depolarization pattern and insulin release that can be further modulated by rich innervation. The complex structure and coordinated action develop after birth during fast proliferation of the endocrine tissue. These emergent properties can be lost due to various reasons later in life and can lead to glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus. Pancreas slice is a novel method of choice to study the physiology of beta-cells still embedded in their normal cellulo-social context. I present major advantages, list drawbacks and provide an overview on recent advances in our understanding of the physiology of beta-cells using the pancreas slice approach.

  12. Slice-to-volume medical image registration: A survey.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Enzo; Paragios, Nikos

    2017-07-01

    During the last decades, the research community of medical imaging has witnessed continuous advances in image registration methods, which pushed the limits of the state-of-the-art and enabled the development of novel medical procedures. A particular type of image registration problem, known as slice-to-volume registration, played a fundamental role in areas like image guided surgeries and volumetric image reconstruction. However, to date, and despite the extensive literature available on this topic, no survey has been written to discuss this challenging problem. This paper introduces the first comprehensive survey of the literature about slice-to-volume registration, presenting a categorical study of the algorithms according to an ad-hoc taxonomy and analyzing advantages and disadvantages of every category. We draw some general conclusions from this analysis and present our perspectives on the future of the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of 2- and 3-Phase Bearingless Slice Motor Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zürcher, Franz; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Gruber, Wolfgang; Kolar, Johann W.

    Several processes in chemical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology and semiconductor industry require contactless levitation and rotation through a hermetically closed process chamber. A highly interesting topology for these applications is the “bearingless slice motor” concept, where already some research has been done in the past, especially focusing on topology and implementation issues. However, only little work has been done to evaluate the ideal number of motor phases. In this paper, a performance evaluation between 2-phase and 3-phase bearingless slice motor concepts is undertaken. It is shown, that 3-phase systems can supply almost the same power as state-of-the-art 2-phase systems and achieve nearly the same acceleration behavior, although they have significantly less power electronics effort.

  14. Tumor Slice Culture: A New Avatar in Personalized Oncology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188...significantly correlated with pathologic assessment of tumor viability/necrosis. We continue to optimize the conditions for TSC by manipulating growth...following exposure to treatments. We are in the process of assessing the pathologic outcome using H&E staining of the treated slices and correlating the

  15. Tumor Slice Culture: A New Avatar in Personalized Oncology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public... correlated with pathologic assessment of tumor viability/necrosis. We continue to optimize the conditions for TSC by manipulating growth factors...exposure to treatments. We are in the process of assessing the pathologic outcome using H&E staining of the treated slices and correlating the results

  16. The effect of propofol on CA1 pyramidal cell excitability and GABAA-mediated inhibition in the rat hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Albertson, T E; Walby, W F; Stark, L G; Joy, R M

    1996-05-24

    An in vitro paired-pulse orthodromic stimulation technique was used to examine the effects of propofol on excitatory afferent terminals, CA1 pyramidal cells and recurrent collateral evoked inhibition in the rat hippocampal slice. Hippocampal slices 400 microns thick were perfused with oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid, and electrodes were placed in the CA1 region to record extracellular field population spike (PS) or excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) responses to stimulation of Schaffer collateral/commissural fibers. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated recurrent inhibition was measured using a paired-pulse technique. The major effect of propofol (7-28 microM) was a dose and time dependent increase in the intensity and duration of GABA-mediated inhibition. This propofol effect could be rapidly and completely reversed by exposure to known GABAA antagonists, including picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazol. It was also reversed by the chloride channel antagonist, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS). It was not antagonized by central (flumazenil) or peripheral (PK11195) benzodiazepine antagonists. Reversal of endogenous inhibition was also noted with the antagonists picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazol. Input/output curves constructed using stimulus propofol caused only a small enhancement of EPSPs at higher stimulus intensities but had no effect on PS amplitudes. These studies are consistent with propofol having a GABAA-chloride channel mechanism causing its effect on recurrent collateral evoked inhibition in the rat hippocampal slice.

  17. Use of automatic exposure control in multislice computed tomography of the coronaries: comparison of 16‐slice and 64‐slice scanner data with conventional coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Deetjen, Anja; Möllmann, Susanne; Conradi, Guido; Rolf, Andreas; Schmermund, Axel; Hamm, Christian W; Dill, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the radiation‐dose‐reduction potential of automatic exposure control (AEC) in 16‐slice and 64‐slice multislice computed tomography (MSCT) of the coronary arteries (computed tomography angiography, CTA) in patients. The rapid growth in MSCT CTA emphasises the necessity of adjusting technique factors to reduce radiation dose exposure. Design A retrospective data analysis was performed for 154 patients who had undergone MSCT CTA. Group 1 (n = 56) had undergone 16‐slice MSCT without AEC, and group 2 (n = 51), with AEC. In group 1, invasive coronary angiography (ICA) had been performed in addition. Group 3 (n = 47) had been examined using a 64‐slice scanner (with AEC, without ECG‐triggered tube current modulation). Results In group 1, the mean (SD) effective dose (ED) for MSCT CTA was 9.76 (1.84) mSv and for ICA it was 2.6 (1.27) mSv. In group 2, the mean ED for MSCT CTA was 5.83 (1.73) mSv, which signifies a 42.8% dose reduction for CTA by the use of AEC. In comparison to ICA, MSCT CTA without AEC shows a 3.8‐fold increase in radiation dose, and the radiation dose of CTA with AEC was increased by a factor of 1.9. In group 3, the mean ED for MSCT CTA was 13.58 (2.80) mSV. Conclusions This is the first study to show the significant dose‐reduction potential (42.8%) of AEC in MSCT CTA in patients. This relatively new technique can be used to optimise the radiation dose levels in MSCT CTA. PMID:17395667

  18. Fast and precise thermoregulation system in physiological brain slice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Y. H.; Young, M. S.

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a fast and precise thermoregulation system incorporated within a physiological experiment on a brain slice. The thermoregulation system is used to control the temperature of a recording chamber in which the brain slice is placed. It consists of a single-chip microcomputer, a set command module, a display module, and an FLC module. A fuzzy control algorithm was developed and a fuzzy logic controller then designed for achieving fast, smooth thermostatic performance and providing precise temperature control with accuracy to 0.1 °C, from room temperature through 42 °C (experimental temperature range). The fuzzy logic controller is implemented by microcomputer software and related peripheral hardware circuits. Six operating modes of thermoregulation are offered with the system and this can be further extended according to experimental needs. The test results of this study demonstrate that the fuzzy control method is easily implemented by a microcomputer and also verifies that this method provides a simple way to achieve fast and precise high-performance control of a nonlinear thermoregulation system in a physiological brain slice experiment.

  19. Toothpastes and enamel erosion/abrasion - Impact of active ingredients and the particulate fraction.

    PubMed

    Ganss, C; Marten, J; Hara, A T; Schlueter, N

    2016-11-01

    To investigate in vitro a range of differently characterised toothpastes with respect to their efficacy in an erosion/abrasion setting with special emphasis on the role of the particulate ingredients. Human enamel samples were erosively demineralised with citric acid (2min, 6×/day; 0.5%, pH 2.5; 10 days) and immersed in slurries (2min, 2×/day) either without or with brushing (15s, load 200g). The toothpastes were eight NaF-toothpastes, three hydroxyapatite-toothpastes (one without and two with NaF), one fluoride-free chitosan-toothpaste and three Sn-toothpastes. Negative control was erosion only, positive control was SnF 2 gel. Tissue loss was quantified profilometrically. The SnF 2 gel was most effective (reduction of tissue loss of 79%). Most of the products reduced tissue loss significantly when applied as slurries (between 28 and 66%). Brushing increased tissue loss in almost all toothpastes, only 5 formulations (all Sn-toothpastes and 2 NaF-toothpastes) reduced tissue loss significantly when compared to negative control (between 33 and 59%). There was a non-linear association between abrasiveness and amount of particles in a formulation, the particle size had no impact. Toothpastes had a protecting effect when applied as slurries but to a much lesser degree when applied with brushing. The particulate fraction may be a determinant for toothpaste efficacy in erosion/abrasion settings. Toothpastes are important carriers of active agents against erosion, but physical impacts through brushing modifies efficacy distinctly. Understanding the role of the particulate fraction in toothpastes may offer perspectives for designing effective formulations for patients with erosive lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Whitening Toothpastes on Dentin Abrasion: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Gustavo Henrique Apolinario; Nogueira, Marcia Bessa; Gaio, Eduardo Jose; Rosing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Santiago, Sergio Lima; Rego, Rodrigo Otavio

    To compare the effect of toothbrushing abrasion with hydrated silica-based whitening and regular toothpastes on root dentin using contact profilometry. Ninety dentin specimens (4 x 4 x 2 mm) were randomly divided into five experimental groups (n = 18) according to the toothpaste: three whitening (W1, W2 and W3) and two regular toothpastes (R1 and R2) produced by two different manufacturers. Using a brushing machine, each specimen was brushed with a constant load of 300 g for 2500 cycles (4.5 cycles/s). The toothpastes were diluted at a ratio of 1:3 w/w (dentifrice:distilled water). The brush diamond tip of the profilometer moved at a constant speed of 0.05 mm/s with a force of 0.7 mN. The average value of brushing abrasion in μm (mean ± SD) was obtained from five consecutive measurements of each specimen: W1 = 8.86 ± 1.58, W2 = 7.59 ± 1.04, W3 = 8.27 ± 2.39, R1 = 2.89 ± 1.05 and R2= 2.94 ± 1.29. There was a significant difference between groups (ANOVA, p<0.0001). Post-hoc Tukey's test for multiple comparisons showed differences between all the whitening and regular toothpastes, but not among the whitening nor among the regular toothpastes. The whitening toothpastes tested can cause more dentin abrasion than the regular ones.

  1. The influence of aluminum and carbon on the abrasion resistance of high manganese steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckholz, Samuel August

    Abrasive wear testing of lightweight, austenitic Fe-Mn-Al-C cast steel has been performed in accordance with ASTM G65 using a dry sand, rubber wheel, abrasion testing apparatus. Testing was conducted on a series of Fe-30Mn-XAl-YC-1Si-0.5Mo chemistries containing aluminum levels from 2.9 to 9.5 wt.% and carbon levels from 0.9 to 1.83 wt.%. Solution treated materials having an austenitic microstructure produced the highest wear resistance. Wear resistance decreased with higher aluminum, lower carbon, and higher hardness after age hardening. In the solution treated condition the wear rate was a strong function of the aluminum to carbon ratio and the wear rate increased with a parabolic dependence on the Al/C ratio, which ranged from 1.8 to 10.2. Examination of the surface wear scar revealed a mechanism of plowing during abrasion testing and this method of material removal is sensitive to work hardening rate. Work hardening behavior was determined from tensile tests and also decreased with increasing Al/C ratio and after aging hardening. The loss of wear resistance is related to short range ordering of Al and C in the solution treated materials and kappa-carbide precipitation in age hardened materials and both contribute to planar slip and lower work hardening rates. A high carbon tool steel (W1) and a bainitic low alloy steel (SAE 8620) were also tested for comparison. A lightweight steel containing 6.5 wt.% Al and 1.2 wt.% C has wear resistance comparable to within 5% of the bainitic SAE 8620 steel forging currently used for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle track shoe and this cast Fe-Mn-Al-C steel, at equivalent tensile properties, would be 10% lighter.

  2. Erosion and abrasion-inhibiting in situ effect of the Euclea natalensis plant of African regions.

    PubMed

    Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho; Xavier, Cheila Nilza Hamina; Mapengo, Marta Artemisa Abel; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Silva, Maria de Fatima; Sales-Peres, Arsenio

    2016-06-14

    This study evaluated the effect of Euclea natalensis gel on the reduction of erosive wear with or without abrasion, in enamel and dentin. During two five-day experimental crossover phases, volunteers (n = 10) wore palatal devices containing human enamel and dentin blocks (E = 8 and D = 8). The gel was applied in a thin layer in the experimental group, and was not applied in the control group. In the intraoral phase, volunteers used the palatal appliance for 12 h before the gel treatment, and were instructed to start the erosive challenges 6 h after the gel application. Erosion was performed with Coca-Cola® (for 5 min) 4 times/day. The appliance was then put back into the mouth and was brushed after 30 minutes. After intraoral exposure, the appliances were removed and the specimens were analyzed using profilometry (mean ± SD, μm). The Euclea natalensis gel caused less wear in enamel in the experimental group (EROS = 12.86 ± 1.75 µm; EROS + ABRAS = 12.13 ± 2.12 µm) than in the control group (EROS = 14.12 ± 7.66 µm; EROS + ABRAS = 16.29 ± 10.72 µm); however, the groups did not differ from each other significantly. A statistically significant value was found for erosion and eros + abrasion in dentin (p = 0.001). Euclea natalensis may play a role in the prevention of dentin loss under mild erosive and abrasive conditions. A clinical trial is required to confirm these promising results in a clinical situation.

  3. Simplified Abrasion Test Methodology for Candidate EVA Glove Lay-Ups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabel, Emily; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, space suit outer-layer fabrics were badly abraded after performing just a few extravehicular activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots that penetrated the outer-layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than 8 hrs of surface operations. Current plans for the exploration planetary space suits require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on a lunar or Martian surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last 40 years and improve on the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo Program. Over the past 25 years the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division has focused on tumble testing as means of simulating wear on the outer layer of the space suit fabric. Most recently, in 2009, testing was performed on 4 different candidate outer layers to gather baseline data for future use in design of planetary space suit outer layers. In support of the High Performance EVA Glove Element of the Next Generation Life Support Project, testing a new configuration was recently attempted in which require 10% of the fabric per replicate of that need in 2009. The smaller fabric samples allowed for reduced per sample cost and flexibility to test small samples from manufacturers without the overhead to have a production run completed. Data collected from this iteration was compared to that taken in 2009 to validate the new test method. In addition the method also evaluated the fabrics and fabric layups used in a prototype thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG) developed for EVA gloves under the NASA High Performance EVA Glove Project. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, results of the validation study, and results of the TMG testing.

  4. Corneal Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... goggles or a facemask) when you're enjoying sports like skiing, snowboarding, hockey, and lacrosse. Safety goggles can protect your eyes when you're using tools or experimenting in science class. If you go outside on a sunny ...

  5. Cleaning and modification of intraorally contaminated titanium discs with calcium phosphate powder abrasive treatment.

    PubMed

    Tastepe, Ceylin S; Liu, Yuelian; Visscher, Corine M; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning efficiency on intraorally contaminated titanium discs by using calcium phosphate and air powder abrasive (APA) treatment. The modification of titanium surface (SLA) was evaluated and compared with the conventional air powder abrasive methods and phosphoric acid. This treatment modality might give new perspectives for peri-implant surface treatment. A total of 36 SLA surface titanium discs were kept in the human mouth for 48 h by 14 volunteers. The intraorally contaminated discs were stained with erythrosine dye to make the biofilm visible. Discs were randomly assigned to one of the six groups: APA without powder-only water and air (Control). APA with Hydroxylapatite (HA). APA with Hydroxylapatite and Calcium Phosphate (HA + TCP). APA with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2). APA with EMS Soft Subgingival powder (EMS). Phosphoric Acid. Light microscope photos were taken during the treatment. Following the cleaning, the residual biofilm, surface changes, and surface chemical content were evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). A systematic random sampling protocol and a point counting method were applied for the quantitative evaluation of the remaining biofilm. Multiple comparisons within and between groups are performed by Kruskall Wallis test and if significant Mann-Whitney U-test as post hoc testing is applied. The significance level was P < 0.05. All methods with the exception of phosphoric acid could decrease the initial amount of biofilm significantly. Among all air powder abrasive treatments, the HA + TCP group showed the best results with 99% biofilm removal, followed by HA and EMS powders. The cleaning method caused minimal changes to the surface structure. With the exception of the control group, all air powder applications caused sharp edges around the grooves in the implant surface to be rounded. TiO2 powder caused less change than HA and HA + TCP. Phosphoric

  6. The grain-size distribution of pyroclasts: Primary fragmentation, conduit sorting or abrasion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, U.; Schauroth, J.; Taddeucci, J.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions expel a mixture of pyroclasts and lithics. Pyroclasts, fragments of the juvenile magma, record the state of the magma at fragmentation in terms of porosity and crystallinity. The grain size distribution of pyroclasts is generally considered to be a direct consequence of the conditions at magma fragmentation that is mainly driven by gas overpressure in bubbles, high shear rates, contact with external water or a combination of these factors. Stress exerted by any of these processes will lead to brittle fragmentation by overcoming the magma's relaxation timescale. As a consequence, most pyroclasts exhibit angular shapes. Upon magma fragmentation, the gas pyroclast mixture is accelerated upwards and eventually ejected from the vent. The total grain size distribution deposited is a function of fragmentation conditions and transport related sorting. Porous pyroclasts are very susceptible to abrasion by particle-particle or particle-conduit wall interaction. Accordingly, pyroclastic fall deposits with angular clasts should proof a low particle abrasion upon contact to other surfaces. In an attempt to constrain the degree of particle interaction during conduit flow, monomodal batches of washed pyroclasts have been accelerated upwards by rapid decompression and subsequently investigated for their grain size distribution. In our set-up, we used a vertical cylindrical tube without surface roughness as conduit. We varied grain size (0.125-0.25; 0.5-1; 1-2 mm), porosity (0; 10; 30 %), gas-particle ratio (10 and 40%), conduit length (10 and 28 cm) and conduit diameter (2.5 and 6 cm). All ejected particles were collected after settling at the base of a 3.3 m high tank and sieved at one sieve size below starting size (half-Φ). Grain size reduction showed a positive correlation with starting grain size, porosity and overpressure at the vent. Although milling in a volcanic conduit may take place, porous pyroclasts are very likely to be a primary product

  7. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for analgesia in traumatic corneal abrasions.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Abel; Lawrenson, John G; Lawrenson, Annali L; Wang, Yongjun; Brown, Michael D; Quirke, Michael; Ghandour, Omar; McCormick, Ryan; Walsh, Cathal D; Amayem, Ahmed; Lang, Eddy; Harrison, Nick

    2017-05-18

    Traumatic corneal abrasions are relatively common and there is a lack of consensus about analgesia in their management. It is therefore important to document the clinical efficacy and safety profile of topical ophthalmic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the management of traumatic corneal abrasions. To identify and evaluate all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of topical NSAIDs with placebo or any alternative analgesic interventions in adults with traumatic corneal abrasions (including corneal abrasions arising from foreign body removal), to reduce pain, and its effects on healing time. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 30 March 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to 30 March 2017), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 30 March 2017), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/); searched 30 March 2017, ZETOC (1993 to 30 March 2017), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 30 March 2017, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 30 March 2017 and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 30 March 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials.We checked the reference lists of identified trials to search for further potentially relevant studies. RCTs comparing topical NSAIDs to placebo or any alternative analgesic interventions in adults with traumatic corneal abrasions. Two review authors independently performed data extraction and assessed risks of bias in the included studies. We rated the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We included nine studies that met the inclusion criteria, reporting data on 637 participants.The studies took place in the UK, USA, Israel, Italy

  8. Abrasion-Erosion Resistance of Concrete Made with Two Aggregates, Stonewall Jackson Dam, West Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    the concrete mixtures; Mr. Dale Glass , Mr. Frank W. Dorsey, and Mr. Roger Buttner conducted the abrasion-erosion tests. Mr. Stuart Long served as the...PITT- 8 S-1, was from the Buffalo Slag Co., Franklinville, New York. This fine aggregate is classified as a glacial sand and is composed primarily of...MATERIAL Fine Aggregate ILZAI% Franklin, NY R:.rLcE- Buffalo Slag Co. sA--L.. BY ~ J2rhDst:r esne Kinzua Damn - . USED A PROCESSING BEFORE TESTING

  9. Dental Wear: Attrition, Erosion, and Abrasion-A Palaeo-Odontological Approach.

    PubMed

    Sperber, Geoffrey H

    2017-06-17

    This paper reviews the surface ablation of early hominin teeth by attrition, abrasion, and erosive dental wear. The occurrence of these lesions is explored in a sample of South African fossil australopithecine dentitions revealing excessive wear. Interpretation of the nature of the dietary components causing such wear in the absence of carious erosion provides insight into the ecology of the Plio-pleistocene epoch (1-2 million years ago). Fossil teeth inform much of the living past by their retained evidence after death. Tooth wear is the ultimate forensic dental evidence of lives lived.

  10. Study of abrasive wear rate of silicon using n-alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danyluk, S.

    1982-01-01

    The work carried out at the University of Illinois at Chicago for the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project under contract No. 956053 is summarized. The abrasion wear rate of silicon in a number of fluid environments and the parameters that influence the surface mechanical properties of silicon were determined. Three tests were carried out in this study: circular and linear multiple-scratch test, microhardness test and a three-point bend test. The pertinent parameters such as effect of surface orientation, dopant and fluid properties were sorted. A brief review and critique of previous work is presented.

  11. Bonding of composite resins to PEEK: the influence of adhesive systems and air-abrasion parameters.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Taufall, Simon; Roos, Malgorzata; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Lümkemann, Nina

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the tensile bond strength (TBS) to polyaryletheretherketone (PEEK) after different pretreatment and conditioning methods. Four hundred PEEK specimens were fabricated and allocated to the following air-abrasion methods (n 1  = 80/pretreatment): (i) 50 μm Al 2 O 3 (0.05 MPa); (ii) 50 μm Al 2 O 3 (0.35 MPa); (iii) 110 μm Al 2 O 3 (0.05 MPa); (iv) 110 μm Al 2 O 3 (0.35 MPa); and (v) Rocatec 110 μm (0.28 MPa). These pretreatments were combined with the following conditioning methods (n 2  = 20/pretreatment/conditioning): (a) visio.link (VL); (b) Monobond Plus/Heliobond (MH); (c) Scotchbond Universal (SU); and (d) dialog bonding fluid (DB). After veneering of all specimens with dialog occlusal and aging (28 days H 2 O, 37 °C + 20,000 thermal cycles, 5/55 °C), TBS was measured. Data was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with Breslow-Gehan test and Cox-regressions. The major impact on TBS showed the conditioning, followed by the air-abrasion-pressure, while the grain size of the air-abrasion powder did not show any effect. Specimens air-abraded at 0.35 MPa showed the highest survival rates. However, within VL groups, this observation was not statistically significant. Within MH groups, pretreatment using 110 μm Al 2 O 3 and 0.05 MPa resulted in higher survival rates compared to groups treated with 50 and 110 μm Al 2 O 3 using a pressure of 0.35 MPa. The use of VL showed the highest survival rates between the adhesive systems and the TBS values higher than 25 MPa independent of the pretreatment method. As an exception, only VL showed significantly higher survival rates when compared to MH. The adequate choice of the adhesive system and higher pressures improved the TBS between PEEK and veneering resin composite. The particle size had no major impact. According to this study, best veneering of PEEK with dialog occlusal can be achieved by conditioning with visio.link in combination with

  12. Microstructure and abrasive wear test of different composite layers formed by laser coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos, J.

    1994-09-01

    Layers containing different particles of different sizes (TiC: 2,7 micrometers and 31 micrometers mid size; TaC: 15 micrometers mid size) were formed on the surface of 90 MnCrV8 tool steel. A CO2-gas laser equipment was used to form these layers. The grain contents of the layers were between 35% - 55%. Some of the ready TiC layers were hardened by laser in order to reduce the retained amount. We compared the wear resistance of the layers employing abrasive wheel test. For reference purposes we carried out the test of traditionally hardened, traded TICALLOY II and TICALLOY W materials as well.

  13. The geomorphic effect of recent storms - Quantifying meso scale abrasion across a shore platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Niamh; Bourke, Mary; Naylor, Larissa

    2017-04-01

    Boulder abrasion trails (BATs) are lineations on the surface of rock platforms formed by the movement of traction-load clasts by waves. They have been observed on a variety of platform lithologies, including limestone, granite and basalt. Despite previous reporting of these features, the abrasion styles and geomorphic work done by boulder transport has not been quantified. We present the first quantitative measurement of shore platform erosion by boulder transport during extreme storms that occurred in the winter of 2015-2016. Following two storm events in 2016 we mapped and measured 33 individual BATs on a sandstone platform on the west coast of Ireland. The total (minimum) abraded surface area was 10m2. The total (minimum) volume of material abraded was 0.2m3. In order to test the efficacy of this process during non-storm conditions we conducted field experiments on the same platform. We identified two sites on the platform that were similar, but differed in their intertidal roughness. We installed an RBR solo wave pressure transducer (PT) at 0m OD at both locations to record wave data. We measured platform roughness, determined as the fractal dimension of the platform profiles at both sites. We deployed an array of boulders of known dimensions and mass, parallel to the shoreline at 0.5m intervals from the PTs. The experiments were conducted 1. during relatively calm conditions and 2. during higher energy conditions. Data was collected for one tidal cycle. Any boulder displacement distance and direction was measured and geomorphic effects were documented. We find that BATs are formed under a range of wave energy conditions. Our observations indicate that along the North Atlantic coastline, BATs can occur at a high frequency, only limited by sediment supply. Our data show that abrasion by boulder transport is a potentially significant geomorphological process acting to abrade platforms under contemporary climate conditions. In addition, our preliminary findings

  14. The topology of large-scale structure. VI - Slices of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    1992-03-01

    Results of an investigation of the topology of large-scale structure in two observed slices of the universe are presented. Both slices pass through the Coma cluster and their depths are 100 and 230/h Mpc. The present topology study shows that the largest void in the CfA slice is divided into two smaller voids by a statistically significant line of galaxies. The topology of toy models like the white noise and bubble models is shown to be inconsistent with that of the observed slices. A large N-body simulation was made of the biased cloud dark matter model and the slices are simulated by matching them in selection functions and boundary conditions. The genus curves for these simulated slices are spongelike and have a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology like those of observed slices.

  15. The topology of large-scale structure. VI - Slices of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the topology of large-scale structure in two observed slices of the universe are presented. Both slices pass through the Coma cluster and their depths are 100 and 230/h Mpc. The present topology study shows that the largest void in the CfA slice is divided into two smaller voids by a statistically significant line of galaxies. The topology of toy models like the white noise and bubble models is shown to be inconsistent with that of the observed slices. A large N-body simulation was made of the biased cloud dark matter model and the slices are simulated by matching them in selection functions and boundary conditions. The genus curves for these simulated slices are spongelike and have a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology like those of observed slices.

  16. Retrospective 4D MR image construction from free-breathing slice Acquisitions: A novel graph-based approach.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K; Ciesielski, Krzysztof C; Wu, Caiyun; McDonough, Joseph M; Mong, David A; Campbell, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic or 4D imaging of the thorax has many applications. Both prospective and retrospective respiratory gating and tracking techniques have been developed for 4D imaging via CT and MRI. For pediatric imaging, due to radiation concerns, MRI becomes the de facto modality of choice. In thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), patients often suffer from extreme malformations of the chest wall, diaphragm, and/or spine with inability of the thorax to support normal respiration or lung growth (Campbell et al., 2003, Campbell and Smith, 2007), as such patient cooperation needed by some of the gating and tracking techniques are difficult to realize without causing patient discomfort and interference with the breathing mechanism itself. Therefore (ventilator-supported) free-breathing MRI acquisition is currently the best choice for imaging these patients. This, however, raises a question of how to create a consistent 4D image from such acquisitions. This paper presents a novel graph-based technique for compiling the best 4D image volume representing the thorax over one respiratory cycle from slice images acquired during unencumbered natural tidal-breathing of pediatric TIS patients. In our approach, for each coronal (or sagittal) slice position, images are acquired at a rate of about 200-300ms/slice over several natural breathing cycles which yields over 2000 slices. A weighted graph is formed where each acquired slice constitutes a node and the weight of the arc between two nodes defines the degree of contiguity in space and time of the two slices. For each respiratory phase, an optimal 3D spatial image is constructed by finding the best path in the graph in the spatial direction. The set of all such 3D images for a given respiratory cycle constitutes a 4D image. Subsequently, the best 4D image among all such constructed images is found over all imaged respiratory cycles. Two types of evaluation studies are carried out to understand the behavior of this algorithm and in

  17. Effects of enamel abrasion, salivary pellicle, and measurement angle on the optical assessment of dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Lussi, Adrian; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Beyeler, Barbara; Megert, Brigitte; Meier, Christoph; Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina

    2012-09-01

    The present study assessed the effects of abrasion, salivary proteins, and measurement angle on the quantification of early dental erosion by the analysis of reflection intensities from enamel. Enamel from 184 caries-free human molars was used for in vitro erosion in citric acid (pH 3.6). Abrasion of the eroded enamel resulted in a 6% to 14% increase in the specular reflection intensity compared to only eroded enamel, and the reflection increase depended on the erosion degree. Nevertheless, monitoring of early erosion by reflection analysis was possible even in the abraded eroded teeth. The presence of the salivary pellicle induced up to 22% higher reflection intensities due to the smoothing of the eroded enamel by the adhered proteins. However, this measurement artifact could be significantly minimized (p<0.05) by removing the pellicle layer with 3% NaOCl solution. Change of the measurement angles from 45 to 60 deg did not improve the sensitivity of the analysis at late erosion stages. The applicability of the method for monitoring the remineralization of eroded enamel remained unclear in a demineralization/remineralization cycling model of early dental erosion in vitro.

  18. Effects of enamel abrasion, salivary pellicle, and measurement angle on the optical assessment of dental erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lussi, Adrian; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Beyeler, Barbara; Megert, Brigitte; Meier, Christoph; Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina

    2012-09-01

    The present study assessed the effects of abrasion, salivary proteins, and measurement angle on the quantification of early dental erosion by the analysis of reflection intensities from enamel. Enamel from 184 caries-free human molars was used for in vitro erosion in citric acid (pH 3.6). Abrasion of the eroded enamel resulted in a 6% to 14% increase in the specular reflection intensity compared to only eroded enamel, and the reflection increase depended on the erosion degree. Nevertheless, monitoring of early erosion by reflection analysis was possible even in the abraded eroded teeth. The presence of the salivary pellicle induced up to 22% higher reflection intensities due to the smoothing of the eroded enamel by the adhered proteins. However, this measurement artifact could be significantly minimized (p<0.05) by removing the pellicle layer with 3% NaOCl solution. Change of the measurement angles from 45 to 60 deg did not improve the sensitivity of the analysis at late erosion stages. The applicability of the method for monitoring the remineralization of eroded enamel remained unclear in a demineralization/remineralization cycling model of early dental erosion in vitro.

  19. Physicochemical Characterization of Functional Lignin–Silica Hybrid Fillers for Potential Application in Abrasive Tools

    PubMed Central

    Strzemiecka, Beata; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Jamrozik, Artur; Szalaty, Tadeusz J.; Matykiewicz, Danuta; Sterzyński, Tomasz; Voelkel, Adam; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2016-01-01

    Functional lignin–SiO2 hybrid fillers were prepared for potential application in binders for phenolic resins, and their chemical structure was characterized. The properties of these fillers and of composites obtained from them with phenolic resin were compared with those of systems with lignin or silica alone. The chemical structure of the materials was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C CP MAS NMR). The thermal stability of the new functional fillers was examined by thermogravimetric analysis–mass spectrometry (TG-MS). Thermo-mechanical properties of the lignin–silica hybrids and resin systems were investigated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The DMTA results showed that abrasive composites with lignin–SiO2 fillers have better thermo-mechanical properties than systems with silica alone. Thus, fillers based on lignin might provide new, promising properties for the abrasive industry, combining the good properties of lignin as a plasticizer and of silica as a filler improving mechanical properties. PMID:28773639

  20. A method for increase abrasive wear resistance parts by obtaining on methods casting on gasifying models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedukhin, V. V.; Anikeev, A. N.; Chumanov, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    Method optimizes hardening working layer parts’, working in high-abrasive conditions looks in this work: bland refractory particles WC and TiC in respect of 70/30 wt. % prepared by beforehand is applied on polystyrene model in casting’ mould. After metal poured in mould, withstand for crystallization, and then a study is carried out. Study macro- and microstructure received samples allows to say that thickness and structure received hardened layer depends on duration interactions blend harder carbides and liquid metal. Different character interactions various dispersed particles and matrix metal observed under the same conditions. Tests abrasive wear resistance received materials of method calculating residual masses was conducted in laboratory’ conditions. Results research wear resistance showed about that method obtaining harder coating of blend carbide tungsten and carbide titanium by means of drawing on surface foam polystyrene model before moulding, allows receive details with surface has wear resistance in 2.5 times higher, than details of analogy steel uncoated. Wherein energy costs necessary for transformation units mass’ substances in powder at obtained harder layer in 2.06 times higher, than materials uncoated.

  1. Influence of artificial saliva on abrasive wear and microhardness of dental composites filled with nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mayworm, Camila D; Camargo, Sérgio S; Bastian, Fernando L

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the wear resistance and hardness of two dental nanohybrid composites and to evaluate the influence of artificial saliva storage on those properties. Specimens were made from two commercial nanohybrid dental composites (Esthet-X-Dentsply and Filtek Supreme-3M). Abrasion tests were carried out in a ball-cratering machine (three body abrasion) and microscopic analysis of the wear surfaces was made using optical and scanning electron microscopy; hardness was quantified by Vickers hardness test. Those tests were repeated on specimens stored in artificial saliva. Results show that the wear rate of the studied materials is within 10(-7)mm(3)/Nmm range, one of the composites presenting wear rate twice as large as the other. After storage in artificial saliva, the wear resistance increases for both materials. Microhardness of the composites is around 52 and 64HV, Esthet-X presents higher hardness values than Filtek Supreme. After storage in artificial saliva, the microhardness of both materials decreases. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test, p < or = 0.05. Artificial saliva storage increases the materials' wear resistance, suggesting that in both materials bulk post-cure takes place and saliva absorption occurs only on the surface of the composites. This effect was confirmed by comparing the Vickers hardness before and after artificial saliva treatment and FTIR analyses. Surface microhardness of the composites decreases after storage in artificial saliva whereas bulk microhardness of the materials increases.

  2. Attritional wear and abrasive surface alterations of composite resin materials in vitro.

    PubMed

    Göhring, T N; Besek, M J; Schmidlin, P R

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory study was performed with 232 specimens and 72 human enamel, 24 gold, 24 ceramic and 12 composite antagonists in 22 groups to test attritional and abrasive wear behavior of composite materials compared to wear behavior of human enamel. Belleglass HP, Concept Inlay/Onlay, Targis and Targis Upgrade 99 composite resin for lab-made restorations was tested as well as Tetric Ceram and FHC Merz light as resins for direct restorations. Natural human enamel specimens served as control. All specimens were subjected to long-term thermo-mechanical loading in a computer-controlled masticator, chemical degradation and toothbrush/toothpaste abrasion. Wear of specimen in occlusal contact area (OCA), contact-free occlusal area and wear of natural enamel cusps as well as antagonists made of gold, ceramic and composite in identical form was measured after 120,000, 240,000, 640,000 and 1200,000 load cycles. A qualitative SEM analysis was performed to support quantitative data. Belleglass HP and Targis Upgrade 99 restorative materials showed wear resistance comparable to human enamel when loaded with enamel cusps. Wear of Targis versus composite and gold antagonists was significantly higher (p<0.0001). Analysis of surface alterations showed hygroscopic expansion in all composite resins during the test. As a consequence of this study, necessity to further improve physical properties of composites for long lasting restorations was obvious. Beside of attritional wear in OCA, attention must be given to stable filler-matrix interfaces and prevention of water sorption.

  3. Hydro-abrasive erosion of hydraulic turbines caused by sediment - a century of research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, D.; Albayrak, I.; Abgottspon, A.; Boes, R. M.

    2016-11-01

    Hydro-abrasive erosion of hydraulic turbines is an economically important issue due to maintenance costs and production losses, in particular at high- and medium-head run-of- river hydropower plants (HPPs) on sediment laden rivers. In this paper, research and development in this field over the last century are reviewed. Facilities for sediment exclusion, typically sand traps, as well as turbine design and materials have been improved considerably. Since the 1980s, hard-coatings have been applied on Francis and Pelton turbine parts of erosion-prone HPPs and became state-of-the-art. These measures have led to increased times between overhauls and smaller efficiency reductions. Analytical, laboratory and field investigations have contributed to a better processes understanding and quantification of sediment-related effects on turbines. More recently, progress has been made in numerical modelling of turbine erosion. To calibrate, validate and further develop prediction models, more measurements from both physical model tests in laboratories and real-scale data from HPPs are required. Significant improvements to mitigate hydro-abrasive erosion have been achieved so far and development is ongoing. A good collaboration between turbine manufacturers, HPP operators, measuring equipment suppliers, engineering consultants, and research institutes is required. This contributes to the energy- and cost-efficient use of the worldwide hydropower potential.

  4. A new methodology for hydro-abrasive erosion tests simulating penstock erosive flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumelas, V.; Maj, G.; Le Calvé, P.; Smith, M.; Gambiez, B.; Mourrat, X.

    2016-11-01

    Hydro-abrasive resistance is an important property requirement for hydroelectric power plant penstock coating systems used by EDF. The selection of durable coating systems requires an experimental characterization of coating performance. This can be achieved by performing accelerated and representative laboratory tests. In case of severe erosion induced by a penstock flow, there is no suitable method or standard representative of real erosive flow conditions. The presented study aims at developing a new methodology and an associated laboratory experimental device. The objective of the laboratory apparatus is to subject coated test specimens to wear conditions similar to the ones generated at the penstock lower generatrix in actual flow conditions. Thirteen preselected coating solutions were first been tested during a 45 hours erosion test. A ranking of the thirteen coating solutions was then determined after characterisation. To complete this first evaluation and to determine the wear kinetic of the four best coating solutions, additional erosion tests were conducted with a longer duration of 216 hours. A comparison of this new method with standardized tests and with real service operating flow conditions is also discussed. To complete the final ranking based on hydro-abrasive erosion tests, some trial tests were carried out on penstock samples to check the application method of selected coating systems. The paper gives some perspectives related to erosion test methodologies for materials and coating solutions for hydraulic applications. The developed test method can also be applied in other fields.

  5. A laser-abrasive method for the cutting of enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, G B; Belikov, A V; Sinelnik, Y A

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduced a new method for the removal of hard dental tissue based upon the use of particles accelerated by laser irradiation, which the authors have called the laser-abrasive method. The particles used were sapphire as powder or an aqueous suspension. The effect of the products of enamel ablation was also investigated. The particles were accelerated using submillisecond pulses of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers. A strobing CCD camera was used to measure the speed of the ejected particles. The additional contribution of these particles to the efficiency of laser ablation of enamel and dentin was also investigated. The results showed that the enamel particles produced by the beam-tissue interaction were also accelerated by this process of ablation and were effective in the removal of enamel and dentin. The use of an aqueous suspension of sapphire particles increased the efficiency of enamel removal threefold when compared with the use of an Er:YAG laser with water spray. The laser-abrasive method allowed for the removal of enamel and dentin at speeds approaching those of the high-speed turbine. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Antibacterial photodynamic therapy with 808-nm laser and indocyanine green on abrasion wound models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaloglu, Nermin; Güney, Melike; Yuksel, Sahru; Gülsoy, Murat

    2015-02-01

    Infections with pathogens could cause serious health problems, such as septicemia and subsequent death. Some of these deaths are caused by nosocomial, chronic, or burn-related wound infections. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be useful for the treatment of these infections. Our aim was to investigate the antibacterial effect of indocyanine green (ICG) and 808-nm laser on a rat abrasion wound model infected with the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain. Abrasion wounds were infected with a multidrug resistant clinical isolate of S. aureus. ICG concentrations of 500, 1000, and 2000 μg/ml were applied with a 450 J/cm2 energy dose. Temperature change was monitored by a thermocouple system. The remaining bacterial burden was determined by the serial dilution method after each application. Wounds were observed for 11 days posttreatment. The recovery process was assessed macroscopically. Tissue samples were also examined histologically by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Around a 90% reduction in bacterial burden was observed after PDT applications. In positive control groups (ICG-only and laser-only groups), there was no significant reduction. The applied energy dose did not cause any thermal damage to the target tissue or host environment. Results showed that ICG together with a 808-nm laser might be a promising antibacterial method to eliminate infections in animals and accelerate the wound-healing process.

  7. Heat treated twin wire arc spray AISI 420 coatings under dry and wet abrasive wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; González, M. A.; Monjardín, H. R.; Jimenez, O.; Flores, M.; Ibarra, J.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of applying two different heat treatments such as: deep cryogenic and tempering on dry/wet abrasive wear resistance of twin wire arc spray martensitic AISI 420 coatings was evaluated by using a modified rubber wheel type test apparatus. A load dependency was observed on the abrasive wear rate behavior of both; dry and wet tests. Three body (rolling) and two body (sliding) wear mechanisms were identified in dry conditions, prevailing rolling at lower and higher loads. However, at higher loads, more presence of grooving and pits formation was observed. Coatings tempered at 205 °C/1 h displayed better wear resistance than cryogenic treated ones. A change in wear mechanism between dry and wet conditions was observed; two body wear mechanism predominated respect to three body. In both; dry and wet conditions the microstructure (several inter-splat oxides) as well as strain and residual stress promotes brittle material removal which was more evident in cryogenic and as-sprayed samples during dry test and at higher loads in wet conditions.

  8. Removal of single point diamond-turning marks by abrasive jet polishing.

    PubMed

    Li, Z Z; Wang, J M; Peng, X Q; Ho, L T; Yin, Z Q; Li, S Y; Cheung, C F

    2011-06-01

    Single point diamond turning (SPDT) is highly controllable and versatile in producing axially symmetric forms, non-axially-symmetric forms, microstructured surfaces, and free forms. However, the fine SPDT marks left in the surface limit its performance, and they are difficult to reduce or eliminate. It is unpractical for traditional methods to remove the fine marks without destroying their forms, especially for the aspheres and free forms. This paper introduces abrasive jet polishing (AJP) for the posttreatment of diamond-turned surfaces to remove the periodic microstructures. Samples of diamond-turned electroless nickel plated plano mirror were used in the experiments. One sample with an original surface roughness of more than 400 nm decreased to 4 nm after two iterations abrasive jet polishing; the surface roughness of another sample went from 3.7 nm to 1.4 nm after polishing. The periodic signatures on both of the samples were removed entirely after polishing. Contrastive experimental research was carried out on electroless nickel mirror with magnetorheological finishing, computer controlled optical surfacing, and AJP. The experimental results indicate that AJP is more appropriate in removing the periodic SPDT marks. Also, a figure maintaining experiment was carried out with the AJP process; the uniform polishing process shows that the AJP process can remove the periodic turning marks without destroying the original form.

  9. Experimental Study on the Effects of Alumina Abrasive Particle Behavior in MR Polishing for MEMS Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Cho, Myeong-Woo; Seo, Tae-Il; Shin, Young-Jae

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the magnetorheological (MR) polishing process has been examined as a new ultra-precision polishing technology for micro parts in MEMS applications. In the MR polishing process, the magnetic force plays a dominant role. This method uses MR fluids which contains micro abrasives as a polishing media. The objective of the present research is to shed light onto the material removal mechanism under various slurry conditions for polishing and to investigate surface characteristics, including shape analysis and surface roughness measurement, of spots obtained from the MR polishing process using alumina abrasives. A series of basic experiments were first performed to determine the optimum polishing conditions for BK7 glass using prepared slurries by changing the process parameters, such as wheel rotating speed and electric current. Using the obtained results, groove polishing was then performed and the results are investigated. Outstanding surface roughness of Ra=3.8nm was obtained on the BK7 glass specimen. The present results highlight the possibility of applying this polishing method to ultra-precision micro parts production, especially in MEMS applications. PMID:27879705

  10. In Vitro Assessment of the Abrasion Resistance of Two Types of Artificial Teeth Submitted to Brushing.

    PubMed

    Policastro, Vivian Barnabé; Giro, Gabriela; Leite, Andressa Rosa Perin; Mendoza-Marin, Danny Omar; Paleari, André Gustavo; Compagnoni, Marco Antonio; Pero, Ana Carolina

    2016-08-01

    To assess the effect of brushing with different solutions on the abrasion resistance of two types of acrylic resin teeth. Maxillary premolars from two types of acrylic teeth (Biotone and Biotone IPN) were divided into six groups (n = 12), according to the solution used during brushing: distilled water (control), coconut soap, or dentifrice. A mechanical brushing machine was used to simulate approximately 1 year of brushing (11,000 strokes). The weight loss (WL) of teeth was obtained from the difference between the initial (IW) and final weight (FW) of each specimen, and the mean of percentage of weight loss (PWL) was calculated for each group. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Bonferroni's post-test comparison (α = 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found for the factor solution (p < 0.001). Brushing using dentifrice caused the highest values of weight loss (-0.50%), in comparison with the groups brushed with coconut soap (0.00%) or distilled water (0.00%). For both types of artificial teeth, brushing with dentifrice produced higher abrasion than brushing with coconut soap or water. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Particle swarm optimization and its application in MEG source localization using single time sliced data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Juan; Liu, Chenglian; Guo, Yongning

    2014-10-01

    The estimation of neural active sources from the magnetoencephalography (MEG) data is a very critical issue for both clinical neurology and brain functions research. A widely accepted source-modeling technique for MEG involves calculating a set of equivalent current dipoles (ECDs). Depth in the brain is one of difficulties in MEG source localization. Particle swarm optimization(PSO) is widely used to solve various optimization problems. In this paper we discuss its ability and robustness to find the global optimum in different depths of the brain when using single equivalent current dipole (sECD) model and single time sliced data. The results show that PSO is an effective global optimization to MEG source localization when given one dipole in different depths.

  12. Subduction / exhumation dynamics: Petrochronology in the Glacier-Rafray slice (Western Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Marco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Petrochronology is the combination of in situ age-dating, geothermobarometry and structural geology and aims to unravel Pressure-Temperature-deformation-time (P-T-ɛ-t) paths. To link P-T conditions to deformation stages is daily business for metamorphic petrologists, but recent micro-mapping techniques (XMapTools program) provide an additional tool to achieve this goal. Absolute age is often difficult to assess in metamorphic rocks, as it is challenging to link specific P-T conditions to most of the mineral chronometers. Allanite is a common accessory phase in high-P metamorphic rocks and is a potential target to determine Th(-U)/Pb ages. Allanite from a leucocratic gneiss of the Glacier-Rafray slice in the western Alps consists of several chemically different zones: one major zone can be linked to a first high-P phengite generation. To determine the age of this high-P growth zone we used La-ICP-MS in situ techniques, which allowed us to date an appropriate growth rim per grain. Even so particular care was required when evaluating the isotope signals laser ablation leads to the excavation of a volume, which potentially can be chemically and/or age-zoned. We have developed a new method to track changes in the plasma during the ablation. This method aims to identify discrete age zones. La-ICP-MS spectra have been modeled so as to reproduce the shape of the spectra measured. These results indicate that high-P allanite first grew in equilibrium with phengite at 84 ± 4 Ma, whereas a second growth event occurred at ~40 Ma. A final epidotic rim grew at greenschist facies conditions, but this stage could not be dated. These findings have implications for our interpretation of several units in the Western Alps: In the Sesia Zone (former Adriatic margin), the earliest high-P metamorphism occurred at 85 Ma (Regis et al., 2014), precisely as the first high-P peak we discovered in the Glacier-Rafray slice. Austroalpine klippen such as this are commonly seen as extensional

  13. Multi-slice Fractional Ventilation Imaging in Large Animals with Hyperpolarized Gas MRI

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Kiarash; Xu, Yinan; Hamedani, Hooman; Xin, Yi; Profka, Harrilla; Rajaei, Jennia; Kadlecek, Stephen; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim R.

    2012-01-01

    Noninvasive assessment of regional lung ventilation is of critical importance in quantifying the severity of disease and evaluating response to therapy in many pulmonary diseases. This work presents for the first time the implementation of a hyperpolarized (HP) gas MRI technique for measuring whole-lung regional fractional ventilation (r) in Yorkshire pigs (n = 5) through the use of a gas mixing and delivery device in supine position. The proposed technique utilizes a series of back-to-back HP gas breaths with images acquired during short end-inspiratory breath-holds. In order to decouple the RF pulse decay effect from ventilatory signal build-up in the airways, regional distribution of flip angle (α) was estimated in the imaged slices by acquiring a series of back-to-back images with no inter-scan time delay during a breath-hold at the tail-end of the ventilation sequence. Analysis was performed to assess the multi-slice ventilation model sensitivity to noise, oxygen and number of flip angle images. The optimal α value was determined based on minimizing the error in r estimation; αopt = 5–6° for the set of acquisition parameters in pigs. The mean r values for the group of pigs were 0.27±0.09, 0.35±0.06, 0.40±0.04 for ventral, middle and dorsal slices, respectively, (excluding conductive airways r > 0.9). A positive gravitational (ventral-dorsal) ventilation gradient effect was present in all animals. The trachea and major conductive airways showed a uniform near-unity r value, with progressively smaller values corresponding to smaller diameter airways, and ultimately leading to lung parenchyma. Results demonstrate the feasibility of measurements of fractional ventilation in large species, and provides a platform to address technical challenges associated with long breathing time scales through the optimization of acquisition parameters in species with a pulmonary physiology very similar to that of human beings. PMID:22290603

  14. Sliced Costochondral Chip Grafts in Posttraumatic Enophthalmos Correction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Park, Ie-Hyon; Hong, Sa-Hyeok; Eun, Seok-Chan

    2017-03-01

    Posttraumatic enophthalmos is a relatively common problem following orbitozygomatic fractures. However, inadequate long-term results are frequently observed due to the difficulty of performing intraoperative fine adjustments to soft-tissue volume and orbital size and gradual absorption of some grafted materials. Here, the authors describe an efficient method of enophthalmos correction using sliced costochondral bone and cartilage combination grafts. From 2005 to 2011, the authors corrected enophthalmos in 12 patients using sliced costochondral grafts. The mean follow-up period was 13 months. For costochondral graft harvest, an approximately 5-cm skin incision was made directly above the seventh costal cartilage, the perichondrium was peeled back, and a small piece of rib bone and costal cartilage was harvested from the anterior part of the seventh rib bone and cartilage and cut into 2-mm-thick slices. A subciliary and/or transcaruncular incision was made in the affected side eyelid to expose the operating field, subperiosteal dissection was performed in the orbit and orbital floor. The cartilage chips were gradually grafted onto the dissected areas from the posterior orbit. Aesthetically satisfactory results were obtained in all patients. No complications in the donor area were observed. Furthermore, no patients experienced a recurrence or deterioration of diplopia over the follow-up period. One patient experienced temporary high intraocular pressure, which spontaneously resolved with medication and eye drops. The costochondral graft is adequate for the reconstruction of the fracture, easy to obtain, easily adaptable to the orbital walls, and has minimal morbidity at the donor site.

  15. Improved sliced velocity map imaging apparatus optimized for H photofragments.

    PubMed

    Ryazanov, Mikhail; Reisler, Hanna

    2013-04-14

    Time-sliced velocity map imaging (SVMI), a high-resolution method for measuring kinetic energy distributions of products in scattering and photodissociation reactions, is challenging to implement for atomic hydrogen products. We describe an ion optics design aimed at achieving SVMI of H fragments in a broad range of kinetic energies (KE), from a fraction of an electronvolt to a few electronvolts. In order to enable consistently thin slicing for any imaged KE range, an additional electrostatic lens is introduced in the drift region for radial magnification control without affecting temporal stretching of the ion cloud. Time slices of ∼5 ns out of a cloud stretched to ⩾50 ns are used. An accelerator region with variable dimensions (using multiple electrodes) is employed for better optimization of radial and temporal space focusing characteristics at each magnification level. The implemented system was successfully tested by recording images of H fragments from the photodissociation of HBr, H2S, and the CH2OH radical, with kinetic energies ranging from <0.4 eV to >3 eV. It demonstrated KE resolution ≲1%-2%, similar to that obtained in traditional velocity map imaging followed by reconstruction, and to KE resolution achieved previously in SVMI of heavier products. We expect it to perform just as well up to at least 6 eV of kinetic energy. The tests showed that numerical simulations of the electric fields and ion trajectories in the system, used for optimization of the design and operating parameters, provide an accurate and reliable description of all aspects of system performance. This offers the advantage of selecting the best operating conditions in each measurement without the need for additional calibration experiments.

  16. Analysis of lipid raft molecules in the living brain slices.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Norihiro; Nakano, Takanari; Ida, Yui; Ito, Rina; Hashizume, Miki; Yamaguchi, Arisa; Seo, Makoto; Araki, Tomoyuki; Hojo, Yasushi; Honke, Koichi; Murakoshi, Takayuki

    2017-08-24

    Neuronal plasma membrane has been thought to retain a lot of lipid raft components which play important roles in the neural function. Although the biochemical analyses of lipid raft using brain tissues have been extensively carried out in the past 20 years, many of their experimental conditions do not coincide with those of standard neuroscience researches such as neurophysiology and neuropharmacology. Hence, the physiological methods for lipid raft analysis that can be compatible with general neuroscience have been required. Herein, we developed a system to physiologically analyze ganglioside GM1-enriched lipid rafts in brain tissues using the "Enzyme-Mediated Activation of Radical Sources (EMARS)" method that we reported (Kotani N. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 105, 7405-7409 (2008)). The EMARS method was applied to acute brain slices prepared from mouse brains in aCSF solution using the EMARS probe, HRP-conjugated cholera toxin subunit B, which recognizes ganglioside GM1. The membrane molecules present in the GM1-enriched lipid rafts were then labeled with fluorescein under the physiological condition. The fluorescein-tagged lipid raft molecules called "EMARS products" distributed differentially among various parts of the brain. On the other hand, appreciable differences were not detected among segments along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. We further developed a device to label the lipid raft molecules in acute hippocampal slices under two different physiological conditions to detect dynamics of the lipid raft molecules during neural excitation. Using this device, several cell membrane molecules including Thy1, known as a lipid raft resident molecule in neurons, were confirmed by the EMARS method in living hippocampal slices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated fMRI Preprocessing Framework Using Extended Kalman Filter for Estimation of Slice-Wise Motion

    PubMed Central

    Pinsard, Basile; Boutin, Arnaud; Doyon, Julien; Benali, Habib

    2018-01-01

    Functional MRI acquisition is sensitive to subjects' motion that cannot be fully constrained. Therefore, signal corrections have to be applied a posteriori in order to mitigate the complex interactions between changing tissue localization and magnetic fields, gradients and readouts. To circumvent current preprocessing strategies limitations, we developed an integrated method that correct motion and spatial low-frequency intensity fluctuations at the level of each slice in order to better fit the acquisition processes. The registration of single or multiple simultaneously acquired slices is achieved online by an Iterated Extended Kalman Filter, favoring the robust estimation of continuous motion, while an intensity bias field is non-parametrically fitted. The proposed extraction of gray-matter BOLD activity from the acquisition space to an anatomical group template space, taking into account distortions, better preserves fine-scale patterns of activity. Importantly, the proposed unified framework generalizes to high-resolution multi-slice techniques. When tested on simulated and real data the latter shows a reduction of motion explained variance and signal variability when compared to the conventional preprocessing approach. These improvements provide more stable patterns of activity, facilitating investigation of cerebral information representation in healthy and/or clinical populations where motion is known to impact fine-scale data. PMID:29755312

  18. Integrated fMRI Preprocessing Framework Using Extended Kalman Filter for Estimation of Slice-Wise Motion.

    PubMed

    Pinsard, Basile; Boutin, Arnaud; Doyon, Julien; Benali, Habib

    2018-01-01

    Functional MRI acquisition is sensitive to subjects' motion that cannot be fully constrained. Therefore, signal corrections have to be applied a posteriori in order to mitigate the complex interactions between changing tissue localization and magnetic fields, gradients and readouts. To circumvent current preprocessing strategies limitations, we developed an integrated method that correct motion and spatial low-frequency intensity fluctuations at the level of each slice in order to better fit the acquisition processes. The registration of single or multiple simultaneously acquired slices is achieved online by an Iterated Extended Kalman Filter, favoring the robust estimation of continuous motion, while an intensity bias field is non-parametrically fitted. The proposed extraction of gray-matter BOLD activity from the acquisition space to an anatomical group template space, taking into account distortions, better preserves fine-scale patterns of activity. Importantly, the proposed unified framework generalizes to high-resolution multi-slice techniques. When tested on simulated and real data the latter shows a reduction of motion explained variance and signal variability when compared to the conventional preprocessing approach. These improvements provide more stable patterns of activity, facilitating investigation of cerebral information representation in healthy and/or clinical populations where motion is known to impact fine-scale data.

  19. Small-tip fast recovery imaging using non-slice-selective tailored tip-up pulses and RF-spoiling

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jon-Fredrik; Yoon, Daehyun; Noll, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Small-tip fast recovery (STFR) imaging is a new steady-state imaging sequence that is a potential alternative to balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP). Under ideal imaging conditions, STFR may provide comparable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and image contrast as bSSFP, but without signal variations due to resonance offset. STFR relies on a tailored “tip-up”, or “fast recovery”, RF pulse to align the spins with the longitudinal axis after each data readout segment. The design of the tip-up pulse is based on the acquisition of a separate off-resonance (B0) map. Unfortunately, the design of fast (a few ms) slice- or slab-selective RF pulses that accurately tailor the excitation pattern to the local B0 inhomogeneity over the entire imaging volume remains a challenging and unsolved problem. We introduce a novel implementation of STFR imaging based on non-slice-selective tip-up pulses, which simplifies the RF design problem significantly. Out-of-slice magnetization pathways are suppressed using RF-spoiling. Brain images obtained with this technique show excellent gray/white matter contrast, and point to the possibility of rapid steady-state T2/T1-weighted imaging with intrinsic suppression of cerebrospinal fluid, through-plane vessel signal, and off-resonance artifacts. In the future we expect STFR imaging to benefit significantly from parallel excitation hardware and high-order gradient shim systems. PMID:22511367

  20. Rock Abrasion and Ventifact Formation on Mars from Field Analog, Theoretical, and Experimental Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Laity, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Rocks observed by the Viking Landers and Pathfinder Lander/Sojourner rover exhibit a suite of perplexing rock textures. Among these are pits, spongy textures, penetrative flutes, lineaments, crusts, and knobs Fluvial, impact, chemical alteration, and aeolian mechanisms have been proposed for many of these. In an effort to better understand the origin and characteristics of Martian rock textures, abraded rocks in the Mojave Desert and other regions have been studied. We find that most Martian rock textures, as opposed to just a few, bear close resemblance to terrestrial aeolian textures and can most easily be explained by wind, not other, processes. Flutes, grooves, and some pits on Mars are consistent with abrasion by saltating particles, as described previously. However, many other rock textures probably also have an aeolian origin. Sills at the base of rocks that generally lie at high elevations, such as Half Dome, are consistent with such features on Earth that are related to moats or soil ramps that shield the basal part of the rock from erosion. Crusts consisting of fluted fabrics, such as those on Stimpy and Chimp, are similar to fluted crusts on Earth that spall off over time. Knobby and lineated rocks are similar to terrestrial examples of heterogeneous rocks that differentially erode. The location of specific rock textures on Mars also gives insight into their origin. Many of the most diagnostic ventifacts found at the Pathfinder site are located on rocks that lie near the crests or the upper slopes of ridges. On Earth, the most active ventifact formation occurs on sloped or elevated topography, where windflow is accelerated and particle kinetic energy and flux are increased. Integrated 0 together, these observations point to significant aeolian 0 modification of rocks on Mars and cast doubt on whether many primary textures resulting from other processes are preserved. Experimental simulations of abrasion in the presence of abundant sand indicate that