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Sample records for abrasive water-jet cutting

  1. Feasibility Study on Cutting HTPB Propellants with Abrasive Water Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dayong; Bai, Yun

    2018-01-01

    Abrasive water jet is used to carry out the experiment research on cutting HTPB propellants with three components, which will provide technical support for the engineering treatment of waste rocket motor. Based on the reliability theory and related scientific research results, the safety and efficiency of cutting sensitive HTPB propellants by abrasive water jet were experimentally studied. The results show that the safety reliability is not less than 99.52% at 90% confidence level, so the safety is adequately ensured. The cooling and anti-friction effect of high-speed water jet is the decisive factor to suppress the detonation of HTPB propellant. Compared with pure water jet, cutting efficiency was increased by 5% - 87%. The study shows that abrasive water jets meet the practical use for cutting HTPB propellants.

  2. A study on practical use of underwater abrasive water jet cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Demura, Kenji

    1993-09-01

    The practicality of underwater abrasive water jet cutting technology was studied in experiments. A study of abrasives in slurried form showed that optimum polymer concentration can be selected to suit underwater conditions. For the long-distance transport of slurry from the ocean surface to the ocean floor, a direct supply system by hose proved to be practical. This system takes advantage of the insolubility of the slurry in water due to a difference in specific gravity. For cutting thick steel plate at great ocean depths, a simulation with a pressurized container revealed the requirements for actual cutting. Confirmation of remote cutting operations will become the most important technology in field applications. Underwater sound vibration characteristics were found to change significantly in direct response to modifications in cutting conditions. This will be important basic data to develop an effective sensoring method.

  3. Development of underwater cutting system by abrasive water-jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demura, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi

    1993-09-01

    The technology to cut objects in the ocean's depths with abrasive water jets was examined for possible application in view of the greater water depths and sophistication involved in work on the ocean floor today. A test model was developed to study this technology's safety and practicability. The test model was designed for use at great water depths and has functions and a configuration that are unlike equipment used on land. A continuous, stable supply of abrasive is a distinctive design feature. In land applications, there had been problems with plugged tubes and an uneven supply. For this reason, the abrasive was converted to slurry form, and a continuous pressurized tube pump system was adopted for supply to the nozzle head. Also, a hydraulic motor that does not employ oil or electric power was used to provide an underwater drive that is environment-friendly. The report outlines the technology's general design concept including its distinctive functions and its configuration for use at great depths, and the report provides great detail on the equipment.

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Flow in Abrasive Water Jet Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, S.; Sathish, S.; Jothi Prakash, V. M.; Gopalakrishnan, T.

    2017-03-01

    Abrasive water jet cutting is one of the most recently developed non-traditional manufacturing technologies. In this machining, the abrasives are mixed with suspended liquid to form semi liquid mixture. The general nature of flow through the machining, results in fleeting wear of the nozzle which decrease the cutting performance. The inlet pressure of the abrasive water suspension has main effect on the major destruction characteristics of the inner surface of the nozzle. The aim of the project is to analyze the effect of inlet pressure on wall shear and exit kinetic energy. The analysis could be carried out by changing the taper angle of the nozzle, so as to obtain optimized process parameters for minimum nozzle wear. The two phase flow analysis would be carried by using computational fluid dynamics tool CFX. It is also used to analyze the flow characteristics of abrasive water jet machining on the inner surface of the nozzle. The availability of optimized process parameters of abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) is limited to water and experimental test can be cost prohibitive. In this case, Computational fluid dynamics analysis would provide better results.

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Nozzle in Abrasive Water Jet Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, S.; Chandresekaran, M.; Muthuraman, V.; Sathish, S.

    2017-03-01

    Abrasive water jet cutting is one of the most recently developed non-traditional manufacturing technologies. The general nature of flow through the machining, results in rapid wear of the nozzle which decrease the cutting performance. It is well known that the inlet pressure of the abrasive water suspension has main effect on the erosion characteristics of the inner surface of the nozzle. The objective of the project is to analyze the effect of inlet pressure on wall shear and exit kinetic energy. The analysis would be carried out by varying the inlet pressure of the nozzle, so as to obtain optimized process parameters for minimum nozzle wear. The two phase flow analysis would be carried by using computational fluid dynamics tool CFX. The availability of minimized process parameters such as of abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) is limited to water and experimental test can be cost prohibitive.

  6. Abrasive slurry jet cutting model based on fuzzy relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, C. H.; Guo, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    The cutting process of pre-mixed abrasive slurry or suspension jet (ASJ) is a complex process affected by many factors, and there is a highly nonlinear relationship between the cutting parameters and cutting quality. In this paper, guided by fuzzy theory, the fuzzy cutting model of ASJ was developed. In the modeling of surface roughness, the upper surface roughness prediction model and the lower surface roughness prediction model were established respectively. The adaptive fuzzy inference system combines the learning mechanism of neural networks and the linguistic reasoning ability of the fuzzy system, membership functions, and fuzzy rules are obtained by adaptive adjustment. Therefore, the modeling process is fast and effective. In this paper, the ANFIS module of MATLAB fuzzy logic toolbox was used to establish the fuzzy cutting model of ASJ, which is found to be quite instrumental to ASJ cutting applications.

  7. Rock Cutting Depth Model Based on Kinetic Energy of Abrasive Waterjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae-Min; Cho, Gye-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Abrasive waterjets are widely used in the fields of civil and mechanical engineering for cutting a great variety of hard materials including rocks, metals, and other materials. Cutting depth is an important index to estimate operating time and cost, but it is very difficult to predict because there are a number of influential variables (e.g., energy, geometry, material, and nozzle system parameters). In this study, the cutting depth is correlated to the maximum kinetic energy expressed in terms of energy (i.e., water pressure, water flow rate, abrasive feed rate, and traverse speed), geometry (i.e., standoff distance), material (i.e., α and β), and nozzle system parameters (i.e., nozzle size, shape, and jet diffusion level). The maximum kinetic energy cutting depth model is verified with experimental test data that are obtained using one type of hard granite specimen for various parameters. The results show a unique curve for a specific rock type in a power function between cutting depth and maximum kinetic energy. The cutting depth model developed here can be very useful for estimating the process time when cutting rock using an abrasive waterjet.

  8. Testing of Alternative Abrasives for Water-Jet Cutting at C Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Krogstad, Eirik J.

    2013-08-01

    Legacy waste from defense-related activities at the Hanford Site has predominantly been stored in underground tanks, some of which have leaked; others may be at risk to do so. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal is to empty the tanks and transform their contents into more stable waste forms. To do so requires breaking up, and creating a slurry from, solid wastes in the bottoms of the tanks. A technology developed for this purpose is the Mobile Arm Retrieval System. This system is being used at some of the older single shell tanks at C tank farm. As originally planned,more » access ports for the Mobile Arm Retrieval System were to be cut using a high- pressure water-jet cutter. However, water alone was found to be insufficient to allow effective cutting of the steel-reinforced tank lids, especially when cutting the steel reinforcing bar (“rebar”). The abrasive added in cutting the hole in Tank C-107 was garnet, a complex natural aluminosilicate. The hardness of garnet (Mohs hardness ranging from H 6.5 to 7.5) exceeds that of solids currently in the tanks, and was regarded to be a threat to Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant systems. Olivine, an iron-magnesium silicate that is nearly as hard as garnet (H 6.5 to 7), has been proposed as an alternative to garnet. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory proposed to test pyrite (FeS2), whose hardness is slightly less (H 6 to 6.5) for 1) cutting effectiveness, and 2) propensity to dissolve (or disintegrate by chemical reaction) in chemical conditions similar to those of tank waste solutions. Cutting experiments were conducted using an air abrader system and a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM 1767 Low Alloy Steel), which was used as a surrogate for rebar. The cutting efficacy of pyrite was compared with that of garnet and olivine in identical size fractions. Garnet was found to be most effective in removing steel from the target; olivine and pyrite were

  9. Effect of abrasive water jet on the structure of the surface layer of Al-Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatchikova, T. I.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Gudnev, N. Z.

    2017-09-01

    Optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy methods, and X-ray diffraction analysis have been used to study the changes in the structure and the microhardness in the surface layer of the Al-Mg (5.8-6.8 wt %) alloy after water jet cutting. The dislocation density, the sizes of coherent scattering regions, and microdistortions have been determined. The transformation of the fine structure has been revealed in the displacement from the alloy volume to the abrasive-waterjet cutting surface.

  10. Design of a new abrasive slurry jet generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. C.; Shi, L. L.; Guo, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    With the advantages of a low system working pressure, good jet convergence and high cutting quality, abrasive slurry jet (ASJ) has broad application prospects in material cutting and equipment cleaning. Considering that the generator plays a crucial role in ASJ system, the paper designed a new type ASJ generator using an electric oil pump, a separate plunger cylinder, and a spring energized seal. According to the determining of structure shape, size and seal type, a new ASJ generator has been manufactured out and tested by a series of experiments. The new generator separates the abrasive slurry from the dynamic hydraulic oil, which can improve the service life of the ASJ system. And the new ASJ system can reach 40 MPa and has good performance in jet convergence, which deserves to popularization and application in materials machining.

  11. The Research into the Quality of Rock Surfaces Obtained by Abrasive Water Jet Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Młynarczuk, Mariusz; Skiba, Marta; Sitek, Libor; Hlaváček, Petr; Kožušníková, Alena

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, water jet cutting technology has been being used more and more often, in various domains of human activity. Its numerous applications include cutting different materials - among them, rock materials. The present paper discusses the results of the research that aimed at determining - in a quantitative manner - the way in which the water jet cutting parameters (such as the traverse speed of the head, and the distance between the high-pressure inlet of the water jet and the cut material) influence the quality of the processed surface. Additionally, the impact of these parameters on the surface of various materials was investigated. The materials used were three granites differing with respect to the size of grains. In the course of the research, the standard parameters defined by the ISO norms were analyzed. It was also proposed that variograms be used to analyze the quality of the cut surface. Technologia cięcia strumieniem wodnym staje się w ostatnich latach coraz intensywniej wykorzystywana w różnych dziedzinach działalności człowieka. Jest ona wykorzystywana do obróbki różnorodnych materiałów, również materiałów skalnych. W ramach badań analizowano trzy granity różniące się m.in. wielkościami ziarn, które były przecinane przy różnych prędkościach przesuwu głowicy z wlotem strumienia wodnego. Analizowano standardowe parametry zdefiniowane w normach ISO jak również zaproponowano wykorzystanie wariogramów do analizy jakości wyciętej powierzchni. W pracy opisano w sposób ilościowy zmiany jakości powierzchni skał ciętych strumieniem wodnym ze ścierniwem w zależności od prędkości przesuwu głowicy, jak również w zależności od odległości przecinanego fragmentu powierzchni od wlotu strumienia wodnego do materiału. Wyniki uzyskane w pomiarach wskazują też na wpływ wielkości uziarnienia skały na jakość otrzymanej powierzchni. Jest to szczególnie widoczne dla najmniej optymalnych parametrów ci

  12. CNC water-jet machining and cutting center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. C.

    1991-09-01

    Computer Numerical Control (CNC) water-jet machining was investigated to determine the potential applications and cost-effectiveness that would result by establishing this capability in the engineering shops of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). Both conductive and nonconductive samples were machined at KCD on conventional machining equipment (a three-axis conversational programmed mill and a wire electrical discharge machine) and on two current-technology water-jet machines at outside vendors. These samples were then inspected, photographed, and evaluated. The current-technology water-jet machines were not as accurate as the conventional equipment. The resolution of the water-jet equipment was only +/- 0.005 inch, as compared to +/- 0.0002 inch for the conventional equipment. The principal use for CNC water-jet machining would be as follows: Contouring to near finished shape those items made from 300 and 400 series stainless steels, titanium, Inconel, aluminum, glass, or any material whose fabrication tolerance is less than the machine resolution of +/- 0.005 inch; and contouring to finished shape those items made from Kevlar, rubber, fiberglass, foam, aluminum, or any material whose fabrication specifications allow the use of a machine with +/- 0.005 inch tolerance. Additional applications are possible because there is minimal force generated on the material being cut and because the water-jet cuts without generating dust.

  13. The use of water-jetting technology in prostheses revision surgery-first results of parameter studies on bone and bone cement.

    PubMed

    Honl, M; Rentzsch, R; Müller, G; Brandt, C; Bluhm, A; Hille, E; Louis, H; Morlock, M

    2000-01-01

    Water-jet cutting techniques have been used in industrial applications for many different materials. Recently these techniques have been developed into a revolutionary cutting tool for soft tissues in visceral surgery. The present study investigates the usage of this cutting technology for the revision surgery of endoprostheses. In the first part of the study, samples of bovine bone and acrylic bone cement (PMMA) were cut using an industrial jet cutting device with pure water. Below 400 bar, only PMMA was cut; above 400 bar, bone was also cut, but only pressures above 800 bar resulted in clinically useful rates of material removal (cut depth 2. 4 mm at 10 mm/min traverse speed). In the second part of the study, the effect of adding biocompatible abrasives to the water in order to reduce the required pressure was investigated, resulting in a significantly higher removal of material. At 600 bar, PMMA was cut 5. 2 mm deep with plain water and 15.2 mm deep with added abrasives. The quality of the cuts was increased by the abrasive. Though there was no clear selectivity between bone and PMMA any more, the rate of material removal at similar pressures was significantly higher for PMMA than for bone (600 bar: 1.6 mm cut depth for bone samples, 15.2 mm for PMMA). The measured cut depths with either method were not influenced by a change of the cutting direction with respect to the main direction of the osteons in the bone. However, a reduction of the jet surface angle (90 degrees to 23 degrees ) resulted for bone in a significantly lower cut depth at 600 bar (plain water: 0.62 mm vs. 0.06 mm; abrasive: 1.61 mm vs. 0.60 mm). The laboratory experiments indicate that abrasive water jets may be suitable for cutting biomaterials like bone and bone cement. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Optimization of Profile and Material of Abrasive Water Jet Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand Bala Selwin, K. P.; Ramachandran, S.

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this work is to study the behaviour of the abrasive water jet nozzle with different profiles and materials. Taguchi-Grey relational analysis optimization technique is used to optimize the value with different material and different profiles. Initially the 3D models of the nozzle are modelled with different profiles by changing the tapered inlet angle of the nozzle. The different profile models are analysed with different materials and the results are optimized. The optimized results would give the better result taking wear and machining behaviour of the nozzle.

  15. A modeling of elementary passes taking into account the firing angle in abrasive water jet machining of titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Van-Hung; Gilles, Patrick; Cohen, Guillaume; Rubio, Walter

    2018-05-01

    The use of titanium alloys in the aeronautical and high technology domains is widespread. The high strength and the low mass are two outstanding characteristics of titanium alloys which permit to produce parts for these domains. As other hard materials, it is challenging to generate 3D surfaces (e.g. pockets) when using conventional cutting methods. The development of Abrasive Water Jet Machining (AWJM) technology shows the capability to cut any kind of materials and it seems to be a good solution for such titanium materials with low specific force, low deformation of parts and low thermal shocks. Applying this technology for generating 3D surfaces requires to adopt a modelling approach. However, a general methodology results in complex models due to a lot of parameters of the machining process and based on numerous experiments. This study introduces an extended geometry model of an elementary pass when changing the firing angle during machining Ti-6AL-4V titanium alloy with a given machine configuration. Several experiments are conducted to observe the influence of major kinematic operating parameters, i.e. jet inclination angle (α) (perpendicular to the feed direction) and traverse speed (Vf). The material exposure time and the erosion capability of abrasives particles are affected directly by a variation of the traverse speed (Vf) and firing angle (α). These variations lead to different erosion rates along the kerf profile characterized by the depth and width of cut. A comparison demonstrated an efficiency of the proposed model for depth and width of elementary passes. Based on knowledge of the influence of both firing angle and traverse speed on the elementary pass shape, the proposed model allows to develop the simulation of AWJM process and paves a way for milling flat bottom pockets and 3D complex shapes.

  16. An investigation on co-axial water-jet assisted fiber laser cutting of metal sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhukar, Yuvraj K.; Mullick, Suvradip; Nath, Ashish K.

    2016-02-01

    Water assisted laser cutting has received significant attention in recent times with assurance of many advantages than conventional gas assisted laser cutting. A comparative study between co-axial water-jet and gas-jet assisted laser cutting of thin sheets of mild steel (MS) and titanium (Ti) by fiber laser is presented. Fiber laser (1.07 μm wavelength) was utilised because of its low absorption in water. The cut quality was evaluated in terms of average kerf, projected dross height, heat affected zone (HAZ) and cut surface roughness. It was observed that a broad range process parameter could produce consistent cut quality in MS. However, oxygen assisted cutting could produce better quality only with optimised parameters at high laser power and high cutting speed. In Ti cutting the water-jet assisted laser cutting performed better over the entire range of process parameters compared with gas assisted cutting. The specific energy, defined as the amount of laser energy required to remove unit volume of material was found more in case of water-jet assisted laser cutting process. It is mainly due to various losses associated with water assisted laser processing such as absorption of laser energy in water and scattering at the interaction zone.

  17. Performance analysis of cutting graphite-epoxy composite using a 90,000psi abrasive waterjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choppali, Aiswarya

    Graphite-epoxy composites are being widely used in many aerospace and structural applications because of their properties: which include lighter weight, higher strength to weight ratio and a greater flexibility in design. However, the inherent anisotropy of these composites makes it difficult to machine them using conventional methods. To overcome the major issues that develop with conventional machining such as fiber pull out, delamination, heat generation and high tooling costs, an effort is herein made to study abrasive waterjet machining of composites. An abrasive waterjet is used to cut 1" thick graphite epoxy composites based on baseline data obtained from the cutting of ¼" thick material. The objective of this project is to study the surface roughness of the cut surface with a focus on demonstrating the benefits of using higher pressures for cutting composites. The effects of major cutting parameters: jet pressure, traverse speed, abrasive feed rate and cutting head size are studied at different levels. Statistical analysis of the experimental data provides an understanding of the effect of the process parameters on surface roughness. Additionally, the effect of these parameters on the taper angle of the cut is studied. The data is analyzed to obtain a set of process parameters that optimize the cutting of 1" thick graphite-epoxy composite. The statistical analysis is used to validate the experimental data. Costs involved in the cutting process are investigated in term of abrasive consumed to better understand and illustrate the practical benefits of using higher pressures. It is demonstrated that, as pressure increased, ultra-high pressure waterjets produced a better surface quality at a faster traverse rate with lower costs.

  18. 7 CFR 3201.66 - Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. 3201.66 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.66 Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. (a) Definition. Products designed..., in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased cuts, burns...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.66 - Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. 3201.66 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.66 Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. (a) Definition. Products designed..., in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased cuts, burns...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.66 - Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. 3201.66 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.66 Cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments. (a) Definition. Products designed..., in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased cuts, burns...

  1. Casing window milling with abrasive fluid jet

    SciTech Connect

    Vestavik, O.M.; Fidtje, T.H.; Faure, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Methods for through tubing re-entry drilling of multilateral wells has a large potential for increasing hydrocarbon production and total recovery. One of the bottle-necks of this technology is initiation of the side-track by milling a window in the casing downhole. A new approach to this problem has been investigated in a joint industry project. An experimental set-up has been built for milling a 4 inch window in a 7 inch steel casing at surface in the laboratory. A specially designed bit developed at RIF using abrasive jet cutting technology has been used for the window milling. The bit has anmore » abrasive jet beam which is always directed in the desired side-track direction, even if the bit is rotating uniformly. The bit performs the milling with a combined mechanical and hydraulic jet action. The method has been successfully demonstrated. The experiments has shown that the window milling can be performed with very low WOB and torque, and that only small side forces are required to perform the operation. Casing milling has been performed without a whipstock, a cement plug has been the only support for the tool. The tests indicate that milling operations can be performed more efficiently with less time and costs than what is required with conventional techniques. However, the method still needs some development of the downhole motor for coiled tubing applications. The method can be used both for milling and drilling giving the advantage of improved rate of penetration, improved bit life and increased horizontal reach. The method is planned to be demonstrated downhole in the near future.« less

  2. Study of Effect of Impacting Direction on Abrasive Nanometric Cutting Process with Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junye; Meng, Wenqing; Dong, Kun; Zhang, Xinming; Zhao, Weihong

    2018-01-01

    Abrasive flow polishing plays an important part in modern ultra-precision machining. Ultrafine particles suspended in the medium of abrasive flow removes the material in nanoscale. In this paper, three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the effect of impacting direction on abrasive cutting process during abrasive flow polishing. The molecular dynamics simulation software Lammps was used to simulate the cutting of single crystal copper with SiC abrasive grains at different cutting angles (0o-45o). At a constant friction coefficient, we found a direct relation between cutting angle and cutting force, which ultimately increases the number of dislocation during abrasive flow machining. Our theoretical study reveal that a small cutting angle is beneficial for improving surface quality and reducing internal defects in the workpiece. However, there is no obvious relationship between cutting angle and friction coefficient.

  3. Study of Effect of Impacting Direction on Abrasive Nanometric Cutting Process with Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Junye; Meng, Wenqing; Dong, Kun; Zhang, Xinming; Zhao, Weihong

    2018-01-11

    Abrasive flow polishing plays an important part in modern ultra-precision machining. Ultrafine particles suspended in the medium of abrasive flow removes the material in nanoscale. In this paper, three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the effect of impacting direction on abrasive cutting process during abrasive flow polishing. The molecular dynamics simulation software Lammps was used to simulate the cutting of single crystal copper with SiC abrasive grains at different cutting angles (0 o -45 o ). At a constant friction coefficient, we found a direct relation between cutting angle and cutting force, which ultimately increases the number of dislocation during abrasive flow machining. Our theoretical study reveal that a small cutting angle is beneficial for improving surface quality and reducing internal defects in the workpiece. However, there is no obvious relationship between cutting angle and friction coefficient.

  4. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 5; Abrasion: Plowing and Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    Chapter 5 discusses abrasion, a common wear phenomenon of great economic importance. It has been estimated that 50% of the wear encountered in industry is due to abrasion. Also, it is the mechanism involved in the finishing of many surfaces. Experiments are described to help in understanding the complex abrasion process and in predicting friction and wear behavior in plowing and/or cutting. These experimental modelings and measurements used a single spherical pin (asperity) and a single wedge pin (asperity). Other two-body and three-body abrasion studies used hard abrasive particles.

  5. Water Jetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  6. Reducing Coal Dust With Water Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Jets also cool and clean cutting equipment. Modular pick-and-bucket miner suffers from disadvantage: Creates large quantities of potentially explosive coal dust. Dust clogs drive chain and other parts and must be removed by hand. Picks and bucket lips become overheated by friction and be resharpened or replaced frequently. Addition of oscillating and rotating water jets to pick-and-bucket machine keeps down dust, cools cutting edges, and flushes machine. Rotating jets wash dust away from drive chain. Oscillating jets cool cutting surfaces. Both types of jet wet airborne coal dust; it precipitates.

  7. Cost minimizing of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavaeva, Anastasia; Kurennov, Dmitry

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with optimization problem of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines. The accuracy of objective function parameters calculation for optimization problem is investigated. This paper shows that working tool path speed is not constant value. One depends on some parameters that are described in this paper. The relations of working tool path speed depending on the numbers of NC programs frames, length of straight cut, configuration part are presented. Based on received results the correction coefficients for working tool speed are defined. Additionally the optimization problem may be solved by using mathematical model. Model takes into account the additional restrictions of thermal cutting (choice of piercing and output tool point, precedence condition, thermal deformations). At the second part of paper the non-standard cutting techniques are considered. Ones may lead to minimizing of cutting cost and time compared with standard cutting techniques. This paper considers the effectiveness of non-standard cutting techniques application. At the end of the paper the future research works are indicated.

  8. Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

    2012-09-04

    An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

  9. Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

    2013-07-02

    An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

  10. Surface and microstructure modifications of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy cutting by a water jet/high power laser converging coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Laurent; Tazibt, Abdel; Aillerie, Michel; Tidu, Albert

    2018-01-01

    The metallurgical evolution of the Ti-6Al-4V samples is analyzed after an appropriate cutting using a converging water jet/high power laser system. New surface microstructures are obtained on the cutting edge as a result of thermo-mechanical effects of such hybrid fluid-jet-laser tool on the targeted material. The laser beam allows to melt and the water-jet to cool down and to evacuate the material upstream according to a controlled cutting process. The experimental results have shown that a rutile layer can be generated on the surface near the cutting zone. The recorded metallurgical effect is attributed to the chemical reaction between water molecules and titanium, where the laser thermal energy brought onto the surface plays the role of reaction activator. The width of the oxidized zone was found proportional to the cutting speed. During the reaction, hydrogen gas H2 is formed and is absorbed by the metal. The hydrogen atoms trapped into the alloy change the metastable phase formation developing pure β circular grains as a skin at the kerf surface. This result is original so it would lead to innovative converging laser water jet process that could be used to increase the material properties especially for surface treatment, a key value of surface engineering and manufacturing chains.

  11. High pressure water jet mining machine

    DOEpatents

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  12. Performance Analysis of Abrasive Waterjet Machining Process at Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, M.; Gebremariam, MA; Hamedon, Z.; Azhari, A.

    2018-03-01

    Normally, a commercial waterjet cutting machine can generate water pressure up to 600 MPa. This range of pressure is used to machine a wide variety of materials. Hence, the price of waterjet cutting machine is expensive. Therefore, there is a need to develop a low cost waterjet machine in order to make the technology more accessible for the masses. Due to its low cost, such machines may only be able to generate water pressure at a much reduced rate. The present study attempts to investigate the performance of abrasive water jet machining process at low cutting pressure using self-developed low cost waterjet machine. It aims to study the feasibility of machining various materials at low pressure which later can aid in further development of an effective low cost water jet machine. A total of three different materials were machined at a low pressure of 34 MPa. The materials are mild steel, aluminium alloy 6061 and plastics Delrin®. Furthermore, a traverse rate was varied between 1 to 3 mm/min. The study on cutting performance at low pressure for different materials was conducted in terms of depth penetration, kerf taper ratio and surface roughness. It was found that all samples were able to be machined at low cutting pressure with varied qualities. Also, the depth of penetration decreases with an increase in the traverse rate. Meanwhile, the surface roughness and kerf taper ratio increase with an increase in the traverse rate. It can be concluded that a low cost waterjet machine with a much reduced rate of water pressure can be successfully used for machining certain materials with acceptable qualities.

  13. High Energy Cutting and Stripping Utilizing Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hume, Howard; Noah, Donald E.; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    The Aerospace Industry has endeavored for decades to develop hybrid materials that withstand the rigors of mechanized flight both within our atmosphere and beyond. The development of these high performance materials has led to the need for environmentally friendly technologies for material re-work and removal. The NitroJet(TM) is a fluid jet technology that represents an evolution of the widely used, large-scale water jet fluid jet technology. It involves the amalgamation of fluid jet technology and cryogenics technology to create a new capability that is applicable where water jet or abrasive jet (water jet plus entrained abrasive) are not suitable or acceptable because of technical constraints such as process or materials compatibility, environmental concerns and aesthetic or legal requirements. The NitroJet(TM) uses ultra high-pressure nitrogen to cut materials, strip numerous types of coatings such as paint or powder coating, clean surfaces and profile metals. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is used as the feed stream and is pressurized in two stages. The first stage pressurizes sub cooled LN2 to an intermediate pressure of between 15,000 and 20,000 psi at which point the temperature of the LN2 is about -250 F. The discharge from this stage is then introduced as feed to a dual intensifier system, which boosts the pressure from 15,000 - 20,000 psi up to the maximum operating pressure of 55,000 psi. A temperature of about -220 F is achieved at which point the nitrogen is supercritical. In this condition the nitrogen cuts, strips and abrades much like ultra high-pressure water would but without any residual liquid to collect, remove or be contaminated. Once the nitrogen has performed its function it harmlessly flashes back into the atmosphere as pure nitrogen gas. The system uses heat exchangers to control and modify the temperature of the various intake and discharge nitrogen streams. Since the system is hydraulically operated, discharge pressures can be easily varied over

  14. All-Water-Jet Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Version of jaw miner operates without mechanical cutting and crushing. Forward-pointing jets of water dislodge and break up coal. Rearward-pointing jets further break up coal and force particles into slurry chamber. Oscillatingjet mechanism itself stays within "jaw" structure and protected from wear and tear associated with coal handling. All-jet machine generates even less dust than anger, therefore poses lesser explosion or health hazard.

  15. Development of hybrid fluid jet/float polishing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaucamp, Anthony T. H.; Namba, Yoshiharu; Freeman, Richard R.

    2013-09-01

    On one hand, the "float polishing" process consists of a tin lap having many concentric grooves, cut from a flat by single point diamond turning. This lap is rotated above a hydrostatic bearing spindle of high rigidity, damping and rotational accuracy. The optical surface thus floats above a thin layer of abrasive particles. But whilst surface texture can be smoothed to ~0.1nm rms (as measured by atomic force microscopy), this process can only be used on flat surfaces. On the other hand, the CNC "fluid jet polishing" process consists of pumping a mixture of water and abrasive particles to a converging nozzle, thus generating a polishing spot that can be moved along a tool path with tight track spacing. But whilst tool path feed can be moderated to ultra-precisely correct form error on freeform optical surfaces, surface finish improvement is generally limited to ~1.5nm rms (with fine abrasives). This paper reports on the development of a novel finishing method, that combines the advantages of "fluid jet polishing" (i.e. freeform corrective capability) with "float polishing" (i.e. super-smooth surface finish of 0.1nm rms or less). To come up with this new "hybrid" method, computational fluid dynamic modeling of both processes in COMSOL is being used to characterize abrasion conditions and adapt the process parameters of experimental fluid jet polishing equipment, including: (1) geometrical shape of nozzle, (2) position relative to the surface, (3) control of inlet pressure. This new process is aimed at finishing of next generation X-Ray / Gamma Ray focusing optics.

  16. Removal of single point diamond-turning marks by abrasive jet polishing.

    PubMed

    Li, Z Z; Wang, J M; Peng, X Q; Ho, L T; Yin, Z Q; Li, S Y; Cheung, C F

    2011-06-01

    Single point diamond turning (SPDT) is highly controllable and versatile in producing axially symmetric forms, non-axially-symmetric forms, microstructured surfaces, and free forms. However, the fine SPDT marks left in the surface limit its performance, and they are difficult to reduce or eliminate. It is unpractical for traditional methods to remove the fine marks without destroying their forms, especially for the aspheres and free forms. This paper introduces abrasive jet polishing (AJP) for the posttreatment of diamond-turned surfaces to remove the periodic microstructures. Samples of diamond-turned electroless nickel plated plano mirror were used in the experiments. One sample with an original surface roughness of more than 400 nm decreased to 4 nm after two iterations abrasive jet polishing; the surface roughness of another sample went from 3.7 nm to 1.4 nm after polishing. The periodic signatures on both of the samples were removed entirely after polishing. Contrastive experimental research was carried out on electroless nickel mirror with magnetorheological finishing, computer controlled optical surfacing, and AJP. The experimental results indicate that AJP is more appropriate in removing the periodic SPDT marks. Also, a figure maintaining experiment was carried out with the AJP process; the uniform polishing process shows that the AJP process can remove the periodic turning marks without destroying the original form.

  17. Tailor cutting of crystalline solar cells by laser micro jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckert, F.; Pilat, E.; Piron, P.; Torres, P.; Carron, B.; Richerzhagen, B.; Pirot, M.; Monna, R.

    2012-03-01

    Coupling a laser into a hair thin water micro jet (Laser Micro Jet, LMJ) for cutting applications offers a wide range of processes that are quite unique. As the laser beam is guided by internal reflections inside of a liquid cylinder, the cuts are naturally straight and do not reflect any divergence as otherwise occurs with an unguided laser beam. Furthermore, having a liquid media at the point of contact ensures a fast removal of heat and eventual debris ensuring clean cuts, which are free of any burrs. Many applications have indeed been developed for a large variety of materials, which are as different as e.g. diamond, silicon, aluminum, ceramic and hard metals. The photovoltaic industry has enjoyed in the last decades tremendous growth rates, which are still projected into the future. We focus here on the segment of Building Integrated PV (BIPV), which requests tailored solutions to actual buildings and not-one-fits-it-all standardized modules. Having the option to tailor cut solar cells opens a new field of BIPV applications. For the first time, finished crystalline solar cells have been LMJ cut into predetermined shapes. First results show that the cut is clean and neat. Preliminary solar performance measurements are positive. This opens a new avenue of tailored made modules instead of having to rely on the one-fits-alloy approach used so far.

  18. Selection of the most influential factors on the water-jet assisted underwater laser process by adaptive neuro-fuzzy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Vlastimir; Petković, Dalibor; Lazov, Lyubomir; Milovančević, Miloš

    2016-07-01

    Water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting has shown some advantages as it produces much less turbulence, gas bubble and aerosols, resulting in a more gentle process. However, this process has relatively low efficiency due to different losses in water. It is important to determine which parameters are the most important for the process. In this investigation was analyzed the water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting parameters forecasting based on the different parameters. The method of ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) was applied to the data in order to select the most influential factors for water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting parameters forecasting. Three inputs are considered: laser power, cutting speed and water-jet speed. The ANFIS process for variable selection was also implemented in order to detect the predominant factors affecting the forecasting of the water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting parameters. According to the results the combination of laser power cutting speed forms the most influential combination foe the prediction of water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting parameters. The best prediction was observed for the bottom kerf-width (R2 = 0.9653). The worst prediction was observed for dross area per unit length (R2 = 0.6804). According to the results, a greater improvement in estimation accuracy can be achieved by removing the unnecessary parameter.

  19. Robot based deposition of WC-Co HVOF coatings on HSS cutting tools as a substitution for solid cemented carbide cutting tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Schaak, C.; Biermann, D.; Aßmuth, R.; Goeke, S.

    2017-03-01

    Cemented carbide (hard metal) cutting tools are the first choice to machine hard materials or to conduct high performance cutting processes. Main advantages of cemented carbide cutting tools are their high wear resistance (hardness) and good high temperature strength. In contrast, cemented carbide cutting tools are characterized by a low toughness and generate higher production costs, especially due to limited resources. Usually, cemented carbide cutting tools are produced by means of powder metallurgical processes. Compared to conventional manufacturing routes, these processes are more expensive and only a limited number of geometries can be realized. Furthermore, post-processing and preparing the cutting edges in order to achieve high performance tools is often required. In the present paper, an alternative method to substitute solid cemented carbide cutting tools is presented. Cutting tools made of conventional high speed steels (HSS) were coated with thick WC-Co (88/12) layers by means of thermal spraying (HVOF). The challenge is to obtain a dense, homogenous, and near-net-shape coating on the flanks and the cutting edge. For this purpose, different coating strategies were realized using an industrial robot. The coating properties were subsequently investigated. After this initial step, the surfaces of the cutting tools were ground and selected cutting edges were prepared by means of wet abrasive jet machining to achieve a smooth and round micro shape. Machining tests were conducted with these coated, ground and prepared cutting tools. The occurring wear phenomena were analyzed and compared to conventional HSS cutting tools. Overall, the results of the experiments proved that the coating withstands mechanical stresses during machining. In the conducted experiments, the coated cutting tools showed less wear than conventional HSS cutting tools. With respect to the initial wear resistance, additional benefits can be obtained by preparing the cutting edge by means

  20. Removal of millimeter-scale rolled edges using bevel-cut-like tool influence function in magnetorheological jet polishing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Jing, Xiaoli

    2018-05-01

    Subaperture polishing techniques usually produce rolled edges due to edge effect. The rolled edges, especially those in millimeter scale on small components, are difficult to eliminate using conventional polishing methods. Magnetorheological jet polishing (MJP) offers the possibility of the removal of these structures, owing to its small tool influence function (TIF) size. Hence, we investigate the removal characters of inclined MJP jetting models by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and polishing experiments. A discrete phase model (DPM) is introduced in the simulation to get the influence of abrasive particle concentration on the removal mechanism. Therefore, a more accurate model for MJP removal mechanisms is built. With several critical problems solved, a small bevel-cut-like TIF (B-TIF), which has fine acentric and unimodal characteristics, is obtained through inclined jetting. The B-TIF proves to have little edge effect and is applied in surface polishing of thin rolled edges. Finally, the RMS of the experimental section profile converges from 10.5 nm to 1.4 nm, and the rolled edges are successfully suppressed. Consequently, it is validated that the B-TIF has remarkable ability in the removal of millimeter-scale rolled edges.

  1. Effect of air abrasion and polishing on primary molar fissures.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, T L; Menezes, L B R; Soares, F Z M; Rocha, R O

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of air abrasion and polishing on primary molar fissures under light microscopy. 15 exfoliated primary second molars were longitudinally sectioned and photographed under a stereomicroscope (40×; baseline evaluation). Sections were then randomly allocated into one of the two groups (n = 15) and treated by either air abrasion (aluminium oxide jet) or air polishing (sodium bicarbonate jet) for 30 s. After treatment, sections were washed with an air/water spray, dried with absorbent paper, and photographed as previously described (final evaluation). Baseline and final morphology were compared by two blinded examiners who evaluated changes in the width and depth of fissures. The percentage of changed fissures was analysed, and the two treatments were compared using the Mann-Whitney test (α = 0.01). Both air systems resulted in fissure changes in most (93.3 %) of the sections. No significant differences in fissure width changes were found between treatments, but when changes in fissure depth were evaluated, air polishing was found to be less damaging than air abrasion (p < 0.01). Air abrasion and polishing cause changes to the anatomical configuration of occlusal fissures of primary molars.

  2. Design of experimental setup for supercritical CO2 jet under high ambient pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; He, Zhenguo; Wang, Haizhu; Zhang, Shikun

    2016-12-01

    With the commercial extraction of hydrocarbons in shale and tight reservoirs, efficient methods are needed to accelerate developing process. Supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) jet has been considered as a potential way due to its unique fluid properties. In this article, a new setup is designed for laboratory experiment to research the SC-CO2 jet's characteristics in different jet temperatures, pressures, standoff distances, ambient pressures, etc. The setup is composed of five modules, including SC-CO2 generation system, pure SC-CO2 jet system, abrasive SC-CO2 jet system, CO2 recovery system, and data acquisition system. Now, a series of rock perforating (or case cutting) experiments have been successfully conducted using the setup about pure and abrasive SC-CO2 jet, and the results have proven the great perforating efficiency of SC-CO2 jet and the applications of this setup.

  3. Design of experimental setup for supercritical CO2 jet under high ambient pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; He, Zhenguo; Wang, Haizhu; Zhang, Shikun

    2016-12-01

    With the commercial extraction of hydrocarbons in shale and tight reservoirs, efficient methods are needed to accelerate developing process. Supercritical CO 2 (SC-CO 2 ) jet has been considered as a potential way due to its unique fluid properties. In this article, a new setup is designed for laboratory experiment to research the SC-CO 2 jet's characteristics in different jet temperatures, pressures, standoff distances, ambient pressures, etc. The setup is composed of five modules, including SC-CO 2 generation system, pure SC-CO 2 jet system, abrasive SC-CO 2 jet system, CO 2 recovery system, and data acquisition system. Now, a series of rock perforating (or case cutting) experiments have been successfully conducted using the setup about pure and abrasive SC-CO 2 jet, and the results have proven the great perforating efficiency of SC-CO 2 jet and the applications of this setup.

  4. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  5. New potentional of high-speed water jet technology for renovating concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnárová, L.; Sitek, L.; Hela, R.; Foldyna, J.

    2011-06-01

    The paper discusses the background and results of research focused on the action of a high-speed water jet on concrete with different qualities. The sufficient and careful removal of degraded concrete layers is very important for the renovation of concrete structures. High-speed water jet technology is one of the most common methods used for removing degraded concrete layers. Different types of high-speed water jets were tested in the experimental part. The classical technology of a single continuous water jet generated with one nozzle was tested as well as the technology of revolving water jets generated by multiple nozzles (used mainly for the renovation of larger areas). A continuous flat water jet and pulsating flat water jet were tested the first time, because the connection of a water jet with the acoustic generator of a pulsating jet offers new possibilities for the use of a water jet (see [1] and [2]). A water jet with such a modification is capable of efficient action and can even be used for cutting solid concrete with a relatively low consumption of energy. A flat pulsating water jet which can be newly used for renovation seems to be a promising technology.

  6. Experiment and simulation study of laser dicing silicon with water-jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jiading; Long, Yuhong; Tong, Youqun; Yang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Zupeng

    2016-11-01

    Water-jet laser processing is an internationally advanced technique, which combines the advantages of laser processing with water jet cutting. In the study, the experiment of water-jet laser dicing are conducted with ns pulsed laser of 1064 nm irradiating, and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) technique by AUTODYN software was modeled to research the fluid dynamics of water and melt when water jet impacting molten material. The silicon surface morphology of the irradiated spots has an appearance as one can see in porous formation. The surface morphology exhibits a large number of cavities which indicates as bubble nucleation sites. The observed surface morphology shows that the explosive melt expulsion could be a dominant process for the laser ablating silicon in liquids with nanosecond pulse laser of 1064 nm irradiating. Self-focusing phenomenon was found and its causes are analyzed. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) modeling technique was employed to understand the effect of water and water-jet on debris removal during water-jet laser machining.

  7. Ultra-high pressure water jetting for coating removal and surface preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Spencer T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper shall examine the basics of water technology with particular attention paid to systems currently in use and some select new applications. By providing an overview of commercially available water jet systems in the context of recent case histories, potential users may evaluate the process for future applications. With the on going introduction of regulations prohibiting the use of chemical paint strippers, manual scrapping and dry abrasive media blasting, the need for an environmentally compliant coating removal process has been mandated. Water jet cleaning has been a traditional part of many industrial processed for year, although it has only been in the last few years that reliable pumping equipment capable of ultra-high pressure operation have become available. With the advent of water jet pumping equipment capable of sustaining pressures in excess of 36,000 psi. there has been shift away from lower pressure, high water volume systems. One of the major factors in driving industry to seek higher pressures is the ability to offer higher productivity rates while lowering the quantity of water used and subsequently reprocessed. Among benefits of the trend toward higher pressure/lower volume systems is the corresponding reduction in water jet reaction forces making hand held water jetting practical and safe. Other unique applications made possible by these new generation pumping systems include the use of alternative fluids including liquid ammonia for specialized and hazardous material removal applications. A review of the equipment used and the required modifications will be presented along with the conclusions reached reached during this test program.

  8. Shock waves generated by sudden expansions of a water jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas-Vázquez, M.; Echeverría, C.; Porta, D.; Stern, C. E.; Ascanio, G.; Vicente, W.; Aguayo, J. P.

    2018-07-01

    Direct shadowgraph with parallel light combined with high-speed recording has been used to analyze the water jet of a cutting machine. The use of image processing allowed observing sudden expansions in the jet diameter as well as estimating the jet velocity by means of the Mach angle, obtaining velocities of about 500 m s^{-1}. The technique used here revealed the development of hydrodynamic instabilities in the jet. Additionally, this is the first reporting of the onset of shock waves generated by small fluctuations of a continuous flow of water at high velocity surrounded by air, a result confirmed by a transient computational fluid dynamics simulation.

  9. Comparative study on the processing of armour steels with various unconventional technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herghelegiu, E.; Schnakovszky, C.; Radu, M. C.; Tampu, N. C.; Zichil, V.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the current paper is to analyse the suitability of three unconventional technologies - abrasive water jet (AWJ), plasma and laser - to process armour steels. In view of this, two materials (Ramor 400 and Ramor 550) were selected to carry out the experimental tests and the quality of cuts was quantified by considering the following characteristics: width of the processed surface at the jet inlet (Li), width of the processed surface at the jet outlet (Lo), inclination angle (a), deviation from perpendicularity (u), surface roughness (Ra) and surface hardness. It was fond that in terms of cut quality and environmental impact, the best results are offered by abrasive water jet technology. However, it has the lowest productivity comparing to the other two technologies.

  10. Deformation of products cut on AWJ x-y tables and its suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaváč, L. M.; Hlaváčová, I. M.; Plančár, Š.; Krenický, T.; Geryk, V.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is namely investigation of the abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting of column pieces on commercial x-y cutting machines with AWJ. The shape deformation in curved and/or stepped parts of cutting trajectories caused by both the trailback (declination angle) and the taper (inclination of cut walls) can be calculated from submitted analytical model. Some of the results were compared with data measured on samples cut on two types of commercial tables. The main motivation of this investigation is determination of the percentage difference between predicted and real distortion of cutting product, i.e. accuracy of prepared analytical model. Subsequently, the possibility of reduction of the distortion can be studied through implementation of the theoretical model into the control systems of the cutting machines with the system for cutting head tilting. Despite some limitations of the used AWJ machines the comparison of calculated dimensions with the real ones shows very good correlation of model and experimental data lying within the range of measurement uncertainty. Results on special device demonstrated that the shape deformation in curved parts of the cutting trajectory can be substantially reduced through tilting of the cutting head.

  11. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  12. The National Shipbuilding Research Program: Solid Waste Segregation and Recycling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Shields , Recycling Coordinator D.C. Department of Public Works 65 K Street, NE Washington, DC 20002 202-727-5887 Task Three, Tab Three Page 42 George...SHEAR X FRONT END LOADERS = CONVEYORS X FORKLIFTS O WEIGHT SCALES X PROCESSING DROP-BALL BREAKAGE X CUTTING TORCHES GAS = PLASMA = POWDER = WATER-JET...Loaders Conveyors Forklifts Weight Scales Processing Drop-ball Breakage Cutting Torches Gas Plasma Powder Laser Water-jet Abrasive disk Shears Ferrous

  13. Thermal Investigation of Interaction between High-power CW-laser Radiation and a Water-jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Christian; Janssen, Henning; Eckert, Markus; Schmidt, Florian

    The technology of a water guided laser beam has been industrially established for micro machining. Pulsed laser radiation is guided via a water jet (diameter: 25-250 μm) using total internal reflection. Due to the cylindrical jet shape the depth of field increases to above 50 mm, enabling parallel kerfs compared to conventional laser systems. However higher material thicknesses and macro geometries cannot be machined economically viable due to low average laser powers. Fraunhofer IPT has successfully combined a high-power continuous-wave (CW) fiber laser (6 kW) and water jet technology. The main challenge of guiding high-power laser radiation in water is the energy transferred to the jet by absorption, decreasing its stability. A model of laser water interaction in the water jet has been developed and validated experimentally. Based on the results an upscaling of system technology to 30 kW is discussed, enabling a high potential in cutting challenging materials at high qualities and high speeds.

  14. Air-Abrasive Disinfection of Implant Surfaces in a Simulated Model of Periimplantitis.

    PubMed

    Quintero, David George; Taylor, Robert Bonnie; Miller, Matthew Braden; Merchant, Keith Roshanali; Pasieta, Scott Anthony

    2017-06-01

    This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the ability of air-powder abrasion to decontaminate dental implants. Twenty-six implants were inoculated with a Streptococcus sanguinis biofilm media in a novel periimplantitis defect model. Six implants served as controls, and 20 implants were disinfected with either the Cavitron JET Plus or the AIR-FLOW PERIO air-powder abrasion units. Residual bacteria were cultured, and colony forming units (CFUs) were totaled at 24 hours. As expected, negative control implant cultures showed no evidence of viable bacteria. Bacterial growth was observed on all positive control cultures, whereas only 15% of the experimental cultures displayed evidence of viable bacteria. The average CFU per streak for the positive control was 104 compared with a maximum of 10 and 4 CFUs for the Cavitron JET Plus and AIR-FLOW PERIO, respectively. There was a 99.9% reduction in bacteria for both air-powder abrasion instruments. Air-powder abrasion is an effective technique for the decontamination of dental implants, and the Cavitron JET Plus and AIR-FLOW PERIO are equally successful at eliminating viable bacteria from implant surfaces.

  15. High performance cutting using micro-textured tools and low pressure jet coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obikawa, Toshiyuki; Nakatsukasa, Ryuta; Hayashi, Mamoru; Ohno, Tatsumi

    2018-05-01

    Tool inserts with different kinds of microtexture on the flank face were fabricated by laser irradiation for promoting the heat transfer from the tool face to the coolant. In addition to the micro-textured tools, jet coolant was applied to the tool tip from the side of the flank face, but under low-pressure conditions, to make Reynolds number of coolant as high as possible in the wedge shape zone between the tool flank and machined surface. First, the effect of jet coolant on the flank wear evolution was investigated using a tool without microtexture. The jet coolant showed an excellent improvement of the tool life in machining stainless steel SUS304 at higher cutting speeds. It was found that both the flow rate and velocity of jet coolant were indispensable to high performance cutting. Next, the effect of microtexture on the flank wear evolution was investigated using jet coolant. Three types of micro grooves extended tool life largely compared to the tool without microtexture. It was found that the depth of groove was one of important parameters affecting the tool life extension. As a result, the tool life was extended by more than l00 % using the microtextured tools and jet coolant compared to machining using flood coolant and a tool without microtexture.

  16. A laser-abrasive method for the cutting of enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, G B; Belikov, A V; Sinelnik, Y A

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduced a new method for the removal of hard dental tissue based upon the use of particles accelerated by laser irradiation, which the authors have called the laser-abrasive method. The particles used were sapphire as powder or an aqueous suspension. The effect of the products of enamel ablation was also investigated. The particles were accelerated using submillisecond pulses of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers. A strobing CCD camera was used to measure the speed of the ejected particles. The additional contribution of these particles to the efficiency of laser ablation of enamel and dentin was also investigated. The results showed that the enamel particles produced by the beam-tissue interaction were also accelerated by this process of ablation and were effective in the removal of enamel and dentin. The use of an aqueous suspension of sapphire particles increased the efficiency of enamel removal threefold when compared with the use of an Er:YAG laser with water spray. The laser-abrasive method allowed for the removal of enamel and dentin at speeds approaching those of the high-speed turbine. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Optimization and application of influence function in abrasive jet polishing.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoze; Li, Shengyi; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang

    2010-05-20

    We analyze the material removal mechanism of abrasive jet polishing (AJP) technology, based on the fluid impact dynamics theory. Combined with the computational fluid dynamics simulation and process experiments, influence functions at different impingement angles are obtained, which are not of a regular Gaussian shape and are unfit for the corrective figuring of optics. The influence function is then optimized to obtain an ideal Gaussian shape by rotating the oblique nozzle, and its stability is validated through a line scanning experiment. The fluctuation of the influence function can be controlled within +/-5%. Based on this, we build a computed numerically controlled experimental system for AJP, and one flat BK7 optical glass with a diameter of 20mm is polished. After two iterations of polishing, the peak-to-valley value decreases from 1.43lambda (lambda=632.8nm in this paper) to 0.294lambda, and the rms value decreases from 0.195lambda to 0.029lambda. The roughness of this polished surface is within 2nm. The experimental result indicates that the optimized influence function is suitable for precision optics figuring and polishing.

  18. Toothbrush abrasion of paint-on resins for shade modification and crown resins: effect of water absorption.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Koichi; Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Kanie, Takahito; Ban, Seiji

    2004-06-01

    In order to investigate the clinical application of paint-on resins, the effect of water absorption on toothbrush abrasion and light transmittance of ten crown resins including three paint-on resins was examined. Water absorption into each material ranged from 0.29 to 0.89 mg/cm2 after storage in distilled-water for 6 weeks and their hardnesses decreased by 3.5-22.3%. Maximum surface roughness (Rmax) of the materials stored in distilled water for 6 weeks increased with an increasing number of toothbrush abrasion cycles and ranged from 1.9 to 10.5 microm after 100,000 cycles. Also, Maximum depth and weight loss as an indicator of the amount of each material lost by abrasion showed similar behaviors similar to Rmax. These results indicated that the abrasion resistance of paint-on resins was located in the middle among all materials examined.

  19. Machines employing a hot gas jet to cut metals and nonmetallic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Polyaev, V.M.; Aleksandrenkov, V.P.

    1995-07-01

    The flame-cutting of metals is a basic materials-processing operation performed in the course of machine-building and, in some sectors (shipbuilding, aircraft construction, petrochemicals) it is the most important operation. In addition, this method of cutting remains the main operation performed in the processing of scrap metal. The importance of it has occasioned the development of a wide range of cutting tools within just the last decade. Not surprisingly, VNIIavtogen-mash (the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Machinery for the Gas Welding and Cutting of Metals) is the leading designer of metal-cutting tools in this country. The problem of efficiently cutting metalsmore » is gaining in importance and will continue to do so in coming years in connection with the conversion of military hardware to other uses, the decommissioning of old and obsolete equipment, and utilization of the enormous reserves of scrap in this country. There will thus be a significant increase in the amounts of existing high-alloy steels, nonferrous metals and their alloys, and composites that require cutting. A wide range of cutters is available for the gas-flame cutting of metals, Liquid fuels based on petroleum products are promising from the viewpoint of energy efficiency and performance. The operation of a new generation of cutters, referred to as thermo-gas jet cutters, is based on the principle of the destructive action of a hot, fast-moving, chemically active jet on the material to be cut.« less

  20. Method for forming an abrasive surface on a tool

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; White, Rickey L.; Swindeman, Catherine J.; Kahl, W. Keith

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating a tool used in cutting, grinding and machining operations, is provided. The method is used to deposit a mixture comprising an abrasive material and a bonding material on a tool surface. The materials are propelled toward the receiving surface of the tool substrate using a thermal spray process. The thermal spray process melts the bonding material portion of the mixture, but not the abrasive material. Upon impacting the tool surface, the mixture or composition solidifies to form a hard abrasive tool coating.

  1. Research on operation mode of abrasive grain during grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T. N.; Dement’ev, V. B.; Nikitina, O. V.

    2018-03-01

    The processing of materials by cutting with an abrasive tool is carried out by means of thousands of grains bonded together as a single whole. The quality of the abrasive tool is defined by cutting properties of abrasive grains and depends on features of spreading the temperature field in time and in the abrasive grain volume. Grains are exposed to heating and cooling during work. It leads to undesired effects such as a decrease of durability of grain retention in the binder, hardness, intensification of diffusion and oxidation processes between the binder and the grain, the occurrence of considerable temperature stresses in the grain itself. The obtained equation which allows calculation of temperature field of grain for one rotation of grinding wheel shows that the temperature of the wheel depends on grinding modes and thermophysical properties of abrasive material. Thus, as the time of contact of grain with processed material increases, the temperature in the cutting area rises. As thermophysical properties increase, the temperature in cutting area decreases. Thermal working conditions are determined to be different from each other depending on contact time of the grain and the material. For example, in case of creep-feed grinding, the peak value of temperature is higher than during multistep grinding; the depth of expansion is greater. While the speed of the thermal process in creep-feed grinding is 2-3 times lower than in multistep grinding, the gradient reduces 3-4 times. The analysis of machining methods shows that creep-feed grinding ensures greater depth of grain heating, a smaller heating rate and a reduced velocity gradient. It causes a decrease of probable allotropic modifications and prevents from occurring of heat strokes - cracking of grains due to high temperature falls. Consequently, it is necessary to employ creep-feed grinding to increase the efficiency of abrasive tool employing. Three operation modes of grinding wheel including blunting, full

  2. Dental abrasion as a cutting process.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Peter W; Wagner, Mark; Al-Fadhalah, Khaled; Almusallam, Abdulwahab S; Michael, Shaji; Thai, Lidia A; Strait, David S; Swain, Michael V; van Casteren, Adam; Renno, Waleed M; Shekeban, Ali; Philip, Swapna M; Saji, Sreeja; Atkins, Anthony G

    2016-06-06

    A mammalian tooth is abraded when a sliding contact between a particle and the tooth surface leads to an immediate loss of tooth tissue. Over time, these contacts can lead to wear serious enough to impair the oral processing of food. Both anatomical and physiological mechanisms have evolved in mammals to try to prevent wear, indicating its evolutionary importance, but it is still an established survival threat. Here we consider that many wear marks result from a cutting action whereby the contacting tip(s) of such wear particles acts akin to a tool tip. Recent theoretical developments show that it is possible to estimate the toughness of abraded materials via cutting tests. Here, we report experiments intended to establish the wear resistance of enamel in terms of its toughness and how friction varies. Imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to assess the damage involved. Damage ranged from pure plastic deformation to fracture with and without lateral microcracks. Grooves cut with a Berkovich diamond were the most consistent, suggesting that the toughness of enamel in cutting is 244 J m(-2), which is very high. Friction was higher in the presence of a polyphenolic compound, indicating that this could increase wear potential.

  3. Rock Abrasion Tool Exhibits the Deep Red Pigment of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    During recent soil-brushing experiments, the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit became covered with dust, as shown here. An abundance of iron oxide minerals in the dust gave the device a reddish-brown veneer. Investigators were using the rock abrasion tool to uncover successive layers of soil in an attempt to reveal near-surface stratigraphy. Afterward, remnant dirt clods were visible on both the bit and the brush of the tool. Designers of the rock abrasion tool at Honeybee Robotics and engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a plan to run the brush on the rock abrasion tool in reverse to dislodge the dirt and return the tool to normal operation. Subsequent communications with the rover revealed that the procedure is working and the rock abrasion tool remains healthy.

    Spirit acquired this approximately true-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 893rd sol, or Martian day (July 8, 2006). The image combines exposures taken through three of the camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 430 nanometers.

  4. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  5. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1984-07-17

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  6. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-04-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  7. Prediction Of Abrasive And Diffusive Tool Wear Mechanisms In Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tool wear prediction is regarded as very important task in order to maximize tool performance, minimize cutting costs and improve the quality of workpiece in cutting. In this research work, an experimental campaign was carried out at the varying of cutting conditions with the aim to measure both crater and flank tool wear, during machining of an AISI 1045 with an uncoated carbide tool P40. Parallel a FEM-based analysis was developed in order to study the tool wear mechanisms, taking also into account the influence of the cutting conditions and the temperature reached on the tool surfaces. The results show that, when the temperature of the tool rake surface is lower than the activation temperature of the diffusive phenomenon, the wear rate can be estimated applying an abrasive model. In contrast, in the tool area where the temperature is higher than the diffusive activation temperature, the wear rate can be evaluated applying a diffusive model. Finally, for a temperature ranges within the above cited values an adopted abrasive-diffusive wear model furnished the possibility to correctly evaluate the tool wear phenomena.

  8. Heat damage-free laser-microjet cutting achieves highest die fracture strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrottet, Delphine; Housh, Roy; Richerzhagen, Bernold; Manley, John

    2005-04-01

    Unlike conventional laser-based technologies, the water jet guided laser does not generate heat damage and contamination is also very low. The negligible heat-affected zone is one reason why die fracture strength is higher than with sawing. This paper first presents the water jet guided laser technology and then explains how it differs from conventional dry laser cutting. Finally, it presents the results obtained by three recent studies conducted to determine die fracture strength after Laser-Microjet cutting.

  9. Study of Abrasive Wear Volume Map for PTFE and PTFE Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, H.; Sen, U.; Mimaroglu, A.

    2007-11-01

    The potential of this work is based on consideration of wear volume map for the evaluation of abrasive wear performance of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and PTFE composites. The fillers used in the composite are 25% bronze, 35% graphite and 17% glass fibre glass (GFR). The influence of filler materials, abrasion surface roughness and applied load values on abrasive wear performance of PTFE and PTFE composites were studied and evaluated. Experimental abrasive wear tests were carried out at atmospheric condition on pin-on-disc wear tribometer. Tests were performed under 4, 6, 8 and 10 N load values, travelling speed of 1 m/sec and abrasion surface roughness values of 5, 20 and 45 µm. Wear volume maps were obtained and the results showed that the lowest wear volume rate for PTFE is reached using GFR filler. Furthermore, the results also showed that the higher is the applied load and the roughness of the abrasion surface, the higher is the wear rate. Finally it is also concluded that abrasive wear process mechanism include ploughing and cutting mechanisms.

  10. Precision machining of advanced materials with waterjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. T.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in abrasive waterjet technology have elevated to the state that it often competes on equal footing with lasers and EDM for precision machining. Under the support of a National Science Foundation SBIR Phase II grant, OMAX has developed and commercialized micro abrasive water technology that is incorporated into a MicroMAX® JetMa- chining® Center. Waterjet technology, combined both abrasive waterjet and micro abrasive waterjet technology, is capable of machining most materials from macro to micro scales for a wide range of part size and thickness. Waterjet technology has technological and manufacturing merits that cannot be matched by most existing tools. As a cold cutting tool that creates no heat-affected zone, for example, waterjet cuts much faster than wire EDM and laser when measures to minimize a heat-affected zone are taken into account. In addition, waterjet is material independent; it cuts materials that cannot be cut or are difficult to cut otherwise. The versatility of waterjet has also demonstrated machining simulated nanomaterials with large gradients of material properties from metal, nonmetal, to anything in between. This paper presents waterjet-machined samples made of a wide range of advanced materials from macro to micro scales.

  11. [The application of air abrasion in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Mandinić, Zoran; Vulićević, Zoran R; Beloica, Milos; Radović, Ivana; Mandić, Jelena; Carević, Momir; Tekić, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    One of the main objectives of contemporary dentistry is to preserve healthy tooth structure by applying techniques of noninvasive treatment. Air abrasion is a minimally invasive nonmechanical technique of tooth preparation that uses kinetic energy to remove carious tooth structure. A powerful narrow stream of moving aluminum-oxide particles hit the tooth surface and they abrade it without heat, vibration or noise. Variables that affect speed of cutting include air pressure, particle size, powder flow, tip's size, angle and distance from the tooth. It has been proposed that air abrasion can be used to diagnose early occlusal-surface lesions and treat them with minimal tooth preparation using magnifier. Reported advantages of air abrasion include reduced noise, vibration and sensitivity. Air abrasion cavity preparations have more rounded internal contours than those prepared with straight burs. This may increase the longevity of placed restorations because it reduces the incidence of fractures and a consequence of decreased internal stresses. However, air abrasion cannot be used for all patients, i.e. in cases involving severe dust allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, recent extraction or other oral surgery, open wounds, advanced periodontal disease, recent placement of orthodontic appliances and oral abrasions, or subgingival caries removal. Many of these conditions increase the risk of air embolism in the oral soft tissues. Dust control is a challenge, and it necessitates the use of rubber dam, high-volume evacuation, protective masks and safety eyewear for both the patient and the therapist.

  12. Water-jet dissection for parenchymal division during hepatectomy1

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Elijah; Sahajpal, Ajay; Cattral, Mark S.; Grant, David R.; Gallinger, Steven; Taylor, Bryce R.; Greig, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    Background. High-pressure water-jet dissection was originally developed for industry where ultra-precise cutting and engraving were desirable. This technology has been adapted for medical applications with favorable results, but little is understood about its performance in hepatic resections. Blood loss may be limited by the thin laminar liquid-jet effect that provides precise, controllable, tissue-selective dissection with excellent visualization and minimal trauma to surrounding fibrous structures. Patients and methods. The efficacy of the Water-jet system for hepatic parenchymal dissection was examined in a consecutive case series of 101 hepatic resections (including 22 living donor transplantation resections) performed over 11 months. Perioperative outcomes, including blood loss, transfusion requirements, complications, and length of stay (LOS), were assessed. Results. Three-quarters of the cases were major hepatectomies and 22% were cirrhotic. Malignancy was the most common indication (77%). Median operative time was 289 min. Median estimated blood loss (EBL) was 900 ml for all cases, and only 14% of patients had >2000 ml EBL. Furthermore, EBL was 1000 ml for major resections, 775 ml for living donor resections, 600 ml in cirrhotic patients, and 1950 ml for steatotic livers. In all, 14% of patients received heterologous packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions for an average of 0.59 units per case. Median LOS was 7 days. EBL, transfusion requirements, and LOS were slightly increased in the major resection cohort. There was one mortality (1%) overall. These results are equivalent to, or better than, those from our contemporary series of resections performed with ultrasonic dissection. Conclusion. Water-jet dissection minimizes large blood volume loss, requirements for transfusion, and complications. This initial experience suggests that this precision tool is safe and effective for hepatic division, and compares favorably to other established methods for

  13. Histologic effects of different technologies for dissection in endoscopic surgery: Nd:YAG laser, high frequency and water-jet.

    PubMed

    Schurr, M O; Wehrmann, M; Kunert, W; Melzer, A; Lirici, M M; Trapp, R; Kanehira, E; Buess, G

    1994-01-01

    Precise cutting combined with reliable coagulation of the margins of the lesion is an important requirement for dissection techniques in endoscopic surgery. These requirements are met by the two most common ancillary energy sources applied for endoscopic dissection today, electrosurgery and "thermal lasers", mostly the Nd:YAG. For the comparison of the histological effects of monopolar and bipolar high frequency with the Nd:YAG laser an experimental in vitro and in vivo study has been performed. In order to evaluate the advantages of non thermal dissection for endoscopic procedures, a water jet cutting system was included in the in vitro study. In parenchymatous tissue the water jet was found to be the least traumatic technique, followed by bipolar high frequency, laser and monopolar high frequency. The water jet was not applicable for intestinal dissection since uncontrolled bloating of the rectal wall with uncontrolled disruption of the tissue layers occurred. A general disadvantage is that secure haemostasis in the line of incision is hard to achieve. In the microscopic comparison of the shape of the incision, the Nd:YAG laser produced the smoothest lesions with well-defined margins. The monopolar technique was more often associated with irregular and sometimes fissured margins. These results were confirmed in the in vivo part of the study (Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery).

  14. Hard-rock jetting. Part 2. Rock type decides jetting economics

    SciTech Connect

    Pols, A.C.

    1977-02-07

    In Part 2, Koninklijke Shell Exploratie en Produktie Laboratorium presents the results of jet-drilling laminated formations. Shell concludes that (1) hard, laminated rock cannot be jet-drilled satisfactorily without additional mechanical cutting aids, (2) the increase in penetration rate with bit-pressure drop is much lower for impermeable rock than it is for permeable rock, (3) drilling mud can have either a positive or a negative effect on penetration rate in comparison with water, depending on the material drilled, and (4) hard, isotropic, sedimentary, impermeable rock can be drilled using jets at higher rates than with conventional means. However, jetting becomes profitablemore » only in the case of expensive rigs.« less

  15. Vee-notch tool cuts specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spier, R. A.

    1970-01-01

    Triangular cutting tool uses carbide tips for notching heat-treated or abrasive materials, and alloys subjected to high structural stresses. The tool is rigidly mounted in a slot of mating contour to prevent deflection during cutting of tensile specimens. No other expensive machine equipment is required.

  16. Physics of loose abrasive microgrinding.

    PubMed

    Golini, D; Jacobs, S D

    1991-07-01

    This study examined the physics of loose abrasive microgrinding (grinding with micron and submicron sized abrasives). More specifically, it focused on the transition from brittle to ductile mode grinding which occurs in this region of abrasive sizes. Process dependency on slurry chemistry was the primary area of emphasis and was studied for diamond abrasives varying in size from 3.0 to 0.75 microm on both ULE and Zerodur, with emphasis on ULE. Ductile mode grinding was achieved with smaller abrasives, as expected, however two significant discoveries were made. The first observation was that by simply changing slurry chemistry, it was possible to induce the transition from brittle fracture to ductile mode grinding in ULE. This transition point could be intentionally moved about for diamonds 3.0-0.75 microm in diameter. For any given abrasive size within these limits, either brittle fracture or ductile removal may be achieved, depending on the slurry used to suspend the diamonds. Several slurries were studied, including water, a series of homologous n-alcohols, and other solvents chosen for properties varying from molecular size to dielectric constant and zeta potential. The study revealed that this slurry dependency is primarily a Rebinder effect. The second finding was that a tremendous amount of surface stress is introduced in loose abrasive ductile mode grinding. This stress was observed when the Twyman Effect in ULE plates increased by a factor of 4 in the transition from the brittle to the ductile mode. An assessment of the cause of this stress is discussed.

  17. Effect of cuticular abrasion and recovery on water loss rates in queens of the desert harvester ant Messor pergandei.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert A; Kaiser, Alexander; Quinlan, Michael; Sharp, William

    2011-10-15

    Factors that affect water loss rates (WLRs) are poorly known for organisms in natural habitats. Seed-harvester ant queens provide an ideal system for examining such factors because WLRs for mated queens excavated from their incipient nests are twofold to threefold higher than those of alate queens. Indirect data suggest that this increase results from soil particles abrading the cuticle during nest excavation. This study provides direct support for the cuticle abrasion hypothesis by measuring total mass-specific WLRs, cuticular abrasion, cuticular transpiration, respiratory water loss and metabolic rate for queens of the ant Messor pergandei at three stages: unmated alate queens, newly mated dealate queens (undug foundresses) and mated queens excavated from their incipient nest (dug foundresses); in addition we examined these processes in artificially abraded alate queens. Alate queens had low WLRs and low levels of cuticle abrasion, whereas dug foundresses had high WLRs and high levels of cuticle abrasion. Total WLR and cuticular transpiration were lowest for alate queens, intermediate for undug foundresses and highest for dug foundresses. Respiratory water loss contributed ~10% of the total WLR and was lower for alate queens and undug foundresses than for dug foundresses. Metabolic rate did not vary across stages. Total WLR and cuticular transpiration of artificially abraded alate queens increased, whereas respiratory water loss and metabolic rate were unaffected. Overall, increased cuticular transpiration accounted for essentially all the increased total water loss in undug and dug foundresses and artificially abraded queens. Artificially abraded queens and dug foundresses showed partial recovery after 14 days.

  18. Heat Transfer of Confined Impinging Air-water Mist Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shyy Woei; Su, Lo May

    This paper describes the detailed heat transfer distributions of an atomized air-water mist jet impinging orthogonally onto a confined target plate with various water-to-air mass-flow ratios. A transient technique was used to measure the full field heat transfer coefficients of the impinging surface. Results showed that the high momentum mist-jet interacting with the water-film and wall-jet flows created a variety of heat transfer contours on the impinging surface. The trade-off between the competing influences of the different heat transfer mechanisms involving in an impinging mist jet made the nonlinear variation tendency of overall heat transfer against the increase of water-to-air mass-flow ratio and extended the effective cooling region. With separation distances of 10, 8, 6 and 4 jet-diameters, the spatially averaged heat transfer values on the target plate could respectively reach about 2.01, 1.83, 2.43 and 2.12 times of the equivalent air-jet values, which confirmed the applicability of impinging mist-jet for heat transfer enhancement. The optimal choices of water-to-air mass-flow ratio for the atomized mist jet required the considerations of interactive and combined effects of separation distance, air-jet Reynolds number and the water-to-air mass-flow ratio into the atomized nozzle.

  19. High-pressure jet cutters improve capping operations

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.; Campbell, P.J.; Bowden, J.R. Sr.

    1995-05-08

    Advances in abrasive cutting technology have improved the methods for removing damaged equipment and preparing wellheads for capping. This technology, much of which was refined during well control operations in Kuwait in 1991, can improve the safety and efficiency of capping jobs by cutting wellheads or casing quickly and cleanly. The majority of well control jobs involve one of three types of capping operations: capping to a flange, capping by installing a wellhead, or capping to a casing stub. Capping operations are often the first major step in regaining control of the well during blowout intervention. Proper planning of amore » capping operation must take into account the mass flow rate, combustible nature of the flow, well bore geometry, and operations in the post-capping phase of the project. The paper discusses capping vehicles, tree removal, jet cutters, capping to a flange, capping to a stub, swallowing the stub, spin-on technique, capping on fire, stinging, offshore blowouts, firefighting, pollution control, intervention equipment, and rig removal.« less

  20. Trans-umbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife: A pilot animal study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Shi, Hong; Swar, Gyanendra; Wang, Hai-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Yong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility and safety of Natural orifice trans-umbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife in a non-survival porcine model. METHODS: Pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) cholecystectomy was performed on three non-survival pigs, by transumbilical approach, using a water-jet hybrid-knife. Under general anesthesia, the following steps detailed the procedure: (1) incision of the umbilicus followed by the passage of a double-channel flexible endsocope through an overtube into the peritoneal cavity; (2) establishment of pneumoperitoneum; (3) abdominal exploration; (4) endoscopic cholecystectomy: dissection of the gallbladder performed using water jet equipment, ligation of the cystic artery and duct conducted using nylon loops; and (5) necropsy with macroscopic evaluation. RESULTS: Transumbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy was successfully completed in the first and third pig, with minor bleedings. The dissection times were 137 and 42 min, respectively. The total operation times were 167 and 69 min, respectively. And the lengths of resected specimen were 6.5 and 6.1 cm, respectively. Instillation of the fluid into the gallbladder bed produced edematous, distended tissue making separation safe and easy. Reliable ligation using double nylon loops insured the safety of cutting between the loops. There were no intraoperative complications or hemodynamic instability. Uncontrolled introperative bleeding occurred in the second case, leading to the operation failure. CONCLUSION: Pure NOTES trans-umbilical cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife appears to be feasible and safe. Further investigation of this technique with long-term follow-up in animals is needed to confirm the preliminary observation. PMID:24187461

  1. Trans-umbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife: a pilot animal study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Shi, Hong; Swar, Gyanendra; Wang, Hai-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Yong-Guang

    2013-10-28

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of Natural orifice trans-umbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife in a non-survival porcine model. Pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) cholecystectomy was performed on three non-survival pigs, by transumbilical approach, using a water-jet hybrid-knife. Under general anesthesia, the following steps detailed the procedure: (1) incision of the umbilicus followed by the passage of a double-channel flexible endoscope through an overtube into the peritoneal cavity; (2) establishment of pneumoperitoneum; (3) abdominal exploration; (4) endoscopic cholecystectomy: dissection of the gallbladder performed using water jet equipment, ligation of the cystic artery and duct conducted using nylon loops; and (5) necropsy with macroscopic evaluation. Transumbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy was successfully completed in the first and third pig, with minor bleedings. The dissection times were 137 and 42 min, respectively. The total operation times were 167 and 69 min, respectively. And the lengths of resected specimen were 6.5 and 6.1 cm, respectively. Instillation of the fluid into the gallbladder bed produced edematous, distended tissue making separation safe and easy. Reliable ligation using double nylon loops insured the safety of cutting between the loops. There were no intraoperative complications or hemodynamic instability. Uncontrolled introperative bleeding occurred in the second case, leading to the operation failure. Pure NOTES trans-umbilical cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife appears to be feasible and safe. Further investigation of this technique with long-term follow-up in animals is needed to confirm the preliminary observation.

  2. Influence of sodium content on the properties of bioactive glasses for use in air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Imran; Tylkowski, Maxi; Müller, Steffen; Janicki, Tomasz; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G

    2013-12-01

    Air abrasion is used in minimally invasive dentistry for preparing cavities, while removing no or little sound dentine or enamel, and the use of bioactive glass (rather than alumina) as an abrasive could aid in tooth remineralization. Melt-derived bioactive glasses (SiO2-P2O5-CaO-CaF2-Na2O) with low sodium content (0 to 10 mol% Na2O in exchange for CaO) for increased hardness, high phosphate content for high bioactivity and fluoride content for release of fluoride and formation of fluorapatite were produced, and particles between 38 and 80 µm in size were used for cutting soda-lime silicate glass microscope slides and human enamel. Vickers hardness increased with decreasing Na2O content, owing to a more compact silicate network in low sodium content glasses, resulting in shorter cutting times. Cutting times using bioactive glass were significantly longer than using the alumina control (29 µm) when tested on microscope slides; however, glasses showed more comparable results when cutting human enamel. The bioactive glasses formed apatite in Tris buffer within 6 h, which was significantly faster than Bioglass® 45S5 (24 h), suggesting that the hardness of the glasses makes them suitable for air abrasion application, while their high bioactivity and fluoride content make them of interest for tooth remineralization.

  3. Automation of cutting and drilling of composite components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    The task was to develop a preliminary plan for an automated system for the cutting and drilling of advanced aerospace composite components. The goal was to automate the production of these components, but the technology developed can be readily extended to other systems. There is an excellent opportunity for developing a state of the art automated system for the cutting and drilling of large composite components at NASA-Marshall. Most of the major system components are in place: the robot, the water jet pump, and the off-line programming system. The drilling system and the part location system are the only major components that need to be developed. Also, another water jet nozzle and a small amount of high pressure plumbing need to be purchased from, and installed.

  4. Grading technologies for the manufacture of innovative cutting blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostek, Tim; Homberg, Werner

    2018-05-01

    Cutting blades for harvesting applications are used in a variety of agricultural machines. These parts are in contact with highly abrasive lawn clippings and often wear out within hours which results in high expensive re-sharpening maintenance. This paper relates to manufacturing techniques enhancing the durability of cutting blades based on a structural analysis of the prevailing wear mechanisms containing chipping and abrasive wear. Each mechanism results in specific demands on the cutting edge's mechanical characteristics. The design of evaluation methods respectively is one issue of the paper. This is basis for approaches to improve the cutting edge performance on purpose. On option to improve abrasive wear resistance and, thus, service life is the application of locally graded steel materials as semi-finished products for self-sharpening cutting blades. These materials comprise a layered structure consisting of a hard, wear resistant layer and a relatively softer layer which is lesser wear resistant. As the cutting blade is subjected to wear conditions, the less wear resistant layer wears faster than the relatively more wear resistant harder layer revealing a durable cross section of the cutting edge and, thus, cutting performance. Anyways, chipping is another key issue on the cutting edge's lifetime. Here, the cutting edges cross section by means of geometry and grind respectively as well as its mechanical properties matter. FEM analysis reveal innovative options to optimize the cross section of the blade as well as thermomechanical strengthening add further strength to reduce chipping. This paper contains a comprehensive strategy to improve cutting blades with use of innovative manufacturing technologies which apply application-specific graded mechanical characteristics and, thus, significantly improved performance characteristics.

  5. A new approach on anti-vortex devices at water intakes including a submerged water jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahershamsi, Ahmad; Rahimzadeh, Hassan; Monshizadeh, Morteza; Sarkardeh, Hamed

    2018-04-01

    A new approach on anti-vortex methods as hydraulic-based anti-vortex was investigated experimentally in the present study. In the investigated method, a submerged water jet is used as the anti-vortex mechanism. The added jet acts as a source of external momentum. This leads to change the intake-induced hydrodynamic pattern in the near-field of the intake structure, which can prevent formation of undesirable intake vortices. The experiments were carried out on a horizontal pipe intake. By performing 570 test cases in two different categories, including the inclined jet with respect to the axis of the intake, and the inclined jet with respect to the water surface, the effects of the jet inclination angle on the anti-vortex performance were investigated. It was found that the inclined jet with respect to the water surface is the best alternative to consider as the water jet injection pattern. Results showed that using the inclined jet with respect to the water surface can simply reduce the amounts of the expected water jet momentum more than 50% compared to that of the similar condition of the horizontal injection pattern. Moreover, it was concluded that the intake critical submergence can easily be minimized using the inclined jet with respect to the water surface.

  6. The role of the microfissuration of the rock matrix in the abrasion resistance of ornamental granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Angel; Sanchez-Delgado, Nuria; Camino, Clara; Calleja, Lope; Ruiz de Argandoña, Vicente G.; Setien, Alexia

    2015-04-01

    The microcrack density and the abrasion resistance of five ornamental granites (Albero, Gris Alba, Mondariz, Rosa Porriño and Traspieles) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been quantified as part of a research aimed to interpret the cuttability of the rocks in relation to the petrophysical properties of the rock matrix. Large blocks from the quarries have been cut with an industrial saw and the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance have been measured in two surfaces: H, parallel to the cut surface; T, perpendicular both to the cut surface and the cutting direction. Both planes are perpendicular to the rift plane, as it is known in quarry works. The microcrack density has been quantified following an stereological procedure applied to polished sections imaged under scanning electron microscopy. The magnification of the images allowed the study of microcracks as narrow as 2 microns in aperture. The density has been quantified in terms of length of microcrack traces per surface unit so possible anisotropies of the microcrack network could be detected. The obtained values are in the typical range for this type of rocks although the Traspieles granite shows a higher value due to its weathering degree (H: 5.11, T: 5.37 mm/mm2). The values measured in the two surfaces (H and T) are quite similar in four of the rocks; only the Albero granite shows a marked anisotropy (H: 2.76 T: 3.53 mm/mm2). The abrasion resistance of the rocks has been measured following the european standard EN 14157:2004 using the capon method. The rocks can be classified in two groups according to their abrasion resistance. Rosa Porriño, Gris Alba and Mondariz granites are the more resistant to abrasion with values around 16-17 mm. Albero and Traspieles granites are less resistant with values higher than 19 mm. The results show a good correlation between the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance. As can be expected the rocks with high microcrack density show low abrasion resistance. The

  7. Simulation and Experimental Study on Cavitating Water Jet Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; He, Kai; Cai, Jiannan; Hu, Shaojie; Li, Jiuhua; Du, Ruxu

    2017-01-01

    Cavitating water jet technology is a new kind of water jet technology with many advantages, such as energy-saving, efficient, environmentally-friendly and so on. Based on the numerical simulation and experimental verification in this paper, the research on cavitating nozzle has been carried out, which includes comparison of the cleaning ability of the cavitating jet and the ordinary jet, and comparison of cavitation effects of different structures of cavitating nozzles.

  8. Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

  9. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water jet renal stone dislodger system. 876.4650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4650 Water jet renal stone dislodger system. (a) Identification. A water jet renal stone dislodger system is a device used to...

  10. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water jet renal stone dislodger system. 876.4650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4650 Water jet renal stone dislodger system. (a) Identification. A water jet renal stone dislodger system is a device used to...

  11. Rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP: a mechanistic predictive model for cutting force.

    PubMed

    Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Sun, X; Zhang, C L

    2014-02-01

    Cutting force is one of the most important output variables in rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites. Many experimental investigations on cutting force in RUM of CFRP have been reported. However, in the literature, there are no cutting force models for RUM of CFRP. This paper develops a mechanistic predictive model for cutting force in RUM of CFRP. The material removal mechanism of CFRP in RUM has been analyzed first. The model is based on the assumption that brittle fracture is the dominant mode of material removal. CFRP micromechanical analysis has been conducted to represent CFRP as an equivalent homogeneous material to obtain the mechanical properties of CFRP from its components. Based on this model, relationships between input variables (including ultrasonic vibration amplitude, tool rotation speed, feedrate, abrasive size, and abrasive concentration) and cutting force can be predicted. The relationships between input variables and important intermediate variables (indentation depth, effective contact time, and maximum impact force of single abrasive grain) have been investigated to explain predicted trends of cutting force. Experiments are conducted to verify the model, and experimental results agree well with predicted trends from this model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Cut Quality on Hybrid Laser Arc Welding of Thick Section Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhi, F.; Nielsen, S. E.; Schmidt, R. H.; Pedersen, S. S.; Kristiansen, M.

    From an industrial point of view, in a laser cutting-welding production chain, it is of great importance to know the influence of the attainable laser cut quality on the subsequent hybrid laser arc welding process. Many studies have been carried out in the literature to obtain lower surface roughness values on the laser cut edge. However, in practice, the cost and reliability of the cutting process is crucial and it does not always comply with obtaining the highest surface quality. In this study, a number of experiments on 25 mm steel plates were carried out to evaluate the influence of cut surface quality on the final quality of the subsequent hybrid laser welded joints. The different cut surfaces were obtained by different industrial cutting methods including laser cutting, abrasive water cutting, plasma cutting, and milling. It was found that the mentioned cutting methods could be used as preparation processes for the subsequent hybrid laser arc welding. However, cut quality could determine the choice of process parameters of the following hybrid laser arc welding.

  13. Measurement Of Multiphase Flow Water Fraction And Water-cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Cheng-gang

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes a microwave transmission multiphase flow water-cut meter that measures the amplitude attenuation and phase shift across a pipe diameter at multiple frequencies using cavity-backed antennas. The multiphase flow mixture permittivity and conductivity are derived from a unified microwave transmission model for both water- and oil-continuous flows over a wide water-conductivity range; this is far beyond the capability of microwave-resonance-based sensors currently on the market. The water fraction and water cut are derived from a three-component gas-oil-water mixing model using the mixture permittivity or the mixture conductivity and an independently measured mixture density. Water salinity variations caused, for example, by changing formation water or formation/injection water breakthrough can be detected and corrected using an online water-conductivity tracking technique based on the interpretation of the mixture permittivity and conductivity, simultaneously measured by a single-modality microwave sensor.

  14. Jets and Water Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yuan; Showman, A. P.

    2012-10-01

    Ground-based and spacecraft observations show that Jupiter exhibits multiple banded zonal jet structures. These banded jets correlate with dark and bright clouds, often called "belts" and "zones". The mechanisms that produce these banded zonal jets and clouds are poorly understood. Our previous studies showed that the latent heat released by condensation of water vapor could produce equatorial superrotation along with multiple zonal jets in the mid-to-high latitudes. However, that previous work assumed complete and instant removal of condensate and therefore could not predict the cloud formation. Here we present an improved 3D Jupiter model to investigate some effects of cloud microphysics on large-scale dynamics using a closed water cycle that includes condensation, three-dimensional advection of cloud material by the large-scale circulation, evaporation and sedimentation. We use a dry convective adjustment scheme to adjust the temperature towards a dry adiabat when atmospheric columns become convectively unstable, and the tracers are mixed within the unstable layers accordingly. Other physics parameterizations included in our model are the bottom drag and internal heat flux as well as the choices of either Newtonian heating scheme or gray radiative transfer. Given the poorly understood cloud microphysics, we perform case studies by treating the particle size and condensation/evaporation time scale as free parameters. We find that, in some cases, the active water cycle can produce multiple banded jets and clouds. However, the equatorial jet is generally very weak in all the cases because of insufficient supply of eastward eddy momentum fluxes. These differences may result from differences in the overall vertical stratification, baroclinicity, and moisture distribution in our new models relative to the older ones; we expect to elucidate the dynamical mechanisms in continuing work.

  15. Development of a water-jet assisted laser paint removal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhukar, Yuvraj K.; Mullick, Suvradip; Nath, Ashish K.

    2013-12-01

    The laser paint removal process usually leaves behind traces of combustion product i.e. ashes on the surface. An additional post-processing such as light-brushing or wiping by some mechanical means is required to remove the residual ash. In order to strip out the paint completely from the surface in a single step, a water-jet assisted laser paint removal process has been investigated. The 1.07 μm wavelength of Yb-fiber laser radiation has low absorption in water; therefore a high power fiber laser was used in the experiment. The laser beam was delivered on the paint-surface along with a water jet to remove the paint and residual ashes effectively. The specific energy, defined as the laser energy required removing a unit volume of paint was found to be marginally more than that for the gas-jet assisted laser paint removal process. However, complete paint removal was achieved with the water-jet assist only. The relatively higher specific energy in case of water-jet assist is mainly due to the scattering of laser beam in the turbulent flow of water-jet.

  16. Laser-Sharp Jet Splits Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A jet of gas firing out of a very young star can be seen ramming into a wall of material in this infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The young star, called HH 211-mm, is cloaked in dust and can't be seen. But streaming away from the star are bipolar jets, color-coded blue in this view. The pink blob at the end of the jet to the lower left shows where the jet is hitting a wall of material. The jet is hitting the wall so hard that shock waves are being generated, which causes ice to vaporize off dust grains. The shock waves are also heating material up, producing energetic ultraviolet radiation. The ultraviolet radiation then breaks the water vapor molecules apart.

    The red color at the end of the lower jet represents shock-heated iron, sulfur and dust, while the blue color in both jets denotes shock-heated hydrogen molecules.

    HH 211-mm is part of a cluster of about 300 stars, called IC 348, located 1,000 light-years away in the constellation Perseus.

    This image is a composite of infrared data from Spitzer's infrared array camera and its multiband imaging photometer. Light with wavelengths of 3.6 and 4.5 microns is blue; 8-micron-light is green; and 24-micron light is red.

  17. Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  18. Partitioning of Aromatic Constituents into Water from Jet Fuels.

    PubMed

    Tien, Chien-Jung; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Ciou, Shih-Rong; Chen, Colin S

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive study of the most commonly used jet fuels (i.e., Jet A-1 and JP-8) was performed to properly assess potential contamination of the subsurface environment from a leaking underground storage tank occurred in an airport. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the concentration ranges of the major components in the water-soluble fraction of jet fuels and to estimate the jet fuel-water partition coefficients (K fw) for target compounds using partitioning experiments and a polyparameter linear free-energy relationship (PP-LFER) approach. The average molecular weight of Jet A-1 and JP-8 was estimated to be 161 and 147 g/mole, respectively. The density of Jet A-1 and JP-8 was measured to be 786 and 780 g/L, respectively. The distribution of nonpolar target compounds between the fuel and water phases was described using a two-phase liquid-liquid equilibrium model. Models were derived using Raoult's law convention for the activity coefficients and the liquid solubility. The observed inverse, log-log linear dependence of the K fw values on the aqueous solubility were well predicted by assuming jet fuel to be an ideal solvent mixture. The experimental partition coefficients were generally well reproduced by PP-LFER.

  19. Control technology for crystalline silica exposures in construction: wet abrasive blasting.

    PubMed

    Golla, Vijay; Heitbrink, William

    2004-03-01

    This study was designed to document the effect that wet abrasive blasting has on reducing worker exposure to crystalline silica, which has been associated with silicosis and premature death. In this study, worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica was monitored during wet abrasive blasting on the exterior walls of a parking garage to remove surface concrete and expose the underlying aggregate. In this process a wet sand mix comprised of 80% dry sand and 20% water was used. Sampling and analysis revealed that the geometric mean respirable quartz concentration was 0.2 mg/m(3) for workers conducting abrasive blasting and 0.06 mg/m(3) for helpers. When abrasive blasting was conducted in areas that apparently had reduced natural ventilation, dust exposures appeared to increase. When compared with other published data, this case study suggests that wet abrasive blasting causes less exposure to crystalline silica than dry abrasive blasting.

  20. Nanoscale Liquid Jets Shape New Line of Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Just as a pistol shrimp stuns its prey by quickly closing its oversized claw to shoot out a shock-inducing, high-velocity jet of water, NanoMatrix, Inc., is sending shockwaves throughout the nanotechnology world with a revolutionary, small-scale fabrication process that uses powerful liquid jets to cut and shape objects. Emanuel Barros, a former project engineer at NASA s Ames Research Center, set out to form the Santa Cruz, California-based NanoMatrix firm and materialize the micro/nano cutting process partially inspired by the water-spewing crustacean. Early on in his 6-year NASA career, Barros led the development of re-flown flight hardware for an award-winning Spacelab project called NeuroLab. This project, the sixteenth and final Spacelab mission, focused on a series of experiments to determine the effects of microgravity on the development of the mammalian nervous system.

  1. Experimental Rock-on-Rock Abrasive Wear Under Aqueous Conditions: its Role in Subglacial Abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, E. H.; Lee, A. G.

    2003-12-01

    We have determined experimentally the rate of abrasive wear of rock on rock for a range of rock types as a function of normal stress and shear displacement. Unlike abrasive wear in fault zones, where wear products accumulate as a thickening gouge zone, in our experiments wear particles were removed by flowing water. The experiments are thus directly pertinent to one of the most important processes in subglacial erosion, and to some extent in river incision. Wear was produced between rotating discs machined from rock samples and measured from the progressive approach of the disc axes towards each other under various levels of normal load. Shear displacements of several km were produced. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the worn rock surfaces, and particle size distributions in wear products were characterized using a laser particle size analyzer. Rock types studied were sandstones of various porosities and cement characteristics, schists and a granite. In all cases abrasion rate decreased logarithmically with displacement by up to 2 orders of magnitude until a steady state was approached, but only after at least 1 km displacement. The more porous, less-well cemented rocks wore fastest. Amount of abrasion could be characterized quantitatively using an exponentially decaying plus a steady-state term. Wear rate increased non-linearly with normal contact stress, apparently to an asymptote defined by the unconfined compressive strength. Microstructural study showed that the well-cemented and/or lowest porosity rocks wore by progressive abrasion of grains without plucking, whereas whole grains were plucked out of weakly-cemented and/or more porous rocks. This difference in behavior was reflected in wear-product particle size distributions. Where whole-grain plucking was possible, wear products were dominated by particles of the original grain size rather than finer rock flour. Comparison of our results to glacier basal abrasive wear estimated

  2. Comparison of cutting efficiency with different diamond burs and water flow rates in cutting lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Sharon C; Patel, Tejas

    2016-10-01

    This study compared different diamond burs and different water flow rates on the cutting efficiency of sectioning through lithium disilicate glass ceramic. The authors used a standardized cutting regimen with 4 brands of diamond burs to section through lithium disilicate glass ceramic blocks. Twelve diamonds of each brand cut through the blocks in randomized order. In the first part of the study, the authors recorded sectioning rates in millimeters per minute for each diamond bur as a measure of cutting efficiency. In the second part of the study, the authors compared sectioning rates using only 1 brand of diamond bur, with 3 different water flow rates. The authors averaged and compared cutting rates of each brand of diamond bur and the cutting rates for each flow rate using an analysis of variance and determined the differences with a Tukey honest significant difference test. One diamond bur cut significantly slower than the other 3, and one diamond bur cut significantly faster than 2 of the others. The diamond bur cutting efficiency through lithium disilicate glass ceramic with a 20 mL/min water flow rate was significantly higher than 15 mL/min. There are differences in cutting efficiency between diamond burs when sectioning lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Use a minimum of 20 mL/min of water coolant flow when sectioning lithium disilicate glass ceramic with dental diamond burs to maximize cutting efficiency. Recommendations for specific diamond burs with a coarse grit and water flow rate of 20 mL/min can be made when removing or adjusting restorations made from lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abrasion of eroded and sound enamel by a dentifrice containing diamond abrasive particles

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J.; Hoegger, Vanessa G. M.; Attin, Thomas

    2017-07-24

    Eroded enamel is more susceptible to abrasive wear than sound enamel. New toothpastes utilizing diamond particles as abrasives have been developed. The present study investigated the abrasive wear of eroded enamel by three commercially available toothpastes (one containing diamond particles) and compared it to the respective wear of sound enamel caused by these toothpastes. Seventy-two bovine enamel samples were randomly allocated to six groups (S1–S3 and E1–E3; n=12). Samples were submitted to an abrasive (S1–S3) or erosion plus abrasion (E1–E3) cycling. Per cycle, all samples were brushed (abrasion; 20 brushing stokes) with the following toothpastes: S1/E1: Signal WHITE SYSTEM, S2/E2: elmex KARIESSCHUTZ and S3-E3: Candida WHITE DIAMOND (diamond particles). Groups E1–E3 were additionally eroded with HCl (pH 3.0) for 2 min before each brushing procedure. After 30, 60 and 90 cycles enamel wear was measured by surface profilometry. Within the same toothpaste and same number of cycles, enamel wear due to erosion plus abrasion was significantly higher than due to mere abrasion. After 30, 60 and 90 cycles, no significant difference in the wear in groups S1 and S2 was observed while the wear in group E1 was significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA, Scheffecyc) lower than that in group E2. After 90 cycles, wear in group S3 was about 5 times higher than that in group S2, while wear in group E3 was about 1.3 times higher than that in group E2. As compared to the other two investigated toothpastes, the dentifrice containing diamond particles caused slightly higher abrasive wear of eroded enamel and distinctly higher wear of sound enamel compared to the conventional toothpastes under investigation.

  4. Wear Mechanism of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Carbide Insert in Orthogonal Cutting Ti-6Al-4V ELI at High Cutting Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusri, A. I.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Jaharah, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) carbide insert with ISO designation of CCMT 12 04 04 LF, when turning titanium alloys was investigated. There were four layers of coating materials for this insert i.e.TiN-Al2O3-TiCN-TiN. The insert performance was evaluated based on the insert's edge resistant towards the machining parameters used at high cutting speed range of machining Ti-6Al-4V ELI. Detailed study on the wear mechanism at the cutting edge of CVD carbide tools was carried out at cutting speed of 55-95 m/min, feed rate of 0.15-0.35 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.10-0.20 mm. Wear mechanisms such as abrasive and adhesive were observed on the flank face. Crater wear due to diffusion was also observed on the rake race. The abrasive wear occurred more at nose radius and the fracture on tool were found at the feed rate of 0.35 mm/rev and the depth of cut of 0.20 mm. The adhesion wear takes place after the removal of the coating or coating delaminating. Therefore, adhesion or welding of titanium alloy onto the flank and rake faces demonstrates a strong bond at the workpiece-tool interface.

  5. Abrasion and fatigue resistance of PDMS containing multiblock polyurethanes after accelerated water exposure at elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Kimberly A; Wilson, Charles L; Himes, Adam K; Dawson, James W; Haddad, Tarek D; Buckalew, Adam J; Miller, Jennifer P; Untereker, Darrel F; Simha, Narendra K

    2013-11-01

    Segmented polyurethane multiblock polymers containing polydimethylsiloxane and polyether soft segments form tough and easily processed thermoplastic elastomers (PDMS-urethanes). Two commercially available examples, PurSil 35 (denoted as P35) and Elast-Eon E2A (denoted as E2A), were evaluated for abrasion and fatigue resistance after immersion in 85 °C buffered water for up to 80 weeks. We previously reported that water exposure in these experiments resulted in a molar mass reduction, where the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction is supported by a straight forward Arrhenius analysis over a range of accelerated temperatures (37-85 °C). We also showed that the ultimate tensile properties of P35 and E2A were significantly compromised when the molar mass was reduced. Here, we show that the reduction in molar mass also correlated with a reduction in both the abrasion and fatigue resistance. The instantaneous wear rate of both P35 and E2A, when exposed to the reciprocating motion of an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) jacketed cable, increased with the inverse of the number averaged molar mass (1/Mn). Both materials showed a change in the wear surface when the number-averaged molar mass was reduced to ≈ 16 kg/mole, where a smooth wear surface transitioned to a 'spalling-like' pattern, leaving the wear surface with ≈ 0.3 mm cracks that propagated beyond the contact surface. The fatigue crack growth rate for P35 and E2A also increased in proportion to 1/Mn, after the molar mass was reduced below a critical value of ≈30 kg/mole. Interestingly, this critical molar mass coincided with that at which the single cycle stress-strain response changed from strain hardening to strain softening. The changes in both abrasion and fatigue resistance, key predictors for long term reliability of cardiac leads, after exposure of this class of PDMS-urethanes to water suggests that these materials are susceptible to mechanical compromise in vivo. Copyright © 2013 The Authors

  6. Characteristics of an actuator-driven pulsed water jet generator to dissecting soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Seto, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Tominaga, Teiji

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports characteristics of an actuator-driven pulsed water jet generator applied, in particular, to dissect soft tissues. Results of experiments, by making use of high speed recording of optical visualization and varying nozzle diameter, actuator time interval, and their effects on dissection performance are presented. Jet penetration characteristics are compared with continuous water jet and hence potential assessment of pulsed water jets to clinical applications is performed.

  7. Jet atomization and cavitation induced by interactions between focused ultrasound and a water surfacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Atomization of a jet produced by the interaction of 1 MHz focused ultrasound with a water surface was investigated using high-speed photography. Viewing various aspects of jet behavior, threshold conditions were obtained necessary for water surface elevation and jet breakup, including drop separation and spray formation. In addition, the position of drop atomization, where a single drop separates from the tip of a jet without spraying, showed good correlation with the jet Weber number. For a set of specified conditions, multiple beaded water masses were formed, moving upwards to produce a vigorous jet. Cavitation phenomena occurred near the center of the primary drop-shaped water mass produced at the leading part of the jet; this was accompanied by fine droplets at the neck between the primary and secondary drop-shaped water masses, due to the collapse of capillary waves.

  8. Effect of abrasive grit size on wear of manganese-zinc ferrite under three-body abrasion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1987-01-01

    Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites under three-body abrasion. The abrasion mechanism of Mn-Zn ferrite changes drastically with the size of abrasive grits. With 15-micron (1000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion of Mn-Zn ferrite is due principally to brittle fracture; while with 4- and 2-micron (4000- and 6000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion is due to plastic deformation and fracture. Both microcracking and plastic flow produce polycrystalline states on the wear surfaces of single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites. Coefficient of wear, total thickness of the deformed layers, and surface roughness of the wear surfaces increase markedly with an increase in abrasive grit size. The total thicknesses of the deformed layers are 3 microns for the ferrite abraded by 15-micron SiC, 0.9 microns for the ferrite abraded by 4-micron SiC, and 0.8 microns for the ferrite abraded by 1-micron SiC.

  9. Water Jets from Bottles, Buckets, Barrels, and Vases with Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopac, Vjera

    2015-01-01

    Observation of the water jets flowing from three equidistant holes on the side of a vertical cylindrical bottle is an interesting and widely used didactical experiment illustrating the laws of fluids in motion. In this paper we analyze theoretically and numerically the ranges of the stationary water jets flowing from various rotationally symmetric…

  10. Superheated liquid carbon dioxide jets: setting up and phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmeier, Lena; Pollak, Stefan; Peters, Franz; Weidner, Eckhard

    2018-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation on liquid, superheated carbon dioxide jets. Our main goal is to identify the setting up requirements for generating coherent jets because these raise expectations on applications in the cleaning and cutting industry. The study leads us through a number of phenomena, which are described, categorized and explained. The experiments are based on compressed (350 MPa) and cooled carbon dioxide, which expands through a cylindrical nozzle into the atmosphere. The nozzle provokes hydraulic flip by a sharp-edge inlet leading to separation and constriction. Upstream-temperature and pressure are varied and the jet's structure and phase state are monitored by a high-speed camera. We observe coherent, liquid jets far from equilibrium, which demands the solid or gaseous state. Therefore, these jets are superheated. Carbon dioxide jets, like water jets, below certain nozzle diameters are subject to fluid dynamic instabilities resulting in breakup. Above certain diameters flashing jet breakup appears, which is associated with nucleation.

  11. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water jet renal stone dislodger system. 876.4650 Section 876.4650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4650 Water jet renal stone dislodger system. (a) Identification....

  12. Scratching technique for the study and analysis of soil surface abrasion mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Wanquan

    2007-11-01

    Aeolian abrasion is the most fundamental and active surface process that takes place in arid and semi-arid environments. Its nature is a wear process for wind blown grains impinging on a soil or sediment surface, which causes particles and aggregates to fracture from the soil surface through a series of plastic and brittle cracking deformation such as cutting, ploughing and brittle fracturing. Using a Universal Micro-Tribometer (UMT), a scratching test was carried out on six soil surfaces (sandy soil, sand loam, silt loam, loam, silt clay loam, and silt clay). The results indicate that traces of normal and tangential force vs. time show a jagged curve, which can reflect the plastic deformation and brittle fracturing of aggregates and particles of various sizes fractured from the soil surfaces. The jagged curve peaks, and the area enclosed underneath, may represent the bonding forces and bonding energies of some aggregates and grains on the soil surface, respectively. Connecting the scratching test with an impact abrasion experiment furthermore demonstrates that soil surface abrasion rates are proportional to the square of speeds of impacting particles and to the 2.6 power of mean soil grain size, and inversely proportional to the 1.5 power of specific surface abrasive energy or to the 1.7 power of specific surface hardness.

  13. Hydrochromic molecular switches for water-jet rewritable paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Lan; Li, Minjie; Zhu, Shaoyin; Li, Hao; Xi, Guan; Li, Yong-Gang; Wang, Yi; Li, Quanshun; Liang, Shaojun; Zhong, Ke; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2014-01-01

    The days of rewritable paper are coming, printers of the future will use water-jet paper. Although several kinds of rewritable paper have been reported, practical usage of them is rare. Herein, a new rewritable paper for ink-free printing is proposed and demonstrated successfully by using water as the sole trigger to switch hydrochromic dyes on solid media. Water-jet prints with various colours are achieved with a commercial desktop printer based on these hydrochromic rewritable papers. The prints can be erased and rewritten dozens of times with no significant loss in colour quality. This rewritable paper is promising in that it can serve an eco-friendly information display to meet the increasing global needs for environmental protection.

  14. Hydrochromic molecular switches for water-jet rewritable paper.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lan; Li, Minjie; Zhu, Shaoyin; Li, Hao; Xi, Guan; Li, Yong-Gang; Wang, Yi; Li, Quanshun; Liang, Shaojun; Zhong, Ke; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2014-01-01

    The days of rewritable paper are coming, printers of the future will use water-jet paper. Although several kinds of rewritable paper have been reported, practical usage of them is rare. Herein, a new rewritable paper for ink-free printing is proposed and demonstrated successfully by using water as the sole trigger to switch hydrochromic dyes on solid media. Water-jet prints with various colours are achieved with a commercial desktop printer based on these hydrochromic rewritable papers. The prints can be erased and rewritten dozens of times with no significant loss in colour quality. This rewritable paper is promising in that it can serve an eco-friendly information display to meet the increasing global needs for environmental protection.

  15. Investigation of wear land and rate of locally made HSS cutting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afolalu, S. A.; Abioye, A. A.; Dirisu, J. O.; Okokpujie, I. P.; Ajayi, O. O.; Adetunji, O. R.

    2018-04-01

    Production technology and machining are inseparable with cutting operation playing important roles. Investigation of wear land and rate of cutting tool developed locally (C=0.56%) with an HSS cutting tool (C=0.65%) as a control was carried out. Wear rate test was carried out using Rotopol -V and Impact tester. The samples (12) of locally made cutting tools and one (1) sample of a control HSS cutting tool were weighed to get the initial weight and grit was fixed at a point for the sample to revolve at a specific time of 10 mins interval. Approach of macro transfer particles that involved mechanism of abrasion and adhesion which was termed as mechanical wear to handle abrasion adhesion processes was used in developing equation for growth wear at flank. It was observed from the wear test that best minimum wear rate of 1.09 × 10-8 and 2.053 × 10-8 for the tools developed and control were measured. MATLAB was used to simulate the wear land and rate under different conditions. Validated results of both the experimental and modeling showed that cutting speed has effect on wear rate while cutting time has predicted measure on wear land. Both experimental and modeling result showed best performances of tools developed over the control.

  16. Topography and presence of a smear layer in deciduous molars prepared with high-speed cutting and ultrasonic abrasion: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Áurea Simone Barroso; Pedro, Rafael de Lima; Antunes, Leonardo Dos Santos; Alves Dos Santos, Márcia Pereira; Antunes, Livia Azeredo Alves; Primo, Laura Guimarães; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the effect of high-speed cutting (HS) with ultrasonic abrasion (US) concerning the internal topography and the presence of a smear layer in a cavity preparation performed in healthy deciduous molars. Seven first deciduous molars were used. Two occlusal cavity preparation were done, one in the medial fossula and another in the distal fossula, which were chosen randomly. One preparation was carried out with a diamond point adapted to the HS system (GI), while a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) point adapted to a US device (GII) was used for the other preparation. Subsequently, all samples (n = 14) were cleaved to observe the inside and then prepared for evaluation using scanning electron photomicroscopy. The internal topography of the prepared cavities was descriptively analyzed. In order to assess the presence of a smear layer, scores were tabulated using the 2000 GMC program and analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Concerning the internal topography, the presence of striae was verified in both groups. In the GI group they were finer, found in a greater number, and with narrower spaces between them. In the GII group, the striae were undulating, similar to the effect of wheels on sand, and with wider spaces between them. As regards the presence of a smear layer, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (P > 0.05). In view of the methodology employed, it may be concluded that cavity preparation with a CVD point in a US abrasion system led to the formation of fewer striae and both devices promoted the marked presence of a smear layer, obstructing dentinal tubuli.

  17. Do Abrasives Play a Role in Toothpaste Efficacy against Erosion/Abrasion?

    PubMed

    Ganss, Carolina; Möllers, Maike; Schlueter, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Abrasives may counteract the efficacy of anti-erosion toothpastes either due to physical effects or due to interaction with active agents. This study aimed to investigate whether the amount of abrasives is a determinant for the efficacy of Sn2+-containing toothpastes with or without chitosan additive. Enamel samples were eroded (0.50 wt% citric acid, pH 2.5; 6 × 2 min/day) on a shaking desk - 30/min in experiment 1 (E1) and 35/min in experiments 2 (E2) and 3 (E3) - and immersed in toothpaste slurries (2 × 2 min). Half of the samples were additionally brushed (15 s, load 200 g) within the immersion time. The toothpastes contained 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% silica. In E1 and E2 the active ingredients were F- (700 ppm as amine fluoride, 700 ppm as NaF) and Sn2+ (3,500 ppm as SnCl2); in E3 chitosan (0.5%) was additionally added. The placebo contained 20% silica. Tissue loss was determined profilometrically. In E1, slurries completely inhibited tissue loss; distinct surface deposits occurred. With brushing, tissue loss significantly increased up to an abrasive content of 10%, but decreased significantly with higher amounts; 20% silica revealed similar values as the abrasive-free formulation. In E2, all slurries inhibited tissue loss distinctly irrespective of the amounts of abrasives. With brushing, a similar trend as in E1 was observed but with much less efficacy. The chitosan-containing formulations in E3 were much more effective; similar results as in E1 were found. In conclusion, the amount of abrasives had no effect when toothpastes were applied as slurries, but played an important role with brushing. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Surface characterization of current composites after toothbrush abrasion.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Rena; Jin, Jian; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji; Hickel, Reinhard; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the surface roughness and the gloss of current composites before and after toothbrush abrasion. We assessed forty dimensionally standardized composite specimens (n=8/group) from five composites: two nanohybrids (i. e., IPS Empress Direct Enamel and IPS Empress Direct Dentin), two microhybrids (i. e., Clearfil AP-X and Filtek Z250) and one organically modified ceramics (Admira). All of the specimens were polished with 4000-grid silicon carbide papers. Surface roughness was measured with a profilometer and gloss was measured with a glossmeter before and after powered toothbrush abrasion with a 1:1 slurry (dentifrice/tap water) at 12,000 strokes in a toothbrush simulator. There was a significant increase in the surface roughness and a reduction in gloss after toothbrush abrasion in all of the composites except Clearfil AP-X (p<0.05). Simple regression analysis showed that there was not an association between the surface roughness and the gloss (R(2)=0.191, p<0.001).

  19. Pelton turbine Needle erosion prediction based on 3D three- phase flow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chongji, Z.; Yexiang, X.; Wei, Z.; Yangyang, Y.; Lei, C.; Zhengwei, W.

    2014-03-01

    Pelton turbine, which applied to the high water head and small flow rate, is widely used in the mountainous area. During the operation period the sediment contained in the water does not only induce the abrasion of the buckets, but also leads to the erosion at the nozzle which may damage the needle structure. The nozzle and needle structure are mainly used to form high quality cylindrical jet and increase the efficiency of energy exchange in the runner to the most. Thus the needle erosion will lead to the deformation of jet, and then may cause the efficiency loss and cavitation. The favourable prediction of abrasion characteristic of needle can effectively guide the optimization design and maintenance of needle structure. This paper simulated the unsteady three-dimensional multi-phase flow in the nozzle and injected jet flow. As the jet containing water and sediment is injected into the free atmosphere air with high velocity, the VOF model was adopted to predict the water and air flow. The sediment is simplified into round solid particle and the discrete particle model (DPM) was employed to predict the needle abrasion characteristic. The sand particle tracks were analyzed to interpret the mechanism of sand erosion on the needle surface. And the numerical result of needle abrasion was obtained and compared with the abrasion field observation. The similarity of abrasion pattern between the numerical results and field observation illustrated the validity of the 3D multi-phase flow simulation method.

  20. Wire blade development for Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique (FAST) slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.; Smith, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    A low cost, effective slicing method is essential to make ingot technology viable for photovoltaics in terrestrial applications. The fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) combines the advantages of the three commercially developed techniques. In its development stage FAST demonstrated cutting effectiveness of 10 cm and 15 cm diameter workpieces. Wire blade development is still the critical element for commercialization of FAST technology. Both impregnated and electroplated wire blades have been developed; techniques have been developed to fix diamonds only in the cutting edge of the wire. Electroplated wires show the most near term promise and this approach is emphasized. With plated wires it has been possible to control the size and shape of the electroplating, it is expected that this feature reduces kerf and prolongs the life of the wirepack.

  1. Characterising Dynamic Instability in High Water-Cut Oil-Water Flows Using High-Resolution Microwave Sensor Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weixin; Jin, Ningde; Han, Yunfeng; Ma, Jing

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, multi-scale entropy algorithm was used to characterise the complex flow phenomena of turbulent droplets in high water-cut oil-water two-phase flow. First, we compared multi-scale weighted permutation entropy (MWPE), multi-scale approximate entropy (MAE), multi-scale sample entropy (MSE) and multi-scale complexity measure (MCM) for typical nonlinear systems. The results show that MWPE presents satisfied variability with scale and anti-noise ability. Accordingly, we conducted an experiment of vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow with high water-cut and collected the signals of a high-resolution microwave resonant sensor, based on which two indexes, the entropy rate and mean value of MWPE, were extracted. Besides, the effects of total flow rate and water-cut on these two indexes were analysed. Our researches show that MWPE is an effective method to uncover the dynamic instability of oil-water two-phase flow with high water-cut.

  2. Method and apparatus for water jet drilling of rock

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.; Mazurkiewicz, Marian; Bushnell, Dwight J.; Blaine, James

    1978-01-01

    Rock drilling method and apparatus utilizing high pressure water jets for drilling holes of relatively small diameter at speeds significantly greater than that attainable with existing drilling tools. Greatly increased drilling rates are attained due to jet nozzle geometry and speed of rotation. The jet nozzle design has two orifices, one pointing axially ahead in the direction of travel and the second inclined at an angle of approximately 30.degree. from the axis. The two orifices have diameters in the ratio of approximately 1:2. Liquid jet velocities in excess of 1,000 ft/sec are used, and the nozzle is rotated at speeds up to 1,000 rpm and higher.

  3. Rock failure analysis by combined thermal weakening and water jet impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of preheating on the initiation of fracture in rocks subjected to the impingement of a continuous water jet is studied. Preheating the rock is assumed to degrade its mechanical properties and strength in accordance with existing experimental data. The water jet is assumed to place a quasi-static loading on the surface of the rock. The loading is approximated by elementary functions which permit analytic computation of the induced stresses in a rock half-space. The resulting stresses are subsequently coupled with the Griffith criteria for tensile failure to estimate the change, due to heating, in the critical stagnation pressure and velocity of the water jet required to cause failure in the rock.

  4. Machining of Aircraft Titanium with Abrasive-Waterjets for Fatigue Critical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H. T.; Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E.

    2012-02-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the fatigue performance of abrasive-waterjet- (AWJ-) machined aircraft titanium. Dog-bone specimens machined with AWJs were prepared and tested with and without sanding and dry-grit blasting with Al2O3 as secondary processes. The secondary processes were applied to remove the visual appearance of AWJ-generated striations and to clean up the garnet embedment. The fatigue performance of AWJ-machined specimens was compared with baseline specimens machined with CNC milling. Fatigue test results of the titanium specimens not only confirmed our previous findings in aluminum dog-bone specimens but in comparison also further enhanced the fatigue performance of the titanium.more » In addition, titanium is known to be difficult to cut, particularly for thick parts, however AWJs cut the material 34% faster han stainless steel. AWJ cutting and dry-grit blasting are shown to be a preferred ombination for processing aircraft titanium that is fatigue critical.« less

  5. Continuous Monitoring of Pin Tip Wear and Penetration into Rock Surface Using a New Cerchar Abrasivity Testing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzaban, Mohammad-Taghi; Memarian, Hossein; Rostami, Jamal

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of rock abrasivity is important when utilizing mechanized excavation in various mining and civil projects in hard rock. This is due to the need for proper selection of the rock cutting tools, estimation of the tool wear, machine downtime for cutter change, and costs. The Cerchar Abrasion Index (CAI) test is one of the simplest and most widely used methods for evaluating rock abrasivity. In this study, a new device for the determination of frictional forces and depth of pin penetration into the rock surface during a Cerchar test is discussed. The measured parameters were used to develop an analytical model for calculation of the size of the wear flat (and hence a continuous measure of CAI as the pin moves over the sample) and pin tip penetration into the rock during the test. Based on this model, continuous curves of CAI changes and pin tip penetration into the rock were plotted. Results of the model were used for introduction of a new parameter describing rock-pin interaction and classification of rock abrasion.

  6. Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  7. Contributions of Nanodiamond Abrasives and Deionized Water in Magnetorheological Finishing of Aluminum Oxynitride

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, C.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Romanofsky, H.

    2010-01-13

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a sub-aperture deterministic process for fabricating high-precision optics by removing material and smoothing the surface. The goal of this work is to study the relative contribution of nanodiamonds and water in material removal for MRF of aluminum oxynitride ceramic (ALON) based upon a nonaqueous magnetorheological (MR) fluid. Removal was enhanced by a high carbonyl iron concentration and the addition of nanodiamond abrasives. Small amounts of deionized (DI) water were introduced into the nonaqueous MR fluid to further influence the material removal process. Material removal data were collected with a spot-taking machine. Drag force (Fd) and normalmore » force (Fn) before and after adding nanodiamonds or DI water were measured with a dual load cell. Both drag force and normal force were insensitive to the addition of nanodiamonds but increased with DI water content in the nonaqueous MR fluid. Shear stress (i.e., drag force divided by spot area) was calculated, and examined as a function of nanodiamond concentration and DI water concentration. Volumetric removal rate increased with increasing shear stress, which was shown to be a result of increasing viscosity after adding nanodiamonds and DI water. This work demonstrates that removal rate for a hard ceramic with MRF can be enhanced by adding DI water into a nonaqueous MR fluid.« less

  8. Contributions of nanodiamond abrasives and deionized water in magnetorheological finishing of aluminum oxynitriden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Chunlin; Lambropoulos, John C.; Romanofsky, Henry; Shafrir, Shai N.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2009-08-01

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a sub-aperture deterministic process for fabricating high-precision optics by removing material and smoothing the surface. The goal of this work is to study the relative contribution of nanodiamonds and water in material removal for MRF of aluminum oxynitride ceramic (ALON) based upon a nonaqueous magnetorheological (MR) fluid. Removal was enhanced by a high carbonyl iron concentration and the addition of nanodiamond abrasives. Small amounts of deionized (DI) water were introduced into the nonaqueous MR fluid to further influence the material removal process. Material removal data were collected with a spot-taking machine. Drag force (Fd) and normal force (Fn) before and after adding nanodiamonds or DI water were measured with a dual load cell. Both drag force and normal force were insensitive to the addition of nanodiamonds but increased with DI water content in the nonaqueous MR fluid. Shear stress (i.e., drag force divided by spot area) was calculated, and examined as a function of nanodiamond concentration and DI water concentration. Volumetric removal rate increased with increasing shear stress, which was shown to be a result of increasing viscosity after adding nanodiamonds and DI water. This work demonstrates that removal rate for a hard ceramic with MRF can be enhanced by adding DI water into a nonaqueous MR fluid.

  9. Abrasion of acrylic veneers by simulated toothbrushing.

    PubMed

    Xu, H C; Söremark, R; Wiktorsson, G; Wang, T; Liu, W Y

    1984-12-01

    The abrasion responses were tested on four acrylic veneer materials, K + B Plus, K + B 75, Isosit, and Ivocron. The studies were performed in two independent research laboratories. Two different brushing machines were used with an abrasive slurry. The results were used for comparing the degree of abrasion for the resin materials. Three analytical methods of measuring the degree of abrasive wear were used: surface profile measurement, microscopic evaluation, and measurement of loss of volume. Isosit showed the best abrasion resistance of the four materials tested.

  10. Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  11. An epidemiologic approach to toothbrushing and dental abrasion.

    PubMed

    Bergström, J; Lavstedt, S

    1979-02-01

    Abrasion lesions were recorded in 818 individuals representing the adult population of 430,000 residents of the Stockholm region, Sweden. The subjects were asked about toothbrushing habits, toothbrush quality and dentifrice usage; these factors were related to abrasion criteria. Abrasion was prevalent in 30% and wedge-like or deep depressions were observed in 12%. The relationship between abrasion and toothbrushing was evident, the prevalence and severity of abrasion being correlated to toothbrushing consumption. The importance of the toothbrushing technique for the development of abrasion lesions was elucidated. Horizontal brushing technique was strongly correlated to abrasion. It was demonstrated by treating the data with the statistical AID analysis that toothbrushing factors related to the individual (brushing frequency and brushing technique) exert a greater influence than material-oriented toothbrushing factor such as dentifrice abrasivity and bristle stiffness.

  12. Dentin abrasivity of various desensitizing toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W H; Gröger, Ch; Bizhang, M; Naumova, E A

    2016-04-02

    The aim of this study was to compare the abrasivity of various commercially available toothpastes that claim to reduce dentin hypersensitivity. Dentin discs were prepared from 70 human extracted molars. The discs were etched with lemon juice for 5 min, and one half of the discs were covered with aluminum tape. Following this, they were brushed with 6 different toothpastes, simulating a total brushing time of 6 months. As a negative control, discs were brushed with tap water only. The toothpastes contained pro-arginine and calcium carbonate, strontium acetate, stannous fluoride, zinc carbonate and hydroxyapatite, new silica, or tetrapotassium pyrophosphate and hydroxyapatite. After brushing, the height differences between the control halves and the brushed halves were determined with a profilometer and statistically compared using a Mann-Whitney U test for independent variables. A significant difference (p < 0.001) in height difference between the controls and the toothpaste-treated samples was found in all cases, except for the stannous fluoride-containing toothpaste (p = 0.583). The highest abrasion was found in the toothpaste containing zinc carbonate and hydroxyapatite, and the lowest was found in the toothpaste containing pro-arginine and calcium carbonate. Desensitizing toothpastes with different desensitizing ingredients have different levels of abrasivity, which may have a negative effect on their desensitizing abilities over a long period of time.

  13. Combination of water-jet dissection and needle-knife as a hybrid knife simplifies endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Lingenfelder, Tobias; Fischer, Klaus; Sold, Moritz G; Post, Stefan; Enderle, Markus D; Kaehler, Georg F B A

    2009-07-01

    The safety and efficacy of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is very dependent on an effective injection beneath the submucosal lamina and on a controlled cutting technique. After our study group demonstrated the efficacy of the HydroJet in needleless submucosal injections under various physical conditions to create a submucosal fluid cushion (Selective tissue elevation by pressure = STEP technique), the next step was to develop a new instrument to combine the capabilities of an IT-Knife with a high-pressure water-jet in a single instrument. In this experimental study, we compared this new instrument with a standard ESD technique. Twelve gastric ESD were performed in six pigs under endotracheal anesthesia. Square areas measuring 4-cm x 4-cm were marked out on the anterior and posterior wall in the corpus-antrum transition region. The HybridKnife was used as an standard needle knife with insulated tip (i.e., the submucosal injection was performed with an injection needle and only the radiofrequency (RF) part of the HybridKnife was used for cutting (conventional technique)) or the HybridKnife was used in all the individual stages of the ESD, making use of the HybridKnife's combined functions (HybridKnife technique). The size of the resected specimens, the operating time, the frequency with which instruments were changed, the number of bleeding episodes, and the number of injuries to the gastric wall together with the subjective overall assessment of the intervention by the operating physician were recorded. The resected specimens were the same size, with average sizes of 16.96 cm(2) and 15.85 cm(2) resp (p = 0.8125). Bleeding episodes have been less frequent in the HybridKnife group (2.83 vs. 3.5; p = 0.5625). The standard knife caused more injuries to the lamina muscularis propria (0.17 vs. 1.33; p = 0.0313). The operating times had a tendency to be shorter with the HybridKnife technique (47.18 vs. 58.32 minute; p = 0.0313). The combination of a needle

  14. Slice-push, formation of grooves and the scale effect in cutting.

    PubMed

    Atkins, A G

    2016-06-06

    Three separate aspects of cutting are investigated which complement other papers on the mechanics of separation processes presented at this interdisciplinary Theo Murphy meeting. They apply in all types of cutting whether blades are sharp or blunt, and whether the material being cut is 'hard, stiff and strong' or 'soft, compliant and weak'. The first topic discusses why it is easier to cut when there is motion along (parallel to) the blade as well motion across (perpendicular to) the cutting edge, and the analysis is applied to optimization of blade geometries to produce minimum cutting forces and hence minimum damage to cut surfaces. The second topic concerns cutting with more than one edge with particular application to the formation of grooves in surfaces by hard pointed tools. The mechanics are investigated and applied to the topic of abrasive wear by hard particles. Traditional analyses say that abrasive wear resistance increases monotonically with the hardness of the workpiece, but we show that the fracture toughness of the surface material is also important, and that behaviour is determined by the toughness-to-hardness ratio rather than hardness alone. Scaling forms the third subject. As cutting is a branch of elasto-plastic fracture mechanics, cube-square energy scaling applies in which the important length scale is (ER/k (2)), where E is Young's modulus, R is the fracture toughness and k is the shear yield strength. Whether, in cutting, material is removed as ductile ribbons, as semi-ductile discontinuous chips, or by brittle 'knocking lumps out' is shown to depend on the depth of cut relative to this characteristic length parameter. Scaling in biology is called allometry and its relationship with engineering scaling is discussed. Some speculative predictions are made in relation to the action of teeth on food.

  15. Study of the Productivity and Surface Quality of Hybrid EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankhade, Sandeepkumar Haribhau; Sharma, Sunil Bansilal

    2016-01-01

    The development of new, advanced engineering materials and the need for precise prototypes and low-volume production have made the electric discharge machining (EDM), an important manufacturing process to meet such demands. It is capable of machining geometrically complex and hard material components, that are precise and difficult-to-machine such as heat treated tool steels, composites, super alloys, ceramics, carbides etc. Conversely the low MRR limits its productivity. Abrasive water jet machine (AJM) tools are quick to setup and offer quick turn-around on the machine and could make parts out of virtually any material. They do not heat the material hence no heat affected zone and can make any intricate shape easily. The main advantages are flexibility, low heat production and ability to machine hard and brittle materials. Main disadvantages comprise the process produces a tapered cut and health hazards due to dry abrasives. To overcome the limitations and exploit the best of each of above processes; an attempt has been made to hybridize the processes of AJM and EDM. The appropriate abrasives routed with compressed air through the hollow electrode to construct the hybrid process i.e., abrasive jet electric discharge machining (AJEDM), the high speed abrasives could impinge on the machined surface to remove the recast layer caused by EDM process. The main process parameters were varied to explore their effects and experimental results show that AJEDM enhances the machining efficiency with better surface finish hence can fit the requirements of modern manufacturing applications.

  16. Controls on wind abrasion patterns through a fractured bedrock landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, J. P.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Wind abrasion is an important geomorphic process for understanding arid landscape evolution on Earth and interpreting the post-fluvial history of Mars. Both the presence and orientation of wind-abraded landforms provide potentially important constraints on paleo-climatic conditions; however, such interpretations can be complicated by lithologic and structural heterogeneity. To explore the influence of pre-existing structure on wind abrasion, we exploit a natural experiment along the 10.2 Ma Lower Rio San Pedro ignimbrite in northern Chile. Here, a 3.2 Ma andesite flow erupted from Cerro de las Cuevas and deposited atop the ignimbrite, supplying wind-transportable sediment and initiating a phase of downwind abrasion. Additionally, the lava flow provides a continually varying degree of upwind topographic shielding along the ignimbrite that is reflected in a range of surface morphologies. Where fully shielded the ignimbrite surface is partially blanketed by sediment. However, as relief decreases the surface morphology shifts from large polygonal structures that emerge due to the concentration of wind abrasion along pre-existing fracture sets, to polygons that are bisected by wind-parallel grooves that cross-cut fracture sets, to linear sets of yardangs. We reconstruct the ignimbrite surface using a high-resolution digital elevation model, and calculate erosion rates ranging from 0.002 to 0.45 mm/kyr that vary strongly with degree of topographic shielding (R2 = 0.97). We use measured abrasion rates together with nearby weather station data to estimate the nondimensional Rouse number and Inertial Parameter for a range of particle sizes. From these calculations, we hypothesize that the change from fracture-controlled to flow-controlled morphology reflects increases in the grain size and inertia of particles in the suspension cloud. Where the ignimbrite experiences persistent high winds, large particles may travel in suspension and are largely insensitive to topographic

  17. Achieving Small Structures in Thin NiTi Sheets for Medical Applications with Water Jet and Micro Machining: A Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frotscher, M.; Kahleyss, F.; Simon, T.; Biermann, D.; Eggeler, G.

    2011-07-01

    NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) are used for a variety of applications including medical implants and tools as well as actuators, making use of their unique properties. However, due to the hardness and strength, in combination with the high elasticity of the material, the machining of components can be challenging. The most common machining techniques used today are laser cutting and electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this study, we report on the machining of small structures into binary NiTi sheets, applying alternative processing methods being well-established for other metallic materials. Our results indicate that water jet machining and micro milling can be used to machine delicate structures, even in very thin NiTi sheets. Further work is required to optimize the cut quality and the machining speed in order to increase the cost-effectiveness and to make both methods more competitive.

  18. Unsteady penetration of a target by a liquid jet

    PubMed Central

    Uth, Tobias; Deshpande, Vikram S.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that ceramic armor experiences an unsteady penetration response: an impacting projectile may erode on the surface of a ceramic target without substantial penetration for a significant amount of time and then suddenly start to penetrate the target. Although known for more than four decades, this phenomenon, commonly referred to as dwell, remains largely unexplained. Here, we use scaled analog experiments with a low-speed water jet and a soft, translucent target material to investigate dwell. The transient target response, in terms of depth of penetration and impact force, is captured using a high-speed camera in combination with a piezoelectric force sensor. We observe the phenomenon of dwell using a soft (noncracking) target material. The results show that the penetration rate increases when the flow of the impacting water jet is reversed due to the deformation of the jet–target interface––this reversal is also associated with an increase in the force exerted by the jet on the target. Creep penetration experiments with a constant indentation force did not show an increase in the penetration rate, confirming that flow reversal is the cause of the unsteady penetration rate. Our results suggest that dwell can occur in a ductile noncracking target due to flow reversal. This phenomenon of flow reversal is rather widespread and present in a wide range of impact situations, including water-jet cutting, needleless injection, and deposit removal via a fluid jet. PMID:24277818

  19. Study on design of light-weight super-abrasive wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, K.; Yanagihara, K.; Ogawa, M.

    2018-01-01

    Fixed-abrasive tool, also called a grinding wheel, is produced by furnacing abrasive compound which contains abrasive grains and binding powder such as vitrified materials or resins. Fixed-abrasive tool is installed on spindle of grinding machine. And it is given 1,800-2,000 min-1 of spindle rotation for the usage. The centrifugal fracture of the compound of fixed- abrasive tool is one of the careful respects in designing. In recent years, however, super-abrasive wheel as a fixed-abrasive tool has been developed and applied widely. One of the most characteristic respects is that metal is applied for the body of grinding-wheel. The strength to hold abrasive grain and the rigidity of wheel become stronger than those of general grinding wheel, also the lifespan of fixed-abrasive tool becomes longer. The weight of fixed-abrasive tool, however, becomes heavier. Therefore, when the super-abrasive wheel is used, the power consumption of spindle motor becomes larger. It also becomes difficult for the grinding-wheel to respond to sudden acceleration or deceleration. Thus, in order to reduce power consumption in grinding and to obtain quicker frequency response of super-abrasive wheel, the new wheel design is proposed. The design accomplishes 46% weight reduction. Acceleration that is one second quicker than that of conventional grinding wheel is obtained.

  20. Comparison between the water activation effects by pulsed and sinusoidal helium plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Han; Liu, Dingxin; Xia, Wenjie; Chen, Chen; Wang, Weitao; Liu, Zhijie; Wang, Xiaohua; Kong, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    Comparisons between pulsed and sinusoidal plasma jets have been extensively reported for the discharge characteristics and gaseous reactive species, but rarely for the aqueous reactive species in water solutions treated by the two types of plasma jets. This motivates us to compare the concentrations of aqueous reactive species induced by a pulsed and a sinusoidal plasma jet, since it is widely reported that these aqueous reactive species play a crucial role in various plasma biomedical applications. Experimental results show that the aqueous H2O2, OH/O2-, and O2-/ONOO- induced by the pulsed plasma jet have higher concentrations, and the proportional difference increases with the discharge power. However, the emission intensities of OH(A) and O(3p5P) are higher for the sinusoidal plasma jet, which may be attributed to its higher gas temperature since more water vapor could participate in the plasma. In addition, the efficiency of bacterial inactivation induced by the pulsed plasma jet is higher than that for the sinusoidal plasma jet, in accordance with the concentration relation of aqueous reactive species for the two types of plasma jets.

  1. Finishing of display glass for mobile electronics using 3M Trizact diamond tile abrasive pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lianbin; Fletcher, Tim; Na, Tee Koon; Sventek, Bruce; Romero, Vince; Lugg, Paul S.; Kim, Don

    2010-10-01

    This paper will describe a new method being used during the finishing of glass displays for mobile electronics including mobile hand held devices and notebook computers. The new method consists of using 3M TrizactTM Diamond Tile Abrasive Pads. TrizactTM Diamond Tile is a structured fixed abrasive grinding technology developed by 3M Company. The TrizactTM Diamond Tile structured abrasive pad consists of an organic (polymeric binder) - inorganic (abrasive mineral, i.e., diamond) composite that is used with a water-based coolant. TrizactTM Diamond Tile technology can be applied in both double and single side grinding applications. A unique advantage of TrizactTM Diamond Tile technology is the combination of high stock removal and low sub-surface damage. Grinding results will be presented for both 9 micron and 20 micron grades of TrizactTM Diamond Tile abrasive pads used to finish several common display glasses including Corning GorillaTM glass and Soda Lime glass.

  2. Quality factors, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties of jet-tube dried rabbiteye blueberries.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Laura A; Pegg, Ronald B; Kerr, William L

    2013-06-01

    Rabbiteye blueberries are an excellent source of nutrients and phytochemicals. They are often dried, which can degrade health-promoting compounds. Means of shortening exposure to high-temperature drying air are desirable. Five cultivars of rabbiteye blueberries ('Premier', 'Tifblue', 'Brightwell', 'Alapaha', and 'Powderblue') were dried in a jet-tube fluidized bed air dryer with varying pretreatments including mechanical abrasion and osmotic dehydration. Drying time ranged from 66 to 95 min at 107 °C, achieving a final water activity of 0.347-0.605. Prior osmotic dehydration significantly reduced the drying time. Vacuum osmotic dehydration for 70 min achieved similar moisture contents to soaking blueberries for 24 h. Jet-tube dried blueberries exhibited greater color saturation than commercially available blueberries. While drying reduced the total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) content, this occurred to a lesser extent than by other processing methods. The total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (H-ORACFL values) increased after drying. 'Premier' was the most preferred vacuum-infused dried blueberry, with a water activity (aw) of 0.53 and 157 g H2O kg(-1). 'Tifblue' was most preferred amongst the overnight-infused and also unsweetened dried blueberries. Jet-tube drying can substantially reduce drying times while yielding blueberries with good color, sensory properties, TMA, TPC, and H-ORACFL values. Furthermore, some cultivars produce better-quality dried blueberries than others. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Corneal Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the doctor looks at the eye under a light that is filtered cobalt blue. The fluorescein causes the abrasion to glow bright green under the light. The doctor also might do a standard ophthalmic ...

  4. Surface assessment and modification of concrete using abrasive blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millman, Lauren R.

    Composite systems are applied to concrete substrates to strengthen and extend the service life. Successful restoration or rehabilitation requires surface preparation prior to the application of the overlay. Surface coatings, waterproofing systems, and other external surface applications also require surface preparation prior to application. Abrasive blast media is often used to clean and uniformly roughen the substrate. The appropriate surface roughness is necessary to facilitate a strong bond between the existing substrate and overlay. Thus, surface modification using abrasive blast media (sand and dry ice), their respective environmental effects, surface roughness characterization prior to and after blasting, and the adhesion between the substrate and overlay are the focus of this dissertation. This dissertation is comprised of an introduction, a literature review, and four chapters, the first of which addresses the environmental effects due to abrasive blasting using sand, water, and dry ice. The assessment considered four response variables: carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel and energy consumption, and project duration. The results indicated that for sand blasting and water jetting, the primary factor contributing to environmental detriment was CO22 emissions from vehicular traffic near the construction site. The second chapter is an analysis of the International Concrete Repair Institute's (ICRI) concrete surface profiles (CSPs) using 3-D optical profilometry. The primary objective was to evaluate the suitability of approximating the 3-D surface (areal) parameters with those extracted from 2-D (linear) profiles. Four profile directions were considered: two diagonals, and lines parallel and transverse to the longitudinal direction of the mold. For any CSP mold, the estimation of the 3-D surface roughness using a 2-D linear profile resulted in underestimation and overestimation errors exceeding 50%, demonstrating the inadequacy of 2-D linear profiles to

  5. Propagation of Southern Red Oak and Water Oak by Rooted Cuttings

    Treesearch

    Horace J. Duncan; Fred R. Matthews

    1969-01-01

    Southern red oak and water oak, needed in studies of fusiform rust of southern pines, were propagated from cuttings of rooted stump sprouts and mature tree branches placed in outdoor propagation beds in June. Root strike and root development were increased when cuttings with basal wounds were treated with both the hormone IBA and the fungicide folpet. Cuttings from...

  6. Transient response of Salix cuttings to changing water level regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorla, L.; Signarbieux, C.; Turberg, P.; Buttler, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable water management requires an understanding of the effects of flow regulation on riparian ecomorphological processes. We investigated the transient response of Salix viminalis by examining the effect of water-level regimes on its above-ground and below-ground biomass. Four sets of Salix cuttings, three juveniles (in the first growing season) and one mature (1 year old), were planted and initially grown under the same water-level regime for 1 month. We imposed three different water-level regime treatments representing natural variability, a seasonal trend with no peaks, and minimal flow (characteristic of hydropower) consisting of a constant water level and natural flood peaks. We measured sap flux, stem water potential, photosynthesis, growth parameters, and final root architecture. The mature cuttings were not affected by water table dynamics, but the juveniles displayed causal relationships between the changing water regime, plant growth, and root distribution during a 2 month transient period. For example, a 50% drop in mean sap flux corresponded with a -1.5 Mpa decrease in leaf water potential during the first day after the water regime was changed. In agreement with published field observations, the cuttings concentrated their roots close to the mean water table of the corresponding treatment, allowing survival under altered conditions and resilience to successive stress events. Juvenile development was strongly impacted by the minimum flow regime, leading to more than 60% reduction of both above-ground and below-ground biomass, with respect to the other treatments. Hence, we suggest avoiding minimum flow regimes where Salix restoration is prioritized.

  7. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Gorin, A.H.; Seals, R.D.

    1994-11-22

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  8. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Gorin, Andrew H.; Seals, Roland D.

    1994-01-01

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  9. Three-Body Abrasion Testing Using Lunar Dust Simulants to Evaluate Surface System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Budinski, Kenneth G.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Klaus, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous unexpected operational issues relating to the abrasive nature of lunar dust, such as scratched visors and spacesuit pressure seal leaks, were encountered during the Apollo missions. To avoid reoccurrence of these unexpected detrimental equipment problems on future missions to the Moon, a series of two- and three-body abrasion tests were developed and conducted in order to begin rigorously characterizing the effect of lunar dust abrasiveness on candidate surface system materials. Two-body scratch tests were initially performed to examine fundamental interactions of a single particle on a flat surface. These simple and robust tests were used to establish standardized measurement techniques for quantifying controlled volumetric wear. Subsequent efforts described in the paper involved three-body abrasion testing designed to be more representative of actual lunar interactions. For these tests, a new tribotester was developed to expose samples to a variety of industrial abrasives and lunar simulants. The work discussed in this paper describes the three-body hardware setup consisting of a rotating rubber wheel that applies a load on a specimen as a loose abrasive is fed into the system. The test methodology is based on ASTM International (ASTM) B611, except it does not mix water with the abrasive. All tests were run under identical conditions. Abraded material specimens included poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), hardened 1045 steel, 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and 1018 steel. Abrasives included lunar mare simulant JSC- 1A-F (nominal size distribution), sieved JSC-1A-F (<25 m particle diameter), lunar highland simulant NU-LHT-2M, alumina (average diameter of 50 m used per ASTM G76), and silica (50/70 mesh used per ASTM G65). The measured mass loss from each specimen was converted using standard densities to determine total wear volume in cm3. Abrasion was dominated by the alumina and the simulants were only similar to the silica (i.e., sand) on the softer materials of

  10. Stratospheric areal distribution of water vapor burden and the jet stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Magaziner, E.; Stearns, L. P.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometrically inferred areal observations of the atmospheric water vapor burden have been made in the 270 to 520 per cm spectral band over western U.S. and the extreme eastern Pacific from the NASA C-141 Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Before this, very few observations from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over such a broad area have been made. A total of 30,600 individual observations from eight separate synoptic situations involving eight jet maxima were computer-averaged over 2-deg latitude x 2-deg longitude boxes and related to the polar continental jet. Mean water vapor burdens ranged from 0.00046 to 0.00143 g per sq cm at 13.4 km with a striking peak just north of the jet wind maximum over a region of strong upward vertical motion.

  11. Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  12. Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with attention to the effects of reused abradant

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Dehoff, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    Abrasive wear is among the most common and costliest causes for material wastage, and it occurs in many forms. A simple method has been developed to quantify the response of metals and alloys to two-body wet abrasion. A metallographic polishing machine was modified to create a disk-on-flat sliding test rig. Adhesive-backed SiC grinding papers were used under fixed load and speed to rank the abrasive wear of seven alloy steels, some of which are candidates for drill cones for geothermal drilling. Standardized two-body abrasion tests, like those described in ASTM G132, feed unused abrasive into the contact; however, the currentmore » work investigated whether useful rankings could still be obtained with a simpler testing configuration in which specimens repeatedly slide on the same wear path under water-lubricated conditions. Tests using abrasive grit sizes of 120 and 180 resulted in the same relative ranking of the alloys although the coarser grit produced more total wear. Wear decreased when the same abrasive disk was re-used for up to five runs, but the relative rankings of the steels remained the same. This procedure was presented to ASTM Committee G2 on Wear and Erosion as a potential standard test for wet two-body abrasive wear.« less

  13. Abrasion by aeolian particles: Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Marshall, J. R.; White, B. R.; Pollack, J. B.; Marshall, J.; Krinsley, D.

    1984-01-01

    Estimation of the rate of aeolian abrasion of rocks on Mars requires knowledge of: (1) particle flux, (2) susceptibilities to abrasion of various rocks, and (3) wind frequencies on Mars. Fluxes and susceptibilities for a wide range of conditions were obtained in the laboratory and combined with wind data from the Viking meteorology experiment. Assuming an abundant supply of sand-sized particles, estimated rates range up to 2.1 x 10 to the minus 2 power cm of abrasion per year in the vicinity of Viking Lander 1. This rate is orders of magnitude too great to be in agreement with the inferred age of the surface based on models of impact crater flux. The discrepancy in the estimated rate of abrasion and the presumed old age of the surface cannot be explained easily by changes in climate or exhumation of ancient surfaces. The primary reason is thought to be related to the agents of abrasion. At least some sand-sized (approx. 100 micrometers) grains appear to be present, as inferred from both lander and orbiter observations. High rates of abrasion occur for all experimental cases involving sands of quartz, basalt, or ash. However, previous studies have shown that sand is quickly comminuted to silt- and clay-sized grains in the martian aeolian regime. Experiments also show that these fine grains are electrostatically charged and bond together as sand-sized aggregates. Laboratory simulations of wind abrasion involving aggregates show that at impact velocities capable of destroying sand, aggregates from a protective veneer on the target surface and can give rise to extremely low abrasion rates.

  14. The effect of microstructure on abrasive wear of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kešner, A.; Chotëborský, R.; Linda, M.

    2017-09-01

    Abrasive wear of agricultural tools is one of the biggest problems in currently being. The amount of abrasive wear, depending on the microstructure, has been investigated in this work. Steels 25CrMo4 and 51CrV4 were used in this work to determine the effect of the microstructure on the abrasive wear. These steels are commonly used for components that have to withstand abrasive wear.SEM analysis was used to detect the microstructure. The standardized ASTM G65 method was used to compare the abrasive wear of steels. The results show that the abrasive wear depends on the microstructure of steels.

  15. Cracking of porcelain surfaces arising from abrasive grinding with a dental air turbine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chee W; Waddell, J Neil; Lyons, Karl M; Swain, Michael V

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate porcelain cracking induced by abrasive grinding with a conventional dental air turbine and abrasive diamond burs. Four commercially available porcelains were examined-Wieland ALLUX, Wieland ZIROX, IPS e.max Ceram, and IPS Empress Esthetic Veneering porcelain. Sixty discs of each porcelain type were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions, followed by an auto-glaze cycle. Abrasive grinding using fine, extra-fine, and ultra-fine diamond burs was carried out, using a conventional dental air turbine. The grinding parameters were standardized with regard to the magnitude of the force applied, rotational speed of the diamond bur, and flow rate of the water coolant. A testing apparatus was used to control the magnitude of force applied during the grinding procedure. The ground surfaces were then examined under scanning electron microscope. Cracking was seen for all porcelain types when ground with the fine bur. Cracking was not seen for specimens ground with the extra-fine or the ultra-fine bur. Wet abrasive grinding with a conventional dental air turbine and fine grit diamond burs has the potential to cause cracking in the four porcelain types tested. Similar abrasive grinding with smaller grit size particles does not cause similar observable cracking. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  17. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  18. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  19. Enhancement Of Water-Jet Stripping Of Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosby, Steven A.; Shockney, Charles H.; Bates, Keith E.; Shalala, John P.; Daniels, Larry S.

    1995-01-01

    Improved robotic high-pressure-water-jet system strips foam insulation from parts without removing adjacent coating materials like paints, primers, and sealants. Even injects water into crevices and blind holes to clean out foam, without harming adjacent areas. Eliminates both cost of full stripping and recoating and problem of disposing of toxic solutions used in preparation for coating. Developed for postflight refurbishing of aft skirts of booster rockets. System includes six-axis robot provided with special end effector and specially written control software, called Aftfoam. Adaptable to cleaning and stripping in other industrial settings.

  20. Exposure to crystalline silica in abrasive blasting operations where silica and non-silica abrasives are used.

    PubMed

    Radnoff, Diane L; Kutz, Michelle K

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to respirable crystalline silica is a hazard common to many industries in Alberta but particularly so in abrasive blasting. Alberta occupational health and safety legislation requires the consideration of silica substitutes when conducting abrasive blasting, where reasonably practicable. In this study, exposure to crystalline silica during abrasive blasting was evaluated when both silica and non-silica products were used. The crystalline silica content of non-silica abrasives was also measured. The facilities evaluated were preparing metal products for the application of coatings, so the substrate should not have had a significant contribution to worker exposure to crystalline silica. The occupational sampling results indicate that two-thirds of the workers assessed were potentially over-exposed to respirable crystalline silica. About one-third of the measurements over the exposure limit were at the work sites using silica substitutes at the time of the assessment. The use of the silica substitute, by itself, did not appear to have a large effect on the mean airborne exposure levels. There are a number of factors that may contribute to over-exposures, including the isolation of the blasting area, housekeeping, and inappropriate use of respiratory protective equipment. However, the non-silica abrasives themselves also contain silica. Bulk analysis results for non-silica abrasives commercially available in Alberta indicate that many contain crystalline silica above the legislated disclosure limit of 0.1% weight of silica per weight of product (w/w) and this information may not be accurately disclosed on the material safety data sheet for the product. The employer may still have to evaluate the potential for exposure to crystalline silica at their work site, even when silica substitutes are used. Limited tests on recycled non-silica abrasive indicated that the silica content had increased. Further study is required to evaluate the impact of product recycling

  1. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjun; Li, Haoyu; Liu, Xingbin; Zhang, Yuhui; Xie, Ronghua; Huang, Chunhui; Hu, Jinhai; Deng, Gang

    2016-10-14

    First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5-60 m³/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2-60 m³/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  2. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanjun; Li, Haoyu; Liu, Xingbin; Zhang, Yuhui; Xie, Ronghua; Huang, Chunhui; Hu, Jinhai; Deng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow. PMID:27754412

  3. Engineering control technologies to reduce occupational silica exposures in masonry cutting and tuckpointing.

    PubMed

    Meeker, John D; Cooper, Michael R; Lefkowitz, Daniel; Susi, Pam

    2009-01-01

    A number of tasks in construction generate worker overexposures to respirable crystalline silica dust, which is a significant contributor to occupational mortality and morbidity. This study evaluated the performance of commercially available engineering controls used in dusty construction tasks commonly performed by bricklayers. Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) controls for a portable abrasive cutter and for tuckpointing grinders were examined at a bricklayers' training center, as were two stationary wet saws. Personal breathing zone air samples were collected with and without the use of LEV or water suppression during simulated concrete block cutting, brick cutting, and tuckpointing. Compared with the use of no exposure control during block and brick cutting, the portable LEV unit significantly reduced mean respirable quartz exposures by 96% for block cutting and 91% for brick cutting (p < 0.01). The use of stationary wet saws was also associated with 91% reductions in exposure (p < 0.01). For tuckpointing, the reductions in mean respirable quartz concentrations were between 91% and 93% with the LEV controls (p < 0.05). Reductions of up to 96% in mean respirable quartz concentration were observed between control and no-control scenarios. These reductions with commercially available off-the-shelf tools demonstrate the effectiveness of engineering control interventions to reduce crystalline silica exposures in construction. Strategies to further improve control performance and approaches for increasing control interventions in construction are needed.

  4. Water Jets from Bottles, Buckets, Barrels, and Vases with Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopac, Vjera

    2015-03-01

    Observation of the water jets flowing from three equidistant holes on the side of a vertical cylindrical bottle is an interesting and widely used didactical experiment illustrating the laws of fluids in motion. In this paper we analyze theoretically and numerically the ranges of the stationary water jets flowing from various rotationally symmetric vessels with holes, and their dependence on the height of the holes above the bottom, on thickness of the block supporting the vessel, and on different shapes of the vessel profile. This investigation was motivated by controversial descriptions and illustrations repeatedly found in physics textbooks and by the fact that previously in the physics teaching literature only the cylindrical vessel was treated.

  5. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  6. Modeling of the Enceladus water vapor jets for interpreting UVIS star and solar occultation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portyankina, Ganna; Esposito, Larry W.; Aye, Klaus-Michael; Hansen, Candice J.

    2015-11-01

    One of the most spectacular discoveries of the Cassini mission is jets emitting from the southern pole of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. The composition of the jets is water vapor and salty ice grains with traces of organic compounds. Jets, merging into a wide plume at a distance, are observed by multiple instruments on Cassini. Recent observations of the visible dust plume by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) identified as many as 98 jet sources located along “tiger stripes” [Porco et al. 2014]. There is a recent controversy on the question if some of these jets are “optical illusion” caused by geometrical overlap of continuous source eruptions along the “tiger stripes” in the field of view of ISS [Spitale et al. 2015]. The Cassini’s Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed occultations of several stars and the Sun by the water vapor plume of Enceladus. During the solar occultation separate collimated gas jets were detected inside the background plume [Hansen et al., 2006 and 2011]. These observations directly provide data about water vapor column densities along the line of sight of the UVIS instrument and could help distinguish between the presence of only localized or also continuous sources. We use Monte Carlo simulations and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to model the plume of Enceladus with multiple (or continuous) jet sources. The models account for molecular collisions, gravitational and Coriolis forces. The models result in the 3-D distribution of water vapor density and surface deposition patterns. Comparison between the simulation results and column densities derived from UVIS observations provide constraints on the physical characteristics of the plume and jets. The specific geometry of the UVIS observations helps to estimate the production rates and velocity distribution of the water molecules emitted by the individual jets.Hansen, C. J. et al., Science 311:1422-1425 (2006); Hansen, C. J. et al, GRL 38:L11202 (2011

  7. Radiated Sound of a High-Speed Water-Jet-Propelled Transportation Vessel.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Alexis B; Richlen, Michael F; Stimpert, Alison K; Au, Whitlow W L

    2016-01-01

    The radiated noise from a high-speed water-jet-propelled catamaran was measured for catamaran speeds of 12, 24, and 37 kn. The radiated noise increased with catamaran speed, although the shape of the noise spectrum was similar for all speeds and measuring hydrophone depth. The spectra peaked at ~200 Hz and dropped off continuously at higher frequencies. The radiated noise was 10-20 dB lower than noise from propeller-driven ships at comparable speeds. The combination of low radiated noise and high speed could be a factor in the detection and avoidance of water-jet-propelled ships by baleen whales.

  8. Characterization of fine abrasive particles for optical fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funkenbusch, Paul D.; Zhou, Y. Y.; Takahashi, Toshio; Quesnel, David J.; Lambropoulos, John C.

    1995-08-01

    Material removal during fine grinding operations is accomplished primarily by the action of individual abrasive particles on the glass surface. The mechanical properties of the abrasive are therefore important. Unfortunately it is difficult to directly measure the mechanical response of abrasives once they reach the scale of approximately 10 microns. As a result mechanical properties of fine abrasives are sometimes characterized in terms of an empirical `friability', based on the response of the abrasive to crushing by a metal ball in a vial. In this paper we report on modeling/experiments designed to more precisely quantify the mechanical properties of fine abrasives and ultimately to relate them to the conditions experienced by bound particles during grinding. Experiments have been performed on various types and sizes of diamond abrasives. The response of the particles is a strong function of the loading conditions and can be tracked by changing the testing parameters. Diamond size is also found to play a critical role, with finer diamonds less susceptible to fracture. A micromechanical model from the literature is employed estimate the forces likely to be seen during testing. We are also developing dynamic models to better predict the forces experienced during `friability' testing as a function of the testing parameters.

  9. Influence of water content on the inactivation of P. digitatum spores using an air-water plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youyi, HU; Weidong, ZHU; Kun, LIU; Leng, HAN; Zhenfeng, ZHENG; Huimin, HU

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate whether an air-water plasma jet is beneficial to improve the efficiency of inactivation, a series of experiments were done using a ring-needle plasma jet. The water content in the working gas (air) was accurately measured based on the Karl Fischer method. The effects of water on the production of OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) and O (3p5P-3s5S) were also studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The results show that the water content is in the range of 2.53-9.58 mg l-1, depending on the gas/water mixture ratio. The production of OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) rises with the increase of water content, whereas the O (3p5P-3s5S) shows a declining tendency with higher water content. The sterilization experiments indicate that this air-water plasma jet inactivates the P. digitatum spores very effectively and its efficiency rises with the increase of the water content. It is possible that OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) is a more effective species in inactivation than O (3p5P-3s5S) and the water content benefit the spore germination inhibition through rising the OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) production. The maximum of the inactivation efficacy is up to 93% when the applied voltage is -6.75 kV and the water content is 9.58 mg l-1.

  10. Micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of medical implant material Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy on various friction pairs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenguo; Huang, Weijiu; Ma, Yanlong

    2014-09-01

    The micro-scale abrasion behaviors of surgical implant materials have often been reported in the literature. However, little work has been reported on the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn (TLM) titanium alloy in simulated body fluids, especially with respect to friction pairs. Therefore, a TE66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester was used to study the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of the TLM alloy. This study covers the friction coefficient and wear loss of the TLM alloy induced by various friction pairs. Different friction pairs comprised of ZrO2, Si3N4 and Al2O3 ceramic balls with 25.4mm diameters were employed. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanisms and synergistic effect between corrosion and micro-abrasion of the TLM alloy were investigated under various wear-corrosion conditions employing an abrasive, comprised of SiC (3.5 ± 0.5 μm), in two test solutions, Hanks' solution and distilled water. Before the test, the specimens were heat treated at 760°C/1.0/AC+550°C/6.0/AC. It was discovered that the friction coefficient values of the TLM alloy are larger than those in distilled water regardless of friction pairs used, because of the corrosive Hanks' solution. It was also found that the value of the friction coefficient was volatile at the beginning of wear testing, and it became more stable with further experiments. Because the ceramic balls have different properties, especially with respect to the Vickers hardness (Hv), the wear loss of the TLM alloy increased as the ball hardness increased. In addition, the wear loss of the TLM alloy in Hanks' solution was greater than that in distilled water, and this was due to the synergistic effect of micro-abrasion and corrosion, and this micro-abrasion played a leading role in the wear process. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanism of the TLM alloy gradually changed from two-body to mixed abrasion and then to three-body abrasion as the Vickers hardness of the balls increased. Copyright

  11. Abrasive Wear Resistance of Tool Steels Evaluated by the Pin-on-Disc Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, José Divo; Schopf, Roberto Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Present work examines tool steels abrasion wear resistance and the abrasion mechanisms which are one main contributor to failure of tooling in metal forming industry. Tooling used in cutting and metal forming processes without lubrication fails due to this type of wear. In the workshop and engineering practice, it is common to relate wear resistance as function of material hardness only. However, there are others parameters which influences wear such as: fracture toughness, type of crystalline structure and the occurrence of hard precipitate in the metallic matrix and also its nature. In the present investigation, the wear mechanisms acting in tool steels were analyzed and, by normalized tests, wear resistance performance of nine different types of tool steels were evaluated by pin-on-disc testing. Conventional tool steels commonly used in tooling such as AISI H13 and AISI A2 were compared in relation to tool steels fabricated by sintering process such as Crucible CPM 3V, CPM 9V and M4 steels. Friction and wear testing were carried out in a pin-on-disc automated equipment which pin was tool steel and the counter-face was a abrasive disc of silicon carbide. Normal load of 5 N, sliding velocity of 0.45 m/s, total sliding distance of 3000 m and room temperature were employed. The wear rate was calculated by the Archard's equation and from the plotted graphs of pin cumulated volume loss versus sliding distance. Specimens were appropriately heat treated by quenching and three tempering cycles. Percentage of alloying elements, metallographic analyses of microstructure and Vickers microhardness of specimens were performed, analyzed and correlated with wear rate. The work is concluded by the presentation of a rank of tool steel wear rate, comparing the different tool steel abrasion wear resistance: the best tool steel wear resistance evaluated was the Crucible CPM 9V steel.

  12. Acoustic emission analysis for the detection of appropriate cutting operations in honing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buj-Corral, Irene; Álvarez-Flórez, Jesús; Domínguez-Fernández, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, acoustic emission was studied in honing experiments obtained with different abrasive densities, 15, 30, 45 and 60. In addition, 2D and 3D roughness, material removal rate and tool wear were determined. In order to treat the sound signal emitted during the machining process, two methods of analysis were compared: Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT). When density 15 is used, the number of cutting grains is insufficient to provide correct cutting, while clogging appears with densities 45 and 60. The results were confirmed by means of treatment of the sound signal. In addition, a new parameter S was defined as the relationship between energy in low and high frequencies contained within the emitted sound. The selected density of 30 corresponds to S values between 0.1 and 1. Correct cutting operations in honing processes are dependent on the density of the abrasive employed. The density value to be used can be selected by means of measurement and analysis of acoustic emissions during the honing operation. Thus, honing processes can be monitored without needing to stop the process.

  13. Control of water erosion and sediment in open cut coal mines in tropical areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, T.; Nugraha, C.; Matsui, K.

    2005-07-01

    The purpose is to reduce the environmental impacts from open cut mining in tropical areas, such as Indonesia and Vietnam. Research conducted on methods for the control of water erosion and sediment from open cut coal mines is described. Data were collected on climate and weathering in tropical areas, mechanism of water erosion and sedimentation, characteristics of rocks in coal measures under wet conditions, water management at pits and haul roads and ramps, and construction of waste dumps and water management. The results will be applied to the optimum control and management of erosion and sediments in open cut mining.more » 6 refs., 8 figs.« less

  14. Injury and mortality of juvenile salmon entrained in a submerged jet entering still water

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Mueller, Robert P.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    Juvenile salmon can be injured and killed when they pass through hydroelectric turbines and other downstream passage alternatives. The hydraulic conditions in these complex environments that pose a risk to the health of fish include turbulent shear flows, collisions with hydraulic structures, cavitation, and rapid change of pressure. Improvements in the understating of the biological responses of juvenile salmon in turbulent shear flows can reduce salmon injury and mortality. In a series of studies, juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawythscha) were exposed to turbulent shear flows in two mechanisms: 1) the slow-fish-to-fast-water mechanism, where test fish were introduced into amore » turbulent jet from slow-moving water through an introduction tube placed just outside the edge of the jet; 2) the fast-fish-to-slow-water mechanism, where test fish were carried by the fast-moving water of a submerged turbulent jet into the slow-moving water of a flume. All fish exposures to the water jet were recorded by two high-speed, high-resolution cameras. Motion-tracking analysis was then performed on the digital videos to quantify associated kinematic and dynamic parameters. The main results for the slow-fish-to-fast-water mechanism were described in Deng et al (2005). This chapter will discuss the test results of the fast-fish-to-slow-water mechanism and compare the results of the two mechanisms.« less

  15. A laser-induced pulsed water jet for layer-selective submucosal dissection of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Sato, C; Yamada, M; Nakagawa, A; Yamamoto, H; Fujishima, F; Tominaga, T; Satomi, S; Ohuchi, N

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Conventional water jet devices have been used for injecting fluid to lift up lesions during endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic mucosal resection procedures. However, these devices cannot dissect the submucosal layer effectively. Here we aim to elucidate the dissection capability of a laser-induced pulsed water jet and to clarify the mechanism of dissection with layer selectivity. Materials (Subjects) and methods: Pulsed water jets were ejected from a stainless nozzle by accelerating saline using the energy of a pulsed holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. The impact force (strength) of the jet was evaluated using a force meter. Injection of the pulsed jet into the submucosal layer was documented by high-speed imaging. The physical properties of the swine esophagus were evaluated by measuring the breaking strength. Submucosal dissection of the swine esophagus was performed and the resection bed was evaluated histologically. Results: Submucosal dissection of the esophagus was accomplished at an impact force of 1.11–1.47 N/pulse (laser energy: 1.1–1.5 J/pulse; standoff distance: 60 mm). Histological specimens showed clear dissection at the submucosal layer without thermal injury. The mean static breaking strength of the submucosa (0.11 ± 0.04 MPa) was significantly lower than that of the mucosa (1.32 ± 0.18 MPa), and propria muscle (1.45 ± 0.16 MPa). Conclusions: The pulsed water jet device showed potential for achieving selective submucosal dissection. It could achieve mucosal, submucosal, and muscle layer selectivity owing to the varied breaking strengths. PMID:27853343

  16. Durability of resin cement bond to aluminium oxide and zirconia ceramics after air abrasion and laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Foxton, Richard M; Cavalcanti, Andrea N; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Pilecki, Peter; Sherriff, Martyn; Melo, Luciana; Watson, Timothy F

    2011-02-01

    The erbium laser has been introduced for cutting enamel and dentin and may have an application in the surface modification of high-strength aluminum oxide and zirconia ceramics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the durability of the bond of conventional dual-cured resin cements to Procera Al(2)O(3) and zirconium oxide ceramics after surface treatment with air abrasion and erbium laser. One hundred twenty Al(2)O(3) and 120 zirconia specimens measuring 3 × 3 × 0.7 mm(3) were divided equally into three groups, and their surfaces treated as follows: either untreated (controls), air abraded with Al(2)O(3) particles, or erbium-laser-treated at a power setting of 200 mJ. The surface of each specimen was then primed and bonded with one of two dual-cured resin cements (either SCP-100 Ceramic Primer and NAC-100 or Monobond S and Variolink II) using a 1-mm thick Tygon tube mold with a 0.75-mm internal bore diameter. After 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C, a microshear bond strength test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Surface morphology was examined using a confocal microscope, and failure modes were observed using an optical microscope. The data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier nonparametric survival analysis. In the case of zirconia, air abrasion and Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser treatment of the ceramic surface resulted in a significant reduction in the bond strengths of both resin cements after 6 months water storage; however, when the zirconia surface was left untreated, the SCP-100/NAC-100 group did not significantly reduce in bond strength. In the case of alumina, no treatment, air abrasion and Er:YAG laser treatment of the surface led to no significant reduction in the bond strengths of the three SCP-100/NAC-100 groups after 6 months water storage, whereas all three Monobond S/Variolink II groups showed a significant reduction. Er:YAG laser treatment of the zirconia surface did not result in a durable resin

  17. CFD-DEM Analysis of Particle Attrition in a Jet in a Fluidised Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulchini, F.; Nan, W.; Ghadiri, M.; Yazdan Panah, M.; Bertholin, S.; Amblard, B.; Cloupet, A.; Gauthier, T.

    2017-06-01

    In fluidised bed processes, the solids are in vigorous motion and thus inevitably subjected to mechanical stresses due to inter-particle and particle-wall impacts. These stresses lead to a gradual degradation of the particles by surface wear, abrasion and body fragmentation commonly termed attrition. One significant contribution of attrition comes from the air jets of the fluidised bed distributor. Particles are entrained into the air jet, where they get accelerated and impacted onto the fluidised bed particles. The jet induced attrition only affects the part of the bed which is limited by the jet length, where the mode of attrition is largely collisional. The overall jet attrition rate is therefore the result of the combination of the single particle damage and the flux of particles entering into that region. The attrition behaviour of particles in the jet region is analysed by evaluating their propensity of breakage experimentally and by simulating an air-jet in a bed of particles by CFD-DEM. The frequency of collisions and impact velocities are estimated from which the attrition due to a single air-jet is predicted.

  18. Study of process of trueing diamond grinding wheels on metal bonds by method of free abrasive after processing of leucosapphire blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedonin, O. N.; Handozhko, A. V.; Fedukov, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of mechanical processing, in particular, grinding products from leucosapphire, is considered. The main problem with this treatment is the need to adjust the diamond tool. One of the methods of tool trueing using loose abrasive technique is considered. The results of a study on restoring the tool cutting ability, its shape and profile after straightening are given.

  19. Complex astrophysical experiments relating to jets, solar loops, and water ice dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellan, P. M.; Zhai, X.; Chai, K. B.; Ha, B. N.

    2015-10-01

    > Recent results of three astrophysically relevant experiments at Caltech are summarized. In the first experiment magnetohydrodynamically driven plasma jets simulate astrophysical jets that undergo a kink instability. Lateral acceleration of the kinking jet spawns a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which in turn spawns a magnetic reconnection. Particle heating and a burst of waves are observed in association with the reconnection. The second experiment uses a slightly different setup to produce an expanding arched plasma loop which is similar to a solar corona loop. It is shown that the plasma in this loop results from jets originating from the electrodes. The possibility of a transition from slow to fast expansion as a result of the expanding loop breaking free of an externally imposed strapping magnetic field is investigated. The third and completely different experiment creates a weakly ionized plasma with liquid nitrogen cooled electrodes. Water vapour injected into this plasma forms water ice grains that in general are ellipsoidal and not spheroidal. The water ice grains can become quite long (up to several hundred microns) and self-organize so that they are evenly spaced and vertically aligned.

  20. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water jet renal stone dislodger system. 876.4650...

  1. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water jet renal stone dislodger system. 876.4650...

  2. Solidification/stabilization of spent abrasives and use as nonstructural concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Brabrand, D.J.; Loehr, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Tons of spent abrasives result each year from the removal of old paint from bridges. Because the spent abrasives contain metals from the paint, some spent abrasives may be considered hazardous by the Toxicity Characteristic (TC) criteria. Incorporation of the spent blasting abrasives in nonstructural concrete (rip-rap, dolphins) offers an opportunity to recycle the spent abrasives while immobilizing potentially leachable metals. This study focused on the Portland Cement Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) of spent blasting abrasives taken from a bridge located in Southeast Texas. The study examined (a) the cadmium, chromium, and lead concentrations in extracts obtained by using the Toxicity Characteristicmore » Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and (b) the compressive strengths of Portland Cement mixes that contained different amounts of the spent abrasives. Performance was measured by meeting the TC criteria as well as the requirements for compressive strength. Study results indicated that considerable quantities of these spent abrasives can be solidified/stabilized while reducing the leachability of cadmium, chromium, and lead and producing compressive strengths over 6,895 kN/m[sup 2] (1,000 psi).« less

  3. Multi-scale graph-cut algorithm for efficient water-fat separation.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Johan; Skorpil, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    To improve the accuracy and robustness to noise in water-fat separation by unifying the multiscale and graph cut based approaches to B 0 -correction. A previously proposed water-fat separation algorithm that corrects for B 0 field inhomogeneity in 3D by a single quadratic pseudo-Boolean optimization (QPBO) graph cut was incorporated into a multi-scale framework, where field map solutions are propagated from coarse to fine scales for voxels that are not resolved by the graph cut. The accuracy of the single-scale and multi-scale QPBO algorithms was evaluated against benchmark reference datasets. The robustness to noise was evaluated by adding noise to the input data prior to water-fat separation. Both algorithms achieved the highest accuracy when compared with seven previously published methods, while computation times were acceptable for implementation in clinical routine. The multi-scale algorithm was more robust to noise than the single-scale algorithm, while causing only a small increase (+10%) of the reconstruction time. The proposed 3D multi-scale QPBO algorithm offers accurate water-fat separation, robustness to noise, and fast reconstruction. The software implementation is freely available to the research community. Magn Reson Med 78:941-949, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) Bites and Contact Abrasions in Open-Water Swimmers: A Series of 11 Cases.

    PubMed

    Nuckton, Thomas J; Simeone, Claire A; Phelps, Roger T

    2015-12-01

    To review cases of bites and contact abrasions in open-water swimmers from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii). Open-water swimmers from a San Francisco swimming club were questioned about encounters with pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) that resulted in bites or contact abrasions. When possible, wounds were documented with photographs. Medical follow-up and treatment complications were also reviewed. From October 2011 to December 2014, 11 swimmers reported bites by a sea lion (n = 1), harbor seal (n = 7), or unidentified pinniped (n = 3). Ten of the encounters occurred in San Francisco Bay; 1 occurred in the Eld Inlet, in Puget Sound, near Olympia, WA. None of the swimmers were wearing wetsuits. All bites involved the lower extremities; skin was broken in 4 of 11 bites and antibiotics were prescribed in 3 cases. One swimmer, who was bitten by a harbor seal, also had claw scratches. A treatment failure occurred with amoxicillin/clavulanate in another swimmer who was bitten by an unidentified pinniped; the wound healed subsequently with doxycycline, suggesting an infection with Mycoplasma spp. There were no long-lasting consequences from any of the bites. The majority of cases occurred at low tide, and bumping of the swimmer by the animal before or after a bite was common, but no clear tide or attack pattern was identified. Bites and contact abrasions from sea lions and harbor seals are reported infrequently in open-water swimmers and typically involve the lower extremities. Because of the risk of Mycoplasma infection, treatment with a tetracycline is recommended in pinniped bites with signs of infection or serious trauma. Attempting to touch or pet sea lions or seals is inadvisable and prohibited by the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Swimmers should leave the water as soon as possible after a bite or encounter. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High Velocity Precessing Jet from the Water Fountain IRAS 18286-0959 Revealed by VLBA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Bosco; Nakashima, J.; Imai, H.; Deguchi, S.; Diamond, P. J.; Kwok, S.

    2011-05-01

    We report the multi-epoch VLBA observations of 22.2GHz water maser emission associated with the "water fountain" star IRAS 18286-0959. The detected maser emission are distributed in the velocity range from -50km/s to 150km/s. The spatial distribution of over 70% of the identified maser features is found to be highly collimated along a spiral jet (namely, jet 1) extended from southeast to northwest direction, and the rest of the features appear to trace another spiral jet (jet 2) with a different orientation. The two jets form a "double-helix" pattern which lies across 200 milliarcseconds (mas). The maser features are reasonably fit by a model consisting of two precessing jets. The velocities of jet 1 and jet 2 are derived to be 138km/s and 99km/s, respectively. The precession period of jet 1 is about 56 years, and for jet 2 it is about 73 years. We propose that the appearance of two jets observed are the result of a single driving source with a significant proper motion. This research was supported by grants from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China, the Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research of the University of Hong Kong, Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists from the Ministry 9 of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for Promotion Science.

  6. Influence of water-miscible cutting fluid on tool wear behavior of various coated high-speed steel tools in hobbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuta; Matsuoka, Hironori; Kubo, Akio; Ono, Hajime; Ryu, Takahiro; Qiu, Hua; Nakae, Takashi; Shuto, Shuichi; Watanabe, Suguru; Anan, Ruito

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the influence of water-miscible cutting fluid on tool life (flank wear) compared with that with dry cutting and water-insoluble cutting oil in hobbing. Experiments were conducted by simulating hobbing by fly tool cutting on a milling machine. The following results were clarified. (1) The water-miscible cutting fluid used in the test prolongs the tool life for TiN-, TiAlN-, TiSiN- and AlCrSiN-coated tools in comparison with that obtained by dry cutting and water-insoluble cutting oil. (2) It was presumed that the tool wear decreases and the tool life is improved by the lubrication effect of the synthetic lubrication additive, mineral oil and sulfuric EP additive contained in the water-miscible cutting fluid, and also by the cooling effect.

  7. Efficacy of electrolysed oxidizing water in inactivating Vibrio parahaemolyticus on kitchen cutting boards and food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chiu, T-H; Duan, J; Liu, C; Su, Y-C

    2006-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of electrolysed oxidizing (EO) water in inactivating Vibrio parahaemolyticus on kitchen cutting boards and food contact surfaces. Cutting boards (bamboo, wood and plastic) and food contact surfaces (stainless steel and glazed ceramic tile) were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus. Viable cells of V. parahaemolyticus were detected on all cutting boards and food contact surfaces after 10 and 30 min, respectively, at room temperatures. Soaking inoculated food contact surfaces and cutting boards in distilled water for 1 and 3 min, respectively, resulted in various reductions of V. parahaemolyticus, but failed to remove the organism completely from surfaces. However, the treatment of EO water [pH 2.7, chlorine 40 ppm, oxidation-reduction potential 1151 mV] for 30, 45, and 60 s, completely inactivated V. parahaemolyticus on stainless steel, ceramic tile, and plastic cutting boards, respectively. EO water could be used as a disinfecting agent for inactivating V. parahaemolyticus on plastic and wood cutting boards and food contact surfaces. Rinsing the food contact surfaces with EO water or soaking cutting boards in EO water for up to 5 min could be a simple strategy to reduce cross-contamination of V. parahaemolyticus during food preparation.

  8. Study of energy parameters of machine parts of water-ice jet cleaning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezhbilov, A. N.; Burnashov, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The reader will achieve a benchmark understanding of the essence of cleaning for the removal of contaminants from machine elements by means of cryo jet/water-ice jet with particles prepared beforehand. This paper represents the classification of the most common contaminants appearing on the surfaces of machine elements after a long-term service. The conceptual contribution of the paper is to represent a thermo-physical model of contaminant removal by means of a water ice jet. In conclusion, it is evident that this study has shown the dependencies between the friction force of an ice particle with an obstacle (contamination), a dimensional change of an ice particle in the cleaning process and the quantity of heat transmitted to an ice particle.

  9. Numerical modelling of tool wear in turning with cemented carbide cutting tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, P.; Estrems, M.; Faura, F.

    2007-04-01

    A numerical model is proposed for analysing the flank and crater wear resulting from the loss of material on cutting tool surface in turning processes due to wear mechanisms of adhesion, abrasion and fracture. By means of this model, the material loss along cutting tool surface can be analysed, and the worn surface shape during the workpiece machining can be determined. The proposed model analyses the gradual degradation of cutting tool during turning operation, and tool wear can be estimated as a function of cutting time. Wear-land width (VB) and crater depth (KT) can be obtained for description of material loss on cutting tool surface, and the effects of the distinct wear mechanisms on surface shape can be studied. The parameters required for the tool wear model are obtained from bibliography and experimental observation for AISI 4340 steel turning with WC-Co cutting tools.

  10. Generation of ultra-fast cumulative water jets by sub-microsecond underwater electrical explosion of conical wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, D.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Gleizer, S.

    The results of experiments with underwater electrical explosion of modified conical arrays of copper and aluminum wires are presented. A pulsed generator producing a 550 kA-amplitude current with a 400 ns rise time was used in the explosion of the arrays. The array explosion generates water flows converging at the axis of the cone. This flow generates a fast-moving water jet with a velocity exceeding 1.8 × 10{sup 5 }cm/s, which was observed being ejected from the surface of the water covering the array. The positions of the water jet were measured by multiple-exposure fast framing imaging. In experiments, the apex angle of the array,more » the thickness of the water layer above the arrays, or the material of the wires was altered, which changed the resulting velocities and shapes of the emitted jets. A model that considers the converging stationary flow of a slightly compressible fluid is suggested. The velocities and shapes of the jets obtained by this model agree well with the experimentally measured jet velocities.« less

  11. The free jet microwave spectrum of 2-phenylethylamine-water.

    PubMed

    Melandri, Sonia; Maris, Assimo; Giuliano, Barbara M; Favero, Laura B; Caminati, Walther

    2010-09-21

    We observed the rotational spectrum of the 1:1 molecular adduct between 2-phenylethylamine and water (normal and H(2)(18)O species) by free jet absorption microwave spectroscopy in the frequency region 60-78 GHz. The dominant spectrum belongs to the structure where the PEA moiety is in the most stable gauche conformation and the water molecule is hydrogen bound to the nitrogen lone pair. The orientation of the water molecule is such that the oxygen atom is almost equidistant (ca. 2.5 A) from the closest methylenic and aromatic hydrogen atoms.

  12. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... crowns. The device is attached to a shank that is held by a handpiece. The device includes the abrasive...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... crowns. The device is attached to a shank that is held by a handpiece. The device includes the abrasive...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... crowns. The device is attached to a shank that is held by a handpiece. The device includes the abrasive...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... crowns. The device is attached to a shank that is held by a handpiece. The device includes the abrasive...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... crowns. The device is attached to a shank that is held by a handpiece. The device includes the abrasive...

  17. Dentifrice fluoride and abrasivity interplay on artificial caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Hani M; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    Incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces may be subjected to toothbrushing, potentially leading to remineralization and/or abrasive wear. The interplay of dentifrice abrasivity and fluoride on this process is largely unknown and was investigated on three artificially created lesions with different mineral content/distribution. 120 bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n = 10), resulting from the association of (1) lesion type [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC); carboxymethylcellulose solution (CMC); hydroxyethylcellulose gel (HEC)], (2) slurry abrasive level [low (REA 4/ RDA 69); high (REA 7/RDA 208)], and (3) fluoride concentration [0/275 ppm (14.5 mM) F as NaF]. After lesion creation, specimens were brushed in an automated brushing machine with the test slurries (50 strokes 2×/day). Specimens were kept in artificial saliva in between brushings and overnight. Enamel surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry after lesion creation, 1, 3 and 5 days. Two enamel sections (from baseline and post-brushing areas) were obtained and analyzed microradiographically. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 5%). Brushing with high-abrasive slurry caused more SL than brushing with low-abrasive slurry. For MeC and CMC lesions, fluoride had a protective effect on SL from day 3 on. Furthermore, for MeC and CMC, there was a significant mineral gain in the remaining lesions except when brushed with high-abrasive slurries and 0 ppm F. For HEC, a significant mineral gain took place when low-abrasive slurry was used with fluoride. The tested lesions responded differently to the toothbrushing procedures. Both slurry fluoride content and abrasivity directly impacted SL and mineral gain of enamel caries lesions.

  18. Analysis of Abrasive Blasting of DOP-26 Iridium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, Evan Keith; Zhang, Wei; Ulrich, George B

    2012-01-01

    The effects of abrasive blasting on the surface geometry and microstructure of DOP-26 iridium alloy (Ir-0.3% W-0.006% Th 0.005% Al) have been investigated. Abrasive blasting has been used to control emissivity of components operating at elevated temperature. The effects of abrasive blasting conditions on surface morphology were investigated both experimentally and by numerical modeling. The simplified model, based on finite element analysis of a single angular particle impacting on Ir alloy disk, calculates the surface deformation and residual strain distribution. The experimental results and modeling results both indicate that the surface geometry is not sensitive to the abrasive blast processmore » conditions of nozzle pressure and standoff distance considered in this study. On the other hand, the modeling results suggest that the angularity of the abrasive particle has an important role in determining surface geometry, which in turn, affects the emissivity. Abrasive blasting causes localized surface strains and localized recrystallization, but it does not affect grain size following extended exposure at elevated temperature. The dependence of emissivity of the DOP-26 alloy on mean surface slope follows a similar trend to that reported for pure iridium.« less

  19. Effects of Load and Speed on Wear Rate of Abrasive Wear for 2014 Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabas, D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the normal load and sliding speed on wear rate of two-body abrasive wear for 2014 Al Alloy were investigated in detail. In order to understand the variation in wear behaviour with load and speed, wear tests were carried out at a sliding distance of 11 m, a speed of 0.36 m/s, a duration of 30 s and loads in the range 3-11 N using 220 grit abrasive paper, and at a speed range 0.09-0.90 m/s, a load of 5 N and an average sliding distance of 11 m using abrasive papers of 150 grit size under dry friction conditions. Before the wear tests, solution treatment of the 2014 Al alloy was carried out at temperatures of 505 and 520 °C for 1 h in a muffle furnace and then quenched in cold water at 15 °C. Later, the ageing treatment was carried out at 185 °C for 8 h in the furnace. Generally, wear rate due to time increased linearly and linear wear resistance decreased with increasing loads. However, the wear rate was directly proportional to the load up to a critical load of 7 N. After this load, the slope of the curves decreased because the excessive deformation of the worn surface and the instability of the abrasive grains began to increase. When the load on an abrasive grain reaches a critical value, the groove width is about 0.17 of the abrasive grain diameter, and the abrasive grains begin to fail. The wear rate due to time increased slightly as the sliding speed increased in the range 0.09-0.90 m/s. The reason for this is that changes arising from strain rate and friction heating are expected with increasing sliding speeds.

  20. Micro-Abrasion Wear Resistance of Borided 316L Stainless Steel and AISI 1018 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reséndiz-Calderon, C. D.; Rodríguez-Castro, G. A.; Meneses-Amador, A.; Campos-Silva, I. E.; Andraca-Adame, J.; Palomar-Pardavé, M. E.; Gallardo-Hernández, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The 316L stainless steel has high corrosion resistance but low tribological performance. In different industrial sectors (biomedical, chemical, petrochemical, and nuclear engineering), improvement upon wear resistance of 316L stainless steel components using accessible and inexpensive methods is critical. The AISI 1018 steel is widely used in industry, but its tribological performance is not the best among steels. Therefore, in this study the behavior of the borided 316L stainless steel and 1018 steel is evaluated under micro-abrasion wear. The boriding was carried out at 1223 K over 6 h of exposure time, resulting in a biphase layer composed of FeB/Fe2B phases. In order to evaluate Fe2B phase with no influence from FeB phase, AISI 1018 steel samples were borided at 1273 K for over 20 min and then diffusion annealed at 1273 K over 2 h to obtain a Fe2B mono-phase layer. Micro-abrasion wear resistance was evaluated by a commercial micro-abrasion testing rig using a mix of F-1200 SiC particles with deionized water as abrasive slurry. The obtained wear rates for FeB and Fe2B phases and for the 316L stainless steel were compared. Wear resistance of 316L stainless steel increases after boriding. The wear mechanisms for both phases and for the stainless steel were identified. Also, transient conditions for rolling and grooving abrasion were determined for the FeB and Fe2B phases.

  1. Experimental investigations of the effects of cutting angle on chattering of a flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, J.; Huggins, J.; Magee, D.; Book, W.

    1991-01-01

    When a machine tool is mounted at the tip of a robotic manipulator, the manipulator becomes more flexible (the natural frequencies are lowered). Moreover, for a given flexible manipulator, its compliance will be different depending on feedback gains, configurations, and direction of interest. Here, the compliance of a manipulator is derived analytically, and its magnitude is represented as a compliance ellipsoid. Then, using a two-link flexible manipulator with an abrasive cut off saw, the experimental investigation shows that the chattering varies with the saw cutting angle due to different compliance. The main work is devoted to finding a desirable cutting angle which reduces the chattering.

  2. Water Footprint and Land Requirement of Solar Thermochemical Jet-Fuel Production.

    PubMed

    Falter, Christoph; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-11-07

    The production of alternative fuels via the solar thermochemical pathway has the potential to provide supply security and to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. H 2 O and CO 2 are converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar energy mediated by redox reactions of a metal oxide. Because attractive production locations are in arid regions, the water footprint and the land requirement of this fuel production pathway are analyzed. The water footprint consists of 7.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of direct demand on-site and 42.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of indirect demand, where the dominant contributions are the mining of the rare earth oxide ceria, the manufacturing of the solar concentration infrastructure, and the cleaning of the mirrors. The area-specific productivity is found to be 33 362 liters per hectare per year of jet fuel equivalents, where the land coverage is mainly due to the concentration of solar energy for heat and electricity. The water footprint and the land requirement of the solar thermochemical fuel pathway are larger than the best power-to-liquid pathways but an order of magnitude lower than the best biomass-to-liquid pathways. For the production of solar thermochemical fuels arid regions are best-suited, and for biofuels regions of a moderate and humid climate.

  3. An investigation into magnetic electrolytic abrasive turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdy, M. A. M.; Ismaeial, A. L.; Aly, F. F.

    2013-07-01

    The magnetic electrolytic abrasive turning (MEAT) process as a non-traditional machining is used to obtain surface finishing like mirror. MEAT provides one of the best alternatives for producing complex shapes with good finish in advanced materials used in aircraft and aerospace industries. The improvement of machining accuracy of MEAT continues to be a major challenge for modern industry. MEAT is a hybrid machining which combines two or more processes to remove material. The present research focuses on the development of precision electrochemical turning (ECT) under the effects of magnetic field and abrasives. The effect of magnetic flux density, electrochemical conditions and abrasive parameters on finishing efficiency and surface roughness are investigated. An empirical relationship is deduced.

  4. Process Monitoring Evaluation and Implementation for the Wood Abrasive Machining Process

    PubMed Central

    Saloni, Daniel E.; Lemaster, Richard L.; Jackson, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Wood processing industries have continuously developed and improved technologies and processes to transform wood to obtain better final product quality and thus increase profits. Abrasive machining is one of the most important of these processes and therefore merits special attention and study. The objective of this work was to evaluate and demonstrate a process monitoring system for use in the abrasive machining of wood and wood based products. The system developed increases the life of the belt by detecting (using process monitoring sensors) and removing (by cleaning) the abrasive loading during the machining process. This study focused on abrasive belt machining processes and included substantial background work, which provided a solid base for understanding the behavior of the abrasive, and the different ways that the abrasive machining process can be monitored. In addition, the background research showed that abrasive belts can effectively be cleaned by the appropriate cleaning technique. The process monitoring system developed included acoustic emission sensors which tended to be sensitive to belt wear, as well as platen vibration, but not loading, and optical sensors which were sensitive to abrasive loading. PMID:22163477

  5. Experimental Evidence that Abrasion of Carbonate Sand is a Significant Source of Carbonate Mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trower, L.; Kivrak, L.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate mud is a major sedimentary component of modern and ancient tropical carbonate environments, yet its enigmatic origin remains debated. Early views on the origin of carbonate mud considered the abrasion of carbonate sand during sediment transport as a possible mechanism. In recent decades, however, prevailing thought has generally settled on a binary explanation: 1) precipitation of aragonite needles within the water column, and 2) post-mortem dispersal of biological aragonite, in particular from algae, and perhaps aided by fish. To test these different hypotheses, we designed a model and a set of laboratory experiments to quantify the rates of mud production associated with sediment transport. We adapted a recent model of ooid abrasion rate to predict the rate of mud production by abrasion of carbonate sand as a function of grain size and sediment transport mode. This model predicts large mud production rates, ranging from 103 to 104 g CaCO3/m2/yr for typical grain sizes and transport conditions. These rate estimates are at least one order of magnitude more rapid than the 102 g CaCO3/m2/yr estimates for other mechanisms like algal biomineralization, indicating that abrasion could produce much larger mud fluxes per area as other mechanisms. We tested these estimates using wet abrasion mill experiments; these experiments generated mud through mechanical abrasion of both ooid and skeletal carbonate sand for grain sizes ranging from 250 µm to >1000 µm over a range of sediment transport modes. Experiments were run in artificial seawater, including a series of controls demonstrating that no mud was produced via homogenous nucleation and precipitation in the absence of sand. Our experimental rates match the model predictions well, although we observed small systematic differences in rates between abrasion ooid sand and skeletal carbonate sand that likely stems from innate differences in grain angularity. Electron microscopy of the experimental products revealed

  6. Field evidence of two-phase abrasion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K. L.; Szabo, T.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Domokos, G.

    2013-12-01

    The rounded shape of river rocks is clear evidence that abrasion due to bed load transport is a significant agent for mass loss. Its contribution to downstream fining, however, is typically assumed to be negligible - as diminution trends may be explained solely by size-selective transport. A recent theory has predicted that pebble abrasion occurs in two well separated phases: in Phase 1, an intially-polyhedral pebble rounds to the shape of an inscribed ellipsoid without any change in axis dimensions; in Phase II, axis dimensions are slowly reduced. Importantly, Phase I abrasion means that an initially-blocky pebble may lose up to half its mass without any apparent change in 'size', which is only measured as the length of a single pebble axis by most field researchers. We hypothesize that field studies have significantly underestimated the importance of abrasion because they do not quantify pebble shape, and we set out to demonstrate that two-phase abrasion occurs in a natural stream. Our study examines downstream trends in pebble size and shape along a 10-km stretch of the Rio Mameyes within the Luquillo Critical Zone observatory, where volcaniclastic cobbles and boulders are transported by bed load at slopes up to 10%. The upper reaches of the stream consist of alluviated bedrock valleys that preclude sediment storage and thus minimize size-selective transport, which allows us to isolate the effects of abrasion. The lower 5 km is an alluvial river in which size-selective transport becomes operative. We quantified the shape and size of thousands of pebbles along the profile using hand and image-based techniques. The data provide the first field validation of two-phase abrasion; in the bedrock reaches, pebbles clearly evolve toward ellipsoids without any significant change in axis dimensions (rounding), while in the lower reaches pebbles slowly reduce their axis dimensions with little or no change in roundness. Results also show that shape metrics determined from

  7. Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain

    DOEpatents

    Plovnick, Ross; Celikkaya, Ahmet; Blake, Rodger D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

  8. Far-reaching transport of Pearl River plume water by upwelling jet in the northeastern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaoyun; Pan, Jiayi; Jiang, Yuwu; Lin, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Satellite images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) show that there was a belt of turbid water appearing along an upwelling front near the Chinese coast of Guangdong, and indicate that the turbid water of the Pearl River plume water could be transported to a far-reaching area east of the Taiwan Bank. Numerical modeling results are consistent with the satellite observations, and reveal that a strong jet exists at the upwelling front with a speed as high as 0.8 m s- 1, which acts as a pathway for transporting the high-turbidity plume water. The dynamical analysis suggests that geostrophic equilibrium dominates in the upwelling front and plume areas, and the baroclinicity of the upwelling front resulting from the horizontal density gradient is responsible for the generation of the strong jet, which enhances the far-reaching transport of the terrigenous nutrient-rich water of the Pearl River plume. Model sensitivity analyses also confirm that this jet persists as long as the upwelling front exists, even when the wind subsides and becomes insignificant. Further idealized numerical model experiments indicate that the formation and persistence of the upwelling front jet depend on the forcing strength of the upwelling-favorable wind. The formation time of the jet varies from 15 to 158 h as the stress of the upwelling-favorable wind changes from 0.2 to 0.01 N m- 2. With the persistent transport of the nutrient-rich plume water, biophysical activities can be promoted significantly in the far-reaching destination area of the oligotrophic water.

  9. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing.... The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup). (b...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing.... The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup). (b...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing.... The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup). (b...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing.... The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup). (b...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing.... The abrasive polish is applied to the teeth by a handpiece attachment (prophylaxis cup). (b...

  14. Numerical assessment of pulsating water jet in the conical diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasa, Constantin; Ciocan, Tiberiu; Muntean, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    The hydraulic fluctuations associated with partial load operating conditions of Francis turbines are often periodic and characterized by the presence of a vortex rope. Two types of pressure fluctuations associated with the draft tube surge are identified in the literature. The first is an asynchronous (rotating) pressure fluctuation due to the precession of the helical vortex around the axis of the draft tube. The second type of fluctuation is a synchronous (plunging) fluctuation. The plunging fluctuations correspond to the flow field oscillations in the whole hydraulic passage, and are generally propagated overall in the hydraulic system. The paper introduced a new control method, which consists in injecting a pulsating axial water jet along to the draft tube axis. Nevertheless, the great calling of this control method is to mitigate the vortex rope effects targeting the vortex sheet and corresponding plunging component. In this paper, is presented our 3D numerical investigations with and without pulsating axial water jet control method in order to evaluate the concept.

  15. Effect of cleaning methods after reduced-pressure air abrasion on bonding to zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Attia, Ahmed; Kern, Matthias

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate in vitro the influence of different cleaning methods after low-pressure air abrasion on the bond strength of a phosphate monomer-containing luting resin to zirconia ceramic. A total of 112 zirconia ceramic disks were divided into 7 groups (n = 16). In the test groups, disks were air abraded at low pressure (L) 0.05 MPa using 50-μm alumina particles. Prior to bonding, the disks were ultrasonically (U) cleaned either in isopropanol alcohol (AC), hydrofluoric acid (HF), demineralized water (DW), or tap water (TW), or they were used without ultrasonic cleaning. Disks air abraded at a high (H) pressure of 0.25 MPa and cleaned ultrasonically in isopropanol served as positive control; original (O) milled disks used without air abrasion served as the negative control group. Plexiglas tubes filled with composite resin were bonded with the adhesive luting resin Panavia 21 to the ceramic disks. Prior to testing tensile bond strength (TBS), each main group was further subdivided into 2 subgroups (n=8) which were stored in distilled water either at 37°C for 3 days or for 30 days with 7500 thermal cycles. Statistical analyses were conducted with two- and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD test. Initial tensile bond strength (TBS) ranged from 32.6 to 42.8 MPa. After 30 days storage in water with thermocycling, TBS ranged from 21.9 to 36.3 MPa. Storage in water and thermocycling significantly decreased the TBS of test groups which were not air abraded (p = 0.05) or which were air abraded but cleaned in tap water (p = 0.002), but not the TBS of the other groups (p > 0.05). Also, the TBS of air-abraded groups were significantly higher than the TBS of the original milled (p < 0.01). Cleaning procedures did not significantly affect TBS either after 3 days or 30 days storage in water and thermocycling (p > 0.05). Air abrasion at 0.05 MPa and ultrasonic cleaning are important factors for improving bonding to zirconia ceramic.

  16. The Optimum Production Method for Quality Improvement of Recycled Aggregates Using Sulfuric Acid and the Abrasion Method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haseog; Park, Sangki; Kim, Hayong

    2016-07-29

    There has been increased deconstruction and demolition of reinforced concrete structures due to the aging of the structures and redevelopment of urban areas resulting in the generation of massive amounts of construction. The production volume of waste concrete is projected to increase rapidly over 100 million tons by 2020. However, due to the high cement paste content, recycled aggregates have low density and high absorption ratio. They are mostly used for land reclamation purposes with low added value instead of multiple approaches. This study was performed to determine an effective method to remove cement paste from recycled aggregates by using the abrasion and substituting the process water with acidic water. The aim of this study is to analyze the quality of the recycled fine aggregates produced by a complex method and investigate the optimum manufacturing conditions for recycled fine aggregates based on the design of experiment. The experimental parameters considered were water ratio, coarse aggregate ratio, and abrasion time and, as a result of the experiment, data concerning the properties of recycled sand were obtained. It was found that high-quality recycled fine aggregates can be obtained with 8.57 min of abrasion-crusher time and a recycled coarse aggregate ratio of over 1.5.

  17. Enceladus Jet Orientations: Effects of Surface Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Porco, C.; DiNino, D.

    2013-12-01

    Jetting activity across the South Polar Terrain (SPT) of Enceladus is now known to erupt directly from tiger-stripe rifts and associated fracture systems. However, details of the vent conduit geometry are hidden below the icy surface. The three-dimensional orientations of the erupting jets may provide important clues. Porco et al. (2013, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 44th, p.1775) surveyed jet locations and orientations as imaged at high resolution (< 1.3 km/pixel) by Cassini ISS from 2005 through May 2012. Ninety-eight (98) jets were identified either on the main trunks or branches of the 4 tiger-stripes. The azimuth angles of the jets are seen to vary across the SPT. Here, we use histogram analysis of the survey data to test if the jet azimuths are influenced by their placement relative to surface morphology and tectonic structures. Azimuths are measured positive counterclockwise with zero pointing along the fracture in the direction of the sub-Saturn hemisphere, and rosette histograms were binned in 30° increments. Overall, the jet azimuths are not random and only about 11% of them are co-aligned with the tiger stripe valley. There are preferred diagonal orientations between 105°-165° and again between 255°-345°. These trends are dominant along the Damascus and Baghdad tiger-stripes where more than half of the jets are found. Histograms for Cairo and Alexandria show less-distinct trends, fewer jets being measured there, but combining data from both suggests a different pattern of preferred orientations; from 45°-75° and 265°-280°. Many possible factors could affect the orientations of jets, for example, the conduit shape, the presence of obstacles like narrow medial ridges called 'shark-fins' along tiger-stripe valleys, the possibility that jets may breach the surface at some point other than the center of a tiger-stripe, and the presence of structural fabrics or mechanical weaknesses, such as patterns of cross-cutting fractures. The dominance of diagonally

  18. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser, air abrasion, and silane application on repaired shear bond strength of composites.

    PubMed

    Cho, S D; Rajitrangson, P; Matis, B A; Platt, J A

    2013-01-01

    Aged resin composites have a limited number of carbon-carbon double bonds to adhere to a new layer of resin. Study objectives were to 1) evaluate various surface treatments on repaired shear bond strength between aged and new resin composites and 2) to assess the influence of a silane coupling agent after surface treatments. Eighty disk-shape resin composite specimens were fabricated and thermocycled 5000 times prior to surface treatment. Specimens were randomly assigned to one of the three surface treatment groups (n=20): 1) air abrasion with 50-μm aluminum oxide, 2) tribochemical silica coating (CoJet), or 3) Er,Cr:YSGG (erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet) laser or to a no-treatment control group (n=20). Specimens were etched with 35% phosphoric acid, rinsed, and dried. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n=10): A) no silanization and B) with silanization. The adhesive agent was applied and new resin composite was bonded to each conditioned surface. Shear bond strength was evaluated and data analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Air abrasion with 50-μm aluminum oxide showed significantly higher repair bond strength than the Er,Cr:YSGG laser and control groups. Air abrasion with 50-μm aluminum oxide was not significantly different from tribochemical silica coating. Tribochemical silica coating had significantly higher repair bond strength than Er,Cr:YSGG laser and the control. Er,Cr:YSGG laser and the control did not have significantly different repair bond strengths. Silanization had no influence on repair bond strength for any of the surface treatment methods. Air abrasion with 50-μm aluminum oxide and tribochemical silica followed by the application of bonding agent provided the highest repair shear bond strength values, suggesting that they might be adequate methods to improve the quality of repairs of resin composites.

  19. Investigation into the mechanisms of closed three-body abrasive wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer-Joyce, R. S.; Sayles, R. S.; Ioannides, E.

    1994-06-01

    Contacting components frequently fail by abrasion caused by solid contaminants in the lubricant. This process can be classified as a closed three-body abrasive wear process. The mechanisms by which trapped particles cause material removal are not fully understood. This paper describes tests using model elastohydrodynamic contacts to study these mechanisms. An optical elastohydrodynamic lubrication rig has been used to study the deformation and fracture of ductile and brittle lubricant-borne debris. A ball-on-disk machine was used to study the behavior of the particles in partially sliding contacts. Small diamond particles were used as abrasives since these were thought not to break down in the contact; wear could then be directly related to particles of a known size. The particles were found to embed in the softer surface and to scratch the harder. The mass of material worn from the ball surface was approximately proportional to the particle sliding distance and abrasive concentration. Small particles tumbled through the contact, while larger particles ploughed. Mass loss was found to increase with abrasive particle size. Individual abrasion scratches have been measured and related to the abrading particle. A simple model of the abrasive process has been developed and compared with experimental data. The discrepancies are thought to be the result of the uncertainty about the entrainment of particles into the contact.

  20. Analysis of acoustic emission during abrasive waterjet machining of sheet metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Nazrin; Gebremariam, MA; Zohari, H.; Azhari, Azmir

    2018-04-01

    The present paper reports on the analysis of acoustic emission (AE) produced during abrasive waterjet (AWJ) machining process. This paper focuses on the relationship of AE and surface quality of sheet metals. The changes in acoustic emission signals recorded by the mean of power spectral density (PSD) via covariance method in relation to the surface quality of the cut are discussed. The test was made using two materials for comparison namely aluminium 6061 and stainless steel 304 with five different feed rates. The acoustic emission data were captured by Labview and later processed using MATLAB software. The results show that the AE spectrums correlated with different feed rates and surface qualities. It can be concluded that the AE is capable of monitoring the changes of feed rate and surface quality.

  1. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Abrasion of mechanical components and fabrics by soil on Earth is typically minimized by the effects of atmosphere and water. Potentially abrasive particles lose sharp and pointed geometrical features through erosion. In environments where such erosion does not exist, such as the vacuum of the Moon, particles retain sharp geometries associated with fracturing of their parent particles by micrometeorite impacts. The relationship between hardness of the abrasive and that of the material being abraded is well understood, such that the abrasive ability of a material can be estimated as a function of the ratio of the hardness of the two interacting materials. Knowing the abrasive nature of an environment (abrasive)/construction material is crucial to designing durable equipment for use in such surroundings. The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement; in some cases, considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for de tailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness par ameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Further - more, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized

  2. Friction and abrasion of elastomeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.

    1975-01-01

    An abrasion apparatus is described. Experimental measurements are reported for four representative elastomeric materials, including a typical high-quality tire tread material and a possible replacement material for aircraft tire treads based on transpolypentenamer (TPPR). Measurements are carried out at different levels of frictional work input, corresponding to different severities of wear, and at both ambient temperature and at 100 C. Results indicate the marked superiority in abrasion resistance of the material based on TPPR, especially at 100 C, in comparison with the other materials examined.

  3. Rapid Confined Mixing Using Transverse Jets Part 2: Multiple Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forliti, David; Salazar, David

    2012-11-01

    An experimental study has been conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory at Edwards Air Force Base to investigate the properties of confined mixing devices that employ transverse jets. The experiment considers the mixing of water with a mixture of water and fluorescein, and planar laser induced fluorescence was used to measure instantaneous mixture fraction distributions in the cross section view. Part one of this study presents the scaling law development and results for a single confined transverse jet. Part two will describe the results of configurations including multiple transverse jets. The different regimes of mixing behavior, ranging from under to overpenetration of the transverse jets, are characterized in terms of a new scaling law parameter presented in part one. The level of unmixedness, a primary metric for mixing device performance, is quantified for different jet diameters, number of jets, and relative flow rates. It is apparent that the addition of a second transverse jet provides enhanced scalar uniformity in the main pipe flow cross section compared to a single jet. Three and six jet configurations also provide highly uniform scalar distributions. Turbulent scalar fluctuation intensities, spectral features, and spatial eigenfunctions using the proper orthogonal decomposition will be presented. Distribution A: Public Release, Public Affairs Clearance Number: 12656.

  4. Efficacy of a Novel Narrow Knife with Water Jet Function for Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naohisa; Toyonaga, Takashi; Murakami, Takaaki; Hirose, Ryohei; Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Inada, Yutaka; Rani, Rafiz Abdul; Naito, Yuji; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Ohara, Yoshiko; Azuma, Takeshi; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    With respect to the knife's design in colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), diameter, water jet function, and electric power are important because these relate to efficient dissection. In this study, we analyzed a novel, narrow ball tip-typed ESD knife with water jet function (Flush knife BT-S, diameter: 2.2 mm, length: 2000 mm, Fujifilm Co., Tokyo, Japan) compared to a regular diameter knife (Flush knife BT, diameter: 2.6 mm, length: 1800 mm). In laboratory and clinical research, electric power, knife insertion time, vacuum/suction amount with knife in the endoscopic channel, and water jet function were analyzed. We used a knife 2.0 mm long for BT-S and BT knives. The BT-S showed faster mean knife insertion time (sec) and better vacuum amount (ml/min) compared to the BT (insertion time: 16.7 versus 21.6, p < 0.001, vacuum amount: 38.0 versus 14.0, p < 0.01). Additionally, the water jet function of the BT-S was not inferior. In 39 colorectal ESD cases in two institutions, there were mean 4.7 times (range: 1-28) of knife insertion. Suction under knife happened 59% (23/39) and suction of fluid could be done in 100%. Our study showed that the narrow knife allows significantly faster knife insertion, better vacuum function, and effective clinical results.

  5. Abrasive wear of ceramic wear protection at ambient and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, M.; Adam, K.; Tumma, M.; Alessio, K. O.

    2017-05-01

    Ceramic wear protection is often applied in abrasive conditions due to their excellent wear resistance. This is especially necessary in heavy industries conveying large amounts of raw materials, e.g. in steel industry. Some plants also require material transport at high temperatures and velocities, making the need of temperature stable and abrasion resistant wear protection necessary. Various types and wear behaviour of ceramic protection are known. Hence, the goal of this study is to identify the best suitable ceramic materials for abrasive conditions in harsh environments at temperatures up to 950°C and severe thermal gradients. Chamottes, known for their excellent thermal shock resistance are compared to high abrasion resistant ceramic wear tiles and a cost efficient cement-bounded hard compound. Testing was done under high-stress three-body abrasion regime with a modified ASTM G65 apparatus enabling for investigations up to ~950°C. Thereto heated abrasive is introduced into the wear track and also preheated ceramic samples were used and compared to ambient temperature experiments. Results indicate a significant temperature influence on chamottes and the hard compound. While the chamottes benefit from temperature increase, the cement-bounded hard compound showed its limitation at abrasive temperatures of 950°C. The high abrasion resistant wear tiles represented the materials with the best wear resistance and less temperature influence in the investigated range.

  6. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on plastic kitchen cutting boards by electrolyzed oxidizing water.

    PubMed

    Venkitanarayanan, K S; Ezeike, G O; Hung, Y C; Doyle, M P

    1999-08-01

    One milliliter of culture containing a five-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (approximately 10(10) CFU) was inoculated on a 100-cm2 area marked on unscarred cutting boards. Following inoculation, the boards were air-dried under a laminar flow hood for 1 h, immersed in 2 liters of electrolyzed oxidizing water or sterile deionized water at 23 degrees C or 35 degrees C for 10 or 20 min; 45 degrees C for 5 or 10 min; or 55 degrees C for 5 min. After each temperature-time combination, the surviving population of the pathogen on cutting boards and in soaking water was determined. Soaking of inoculated cutting boards in electrolyzed oxidizing water reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by > or = 5.0 log CFU/100 cm2 on cutting boards. However, immersion of cutting boards in deionized water decreased the pathogen count only by 1.0 to 1.5 log CFU/100 cm2. Treatment of cutting boards inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes in electrolyzed oxidizing water at selected temperature-time combinations (23 degrees C for 20 min, 35 degrees C for 10 min, and 45 degrees C for 10 min) substantially reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes in comparison to the counts recovered from the boards immersed in deionized water. E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were not detected in electrolyzed oxidizing water after soaking treatment, whereas the pathogens survived in the deionized water used for soaking the cutting boards. This study revealed that immersion of kitchen cutting boards in electrolyzed oxidizing water could be used as an effective method for inactivating foodborne pathogens on smooth, plastic cutting boards.

  7. Interaction between attrition,abrasion and erosion in tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; Shellis, R P

    2006-01-01

    Tooth wear is the result of three processes: abrasion (wear produced by interaction between teeth and other materials), attrition (wear through tooth-tooth contact) and erosion (dissolution of hard tissue by acidic substances). A further process (abfraction) might potentiate wear by abrasion and/or erosion. Both clinical and experimental observations show that individual wear mechanisms rarely act alone but interact with each other. The most important interaction is the potentiation of abrasion by erosive damage to the dental hard tissues. This interaction seems to be the major factor in occlusal and cervical wear. The available evidence seems insufficient to establish whether abfraction is an important contributor to tooth wear in vivo. Saliva can modulate erosive/abrasive tooth wear through formation of pellicle and by remineralisation but cannot prevent it.

  8. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag.

    PubMed

    Kura, Bhaskar; Kambham, Kalpalatha; Sangameswaran, Sivaramakrishnan; Potana, Sandhya

    2006-08-01

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions.

  9. Assessment of thermal spray coatings for wear and abrasion resistance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karode, Ishaan Nitin

    proved to be the best coating amongst all the other ones followed by Cr2O3 and Al2O3 in deionized water. In the presence of abrasive alumina slurry WC-Co offered the highest abrasive resistance with the lowest volume losses followed by Al2O3 and Cr2O3. In both the testing conditions B4C coating showed lower wear/abrasion resistance giving the highest volume losses.

  10. Effect of air-abrasion regimens and fine diamond bur grinding on flexural strength, Weibull modulus and phase transformation of zirconium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Michida, Silvia Masae de Araújo; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; dos Santos, Claudinei; Souza, Rodrigo Othavio Assunção; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Özcan, Mutlu

    2015-10-16

    This study evaluated the effect of air abrasion and polishing regimens on the flexural strength of yttrium stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP). From Y-TZP blocks (InCeram 2000 YZ Cubes; Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) 120 bars (25 mm × 4 mm × 1.2 mm) were obtained according to ISO 6872:2008 and randomly divided into 4 groups: Group C: (control) without surface treatment (n = 30); Group APA: Air abrasion with aluminum oxide (44 µm) (n = 30); Group SC: Silica-coating (CoJet, 30 µm) (n = 30); Group FD: Fine diamond bur (n = 30). Subsequently, all specimens were subjected to 4-point bending test (in distilled water at 37 °C) in a universal testing machine (EMIC DL 1000; São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil); cross-head speed: 0.5 mm/min). The characteristic strength (σ0) of each specimen was obtained from the flexural strength test and evaluated using Weibull analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis was utilized to quantity the monoclinic phase. The surface topography of specimens was analyzed using 3D optical profilometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after surface conditioning methods. The flexural strength data (σ4p) were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA, Tukey test (α = 0.05) and Weibull (m = modulus, σ0 = characteristic strength) were calculated. The mean ± standard deviations (MPa) of the groups were as follows: C: 1196.2 ± 284.2a; APA: 1369.7 ± 272.3a; SC: 1207.1 ± 229.7a and FD: 874.4 ± 365.4b. The values (m) and (σ0) were as follows: C: 4.5 and 1308.12; APA: 5.9 and 1477.88; SC: 6.0 and 1300.28; and FD: 2.6 and 985.901, respectively. Air particle abrasion with neither silica nor alumina showed significant difference compared to the control group but grinding with fine diamond bur impaired the flexural strength of the zirconia tested.

  11. Production of a high-velocity water slug using an impacting technique.

    PubMed

    Dehkhoda, S; Bourne, N K

    2014-02-01

    A pulsed water jet consists of a series of discrete water slugs travelling at high velocity. Immediately after striking a target, these slugs apply high-intensity, short-duration transient stress pulses reaching an amplitude known as the water hammer pressure, followed by low-intensity, long-duration stationary stress at a lower stagnation pressure. The magnitude and duration of the water hammer and stagnation pressures are controlled by the size and quality of the water slugs. The use of water jets for rock cutting in mining operations is a centuries-old technology; however, practical methods for producing high-energy water slugs repeatedly have proven difficult. This can be partly due to the fact that the geometrical properties of a jet and so its effectiveness in creating damage is controlled and influenced by the method that is employed to generate the water slugs. This paper investigates the quality of a single water slug produced using an impacting technique where a hammer strikes a piston, resting on top of a water-filled chamber. The coherence and integrity of the jet core was of concern in this study. The impact impulse of the formed water jet was measured in a Kel-F target material using an embedded PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) shock gauge. The recorded stress waveform was then used to determine the unity and endurance of the water slug stream once travelled through air.

  12. Production of a high-velocity water slug using an impacting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehkhoda, S.; Bourne, N. K.

    2014-02-01

    A pulsed water jet consists of a series of discrete water slugs travelling at high velocity. Immediately after striking a target, these slugs apply high-intensity, short-duration transient stress pulses reaching an amplitude known as the water hammer pressure, followed by low-intensity, long-duration stationary stress at a lower stagnation pressure. The magnitude and duration of the water hammer and stagnation pressures are controlled by the size and quality of the water slugs. The use of water jets for rock cutting in mining operations is a centuries-old technology; however, practical methods for producing high-energy water slugs repeatedly have proven difficult. This can be partly due to the fact that the geometrical properties of a jet and so its effectiveness in creating damage is controlled and influenced by the method that is employed to generate the water slugs. This paper investigates the quality of a single water slug produced using an impacting technique where a hammer strikes a piston, resting on top of a water-filled chamber. The coherence and integrity of the jet core was of concern in this study. The impact impulse of the formed water jet was measured in a Kel-F target material using an embedded PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) shock gauge. The recorded stress waveform was then used to determine the unity and endurance of the water slug stream once travelled through air.

  13. Influence of different toothpaste abrasives on the bristle end-rounding quality of toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, G J P L; de Aveiro, J M; Pavone, C; Marcantonio, R A C

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of different toothpaste abrasives on the bristle wear and bristle tip morphology of toothbrushes with different degrees of hardness. Ninety samples of bovine incisor teeth were used in this study. The samples were randomly divided into three groups according to the bristle hardness of the toothbrush used: soft bristles (S); extra-soft bristles (ES); hard bristles (H). The toothbrushes of each group were randomly divided into six subgroups with five toothbrushes each, according to the abrasive of the toothpaste used in the simulation: Negative control (distilled water); toothpaste 1 (silica); toothpaste 2 (hydrated silica); toothpaste 3 (calcium carbonate, calcium bicarbonate and silica); toothpaste 4 (tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, silica and titanium dioxide); toothpaste 5 (calcium carbonate). The samples were placed in a toothbrushing simulating machine that simulating three months of brushing. The toothbrush bristles were evaluated by the bristle wear index, and the bristle tips morphology was evaluated by the bristle tip morphology index. The ES brush presented the highest bristle wear among the toothbrushes. Additionally, the S brushes showed better morphology of the bristles followed by ES and H brushes. The type of abrasive only influenced the bristle tip morphology of the ES brushes. The toothpaste 3 induced the worse bristle tip morphology than all the other toothpastes. Different abrasives have influence only on the bristle tip morphology of the ES brushes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The importance of measuring toothpaste abrasivity in both a quantitative and qualitative way

    PubMed Central

    Tellefsen, Georg; Johannsen, Annsofi; Liljeborg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the relative abrasivity of different toothpastes and polishing pastes both qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and methods. Acrylic plates were exposed to brushing in a brushing machine with a toothpaste/water slurry for 1 and 6 h. Twelve different toothpastes were used and also four different polishing pastes. The results were evaluated using a profilometer after 1 and 6 h of brushing (corresponding to 2000 and 12 000 double strokes, respectively). A surface roughness value (Ra-value) and also a volume loss value were calculated from the profilometer measurements. These values were then correlated to each other. An unpaired t-test for the difference in the abrasion values between the toothpastes and the abrasion values over time was used. Results. The polishing paste RDA® 170 yielded higher Ra-values than RDA 250®, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing (1.01 ± 0.22 and 8.99 ± 1.55 compared to 0.63 ± 0.26 and 7.83 ± 5.89, respectively) as well as volume loss values (3.71 ± 0.17 and 20.20 ± 2.41 compared to 2.15 ± 1.41 and 14.79 ± 11.76, respectively), thus poor correlations between the RDA and Ra and Volume loss values were shown. Among the toothpastes, Apotekets® showed the highest Ra value after 1 h of brushing and Pepsodent® whitening after 6 h of brushing. Pepsodent® whitening also showed the highest volume loss values, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing. Conclusion. This study emphasizes the importance of not only considering the RDA value, but also a roughness value, when describing the abrasivity of a toothpaste. Furthermore, it can be concluded that so called ‘whitening' toothpastes do not necessarily have a higher abrasive effect than other toothpastes. PMID:22746180

  15. The importance of measuring toothpaste abrasivity in both a quantitative and qualitative way.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Gunnar; Tellefsen, Georg; Johannsen, Annsofi; Liljeborg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relative abrasivity of different toothpastes and polishing pastes both qualitatively and quantitatively. Acrylic plates were exposed to brushing in a brushing machine with a toothpaste/water slurry for 1 and 6 h. Twelve different toothpastes were used and also four different polishing pastes. The results were evaluated using a profilometer after 1 and 6 h of brushing (corresponding to 2000 and 12 000 double strokes, respectively). A surface roughness value (Ra-value) and also a volume loss value were calculated from the profilometer measurements. These values were then correlated to each other. An unpaired t-test for the difference in the abrasion values between the toothpastes and the abrasion values over time was used. The polishing paste RDA® 170 yielded higher Ra-values than RDA 250®, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing (1.01 ± 0.22 and 8.99 ± 1.55 compared to 0.63 ± 0.26 and 7.83 ± 5.89, respectively) as well as volume loss values (3.71 ± 0.17 and 20.20 ± 2.41 compared to 2.15 ± 1.41 and 14.79 ± 11.76, respectively), thus poor correlations between the RDA and Ra and Volume loss values were shown. Among the toothpastes, Apotekets® showed the highest Ra value after 1 h of brushing and Pepsodent® whitening after 6 h of brushing. Pepsodent® whitening also showed the highest volume loss values, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing. This study emphasizes the importance of not only considering the RDA value, but also a roughness value, when describing the abrasivity of a toothpaste. Furthermore, it can be concluded that so called 'whitening' toothpastes do not necessarily have a higher abrasive effect than other toothpastes.

  16. Influence of Cutting Parameters and Tool Wear on the Surface Integrity of Cobalt-Based Stellite 6 Alloy When Machined Under a Dry Cutting Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingfei, Ge; de Escalona, Patricia Muñoz; Galloway, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of a machining process can be measured by evaluating the quality of the machined surface and the tool wear rate. The research reported herein is mainly focused on the effect of cutting parameters and tool wear on the machined surface defects, surface roughness, deformation layer and residual stresses when dry milling Stellite 6, deposited by overlay on a carbon steel surface. The results showed that under the selected cutting conditions, abrasion, diffusion, peeling, chipping and breakage were the main tool wear mechanisms presented. Also the feed rate was the primary factor affecting the tool wear with an influence of 83%. With regard to the influence of cutting parameters on the surface roughness, the primary factors were feed rate and cutting speed with 57 and 38%, respectively. In addition, in general, as tool wear increased, the surface roughness increased and the deformation layer was found to be influenced more by the cutting parameters rather than the tool wear. Compressive residual stresses were observed in the un-machined surface, and when machining longer than 5 min, residual stress changed 100% from compression to tension. Finally, results showed that micro-crack initiation was the main mechanism for chip formation.

  17. Electroweak Boson Production in Association with Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focke, Christfried Hermann

    The high energies involved in modern collider experiments lead to hadronic final states that are often boosted inside collimated jets and surrounded by soft radiation. Together with tracking and energy information from leptons and photons, these jets contain essential information about a collision event. A good theoretical understanding is vital for measurements within the Standard Model (SM) as well as for background modeling required for new physics searches. Often one is interested in hadronic final states with cuts on jets in order to reduce backgrounds. For example, by imposing a central jet veto pcut in H → WW → lnulnu one can greatly reduce contamination from tt¯ → WW bb¯. Imposing such a jet veto comes at the cost of introducing potentially large logarithms L = ln pcut/Q into the cross section (Q is the hard scale), since the cuts restrict the cancellation of soft and collinear divergences between real and virtual diagrams. There are at most two powers of L for each power of the strong coupling constant alphas and this can spoil the convergence of the perturbative series when alpha sL2 ˜ 1 . We resume these logarithmically enhanced terms to all orders within the framework of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) in order to recover the convergence and obtain reliable predictions for several processes. Another focus of this dissertation is the application of SCET in fixed order predictions of electroweak boson production in association with an exclusive number of final state jets. We employ the N-jettiness event-shape TN to resolve the infrared singularity structure of QCD in the presence of N signal jets. This allows us to obtain the first complete next-to-next-to leading order predictions for W, Z and Higgs boson production in association with one jet.

  18. Modeling of Micro Deval abrasion loss based on some rock properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capik, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Ali Osman

    2017-10-01

    Aggregate is one of the most widely used construction material. The quality of the aggregate is determined using some testing methods. Among these methods, the Micro Deval Abrasion Loss (MDAL) test is commonly used for the determination of the quality and the abrasion resistance of aggregate. The main objective of this study is to develop models for the prediction of MDAL from rock properties, including uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, point load index, Schmidt rebound hardness, apparent porosity, void ratio Cerchar abrasivity index and Bohme abrasion test are examined. Additionally, the MDAL is modeled using simple regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis based on the rock properties. The study shows that the MDAL decreases with the increase of uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, point load index, Schmidt rebound hardness and Cerchar abrasivity index. It is also concluded that the MDAL increases with the increase of apparent porosity, void ratio and Bohme abrasion test. The modeling results show that the models based on Bohme abrasion test and L type Schmidt rebound hardness give the better forecasting performances for the MDAL. More models, including the uniaxial compressive strength, the apparent porosity and Cerchar abrasivity index, are developed for the rapid estimation of the MDAL of the rocks. The developed models were verified by statistical tests. Additionally, it can be stated that the proposed models can be used as a forecasting for aggregate quality.

  19. Effect of nanofillers' size on surface properties after toothbrush abrasion.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Larissa M; Masouras, Konstantinos; Watts, David C; Pimenta, Luiz A; Silikas, Nick

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the effect of filler-particle size of experimental and commercial resin composites, undergoing toothbrush abrasion, on three surface properties: surface roughness (SR), surface gloss (G) and color stability (CS). Four model (Ivoclar/Vivadent) and one commercial resin composite (Tokuyama) with varying filler-size from 100-1000 nm were examined. Six discs (10 mm x 2 mm) from each product were prepared and mechanically polished. The samples were then submitted to 20,000 brushing strokes in a toothbrush abrasion machine. SR parameters (Ra, Rt and RSm), G, and CS were measured before and after toothbrush abrasion. Changes in SR and G were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, with Bonferroni post hoc test. CS values were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test (alpha=0.05). Initial G values ranged between 73-87 gloss units (GU) and were reduced after toothbrush abrasion to a range of 8-64 GU. Toothbrush abrasion resulted in significant modifications in SR and G amongst the materials tested, attributed to filler sizes. There was statistically significant difference in color (delta E* ranged from 0.38-0.88). Filler size did not affect color stability. Toothbrush abrasion resulted in rougher and matte surfaces for all materials tested. Although the individual differences in surface roughness among filler sizes were not always significant, the correlation showed a trend that larger filler sizes resulted in higher surface roughness after abrasion for the SR parameters Ra and Rt (r = 0.95; r = 0.93, respectively). RSm showed an increase after toothbrush abrasion for all resin composites, however no significant correlation was detected (r = 0.21).There was a significant correlation between G and Ra ratios (r = - 0.95).

  20. Life cycle water footprint analysis for rapeseed derived jet fuel in North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rapeseed is a promising feedstock source for hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) jet fuel production to address energy security and climate change mitigation. However, concerns have been raised about its impact on water as large scale biofuels production may place pressure on fresh water su...

  1. Water jetting for the mitigation of defects in drilled shafts : a laboratory investigation of jetting effectiveness in different deleterious materials.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-09-01

    Presented in this report are results of a laboratory investigation designed to examine the effectiveness of water : jetting as a means for mitigating defects in drilled shaft foundations. The primary objective of this research was : to establish an e...

  2. Sustainable and long-time 'rejuvenation' of biomimetic water-repellent silica coating on polyester fabrics induced by rough mechanical abrasion.

    PubMed

    Rosu, Cornelia; Lin, Haisheng; Jiang, Lu; Breedveld, Victor; Hess, Dennis W

    2018-04-15

    The economical use of water-repellent coatings on polymeric materials in commercial and industrial applications is limited by their mechanical wear robustness and long-term durability. In this study, we demonstrate that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric modified with inorganic, methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS)-based coatings shows excellent resistance against various types of wear damage, thereby mimicking superhydrophobic biological materials. These features were facilitated by the rational design of coating processing that also enabled tunable hierarchical surface structure. A series of custom and standard testing protocols revealed that coating-to-substrate adhesion was remarkably high, as was the resistance to various mechanical abradents. The most intriguing characteristic observed during aging and abrasion cycles was the enhancement in non-wettability or 'rejuvenation' reflected by water droplet roll-off behavior, a characteristic of self-cleaning materials. Water-repellent properties of coated polyester were also enhanced by prolonged thermal annealing and were maintained after custom laundry. The developed technology offers opportunities to design low cost, durable and functional textiles for both indoor and outdoor applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. IRAS 18113-2503: THE WATER FOUNTAIN WITH THE FASTEST JET?

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Jose F.; Guerrero, MartIn A.; Ricardo Rizzo, J.

    2011-09-20

    We present Expanded Very Large Array water maser observations at 22 GHz toward the source IRAS 18113-2503. Maser components span over a very high velocity range of {approx_equal} 500 km s{sup -1}, the second largest found in a Galactic maser, only surpassed by the high-mass star-forming region W49N. Maser components are grouped into a blueshifted and a redshifted cluster, separated by 0.''12. Further mid-IR and radio data suggest that IRAS 18113-2503 is a post-asymptotic giant branch star, thus a new bona fide member of the rare class of 'water fountains' (WFs). It is the evolved object with the largest totalmore » velocity spread in its water masers and with the highest velocity dispersion within its redshifted and blueshifted lobes ({approx_equal} 170 km s{sup -1}). The large total velocity range of emission probably indicates that IRAS 18113-2503 has the fastest jet among the known WF stars. On the other hand, the remarkably high velocity dispersion within each lobe may be interpreted in terms of shocks produced by an episode of mass ejection whose velocity increased up to very high values or, alternatively, by projection effects in a jet with a large opening angle and/or precessing motions.« less

  4. Efficacy of a Novel Narrow Knife with Water Jet Function for Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Yutaka; Rani, Rafiz Abdul; Naito, Yuji; Azuma, Takeshi; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds With respect to the knife's design in colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), diameter, water jet function, and electric power are important because these relate to efficient dissection. In this study, we analyzed a novel, narrow ball tip-typed ESD knife with water jet function (Flush knife BT-S, diameter: 2.2 mm, length: 2000 mm, Fujifilm Co., Tokyo, Japan) compared to a regular diameter knife (Flush knife BT, diameter: 2.6 mm, length: 1800 mm). Methods In laboratory and clinical research, electric power, knife insertion time, vacuum/suction amount with knife in the endoscopic channel, and water jet function were analyzed. We used a knife 2.0 mm long for BT-S and BT knives. Results The BT-S showed faster mean knife insertion time (sec) and better vacuum amount (ml/min) compared to the BT (insertion time: 16.7 versus 21.6, p < 0.001, vacuum amount: 38.0 versus 14.0, p < 0.01). Additionally, the water jet function of the BT-S was not inferior. In 39 colorectal ESD cases in two institutions, there were mean 4.7 times (range: 1–28) of knife insertion. Suction under knife happened 59% (23/39) and suction of fluid could be done in 100%. Conclusions Our study showed that the narrow knife allows significantly faster knife insertion, better vacuum function, and effective clinical results. PMID:29081793

  5. Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production of high quality, fresh-cut produce is a key driver for the produce industry. A critical area of concern is the chlorinated wash water used during post-harvest processing in large industrial processing facilities. Predominantly using a batch process, wash water is recycled over 8hr shift...

  6. Mars Pathfinder: The Wheel Abrasion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE) will measure the amount of wear on wheel surfaces of the Mars Pathfinder rover. WAE uses thin films of Al, Ni, and Pt (ranging in thickness from 200 to 1000 angstroms) deposited on black, anodized Al strips attached to the rover wheel. As the wheel moves across the martian surface, changes in film reflectivity will be monitored by reflected sunlight. These changes, measured as output from a special photodetector mounted on the rover chassis, will be due to abrasion of the metal films by martian surface sand, dust, and clay.

  7. Jet shapes in dijet events at the LHC in SCET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornig, Andrew; Makris, Yiannis; Mehen, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    We consider the class of jet shapes known as angularities in dijet production at hadron colliders. These angularities are modified from the original definitions in e + e - collisions to be boost invariant along the beam axis. These shapes apply to the constituents of jets defined with respect to either k T -type (anti- k T , C/ A, and k T ) algorithms and cone-type algorithms. We present an SCET factorization formula and calculate the ingredients needed to achieve next-to-leading-log (NLL) accuracy in kinematic regions where non-global logarithms are not large. The factorization formula involves previously unstudied "unmeasured beam functions," which are present for finite rapidity cuts around the beams. We derive relations between the jet functions and the shape-dependent part of the soft function that appear in the factorized cross section and those previously calculated for e + e - collisions, and present the calculation of the non-trivial, color-connected part of the soft-function to O({α}_s) . This latter part of the soft function is universal in the sense that it applies to any experimental setup with an out-of-jet p T veto and rapidity cuts together with two identified jets and it is independent of the choice of jet (sub-)structure measurement. In addition, we implement the recently introduced soft-collinear refactorization to resum logarithms of the jet size, valid in the region of non-enhanced non-global logarithm effects. While our results are valid for all 2 → 2 channels, we compute explicitly for the qq' → qq' channel the color-flow matrices and plot the NLL resummed differential dijet cross section as an explicit example, which shows that the normalization and scale uncertainty is reduced when the soft function is refactorized. For this channel, we also plot the jet size R dependence, the p T cut dependence, and the dependence on the angularity parameter a.

  8. Jet shapes in dijet events at the LHC in SCET

    DOE PAGES

    Hornig, Andrew; Makris, Yiannis; Mehen, Thomas

    2016-04-15

    Here, we consider the class of jet shapes known as angularities in dijet production at hadron colliders. These angularities are modified from the original definitions in e + e- collisions to be boost invariant along the beam axis. These shapes apply to the constituents of jets defined with respect to either k T-type (anti-k T, C/A, and k T) algorithms and cone-type algorithms. We present an SCET factorization formula and calculate the ingredients needed to achieve next-to-leading-log (NLL) accuracy in kinematic regions where non-global logarithms are not large. The factorization formula involves previously unstudied “unmeasured beam functions,” which are present for finite rapidity cuts around the beams. We derive relations between the jet functions and the shape-dependent part of the soft function that appear in the factorized cross section and those previously calculated for e +e - collisions, and present the calculation of the non-trivial, color-connected part of the soft-function to O(αs) . This latter part of the soft function is universal in the sense that it applies to any experimental setup with an out-of-jet p T veto and rapidity cuts together with two identified jets and it is independent of the choice of jet (sub-)structure measurement. In addition, we implement the recently introduced soft-collinear refactorization to resum logarithms of the jet size, valid in the region of non-enhanced non-global logarithm effects. While our results are valid for all 2 → 2 channels, we compute explicitly for the qq' → qq' channel the color-flow matrices and plot the NLL resummed differential dijet cross section as an explicit example, which shows that the normalization and scale uncertainty is reduced when the soft function is refactorized. For this channel, we also plot the jet size R dependence, the pmore » $$cut\\atop{T}$$ dependence, and the dependence on the angularity parameter a.« less

  9. Microleakage of class V resin composite restorations after bur, air-abrasion or Er:YAG laser preparation.

    PubMed

    Corona, S A; Borsatto, M; Dibb, R G; Ramos, R P; Brugnera, A; Pécora, J D

    2001-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the microleakage of Class V resin composite restorations placed in cavities prepared with a high-speed dental bur, air-abrasion or Er:YAG laser. Twenty sound extracted human third molars were selected and randomly assigned to four equal Groups (n=10): Group I, cavities were cut by dental drill at high-speed; Group II, aluminum oxide air-abrasion was used for cavity preparation, and in Groups III and IV, cavities were prepared by Er:YAG laser. Following cavity preparation, Groups I and II were acid-etched, Group III was treated only by Er:YAG laser and Group IV was conditioned by Er:YAG laser followed by acid-etching. Cavities were restored (Single Bond + Z-100) and the teeth stored for seven days in distilled water. Then, the restorations were polished and the specimens thermocycled, immersed in a 0.2% Rhodamine solution, sectioned and analyzed for leakage at the occlusal (enamel) and cervical (dentin/cementum) interfaces using an optical microscope connected to a video camera. The images were digitized and software was utilized for microleakage assessment. Upon analyzing the results, statistically significant differences (p<0.01) between the occlusal and cervical regions for all groups was observed, and, as a rule, there was better marginal sealing at the enamel margins. The highest degree of infiltration was observed for cavities prepared and treated exclusively by Er:YAG (Group III). The other experimental groups showed statistical similarities in the amount of marginal leakage at the enamel margins. However, at the cervical margins, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between Group I and the remaining groups. None of the techniques completely eliminated marginal microleakage at the dentin/ cementum margins.

  10. Integrity of high-velocity water slug generated by an impacting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehkhoda, Sevda; Bourne, Neil

    2013-06-01

    A pulsed water jet is a series of discrete water slugs travelling at high velocity. Immediately after striking a target, these slugs apply high-intensity, short-duration transient stress known as the water hammer pressure, followed by low-intensity, long-duration stationary stress at the stagnation pressure. The magnitude and duration of the water hammer and stagnation pressures are controlled by the size and quality of the water slugs. The use of water jets for rock cutting in mining operations is a centuries-old technology; however, practical methods for producing high-energy water slugs repeatedly have proven difficult. This can be partly due to the fact that the geometrical properties of a jet and so its effectiveness in creating damage is controlled and influenced by the method that is employed to generate the water slugs. This paper investigates the integrity of a single water slug produced using an impacting technique where a hammer strikes a piston, resting on top of a water-filled chamber. The coherence of the generated water pulse was of concern in this study. If repeated shock reflections within the chamber were transmitted or were carried into the internal geometry of nozzle, the emerging jet could pulsate. The impact impulse of the formed water jet was measured in a Kel-F target material using an embedded PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) shock gauge. The recorded stress waveform was then used to study the quality and endurance of the water pulse stream as it travelled through air.

  11. Wear resistance and mechanisms of composite hardfacings at abrasive impact erosion wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhenkov, A.; Viljus, M.; Simson, T.; Tarbe, R.; Saarna, M.; Casesnoves, F.

    2017-05-01

    Tungsten carbide based hardmetal containing sprayed and melted composite hardfacings are prospective for protection against abrasive wear. For selection of abrasive wear resistant hardfacings under intensive impact wear conditions, both mechanical properties (hardness, fracture toughness, etc.) and abrasive wear conditions (type of abrasive, impact velocity, etc.) should be considered. This study focuses on the wear (wear rate and mechanisms) of thick metal-matrix composite hardfacings with hardmetal (WC-Co) reinforcement produced by powder metallurgy technology. The influence of the hardmetal reinforcement type on the wear resistance at different abrasive impact erosion wear (AIEW) conditions was studied. An optimal reinforcement for various wear conditions is described. Based on wear mechanism studies, a mathematical model for wear prediction was drafted.

  12. Oil-in-water emulsification using confined impinging jets.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Shad W; Norton, Ian T

    2012-07-01

    A confined impinging jet mixing device has been used to investigate the continuous sunflower oil/water emulsification process under turbulent flow conditions with oil contents between 5% (v/v) and 10% (v/v). Various emulsifiers (Tween20, Span80, Whey Protein, Lecithin and Sodium Dodecylsulphate) varying in molecular weights have been studied. Mean droplet sizes varied with the emulsifiers used and smallest droplets were obtained under fully turbulent flow regime, i.e. at the highest jet flow rate and highest jet Reynolds Number conditions. Sodium Dodecylsulfate (SDS) produced droplets in the range of 3.8 μm while 6 μm droplets were obtained with Whey Protein. Similar droplet sizes were obtained under fully turbulent flow conditions (610 mL/min; Reynolds Number=13,000) for oil content varying between 5% (v/v) and 10% (v/v). To investigate the smallest droplet size possible in the device, the emulsion was passed through the geometry multiple times. Multi-pass emulsification resulted in reduction in droplet size indicating that longer residence in the flow field under high shear condition allowed for breakage of droplets as well as the time for the emulsifier to stabilize the newly formed droplets, decreasing the impact of coalescence. This was confirmed by timescale analysis of the involved process steps for the droplet data obtained via experiments. Dependence of mean droplet size on the o/w interfacial tension and peak energy dissipation was also investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of Abrasive-Waterjets for Machining Fatigue-Critical Aircraft Aluminum Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H T; Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E

    2010-08-19

    Current specifications require AWJ-cut aluminum parts for fatigue critical aerospace structures to go through subsequent processing due to concerns of degradation in fatigue performance. The requirement of secondary process for AWJ-machined parts greatly negates the cost effectiveness of waterjet technology. Some cost savings are envisioned if it can be shown that AWJ net cut parts have comparable durability properties as those conventionally machined. To revisit and upgrade the specifications for AWJ machining of aircraft aluminum, “Dog-bone” specimens, with and without secondary processes, were prepared for independent fatigue tests at Boeing and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Test results show thatmore » the fatigue life is proportional to quality levels of machined edges or inversely proportional to the surface roughness Ra . Even at highest quality level, the average fatigue life of AWJ-machined parts is about 30% shorter than those of conventionally machined counterparts. Between two secondary processes, dry-grit blasting with aluminum oxide abrasives until the striation is removed visually yields excellent result. It actually prolongs the fatigue life of parts at least three times higher than that achievable with conventional machining. Dry-grit blasting is relatively simple and inexpensive to administrate and, equally important, alleviates the concerns of garnet embedment.« less

  14. Literature Review on Demilitarization of Munitions: Document Prepared for the RIGHTTRAC Technology Demonstration Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    shock, fire and impact by shrapnel or bullets but is still able to explode as intended in order to destroy its target. Two main charge explosives...involves the opening of the munitions by using a highly pressurized water jet and some abrasive material, like garnet. It was disclosed in US Patents...noise and spread of abrasive and debris around the area [23] and also avoid the production of sparks due to metal to metal contact. The water

  15. The water-filled versus air-filled status of vessels cut open in air: the 'Scholander assumption' revisited

    Treesearch

    M.T. Tyree; H. Cochard; P. Cruziat

    2003-01-01

    When petioles of transpiring leaves are cut in the air, according to the 'Scholander assumption', the vessels cut open should fill with air as the water is drained away by continued transpiration, The distribution of air-filled vessels versus distance from the cut surface should match the distribution of lengths of 'open vessels', i.e. vessels cut...

  16. Mangrove Cultivation For Dealing With Coastal Abrasion Case Study Of Karangsong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatimatuzzahroh, Feti; Hadi, Sudharto P.; Purnaweni, Hartuti

    2018-02-01

    Coastal abrasion is consequence from destructive waves and sea current. One of cause is human intervention. The effort to solve of abrasion is by mangrove cultivation. Mangroves are halophyte plant that can restrain the sea wave. Mangrove cultivation required participation community that give awareness the importance of mangrove in coastal sustainability. Mangroves in coastal Karangsong, Indramayu west java, in 2007 was through abrasion approximately 127.30 ha. Mangrove cultivation in Karangsong has been replanting since 1998 to 2003, but there was no maintenance and management. In 2007 until 2015 Karangsong replanting mangroves and has been succeed. Karangsong became the center of mangrove study for west java area in 2015. This achievement is result of cooperation between community, NGO, and local government. In addition, this effort made not only overcome the abrasion problem but also give community awareness about the importance of mangrove cultivation in preventing coastal abrasion throughout community development. This paper reviews abrasion in Karangsong and the impact for local community and empowerment in mangrove cultivation. To achieve the success mangrove cultivation required community development approach from planning process, planting, maintenance and management.

  17. Abrasion resistance of direct and indirect resins as a function of a sealant veneer.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Caneppele, Taciana Marco; Rocha, Daniel Maranha; Màximo Araujo, Maria Amelia; Valera, Màrcia Carneiro; Salazar Marocho, Susana MarIa

    2014-01-01

    Abrasive wear is one of the most common type of wear that not only affect teeth, as also dental restorations. Thus to investigate one of the etiological factors as tooth brushing procedure is clinical relevant in order to select the best material combination that may prevent damage of resin dental restoration's abrasion. This study evaluated the influence of tooth brushing on mass loss and surface roughness of direct Venus (Vs) and indirect Signum (Sg) resin composites, with and without a surface sealant, Fortify (F). Twenty-four specimens were prepared with each resin composite, using their proprietary curing units, according to manufacturer's instructions. All the specimens were polished and ultrasonically cleaned in distilled water for 5 minutes. Half of the specimens of each resin (n = 12) were covered with F (Vs F and Sg F ), except for the control (C) specimens (Vs C and Sg C ), which were not sealed. Mass loss (ML) as well as surface roughness (Ra ) was measured for all the specimens. Then, the specimens were subjected to toothbrush-dentifrice abrasion, using a testing machine for 67.000 brushing strokes, in an abrasive slurry. After brushing simulation, the specimens were removed from the holder, rinsed thoroughly and blot dried with soft absorbent paper. The abrasion of the material was quantitatively determined with final measurements of ML and surface roughness, using the method described above. ML data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the analysis indicated that resin composites were not statistically different; however, the specimens sealed with F showed higher ML. Ra mean values of the groups Vs F and Sg F significantly increased. Tooth brushing affects mainly the roughness of the direct and indirect resin composites veneered with a sealant.

  18. Valve for abrasive material

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Harold S.

    1982-01-01

    A ball valve assembly for controlling the flow of abrasive particulates including an enlarged section at the bore inlet and an enlarged section at the bore outlet. A refractory ceramic annular deflector is positioned in each of the enlarged sections, substantially extending the useful life of the valve.

  19. Decontamination methods using a dental water jet and dental floss for microthreaded implant fixtures in regenerative periimplantitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Shin, Seung-Yun; Koo, Ki-Tae; Lee, Yong-Moo; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Seol, Yang-Jo

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated decontamination methods using a dental water jet and dental floss on microthreaded implants for regenerative periimplantitis therapy. In 6 beagle dogs, experimental periimplantitis was induced, and decontamination procedures, including manual saline irrigation (control group), saline irrigation using a dental water jet (group 1) and saline irrigation using a dental water jet with dental flossing (group 2), were performed. After in situ decontamination procedures, some of the implant fixtures (n = 4 per group) were retrieved for analysis by SEM, whereas other fixtures (n = 4 per group) underwent regenerative therapy. After 3 months of healing, the animals were killed. The SEM examination indicated that decontamination of the implant surfaces was the most effective in group 2, with no changes in implant surface morphology. The histological examination also revealed that group 2 achieved significantly greater amounts of newly formed bone (6.75 ± 2.19 mm; P = 0.018), reosseointegration (1.88 ± 1.79 mm; P = 0.038), and vertical bone fill (26.69 ± 18.42%; P = 0.039). Decontamination using a dental water jet and dental floss on microthreaded implants showed positive mechanical debridement effects and positive bone regeneration effects.

  20. Optical-model abrasion cross sections for high-energy heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    Within the context of eikonal scattering theory, a generalized optical model potential approximation to the nucleus-nucleus multiple scattering series is used in an abrasion-ablation collision model to predict abrasion cross sections for relativistic projectile heavy ions. Unlike the optical limit of Glauber theory, which cannot be used for very light nuclei, the abrasion formalism is valid for any projectile target combination at any incident kinetic energy for which eikonal scattering theory can be utilized. Results are compared with experimental results and predictions from Glauber theory.

  1. Effects of wind on the dynamics of the central jet during drop impact onto a deep-water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinan; Wang, An; Wang, Shuang; Dai, Dejun

    2018-05-01

    The cavity and central jet generated by the impact of a single water drop on a deep-water surface in a wind field are experimentally studied. Different experiments are performed by varying the impacting drop diameter and wind speed. The contour profile histories of the cavity (also called crater) and central jet (also called stalk) are measured in detail with a backlit cinematic shadowgraph technique. The results show that shortly after the drop hits the water surface an asymmetrical cavity appears along the wind direction, with a train of capillary waves on the cavity wall. This is followed by the formation of an inclined central jet at the location of the drop impact. It is found that the wind has little effect on the penetration depth of the cavity at the early stage of the cavity expansion, but markedly changes the capillary waves during the retraction of the cavity. The capillary waves in turn shift the position of the central jet formation leeward. The dynamics of the central jet are dominated by two mechanisms: (i) the oblique drop impact produced by the wind and (ii) the wind drag force directly acting on the jet. The maximum height of the central jet, called the stalk height, is drastically affected by the wind, and the nondimensional stalk height H /D decreases with increasing θ Re-1 , where D is the drop diameter, θ is the impingement angle of drop impact, and Re=ρaUwD /μa is the Reynolds number with air density ρa, wind speed Uw, and air viscosity μa.

  2. Public Notice: Saint-Gobain Abrasives, Inc. and Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc., CWA-01-2016-0057

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Notice of Proposed Assessment of Class II Civil Penalty and Notice of Opportunity for Hearing under Sections 309(g) and 311(b)(6) of the Clean Water Act for Saint-Gobain Abrasives, Inc. and Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc., CWA-01-2016-0057

  3. Release of copper-amended particles from micronized copper-pressure-treated wood during mechanical abrasion.

    PubMed

    Civardi, Chiara; Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kaiser, Jean-Pierre; Hirsch, Cordula; Mucchino, Claudio; Wichser, Adrian; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2016-11-28

    We investigated the particles released due to abrasion of wood surfaces pressure-treated with micronized copper azole (MCA) wood preservative and we gathered preliminary data on its in vitro cytotoxicity for lung cells. The data were compared with particles released after abrasion of untreated, water (0% MCA)-pressure-treated, chromated copper (CC)-pressure-treated wood, and varnished wood. Size, morphology, and composition of the released particles were analyzed. Our results indicate that the abrasion of MCA-pressure-treated wood does not cause an additional release of nanoparticles from the unreacted copper (Cu) carbonate nanoparticles from of the MCA formulation. However, a small amount of released Cu was detected in the nanosized fraction of wood dust, which could penetrate the deep lungs. The acute cytotoxicity studies were performed on a human lung epithelial cell line and human macrophages derived from a monocytic cell line. These cell types are likely to encounter the released wood particles after inhalation. Our findings indicate that under the experimental conditions chosen, MCA does not pose a specific additional nano-risk, i.e. there is no additional release of nanoparticles and no specific nano-toxicity for lung epithelial cells and macrophages.

  4. Effect of Whitening Toothpastes on Dentin Abrasion: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Gustavo Henrique Apolinario; Nogueira, Marcia Bessa; Gaio, Eduardo Jose; Rosing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Santiago, Sergio Lima; Rego, Rodrigo Otavio

    To compare the effect of toothbrushing abrasion with hydrated silica-based whitening and regular toothpastes on root dentin using contact profilometry. Ninety dentin specimens (4 x 4 x 2 mm) were randomly divided into five experimental groups (n = 18) according to the toothpaste: three whitening (W1, W2 and W3) and two regular toothpastes (R1 and R2) produced by two different manufacturers. Using a brushing machine, each specimen was brushed with a constant load of 300 g for 2500 cycles (4.5 cycles/s). The toothpastes were diluted at a ratio of 1:3 w/w (dentifrice:distilled water). The brush diamond tip of the profilometer moved at a constant speed of 0.05 mm/s with a force of 0.7 mN. The average value of brushing abrasion in μm (mean ± SD) was obtained from five consecutive measurements of each specimen: W1 = 8.86 ± 1.58, W2 = 7.59 ± 1.04, W3 = 8.27 ± 2.39, R1 = 2.89 ± 1.05 and R2= 2.94 ± 1.29. There was a significant difference between groups (ANOVA, p<0.0001). Post-hoc Tukey's test for multiple comparisons showed differences between all the whitening and regular toothpastes, but not among the whitening nor among the regular toothpastes. The whitening toothpastes tested can cause more dentin abrasion than the regular ones.

  5. A Review on Parametric Analysis of Magnetic Abrasive Machining Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattri, Krishna; Choudhary, Gulshan; Bhuyan, B. K.; Selokar, Ashish

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic abrasive machining (MAM) process is a highly developed unconventional machining process. It is frequently used in manufacturing industries for nanometer range surface finishing of workpiece with the help of Magnetic abrasive particles (MAPs) and magnetic force applied in the machining zone. It is precise and faster than conventional methods and able to produce defect free finished components. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the recent advancement of MAM process carried out by different researcher till date. The effect of different input parameters such as rotational speed of electromagnet, voltage, magnetic flux density, abrasive particles size and working gap on the performances of Material Removal Rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) have been discussed. On the basis of review, it is observed that the rotational speed of electromagnet, voltage and mesh size of abrasive particles have significant impact on MAM process.

  6. Abrasion Plus Local Fibrin Sealant Instillation Produces Pleurodesis Similar to Pleurectomy in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Evaldo; de Carvalho, Marcus V H; Ventureli, Tiago R; Fruchi, Andre J; Lazaro, Ariane; do Carmo, Deborah C; Barreto, Thayssa Y A S; Dias, Bruno V B; Acencio, Milena M P; Teixeira, Lisete R; Light, Richard W

    2016-09-01

    Pleurodesis performed either by pleurectomy or pleural abrasion is recommended in the approach to primary spontaneous pneumothorax to avoid recurrence. However, the efficacy of parietal pleural abrasion in producing pleurodesis is questioned. This study aims to determine the efficacy of apical abrasion alone, abrasion plus fibrin sealant application, and pleurectomy in producing pleurodesis in rabbits. Rabbits were subjected to video-assisted thoracic surgery alone (control) or to video-assisted thoracic surgery with apical gauze abrasion, abrasion plus fibrin sealant instillation, or apical pleurectomy. Blood samples were collected preoperatively and 48 h and 28 days postoperatively to measure total leukocytes (white blood cell count), neutrophil counts, and serum interleukin (IL)-8 levels. After 28 days the animals were sacrificed for macroscopic evaluation of the degree of apical pleurodesis and microscopic evaluation of local pleural fibrosis and collagen deposition. White blood cell and neutrophil counts were similar in all groups, whereas the serum IL-8 level peaked at 48 h in all groups and decreased after 28 days, except in the pleurectomy group. After 28 days the abrasion plus fibrin sealant and pleurectomy groups had significantly more pleural adhesions, pleural fibrosis, and collagen deposition than the abrasion alone group, mainly due to thick mature fibers. Abrasion with local fibrin sealant instillation is as effective as pleurectomy in producing pleurodesis in rabbits. Apical pleurectomy elicits a more persistent elevation of serum IL-8 levels than apical abrasion alone or abrasion plus fibrin adhesive instillation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aliasing Signal Separation of Superimposed Abrasive Debris Based on Degenerate Unmixing Estimation Technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Tongyang; Wang, Shaoping; Zio, Enrico; Shi, Jian; Hong, Wei

    2018-03-15

    Leakage is the most important failure mode in aircraft hydraulic systems caused by wear and tear between friction pairs of components. The accurate detection of abrasive debris can reveal the wear condition and predict a system's lifespan. The radial magnetic field (RMF)-based debris detection method provides an online solution for monitoring the wear condition intuitively, which potentially enables a more accurate diagnosis and prognosis on the aviation hydraulic system's ongoing failures. To address the serious mixing of pipe abrasive debris, this paper focuses on the superimposed abrasive debris separation of an RMF abrasive sensor based on the degenerate unmixing estimation technique. Through accurately separating and calculating the morphology and amount of the abrasive debris, the RMF-based abrasive sensor can provide the system with wear trend and sizes estimation of the wear particles. A well-designed experiment was conducted and the result shows that the proposed method can effectively separate the mixed debris and give an accurate count of the debris based on RMF abrasive sensor detection.

  8. Aliasing Signal Separation of Superimposed Abrasive Debris Based on Degenerate Unmixing Estimation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tongyang; Wang, Shaoping; Zio, Enrico; Shi, Jian; Hong, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Leakage is the most important failure mode in aircraft hydraulic systems caused by wear and tear between friction pairs of components. The accurate detection of abrasive debris can reveal the wear condition and predict a system’s lifespan. The radial magnetic field (RMF)-based debris detection method provides an online solution for monitoring the wear condition intuitively, which potentially enables a more accurate diagnosis and prognosis on the aviation hydraulic system’s ongoing failures. To address the serious mixing of pipe abrasive debris, this paper focuses on the superimposed abrasive debris separation of an RMF abrasive sensor based on the degenerate unmixing estimation technique. Through accurately separating and calculating the morphology and amount of the abrasive debris, the RMF-based abrasive sensor can provide the system with wear trend and sizes estimation of the wear particles. A well-designed experiment was conducted and the result shows that the proposed method can effectively separate the mixed debris and give an accurate count of the debris based on RMF abrasive sensor detection. PMID:29543733

  9. Shoe heel abrasion and its possible biomechanical cause: a transversal study with infantry recruits.

    PubMed

    Baumfeld, Daniel; Raduan, Fernando C; Macedo, Benjamim; Silva, Thiago Alexandre Alves; Baumfeld, Tiago; Favato, Danilo Fabrino; de Andrade, Marco Antonio Percope; Nery, Caio

    2015-11-19

    Excessive shoe heel abrasion is of concern to patients and shoe manufacturers, but little scientific information is available about this feature and its possible causes. The purpose of this study was to relate this phenomenon with biomechanical factors that could predispose to shoe heel abrasion. Ninety-seven recruits (median age 25) were enrolled in this study. Shoe abrasion was assessed manually with a metric plastic tape on the posterior part of the heel that comes in contact with the ground. The number of sprains, foot alignment, and calf muscle shortening (Silfverskiold test) was also assessed in order to relate it with shoe heel abrasion. After using our exclusion criteria, 86 recruits and 172 were considered for this study. The most common abrasion site was the lateral portion of the heel surface (50 %). Forty-four percent of the participants had neutral hind-foot alignment and 39 % had valgus alignment. Twenty-six (30 %) patients have had previous ankle or foot sprains. Neutral foot was related with less calf muscle shortening. On the other hand, valgus hind-foot alignment was more associated with Achilles shortening (p < 0.05). Patients with neutral alignment were associated with more uniform shoe heel abrasion and varus feet were associated with more central and lateral abrasion (p < 0.05). The pattern of shoe heel abrasion was not statistically related with calf muscle shortening nor with number of sprains. This study was able to correlate shoe heel abrasion with biomechanical causes (neutral alignment-uniform abrasion/varus alignment-central and lateral abrasion). More effort has to be done to continue evaluating outsole abrasion with its possible biomechanical cause in order to predict and treat possible associated injuries.

  10. [Brushing abrasion of the enamel surface after erosion].

    PubMed

    Lipei, Chen; Xiangke, Ci; Xiaoyan, Ou

    2017-08-01

    Objective A study was conducted to compare the effect of different enamel remineralization periods after erosion on the depth of brushing abrasion. Methods Ten volunteers were selected for a 4-day experiment. A total of 60 enamels were randomly assigned into six groups (A-F) and placed in intraoral palatal devices. On the first day, the palatal devices were placed in oral cavity (24 h) . On the following three days, brushing experiments were performed extraorally, two times per day. The specific experimental method of brushing follows these next steps. First, the group F specimens were covered with a film of wax, and then acid etched for 2 min. Subsequently, the film of wax was detached. The groups from A to D were brushed after remineralization at the following time intervals: group A, 0 min; group B, 20 min; group C, 40 min; group D, 60 min. Erosion and remineralization were performed on group E, but without brushing. Remineralization was performed on group F, but without acid etching and brushing. The depth of enamel abrasion was determined by a mechanical profilometer. The surface morphology of the enamel blocks was observed using a scanning electron microscope. Results 1) The depth of abrasion was different in varied enamel remineralization time after acid etching. The statistical significant differences between groups were as follows. 2) When the time of enamel remineralization after acid etching was short, the surface depression in the electron microscope was deep, and the surface morphology was rough. Conclusion Brushing immediately after acid etching would cause much serious abrasion to the enamel surface. Brushing after 60 min can effectively reduce the abrasion of acid etching enamel.

  11. Investigations on Surface Milling of Hardened AISI 4140 Steel with Pulse Jet MQL Applicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Mahmood Al; Mia, Mozammel; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

    2018-06-01

    In this article, an experimental investigation was performed in milling hardened AISI 4140 steel of hardness 40 HRC. The machining was performed in both dry and minimal quantity lubricant (MQL) conditions, as part of neat machining, to make a strong comparison of the undertaken machining environments. The MQL was impinged int the form of pulse jet, by using the specially developed pulse-jet-attachment, to ensure that the cutting fluid can be applied in different timed pulses and quantities at critical zones. The tool wear, cutting force and surface roughness were taken as the quality responses while cutting speed, table feed rate and flow rate of the pulse were considered as influential factors. The depth of cut was kept constant at 1.50 mm because of its less significant effects and the straight oil was adopted as cutting fluid in pulse-jet-MQL. The effects of different factors, on the quality responses, are analyzed using ANOVA. It is observed that MQL applicator system exhibits overall better performance when compared to dry milling by reducing surface roughness, cutting force and prolonging tool life but a flow rate of 150 ml/h has tremendous effects on the responses. This investigation and afterward results are expected to aid the industrial practitioner and researcher to adopt the pulse-MQL in high speed milling to prolong tool life, reduce tool wear, diminish cutting force generation and promote better surface finish.

  12. Investigations on Surface Milling of Hardened AISI 4140 Steel with Pulse Jet MQL Applicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Mahmood Al; Mia, Mozammel; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

    2016-06-01

    In this article, an experimental investigation was performed in milling hardened AISI 4140 steel of hardness 40 HRC. The machining was performed in both dry and minimal quantity lubricant (MQL) conditions, as part of neat machining, to make a strong comparison of the undertaken machining environments. The MQL was impinged int the form of pulse jet, by using the specially developed pulse-jet-attachment, to ensure that the cutting fluid can be applied in different timed pulses and quantities at critical zones. The tool wear, cutting force and surface roughness were taken as the quality responses while cutting speed, table feed rate and flow rate of the pulse were considered as influential factors. The depth of cut was kept constant at 1.50 mm because of its less significant effects and the straight oil was adopted as cutting fluid in pulse-jet-MQL. The effects of different factors, on the quality responses, are analyzed using ANOVA. It is observed that MQL applicator system exhibits overall better performance when compared to dry milling by reducing surface roughness, cutting force and prolonging tool life but a flow rate of 150 ml/h has tremendous effects on the responses. This investigation and afterward results are expected to aid the industrial practitioner and researcher to adopt the pulse-MQL in high speed milling to prolong tool life, reduce tool wear, diminish cutting force generation and promote better surface finish.

  13. Wear Mechanism of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Carbide Insert in Orthogonal Cutting Ti-6Al-4V ELI at High Cutting Speed

    SciTech Connect

    Gusri, A. I.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Jaharah, A. G.

    2011-01-17

    The performance of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) carbide insert with ISO designation of CCMT 12 04 04 LF, when turning titanium alloys was investigated. There were four layers of coating materials for this insert i.e.TiN-Al2O3-TiCN-TiN. The insert performance was evaluated based on the insert's edge resistant towards the machining parameters used at high cutting speed range of machining Ti-6Al-4V ELI. Detailed study on the wear mechanism at the cutting edge of CVD carbide tools was carried out at cutting speed of 55-95 m/min, feed rate of 0.15-0.35 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.10-0.20 mm. Wear mechanisms such as abrasivemore » and adhesive were observed on the flank face. Crater wear due to diffusion was also observed on the rake race. The abrasive wear occurred more at nose radius and the fracture on tool were found at the feed rate of 0.35 mm/rev and the depth of cut of 0.20 mm. The adhesion wear takes place after the removal of the coating or coating delaminating. Therefore, adhesion or welding of titanium alloy onto the flank and rake faces demonstrates a strong bond at the workpiece-tool interface.« less

  14. Resistance to abrasion of extrinsic porcelain esthetic characterization techniques.

    PubMed

    Chi, Woo J; Browning, William; Looney, Stephen; Mackert, J Rodway; Windhorn, Richard J; Rueggeberg, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    A novel esthetic porcelain characterization technique involves mixing an appropriate amount of ceramic colorants with clear, low-fusing porcelain (LFP), applying the mixture on the external surfaces, and firing the combined components onto the surface of restorations in a porcelain oven. This method may provide better esthetic qualities and toothbrush abrasion resistance compared to the conventional techniques of applying color-corrective porcelain colorants alone, or applying a clear glaze layer over the colorants. However, there is no scientific literature to support this claim. This research evaluated toothbrush abrasion resistance of a novel porcelain esthetic characterization technique by subjecting specimens to various durations of simulated toothbrush abrasion. The results were compared to those obtained using the conventional characterization techniques of colorant application only or colorant followed by placement of a clear over-glaze. Four experimental groups, all of which were a leucite reinforced ceramic of E TC1 (Vita A1) shade, were prepared and fired in a porcelain oven according to the manufacturer's instructions. Group S (stain only) was characterized by application of surface colorants to provide a definitive shade of Vita A3.5. Group GS (glaze over stain) was characterized by application of a layer of glaze over the existing colorant layer as used for Group S. Group SL (stain+LFP) was characterized by application of a mixture of colorants and clear low-fusing add-on porcelain to provide a definitive shade of Vita A3.5. Group C (Control) was used as a control without any surface characterization. The 4 groups were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing using a 1:1 water-to-toothpaste solution for a simulated duration of 32 years of clinical use. The amount of wear was measured at time intervals simulating every 4 years of toothbrushing. These parameters were evaluated longitudinally for all groups as well as compared at similar time points among

  15. AC electrified jets in a flow-focusing device: Jet length scaling

    PubMed Central

    García-Sánchez, Pablo; Alzaga-Gimeno, Javier; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We use a microfluidic flow-focusing device with integrated electrodes for controlling the production of water-in-oil drops. In a previous work, we reported that very long jets can be formed upon application of AC fields. We now study in detail the appearance of the long jets as a function of the electrical parameters, i.e., water conductivity, signal frequency, and voltage amplitude. For intermediate frequencies, we find a threshold voltage above which the jet length rapidly increases. Interestingly, this abrupt transition vanishes for high frequencies of the signal and the jet length grows smoothly with voltage. For frequencies below a threshold value, we previously reported a transition from a well-behaved uniform jet to highly unstable liquid structures in which axisymmetry is lost rather abruptly. These liquid filaments eventually break into droplets of different sizes. In this work, we characterize this transition with a diagram as a function of voltage and liquid conductivity. The electrical response of the long jets was studied via a distributed element circuit model. The model allows us to estimate the electric potential at the tip of the jet revealing that, for any combination of the electrical parameters, the breakup of the jet occurs at a critical value of this potential. We show that this voltage is around 550 V for our device geometry and choice of flow rates. PMID:27375826

  16. AC electrified jets in a flow-focusing device: Jet length scaling.

    PubMed

    Castro-Hernández, Elena; García-Sánchez, Pablo; Alzaga-Gimeno, Javier; Tan, Say Hwa; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Ramos, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We use a microfluidic flow-focusing device with integrated electrodes for controlling the production of water-in-oil drops. In a previous work, we reported that very long jets can be formed upon application of AC fields. We now study in detail the appearance of the long jets as a function of the electrical parameters, i.e., water conductivity, signal frequency, and voltage amplitude. For intermediate frequencies, we find a threshold voltage above which the jet length rapidly increases. Interestingly, this abrupt transition vanishes for high frequencies of the signal and the jet length grows smoothly with voltage. For frequencies below a threshold value, we previously reported a transition from a well-behaved uniform jet to highly unstable liquid structures in which axisymmetry is lost rather abruptly. These liquid filaments eventually break into droplets of different sizes. In this work, we characterize this transition with a diagram as a function of voltage and liquid conductivity. The electrical response of the long jets was studied via a distributed element circuit model. The model allows us to estimate the electric potential at the tip of the jet revealing that, for any combination of the electrical parameters, the breakup of the jet occurs at a critical value of this potential. We show that this voltage is around 550 V for our device geometry and choice of flow rates.

  17. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Treesearch

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  18. Evaluation of abrasion resistance of pipe and pipe lining materials.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-09-01

    This project summarizes an evaluation of pipe material resistance to abrasion over a 5-year period (2001-2006) at a site known to be abrasive. : The key focus of the project was to gather more information to compare against existing guidance to desig...

  19. The interactions between attrition, abrasion and erosion in tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Shellis, R Peter; Addy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear is the result of three processes: abrasion (wear produced by interaction between teeth and other materials), attrition (wear through tooth-tooth contact) and erosion (dissolution of hard tissue by acidic substances). A further process (abfraction) might potentiate wear by abrasion and/or erosion. Knowledge of these tooth wear processes and their interactions is reviewed. Both clinical and experimental observations show that individual wear mechanisms rarely act alone but interact with each other. The most important interaction is the potentiation of abrasion by erosive damage to the dental hard tissues. This interaction seems to be the major factor in occlusal and cervical wear. The available evidence is insufficient to establish whether abfraction is an important contributor to tooth wear in vivo. Saliva can modulate erosive/abrasive tooth wear, especially through formation of pellicle, but cannot prevent it. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Pleurectomy versus pleural abrasion for primary spontaneous pneumothorax in children.

    PubMed

    Joharifard, Shahrzad; Coakley, Brian A; Butterworth, Sonia A

    2017-05-01

    Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) represents a common indication for urgent surgical intervention in children. First episodes are often managed with thoracostomy tube, whereas recurrent episodes typically prompt surgery involving apical bleb resection and pleurodesis, either via pleurectomy or pleural abrasion. The purpose of this study was to assess whether pleurectomy or pleural abrasion was associated with lower postoperative recurrence. The records of patients undergoing surgery for PSP between February 2005 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Recurrence was defined as an ipsilateral pneumothorax requiring surgical intervention. Bivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with recurrence. Fifty-two patients underwent 64 index operations for PSP (12 patients had surgery for contralateral pneumothorax, and each instance was analyzed separately). The mean age was 15.7±1.2years, and 79.7% (n=51) of patients were male. In addition to apical wedge resection, 53.1% (n=34) of patients underwent pleurectomy, 39.1% (n=25) underwent pleural abrasion, and 7.8% (n=5) had no pleural treatment. The overall recurrence rate was 23.4% (n=15). Recurrence was significantly lower in patients who underwent pleurectomy rather than pleural abrasion (8.8% vs. 40%, p<0.01). In patients who underwent pleural abrasion without pleurectomy, the relative risk of recurrence was 2.36 [1.41-3.92, p<0.01]. Recurrence of PSP is significantly reduced in patients undergoing pleurectomy compared to pleural abrasion. Level III, retrospective comparative therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Abrasion and Fragmentation Processes in Marly Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bouteiller, C.; Naaim, F.; Mathys, N.; Lave, J.; Kaitna, R.

    2009-04-01

    In the highly erosive marly catchments of Draix (Southern Alps, France), downstream fining of sediments has been observed and can not be explained by selective sorting. Moreover, high concentrations of suspended fine sediment (up to 800 g/L) are measured during flood events in these basins. These observations lead to the hypothesis that abrasion and fragmentation of marly sediments during transport play an important role in the production of fine sediments. Several experiments are conducted in order to quantify these processes: material from the river bed is introduced into the water flow in a circular flume as well as in a large scale rotating drum. Abrasion rates range from 5 to 15%/km, depending on the lithology: marls from the upper basin are more erosive than those from the lower basin. Modifications of grain size distribution in the rough fraction are also observed. Field measurements are also conducted. Downstream of the main marly sediment sources, the river bed is composed of marls and limestone pebbles. We have sampled the river bed for analysis of grain size distribution and lithology. First results show a decrease of the proportion of marls along the river bed. This is in accordance with the high erosion rates observed in our laboratory experiments. Further investigations are planned in order to study more precisely marl grain size distribution, especially in the finer fraction.

  2. Surface pre-conditioning with bioactive glass air-abrasion can enhance enamel white spot lesion remineralization.

    PubMed

    Milly, Hussam; Festy, Frederic; Andiappan, Manoharan; Watson, Timothy F; Thompson, Ian; Banerjee, Avijit

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre-conditioning enamel white spot lesion (WSL) surfaces using bioactive glass (BAG) air-abrasion prior to remineralization therapy. Ninety human enamel samples with artificial WSLs were assigned to three WSL surface pre-conditioning groups (n=30): (a) air-abrasion with BAG-polyacrylic acid (PAA-BAG) powder, (b) acid-etching using 37% phosphoric acid gel (positive control) and (c) unconditioned (negative control). Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the following remineralization therapy (n=10): (I) BAG paste (36 wt.% BAG), (II) BAG slurry (100 wt.% BAG) and (III) de-ionized water (negative control). The average surface roughness and the lesion step height compared to intra-specimen sound enamel reference points were analyzed using non-contact profilometry. Optical changes within the lesion subsurface compared to baseline scans were assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Knoop microhardness evaluated the WSLs' mechanical properties. Raman micro-spectroscopy measured the v-(CO3)(2-)/v1-(PO4)(3-) ratio. Structural changes in the lesion were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). All comparisons were considered statistically significant if p<0.05. PAA-BAG air-abrasion removed 5.1 ± 0.6 μm from the lesion surface, increasing the WSL surface roughness. Pre-conditioning WSL surfaces with PAA-BAG air-abrasion reduced subsurface light scattering, increased the Knoop microhardness and the mineral content of the remineralized lesions (p<0.05). SEM-EDX revealed mineral depositions covering the lesion surface. BAG slurry resulted in a superior remineralization outcome, when compared to BAG paste. Pre-conditioning WSL surfaces with PAA-BAG air-abrasion modified the lesion surface physically and enhanced remineralization using BAG 45S5 therapy. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier

  3. Tool path strategy and cutting process monitoring in intelligent machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Chengdong; An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    Intelligent machining is a current focus in advanced manufacturing technology, and is characterized by high accuracy and efficiency. A central technology of intelligent machining—the cutting process online monitoring and optimization—is urgently needed for mass production. In this research, the cutting process online monitoring and optimization in jet engine impeller machining, cranio-maxillofacial surgery, and hydraulic servo valve deburring are introduced as examples of intelligent machining. Results show that intelligent tool path optimization and cutting process online monitoring are efficient techniques for improving the efficiency, quality, and reliability of machining.

  4. Experimental study on immiscible jet breakup using refractive index matched oil-water pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    A subsea oil well blowout creates an immiscible crude oil jet. This jet fragments shortly after injection, resulting in generation of a droplet cloud. Detailed understanding of the processes involved is crucial for modeling the fragmentation and for predicting the droplet size distribution. High density of opaque droplets near nozzle limits our ability to visualize and quantify the breakup process. To overcome this challenge, two immiscible fluids: silicone oil and sugar water with the same index of refraction (1.4015) are used as surrogates for crude oil and seawater, respectively. Their ratios of kinematic viscosity (5.64), density (0.83) and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Distribution of the oil phase is visualized by fluorescent tagging. Both phases are also seeded with particles for simultaneous PIV measurements. The measurements are performed within atomization range of Ohnesorge and Reynolds numbers. Index matching facilitates undistorted view of the phase distribution in illuminated section. Ongoing tests show that the jet surface initially rolls up into Kelvin-Helmholtz rings, followed by development of dispersed phase ligaments further downstream, which then break into droplets. Some of these droplets are re-entrained into the high momentum core, resulting in secondary breakup. As the oil layer and ligaments evolve, they often entrain water, resulting in generation of multiple secondary water droplets encapsulated within the oil droplets. This research is made possible by a Grant from Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  5. Study of Dominant Factors Affecting Cerchar Abrasivity Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami, Jamal; Ghasemi, Amireza; Alavi Gharahbagh, Ehsan; Dogruoz, Cihan; Dahl, Filip

    2014-09-01

    The Cerchar abrasion index is commonly used to represent rock abrasion for estimation of bit life and wear in various mining and tunneling applications. Although the test is simple and fast, there are some discrepancies in the test results related to the equipment used, condition of the rock surface, operator skills, and procedures used in conducting and measuring the wear surface. This paper focuses on the background of the test and examines the influence of various parameters on Cerchar testing including pin hardness, surface condition of specimens, petrographical and geomechanical properties, test speed, applied load, and method of measuring wear surface. Results of Cerchar tests on a set of rock specimens performed at different laboratories are presented to examine repeatability of the tests. In addition, the preliminary results of testing with a new device as a potential alternative testing system for rock abrasivity measurement are discussed.

  6. Effects of Jet Pressure on the Ground Surface Quality and CBN Wheel Wear in Grinding AISI 690 Nickel-Based Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitouni, Ahmed; Chaieb, Iheb; Rhouma, Amir Ben; Fredj, Nabil Ben

    2016-11-01

    Fluid application in grinding is getting attention as higher stock removal rates, higher surface integrity and longer wheel life are required. It is necessary to define proper conditions of application for meeting high productivity goals by lowering the specific grinding energy and reducing the temperature of the contact zone. The present study investigated the capacity of the jet pressure of a spot nozzle to improve the wear of a CBN wheel when grinding the AISI 690 superalloy. Grinding experiments were conducted with an emulsion-type cooling fluid delivered at pressure ranging from 0.1 to 4 MPa. Results show that the maximum stock removal, reached at 4 MPa, is 5 times the stock removal obtained at 0.1 MPa, while the grinding ratio at 4 MPa is 8 times that at 0.1 MPa, and there is a critical pressure ( P c) around 1.5 MPa corresponding to the minimum specific grinding energy. Scanning electron microscopy of the grain tips showed that the wear mechanism shifts from breaking and dislodgment at low jet pressure to micro-fracture resulting in continuous self-sharpening of the abrasive grains. By lubricating at jet pressure close to P c, there is less thermal damage due to plowing and sliding and the resulting lower loading of the abrasive grains favors the micro-fracture of grains and thus a longer wheel life.

  7. Baking soda as an abrasive in toothpastes: Mechanism of action and safety and effectiveness considerations.

    PubMed

    Hara, Anderson T; Turssi, Cecilia P

    2017-11-01

    Toothpastes can be formulated with different abrasive systems, depending on their intended clinical application. This formulation potentially affects their effectiveness and safety and, therefore, requires proper understanding. In this article, the authors focused on abrasive aspects of toothpastes containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), which have gained considerable attention because of their low abrasivity and good compatibility, while providing clinical effectiveness (further detailed in the other articles of this special issue). The authors first appraised the role of toothpaste abrasivity on tooth wear, exploring some underlying processes and the existing methods to determine toothpaste abrasivity. The authors reviewed the available data on the abrasivity of toothpastes containing baking soda and reported a summary of findings highlighting the clinical implications. On the basis of the collected evidence, baking soda has an intrinsic low-abrasive nature because of its comparatively lower hardness in relation to enamel and dentin. Baking soda toothpastes also may contain other ingredients, which can increase their stain removal effectiveness and, consequently, abrasivity. Even those formulations have abrasivity well within the safety limit regulatory agencies have established and, therefore, can be considered safe. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 22213 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... float assemblies for any cuts, tears, punctures, or abrasion. Replace the cover if the internal... cuts, tears, punctures, or abrasion. If there is a cut, tear, puncture, or any abrasion, repair the...

  9. Next-to-leading order γ γ + 2 - jet production at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Dixon, L. J.; Febres Cordero, F.

    We present next-to-leading-order QCD predictions for cross sections and for a comprehensive set of distributions in γγ+2-jet production at the Large Hadron Collider. We consider the contributions from loop amplitudes for two photons and four gluons, but we neglect top quarks. We use BlackHat together with SHERPA to carry out the computation. We use a Frixione cone isolation for the photons. We study standard sets of cuts on the jets and the photons and also sets of cuts appropriate for studying backgrounds to Higgs-boson production via vector-boson fusion.

  10. High precision laser processing of sensitive materials by Microjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibailly, Ochelio D.; Wagner, Frank R.; Mayor, Laetitia; Richerzhagen, Bernold

    2003-11-01

    Material laser cutting is well known and widely used in industrial processes, including micro fabrication. An increasing number of applications require nevertheless a superior machining quality than can be achieved using this method. A possibility to increase the cut quality is to opt for the water-jet guided laser technology. In this technique the laser is conducted to the work piece by total internal reflection in a thin stable water-jet, comparable to the core of an optical fiber. The water jet guided laser technique was developed originally in order to reduce the heat damaged zone near the cut, but in fact many other advantages were observed due to the usage of a water-jet instead of an assist gas stream applied in conventional laser cutting. In brief, the advantages are three-fold: the absence of divergence due to light guiding, the efficient melt expulsion, and optimum work piece cooling. In this presentation we will give an overview on several industrial applications of the water-jet guided laser technique. These applications range from the cutting of CBN or ferrite cores to the dicing of thin wafers and the manufacturing of stencils, each illustrates the important impact of the water-jet usage.

  11. Experimental response of Salix cuttings to sudden water table changing dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorla, L.; Signarbieux, C.; Turberg, P.; Buttler, A.; Perona, P.

    2013-12-01

    Hydropower production, agriculture and other human activities change the natural flow regime of rivers, in turn impacting the riparian environment. Inadequate flow rules (e.g., minimal or residual flows) reflecting our limited understanding of eco-hydrological processes have thus been applied since decades. The main challenge for an eco-sustainable water management is to quantify the effects of flow regulation on channel morphodynamics and biological processes. We present a controlled laboratory experiment to investigate riparian vegetation (Salix Viminalis) response to forced water table changing dynamics, from one water regime to another, in a temperate region (Switzerland). Three synthetic flow regimes have been simulated and applied to three batteries of Salix cuttings (60 in total) growing outdoor within plastic pots, each about 1 meter tall. After an initial period where all pots undergone the same oscillations in order to uniform the plants initial conditions, the experiment started, and the water dynamic was changed for two out of three batteries. In particular, one treatment simulated a minimal flow policy, which drastically impacts the low and the medium-low components of the hydrograph, but not the extremes. The other treatment reproduced only the low frequencies corresponding to the seasonal trend of the natural flow regime, still applied on the third battery. Cuttings transitory response dynamics has been quantified by continuous sap flow and water potential measurements, and by regularly collecting growth parameters, as well as leaves photosynthesis, fluorescence, and pictures of each plant. At the end of the experiment, all cuttings were carefully removed and the both above and below ground biomass analyzed in detail. Particularly, the 3D root structure was obtained by High Resolution Computer Tomography. Our analyses reveal a clear dependence between roots distribution and water regime reflecting the need for adaptation, which are also in agreement

  12. Exploiting jet binning to identify the initial state of high-mass resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Liebler, Stefan; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Tackmann, Kerstin; Zeune, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    If a new high-mass resonance is discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, model-independent techniques to identify the production mechanism will be crucial to understand its nature and effective couplings to Standard Model particles. We present a powerful and model-independent method to infer the initial state in the production of any high-mass color-singlet system by using a tight veto on accompanying hadronic jets to divide the data into two mutually exclusive event samples (jet bins). For a resonance of several hundred GeV, the jet binning cut needed to discriminate quark and gluon initial states is in the experimentally accessible range of several tens of GeV. It also yields comparable cross sections for both bins, making this method viable already with the small event samples available shortly after a discovery. Theoretically, the method is made feasible by utilizing an effective field theory setup to compute the jet cut dependence precisely and model independently and to systematically control all sources of theoretical uncertainties in the jet binning, as well as their correlations. We use a 750 GeV scalar resonance as an example to demonstrate the viability of our method.

  13. Microhardness evaluation of silorane and methacrylate composites submitted to erosion and abrasion processes

    PubMed Central

    Gazola, Eloá Aguiar; Rego, Marcos Augusto; Brandt, William Cunha; D’Arce, Maria Beatriz Freitas; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane Suzy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness number (KHN) of methacrylate (MC) and silorane (SC) composites after being submitted to erosion and abrasion processes. Material and methods: Forty samples were made with each composite: MC and SC. The samples were divided into eight groups (n = 10) according to the type of composite (G1–G4, MC; G5–G8, SC) and the beverages involved in the erosion process (G1 and G5 – Control (C), without erosion, with abrasion; G2 and G6 – Orange Juice (OJ), abrasion; G3 and G7 – Smirnoff Ice® (SI), abrasion; G4 and G8 – Gatorade® (GA), abrasion). The KHN test was performed 24 h after the last cycle of erosion/abrasion. Results: The MC groups showed smaller KHN values for the SI group (p < 0.05) when compared to the Control and OJ groups; however, for the SC groups, no differences were found (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Methacrylate composite when submitted to acidic beverages erosive challenge combined with abrasive process might alter its surface microhardness. However, the beverages used in the present study were not able to interfere in silorane composite surface microhardness. PMID:28642903

  14. Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficient of Water in RP-3 and RP-5 Jet Fuels Using Digital Holography Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaoyue; Feng, Shiyu; Shao, Lei; Pan, Jun; Liu, Weihua

    2018-04-01

    The diffusion coefficient of water in jet fuel was measured employing double-exposure digital holographic interferometry to clarify the diffusion process and make the aircraft fuel system safe. The experimental method and apparatus are introduced in detail, and the digital image processing program is coded in MATLAB according to the theory of the Fourier transform. At temperatures ranging from 278.15 K to 333.15 K in intervals of 5 K, the diffusion coefficient of water in RP-3 and RP-5 jet fuels ranges from 2.6967 × 10 -10 m2·s-1 to 8.7332 × 10 -10 m2·s-1 and from 2.3517 × 10 -10 m2·s-1 to 8.0099 × 10-10 m2·s-1, respectively. The relationship between the measured diffusion coefficient and temperature can be well fitted by the Arrhenius law. The diffusion coefficient of water in RP-3 jet fuel is higher than that of water in RP-5 jet fuel at the same temperature. Furthermore, the viscosities of the two jet fuels were measured and found to be expressible in the form of the Arrhenius equation. The relationship among the diffusion coefficient, viscosity and temperature is analyzed according to the classic prediction model, namely the Stokes-Einstein correlation, and this correlation is further revised via experimental data to obtain a more accurate predication result.

  15. In Vitro Assessment of the Abrasion Resistance of Two Types of Artificial Teeth Submitted to Brushing.

    PubMed

    Policastro, Vivian Barnabé; Giro, Gabriela; Leite, Andressa Rosa Perin; Mendoza-Marin, Danny Omar; Paleari, André Gustavo; Compagnoni, Marco Antonio; Pero, Ana Carolina

    2016-08-01

    To assess the effect of brushing with different solutions on the abrasion resistance of two types of acrylic resin teeth. Maxillary premolars from two types of acrylic teeth (Biotone and Biotone IPN) were divided into six groups (n = 12), according to the solution used during brushing: distilled water (control), coconut soap, or dentifrice. A mechanical brushing machine was used to simulate approximately 1 year of brushing (11,000 strokes). The weight loss (WL) of teeth was obtained from the difference between the initial (IW) and final weight (FW) of each specimen, and the mean of percentage of weight loss (PWL) was calculated for each group. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Bonferroni's post-test comparison (α = 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found for the factor solution (p < 0.001). Brushing using dentifrice caused the highest values of weight loss (-0.50%), in comparison with the groups brushed with coconut soap (0.00%) or distilled water (0.00%). For both types of artificial teeth, brushing with dentifrice produced higher abrasion than brushing with coconut soap or water. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Bonding to new CAD/CAM resin composites: influence of air abrasion and conditioning agents as pretreatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Reymus, Marcel; Roos, Malgorzata; Eichberger, Marlis; Edelhoff, Daniel; Hickel, Reinhard; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2018-04-27

    Because of their industrially standardized process of manufacturing, CAD/CAM resin composites show a high degree of conversion, making a reliable bond difficult to achieve. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the tensile bond strength (TBS) of luting composite to CAD/CAM resin composite materials as influenced by air abrasion and pretreatment strategies. The treatment factors of the present study were (1) brand of the CAD/CAM resin composite (Brilliant Crios [Coltene/Whaledent], Cerasmart [GC Europe], Shofu Block HC [Shofu], and Lava Ultimate [3M]); (2) air abrasion vs. no air abrasion; and (3) pretreatment using a silane primer (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, Kuraray) vs. a resin primer (One Coat 7 Universal, Coltene/Whaledent). Subsequently, luting composite (DuoCem, Coltene/Whaledent) was polymerized onto the substrate surface using a mold. For each combination of the levels of the three treatment factors (4 (materials) × 2 (air abrasion vs. no air abrasion; resin) × 2 (primer vs. silane primer)), n = 15, specimens were prepared. After 24 h of water storage at 37 °C and 5000 thermo-cycles (5/55 °C), TBS was measured and failure types were examined. The resulting data was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative failure distribution function with Breslow-Gehan tests and non-parametric ANOVA (Kruskal-Wallis test) followed by the multiple pairwise Mann-Whitney U test with α-error adjustment using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure and chi-square test (p < 0.05). The additional air abrasion step increased TBS values and lowered failure rates. Specimens pretreated using a resin primer showed significantly higher TBS and lower failure rates than those pretreated using a silane primer. The highest failure rates were observed for groups pretreated with a silane primer. Within the Shofu Block HC group, all specimens without air abrasion and pretreatment with a silane primer debonded during the aging procedure. Before fixation of CAD

  17. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  18. Improving Pathogen Reduction by Chlorine Wash Prior to Cutting in Fresh-Cut Processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Currently, most fresh-cut processing facilities in the United States use chlorinated water or other sanitizer solutions for microbial reduction after lettuce is cut. Freshly cut lettuce releases significant amounts of organic matter that negatively impacts the effectiveness of chlorine...

  19. Effects of drill cuttings on larvae of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järnegren, Johanna; Brooke, Sandra; Jensen, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    Fossil fuel consumption is predicted to dominate energy needs until at least 2040. To make up for reduced production from maturing fields, oil and gas exploration activities on the Norwegian continental shelf have greatly increased over the past several years. Strict emission controls have resulted in a substantial reduction in the release of hazardous chemicals. However, because of the increased exploration the discharges of water-based drill cuttings and muds have increased substantially, temporarily increasing water column sediment loads. The stony coral Lophelia pertusa is the most widely distributed and well-studied of the structure forming cold water corals (CWC) and it thrives in Norwegian waters where many reefs are located in the vicinity of oil platforms or exploration areas. This species provides habitat for a diverse and abundant assemblage of invertebrates and fishes, including commercially valuable species. High sediment loads are known to negatively affect adult corals, but impacts on the early life history stages are unknown. We investigated the effects of a range of drill cutting concentrations (0.5-640 ppm) on larvae of L. pertusa at ages five days and 15-20 days. One set of experiments was conducted in static experimental chambers that exposed larvae to decreasing concentrations over time, and the other maintained continuous drill cutting concentrations for the duration of the experiment (24 h). Increased sediment load for a duration of 24 h caused significant larval mortality, but there was an age-dependent difference in sensitivity of larvae. Younger larvae were significantly more susceptible to lower concentrations of drill cuttings than older larvae, while the older larvae were significantly more affected at higher concentrations. Five day old larvae were affected at treatment concentration 40 ppm. The larval cilia became clogged, preventing the larvae from swimming actively and ultimately causing mortality. Larvae of many species use cilia

  20. An unusual and persistent contamination of drinking water by cutting oil.

    PubMed

    Rella, R; Sturaro, A; Parvoli, G; Ferrara, D; Doretti, L

    2003-02-01

    Drinking water contamination by materials, such as cutting oil, used to set up pipelines is an uncommon but possible event. This paper describes the analytical procedures used to identify the components of that contaminant in drinking water. Volatile and semi-volatile chemical species, responsible for an unpleasant taste and odour, were recognised by solid phase microextraction and GC/MS techniques. Among the volatile compounds, the presence of xylenes, bornyl acetate and diphenyl ether was confirmed by certificate standards and quantified in the most contaminated samples.

  1. Abrasion-ablation model for neutron production in heavy ion reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1995-01-01

    In heavy ion reactions, neutron production at forward angles is observed to occur with a Gaussian shape that is centered near the beam energy and extends to energies well above that of the beam. This paper presents an abrasion-ablation model for making quantitative predictions of the neutron spectrum. To describe neutrons produced from the abrasion step of the reaction where the projectile and target overlap, the authors use the Glauber model and include effects of final-state interactions. They then use the prefragment mass distribution from abrasion with a statistical evaporation model to estimate the neutron spectrum resulting from ablation. Measurements of neutron production from Ne and Nb beams are compared with calculations, and good agreement is found.

  2. Surface Abrasive Torsion for Improved Mechanical Properties and Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Baek, Seung Mi; Lee, Seok Gyu; Yoon, Jae Ik; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2018-05-01

    A novel process of discrete surface abrasion during simple torsion (ST), named "surface abrasive torsion (SAT)," is proposed to overcome the limitation of ST, i.e., insufficient strain for severe plastic deformation (SPD) due to cracks initiated on the surface, by removing the roughened surface region. The effect of SAT on delayed crack initiation was explained using finite element simulations. Larger shear deformation applicable to the specimen in SAT than ST was demonstrated experimentally.

  3. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  4. Improved orthodontic bonding to silver amalgam. Part 2. Lathe-cut, admixed, and spherical amalgams with different intermediate resins.

    PubMed

    Büyükyilmaz, T; Zachrisson, B U

    1998-08-01

    Flat rectangular tabs (n = 270) prepared from spherical (Tytin), admixed (Dispersalloy) or lathe-cut amalgam (ANA 2000) were subjected to aluminum oxide sandblasting with either 50-mu or 90-mu abrasive powder. Mandibular incisor edgewise brackets were bonded to these tabs. An intermediate resin was used, either All-Bond 2 Primers A + B or a 4-META product--Amalgambond Plus (AP) or Reliance Metal Primer (RMP)--followed by Concise. All specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and thermocycled 1000 times from 5 degrees C to 55 degrees C and back before tensile bond strength testing. The bond strength of Concise to etched enamel of extracted, caries-free premolars was used as a control. Bond failure sites were classified using a modified adhesive remnant index (ARI) system. Results were expressed as mean bond strength with SD, and as a function relating the probability of bond failure to stress by means of Weibull analysis. Mean tensile bond strength in the experimental groups ranged from 2.9 to 11.0 MPa--significantly weaker than the control sample (16.0 MPa). Bond failure invariably occurred at the amalgam/adhesive interface. The strongest bonds were created to the spherical and lathe-cut amalgams (range 6.8 to 11.0 MPa). Bonds to the spherical amalgam were probably more reliable. The intermediate application of the 4-META resins AP and RMP generally created significantly stronger bonds to all three basic types of amalgam products than the bonds obtained with the All-Bond 2 primers. The effect of abrasive-particle size on bond strength to different amalgam surfaces was not usually significant (p > 0.05). The implications of these findings are discussed in relationship to clinical experience bonding orthodontic attachments to large amalgam restorations in posterior teeth.

  5. Phenomenological analysis of Higgs boson production through gluon fusion in association with jets

    DOE PAGES

    Greiner, Nicolas; Hoeche, Stefan; Luisoni, Gionata; ...

    2016-01-27

    In this study, we present a detailed phenomenological analysis of the production of a Standard Model Higgs boson in association with up to three jets. We consider the gluon fusion channel using an effective theory in the large top-quark mass limit. Higgs boson production in gluon fusion constitutes an irreducible background to the vector boson fusion (VBF) process; hence the precise knowledge of its characteristics is a prerequisite for any measurement in the VBF channel. The calculation is carried out at next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD in a fully automated way by combining the two programs GoSam and Sherpa. Wemore » present numerical results for a large variety of observables for both standard cuts and VBF selection cuts. We find that for all jet multiplicities the NLO corrections are sizeable. This is particularly true in the presence of kinematic selections enhancing the VBF topology, which are based on vetoing additional jet activity. In this case, precise predictions for the background can be made using our calculation by taking the difference between the inclusive H+2 jets and the inclusive H+3 jets result.« less

  6. Behaviors of 40Cr steel treated by laser quenching on impact abrasive wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhikai; Zhu, Qinghai; Wang, Jing; Yun, Xiao; He, Bing; Luo, Jingshuai

    2018-07-01

    In present work, laser quenching had been carried out to improve the impact abrasive wear resistance of 40Cr steel. The distinct microstructure between original and quenched region was demonstrated after laser quenching. Since the effect of temperature and cooling rate, the phase combinations were apparently different for quenched layer in depth. The impact abrasive wear resistance of sample was experimentally investigated and the improved level was assessed in light of the average mass loss of three repetitive tests. Worn surface was detected by means of SEM, OM and EDS, and results showed that three typical failure modes were performed during the processing of impact abrasive wear, including abrasive wear, impact effect and rolling contact fatigue. Basing on the different worn surface profile, the mainly failure mode was respectively pointed out for matrix and quenched sample, which was significantly in accordance with the result of impact abrasive wear.

  7. The effect of abrading and cutting instruments on machinability of dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Satoshi; Nakao, Noriko; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2018-03-16

    The aim was to investigate the effect of machining instruments on machinability of dental ceramics. Four dental ceramics, including two zirconia ceramics were machined by three types (SiC, diamond vitrified, and diamond sintered) of wheels with a hand-piece engine and two types (diamond and carbide) of burs with a high-speed air turbine. The machining conditions used were abrading speeds of 10,000 and 15,000 r.p.m. with abrading force of 100 gf for the hand-piece engine, and a pressure of 200 kPa and a cutting force of 80 gf for the air-turbine hand-piece. The machinability efficiency was evaluated by volume losses after machining the ceramics. A high-abrading speed had high-abrading efficiency (high-volume loss) compared to low-abrading speed in all abrading instruments used. The diamond vitrified wheels demonstrated higher volume loss for two zirconia ceramics than those of SiC and diamond sintered wheels. When the high-speed air-turbine instruments were used, the diamond points showed higher volume losses compared to the carbide burs for one ceramic and two zirconia ceramics with high-mechanical properties. The results of this study indicated that the machinability of dental ceramics depends on the mechanical and physical properties of dental ceramics and machining instruments. The abrading wheels show autogenous action of abrasive grains, in which ground abrasive grains drop out from the binder during abrasion, then the binder follow to wear out, subsequently new abrasive grains come out onto the instrument surface (autogenous action) and increase the grinding amount (volume loss) of grinding materials.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the design of a water-jet-drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto

    1994-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has an ongoing effort to transfer to industry the technologies developed at MSFC for rocket propulsion systems. The Technology Utilization (TU) Office at MSFC promotes these efforts and accepts requests for assistance from industry. One such solicitation involves a request from North American Marine Jet, Inc. (NAMJ) for assistance in the design of a water-jet-drive system to fill a gap in NAMJ's product line. NAMJ provided MSFC with a baseline axial flow impeller design as well as the relevant working parameters (rpm, flow rate, etc.). This baseline design was analyzed using CFD, and significant deficiencies identified. Four additional analyses were performed involving MSFC changes to the geometric and operational parameters of the baseline case. Subsequently, the impeller was redesigned by NAMJ and analyzed by MSFC. This new configuration performs significantly better than the baseline design. Similar cooperative activities are planned for the design of the jet-drive inlet.

  9. Evaluation of Needle Gun and Abrasive Blasting Technologies in Bridge Paint Removal Practices.

    PubMed

    Randall, Paul M; Kranz, Paul B; Sonntag, Mary L; Stadelmaier, James E

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews the results of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study that assessed needle gun technology as an alternative to conventional abrasive blasting technology to remove lead-based paint from steel bridges in western New York State. The study analyzed the operational and logistical aspects as they relate to worker health and safety, environmental protection, hazardous waste generation, and costs as compared to those arising from conventional abrasive blasting. In this 1992 EPA study, the costs and the product quality aspects favored conventional abrasive blasting over the needle gun technology for removing lead paint. However, abrasive blasting exposed workers to airborne lead levels that exceeded Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), as well as emitting high levels of lead-contaminated dusts and debris into the environment. It was estimated that more than 500 lbs of lead-contaminated spent abrasives and paint waste were released into the environment during paint removal operations. The needle gun system reduced (up to 97.5%) the generation of hazardous waste and the airborne concentrations (up to 99%) of respirable dusts and lead-containing particulates generated during paint removal operations. However, labor costs for the needle gun were three times higher than those for abrasive blasting primarily because of slower production rates that necessitated more operating personnel. The higher labor costs of the needle gun are partially offset by the increased costs associated with the expendable abrasive blast media and hazardous waste disposal. In the EPA study, the productivity of the needle gun system was 12.2 ft 2 /hr vs. 147.5 ft 2 /hr for abrasive blasting. A post blast was needed for the needle gun system to meet surface preparation specifications. When factoring in the costs of full containment structures to meet OSHA's 1993 Lead Exposure in Construction regulation

  10. Comparing different Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) occultation observations using modeling of water vapor jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portyankina, Ganna; Esposito, Larry W.; Hansen, Candice; Aye, Klaus-Michael

    2016-10-01

    Motivation: On March 11, 2016 the Cassini UVIS observed its 6th star occultation by Enceladus' plume. This observation was aimed to determine variability in the total gas flux from the Enceladus' southern polar region. The analysis of the received data suggests that the total gas flux is moderately increased comparing to the average gas flux observed by UVIS from 2005 to 2011 [1]. However, UVIS detected variability in individual jets. In particular, Baghdad 1 is more collimated in 2016 than in 2005, meaning its gas escapes at higher velocity.Model and fits: We use 3D DSMC model for water vapor jets to compare different UVIS occultation observations from 2005 to 2016. The model traces test articles from jets' sources [2] into space and results in coordinates and velocities for a set of test particles. We convert particle positions into the particle number density and integrate along UVIS line of sight (LoS) for each time step of the UVIS observation using precise observational geometry derived from SPICE [3]. We integrate all jets that are crossed by the LoS and perform constrained least-squares fit of resulting modeled opacities to the observed data to solved for relative strengths of jets. The geometry of each occultation is specific, for example, during solar occultation in 2010 UVIS LoS was almost parallel to tiger stripes, which made it possible to distinguish jets venting from different tiger stripes. In 2011 Eps Orionis occultation LoS was perpendicular to tiger stripes and thus many of the jets were geometrically overlapping. Solar occultation provided us with the largest inventory of active jets - our model fit detects at least 43 non-zero jet contributions. Stellar occultations generally have lower temporal resolution and observe only a sub-set of these jets: 2011 Eps Orionis needs minimum 25 non-zero jets to fit UVIS data. We will discuss different occultations and models fits, including the most recent Epsilon Orionis occultation of 2016.[1] Hansen et al

  11. Rapid Confined Mixing with Transverse Jets Part 1: Single Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, David; Forliti, David

    2012-11-01

    Transverse jets have been studied extensively due to their relevance and efficiency in fluid mixing applications. Gas turbine burners, film cooling, and chemical reactors are some examples of rapid transverse jet mixing. Motivated by a lack of universal scaling laws for confined and unconfined transverse jets, a newly developed momentum transfer parameter was found to improve correlation of literature data. Jet column drag and entrainment arguments for momentum transfer are made to derive the parameter. A liquid-phase mixing study was conducted to investigate confined mixing for a low number of jets. Planar laser induced fluorescence was implemented to measure mixture fraction for a single confined transverse jet. Time-averaged cross-sectional images were taken with a light sheet located three diameters downstream of transverse injection. A mixture of water and sodium fluorescein was used to distinguish jet fluid from main flow fluid for the test section images. Image data suggest regimes for under- and overpenetration of jet fluid into the main flow. The scaling parameter is found to correlate optimum unmixedness for multiple diameter ratios at a parameter value of 0.75. Distribution A: Public Release, Public Affairs Clearance Number: 12655.

  12. On the axisymmetric stability of heated supersonic round jets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We perform an inviscid, spatial stability analysis of supersonic, heated round jets with the mean properties assumed uniform on either side of the jet shear layer, modelled here via a cylindrical vortex sheet. Apart from the hydrodynamic Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) wave, the spatial growth rates of the acoustically coupled supersonic and subsonic instability waves are computed for axisymmetric conditions (m=0) to analyse their role on the jet stability, under increased heating and compressibility. With the ambient stationary, supersonic instability waves may exist for any jet Mach number Mj≥2, whereas the subsonic instability waves, in addition, require the core-to-ambient flow temperature ratio Tj/To>1. We show, for moderately heated jets at Tj/To>2, the acoustically coupled instability modes, once cut on, to govern the overall jet stability with the K–H wave having disappeared into the cluster of acoustic modes. Sufficiently high heating makes the subsonic modes dominate the jet near-field dynamics, whereas the supersonic instability modes form the primary Mach radiation at far field. PMID:27274691

  13. A study examining the effects of water-miscible cutting fluids for end milling process of carbon fiber reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan, Ruito; Matsuoka, Hironori; Ono, Hajime; Ryu, Takahiro; Nakae, Takashi; Shuto, Schuichi; Watanabe, Suguru; Sato, Yuta

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the improvements to the tool life and finished surface roughness by using water-miscible cutting fluids in carbon fiber reinforced plastics end milling. In cutting tests, it was found that the use of emulsion type, soluble type, and solution type cutting fluids improved tool life compared with the case of dry cutting. Specifically, significant differences in tool life were observed at a high cutting speed of 171 m/min. In addition, the finished surface exhibited a low level of roughness when the solution type cutting fluid was used, regardless of the cutting speed.

  14. Development of feedback-speed-control system of fixed-abrasive tool for mat-surface fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagihara, K.; Kita, R.

    2018-01-01

    This study deals with the new method to fabricate a mat-surface by using fixed-abrasive tool. Mat-surface is a surface with microscopic irregularities whose dimensions are close to the wavelengths of visible light (400-700 nanometers). In order to develop the new method to fabricate mat-surface without pre-masking and large scale back up facility, utilization of fixed-abrasive tool is discussed. The discussion clarifies that abrasives in shot blasting are given kinetic energy along to only plunge-direction while excluding traverse-direction. If the relative motion between tool and work in fixed-abrasive process can be realized as that in blasting, mat-surface will be accomplished with fixed-abrasive process. To realize the proposed idea, new surface-fabrication system to which is adopted feedback-speed-control of abrasive wheel has been designed. The system consists of micro-computer unit (MPU), work-speed sensor, fixed-abrasive wheel, and wheel driving unit. The system can control relative speed between work and wheel in optimum range to produce mat-surface. Finally experiment to verify the developed system is carried out. The results of experiments show that the developed system is effective and it can produce the surface from grinding to mat-surface seamlessly.

  15. Toothbrushing abrasion susceptibility of enamel and dentin bleached with calcium-supplemented hydrogen peroxide gel.

    PubMed

    Borges, A B; Santos, L F T F; Augusto, M G; Bonfiette, D; Hara, A T; Torres, C R G

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate enamel and dentin susceptibility to toothbrushing abrasion, after bleaching with 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) gel supplemented or not with 0.5% calcium gluconate (Ca). Toothbrushing was performed immediately and 1h after bleaching, with two suspensions (high and low abrasivity). Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were divided into 12 groups (n=10) according to the bleaching gel (with and without Ca), slurry abrasivity (high or low) and elapsed time after bleaching (immediately and after 1h). As control, a group was not bleached, but abraded. The treatment cycle (7 d) consisted of bleaching (1h) and toothbrushing (135 strokes/day) immediatelly or after 1h of artificial saliva exposure. Surface roughness and surface loss (μm) were measured by profilometry and analysed by three-way ANOVA (5%). Surface roughness means were significantly influenced by slurry abrasivity (p<0.0001). For enamel loss, significant triple interaction was observed (p<0.0001). HP-bleached groups and immediately brushed with high-abrasive slurry exhibited increased loss (1.41±0.14) compared to other groups (μm). Control and HP+Ca-bleached groups brushed after 1h with low abrasive slurry presented the lowest loss (0.21±0.03/0.27±0.02). For dentin loss, significant interaction was observed for bleaching and interval factors (p<0.001). 7.5%HP-bleached groups and immediately brushed showed significantly higher loss (8.71±2.45) than the other groups. It was concluded that surface roughness increased when high abrasive was used, independently of bleaching. 7.5%HP increased enamel and dentin loss, mainly with high abrasive slurries. Calcium supplementation of bleaching gel reduced surface loss. Additionally, in order to minimize tooth wear susceptibility, it is recommended to delay brushing after bleaching. After bleaching gel application, postponing toothbrushing is recommended, as well as brushing with low abrasive dentifrices. Additionally

  16. Abrasive rolling effects on material removal and surface finish in chemical mechanical polishing analyzed by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Lina; Guo, Dan; Luo, Jianbin; Lu, Xinchun; Xie, Guoxin

    2011-04-01

    In an abrasive chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, materials were considered to be removed by abrasive sliding and rolling. Abrasive sliding has been investigated by many molecular dynamics (MD) studies; while abrasive rolling was usually considered to be negligible and therefore was rarely investigated. In this paper, an MD simulation was used to study the effects of abrasive rolling on material removal and surface finish in the CMP process. As the silica particle rolled across the silicon substrate, some atoms of the substrate were dragged out from their original positions and adhered to the silica particle, leaving some atomic vacancies on the substrate surface. Meanwhile, a high quality surface could be obtained. During the abrasive rolling process, the influencing factors of material removal, e.g., external down force and driving force, were also discussed. Finally, MD simulations were carried out to examine the effects of abrasive sliding on material removal under the same external down force as abrasive rolling. The results showed that the ability of abrasive rolling to remove material on the atomic scale was not notably inferior to that of abrasive sliding. Therefore, it can be proposed that both abrasive sliding and rolling play important roles in material removal in the abrasive CMP of the silicon substrate.

  17. Target correlation effects on neutron-nucleus total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Second order optical model solutions to the elastic scattering amplitude were used to evaluate total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections for neutron nucleus scattering. Improved agreement with experimental data for total and absorption cross sections is found when compared with first order (coherent approximation) solutions, especially below several hundred MeV. At higher energies, the first and second order solutions are similar. There are also large differences in abrasion cross section calculations; these differences indicate a crucial role for cluster knockout in the abrasion step.

  18. Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Mary J.

    1992-01-01

    The Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application is in support of the Abrasion Resistance Materials Screening Test. The fundamental assumption made for the SEM abrasion analysis was that woven fabrics to be used as the outermost layer of the protective overgarment in the design of the future, planetary space suits perform best when new. It is the goal of this study to determine which of the candidate fabrics was abraded the least in the tumble test. The sample that was abraded the least will be identified at the end of the report as the primary candidate fabric for further investigation. In addition, this analysis will determine if the abrasion seen by the laboratory tumbled samples is representative of actual EVA Apollo abrasion.

  19. Impact Capacity Reduction in Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers with Surface Abrasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Li, Dan; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2017-10-01

    Railway sleepers (also called ‘railroad tie’ in North America) embedded in ballasted railway tracks are a main part of railway track structures. Its important role is to transfer the loads evenly from the rails to a wider area of ballast bed and to secure rail gauge and enable safe passages of rolling stocks. By nature, railway infrastructure is nonlinear, evidenced by its behaviours, geometry and alignment, wheel-rail contact and operational parameters such as tractive efforts. Based on our critical review, the dynamic behaviour of railway sleepers has not been fully investigated, especially when the sleepers are deteriorated by excessive wears. In fact, the ballast angularity causes differential abrasions on the soffit or bottom surface of sleepers (especially at railseat zone). Furthermore, in sharp curves and rapid gradient change, longitudinal and lateral dynamics of rails increase the likelihood of railseat abrasions in concrete sleepers due to the unbalanced loading conditions. This paper presents a structural capacity of concrete sleepers under dynamic transient loading. The modified compression field theory for ultimate strength design of concrete sleepers under impact loading will be highlighted in this study. The influences of surface abrasions, including surface abrasion and soffit abrasion, on the dynamic behaviour of prestressed concrete sleepers, are firstly highlighted. The outcome of this study will improve the rail maintenance and inspection criteria in order to establish appropriate and sensible remote track condition monitoring network in practice. Moreover, this study will also improve the understanding of the fundamental dynamic behaviour of prestressed concrete sleepers with surface abrasions. The insight into these behaviours will not only improve safety and reliability of railway infrastructure but will enhance the structural safety of other concrete structures.

  20. Neural network approximation of tip-abrasion effects in AFM imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, Peter; Yacoot, Andrew; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Krüger-Sehm, Rolf

    2008-06-01

    The abrasion (wear) of tips used in scanning force microscopy (SFM) directly influences SFM image quality and is therefore of great relevance to quantitative SFM measurements. The increasing implementation of automated SFM measurement schemes has become a strong driving force for increasing efforts towards the prediction of tip wear, as it needs to be ensured that the probe is exchanged before a level of tip wear is reached that adversely affects the measurement quality. In this paper, we describe the identification of tip abrasion in a system of SFM measurements. We attempt to model the tip-abrasion process as a concatenation of a mapping from the measured AFM data to a regression vector and a nonlinear mapping from the regressor space to the output space. The mapping is formed as a basis function expansion. Feedforward neural networks are used to approximate this mapping. The one-hidden layer network gave a good quality of fit for the training and test sets for the tip-abrasion system. We illustrate our method with AFM measurements of both fine periodic structures and randomly oriented sharp features and compare our neural network results with those obtained using other methods.

  1. [The Characteristic Research of ·OH Induced by Water on an Argon Plasma Jet].

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Liao, Hua; Zheng, Pei-chao; Wang, Chen-ying; Liu, Hong-di; Danil, Dobrynin

    2015-07-01

    ·OH plays a crucial role in many fields, having aroused wide public concern in the world. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet, which can be achieved by portable device due to working without the vacuum environment, has the advantages of high concentration of reactive species, high electron temperature and low gas temperature. It has become an important research topic in the field of gas discharge with a strong prospect. Especially, how to induce plasma jet to produce ·OH has become a new hotpot in the field of low-temperature plasma. It has been reported that mass ·OH can be induced successfully when water vapor is added to the working gas, but it will be unstable when the concentrate of water reaches a certain degree. Thus, a device of argon plasma jet with a Ring-to-Ring Electrode Configuration has been designed to interact with water in the surrounding air to generate ·OH under atmospheric pressure. In order to increase the production of ·OH, ultrasonic atomizing device is introduced to promote water concentration around the plasma plume. The generating rule of OH(A2J) induced by water has been extensively studied under different voltages and flow rate. ·OH output induced by the plasma has been tested by emission spectrometry, and at the meanwhile, Ar atomic spectral lines at 810.41 and 811.48 nm are also recorded in order to calculate the electron temperature in argon plasma plume. The results show that the water surrounding the plasma plume can be induced to produce ·OH, and OH(A2 ∑+) output increases with the electrode voltage rising from 20 to 28 kV. When the flow rate increases from 100 to 200 L x h(-1), the OH(A2∑+) output increases, but from 200 to 600 L x h(-1), it decreases. The production rules of OH(A2∑+) is the same as that of electron temperature. Therefore, the presumption is proved that ·OH output mainly affected by electron temperature.

  2. A profilometry-based dentifrice abrasion Method for V8 brushing machines. Part I: Introduction to RDA-PE.

    PubMed

    White, Donald J; Schneiderman, Eva; Colón, Ellen; St John, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and standardization of a profilometry-based method for assessment of dentifrice abrasivity called Radioactive Dentin Abrasivity - Profilometry Equivalent (RDA-PE). Human dentine substrates are mounted in acrylic blocks of precise standardized dimensions, permitting mounting and brushing in V8 brushing machines. Dentin blocks are masked to create an area of "contact brushing." Brushing is carried out in V8 brushing machines and dentifrices are tested as slurries. An abrasive standard is prepared by diluting the ISO 11609 abrasivity reference calcium pyrophosphate abrasive into carboxymethyl cellulose/glycerin, just as in the RDA method. Following brushing, masked areas are removed and profilometric analysis is carried out on treated specimens. Assessments of average abrasion depth (contact or optical profilometry) are made. Inclusion of standard calcium pyrophosphate abrasive permits a direct RDA equivalent assessment of abrasion, which is characterized with profilometry as Depth test/Depth control x 100. Within the test, the maximum abrasivity standard of 250 can be created in situ simply by including a treatment group of standard abrasive with 2.5x number of brushing strokes. RDA-PE is enabled in large part by the availability of easy-to-use and well-standardized modern profilometers, but its use in V8 brushing machines is enabled by the unique specific conditions described herein. RDA-PE permits the evaluation of dentifrice abrasivity to dentin without the requirement of irradiated teeth and infrastructure for handling them. In direct comparisons, the RDA-PE method provides dentifrice abrasivity assessments comparable to the gold industry standard RDA technique.

  3. Correlation between in vivo and in vitro pulmonary responses to jet propulsion fuel-8 using precision-cut lung slices and a dynamic organ culture system.

    PubMed

    Hays, Allison M; Lantz, R Clark; Witten, Mark L

    2003-01-01

    In tissue slice models, interactions between the heterogeneous cell types comprising the lung parenchyma are maintained thus providing a controlled system for the study of pulmonary toxicology in vitro. However, validation of the model in vitro system must be affirmed. Previous reports, in in vivo systems, have demonstrated that Clara cells and alveolar type II cells are the targets following inhalation of JP-8 jet fuel. We have utilized the lung slice model to determine if cellular targets are similar following in vitro exposure to JP-8. Agar-filled adult rat lung explants were cored and precision cut, using the Brende/Vitron tissue slicer. Slices were cultured on titanium screens located as half-cylinders in cylindrical Teflon cradles that were loaded into standard scintillation vials and incubated at 37 degrees C. Slices were exposed to JP-8 jet fuel (0.5 mg/ml, 1.0 mg/ml, and 1.5 mg/ml in medium) for up to 24 hours. We determined ATP content using a luciferin-luciferase bioluminescent assay. No significant difference was found between the JP-8 jet fuel doses or time points, when compared to controls. Results were correlated with structural alterations following aerosol inhalation of JP-8. As a general observation, ultrastructural evaluation of alveolar type cells revealed an apparent increase in the number and size of surfactant secreting lamellar bodies that was JP-8 jet fuel-dose dependent. These results are similar to those observed following aerosol inhalation exposure. Thus, the lung tissue slice model appears to mimic in vivo effects of JP-8 and therefore is a useful model system for studying the mechanisms of lunginjury following JP-8 exposure.

  4. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  5. Impact of dentifrice abrasivity and remineralization time on erosive tooth wear in vitro.

    PubMed

    Buedel, Sarah; Lippert, Frank; Zero, Domenick T; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the in vitro effects of simulated dentifrice slurry abrasivity (L-low, M-medium and H-high) and remineralization time (0, 30, 60 and 120 minutes) on erosive tooth wear. Enamel and root dentin specimens were prepared from bovine incisors (n= 8) and submitted to a cycling protocol including erosion, remineralization at the test times, and brushing with each of the tested slurries, for 5 days. Dental surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry. Data was analyzed using mixed-model ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD tests (alpha= 0.05). SL generally increased along with the increase in slurry abrasive level, with significance dependent upon the specific substrate and remineralization times. H showed the highest SL on both enamel and dentin; remineralization for 30 minutes reduced SL significantly (P< 0.05), but only for enamel. M showed intermediate SL values, with remineralization benefit clearly seen only after 120 minutes of remineralization (P< 0.05). L caused the least SL for both enamel and dentin, which was further reduced after remineralization for 120 and 30 minutes, respectively (both P< 0.05). Overall, root dentin had significantly higher SL than enamel. Less abrasive dentifrice slurries were able to reduce toothbrushing abrasion on both enamel and root dentin. This protection was enhanced by remineralization for all abrasive levels on enamel, but only for L on root dentin. High-risk erosion patients should avoid highly abrasive toothpastes, as remineralization can only partially compensate for their deleterious effects on eroded dental surfaces. Lower abrasive toothpastes are recommended. Copyright©American Journal of Dentistry.

  6. Abrasion of Candidate Spacesuit Fabrics by Simulated Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rogers, Kerry J.; Sheehy, Brennan H.

    2009-01-01

    A protocol has been developed that produced the type of lunar soil abrasion damage observed on Apollo spacesuits. This protocol was then applied to four materials (Kevlar (DuPont), Vectran (Kuraray Co., Ltd.), Orthofabric, and Tyvek (DuPont)) that are candidates for advanced spacesuits. Three of the four new candidate fabrics (all but Vectran) were effective at keeping the dust from penetrating to layers beneath. In the cases of Kevlar and Orthofabric this was accomplished by the addition of a silicone layer. In the case of Tyvek, the paper structure was dense enough to block dust transport. The least abrasive damage was suffered by the Tyvek. This was thought to be due in large part to its non-woven paper structure. The woven structures were all abraded where the top of the weave was struck by the abrasive. Of these, the Orthofabric suffered the least wear, with both Vectran and Kevlar suffering considerably more extensive filament breakage.

  7. The research of breaking rock with liquid-solid two-phase jet flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X. Z.; Ren, F. S.; Fang, T. C.

    2018-03-01

    Abstracts. Particle impact drilling is an efficient way of breaking rock, which is mainly used in deep drilling and ultra-deep drilling. The differential equation was established based on the theory of Hertz and Newton’s second law, through the analysis of particle impact rock, the depth of particles into the rock was obtained. The mathematical model was established based on the effect of water impact crack. The research results show when water jet speed is more than 40 m/s, rock stability coefficient is more than 1.0, the rock fracture appear. Through the experimental research of particle impact drilling facilities, analysis of cuttings and the crack size which was analyzed through Scanning electron microscope consistent with the theoretical calculation, the validity of the model was verified.

  8. Quantitative image analysis for evaluating the abrasion resistance of nanoporous silica films on glass

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Karsten H.; Karlsson, Stefan; Limbach, Rene; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    The abrasion resistance of coated glass surfaces is an important parameter for judging lifetime performance, but practical testing procedures remain overly simplistic and do often not allow for direct conclusions on real-world degradation. Here, we combine quantitative two-dimensional image analysis and mechanical abrasion into a facile tool for probing the abrasion resistance of anti-reflective (AR) coatings. We determine variations in the average coated area, during and after controlled abrasion. Through comparison with other experimental techniques, we show that this method provides a practical, rapid and versatile tool for the evaluation of the abrasion resistance of sol-gel-derived thin films on glass. The method yields informative data, which correlates with measurements of diffuse reflectance and is further supported by qualitative investigations through scanning electron microscopy. In particular, the method directly addresses degradation of coating performance, i.e., the gradual areal loss of antireflective functionality. As an exemplary subject, we studied the abrasion resistance of state-of-the-art nanoporous SiO2 thin films which were derived from 5–6 wt% aqueous solutions of potassium silicates, or from colloidal suspensions of SiO2 nanoparticles. It is shown how abrasion resistance is governed by coating density and film adhesion, defining the trade-off between optimal AR performance and acceptable mechanical performance. PMID:26656260

  9. Experimental application of pulsed laser-induced water jet for endoscopic submucosal dissection: mechanical investigation and preliminary experiment in swine.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chiaki; Nakano, Toru; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Yamada, Masato; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Kamei, Takashi; Miyata, Go; Sato, Akira; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Nakai, Masaaki; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tominaga, Teiji; Satomi, Susumu

    2013-05-01

    A current drawback of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early-stage gastrointestinal tumors is the lack of instruments that can safely assist with this procedure. We have developed a pulsed jet device that can be incorporated into a gastrointestinal endoscope. Here, we investigated the mechanical profile of the pulsed jet device and demonstrated the usefulness of this instrument in esophageal ESD in swine. The device comprises a 5-Fr catheter, a 14-mm long stainless steel tube for generating the pulsed water jet, a nozzle and an optical quartz fiber. The pulsed water jet was generated at pulse rates of 3 Hz by irradiating the physiological saline (4°C) within the stainless steel tube with an holmium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser at 1.1 J/pulse. Mechanical characteristics were evaluated using a force meter. The device was used only for the part of submucosal dissection in the swine ESD model. Tissues removed using the pulsed jet device and a conventional electrocautery device, and the esophagus, were histologically examined to assess thermal damage. The peak impact force was observed at a stand-off distance of 40 mm (1.1 J/pulse). ESD using the pulsed jet device was successful, as the tissue specimens showed precise dissection of the submucosal layer. The extent of thermal injury was significantly lower in the dissected bed using the pulsed jet device. The results showed that the present endoscopic pulsed jet system is a useful alternative for a safe ESD with minimum tissue injury. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  10. Spitting cobras: fluid jets in nature as models for technical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmert, Alexander; Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Bleckmann, Horst; Westhoff, Guido

    2011-04-01

    Spitting cobras defend themselves by ejecting rapid jets of venom through their fangs towards the face of an offender. To generate these jets, the venom delivery system of spitting cobras has some unique adaptations, such as prominent ridges on the surface of the venom channel. We examined the fluid acceleration mechanisms in three spitting cobra species of the genus Naja. To investigate the liquid-flow through the venom channel we built a three-dimensional 60:1 scale model. First we determined the three-dimensional structure of the channel by using microcomputer tomography. With help of the micro computer tomographical data we then created a negative form out of wax. Finally, silicon was casted around the wax form and the wax removed, resulting in a completely transparent model of the cobrás venom channel. The physical-chemical properties of the cobra venom were measured by micro rheometry and tensiometry. Thereafter, an artificial fluid with similar properties was generated. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was performed to visualize the flow of the artificial liquid in the three-dimensional model. Our experiments show how the surface structure of the venom channel determines the liquid flow through the channel and ultimately the form of the liquid jet. Understanding the biological mechanisms of venom ejection helps to enhance industrial processes such as water jet cutting and cleaning as well as injection methods in technical and medical sectors, e.g. liquid microjet dissection in microsurgery.

  11. Direct and system effects of water ingestion into jet engine compresors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.; Ehresman, C. M.; Haykin, T.

    1986-01-01

    Water ingestion into aircraft-installed jet engines can arise both during take-off and flight through rain storms, resulting in engine operation with nearly saturated air-water droplet mixture flow. Each of the components of the engine and the system as a whole are affected by water ingestion, aero-thermally and mechanically. The greatest effects arise probably in turbo-machinery. Experimental and model-based results (of relevance to 'immediate' aerothermal changes) in compressors have been obtained to show the effects of film formation on material surfaces, centrifugal redistribution of water droplets, and interphase heat and mass transfer. Changes in the compressor performance affect the operation of the other components including the control and hence the system. The effects on the engine as a whole are obtained through engine simulation with specified water ingestion. The interest is in thrust, specific fuel consumption, surge margin and rotational speeds. Finally two significant aspects of performance changes, scalability and controllability, are discussed in terms of characteristic scales and functional relations.

  12. Brushing force of manual and sonic toothbrushes affects dental hard tissue abrasion.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Annette; Burkhard, John Patrik Matthias; Eggmann, Florin; Attin, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the brushing forces applied during in vivo toothbrushing with manual and sonic toothbrushes and to analyse the effect of these brushing forces on abrasion of sound and eroded enamel and dentin in vitro. Brushing forces of a manual and two sonic toothbrushes (low and high frequency mode) were measured in 27 adults before and after instruction of the respective brushing technique and statistically analysed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). In the in vitro experiment, sound and eroded enamel and dentin specimens (each subgroup n = 12) were brushed in an automatic brushing machine with the respective brushing forces using a fluoridated toothpaste slurry. Abrasion was determined by profilometry and statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA. Average brushing force of the manual toothbrush (1.6 ± 0.3 N) was significantly higher than for the sonic toothbrushes (0.9 ± 0.2 N), which were not significantly different from each other. Brushing force prior and after instruction of the brushing technique was not significantly different. The manual toothbrush caused highest abrasion of sound and eroded dentin, but lowest on sound enamel. No significant differences were detected on eroded enamel. Brushing forces of manual and sonic toothbrushes are different and affect their abrasive capacity. Patients with severe tooth wear and exposed and/or eroded dentin surfaces should use sonic toothbrushes to reduce abrasion, while patients without tooth wear or with erosive lesions confining only to enamel do not benefit from sonic toothbrushes with regard to abrasion.

  13. On the selection of the nozzle geometry and other parameters for cutting corneal flaps with waterjets.

    PubMed

    Cadavid, Ricardo; Jean, Benedikt; Wüstenberg, Dieter

    2009-06-01

    A cutting waterjet to produce corneal flaps during refractive surgery or to slice donor corneas for corneal grafting was developed. Jets generated with several different nozzles were compared to determine the most appropriate nozzle geometry for this application. In this paper, it is also discussed how other variables, such as stand-off distance and transverse velocity, can affect the characteristics of the cut. The cutting mechanisms, giving bases for an application of waterjets for cutting other types of tissues, are also discussed.

  14. Rates of Eolian Rock Abrasion in the Ice-Free Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallet, B.; Malin, M. C.; Sletten, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Eolian abrasion is a principal surface process in dry regions of Earth and Mars and there is evidence for wind processes active on Venus and Titan. Rock abrasion also has practical significance in diverse fields ranging from preservation of cultural material (artifacts, monuments) to damage of solar panels and windshields in arid regions. Despite its scientific and practical importance, and there have ben only few studies that define rates of rock abrasion quantitatively under natural conditions. Herein we report abrasion rates that have been exceptionally well characterized through a unique long-term (30+-year) field experiment in the ice-free McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. In 1983 and 1984, over 5000 rock targets of several lithologies (25.4 mm-diameter and 5 mm-thick disks of dolerite, basalt, tuff and sandstone) were installed at five heights (7,14, 21, 35, and 70 cm) facing the 4 cardinal directions at 10 locations (one additional site contains fewer targets). Sequential collections of rock targets exposed to abrasion enable definition of mass loss after 1, 5, 10, 30 and 31 years of exposure; the latter were retrieved during the 2014-2015 season. The abrasion rates generally show striking consistency for each lithology at any site; the multiple targets permit definition of intrinsic differences in mass loss. The rates vary considerably from site to site owing to differences in availability of transportable sediment, wind regime, and surface roughness, and at each site, owing to target orientation relative to the dominant winds and, secondarily, to height above the ground. For the hardest targets, basalt and dolerite, mass loss in 30+ years ranged from essentially zero at some sites to 1/3 of the deployed mass (2.59 g; equivalent to a rock thickness >1.8 mm) where abrasion was most active (Site 7, Central Wright Valley). The tuff targets showed the greatest mass loss, and in many cases were entirely abraded away by the end of the experiment.Current work is

  15. Atomistic aspects of ductile responses of cubic silicon carbide during nanometric cutting.

    PubMed

    Goel, Saurav; Luo, Xichun; Reuben, Robert L; Rashid, Waleed Bin

    2011-11-11

    Cubic silicon carbide (SiC) is an extremely hard and brittle material having unique blend of material properties which makes it suitable candidate for microelectromechanical systems and nanoelectromechanical systems applications. Although, SiC can be machined in ductile regime at nanoscale through single-point diamond turning process, the root cause of the ductile response of SiC has not been understood yet which impedes significant exploitation of this ceramic material. In this paper, molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to investigate the atomistic aspects of ductile response of SiC during nanometric cutting process. Simulation results show that cubic SiC undergoes sp3-sp2 order-disorder transition resulting in the formation of SiC-graphene-like substance with a growth rate dependent on the cutting conditions. The disorder transition of SiC causes the ductile response during its nanometric cutting operations. It was further found out that the continuous abrasive action between the diamond tool and SiC causes simultaneous sp3-sp2 order-disorder transition of diamond tool which results in graphitization of diamond and consequent tool wear.

  16. Kinetic energy density and agglomerate abrasion rate during blending of agglomerates into powders.

    PubMed

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Rubingh, Carina M; Tran, Thanh N; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2012-01-23

    Problems related to the blending of a cohesive powder with a free flowing bulk powder are frequently encountered in the pharmaceutical industry. The cohesive powder often forms lumps or agglomerates which are not dispersed during the mixing process and are therefore detrimental to blend uniformity. Achieving sufficient blend uniformity requires that the blending conditions are able to break up agglomerates, which is often an abrasion process. This study was based on the assumption that the abrasion rate of agglomerates determines the required blending time. It is shown that the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed is a relevant parameter which correlates with the abrasion rate of agglomerates. However, aspects related to the strength of agglomerates should also be considered. For this reason the Stokes abrasion number (St(Abr)) has been defined. This parameter describes the ratio between the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed and the work of fracture of the agglomerate. The St(Abr) number is shown to predict the abrasion potential of agglomerates in the dry-mixing process. It appeared possible to include effects of filler particle size and impeller rotational rate into this concept. A clear relationship between abrasion rate of agglomerates and the value of St(Abr) was demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aeolian abrasion on Venus: Preliminary results from the Venus simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Greeley, Ronald; Tucker, D. W.; Pollack, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of atmospheric pressure on aeolian abrasion was examined in the Venus Simulator with a constant temperature of 737 K. Both the rock target and the impactor were fine-grained basalt. The impactor was a 3 mm diameter angular particle chosen to represent a size of material that is entrainable by the dense Venusian atmosphere and potentially abrasive by virtue of its mass. It was projected at the target 10 to the 5 power times at a velocity of 0.7 m/s. The impactor showed a weight loss of approximately 1.2 x 10 to the -9 power gm per impact with the attrition occurring only at the edges. Results from scanning electron microscope analysis, profilometry, and weight measurement are summarized. It is concluded that particles can incur abrasion at Venusian temperatures even with low impact velocities expected for Venus.

  18. Pulsed, Hydraulic Coal-Mining Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In proposed coal-cutting machine, piston forces water through nozzle, expelling pulsed jet that cuts into coal face. Spring-loaded piston reciprocates at end of travel to refill water chamber. Machine a onecylinder, two-cycle, internal-combustion engine, fueled by gasoline, diesel fuel, or hydrogen. Fuel converted more directly into mechanical energy of water jet.

  19. Novel cavitation fluid jet polishing process based on negative pressure effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengjun; Wang, Hui; Tang, Yu; Yin, Shaohui; Huang, Shuai; Zhang, Guanghua

    2018-04-01

    Traditional abrasive fluid jet polishing (FJP) is limited by its high-pressure equipment, unstable material removal rate, and applicability to ultra-smooth surfaces because of the evident air turbulence, fluid expansion, and a large polishing spot in high-pressure FJP. This paper presents a novel cavitation fluid jet polishing (CFJP) method and process based on FJP technology. It can implement high-efficiency polishing on small-scale surfaces in a low-pressure environment. CFJP uses the purposely designed polishing equipment with a sealed chamber, which can generate a cavitation effect in negative pressure environment. Moreover, the collapse of cavitation bubbles can spray out a high-energy microjet and shock wave to enhance the material removal. Its feasibility is verified through researching the flow behavior and the cavitation results of the negative pressure cavitation machining of pure water in reversing suction flow. The mechanism is analyzed through a computational fluid dynamics simulation. Thus, its cavitation and surface removal mechanisms in the vertical CFJP and inclined CFJP are studied. A series of polishing experiments on different materials and polishing parameters are conducted to validate its polishing performance compared with FJP. The maximum removal depth increases, and surface roughness gradually decreases with increasing negative outlet pressures. The surface becomes smooth with the increase of polishing time. The experimental results confirm that the CFJP process can realize a high material removal rate and smooth surface with low energy consumption in the low-pressure environment, together with compatible surface roughness to FJP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Generation of shockwave and vortex structures at the outflow of a boiling water jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, M. V.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Pribaturin, N. A.; Sorokin, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Results of numerical simulation for shock waves and generation of vortex structures during unsteady outflow of boiling liquid jet are presented. The features of evolution of shock waves and vortex structures formation during unsteady outflow of boiling water are compared with corresponding structures during unsteady gas outflow.

  1. Heat transfer coefficient distribution over the inconel plate cooled from high temperature by the array of water jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Z.; Telejko, T.; Cebo-Rudnicka, A.; Szajding, A.; Rywotycki, M.; Hadała, B.

    2016-09-01

    The industrial rolling mills are equipped with systems for controlled water cooling of hot steel products. A cooling rate affects the final mechanical properties of steel which are strongly dependent on microstructure evolution processes. In case of water jets cooling the heat transfer boundary condition can be defined by the heat transfer coefficient. In the present study one and three dimensional heat conduction models have been employed in the inverse solution to heat transfer coefficient. The inconel plate has been heated to about 900oC and then cooled by one, two and six water jets. The plate temperature has been measured by 30 thermocouples. The heat transfer coefficient distributions at plate surface have been determined in time of cooling.

  2. Relationships Between Abrasive Wear, Hardness, and Surface Grinding Characteristics of Titanium-Based Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Jolly, Brian C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to support the development of grinding models for titanium metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by investigating possible relationships between their indentation hardness, low-stress belt abrasion, high-stress belt abrasion, and the surface grinding characteristics. Three Ti-based particulate composites were tested and compared with the popular titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The three composites were a Ti-6Al-4V-based MMC with 5% TiB{sub 2} particles, a Ti-6Al-4V MMC with 10% TiC particles, and a Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-7.5%W binary alloy matrix that contained 7.5% TiC particles. Two types of belt abrasion tests were used: (a) a modified ASTM G164 low-stress loop abrasion test, and (b)more » a higher-stress test developed to quantify the grindability of ceramics. Results were correlated with G-ratios (ratio of stock removed to abrasives consumed) obtained from an instrumented surface grinder. Brinell hardness correlated better with abrasion characteristics than microindentation or scratch hardness. Wear volumes from low-stress and high-stress abrasive belt tests were related by a second-degree polynomial. Grindability numbers correlated with hard particle content but were also matrix-dependent.« less

  3. Mitigation of EMU Cut Glove Hazard from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impacts on ISS Handrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Ordonez, Erick

    2009-01-01

    Recent cut damages sustained on crewmember gloves during extravehicular activity (ISS) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been caused by contact with sharp edges or a pinch point according to analysis of the damages. One potential source are protruding sharp edged crater lips from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on metallic handrails along EVA translation paths. A number of hypervelocity impact tests were performed on ISS handrails, and found that mm-sized projectiles were capable of inducing crater lip heights two orders of magnitude above the minimum value for glove abrasion concerns. Two techniques were evaluated for mitigating the cut glove hazard of MMOD impacts on ISS handrails: flexible overwraps which act to limit contact between crewmember gloves and impact sites, and; alternate materials which form less hazardous impact crater profiles. In parallel with redesign efforts to increase the cut resilience of EMU gloves, the modifications to ISS handrails evaluated in this study provide the means to significantly reduce cut glove risk from MMOD impact craters

  4. Impact of tree cutting on water-soluble organic compounds in podzolic soils of the European North-East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapteva, Elena; Bondarenko, Natalia; Shamrikova, Elena; Kubik, Olesya; Punegov, Vasili

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WOCs) and their single components, i.e. low-molecular organic acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates, attain a great deal of attention among soil scientists. WOCs are an important component of soil organic matter (SOM) and form as a results of different biological and chemical processes in soils. These processes are mainly responsible for formation and development of soils in aboveground ecosystems. The purpose of the work was identifying qualitative and quantitative composition of low-molecular organic substances which form in podzolic loamy soils against natural reforestation after spruce forest cutting. The studies were conducted on the territory of the European North-East of Russia, in the middle taiga subzone (Komi Republic, Ust-Kulom region). The study materials were soil of undisturbed bilberry spruce forest (Sample Plot 1 (SP1)) and soils of different-aged tree stands where cutting activities took place in winter 2001/2002 (SP2) and 1969/1970 (SP3). Description of soils and vegetation cover on the plots is given in [1]. Low-molecular organic compounds in soil water extracts were identified by the method of gas chromatography mass-spectrometry [2, 3]. Finally, reforestationafterspruceforestcutting was found to be accompanied by different changes in soil chemical composition. In contrast with soils under undisturbed spruce forest, organic soil horizons under different-aged cuts decreased in organic carbon reserves and production of low-molecular organic compounds, changed in soil acidity. Within the soil series of SP1→SP2→SP3, the highest content of WOCs was identified for undisturbed spruce forest (738 mg kg-1 soil). In soils of coniferous-deciduous forests on SP1 and SP3, WOC content was 294 and 441 mg kg-1 soil, correspondingly. Soils at cuts decreased in concentration of any water-soluble low-molecular SOM components as low-molecular acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Structure of low-molecular WOCs in the study podzolic

  5. Characterization of Conventional and High-Translucency Y-TZP Dental Ceramics Submitted to Air Abrasion.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Guimarães, Renato Bastos; Noronha-Filho, Jaime Dutra; Botelho, Glauco Dos Santos; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes; Silva, Eduardo Moreira da

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of air-abrasion on t®m phase transformation, roughness, topography and the elemental composition of three Y-TZP (Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal) dental ceramics: two conventional (Lava Frame and IPS ZirCad) and one with high-translucency (Lava Plus). Plates obtained from sintered blocks of each ceramic were divided into four groups: AS (as-sintered); 30 (air-abrasion with 30 mm Si-coated Al2O3 particles); 50 (air-abrasion with 50 mm Al2O3 particles) and 150 (air-abrasion with 150 mm Al2O3 particles). After the treatments, the plates were submitted to X-ray diffractometry; 3-D profilometry and SEM/EDS. The AS surfaces were composed of Zr and t phases. All treatments produced t®m phase transformation in the ceramics. The diameter of air-abrasion particles influenced the roughness (150>50>30>AS) and the topography. SEM analysis showed that the three treatments produced groove-shaped microretentions on the ceramic surfaces, which increased with the diameter of air-abrasion particles. EDS showed a decrease in Zr content along with the emergence of O and Al elements after air-abrasion. Presence of Si was also detected on the plates air-abraded with 30 mm Si-coated Al2O3 particles. It was concluded that irrespective of the type and diameter of the particles, air-abrasion produced t®m phase transformation, increased the roughness and changed the elemental composition of the three Y-TZP dental ceramics. Lava Plus also behaved similarly to the conventional Y-TZP ceramics, indicating that this high translucency ceramic could be more suitable to build monolithic ceramic restorations in the aesthetic restorative dentistry field.

  6. Ratio of Cut Surface Area to Leaf Sample Volume for Water Potential Measurements by Thermocouple Psychrometers

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sue; Oosterhuis, Derrick M.; Wiebe, Herman H.

    1984-01-01

    Evaporative losses from the cut edge of leaf samples are of considerable importance in measurements of leaf water potential using thermocouple psychrometers. The ratio of cut surface area to leaf sample volume (area to volume ratio) has been used to give an estimate of possible effects of evaporative loss in relation to sample size. A wide range of sample sizes with different area to volume ratios has been used. Our results using Glycine max L. Merr. cv Bragg indicate that leaf samples with area to volume values less than 0.2 square millimeter per cubic millimeter give psychrometric leaf water potential measurements that compare favorably with pressure chamber measurements. PMID:16663578

  7. Comparison of pulsating DC and DC power air-water plasma jet: A method to decrease plume temperature and increase ROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Hu, H.; Lei, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Most air-water plasma jets are rich in hydroxyl radicals (•OH), but the plasma has higher temperatures, compared to that of pure gas, especially when using air as working gas. In this paper, pulsating direct current (PDC) power was used to excite the air-water plasma jet to reduce plume temperature. In addition to the temperature, other differences between PDC and DC plasma jets are not yet clear. Thus, comparative studies of those plasmas are performed to evaluate characteristics, such as breakdown voltage, temperature, and reactive oxygen species. The results show that the plume temperature of PDC plasma is roughly 5-10 °C lower than that of DC plasma in the same conditions. The •OH content of PDC is lower than that of DC plasma, whereas the O content of PDC plasma is higher. The addition of water leads in an increase in the plume temperature and in the production of •OH with two types of power supplies. The production of O inversely shows a declining tendency with higher water ratio. The most important finding is that the PDC plasma with 100% water ratio achieves lower temperature and more abundant production of •OH and O, compared with DC plasma with 0% water ratio.

  8. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were severely abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub-layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, shares the results of the testing, and provides recommendations for future work.

  9. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were badly abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub -layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This Paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, and shares the results and conclusions of the testing.

  10. Impact of brushing force on abrasion of acid-softened and sound enamel.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, A; Köwing, L; Attin, T

    2007-11-01

    The study aimed to analyse the effects of different brushing loads on abrasion of acid-softened and sound enamel surfaces. Sound and acid-softened surfaces of each 10 human enamel samples were submitted to brushing abrasion in an automatic brushing machine at 1.5 N (A), 2.5 N (B), 3.5 N (C) or 4.5 N (D) brushing load. Prior to abrasion, demineralisation of half of each enamel surface was performed by storage in hydrochloric acid (pH 2.0) for 60s. Brushing was carried out (1000 strokes) using a manual toothbrush and toothpaste slurry in a ratio of 1:3. Enamel loss was measured after 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 1000 brushing strokes (BS). Pre- and post-brushing values of Knoop indentation length (5 indentations each sample) were measured and mean enamel loss was calculated from the change in indentation depth. Within- and between-group comparisons were performed by ANOVA and t-test followed by Bonferroni-correction. Enamel loss of acid-softened surfaces was significantly influenced by the brushing load applied and was mostly significantly higher in group D (10-1000 BS: 225-462 nm) compared to A (10-1000 BS: 164-384), B (10-1000 BS: 175-370 nm) and C (10-1000 BS: 191-396 nm). Abrasion of acid-softened enamel was fourfold higher compared to sound surfaces. Sound enamel was significantly influenced by the brushing force at 20-200 brushing strokes only, but revealed no significant differences between groups A-D. Brushing load influences abrasion of briefly eroded enamel, but might be of minor importance for abrasion of sound enamel surfaces.

  11. Method of protecting surfaces from abrasion and abrasion resistant articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1988-06-09

    Surfaces of fabricated structures are protected from damage by impacting particulates by a coating of hard material formed as a mass of thin flexible filaments having root ends secured to the surface and free portions which can flex and overlap to form a resilient cushioning mat which resembles hair or fur. The filamentary coating covers the underlying surface with hard abrasion resistance material while also being compliant and capable of local accommodation to particle impacts. The coating can also function as thermal and/or acoustical insulation and has a friction reducing effect. 11 figs.

  12. Release of carbon nanotubes from an epoxy-based nanocomposite during an abrasion process.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Chu, Bryan T T; Buha, Jelena; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2012-07-03

    The abrasion behavior of an epoxy/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite was investigated. An experimental setup has been established to perform abrasion, particle measurement, and collection all in one. The abraded particles were characterized by particle size distribution and by electron microscopy. The abrasion process was carried out with a Taber Abraser, and the released particles were collected by a tube for further investigation. The particle size distributions were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and revealed four size modes for all measured samples. The mode corresponding to the smallest particle sizes of 300-400 nm was measured with the SMPS and showed a trend of increasing size with increasing nanofiller content. The three measured modes with particle sizes from 0.6 to 2.5 μm, measured with the APS, were similar for all samples. The measured particle concentrations were between 8000 and 20,000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the SMPS and between 1000 and 3000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the APS. Imaging by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that free-standing individual CNTs and agglomerates were emitted during abrasion.

  13. Laser abrasion for cosmetic and medical treatment of facial actinic damage

    SciTech Connect

    David, L.M.; Lask, G.P.; Glassberg, E.

    1989-06-01

    Previous studies have shown the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser to be effective in the treatment of actinic cheilitis. After CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion, normal skin and marked cosmetic improvement of the lip were noted. In our study, twenty-three patients were treated with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasions for cosmetic improvement of facial lines and actinic changes. Pre- and postoperative histopathologic examinations were made on two patients. Preoperative examination of specimens from actinically damaged skin showed atypical keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, with overlying dense compact orthokeratosis and parakeratosis. Abundant solar elastosis was seen in the papillary dermis.more » Postoperative histologic specimens showed a normal-appearing epidermis with fibrosis in the papillary dermis and minimal solar elastosis (about four weeks after laser treatment). At present, various modalities are available for the regeneration of the aged skin, including chemical peels and dermabrasion. Significantly fewer complications were noted with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion than with these methods. Thus, CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion can be useful in the cosmetic and medical treatment of the aged skin. Marked clinical and histologic improvement has been demonstrated.« less

  14. Effect of dried sunflower seeds on incisal edge abrasion: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Rath, Avita; Ramamurthy, Priyadarshini H; Fernandes, Bennete Aloysius; Sidhu, Preena

    2017-01-01

    Tooth surface loss (TSL) is a complex phenomenon characterized by the loss of hard tooth structure at various locations of the teeth, usually due to more than one factor. TSL due to abrasion can be significant in patients consuming coarse, abrasive diet. The present case reports an interesting incisal edge abrasion in a female patient, attributed to a particular dietary behavior of long-term consumption of sunflower seeds. All her family members and most of the people from her native place were also reported to have similar lesions by the patient. Larger epidemiological studies to assess the prevalence and severity of such abrasive lesions in geographic areas with this particular dietary habit need to be carried out so that people may be made aware and educated about alternative ways of eating sunflower seeds that will not cause any form of tooth wear.

  15. Azimuth cut-off model for significant wave height investigation along coastal water of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marghany, Maged; Ibrahim, Zelina; Van Genderen, Johan

    2002-11-01

    The present work is used to operationalize the azimuth cut-off concept in the study of significant wave height. Three ERS-1 images have been used along the coastal waters of Terengganu, Malaysia. The quasi-linear transform was applied to map the SAR wave spectra into real ocean wave spectra. The azimuth cut-off was then used to model the significant wave height. The results show that azimuth cut-off varied with the different period of the ERS-1 images. This is because of the fact that the azimuth cut-off is a function of wind speed and significant wave height. It is of interest to find that the significant wave height modeled from azimuth cut-off is in good relation with ground wave conditions. It can be concluded that ERS-1 can be used as a monitoring tool in detecting the significant wave height variation. The azimuth cut-off can be used to model the significant wave height. This means that the quasi-linear transform could be a good application to significant wave height variation during different seasons.

  16. Abrasion resistant composition

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Keith D; Barnes, Christopher A; Henderson, Stephen L

    A surface covering composition of abrasion resistant character adapted for disposition in overlying bonded relation to a metal substrate. The surface covering composition includes metal carbide particles within a metal matrix at a packing factor of not less than about 0.6. Not less than about 40 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter in the range of +14-32 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix. Not less than about 3 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter of +60 mesh prior to introduction to themore » metal matrix.« less

  17. To Evaluate Effect of Airborne Particle Abrasion using Different Abrasives Particles and Compare Two Commercial Available Zirconia on Flexural Strength on Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Hari A; Pasha, Naveed; Hilal, Mohammed; Amarnath, G S; Kundapur, Vinaya; Anand, M; Singh, Sumeet

    2017-06-01

    airborne-particle abrasion using 50 µm Al 2 O 3 particles and 50 µm silica coated Al 2 O 3 are applied to the upper and lower surfaces of the specimens. Each specimen is held under a pressure of 30 psi for 15 seconds at a direction perpendicular to the surface and at a distance of 30mm with an airborne particle abrasion device for the specimens in the airborne particle abraded groups. Heat treatments were performed at a starting temperature of 500°C, heating rate of 100°c/ min, ending at a temperature of 1000°C and 15 minutes holding time without vacuum for the specimens in the group 4, 5, 9 and 10. Airborne-particle abrasion mimicking the preparation for cementation was applied to the lower surfaces with 50 µm alumina and silica coated alumina particles for the specimens in the groups 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The specimens were cleaned for 15 minutes in an ultrasonic bath containing distilled water. To determine the fracture strength, a disc of 10 mm diameter was used to place 3 hardened steel balls of 3 mm diameter separated each other by 120 degrees (described in the ISO standard 6872 for dental ceramics). Each specimen was centrally placed on this disc. The lower surface mimicking the internal surface of zirconia was the tension side, facing the supporting device testing, while the upper surface mimicking the external surface of the zirconia core was loaded with a flat punch (1 mm in diameter). A universal testing machine was used to perform the test at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. The failure stress was calculated with the equation listed in ISO 6872. The results were then statistically analyzed. A post hoc test was used for pair wise comparisons. The mean fracture strength of commercially available Zirconia Ceramill (AMANNGIRBACH) showed a significant higher value compared to the ZR-White (UPCERA) Zirconia ( P <0.001), Airborne abrasion treatment to the specimens showed a significant difference between the abraded groups and the control group ( P <0.001); further

  18. To Evaluate Effect of Airborne Particle Abrasion using Different Abrasives Particles and Compare Two Commercial Available Zirconia on Flexural Strength on Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Hari A.; Pasha, Naveed; Hilal, Mohammed; Amarnath, G. S.; Kundapur, Vinaya; Anand, M; Singh, Sumeet

    2017-01-01

    specimens each. Heat treatment after airborne-particle abrasion using 50 µm Al2O3 particles and 50 µm silica coated Al2O3 are applied to the upper and lower surfaces of the specimens. Each specimen is held under a pressure of 30 psi for 15 seconds at a direction perpendicular to the surface and at a distance of 30mm with an airborne particle abrasion device for the specimens in the airborne particle abraded groups. Heat treatments were performed at a starting temperature of 500°C, heating rate of 100°c/ min, ending at a temperature of 1000°C and 15 minutes holding time without vacuum for the specimens in the group 4, 5, 9 and 10. Airborne-particle abrasion mimicking the preparation for cementation was applied to the lower surfaces with 50 µm alumina and silica coated alumina particles for the specimens in the groups 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The specimens were cleaned for 15 minutes in an ultrasonic bath containing distilled water. To determine the fracture strength, a disc of 10 mm diameter was used to place 3 hardened steel balls of 3 mm diameter separated each other by 120 degrees (described in the ISO standard 6872 for dental ceramics). Each specimen was centrally placed on this disc. The lower surface mimicking the internal surface of zirconia was the tension side, facing the supporting device testing, while the upper surface mimicking the external surface of the zirconia core was loaded with a flat punch (1 mm in diameter). A universal testing machine was used to perform the test at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. The failure stress was calculated with the equation listed in ISO 6872. The results were then statistically analyzed. A post hoc test was used for pair wise comparisons. Result: The mean fracture strength of commercially available Zirconia Ceramill (AMANNGIRBACH) showed a significant higher value compared to the ZR-White (UPCERA) Zirconia (P<0.001), Airborne abrasion treatment to the specimens showed a significant difference between the abraded groups and the

  19. Air-particle abrasion on zirconia ceramic using different protocols: effects on biaxial flexural strength after cyclic loading, phase transformation and surface topography.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rodrigo O A; Valandro, Luiz F; Melo, Renata M; Machado, João P B; Bottino, Marco A; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different air-particle abrasion protocols on the biaxial flexural strength and structural stability of zirconia ceramics. Zirconia ceramic specimens (ISO 6872) (Lava, 3M ESPE) were obtained (N=336). The specimens (N=118, n=20 per group) were randomly assigned to one of the air-abrasion protocols: Gr1: Control (as-sintered); Gr2: 50 µm Al2O3 (2.5 bar); Gr3: 50 µm Al2O3 (3.5 bar); Gr4: 110 µm Al2O3(2.5 bar); Gr5: 110 µm Al2O3 (3.5 bar); Gr6: 30 µm SiO2 (2.5 bar) (CoJet); Gr7: 30 µm SiO2(3.5 bar); Gr8: 110 µm SiO2 (2.5 bar) (Rocatec Plus); and Gr9: 110 µm SiO2 (3.5 bar) (duration: 20 s, distance: 10 mm). While half of the specimens were tested immediately, the other half was subjected to cyclic loading in water (100,000 cycles; 50 N, 4 Hz, 37 °°C) prior to biaxial flexural strength test (ISO 6872). Phase transformation (t→m), relative amount of transformed monoclinic zirconia (FM), transformed zone depth (TZD) and surface roughness were measured. Particle type (p=0.2746), pressure (p=0.5084) and cyclic loading (p=0.1610) did not influence the flexural strength. Except for the air-abraded group with 110 µm Al2O3 at 3.5 bar, all air-abrasion protocols increased the biaxial flexural strength (MPa) (Controlnon-aged: 1,030 ± 153, Controlaged: 1,138 ± 138; Experimentalnon-aged: 1,307 ± 184-1,554 ± 124; Experimentalaged: 1,308 ± 118-1,451 ± 135) in both non-aged and aged conditions, respectively. Surface roughness (Ra) was the highest with 110 µm Al2O3(0.84 µm. FM values ranged from 0% to 27.21%, higher value for the Rocatec Plus (110 µm SiO2) and 110 µm Al2O3 groups at 3.5 bar pressure. TZD ranged between 0 and 1.43 µm, with the highest values for Rocatec Plus and 110 µm Al2O3 groups at 3.5 bar pressure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-healing Characteristics of Collagen Coatings with Respect to Surface Abrasion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-01-01

    A coating based on collagen with self-healing properties was developed for applications in mechanical components that are prone to abrasion due to contact with a counter surface. The inherent swelling behavior of collagen in water was exploited as the fundamental mechanism behind self-healing of a wear scar formed on the surface. The effects of freeze-drying process and water treatment of the collagen coatings on their mechanical and self-healing properties were analyzed. Water was also used as the medium to trigger the self-healing effect of the collagen coatings after the wear test. It was found that collagen coatings without freeze-drying did not demonstrate any self-healing effect whereas the coatings treated by freeze-drying process showed remarkable self-healing effect. Overall, collagen coatings that were freeze-dried and water treated showed the best friction and self-healing properties. Repeated self-healing ability of these coatings with respect to wear scar was also demonstrated. It was also confirmed that the self-healing property of the collagen coating was effective over a relatively wide range of temperature. PMID:27010967

  1. Self-healing Characteristics of Collagen Coatings with Respect to Surface Abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-03-01

    A coating based on collagen with self-healing properties was developed for applications in mechanical components that are prone to abrasion due to contact with a counter surface. The inherent swelling behavior of collagen in water was exploited as the fundamental mechanism behind self-healing of a wear scar formed on the surface. The effects of freeze-drying process and water treatment of the collagen coatings on their mechanical and self-healing properties were analyzed. Water was also used as the medium to trigger the self-healing effect of the collagen coatings after the wear test. It was found that collagen coatings without freeze-drying did not demonstrate any self-healing effect whereas the coatings treated by freeze-drying process showed remarkable self-healing effect. Overall, collagen coatings that were freeze-dried and water treated showed the best friction and self-healing properties. Repeated self-healing ability of these coatings with respect to wear scar was also demonstrated. It was also confirmed that the self-healing property of the collagen coating was effective over a relatively wide range of temperature.

  2. Production of bio-jet fuel from microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmoraghy, Marian

    The increase in petroleum-based aviation fuel consumption, the decrease in petroleum resources, the fluctuation of the crude oil price, the increase in greenhouse gas emission and the need for energy security are motivating the development of an alternate jet fuel. Bio-jet fuel has to be a drop in fuel, technically and economically feasible, environmentally friendly, greener than jet fuel, produced locally and low gallon per Btu. Bic jet fuel has been produced by blending petro-based jet fuel with microalgae biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, or simply FAME). Indoor microalgae growth, lipids extraction and transetrification to biodiesel are energy and fresh water intensive and time consuming. In addition, the quality of the biodiesel product and the physical properties of the bio-jet fuel blends are unknown. This work addressed these challenges. Minimizing the energy requirements and making microalgae growth process greener were accomplished by replacing fluorescent lights with light emitting diodes (LEDs). Reducing fresh water footprint in algae growth was accomplished by waste water use. Microalgae biodiesel production time was reduced using the one-step (in-situ transestrification) process. Yields up to 56.82 mg FAME/g dry algae were obtained. Predicted physical properties of in-situ FAME satisfied European and American standards confirming its quality. Lipid triggering by nitrogen deprivation was accomplished in order to increase the FAME production. Bio-jet fuel freezing points and heating values were measured for different jet fuel to biodiesel blend ratios.

  3. Noise Reduction with Lobed Mixers: Nozzle-Length and Free-Jet Speed Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Dalton, William N.; Bridges, James C.; Boyd, Kathy C.

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic test results are presented for 1/4th-scaled nozzles with internal lobed mixers used for reduction of subsonic jet noise of turbofan engines with bypass ratio above 5 and jet speeds up to 830 ft/s. One coaxial and three forced lobe mixers were tested with variations in lobe penetration, cut-outs in lobe-sidewall, lobe number and nozzle-length. Measured exit flow profiles and thrusts are used to assist the inferences from acoustic data. It is observed that lobed mixers reduce the low-frequency noise due to more uniformly mixed exit flow; but they may also increase the high-frequency noise at peak perceived noise (PNL) angle and angles upstream of it due to enhanced mixing inside the nozzle. Cut-outs and low lobe penetration reduce the annoying portion of the spectrum but lead to less uniform exit flow. Due to the dominance of internal duct noise in unscalloped, high-penetration mixers their noise is not reduced as much with increase in free-jet speed as that of coaxial or cut-out lobed mixers. The latter two mixers also show no change in PNL over the wide range of nozzle-lengths tested because most of their noise sources are outside the nozzle; whereas, the former show an increase in noise with decrease in nozzle-length.

  4. Numerical simulation of supersonic water vapor jet impinging on a flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzuu, Kazuto; Aono, Junya; Shima, Eiji

    2012-11-01

    We investigated supersonic water vapor jet impinging on a flat plate through numerical simulation. This simulation is for estimating heating effect of a reusable sounding rocket during vertical landing. The jet from the rocket bottom is supersonic, M=2 to 3, high temperature, T=2000K, and over-expanded. Atmospheric condition is a stationary standard air. The simulation is base on the full Navier-Stokes equations, and the flow is numerically solved by an unstructured compressible flow solver, in-house code LS-FLOW-RG. In this solver, the transport properties of muti-species gas and mass conservation equations of those species are considered. We employed DDES method as a turbulence model. For verification and validation, we also carried out a simulation under the condition of air, and compared with the experimental data. Agreement between our results and the experimental data are satisfactory. Through this simulation, we calculated the flow under some exit pressure conditions, and discuss the effects of pressure ratio on flow structures, heat transfer and so on. Furthermore, we also investigated diffusion effects of water vapor, and we confirmed that these phenomena are generated by the interaction of atmospheric air and affects the heat transfer to the surrounding environment.

  5. Discovering Higgs boson decays to lepton jets at hadron colliders.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Adam; Ruderman, Joshua T; Volansky, Tomer; Zupan, Jure

    2010-12-10

    The Higgs boson may decay predominantly into a hidden sector, producing lepton jets instead of the standard Higgs signatures. We propose a search strategy for such a signal at hadron colliders. A promising channel is the associated production of the Higgs boson with a Z or W. The dominant background is Z or W plus QCD jets. The lepton jets can be discriminated from QCD jets by cutting on the electromagnetic fraction and charge ratio. The former is the fraction of jet energy deposited in the electromagnetic calorimeter and the latter is the ratio of energy carried by charged particles to the electromagnetic energy. We use a Monte Carlo description of detector response to estimate QCD rejection efficiencies of O(10⁻³) per jet. The expected 5σ (3σ) discovery reach in Higgs boson mass is ∼115 GeV (150 GeV) at the Tevatron with 10 fb⁻¹ of data and ∼110 GeV (130 GeV) at the 7 TeV LHC with 1 fb⁻¹.

  6. Prepolishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeffler, Adrienne E.; Gregg, Leslie L.; Schoen, John M.; Fess, Edward M.; Hakiel, Michael; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Deterministic microgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-5μm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an Optipro CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

  7. New vibration-assisted magnetic abrasive polishing (VAMAP) method for microstructured surface finishing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiang; Kum, Chun Wai; Au, Ka Hing; Tan, Zhi'En Eddie; Wu, Hu; Liu, Kui

    2016-06-13

    In order to polish microstructured surface without deteriorating its profile, we propose a new vibration-assisted magnetic abrasive polishing (VAMAP) method. In this method, magnetic force guarantees that the magnetic abrasives can well contact the microstructured surface and access the corners of microstructures while vibration produces a relative movement between microstructures and magnetic abrasives. As the vibration direction is parallel to the microstructures, the profile of the microstructures will not be deteriorated. The relation between vibration and magnetic force was analyzed and the feasibility of this method was experimentally verified. The results show that after polishing, the surface finish around microstructures was significantly improved while the profile of microstructures was well maintained.

  8. Large Eddy Simulation of a cooling impinging jet to a turbulent crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Michail; Papalexandris, Miltiadis

    2015-11-01

    In this talk we report on Large Eddy Simulations of a cooling impinging jet to a turbulent channel flow. The impinging jet enters the turbulent stream in an oblique direction. This type of flow is relevant to the so-called ``Pressurized Thermal Shock'' phenomenon that can occur in pressurized water reactors. First we elaborate on issues related to the set-up of the simulations of the flow of interest such as, imposition of turbulent inflows, choice of subgrid-scale model and others. Also, the issue of the commutator error due to the anisotropy of the spatial cut-off filter induced by non-uniform grids is being discussed. In the second part of the talk we present results of our simulations. In particular, we focus on the high-shear and recirculation zones that are developed and on the characteristics of the temperature field. The budget for the mean kinetic energy of the resolved-scale turbulent velocity fluctuations is also discussed and analyzed. Financial support has been provided by Bel V, a subsidiary of the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control of Belgium.

  9. A severe artifact in simulation of liquid water using a long cut-off length: Appearance of a strange layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetani, Yoshiteru

    2005-04-01

    We report that a severe artifact appeared in molecular dynamics simulation of bulk water using the long cut-off length 18 Å. Our result shows that increasing the cut-off length does not always improve the simulation result. Moreover, the use of the long cut-off length can lead to a spurious result. It is suggested that the simulation of solvated biomolecules using such a long cut-off length, which has been often performed, may contain an unexpected artifact.

  10. Breast Augmentation by Water-Jet Assisted Autologous Fat Grafting: A Report of 300 Operations.

    PubMed

    Muench, Daniel P

    2016-04-01

    Background  The BEAULI -method (Breast Augmentation by Lipotransfer) is available for extraction and processing of large transplantable fat quantities. The aim of this work is to describe the surgical technique precisely and reproducibly and to provide an overview of the autologous fat transfer based on surgical experience. Method  The author performed 300 autologous fat transplantations on 254 women between September 3, 2010, and May 13, 2015. Patients desiring moderate volume increase, fuller and firmer breasts, as well as an optimization of the silhouette, ideally with the concurrent desire of the correction of unwanted fat deposits, were selected. The fat was extracted via water-jet assisted liposuction (Body-jet, Human Med AG, Schwerin, Germany), and the fat cells were subsequently separated with the Lipocollector ® (Human Med AG, Schwerin, Germany). Results  The results were assessed with a control exam and photo comparison and were based on the responses on a questionnaire. Overall, 35.9% of the patients defined the result as very good, 38.6% as good, 22.4% as satisfactory, and 3.1% as poor. Conclusion  This study shows that the autologous fat cell transplantation into the female breast via water-jet assisted liposuction achieves a moderate and harmoniously appearing breast volume enlargement as well as contour improvement. Further studies with more cases and longer observation periods over several years could contribute to improving the method of the autologous fat transfer regarding the grow-in rate, efficiency, and safety.

  11. The Effect of Jetting Parameters on the Performance of Droplet Formation for Ink-Jet Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Heinzl et al. (1985) reports that experiments in ink-jets to produce drawings or signals occurred as early as 1930. Various companies such as IBM and Pitney-Bowes have conducted extensive studies on these devices for many years. Many such reports are available in such journals as the IBM Journal of Research and Development. While numerous articles have been published on the jetting characteristics of ink and water, the literature is rather limited on fluids such as waxes (Gao & Sonin 1994) or non-water based fluids (Passow, et al. 1993). This present study extends the knowledge base to determine the performance of molten waxes in "ink-jet" type printers for rapid prototyping. The purpose of this research was to qualitatively and quantitatively study the droplet formation of a drop-on-demand ink-jet type nozzle system for rapid prototyping.

  12. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  13. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  14. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  15. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  16. Study on the cutting mechanism and the brittle ductile transition model of isotropic pyrolyric graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minghai; Wang, Hujun; Liu, Zhonghai

    2011-05-01

    Isotropic pyrolyric graphite (IPG) is a new kind of brittle material, it can be used for sealing the aero-engine turbine shaft and the ethylene high-temperature equipment. It not only has the general advantages of ordinal carbonaceous materials such as high temperature resistance, lubrication and abrasion resistance, but also has the advantages of impermeability and machinability that carbon/carbon composite doesn't have. Therefore, it has broad prospects for development. Mechanism of brittle-ductile transition of IPG is the foundation of precision cutting while the plastic deformation of IPG is the essential and the most important mechanical behavior of precision cutting. Using the theory of strain gradient, the mechanism of this material removal during the precision cutting is analyzed. The critical cutting thickness of IPG is calculated for the first time. Furthermore, the cutting process parameters such as cutting depth, feed rate which corresponding to the scale of brittle-ductile transition deformation of IPG are calculated. In the end, based on the theory of micromechanics, the deformation behaviors of IPG such as brittle fracture, plastic deformation and mutual transformation process are all simulated under the Sih.G.C fracture criterion. The condition of the simulation is that the material under the pressure-shear loading conditions .The result shows that the best angle during the IPG precision cutting is -30°. The theoretical analysis and the simulation result are validated by precision cutting experiments.

  17. Investigation of Turbulent Tip Leakage Vortex in an Axial Water Jet Pump with Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill; Katz, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Detailed steady and unsteady numerical studies were performed to investigate tip clearance flow in an axial water jet pump. The primary objective is to understand physics of unsteady tip clearance flow, unsteady tip leakage vortex, and cavitation inception in an axial water jet pump. Steady pressure field and resulting steady tip leakage vortex from a steady flow analysis do not seem to explain measured cavitation inception correctly. The measured flow field near the tip is unsteady and measured cavitation inception is highly transient. Flow visualization with cavitation bubbles shows that the leakage vortex is oscillating significantly and many intermittent vortex ropes are present between the suction side of the blade and the tip leakage core vortex. Although the flow field is highly transient, the overall flow structure is stable and a characteristic frequency seems to exist. To capture relevant flow physics as much as possible, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were applied for the current investigation. The present study reveals that several vortices from the tip leakage vortex system cross the tip gap of the adjacent blade periodically. Sudden changes in local pressure field inside tip gap due to these vortices create vortex ropes. The instantaneous pressure filed inside the tip gap is drastically different from that of the steady flow simulation. Unsteady flow simulation which can calculate unsteady vortex motion is necessary to calculate cavitation inception accurately even at design flow condition in such a water jet pump.

  18. A Study on Postmortem Wound Dating by Gross and Histopathological Examination of Abrasions.

    PubMed

    Vinay, Javaregowda; Harish, Sathyanarayana; Mangala, Gouri S R; Hugar, Basappa S

    2017-06-01

    Abrasions are the most common blunt force injuries. The precise dating of injury is extremely important in forensic medicine practice. As we know, the wound healing occurs in well-orchestrated sequence, consisting of inflammation, proliferation, and maturation.A study of occurrence of such phases will help in understanding the sequence of events in wound healing. In this context, this study of wound dating from gross and microscopic level was taken. Postmortem study of wound dating by gross and histopathological examination of abrasions was carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine, in M.S. Ramaiah Medical College. A total of 101 abrasions were correlated to time frame the occurrence of different gross changes and microscopic changes that follow the blunt trauma. Abrasions ranging from 0 hour to a maximum of 45 days were studied. The gross changes of abrasions were in correlation with the microscopic changes; however, the role of the comorbid conditions is significant because the results showed variations with respect to healing process. This study signifies that, if naked eye examination is studied along with histopathological examination, the reliability and accuracy of dating of wound increase. Whenever accurate determination of age is required, the autopsy surgeon can subject the samples for histopathological examination and correlate before opining the age of injury.

  19. Experimental application of pulsed Ho:YAG laser-induced liquid jet as a novel rigid neuroendoscopic dissection device.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Hirano, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Tokitada; Menezes, Viren; Jokura, Hidefumi; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Sato, Yasuhiko; Saito, Tsutomu; Shirane, Reizo; Tominaga, Teiji; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Although water jet technology has been considered as a feasible neuroendoscopic dissection methodology because of its ability to perform selective tissue dissection without thermal damage, problems associated with continuous use of water and the ensuing fountain-effect-with catapulting of the tissue-could make water jets unsuitable for endoscopic use, in terms of safety and ease of handling. Therefore, the authors experimented with minimization of water usage during the application of a pulsed holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser-induced liquid jet (LILJ), while assuring the dissection quality and the controllability of a conventional water jet dissection device. We have developed the LILJ generator for use as a rigid neuroendoscope, discerned its mechanical behavior, and evaluated its dissection ability using the cadaveric rabbit ventricular wall. The LILJ generator is incorporated into the tip of a stainless steel tube (length: 22 cm; internal diameter: 1.0 mm; external diameter: 1.4 mm), so that the device can be inserted into a commercial, rigid neuroendoscope. Briefly, the LILJ is generated by irradiating an internally supplied water column within the stainless steel tube using the pulsed Ho:YAG laser (wave length: 2.1 microm, pulse duration time: 350 microseconds) and is then ejected through the metal nozzle (internal diameter: 100 microm). The Ho:YAG laser pulse energy is conveyed through optical quartz fiber (core diameter: 400 microm), while cold water (5 degrees C) is internally supplied at a rate of 40 ml/hour. The relationship between laser energy (range: 40-433 mJ/pulse), standoff distance (defined as the distance between the tip of the optical fiber and the nozzle end; range: 10-30 mm), and the velocity, shape, pressure, and average volume of the ejected jet were analyzed by means of high-speed camera, PVDF needle hydrophone, and digital scale. The quality of the dissection plane, the preservation of blood vessels, and the penetration depth

  20. Effect of ceramic coating by aerosol deposition on abrasion resistance of a resin composite material.

    PubMed

    Taira, Yohsuke; Hatono, Hironori; Mizukane, Masahiro; Tokita, Masahiro; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol deposition (AD coating) is a novel technique to coat solid substances with a ceramic film. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of AD coating on abrasion resistance of a resin composite material. A 5-microm-thick aluminum oxide layer was created on the polymerized resin composite. The specimen was cyclically abraded using a toothbrush abrasion simulator for 100,000 cycles. Abraded surface was then measured with a profilometer to determine the average roughness (Ra) and maximum roughness (Rmax). It was found that abrasion cycling increased the Ra value of the No-AD-coating group, but decreased the Ra and Rmax values of the AD coating group. Moreover, the AD coating group showed significantly smaller Ra and Rmax values after 100,000 abrasion cycles as compared to the No-coating control group. Microscopic observation supported these findings. In conclusion, the resistance of the resin composite against toothbrush abrasion was improved by AD coating.

  1. Flat Branch monitoring project: stream water temperature and sediment responses to forest cutting in the riparian zone

    Treesearch

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose; Dick L. Fowler

    2010-01-01

    Stream water protection during timber-harvesting activities is of primary interest to forest managers. In this study, we examine the potential impacts of riparian zone tree cutting on water temperature and total suspended solids. We monitored stream water temperature and total suspended solids before and after timber harvesting along a second-order tributary of the...

  2. Detection of water in jet fuel using layer-by-layer thin film coated long period grating sensor.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Sean D; Pacey, Gilbert E

    2009-04-15

    The quantitative measurement of jet fuel additives in the field is of interest to the Air Force. The "smart nozzle" project was designed as a state-of-the-art diagnostics package attached to a single-point refueling nozzle for assessing key fuel properties as the fuel is dispensed. The objective of the work was to show proof of concept that a layer-by-layer thin film and long period grating fibers could be used to detect the presence of water in jet fuel. The data for the nafion/PDMA film and a long period grating fiber is a combination capable of quantitative measurement of water in kerosene. The average response (spectral loss wavelength shift) to the kerosene sample ranged from -6.0 for 15 ppm to -126.5 for 60 ppm water. The average calculated value for the check standard was 21.71 and ranged from 21.25 to 22.00 with a true value of 22.5 ppm water. Potential interferences were observed and are judged to be insignificant in real samples.

  3. Effect of Water Cut on Pressure Drop of Oil (D130) -Water Flow in 4″Horizontal Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basha, Mehaboob; Shaahid, S. M.; Al-Hems, Luai M.

    2018-03-01

    The oil-water flow in pipes is a challenging subject that is rich in physics and practical applications. It is often encountered in many oil and chemical industries. The pressure gradient of two phase flow is still subject of immense research. The present study reports pressure measurements of oil (D130)-water flow in a horizontal 4″ diameter stainless steel pipe at different flow conditions. Experiments were carried out for different water cuts (WC); 0-100%. Inlet oil-water flow rates were varied from 4000 to 8000 barrels-per-day in steps of 2000. It has been found that the frictional pressure drop decreases for WC = 0 - 40 %. With further increase in WC, friction pressure drop increases, this could be due to phase inversion.

  4. Quantitative Imaging of Young's Modulus of Soft Tissues from Ultrasound Water Jet Indentation: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min-Hua; Mao, Rui; Lu, Yin; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Tian-Fu; Chen, Si-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Indentation testing is a widely used approach to evaluate mechanical characteristics of soft tissues quantitatively. Young's modulus of soft tissue can be calculated from the force-deformation data with known tissue thickness and Poisson's ratio using Hayes' equation. Our group previously developed a noncontact indentation system using a water jet as a soft indenter as well as the coupling medium for the propagation of high-frequency ultrasound. The novel system has shown its ability to detect the early degeneration of articular cartilage. However, there is still lack of a quantitative method to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft tissue from water jet indentation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the loading-unloading curves and the mechanical properties of soft tissues to provide an imaging technique of tissue mechanical properties. A 3D finite element model of water jet indentation was developed with consideration of finite deformation effect. An improved Hayes' equation has been derived by introducing a new scaling factor which is dependent on Poisson's ratios v, aspect ratio a/h (the radius of the indenter/the thickness of the test tissue), and deformation ratio d/h. With this model, the Young's modulus of soft tissue can be quantitatively evaluated and imaged with the error no more than 2%. PMID:22927890

  5. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Muller, Matt T.; Simpson, Lin J.

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended tomore » provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.« less

  6. Wheel Abrasion Experiment Metals Selection for Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Hoffman, Richard; Hill, Maria M.; Kaloyeros, Alain E.

    1996-01-01

    A series of metals was examined for suitability for the Wheel Abrasion Experiment, one of ten microrover experiments of the Mars Pathfinder Mission. The seven candidate metals were: Ag, Al, Au, Cu, Ni, Pt, and W. Thin films of candidate metals from 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer thick were deposited on black anodized aluminum coupons by e-beam and resistive evaporation and chemical vapor deposition. Optical, corrosion, abrasion, and adhesion criteria were used to select Al, Ni, and Pt. A description is given of the deposition and testing of thin films, followed by a presentation of experimental data and a brief discussion of follow-on testing and flight qualification.

  7. Effect of Abrasive Machining on the Electrical Properties Cu86Mn12Ni₂ Alloy Shunts.

    PubMed

    Misti, Siti Nabilah; Birkett, Martin; Penlington, Roger; Bell, David

    2017-07-29

    This paper studies the effect of abrasive trimming on the electrical properties of Cu 86 Mn 12 Ni₂ Manganin alloy shunt resistors. A precision abrasive trimming system for fine tuning the resistance tolerance of high current Manganin shunt resistors is proposed. The system is shown to be capable of reducing the resistance tolerance of 100 μΩ shunts from their standard value of ±5% to <±1% by removing controlled amounts of Manganin material using a square cut trim geometry. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), high current, and high temperature performance of the trimmed shunts was compared to that of untrimmed parts to determine if trimming had any detrimental effect on these key electrical performance parameters of the device. It was shown that the TCR value was reduced following trimming with typical results of +106 ppm/°C and +93 ppm/°C for untrimmed and trimmed parts respectively. When subjected to a high current of 200 A the trimmed parts showed a slight increase in temperature rise to 203 °C, as compared to 194 °C for the untrimmed parts, but both had significant temporary increases in resistance of up to 1.3 μΩ. The results for resistance change following high temperature storage at 200 °C for 168 h were also significant for both untrimmed and trimmed parts with shifts of 1.85% and 2.29% respectively and these results were related to surface oxidation of the Manganin alloy which was accelerated for the freshly exposed surfaces of the trimmed part.

  8. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milly, Hussam; Andiappan, Manoharan; Thompson, Ian; Banerjee, Avijit

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required "time taken". BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  9. Robotic edge machining using elastic abrasive tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, A. V.; Semyonov, E. N.; Belomestnykh, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article describes a robotic center designed for automation of finishing operations, and analyzes technological aspects of an elastic abrasive tool applied for edge machining. Based on the experimental studies, practical recommendations on the application of the robotic center for finishing operations were developed.

  10. The Effect of Pleural Abrasion on the Treatment of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Mo-yu; Cai, Shuang-qi; Chen, Yi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Pleural abrasion has been widely used to control the recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). However, controversy still exists regarding the advantages and disadvantages of pleural abrasion compared with other interventions in preventing the recurrence of PSP. Methods The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched up to December 15, 2014 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of pleural abrasion with those of other interventions in the treatment of PSP. The study outcomes included the PSP recurrence rate and the occurrence rate of adverse effects. Results Mechanical pleural abrasion and apical pleurectomy after thoracoscopic stapled bullectomy exhibited similarly persistent postoperative air leak occurrence rates (p = 0.978) and 1-year PSP recurrence rates (p = 0.821), whereas pleural abrasion led to reduced residual chest pain and discomfort (p = 0.001) and a smaller rate of hemothorax (p = 0.036) than did apical pleurectomy. However, the addition of minocycline pleurodesis to pleural abrasion did not reduce the pneumothorax recurrence rate compared with apical pleurectomy (3.8% for both procedures) but was associated with fewer complications. There was no statistical difference in the pneumothorax recurrence rate between mechanical pleural abrasion and chemical pleurodesis with minocycline on either an intention-to-treat basis (4 of 42 versus 0 of 42, p = 0.12; Fisher exact test) or after exclusions (2 of 40 versus 0 of 42, p = 0.24; Fisher exact test). Pleural abrasion plus minocycline pleurodesis also did not reduce the pneumothorax recurrence rate compared with pleural abrasion alone (p = 0.055). Moreover, pleural abrasion plus minocycline pleurodesis was associated with more intense acute chest pain. The postoperative overall recurrence rate in patients who underwent staple line coverage with absorbable cellulose mesh and fibrin glue was similar to that

  11. Atomistic aspects of ductile responses of cubic silicon carbide during nanometric cutting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cubic silicon carbide (SiC) is an extremely hard and brittle material having unique blend of material properties which makes it suitable candidate for microelectromechanical systems and nanoelectromechanical systems applications. Although, SiC can be machined in ductile regime at nanoscale through single-point diamond turning process, the root cause of the ductile response of SiC has not been understood yet which impedes significant exploitation of this ceramic material. In this paper, molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to investigate the atomistic aspects of ductile response of SiC during nanometric cutting process. Simulation results show that cubic SiC undergoes sp3-sp2 order-disorder transition resulting in the formation of SiC-graphene-like substance with a growth rate dependent on the cutting conditions. The disorder transition of SiC causes the ductile response during its nanometric cutting operations. It was further found out that the continuous abrasive action between the diamond tool and SiC causes simultaneous sp3-sp2 order-disorder transition of diamond tool which results in graphitization of diamond and consequent tool wear. PMID:22078069

  12. The abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded enamel.

    PubMed

    Mosquim, Victor; Martines Souza, Beatriz; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Wang, Linda; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded bovine enamel samples in respect to erosive tooth wear. 72 bovine crowns were embedded, polished and subjected to the baseline profile analysis. The samples were then protected in 2/3 of the enamel surface and were randomly assigned to six groups (n= 12/group): G1: Oral-B 3D White, G2: Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White, G3: Sorriso Xtreme White 4D, G4: Colgate Luminous White, G5: Crest (conventional toothpaste), G6:erosion only (control). All samples were submitted to an erosive pH cycling (4 x 90 seconds in 0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, per day) and abrasive challenges (2 x 15 seconds, per day) for 7 days. After the first and the last daily cycles, the samples were subjected to abrasive challenges, using a toothbrushing machine, soft toothbrushes and slurry of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). Between the challenges, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva. The final profile was obtained and overlaid to the baseline profile for the calculation of the erosive tooth wear (μm). The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (P< 0.05). G1 promoted the highest enamel wear (3.68±1.06 μm), similarly to G3 (3.17± 0.80 μm) and G4 (3.44± 1.29 μm). G3 and G4 performed similarly between them and compared with G5 (2.35± 1.44 μm). G2 (1.51± 0.95 μm) and G6 (0.85± 0.36 μm) showed the lowest enamel wear, which did not differ between them and from G5. Oral-B 3D White showed the highest abrasive potential while Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White showed the lowest abrasive potential on eroded enamel in vitro. This study showed that some commercial whitening toothpastes, especially those containing pyrophosphate associated with hydrated silica, enhanced enamel erosive wear.

  13. Assessment of ureterovesical jet dynamics in obstructed ureter by urinary stone with color Doppler and duplex Doppler examinations.

    PubMed

    Jandaghi, Ali Babaei; Falahatkar, Siavash; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Kanafi, Alireza Rajabzadeh; Pourghorban, Ramin; Shekarchi, Babak; Zirak, Amin Keshavarz; Esmaeili, Samaneh

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate ureterovesical jet dynamics in obstructed ureter and to compare it with those of contralateral unobstructed side. Forty-six patients with diagnosis of ureteral stone, based on imaging findings in computed tomography were enrolled in this study. The gray-scale ultrasound exam from both kidneys and urinary bladder was performed. Then, ureterovesical jet characteristics including ureteral jet frequency, duration and peak velocity were assessed by color Doppler and duplex Doppler studies in both obstructed and unobstructed ureters by a radiologist, 15-30 min after oral hydration with 750-1,000 mL of water. When compared with contralateral normal side, the ureterovesical jet in obstructed ureter showed less frequency (0.59 vs. 3.04 jets/min; P < 0.05), shorter duration (1.24 vs. 5.26 s; P < 0.05) and lower peak velocity (5.41 vs. 32.09 cm/s; P < 0.05). The cut-off points of 1.5 jets/min, 2.5 s and 19.5 cm/s for difference of ureteral jet frequency, duration and peak velocity between obstructed and contralateral normal ureters yielded sensitivities of 97.8, 95.6 and 100 % and specificities of 87, 87.9 and 97.8 %, respectively for diagnosis of ureteral obstruction. Given the safety of Doppler study and significant differences in flow dynamics of obstructed versus unobstructed ureters, our findings demonstrated the utility of Doppler ultrasound examination as a useful adjunct to gray-scale ultrasound by improving the accuracy of ultrasound exam in diagnosis of ureteral obstruction.

  14. Self inflicted corneal abrasions due to delusional parasitosis

    PubMed Central

    Meraj, Adeel; Din, Amad U; Larsen, Lynn; Liskow, Barry I

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of self inflicted bilateral corneal abrasions and skin damage due to ophthalmic and cutaneous delusional parasitosis. A male in his 50s presented with a 10 year history of believing that parasites were colonizing his skin and biting into his skin and eyes. The patient had received extensive medical evaluations that found no evidence that symptoms were due to a medical cause. He was persistent in his belief and had induced bilateral corneal abrasions and skin damage by using heat lamps and hair dryers in an attempt to disinfect his body. The patient was treated with olanzapine along with treatment for his skin and eyes. His delusional belief system persisted but no further damage to his eyes and skin was noted on initial follow-up. PMID:22689836

  15. Air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tastepe, Ceylin S; van Waas, Rien; Liu, Yuelian; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method for peri-implantitis based on the existing literature. A PubMed search was conducted to find articles that reported on air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method for peri-implantitis. The studies evaluated cleaning efficiency and surface change as a result of the method. Furthermore, cell response toward the air powder abrasive-treated discs, reosseointegration, and clinical outcome after treatment is also reported. The PubMed search resulted in 27 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. In vitro cleaning efficiency of the method is reported to be high. The method resulted in minor surface changes on titanium specimens. Although the air powder abrasive-treated specimens showed sufficient levels of cell attachment and cell viability, the cell response decreased compared with sterile discs. Considerable reosseointegration between 39% and 46% and improved clinical parameters were reported after treatment when applied in combination with surgical treatment. The results of the treatment are influenced by the powder type used, the application time, and whether powder was applied surgically or nonsurgically. The in vivo data on air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method is not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions. However, in vitro results allow the clinician to consider the method as a promising option for implant surface cleaning in peri-implantitis treatment.

  16. A Study on Postmortem Wound Dating by Gross and Histopathological Examination of Abrasions

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, Javaregowda; Harish, Sathyanarayana; Mangala, Gouri S.R.; Hugar, Basappa S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Abrasions are the most common blunt force injuries. The precise dating of injury is extremely important in forensic medicine practice. As we know, the wound healing occurs in well-orchestrated sequence, consisting of inflammation, proliferation, and maturation. A study of occurrence of such phases will help in understanding the sequence of events in wound healing. In this context, this study of wound dating from gross and microscopic level was taken. Materials and Methods Postmortem study of wound dating by gross and histopathological examination of abrasions was carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine, in M.S. Ramaiah Medical College. A total of 101 abrasions were correlated to time frame the occurrence of different gross changes and microscopic changes that follow the blunt trauma. Abrasions ranging from 0 hour to a maximum of 45 days were studied. Results The gross changes of abrasions were in correlation with the microscopic changes; however, the role of the comorbid conditions is significant because the results showed variations with respect to healing process. Conclusions This study signifies that, if naked eye examination is studied along with histopathological examination, the reliability and accuracy of dating of wound increase. Whenever accurate determination of age is required, the autopsy surgeon can subject the samples for histopathological examination and correlate before opining the age of injury. PMID:28418938

  17. Aeolian Rat Tails (ARTs): A New Morphological Indicator of Abrasion Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, E. A.; Hugenholtz, C.; Barchyn, T.

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian rat tails (ARTs) are a previously undocumented aeolian abrasion feature observed on ignimbrite surfaces in the Puna Plateau of Northwest Argentina and bare morphological similarity to small-scale features on Mars. We describe the terrestrial features and present an evolutionary sequence from inception to demise. ARTs are regionally-ubiquitous and characterized by a windward abrasion-resistant lithic clast and a downwind-tapering tail. The size of ARTs is controlled by the diameter of the windward lithic clast, observed on the sub-decimeter to meter scale. Their distribution throughout the Campo de Piedra Pómez, and adjacent regions is determined by the ignimbrite clast content. ARTs develop under a uni-modal abrasion direction when lithic clasts are eroded out of the ignimbrite matrix, protrude from the surface, and shelter material directly behind the clast. As the surrounding material is eroded away, a downwind-tapered tail develops. Continued erosion of the adjacent surface leads to the undercutting of clasts, liberating them from the feature where, if small enough, the clasts can be transported downwind, leading to the destruction of the tail and ultimately the feature. This evolutionary sequence accounts not only for the morphology of the feature, but also the presence of loose clasts on the ignimbrite surface, which plays a role in the development of other enigmatic landforms in the area, such as periodic bedrock ridges, yardangs, and megaripples. The significance of the identification of ARTs is due to the necessity of uni-modal abrasion direction for their development, thereby making their orientation a diagnostic indicator of long-term aeolian abrasion direction. ARTs are likely analogs of features identified by MSL Curiosity Rover on Mars, possibly providing information on past and present wind regimes.

  18. The grain-size distribution of pyroclasts: Primary fragmentation, conduit sorting or abrasion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, U.; Schauroth, J.; Taddeucci, J.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions expel a mixture of pyroclasts and lithics. Pyroclasts, fragments of the juvenile magma, record the state of the magma at fragmentation in terms of porosity and crystallinity. The grain size distribution of pyroclasts is generally considered to be a direct consequence of the conditions at magma fragmentation that is mainly driven by gas overpressure in bubbles, high shear rates, contact with external water or a combination of these factors. Stress exerted by any of these processes will lead to brittle fragmentation by overcoming the magma's relaxation timescale. As a consequence, most pyroclasts exhibit angular shapes. Upon magma fragmentation, the gas pyroclast mixture is accelerated upwards and eventually ejected from the vent. The total grain size distribution deposited is a function of fragmentation conditions and transport related sorting. Porous pyroclasts are very susceptible to abrasion by particle-particle or particle-conduit wall interaction. Accordingly, pyroclastic fall deposits with angular clasts should proof a low particle abrasion upon contact to other surfaces. In an attempt to constrain the degree of particle interaction during conduit flow, monomodal batches of washed pyroclasts have been accelerated upwards by rapid decompression and subsequently investigated for their grain size distribution. In our set-up, we used a vertical cylindrical tube without surface roughness as conduit. We varied grain size (0.125-0.25; 0.5-1; 1-2 mm), porosity (0; 10; 30 %), gas-particle ratio (10 and 40%), conduit length (10 and 28 cm) and conduit diameter (2.5 and 6 cm). All ejected particles were collected after settling at the base of a 3.3 m high tank and sieved at one sieve size below starting size (half-Φ). Grain size reduction showed a positive correlation with starting grain size, porosity and overpressure at the vent. Although milling in a volcanic conduit may take place, porous pyroclasts are very likely to be a primary product

  19. Rock Abrasion as Seen by the MSL Curiosity Rover: Insights on Physical Weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N.; Day, M. D.; Le Mouelic, S.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Newsom, H. E.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Ullan, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mars is a dry planet, with actively blowing sand in many regions. In the absence of stable liquid water and an active hydrosphere, rates of chemical weathering are slow, such that aeolian abrasion is a dominant agent of landscape modification where sand is present and winds above threshold occur at sufficient frequency. Reflecting this activity, ventifacts, rocks that have been abraded by windborne particles, and wind-eroded outcrops, are common. They provide invaluable markers of the Martian wind record and insight into climate and landscape modification. Ventifacts are distributed along the traverse of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. They contain one or more diagnostic features and textures: Facets, keels, basal sills, elongated pits, scallops/flutes, grooves, rock tails, and lineations. Keels at the junction of facets are sharp enough to pose a hazard MSL's wheels in some areas. Geomorphic and textural patterns on outcrops indicate retreat of windward faces. Moonlight Valley and other depressions are demarcated by undercut walls and scree boulders, with the valley interiors containing fewer rocks, most of which show evidence for significant abrasion. Together, this suggests widening and undercutting of the valley walls, and erosion of interior rocks, by windblown sand. HiRISE images do not show any dark sand dunes in the traverse so far, in contrast to the large dune field to the south that is migrating up to 2 m per year. In addition, ChemCam shows that the rock Bathurst has a rind rich in mobile elements that would be removed in an abrading environment. This indicates that rock abrasion was likely more dominant in the past, a hypothesis consistent with rapid scarp retreat as suggested by the cosmogenic noble gases in Yellowknife Bay. Ventifacts and evidence for bedrock abrasion have also been found at the Pathfinder, Spirit, and Opportunity sites, areas, like the Curiosity traverse so far, that lack evidence for current high sand fluxes. Yardangs

  20. Micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of a biomedical Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in simulated physiological fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Yan; Huang, Weijiu; Chen, Xiaoli; He, Haoran

    2016-10-01

    The micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of the biomedical Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in Hank׳s solution with protein has been investigated using electrochemical measurements, tribological tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The potentiodynamic polarization tests showed that the corrosion potential (Ecorr) exhibits the maximum value at the abrasive concentration of 0.05gcm(-3) despite of the load level. The tribological results indicated that the total material loss of the Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy during micro-abrasion increased with the increasing abrasive concentration at a certain applied load. When the abrasive concentration is no more than 0.15gcm(-3), the total material loss increases with increasing load, while the total material loss exhibits the maximum value at a moderate load in case of higher abrasive concentration levels. This was ascribed to the three-body or two-body micro-abrasion-corrosion at different abrasive concentration levels. The wastage map, abrasion mode map and synergy map associated with the applied load and the abrasive concentration were constructed to evaluate the micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of the Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in potential biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The gas jet behavior in submerged Laval nozzle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhao-xin; Lu, Chuan-jing; Li, Jie; Cao, Jia-yi

    2017-12-01

    The behavior of the combustion gas jet in a Laval nozzle flow is studied by numerical simulations. The Laval nozzle is installed in an engine and the combustion gas comes out of the engine through the nozzle and then injects into the surrounding environment. First, the jet injection into the air is simulated and the results are verified by the theoretical solutions of the 1-D isentropic flow. Then the behavior of the gas jet in a submerged Laval nozzle flow is simulated for various water depths. The stability of the jet and the jet evolution with a series of expansion waves and compression waves are analyzed, as well as the mechanism of the jet in a deep water depth. Finally, the numerical results are compared with existing experimental data and it is shown that the characteristics of the water blockage and the average values of the engine thrust are in good agreement and the unfixed engine in the experiment is the cause of the differences of the frequency and the amplitude of the oscillation.

  2. Handpiece coolant flow rates and dental cutting.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Siegel, S C; Feldman, S

    2000-01-01

    High-speed handpieces incorporate water coolant sprays to remove cutting debris and minimize thermal insult to the pulp. Little data exists on optimal coolant flow rates during clinical procedures. This study compared the effect of different coolant flow rates on diamond stone cutting efficiency. Cutting studies were performed on Macor machinable ceramic using a previously developed test regimen--a KaVo high-speed handpiece at a cutting force of 91.5 g (0.9 N). Cutting was performed with round end tapered medium grit diamond stones under cooling water flow rates of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 44 ml/min, with cutting rates determined as the time to transect the 13 mm square cross-section of the Macor bar. Each bur was used for five cuts, with six burs used for each flow rate, for a total of 150 measurements. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with a post hoc Scheffé test. The cutting studies indicated that diamond stone cutting rates increased with higher coolant flow rates over the range of 15-44 ml/min. The data suggest that higher coolant flow rates promote cutting efficiency.

  3. Adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms in ion implanted metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-03-01

    The distinction between adhesive and abrasive wear processes was introduced originally by Burwell during the nineteen-fifties, though some authors prefer to classify wear according to whether it is mild or severe. It is argued here that, on the basis of the performance of a variety of ion implanted metal surfaces, exposed to different modes of wear, the Burwell distinction is a valid one which, moreover, enables us to predict under which circumstances a given treatment will perform well. It is shown that, because wear rates under abrasive conditions are very sensitive to the ratio of the hardness of the surface to that of the abrasive particles, large increases in working life are attainable as a result of ion implantation. Under adhesive wear conditions, the wear rate appears to fall inversely as the hardness increases, and it is advantageous to implant species which will create and retain a hard surface oxide or other continuous film in order to reduce metal-metal contact. By the appropriate combination of physico-chemical changes in an implanted layer it has been possible to reduce wear rates by up to three orders of magnitude. Such rates compensate for the shallow depths achievable by ion implantation.

  4. Analytical Modeling of Plasma Arc Cutting of Steel Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimbala, John; Fisher, Lance; Settles, Gary; Lillis, Milan

    2000-11-01

    A transferred-arc plasma torch cuts steel plate, and in the process ejects a molten stream of iron and ferrous oxides ("ejecta"). Under non-optimum conditions - especially during low speed cuts and/or small-radius corner cuts - "dross" is formed. Dross is re-solidified molten metal that sticks to the underside of the cut and renders it rough. The present research is an attempt to analytically model this process, with the goal of predicting dross formation. With the aid of experimental data, a control volume formulation is used in a steady frame of reference to predict the mass flow of molten material inside the cut. Although simple, the model is three-dimensional, can predict the shear stress driving the molten material in the direction of the plasma jet, and can predict the velocity of molten material exiting the bottom of the plate. In order to predict formation of dross, a momentum balance is performed on the flowing melt, considering the resisting viscous and surface tension forces. Preliminary results are promising, and provide a potential means of predicting dross formation without resorting to detailed computational analyses.

  5. Cutting a Drop of Water Pinned by Wire Loops Using a Superhydrophobic Surface and Knife

    PubMed Central

    Yanashima, Ryan; García, Antonio A.; Aldridge, James; Weiss, Noah; Hayes, Mark A.; Andrews, James H.

    2012-01-01

    A water drop on a superhydrophobic surface that is pinned by wire loops can be reproducibly cut without formation of satellite droplets. Drops placed on low-density polyethylene surfaces and Teflon-coated glass slides were cut with superhydrophobic knives of low-density polyethylene and treated copper or zinc sheets, respectively. Distortion of drop shape by the superhydrophobic knife enables a clean break. The driving force for droplet formation arises from the lower surface free energy for two separate drops, and it is modeled as a 2-D system. An estimate of the free energy change serves to guide when droplets will form based on the variation of drop volume, loop spacing and knife depth. Combining the cutting process with an electrofocusing driving force could enable a reproducible biomolecular separation without troubling satellite drop formation. PMID:23029297

  6. Comparative evaluation of enamel abrasivity by toothbrush and velcro: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Saroj Kumar; Javdekar, Sadashiv Bhaskar; Dhir, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Context: Plaque control has been shown to be pivotal in maintaining the optimal periodontal health. Mechanical plaque control is the most popular option for establishing the optimal oral health. Toothbrushes have been the novel tool for mechanical cleansing. However, the abrasive potential of the toothbrushes on the enamel surface is an area in gray. Aims: The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the abrasivity of the toothbrush versus the velcro fasteners. Materials and Methods: The mounted teeth of both the groups were subjected to abrasion test, and the tooth surfaces were observed for the possible abrasions from the oscillating strokes (toothbrush) and frictional contacts (hook and loop velcro) and examined under the scanning electron microscope. Results: Comparative assessment of both velcro (hook and loop) and toothbrush bristles did not reveal any evidence of abrasion on the tooth specimens. Conclusions: Veclro fasteners are safe and qualitatively at par to the manual toothbrush for their efficacy and efficiency in teeth cleansing PMID:26229264

  7. Pre-polishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeffer, Adrienne E.

    2003-05-01

    Deterministic micorgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-51.tm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an OptiproTM CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

  8. Predicted effects on ground water of construction of Divide Cut section, Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, northeastern Mississippi, using a digital model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, Mark S.

    1981-01-01

    The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, connecting the Tennessee River in northeastern Mississippi with the Gulf of Mexico, is currently (1980) under construction. The Divide Section, the northernmost 39 miles of the Waterway, will consist, from north to south, of (1) a dredged channel, (2) the Divide Cut, and (3) an artifical lake impounded by the Bay Springs Dam. In all three , water will be at Tennessee River level. A three-dimensional digital model covering 3,273 square miles was constructed to simulate ground-water flow in the Gordo and Eutaw Formations and the Coffee Sand in the vicinity of the Divide Section. The model was calibrated to preconstruction water levels, then used to simulate the effects of stresses imposed by the construction of the Divide Section. The model indicates that the system stabilizes after major changes in conditions within a few months. The Divide Cut acts as a drain, lowering water levels as much as 55 feet. Drawdowns of 5 feet occur as much as 8 miles from the Cut. The 80-foot-high Bay Springs Dam raises ground-water levels by 5 feet as far as 6 miles from its impoundment. Drawdown is not likely to affect public water supplies significantly, but probably will adversely affect a relatively small number of private wells. (USGS)

  9. Abrasive Wear of Four Direct Restorative Materials by Standard and Whitening Dentifrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    after an acidic challenge . Enamel loss was significantly greater when erosive and abrasive effects were combined. They concluded that acid-softened...surrounding soft tissues. Another benefit of restoration is the elimination of a challenging area for the patient and hygienist to clean. These areas...abrasion challenge ; the resin cement with the smallest sized filler particles had the smallest weight loss and maintained the smoothest surface of all the

  10. Effect of Abrasive Machining on the Electrical Properties Cu86Mn12Ni2 Alloy Shunts

    PubMed Central

    Misti, Siti Nabilah; Bell, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of abrasive trimming on the electrical properties of Cu86Mn12Ni2 Manganin alloy shunt resistors. A precision abrasive trimming system for fine tuning the resistance tolerance of high current Manganin shunt resistors is proposed. The system is shown to be capable of reducing the resistance tolerance of 100 μΩ shunts from their standard value of ±5% to <±1% by removing controlled amounts of Manganin material using a square cut trim geometry. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), high current, and high temperature performance of the trimmed shunts was compared to that of untrimmed parts to determine if trimming had any detrimental effect on these key electrical performance parameters of the device. It was shown that the TCR value was reduced following trimming with typical results of +106 ppm/°C and +93 ppm/°C for untrimmed and trimmed parts respectively. When subjected to a high current of 200 A the trimmed parts showed a slight increase in temperature rise to 203 °C, as compared to 194 °C for the untrimmed parts, but both had significant temporary increases in resistance of up to 1.3 μΩ. The results for resistance change following high temperature storage at 200 °C for 168 h were also significant for both untrimmed and trimmed parts with shifts of 1.85% and 2.29% respectively and these results were related to surface oxidation of the Manganin alloy which was accelerated for the freshly exposed surfaces of the trimmed part. PMID:28773236

  11. Research on the mechanics of underwater supersonic gas jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Honghui; Wang, Boyi; Dai, Zhenqing

    2010-03-01

    An experimental research was carried out to study the fluid mechanics of underwater supersonic gas jets. High pressure air was injected into a water tank through converging-diverging nozzles (Laval nozzles). The jets were operated at different conditions of over-, full- and under-expansions. The jet sequences were visualized using a CCD camera. It was found that the injection of supersonic air jets into water is always accompanied by strong flow oscillation, which is related to the phenomenon of shock waves feedback in the gas phase. The shock wave feedback is different from the acoustic feedback when a supersonic gas jet discharges into open air, which causes screech tone. It is a process that the shock waves enclosed in the gas pocket induce a periodic pressure with large amplitude variation in the gas jet. Consequently, the periodic pressure causes the jet oscillation including the large amplitude expansion. Detailed pressure measurements were also conducted to verify the shock wave feedback phenomenon. Three kinds of measuring methods were used, i.e., pressure probe submerged in water, pressure measurements from the side and front walls of the nozzle devices respectively. The results measured by these methods are in a good agreement. They show that every oscillation of the jets causes a sudden increase of pressure and the average frequency of the shock wave feedback is about 5-10 Hz.

  12. Calculation of Water Entry Problem for Free-falling Bodies Using a Developed Cartesian Cut Cell Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenhua, Wang; Yanying, Wang

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the development of free surface capturing method on Cartesian cut cell mesh to water entry problem for free-falling bodies with body-fluid interaction. The incompressible Euler equations for a variable density fluid system are presented as governing equations and the free surface is treated as a contact discontinuity by using free surface capturing method. In order to be convenient for dealing with the problem with moving body boundary, the Cartesian cut cell technique is adopted for generating the boundary-fitted mesh around body edge by cutting solid regions out of a background Cartesian mesh. Based on this mesh system, governing equations are discretized by finite volume method, and at each cell edge inviscid flux is evaluated by means of Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Furthermore, for unsteady calculation in time domain, a time accurate solution is achieved by a dual time-stepping technique with artificial compressibility method. For the body-fluid interaction, the projection method of momentum equations and exact Riemann solution are applied in the calculation of fluid pressure on the solid boundary. Finally, the method is validated by test case of water entry for free-falling bodies.

  13. Gingival abrasion and recession in manual and oscillating–rotating power brush users

    PubMed Central

    Rosema, NAM; Adam, R; Grender, JM; Van der Sluijs, E; Supranoto, SC; Van der Weijden, GA

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess gingival recession (GR) in manual and power toothbrush users and evaluate the relationship between GR and gingival abrasion scores (GA). Methods This was an observational (cross-sectional), single-centre, examiner-blind study involving a single-brushing exercise, with 181 young adult participants: 90 manual brush users and 91 oscillating–rotating power brush users. Participants were assessed for GR and GA as primary response variables. Secondary response variables were the level of gingival inflammation, plaque score reduction and brushing duration. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between number of recession sites and number of abrasions. Prebrushing (baseline) and post-brushing GA and plaque scores were assessed and differences analysed using paired tests. Two-sample t-test was used to analyse group differences; ancova was used for analyses of post-brushing changes with baseline as covariate. Results Overall, 97.8% of the study population had at least one site of ≥1 mm of gingival recession. For the manual group, this percentage was 98.9%, and for the power group, this percentage was 96.7% (P = 0.621). Post-brushing, the power group showed a significantly smaller GA increase than the manual group (P = 0.004); however, there was no significant correlation between number of recession sites and number of abrasions for either group (P ≥ 0.327). Conclusions Little gingival recession was observed in either toothbrush user group; the observed GR levels were comparable. Lower post-brushing gingival abrasion levels were seen in the power group. There was no correlation between gingival abrasion as a result of brushing and the observed gingival recession following use of either toothbrush. PMID:24871587

  14. Water Fountains in the Sky: Streaming Water Jets from Aging Star Provide Clues to Planetary-Nebula Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have found that an aging star is spewing narrow, rotating streams of water molecules into space, like a jerking garden hose that has escaped its owner's grasp. The discovery may help resolve a longstanding mystery about how the stunningly beautiful objects called planetary nebulae are formed. Artist's Conception of W43A. Artist's conception of W43A, with the aging star surrounded by a disk of material and a precessing, twisted jet of molecules streaming away from it in two directions. Credit: Kirk Woellert/National Science Foundation. The astronomers used the VLBA, operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, to study a star called W43A. W43A is about 8,500 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Aquila, the eagle. This star has come to the end of its normal lifetime and, astronomers believe, is about to start forming a planetary nebula, a shell of brightly glowing gas lit by the hot ember into which the star will collapse. "A prime mystery about planetary nebulae is that many are not spherical even though the star from which they are ejected is a sphere," said Phillip Diamond, director of the MERLIN radio observatory at Jodrell Bank in England, and one of the researchers using the VLBA. "The spinning jets of water molecules we found coming from this star may be one mechanism for producing the structures seen in many planetary nebulae," he added. The research team, led by Hiroshi Imai of Japan's National Astronomical Observatory (now at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, based in the Netherlands), also includes Kumiko Obara of the Mizusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory and Kagoshima University; Toshihiro Omodaka, also of Kagoshima University; and Tetsuo Sasao of the Japanese National Astronomical Observatory. The scientists reported their findings in the June 20 issue of the scientific journal Nature. As stars similar to our Sun

  15. Quasi 1-D Analysis of a Circular, Compressible, Turbulent Jet Laden with Water Droplets. Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Recent experimental studies indicate that presence of small amount of liquid droplets reduces the Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) of a jet. Present study is aimed at numerically investigating the effect of liquid particles on the overall flow quantities of a heated, compressible round jet. The jet is assumed perfectly expanded. A quasi-1D model was developed for this purpose which uses area-averaged quantities that satisfy integral conservation equations. Special attention is given to represent the early development region since it is acoustically important. Approximate velocity and temperature profiles were assumed in this region to evaluate entrainment rate. Experimental correlations were used to obtain spreading rate of shear layer. The base flow thus obtained is then laden with water droplets at the exit of the nozzle. Mass, momentum and energy coupling between the two phases is represented using empirical relations. Droplet size and mass loading are varied to observe their effect on flow variables.

  16. The worn dentition--pathognomonic patterns of abrasion and erosion.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the dental literature has revealed various causes of tooth wear, yet it has failed to provide a conclusive method of differentiation and diagnosis of the condition. The categories of tooth wear encountered most commonly in dental practice are abrasion and erosion. The major causes of wear from abrasion are bruxism and toothpaste abuse, and the major causes of wear from erosion are regurgitation, coke-swishing and fruit-mulling. Through in-depth clinical study of these causes, this paper provides a diagnostic system that will enable dental professionals to determine and differentiate the exact aetiology of the worn dentition simply by the recognition of the pathognomonic wear patterns on diagnostic casts, which are based upon the position and quantity of the non-carious loss of tooth structure.

  17. Abrasion and deformed layer formation of manganese-zinc ferrite in sliding contact with lapping tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and the deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite simulated heads during contact with lapping tapes. The crystaline state of the head is changed drastically during the abrasion process. Crystalline states ranging from nearly amorphous to highly textured polycrystalline can be produced on the wear surface of a single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite head. The total thickness of the deformed layer was approximately 0.8 microns. This thickness increased as the load and abrasive grit size increased. The anisotropic wear of the ferrite was found to be inversely proportional to the hardness of the wear surface. The wear was lower in the order 211 111 10 0110. The wear of the ferrite increased markedly with an increase in sliding velocity and abrasive grit size.

  18. Martian and Terrestrial Rock Abrasion from Wind Tunnel and Field Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Greeley, R.; Eddlemon, E.; Laity, J. E.; Meyer, C.; Phoreman, J.; White, B. R.

    2003-01-01

    Earth and Mars exhibit ventifacts, rocks that have been abraded by saltating sand. Previous theoretical and laboratory studies have determined abrasion susceptibilities of rocks as a function of sand type and impact angle and rock material strengths. For the last two years we have been engaged in wind tunnel and field studies to better understand the fundamental factors which control and influence rock abrasion and ventifact formation on Earth and Mars. In particular, we are examining: 1) What types of rocks (composition, texture, and shape) preferentially erode and what are the relative rates of one type vs. another? 2) What are the controlling factors of the aeolian sand cloud (flux, particle speed, surface roughness, etc) which favor rock abrasion?, 3) How do specific ventifact characteristics tie into their mode of formation and rock properties? We find several important factors: 1) Initial rock shape controls the rate of abrasion, with steeper faces abrading faster than shallower ones. The relationship is partly dependent on angle-dependent flux (proportional to sin[theta]) but exhibits additional non-linear effects from momentum transfer efficiency and rebound effects that vary with incidence angle. 2) Irregular targets with pits or grooves abrade at greater rates than targets with smooth surfaces, with indentations generally enlarging with time. Surfaces become rougher with time. 3) Targets also abrade via slope retreat, which is roughly dependent on the slope of the front face. The formation of basal sills is common, as observed on terrestrial and Martian ventifacts.

  19. The role of erosion, abrasion and attrition in tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Michele E; Rees, Gareth D

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing clinical awareness of erosion of enamel and dentine by dietary acids and the consequent increased susceptibility to physical wear. Enamel erosion is characterized by acid-mediated surface softening that, if unchecked, will progress to irreversible loss of surface tissue, potentially exposing the underlying dentine. In comparison, dentine erosion is less well understood as the composition and microstructure are more heterogeneous. Factors which affect the erosive potential of a solution include pH, titratable acidity, common ion concentrations, and frequency and method of exposure. Abrasion and attrition are sources of physical wear and are commonly associated with tooth brushing and tooth-to-tooth contact, respectively. A combination of erosion and abrasion or attrition exacerbates wear; however, further research is required to understand the role of fluoride in protecting mineralized tissues from such processes. Abrasive wear may be seen in a wide range of patients, whereas attritive loss is usually seen in individuals with bruxism. Wear processes are implicated in the development of dentine hypersensitivity. Saliva confers the major protective function against wear due to its role in pellicle formation, buffering, acid clearance, and hard tissue remineralization. This review focuses on the physiochemical factors impacting tooth wear.

  20. Control of brushing variables for the in vitro assessment of toothpaste abrasivity using a novel laboratory model.

    PubMed

    Parry, Jason; Harrington, Edward; Rees, Gareth D; McNab, Rod; Smith, Anthony J

    2008-02-01

    Design and construct a tooth-brushing simulator incorporating control of brushing variables including brushing force, speed and temperature, thereby facilitating greater understanding of their importance in toothpaste abrasion testing methodologies. A thermostable orbital shaker was selected as a base unit and 16- and 24-specimen brushing rigs were constructed to fit inside, consisting of: a square bath partitioned horizontally to provide brushing channels, specimen holders for 25 mm diameter mounted specimens to fit the brushing channels and individually weighted brushing arms, able to support four toothbrush holders suspended over the brushing channels. Brush head holders consisted of individually weighted blocks of Delrin, or PTFE onto which toothbrush heads were fixed. Investigating effects of key design criteria involved measuring abrasion depths of polished human enamel and dentine. The brushing simulator demonstrated good reproducibility of abrasion on enamel and dentine across consecutive brushing procedures. Varying brushing parameters had a significant impact on wear results: increased brushing force demonstrated a trend towards increased wear, with increased reproducibility for greater abrasion levels, highlighting the importance of achieving sufficient wear to optimise accuracy; increasing brushing temperature demonstrated increased enamel abrasion for silica and calcium carbonate systems, which may be related to slurry viscosities and particle suspension; varying brushing speed showed a small effect on abrasion of enamel at lower brushing speed, which may indicate the importance of maintenance of the abrasive in suspension. Adjusting key brushing variables significantly affected wear behaviour. The brushing simulator design provides a valuable model system for in vitro assessment of toothpaste abrasivity and the influence of variables in a controlled manner. Control of these variables will allow more reproducible study of in vitro tooth wear processes.

  1. Solar-thermal jet pumping for irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, L. D.; Dellenback, P. A.; Bell, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a novel concept in solar powered irrigation pumping, gives measured performance data for the pump unit, and projected system performance. The solar-thermal jet pumping concept is centered around a conventional jet eductor pump which is commercially available at low cost. The jet eductor pump is powered by moderate temperature, moderate pressure Refrigerant-113 vapor supplied by a concentrating solar collector field. The R-113 vapor is direct condensed by the produced water and the two fluids are separated at the surface. The water goes on to use and the R-113 is repressurized and returned to the solar field. The key issue in the solar-thermal jet eductor concept is the efficiency of pump operation. Performance data from a small scale experimental unit which utilizes an electrically heated boiler in place of the solar field is presented. The solar-thermal jet eductor concept is compared with other solar irrigation concepts and optimal application situations are identified. Though having lower efficiencies than existing Rankine cycle solar-thermal irrigation systems, the mechanical and operational simplicity of this concept make it competitive with other solar powered irrigation schemes.

  2. Air-propelled abrasive grit can damage the perennial weed, quackgrass, Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New techniques are needed to control quackgrass in organic crops. With greater than or equal to 2 applications of abrasive air-propelled (800 kPa) corncob grit to 15 cm tall quackgrass tillers, regrowth was minimal at 5 weeks after treatment. Abrasive grits may be effective tools to help manage pere...

  3. Effect of different concentrations of fluoride in dentifrices on dentin erosion subjected or not to abrasion in situ/ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, A C; Rios, D; Moino, A L; Wiegand, A; Attin, T; Buzalaf, M A R

    2008-01-01

    This in situ/ex vivo study assessed the effect of different concentrations of fluoride in dentifrices on dentin subjected to erosion or to erosion plus abrasion. Ten volunteers took part in this crossover and double-blind study performed in 3 phases (7 days). They wore acrylic palatal appliances containing 4 bovine dentin blocks divided in two rows: erosion and erosion plus abrasion. The blocks were subjected to erosion by immersion ex vivo in a cola drink (60 s, pH 2.6) 4 times daily. During this step, the volunteers brushed their teeth with one of three dentifrices D (5,000 ppm F, NaF, silica); C (1,100 ppm F, NaF, silica) and placebo (22 ppm F, silica). Then, the respective dentifrice slurry (1:3) was dripped on dentin surfaces. While no further treatment was performed in one row, the other row was brushed using an electric toothbrush for 30 s ex vivo. The appliances were replaced in the mouth and the volunteers rinsed with water. Dentin loss was determined by profilometry and analyzed by 2-way ANOVA/Bonferroni test (a = 0.05). Dentin loss after erosive-abrasive wear was significantly greater than after erosion alone. Wear was significantly higher for the placebo than for the D and C dentifrices, which were not significantly different from each other. It can be concluded that the presence of fluoride concentrations around 1,100 ppm in dentifrices is important to reduce dentin wear by erosion and erosion + abrasion, but the protective effect does not increase with fluoride concentration. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Physicochemical Quality and Chemical Safety of Chlorine as a Reconditioning Agent and Wash Water Disinfectant for Fresh-Cut Lettuce Washing

    PubMed Central

    Van Haute, Sam; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 μg/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing. PMID:23396332

  5. Physicochemical quality and chemical safety of chlorine as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant for fresh-cut lettuce washing.

    PubMed

    Van Haute, Sam; Sampers, Imca; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-05-01

    Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 μg/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing.

  6. Monitoring of the Abrasion Processes (by the Example of Alakol Lake, Republic of Kazakhstan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abitbayeva, Ainagul; Valeyev, Adilet; Yegemberdiyeva, Kamshat; Assylbekova, Aizhan; Ryskeldieva, Aizhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the abrasion processes in the regions of dynamically changing Alakol lake shores. Using the field method, methods of positioning by the GPS receiver and interpretation of remote sensing data, the authors determined that abrasion processes actively contributed to the formation the modern landscape, causing the…

  7. Investigating the Role of Coherence Effects on Jet Quenching in Pb-Pb Collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV using Jet Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zardoshti, Nima; Alice Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We report measurements of two jet shapes, the ratio of 2-Subjettiness to 1-Subjettiness (τ2 /τ1) and the opening angle between the two axes of the 2-Subjettiness jet shape, which is obtained by reclustering the jet with the exclusive-kT algorithm [S.D.Ellis and D.E.Soper, Phys.Rev.B 48, 3160] and undoing the final clustering step. The aim of this measurement is to explore a possible change in the rate of 2-pronged objects in Pb-Pb compared to pp due to colour coherence. Coherence effects [Y.Mehtar-Tani, C.A.Salgado and K.Tywoniuk Phys. Rev. Lett. 106:122002, 2011] relate to the ability of the medium to resolve a jet's substructure, which has an impact on the energy loss magnitude and mechanism of the traversing jet. In both collision systems charged jets are found with the anti-kT algorithm [M.Cacciari, G.P.Salam and G.Soyez JHEP 0804:063, 2008], a resolution parameter of R = 0.4 and a constituent cut off of 0.15 GeV. This analysis uses hadron-jet coincidence techniques in Pb-Pb collisions to reject the combinatorial background and corrects further for background effects by employing various jet shape subtraction techniques and two dimensional unfolding. Measurements of the Nsubjettiness for jet momenta of 40-60 GeV/c in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV and pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV will be presented and compared to PYTHIA simulations.

  8. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  9. Gingival abrasion and recession in manual and oscillating-rotating power brush users.

    PubMed

    Rosema, N A M; Adam, R; Grender, J M; Van der Sluijs, E; Supranoto, S C; Van der Weijden, G A

    2014-11-01

    To assess gingival recession (GR) in manual and power toothbrush users and evaluate the relationship between GR and gingival abrasion scores (GA). This was an observational (cross-sectional), single-centre, examiner-blind study involving a single-brushing exercise, with 181 young adult participants: 90 manual brush users and 91 oscillating-rotating power brush users. Participants were assessed for GR and GA as primary response variables. Secondary response variables were the level of gingival inflammation, plaque score reduction and brushing duration. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between number of recession sites and number of abrasions. Prebrushing (baseline) and post-brushing GA and plaque scores were assessed and differences analysed using paired tests. Two-sample t-test was used to analyse group differences; ancova was used for analyses of post-brushing changes with baseline as covariate. Overall, 97.8% of the study population had at least one site of ≥1 mm of gingival recession. For the manual group, this percentage was 98.9%, and for the power group, this percentage was 96.7% (P = 0.621). Post-brushing, the power group showed a significantly smaller GA increase than the manual group (P = 0.004); however, there was no significant correlation between number of recession sites and number of abrasions for either group (P ≥ 0.327). Little gingival recession was observed in either toothbrush user group; the observed GR levels were comparable. Lower post-brushing gingival abrasion levels were seen in the power group. There was no correlation between gingival abrasion as a result of brushing and the observed gingival recession following use of either toothbrush. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dominus for cut flower production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumigation with methyl bromide was the principal method of soilborne pest control in cut flower production. Many cut flower growers in Florida have ceased production, but those that remain are restricted in the fumigants that they are able to utilize due to proximity to potable water sources and oc...

  11. An investigation of rock fall and pore water pressure using LIDAR in Highway 63 rock cuts.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research work is compare LIDAR scanning measurements of rock fall with the natural changes in groundwater level to determining the effect of water pressures (levels) on rock fall. To collect the information of rock cut volume chan...

  12. Characterization of Flame Cut Heavy Steel: Modeling of Temperature History and Residual Stress Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokiaho, T.; Laitinen, A.; Santa-aho, S.; Isakov, M.; Peura, P.; Saarinen, T.; Lehtovaara, A.; Vippola, M.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy steel plates are used in demanding applications that require both high strength and hardness. An important step in the production of such components is cutting the plates with a cost-effective thermal cutting method such as flame cutting. Flame cutting is performed with a controlled flame and oxygen jet, which burns the steel and forms a cutting edge. However, the thermal cutting of heavy steel plates causes several problems. A heat-affected zone (HAZ) is generated at the cut edge due to the steep temperature gradient. Consequently, volume changes, hardness variations, and microstructural changes occur in the HAZ. In addition, residual stresses are formed at the cut edge during the process. In the worst case, unsuitable flame cutting practices generate cracks at the cut edge. The flame cutting of thick steel plate was modeled using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The results of modeling were verified by X-ray diffraction-based residual stress measurements and microstructural analysis. The model provides several outcomes, such as obtaining more information related to the formation of residual stresses and the temperature history during the flame cutting process. In addition, an extensive series of flame cut samples was designed with the assistance of the model.

  13. Assessment of Rail Seat Abrasion Patterns and Environment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    Rail seat abrasion (RSA) of concrete ties is manifested by the loss of material under the rail seat area and, in extreme cases, results in loss of rail clip holding power, reverse rail cant, and gauge widening. RSA was measured in several curves on t...

  14. Shelf Circulation Induced by an Orographic Wind Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ràfols, Laura; Grifoll, Manel; Jordà, Gabriel; Espino, Manuel; Sairouní, Abdel; Bravo, Manel

    2017-10-01

    The dynamical response to cross-shelf wind-jet episodes is investigated. The study area is located at the northern margin of the Ebro Shelf, in the Northwestern (NW) Mediterranean Sea, where episodes of strong northwesterly wind occur. In this case, the wind is channeled through the Ebro Valley and intensifies upon reaching the sea, resulting in a wind jet. The wind-jet response in terms of water circulation and vertical density structure is investigated using a numerical model. The numerical outputs agree with water current observations from a high-frequency radar. Additionally, temperature, sea level, and wind measurements are also used for the skill assessment of the model. For the wind-jet episodes, the numerical results show a well-defined two-layer circulation in the cross-shelf direction, with the surface currents in the direction of the wind. This pattern is consistent with sea level set-down due to the wind effect. The comparison of the vertical structure response for different episodes revealed that the increase of stratification leads to an onshore displacement of the transition from inner shelf to mid-shelf. In general, the cross-shelf momentum balance during a wind-jet episode exhibits a balance between the frictional terms and the pressure gradient in shallow waters, shifting to a balance between the Coriolis force and the wind stress terms in deeper waters.

  15. Behavior of a wave-driven buoyant surface jet on a coral reef

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herdman, Liv; Hench, James L.; Fringer, Oliver; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2017-01-01

    A wave-driven surface buoyant jet exiting a coral reef was studied in order to quantify the amount of water re-entrained over the reef crest. Both moored observations and Lagrangian drifters were used to study the fate of the buoyant jet. To investigate in detail the effects of buoyancy and along-shore flow variations, we developed an idealized numerical model of the system. Consistent with previous work, the ratio of along-shore velocity to jet-velocity and the jet internal Froude number were found to be important determinants of the fate of the jet. In the absence of buoyancy, the entrainment of fluid at the reef crest, creates a significant amount of retention, keeping 60% of water in the reef system. However, when the jet is lighter than the ambient ocean-water, the net effect of buoyancy is to enhance the separation of the jet from shore, leading to a greater export of reef water. Matching observations, our modeling predicts that buoyancy limits retention to 30% of the jet flow for conditions existing on the Moorea reef. Overall, the combination of observations and modeling we present here shows that reef-ocean temperature gradients can play an important role in reef-ocean exchanges.

  16. Behavior of a wave-driven buoyant surface jet on a coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdman, Liv M. M.; Hench, James L.; Fringer, Oliver; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2017-05-01

    A wave-driven surface-buoyant jet exiting a coral reef was studied in order to quantify the amount of water reentrained over the reef crest. Both moored observations and Lagrangian drifters were used to study the fate of the buoyant jet. To investigate in detail the effects of buoyancy and alongshore flow variations, we developed an idealized numerical model of the system. Consistent with previous work, the ratio of alongshore velocity to jet velocity and the jet internal Froude number were found to be important determinants of the fate of the jet. In the absence of buoyancy, the entrainment of fluid at the reef crest creates a significant amount of retention, keeping 60% of water in the reef system. However, when the jet is lighter than the ambient ocean water, the net effect of buoyancy is to enhance the separation of the jet from shore, leading to a greater export of reef water. Matching observations, our modeling predicts that buoyancy limits retention to 30% of the jet flow for conditions existing on the Moorea reef. Overall, the combination of observations and modeling we present here shows that reef-ocean temperature gradients can play an important role in reef-ocean exchanges.

  17. Tribological properties of multifunctional coatings with Shape Memory Effect in abrasive wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blednova, Zh. M.; Dmitrenko, D. V.; Balaev, E. U. O.

    2018-01-01

    The article gives research results of the abrasive wear process on samples made of Steel 1045, U10 and with applied composite surface layer "Nickel-Multicomponent material with Shape Memory Effect (SME) based on TiNi". For the tests we have chosen TiNiZr, which is in the martensite state and TiNiHfCu, which is in the austenitic state at the test temperature. The formation of the surface layer was carried out by high-speed oxygen-fuel deposition in a protective atmosphere of argon. In the wear test, Al2O3 corundum powder was used as an abrasive. It is shown that the wear rate of samples with a composite surface layer of multicomponent materials with SME is significantly reduced in comparison with the base, which is explained by reversible phase transformations of the surface layer with SME. After carrying out the additional surface plastic deformation (SPD), the resistance of the laminated composition to abrasion wear has greatly enhanced, due to the reinforcing effect of the SPD. It is recommended for products working in conditions of abrasive wear and high temperatures to use the complex formation technology of the surface composition "steel-nickel-material with high-temperature SME", including preparation of the substrate surface and the deposited material, high-speed spraying in the protective atmosphere of argon, followed by SPD.

  18. Particle-Laden Liquid Jet Impingement on a Moving Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Hatef; Green, Sheldon

    2017-11-01

    The impingement of high-speed jets on a moving substrate is salient to a number of industrial processes such as surface coating in the railroad industry. The particular jet fluids studied were dilute suspensions of neutrally buoyant particles in water-glycerin solutions. At these low particle concentrations, the suspensions have Newtonian fluid viscosity. A variety of jet and surface velocities, solution properties, nozzle diameters, mean particle sizes, and volume fractions were studied. It was observed that for jets with very small particles, addition of solids to the jet enhances deposition and postpones splash relative to a particle-free water-glycerin solution with the same viscosity. In contrast, jets with larger particles in suspension were more prone to splash than single phase jets of the same viscosity. It is speculated that the particle diameter, relative to the lamella thickness, is the key parameter to determine whether splash is suppressed or enhanced. An existing splash model for single phase liquid jets was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, provided that the single fitting parameter in that model is a function of the particle size, volume fraction, and surface roughness.

  19. Dependence of Non-Prestonian Behavior of Ceria Slurry with Anionic Surfactant on Abrasive Concentration and Size in Shallow Trench Isolation Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun‑Goo; Kim, Dae‑Hyeong; Katoh, Takeo; Kim, Sung‑Jun; Paik, Ungyu; Park, Jea‑Gun

    2006-05-01

    The dependencies of the non-Prestonian behavior of ceria slurry with anionic surfactant on the size and concentration of abrasive particles were investigated by performing chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) experiments using blanket wafers. We found that not only the abrasive size but also the abrasive concentration with surfactant addition influences the non-Prestonian behavior. Such behavior is clearly exhibited with small abrasive sizes and a higher concentrations of abrasives with surfactant addition, because the abrasive particles can locally contact the film surface more effectively with applied pressure. We introduce a factor to quantify these relations with the non-Prestonian behavior of a slurry. For ceria slurry, this non-Prestonian factor, βNP, was determined to be almost independent of the abrasive concentration for a larger size and a smaller weight conentration of abrasive particles, but it increased with the surfactant concentration for a smaller size and a higher concentration of abrasives with surfactant addition.

  20. Feasibility and Economics Study of the Treatment, Recycling and Disposal of Spent Abrasives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-09

    compression, and film stripping. The recycling performance testing plan is summarized in Table 2. (The test plan is discussed in detail in Appendix B: Law...D1188 Yes Yes Immersion Compression ................... ASTM C4867 Yes Yes Film Stripping................................... CalTrans 302 Yes Yes...from 10% to 20% for aluminum oxide abrasives, and 15% to 30% for garnet abrasives. 9 Data Intepretation SSPC-AB 1 requires that the conductivitiy of

  1. DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jetsmore » that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.« less

  2. Microwave drying remediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings.

    PubMed

    Júnior, Irineu Petri; Martins, André Leibsohn; Ataíde, Carlos H; Duarte, Cláudio R

    2017-07-01

    The oil reservoir drilling phase generates contaminated cuttings with oil formation itself. These cuttings must be subjected to a decontamination process before being disposed of in the environment. Several technologies are cited in literature for the remediation of soil contaminated with oil or diesel, but none have been reported to remedy drill cuttings contaminated with oil from reservoir. The reservoir drill cuttings are a problem because its discharge is not allowed. The drying technology using microwave has shown promise in the decontamination of cuttings with non-aqueous base drilling fluid, conciliating good robustness and high removal efficiency. Considering the aspects mentioned previously, the application of heating and drying technology using microwave in the remediation of oil contaminated cuttings from well drill was studied. The influence of temperature, specific energy and initial content of water in the drying operation of the reservoir cuttings and of the drilling cuttings artificially contaminated with oil were analyzed. The results showed an influence of temperature in the drying of the cuttings, being necessary to reach the boiling temperature of heavier hydrocarbons to reach an efficient removal in the operation. The specific energy has a strong influence, reaching a total decontamination using 2.67 kWh/kg. The initial water content was effective in removing oil, reducing the residual level of oil with the increase of initial content of water. It also modifies the temperature profiles of the kinetic-warming of the contaminated cuttings. Both the technology and the equipment used proved effective for obtaining total decontamination of oil from the cuttings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Miniaturized Nickel Oxide Thermistor via Aerosol Jet Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia; Hong, Guan-Yi; Li, Kuan-Ming; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-11-12

    In this study, a miniaturized thermistor sensor was produced using the Aerosol Jet printing process for temperature sensing applications. A nickel oxide nanoparticle ink with a large temperature coefficient of resistance was fabricated. The thermistor was printed with a circular NiO thin film in between the two parallel silver conductive tracks on a cutting tool insert. The printed thermistor, which has an adjustable dimension with a submillimeter scale, operates over a range of 30-250 °C sensitively (B value of ~4310 K) without hysteretic effects. Moreover, the thermistor may be printed on a 3D surface through the Aerosol Jet printing process, which has increased capability for wide temperature-sensing applications.

  4. A Miniaturized Nickel Oxide Thermistor via Aerosol Jet Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chia; Hong, Guan-Yi; Li, Kuan-Ming; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a miniaturized thermistor sensor was produced using the Aerosol Jet printing process for temperature sensing applications. A nickel oxide nanoparticle ink with a large temperature coefficient of resistance was fabricated. The thermistor was printed with a circular NiO thin film in between the two parallel silver conductive tracks on a cutting tool insert. The printed thermistor, which has an adjustable dimension with a submillimeter scale, operates over a range of 30–250 °C sensitively (B value of ~4310 K) without hysteretic effects. Moreover, the thermistor may be printed on a 3D surface through the Aerosol Jet printing process, which has increased capability for wide temperature-sensing applications. PMID:29137148

  5. [Polyethylene abrasion: cause or consequence of an endoprosthesis loosening? Investigations of firm and loosened hip implants].

    PubMed

    Busse, B; Niecke, M; Püschel, K; Delling, G; Katzer, A; Hahn, M

    2007-01-01

    Periprosthetic tissue was analysed by the combination of different investigation techniques without destruction. The localisation and geometry of polyethylene abrasion particles were determined quantitatively to differentiate between abrasion due to function and abrasion due to implant loosening. Non-polyethylene particles from implant components which contaminate the tissue were micro-analytically measured. The results will help us to understand loosening mechanisms and thus lead to implant optimisations. A non-destructive particle analysis using highly sensitive proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was developed to achieve a better histological allocation. Five autopsy cases with firmly fitting hip endoprosthesis (2 x Endo-Modell Mark III, 1 x St. Georg Mark II, LINK, Germany; 2 x Spongiosa Metal II, ESKA, Germany) were prepared as ground tissue specimens. Wear investigations were accomplished with a combined application of different microscopic techniques and microanalysis. The abrasion due to implant loosening was histologically evaluated on 293 loosened cup implants (St. Georg Mark II, LINK, Germany). Wear particles are heterogeneously distributed in the soft tissue. In cases of cemented prostheses, cement particles are dominating whereas metal particles could rarely be detected. The concentration of the alloy constituent cobalt (Co) is increased in the mineralised bone tissue. The measured co-depositions depend on the localisation and/or lifetime of an implant. Functional polyethylene (PE) abrasion needs to be differentiated from PE abrasion of another genesis (loosening, impingement) morphologically and by different tissue reactions. In the past a reduction of abrasion was targeted primarily by the optimisation of the bearing surfaces and tribology. The interpretation of our findings indicates that different mechanisms of origin in terms of tissue contamination with wear debris and the alloy should be included in the improvement of implants or implantation

  6. Surface roughness analysis after laser assisted machining of hard to cut materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przestacki, D.; Jankowiak, M.

    2014-03-01

    Metal matrix composites and Si3N4 ceramics are very attractive materials for various industry applications due to extremely high hardness and abrasive wear resistance. However because of these features they are problematic for the conventional turning process. The machining on a classic lathe still requires special polycrystalline diamond (PCD) or cubic boron nitride (CBN) cutting inserts which are very expensive. In the paper an experimental surface roughness analysis of laser assisted machining (LAM) for two tapes of hard-to-cut materials was presented. In LAM, the surface of work piece is heated directly by a laser beam in order to facilitate, the decohesion of material. Surface analysis concentrates on the influence of laser assisted machining on the surface quality of the silicon nitride ceramic Si3N4 and metal matrix composite (MMC). The effect of the laser assisted machining was compared to the conventional machining. The machining parameters influence on surface roughness parameters was also investigated. The 3D surface topographies were measured using optical surface profiler. The analysis of power spectrum density (PSD) roughness profile were analyzed.

  7. Jet in jet in M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sob'yanin, Denis Nikolaevich

    2017-11-01

    New high-resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometer observations of the prominent jet in the M87 radio galaxy show a persistent triple-ridge structure of the transverse 15-GHz profile with a previously unobserved ultra-narrow central ridge. This radio structure can reflect the intrinsic structure of the jet, so that the jet as a whole consists of two embedded coaxial jets. A relativistic magnetohydrodynamic model is considered in which an inner jet is placed inside a hollow outer jet and the electromagnetic fields, pressures and other physical quantities are found. The entire jet is connected to the central engine that plays the role of a unipolar inductor generating voltage between the jets and providing opposite electric currents, and the charge neutrality and current closure together with the electromagnetic fields between the jets can contribute to the jet stabilization. The constant voltage is responsible for the similar widening laws observed for the inner and outer jets. This jet-in-jet structure can indicate simultaneous operation of two different jet-launching mechanisms, one relating to the central supermassive black hole and the other to the surrounding accretion disc. An inferred magnetic field of 80 G at the base is sufficient to provide the observed jet luminosity.

  8. Erosion of enamel by non-carbonated soft drinks with and without toothbrushing abrasion.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, C A; Parker, D M; Addy, M; Barbour, M E

    2006-10-07

    To investigate how enamel loss due to erosion, and due to cycling of erosion and abrasion, depends on compositional parameters of soft drinks, and particularly whether the thickness of the erosive softened layer is a function of drink composition. University dental hospital research laboratory in the UK, 2004. Six drinks were chosen based on their popularity and composition: apple juice, orange juice, apple drink, orange drink, cranberry drink and 'ToothKind' blackcurrant drink. Group A samples (n = 36) were exposed to soft drinks at 36 degrees C for six consecutive 10 minute periods. Group B samples (n = 36) were subjected to alternating erosion and toothbrushing, repeated six times. Enamel loss was measured using optical profilometry. Group A: significant enamel loss was seen for all drinks (p < 0.001). Erosion was correlated with pH and calcium concentration but not phosphate concentration or titratable acidity. Group B: significant additional material loss due to toothbrush abrasion occurred with all drinks. Abrasive enamel loss differed between the drinks and was positively correlated with drink erosive potential. Enamel loss by erosion is exacerbated by subsequent abrasion. The amount of softened enamel removed by toothbrushing is a function of the chemical composition of the erosive medium.

  9. 78 FR 52407 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... the flotation gear. (A) Unfold and visually inspect the float assemblies for any cuts, tears... inflating valve and inspect the fabric panels and girts for any cuts, tears, punctures, or abrasion. If there is a cut, tear, puncture, or any abrasion, repair the float. (2) For emergency floatation gear...

  10. Mars rover rock abrasion tool performance enhanced by ultrasonic technology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macartney, A.; Li, X.; Harkness, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Mars exploration Athena science goal is to explore areas where water may have been present on the early surface of Mars, and investigate the palaeo-environmental conditions of these areas in relation to the existence of life. The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) designed by Honeybee Robotics has been one of four key Athena science payload instruments mounted on the mechanical arm of the Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity Mars Exploration Rovers. Exposed rock surfaces weather and chemically alter over time. Although such weathered rock can present geological interest in itself, there is a limit to what can be learned. If the geological history of a landing site is to be constructed, then it is important to analyse the unweathered rock interior as clearly as possible. The rock abrasion tool's role is to substitute for a geologist's hammer, removing the weathered and chemically altered outer surface of rocks in order to view the pristine interior. The RAT uses a diamond resin standard common grinding technique, producing a 5mm depth grind with a relatively high surface roughness, achieved over a number of hours per grind and consumes approximately 11 watts of energy. This study assesses the benefits of using ultrasonic assisted grinding to improve surface smoothness. A prototype Micro-Optic UltraSonic Exfoliator (MOUSE) is tested on a range of rock types and demonstrates a number of advantages over the RAT. In addition to a smoother grind finish, these advantages include a lower rate of tool tip wear when using a tungsten carbide tip as opposed to diamond resin, less moving parts, a grind speed of minutes instead of hours, and a power consumption of only 1-5 Watts.

  11. Measurement of αs from jet rates in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Mikunas, D.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R. L.; Zhang, H.; Ayad, R.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; Gialas, I.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Bornheim, A.; Crittenden, J.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Eckert, M.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Grothe, M.; Hartmann, H.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Katz, U. F.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Paul, E.; Pfeiffer, M.; Rembser, Ch.; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Cottingham, W. N.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Hayes, M. E.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Morgado, C. J. S.; O'Mara, J. A.; Piccioni, D.; Roff, D. G.; Tapper, R. J.; Yoshida, R.; Rau, R. R.; Arneodo, M.; Capua, M.; Garfagnini, A.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Parsons, J. A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P. B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Zhu, Q.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jeleń, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zarȩbska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zajaç, J.; Kotański, A.; Przybycień, M.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Behrens, U.; Beier, H.; Bienlein, J. K.; Coldewey, C.; Deppe, O.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Flasiński, M.; Gilkinson, D. J.; Glasman, C.; Göttlicher, P.; Große-Knetter, J.; Gutjahr, B.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Heßling, H.; Iga, Y.; Johnson, K. F.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Köpke, L.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Löhr, B.; Löwe, M.; Lüke, D.; Mainusch, J.; Mańczak, O.; Monteiro, T.; Ng, J. S. T.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.; Roldán, J.; Schneekloth, U.; Schulz, W.; Selonke, F.; Stiliaris, E.; Surrow, B.; Voß, T.; Westphal, D.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zhou, J. F.; Grabosch, H. J.; Kharchilava, A.; Leich, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Mari, S. M.; Meyer, A.; Schlenstedt, S.; Wulff, N.; Barbagli, G.; Pelfer, P.; Anzivino, G.; Maccarrone, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Votano, L.; Bamberger, A.; Eisenhardt, S.; Freidhof, A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Schroeder, J.; Trefzger, T.; Brook, N. H.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Saxon, D. H.; Utley, M. L.; Wilson, A. S.; Dannemann, A.; Holm, U.; Horstmann, D.; Neumann, T.; Sinkus, R.; Wick, K.; Badura, E.; Burow, B. D.; Hagge, L.; Lohrmann, E.; Milewski, J.; Nakahata, M.; Pavel, N.; Poelz, G.; Schott, W.; Zetsche, F.; Bacon, T. C.; Bruemmer, N.; Butterworth, I.; Gallo, E.; Harris, V. L.; Hung, B. Y. H.; Long, K. R.; Miller, D. B.; Morawitz, P. P. O.; Prinias, A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Whitfield, A. F.; Mallik, U.; McCliment, E.; Wang, M. Z.; Wang, S. M.; Wu, J. T.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; An, S. H.; Hong, S. M.; Nam, S. W.; Park, S. K.; Suh, M. H.; Yon, S. H.; Imlay, R.; Kartik, S.; Kim, H.-J.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W.; Nadendla, V. K.; Barreiro, F.; Cases, G.; Fernandez, J. P.; Graciani, R.; Hernández, J. M.; Hervás, L.; Labarga, L.; Martinez, M.; del Peso, J.; Puga, J.; Terron, J.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Smith, G. R.; Corriveau, F.; Hanna, D. S.; Hartmann, J.; Hung, L. W.; Lim, J. N.; Matthews, C. G.; Patel, P. M.; Sinclair, L. E.; Stairs, D. G.; St. Laurent, M.; Ullmann, R.; Zacek, G.; Bashkirov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Stifutkin, A.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Kobrin, V. D.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Savin, A. A.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Solomin, A. N.; Zotov, N. P.; Botje, M.; Chlebana, F.; Dake, A.; Engelen, J.; de Kamps, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kruse, A.; Tiecke, H.; Verkerke, W.; Vreeswijk, M.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; van Woudenberg, R.; Acosta, D.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Gilmore, J.; Honscheid, K.; Li, C.; Ling, T. Y.; McLean, K. W.; Murray, W. N.; Nylander, P.; Park, I. H.; Romanowski, T. A.; Seidlein, R.; Bailey, D. S.; Byrne, A.; Cashmore, R. J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Harnew, N.; Lancaster, M.; Lindemann, L.; McFall, J. D.; Nath, C.; Noyes, V. A.; Quadt, A.; Tickner, J. R.; Uijterwaal, H.; Walczak, R.; Waters, D. S.; Wilson, F. F.; Yip, T.; Abbiendi, G.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; De Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Limentani, S.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Bulmahn, J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Feild, R. G.; Oh, B. Y.; Okrasinski, J. R.; Whitmore, J. J.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Tassi, E.; Hart, J. C.; McCubbin, N. A.; Prytz, K.; Shah, T. P.; Short, T. L.; Barberis, E.; Dubbs, T.; Heusch, C.; Van Hook, M.; Lockman, W.; Rahn, J. T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Williams, D. C.; Biltzinger, J.; Seifert, R. J.; Schwarzer, O.; Walenta, A. H.; Zech, G.; Abramowicz, H.; Briskin, G.; Dagan, S.; Händel-Pikielny, C.; Levy, A.; Fleck, J. I.; Hasegawa, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishii, T.; Kuze, M.; Mine, S.; Nagasawa, Y.; Nakao, M.; Suzuki, I.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Chiba, M.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Homma, K.; Kitamura, S.; Nakamitsu, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Lamberti, L.; Maselli, S.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Dardo, M.; Bailey, D. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Benard, F.; Brkic, M.; Gingrich, D. M.; Hartner, G. F.; Joo, K. K.; Levman, G. M.; Martin, J. F.; Orr, R. S.; Polenz, S.; Sampson, C. R.; Teuscher, R. J.; Catterall, C. D.; Jones, T. W.; Kaziewicz, P. B.; Lane, J. B.; Saunders, R. L.; Shulman, J.; Blankenship, K.; Lu, B.; Mo, L. W.; Bogusz, W.; Charchuła, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gajewski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kasprzak, M.; Krzyżanowski, M.; Muchorowski, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Wróblewski, A. K.; Zakrzewski, J. A.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Eisenberg, Y.; Karshon, U.; Revel, D.; Zer-Zion, D.; Ali, I.; Badgett, W. F.; Behrens, B.; Dasu, S.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Loveless, R. J.; Reeder, D. D.; Silverstein, S.; Smith, W. H.; Vaiciulis, A.; Wodarczyk, M.; Tsurugai, T.; Bhadra, S.; Cardy, M. L.; Fagerstroem, C.-P.; Frisken, W. R.; Furutani, K. M.; Khakzad, M.; Schmidke, W. B.; ZEUS Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    Jet production in deep inelastic scattering for 120 < Q2 < 3600 GeV 2 has been studied using data from an integrated luminosity of 3.2 pb -1 collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Jets are identified with the JADE algorithm. A cut on the angular distribution of parton emission in the γ ∗- parton centre-of-mass system minimises the experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the determination of the jet rates. The jet rates, when compared to O( αs2) perturbative QCD calculations, allow a precise determination of αs( Q) in three Q2-intervals. The values are consistent with a running of ifαs( Q), as expected from QCD. Extrapolating to Q = M Z 0αs( MZ0) = 0.117 ± 0.005 (stat) -0.005+0.004 (syst exp) ± 0.007 (syst theory).

  12. Fabrication of Water Jet Resistant and Thermally Stable Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Spray Coating of Candle Soot Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Qahtan, Talal F; Gondal, Mohammed A; Alade, Ibrahim O; Dastageer, Mohammed A

    2017-08-08

    A facile synthesis method for highly stable carbon nanoparticle (CNP) dispersion in acetone by incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame is presented. The synthesized CNP dispersion is the mixture of graphitic and amorphous carbon nanoparticles of the size range of 20-50 nm and manifested the mesoporosity with an average pore size of 7 nm and a BET surface area of 366 m 2 g -1 . As an application of this material, the carbon nanoparticle dispersion was spray coated (spray-based coating) on a glass surface to fabricate superhydrophobic (water contact angle > 150° and sliding angle < 10 °) surfaces. The spray coated surfaces were found to exhibit much improved water jet resistance and thermal stability up to 400 °C compared to the surfaces fabricated from direct candle flame soot deposition (candle-based coating). This study proved that water jet resistant and thermally stable superhydrophobic surfaces can be easily fabricated by simple spray coating of CNP dispersion gathered from incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame and this technique can be used for different applications with the potential for the large scale fabrication.

  13. Effects of water-contaminated air on blowoff limits of opposed jet hydrogen-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Jentzen, Marilyn E.; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Northam, G. Burton

    1988-01-01

    The effects of water-contaminated air on the extinction and flame restoration of the central portion of N2-diluted H2 versus air counterflow diffusion flames are investigated using a coaxial tubular opposed jet burner. The results show that the replacement of N2 contaminant in air by water on a mole for mole basis decreases the maximum sustainable H2 mass flow, just prior to extinction, of the flame. This result contrasts strongly with the analogous substitution of water for N2 in a relatively hot premixed H2-O2-N2 flame, which was shown by Koroll and Mulpuru (1986) to lead to a significant, kinetically controlled increase in laminar burning velocity.

  14. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  15. Visualization of supersonic diesel fuel jets using a shadowgraph technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianthong, Kulachate; Behnia, Masud; Milton, Brian E.

    2001-04-01

    High-speed liquid jets have been widely used to cut or penetrate material. It has been recently conjectured that the characteristics of high-speed fuel jets may also be of benefit to engines requiring direct fuel injection into the combustion chamber. Important factors are combustion efficiency and emission control enhancement for better atomization. Fundamental studies of very high velocity liquid jets are therefore very important. The characteristics and behavior of supersonic liquid jets have been studied with the aid of a shadowgraph technique. The high-speed liquid jet (in the supersonic range) is generated by the use of a vertical, single stage powder gun. The performance of the launcher and its relation to the jet exit velocity, with a range of nozzle shapes, has been examined. This paper presents the visual evidence of supersonic diesel fuel jets (velocity around 2000 m/s) investigated by the shadowgraph method. An Argon jet has been used as a light source. With a rise time of 0.07 microseconds, light duration of 0.2 microseconds and the use of high speed Polaroid film, the shadowgraph method can effectively capture the hypersonic diesel fuel jet and its strong leading edge shock waves. This provides a clearer picture of each stage of the generation of hypersonic diesel fuel jets and makes the study of supersonic diesel fuel jet characteristics and the potential for auto-ignition possible. Also, in the experiment, a pressure relief section has been used to minimize the compressed air or blast wave ahead of the projectile. However, the benefit of using a pressure relief section in the design is not clearly known. To investigate this effect, additional experiments have been performed with the use of the shadowgraph method, showing the projectile leaving and traveling inside the nozzle at a velocity around 1100 m/s.

  16. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R.; Manion, W.J.

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document inmore » their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.« less

  17. [Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut tissues in relation to hydrogen peroxide accumulation].

    PubMed

    Peng, Li-Tao; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi

    2005-10-01

    Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut (CWC) tissues in relation to active oxygen species (AOS) metabolism was investigated. Fresh-cut CWC (2 mm thick) and intact CWC were stored at 4 degrees C in trays wrapped with plastic films. Changes in superoxide anion production rate, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were monitored, while contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid, MDA as well as electrolyte leakage were measured. Fresh-cutting of CWC induced activities of SOD, CAT and APX to a certain extent (Fig. 2B and Fig. 3), but simultaneously stimulated superoxide anion production markedly (Fig. 2A), enhanced hydrogen peroxide accumulation and accelerated loss in ascorbic acid (Figs. 4 and 5), which resulted in increased lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage (Fig. 1). Statistics analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation among hydrogen peroxide accumulation, MDA content and electrolyte leakage (Table 1). Histochemical detection with 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine further demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide accumulation increased in fresh-cut CWC during storage (Fig. 5). AOS production rate and activities of SOD, CAT and APX changed little while no obvious hydrogen peroxide accumulation was observed, in intact CWC during storage.

  18. Design of a water jet drill for development of geothermal resources. Annual progress report, June 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1977-05-31

    Research was expanded to the drilling of crystalline rock. Advance rates of 40 inches per minute have been achieved at 16,000 psi, 10 gpm flow rate in a 30,000 psi compressive strength rock using the water alone as the drilling mechanism. The quality of the hole achieved as the jet drilled a variety of rock was found to vary and a hydromechanical drilling bit, combining high pressure water jets with roller cones, has been developed. A field drilling unit has been tested and modified to allow the drilling of holes to 3/sup 1///sub 2/ inch diameter using the hydromechanical drill.more » Preliminary work on the development of a cavitation test for rock is also included.« less

  19. Abrasion Resistance of Nano Silica Modified Roller Compacted Rubbercrete: Cantabro Loss Method and Response Surface Methodology Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamu, Musa; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Shafiq, Nasir

    2018-04-01

    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) when used for pavement is subjected to skidding/rubbing by wheels of moving vehicles, this causes pavement surface to wear out and abrade. Therefore, abrasion resistance is one of the most important properties of concern for RCC pavement. In this study, response surface methodology was used to design, evaluate and analyze the effect of partial replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber, and addition of nano silica on the abrasion resistance of roller compacted rubbercrete (RCR). RCR is the terminology used for RCC pavement where crumb rubber was used as partial replacement to fine aggregate. The Box-Behnken design method was used to develop the mixtures combinations using 10%, 20%, and 30% crumb rubber with 0%, 1%, and 2% nano silica. The Cantabro loss method was used to measure the abrasion resistance. The results showed that the abrasion resistance of RCR decreases with increase in crumb rubber content, and increases with increase in addition of nano silica. The analysis of variance shows that the model developed using response surface methodology (RSM) has a very good degree of correlation, and can be used to predict the abrasion resistance of RCR with a percentage error of 5.44%. The combination of 10.76% crumb rubber and 1.59% nano silica yielded the best combinations of RCR in terms of abrasion resistance of RCR.

  20. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the spindle speed at safe levels under all conditions of normal operation. (b) Guarding. (1) Grinding machines..., nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as portable saws. (c) Use of abrasive wheels...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the spindle speed at safe levels under all conditions of normal operation. (b) Guarding. (1) Grinding machines..., nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as portable saws. (c) Use of abrasive wheels...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the spindle speed at safe levels under all conditions of normal operation. (b) Guarding. (1) Grinding machines..., nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as portable saws. (c) Use of abrasive wheels...

  3. Investigation of a Water-Pond Arresting of a Dynamic Model of a Jet Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William C.

    1961-01-01

    Brief dynamic-model tests have been made at the request of the Federal Aviation Agency to investigate the use of a shallow pond of water at the end of a runway as a means of arresting jet-transport aircraft when they are forced to abort on take-off or overrun on landing. Such a scheme is of particular interest for civil aircraft because it requires no modifications or attachments to the airplane and no mechanical devices in the arresting system. A modification of this scheme that uses a flexible plastic cover over the water surface has also been tested. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a dynamic model investigation which would aid in determining whether the water-pond arresting system could be used as a means of arresting airplane overrun.

  4. Experimental investigation on frequency characteristics of plasma synthetic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Haohua; Kotsonis, Marios

    2017-11-01

    The performance of a two-electrode plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) is investigated for a wide range of dimensionless actuation frequencies ( f*) using high-speed phase-locked particle imaging velocimetry measurements. The jet-induced velocity fields in the axisymmetric plane are measured during both transient and steady working stages of the PSJA. When f* increases, the jet duration time (Tjet) is reduced, while the peak suction velocity (Us) increases consistently. Three integral parameters including the total expelled gas mass, impulse, and issued mechanical energy also decline considerably with increasing frequency, which is shown to relate to both the reduced cavity density and the decreasing jet duration. Theoretical analysis reveals that the mean cavity density decreases monotonically with the square root of the discharge frequency. The decreasing rate is inversely proportional to a thermal cut-off frequency ( fc, 210 Hz for the current study), which scales with the convective heat transfer coefficient between the actuator cavity walls and the cavity gas, as well as the area of the cavity internal surface. In the time-averaged velocity fields, the jet centreline velocity (U¯ c) exhibits a local maximum in the axial coordinate. The nondimensional maximum centreline velocity reduces with increasing frequency of operation. The jet spreading rate of the plasma synthetic jets (PSJs) decreases from 0.14 to 0.09 with increasing frequency. During the transient working stage of a PSJ, the exit velocity trace elapses 20 successive actuation cycles to stabilize. In contrast to the exit velocity, approximately 130 cycles are needed for the mean cavity density/temperature to reach steady values.

  5. Attritional wear and abrasive surface alterations of composite resin materials in vitro.

    PubMed

    Göhring, T N; Besek, M J; Schmidlin, P R

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory study was performed with 232 specimens and 72 human enamel, 24 gold, 24 ceramic and 12 composite antagonists in 22 groups to test attritional and abrasive wear behavior of composite materials compared to wear behavior of human enamel. Belleglass HP, Concept Inlay/Onlay, Targis and Targis Upgrade 99 composite resin for lab-made restorations was tested as well as Tetric Ceram and FHC Merz light as resins for direct restorations. Natural human enamel specimens served as control. All specimens were subjected to long-term thermo-mechanical loading in a computer-controlled masticator, chemical degradation and toothbrush/toothpaste abrasion. Wear of specimen in occlusal contact area (OCA), contact-free occlusal area and wear of natural enamel cusps as well as antagonists made of gold, ceramic and composite in identical form was measured after 120,000, 240,000, 640,000 and 1200,000 load cycles. A qualitative SEM analysis was performed to support quantitative data. Belleglass HP and Targis Upgrade 99 restorative materials showed wear resistance comparable to human enamel when loaded with enamel cusps. Wear of Targis versus composite and gold antagonists was significantly higher (p<0.0001). Analysis of surface alterations showed hygroscopic expansion in all composite resins during the test. As a consequence of this study, necessity to further improve physical properties of composites for long lasting restorations was obvious. Beside of attritional wear in OCA, attention must be given to stable filler-matrix interfaces and prevention of water sorption.

  6. The Structure of High Speed Fluid Jets and Their Use in Cutting Various Soil and Material Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-30

    fluid , a reduction which grows with increase in Reynolds Number (Figure 101) . Franz states that this drag reduction might explain the...176 From photographs Goldin observed that Carbopol, a viscoinelastic fluid which does not give drag reduction , gave a lower jet cohesive...tension and viscoelasticity ), (5) prop- erties of the ambient fluid , (6) the steadiness of the jet flow, and (7) nozzle velocity. In the present study

  7. The influence of rock strength on erosion processes and river morphology in central Arizona: the accumulation of damage from macro-abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larimer, J. E.; Yanites, B.

    2017-12-01

    River morphology reflects the interaction between the driving forces of erosion and the resisting properties of bedrock that limit erosion. Changes in energy dissipation at the riverbed are indicated by differences in channel geometry. To erode at the same rate, stronger rocks require more energy, and thus, an adjustment in river slope or width is necessary to accomplish this work. Therefore, morphological changes should reflect differences in the rock strength properties most relevant to the dominant erosion process. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing river morphology and rock-strength properties of reaches subject to different processes. Streams in Prescott National Forest, AZ expose bedrock through a variety of lithologies, which provides a natural testing ground. Measurements include channel geometry, surface P-wave velocity, fracture spacing, and bedload grain size distribution of 150 individual reaches, as well as 260 tensile and compressive-strength tests and P-wave velocity of cores up to depths of 20 cm. Based on observations, we infer that fluvial erosion processes in this region generally fall into three domains: (1) grain by grain abrasion, (2) progressive failure by damage accumulation due to bedload impacts or `macro-abrasion', and (3) `plucking' of jointed rocks. We focus analyses on the accumulation of damage from sub-critical stresses that weakens the surface of the bedrock, potentially leading to macroscopic fractures, fatigue, and rock failure. This plays a dual role facilitating the ease with which abrasion removes material and increasing the rate of production of pluck-able particles. We estimate the `damage potential' of saltating bedload using water discharge time-series, sediment transport models and grain size distribution. To determine the resistance to damage accumulation among different rocks, we measure the evolution of damage in core samples under uniaxial loading using strain energy and inherent flaw theory. Preliminary

  8. The effect of handpiece spray patterns on cutting efficiency.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Sharon C; von Fraunhofer, J Anthony

    2002-02-01

    High-speed handpieces' spray ports direct coolant at the cutting interface. The authors evaluated the effect of the number of ports and their positions on cutting rates, or CRs. The authors performed cutting studies on a machinable ceramic block using an established testing regimen. One-port, three-port and four-port handpieces from one manufacturer were operated at maximum torque and rotation speed under a water flow of 25 milliliters per minute. The authors made 6-millimeter long edge and groove cuts in 13-mm cross-section blocks using six medium-grit diamond burs for each handpiece. Each bur cut a total of 78 mm. The authors determined CR as the time to transect the block and analyzed the data by two-way analysis of variance with post hoc Scheffé tests. CRs varied by the type of cut and the number of spray ports. No differences were found in CRs for the three handpieces during edge cutting. The one-port handpiece cut significantly slower (P < .001) than did the three- and four-port handpieces during groove cutting. The data indicate that the number of handpiece spray ports, and their positioning relative to the bur affect water supply to the cutting interface and, consequently, the CR under these study conditions. Optimal cutting efficiency requires good coolant access, especially within restricted areas. A multiple-port handpiece may be advantageous when preparing the interproximal region for a crown or a proximal box, owing to the better water spray pattern. Dentists should consider the influence of the number of spray ports when selecting handpieces for cutting procedures.

  9. Thermodynamics and historical relevance of a jetting thermometer made of Chinese zisha ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Vincent; Attinger, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Following a recent trend of scientific studies on artwork, we study here the thermodynamics of a thermometer made of zisha ceramic, related to the Chinese tea culture. The thermometer represents a boy who “urinates” shortly after hot water is poured onto his head. Long jetting distance is said to indicate that the water temperature is hot enough to brew tea. Here, a thermodynamic model describes the jetting phenomenon of that pee-pee boy. The study demonstrates how thermal expansion of an interior air pocket causes jetting. A thermodynamic potential is shown to define maximum jetting velocity. Seven optimization criteria to maximize jetting distance are provided, including two dimensionless numbers. Predicted jetting distances, jet durations, and temperatures agree very well with infrared and optical measurements. Specifically, the study confirms that jetting distances are sensitive enough to measure water temperature in the context of tea brewing. Optimization results show that longer jets are produced by large individuals, with low body mass index, with a boyhood of medium size inclined at an angle π/4. The study ends by considering the possibility that ceramic jetting artifacts like the pee-pee boy might have been the first thermometers known to mankind, before Galileo Galilei’s thermoscope.

  10. Thermodynamics and historical relevance of a jetting thermometer made of Chinese zisha ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vincent; Attinger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Following a recent trend of scientific studies on artwork, we study here the thermodynamics of a thermometer made of zisha ceramic, related to the Chinese tea culture. The thermometer represents a boy who “urinates” shortly after hot water is poured onto his head. Long jetting distance is said to indicate that the water temperature is hot enough to brew tea. Here, a thermodynamic model describes the jetting phenomenon of that pee-pee boy. The study demonstrates how thermal expansion of an interior air pocket causes jetting. A thermodynamic potential is shown to define maximum jetting velocity. Seven optimization criteria to maximize jetting distance are provided, including two dimensionless numbers. Predicted jetting distances, jet durations, and temperatures agree very well with infrared and optical measurements. Specifically, the study confirms that jetting distances are sensitive enough to measure water temperature in the context of tea brewing. Optimization results show that longer jets are produced by large individuals, with low body mass index, with a boyhood of medium size inclined at an angle π/4. The study ends by considering the possibility that ceramic jetting artifacts like the pee-pee boy might have been the first thermometers known to mankind, before Galileo Galilei’s thermoscope. PMID:27431925

  11. Effect of etching and airborne particle abrasion on the microstructure of different dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Sophr, Ana Maria; de Goes, Mario Fernando; Sobrinho, Lourenço Correr; Chan, Daniel C N

    2003-05-01

    The ceramic composition and microstructure surface of all-ceramic restorations are important components of an effective bonding substrate. Both hydrofluoric acid etching and airborne aluminum oxide particle abrasion produce irregular surfaces necessary for micromechanical bonding. Although surface treatments of feldspathic and leucite porcelains have been studied previously, the high alumina-containing and lithium disilicate ceramics have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the surface topography of 6 different ceramics after treatment with either hydrofluoric acid etching or airborne aluminum oxide particle abrasion. Five copings each of IPS Empress, IPS Empress 2 (0.8 mm thick), Cergogold (0.7 mm thick), In-Ceram Alumina, In-Ceram Zirconia, and Procera (0.8 mm thick) were fabricated following the manufacturer's instructions. Each coping was longitudinally sectioned into 4 equal parts by a diamond disk. The resulting sections were then randomly divided into 3 groups depending on subsequent surface treatments: Group 1, specimens without additional surface treatments, as received from the laboratory (control); Group 2, specimens treated by use of airborne particle abrasion with 50-microm aluminum oxide; and Group 3, specimens treated with 10% hydrofluoric acid etching (20 seconds for IPS Empress 2; 60 seconds for IPS Empress and Cergogold; and 2 minutes for In-Ceram Alumina, In-Ceram Zirconia, and Procera). Airborne particle abrasion changed the morphologic surface of IPS Empress, IPS Empress 2, and Cergogold ceramics. The surface topography of these ceramics exhibited shallow irregularities not evident in the control group. For Procera, the 50-microm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion produced a flattened surface. Airborne particle abrasion of In-Ceram Alumina and In-Ceram Zirconia did not change the morphologic characteristics and the same shallows pits found in the control group remained. For IPS Empress 2, 10% hydrofluoric

  12. Transient gas jets into liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jane Ming-Chin

    An experimental investigation of the development of high velocity, impulsively initiated gas jets into liquid was conducted in an effort to understand some of the physical processes that occur for a jet of very light fluid into a dense ambient atmosphere. Four gases, refrigerants 12 and 22, nitrogen, and helium were injected into water at nozzle exit Mach numbers from 1.0 to 2.2.The study showed that a gas jet into water develops in at least three stages: startup, transition, and global steady state. The startup is characterized by bubble growth; the growth rate is well predicted by classical bubble-growth theory. Jet transition is marked by axially directed flow, which penetrates through the startup bubble and which forms a cylindrical protrusion along the axis of symmetry. A combination of strong recirculating flow and liquid entrainment causes the startup bubble to deflate and to lift off and move downstream. In the steady state, instantaneous photographs show small-scale fluctuations of the jet boundary, but time-averaged photographs show the expected conical spreading of the steady jet; the measured spreading angles range from 18-25 degrees.However, the most significant finding of this study is that under some conditions, the gas jet into liquid never reaches the global steady state. Instead, the jet boundary exhibits chugging: large nonlinear oscillations which lead to irregular collapses of the gas column followed by explosive outward bursts of gas. The unsteadiness observed is much more violent than the familiar fluctuations typical of constant-density jets. The length scale of the motion is generally on the order of several jet diameters; the time scale is on the order of the period for bubble collapse.It was found that the amplitude and frequency of chugging are strongly dependent on the ratio of the liquid density to the gas density, the jet Mach number, and the operating pressure ratio. The conditions under which unsteadiness occurs were determined

  13. The optimization study on the tool wear of carbide cutting tool during milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced (CFRP) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor Khairusshima, M. K.; Hafiz Zakwan, B. Muhammad; Suhaily, M.; Sharifah, I. S. S.; Shaffiar, N. M.; Rashid, M. A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite has become one of famous materials in industry, such as automotive, aeronautics, aerospace and aircraft. CFRP is attractive due to its properties, which promising better strength and high specification of mechanical properties other than its high resistance to corrosion. Other than being abrasive material due to the carbon nature, CFRP is an anisotropic material, which the knowledge of machining metal and steel cannot be applied during machining CFRP. The improper technique and parameters used to machine CFRP may result in high tool wear. This paper is to study the tool wear of 8 mm diameter carbide cutting tool during milling CFRP. To predict the suitable cutting parameters within range of 3500-6220 (rev/min), 200-245 (mm/min), and 0.4-1.8 (mm) for cutting speed, speed, feed rate and depth of cut respectively, which produce optimized result (less tool wear), Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used. Based on the developed mathematical model, feed rate was identified as the primary significant item that influenced tool wear. The optimized cutting parameters are cutting speed, feed and depth of cut of 3500 rev/min, 200 mm/min and 0.5 mm, respectively, with tool wear of 0.0267 mm. It is also can be observed that as the cutting speed and feed rate increased the tool wear is increasing.

  14. Control of spoiler Pseudomonas spp. on fresh cut vegetables by neutral electrolyzed water.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Loris; Ippolito, Antonio; Baruzzi, Federico

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) against 14 strains of spoilage Pseudomonas of fresh cut vegetables under cold storage. The NEW, produced from solutions of potassium and sodium chloride, and sodium bicarbonate developed up to 4000 mg/L of free chlorine, depending on the salt and relative concentration used. The antimicrobial effect of the NEW was evaluated against different bacterial strains at 10(5) cells/ml, with different combinations of free chlorine concentration/contact time; all concentrations above 100 mg/L, regardless of the salt used, were found to be bactericidal already after 2 min. When catalogna chicory and lettuce leaves were dipped for 5 min in diluted NEW, microbial loads of mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were reduced on average of 1.7 log cfu/g. In addition, when lettuce leaves were dipped in a cellular suspension of the spoiler Pseudomonas chicorii I3C strain, diluted NEW was able to reduce Pseudomonas population of about 1.0 log cfu/g. Thanks to its high antimicrobial activity against spoilage microorganisms, and low cost of operation, the application of cycles of electrolysis to the washing water looks as an effective tool in controlling fresh cut vegetable microbial spoilage contamination occurring during washing steps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Disinfection potential of ozone, ultraviolet-C and their combination in wash water for the fresh-cut vegetable industry.

    PubMed

    Selma, María V; Allende, Ana; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Conesa, María A; Gil, María I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the disinfection efficacy of ozone (O(3)) and UV-C illumination (UV), and their combination (O(3)-UV) for reducing microbial flora of fresh-cut onion, escarole, carrot, and spinach wash waters collected from the industry. Furthermore, the influence of water physicochemical parameters on the decontamination efficacy and the effect of these technologies on physicochemical quality of wash water were analyzed. O(3), UV, and O(3)-UV were effective disinfection treatments on vegetable wash water, with a maximum microbial reduction of 6.6 log CFU mL(-1) after 60 min treatment with O(3)-UV. However, maximum total microbial reductions achieved by UV and O(3) treatments after 60 min were 4.0 and 5.9 log CFU mL(-1), lower than by O(3)-UV treatment. Furthermore, turbidity of wash water was reduced significantly by O(3) and O(3)-UV treatments, while UV treatment did not affect the physicochemical quality of the water. Conclusions derived from this study illustrate that O(3) and O(3)-UV are alternatives to other sanitizers used in the fresh-cut washing processes. The use of these technologies would allow less frequent changing of spent water and the use of much lower sanitizer doses. Nevertheless, in specific applications such as carrot wash water, where levels of undesirable microbial and chemical constituents are lower than other vegetable wash water, UV treatment could be an appropriate treatment considering cost-effectiveness criteria.

  16. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12). Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation. Results: No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987). There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1). Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918). However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives. PMID:25628694

  17. Investigating selective transport and abrasion on an alluvial fan using quantitative grain size and shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, K. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Selective sorting and abrasion are the two major fluvial processes that are attributed to the downstream fining of sediments in rivers and alluvial fans. Selective transport is the process by which smaller grains are preferentially transported downstream while larger grains are deposited closer to the source. Abrasion is defined by the production of fine sediments and sand that occurs by saltation of gravel, where particle-to-particle collisions supply the energy required to break apart grains. We hypothesize that abrasion results in the gradual fining of large grains and the production of fine sands and silts, while sorting accounts for the differences in transport of these two grain-size fractions produced from abrasion, thereby creating the abrupt gravel-sand transition observed in many channel systems. In this research, we explore both selective transport and abrasion processes on the Dog Canyon alluvial fan near Alamogordo, New Mexico. We complete an extensive grain size analysis down the main channel of the fan employing an image-based technique that utilizes an autocorrelation process. We also characterize changes in grain shape using standard shape parameters, as well as Fourier analysis, which allows the study of contributions of grain roughness on a variety of length scales. Sorting appears to dominate the upper portion of the fan; the grain-size distribution narrows moving downstream until reaching a point of equal mobility, at which point sorting ceases. Abrasion exerts a subtle but persistent effect on grains during transport down the fan. Shape analysis reveals that particles become more rounded by the removal of small-scale textural features, a process that is expected to only modestly influence grain size of gravel, but should produce significant quantities of sand. This study provides a better understanding of the importance of grain abrasion and sorting on the downstream fining of channel grains in an alluvial fan, as well as an improved knowledge

  18. Simultaneous PLIF and PIV measurement of a near field turbulent immiscible buoyant oil jet fragmentation in water using liquid-liquid refractive index matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    Very little experimental data exits on the flow structure in the near field of a crude oil jet fragmenting in water because of inability to probe dense droplet cloud. Refractive index-matching is applied to overcome this challenge by using silicone oil and sugar water as a surrogate liquid pair. Their density ratio, viscosity ratio, and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Simultaneous PLIF and PIV measurements are conducted by fluorescently tagging the oil and seeding both phases with particles. With increasing jet Reynolds and Weber numbers, the oil plume breakup occurs closer to the nozzle, the spreading angle of the jet increases, and the droplet sizes decrease. The varying spread rate is attributed to differences in droplet size distributions. The location of primary oil breakup is consistent with the region of high strain rate fluctuations. What one may perceive as oil droplets in opaque fluids actually consists of multi-layers containing water droplets, which sometimes encapsulate smaller oil droplets, creating a ``Russian Doll'' like phenomenon. This system forms as ligaments of oil and water wrap around each other during entrainment. Results include profiles of mean velocity and turbulence parameters along with energy spectra. Gulf of Mexico Research Inititave.

  19. Sliding-gate valve for use with abrasive materials

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Jr., William J.; Carter, Charles R.; Griffith, Richard A.; Loomis, Richard B.; Notestein, John E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a flow and pressure-sealing valve for use with abrasive solids. The valve embodies special features which provide for long, reliable operating lifetimes in solids-handling service. The valve includes upper and lower transversely slidable gates, contained in separate chambers. The upper gate provides a solids-flow control function, whereas the lower gate provides a pressure-sealing function. The lower gate is supported by means for (a) lifting that gate into sealing engagement with its seat when the gate is in its open and closed positions and (b) lowering the gate out of contact with its seat to permit abrasion-free transit of the gate between its open and closed positions. When closed, the upper gate isolates the lower gate from the solids. Because of this shielding action, the sealing surface of the lower gate is not exposed to solids during transit or when it is being lifted or lowered. The chamber containing the lower gate normally is pressurized slightly, and a sweep gas is directed inwardly across the lower-gate sealing surface during the vertical translation of the gate.

  20. Cleanup of a jet fuel spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesko, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hanger facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 1993 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site.

  1. Abrasive wear behavior of in-situ RZ5-10wt%TiC composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Deepak; Mahapatra, M. M.; Harsha, S. P.

    2018-05-01

    RZ5 Magnesium alloys containing zinc, rare earth and zirconium are well-known to have high specific strength, good creep resistance widely used in aerospace components. The incorporation of hard ceramic strengthens RZ5 mg alloy. The RZ5-10wt%TiC composite has been fabricated in situ using RZ5 mg alloy as matrix and TiC as reinforcement by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) technique. This paper investigates the abrasive wear behavior of RZ5-10wt%TiC. Tests were performed using pin-on-disc apparatus against 600 grit abrasive paper by varying the sliding distance and applied load. The results showed improvement in the wear resistance of testing composite as compared to the unreinforced RZ5 Mg alloy. The coefficient of friction and weight loss increased linearly as applied load and sliding distance increased. The field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) showed dominate wear mechanisms: abrasion, ploughing grooves.

  2. Nitrate and Aluminum Transport Through Soil Layers in a Clear-Cut Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, M. R.; Murdoch, P. S.; Burns, D. A.

    2002-12-01

    The 24-ha Dry Creek watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York State was clear-cut during 1997 to evaluate nutrient release to New York City reservoirs due to forest harvesting. The Dry Creek watershed is in the headwaters of the Neversink watershed, which is part of the New York City Reservoir system that supplies drinking water to over 20 million people. Soil water, groundwater seeps, and stream water chemistry were monitored to trace the transport of solutes before and after the timber harvest. Automated sequential zero-tension lysimeters and standard zero-tension lysimeters were installed at depths of 70, 300, and 500 mm to sample soil water in the O, B, and C-horizons, respectively. Pre-cut (water years 1993-1996) mean soil water concentrations from zero tension lysimeters indicate that O-horizon soil water (70 mm depth) had the highest nitrate (NO3-) and monomeric aluminum (Alm) concentrations (73 and 18 μmoles l-1, respectively). During that same time period water from ground-water seeps had lower NO3- and Alm concentrations (22 and 0.88 μmoles l-1, respectively) than any soil waters sampled. During the two years following the clear-cut, groundwater seep NO3- concentrations were 138-123 μmoles l-1 and Alm concentrations were 50-30 μmoles l-1 lower than that measured in soil water. Throughout the same time period, B-horizon soil water had the highest mean NO3- concentration (345 μmoles l-1) while C-horizon soil water had the highest mean Alm concentrations (51 μmoles l-1). But during storms in the first year after the clear-cut O-horizon soil water NO3- and Alm concentrations often peaked at more than twice those measured in the B-horizon. During the second year after the clear-cut, B-horizon storm NO3- concentrations were consistently greater than O-horizon concentrations. During the fourth and fifth years following the clear-cut, soil water NO3- concentrations had dropped below pre-cut concentrations however NO3- in groundwater seeps remained

  3. Abrasion-Resistant Coating for Flexible Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mui, D.; Headding, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramic coating increases durability and heat resistance of flexible high-temperature insulation. Coating compatible with quartz-fabric insulation allowing it to remain flexible during and after repeated exposures to temperatures of 1,800 degree F (982 degree C). Prevents fabric from becoming brittle while increasing resistance to aerodynamic abrasion and loading. Coating consists of penetrating precoat and topcoat. Major ingredients high-purity colloidal silica binder and ground silica filler, which ensure stability and compatibility with fabric at high temperatures. Both precoat and topcoat cured at room temperature.

  4. Cu2+ inhibition of gel secretion in the xylem and its potential implications for water uptake of cut Acacia holosericea stems.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Kamani; Joyce, Daryl C; Webb, Richard I

    2013-08-01

    Maintaining a high rate of water uptake is crucial for maximum longevity of cut stems. Physiological gel/tylosis formation decreases water transport efficiency in the xylem. The primary mechanism of action for post-harvest Cu(2+) treatments in improving cut flower and foliage longevity has been elusive. The effect of Cu(2+) on wound-induced xylem vessel occlusion was investigated for Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don. Experiments were conducted using a Cu(2+) pulse (5 h, 2.2 mM) and a Cu(2+) vase solution (0.5 mM) vs a deionized water (DIW) control. Development of xylem blockage in the stem-end region 10 mm proximal to the wounded stem surface was examined over 21 days by light and transmission electron microscopy. Xylem vessels of stems stood into DIW were occluded with gels secreted into vessel lumens via pits from surrounding axial parenchyma cells. Gel secretion was initiated within 1-2 days post-wounding and gels were detected in the xylem from day 3. In contrast, Cu(2+) treatments disrupted the surrounding parenchyma cells, thereby inhibiting gel secretion and maintaining the vessel lumens devoid of occlusions. The Cu(2+) treatments significantly improved water uptake by the cut stems as compared to the control. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  6. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    DOEpatents

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  7. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall not be exposed, either to the naked eye or when cuts or abrasions on the tire are probed. (1... probe cuts or abrasions. [38 FR 23950, Sept. 5, 1973, as amended at 39 FR 12868, Apr. 9, 1974; 39 FR...

  8. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall not be exposed, either to the naked eye or when cuts or abrasions on the tire are probed. (1... probe cuts or abrasions. [38 FR 23950, Sept. 5, 1973, as amended at 39 FR 12868, Apr. 9, 1974; 39 FR...

  9. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall not be exposed, either to the naked eye or when cuts or abrasions on the tire are probed. (1... probe cuts or abrasions. [38 FR 23950, Sept. 5, 1973, as amended at 39 FR 12868, Apr. 9, 1974; 39 FR...

  10. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall not be exposed, either to the naked eye or when cuts or abrasions on the tire are probed. (1... probe cuts or abrasions. [38 FR 23950, Sept. 5, 1973, as amended at 39 FR 12868, Apr. 9, 1974; 39 FR...

  11. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shall not be exposed, either to the naked eye or when cuts or abrasions on the tire are probed. (1... probe cuts or abrasions. [38 FR 23950, Sept. 5, 1973, as amended at 39 FR 12868, Apr. 9, 1974; 39 FR...

  12. Abrasion Resistance and Mechanical Properties of Waste-Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Roller-compacted Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildizel, S. A.; Timur, O.; Ozturk, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    The potential use of waste glass fibers in roller-compacted concrete (RCC) was investigated with the aim to improve its performance and reduce environmental effects. The research was focused on the abrasion resistance and compressive and flexural strengths of the reinforced concrete relative to those of reference mixes without fibers. The freeze-thaw resistance of RCC mixes was also examined. It was found that the use of waste glass fibers at a rate of 2 % increased the abrasion resistance of the RCC mixes considerably.

  13. The jet-disk symbiosis without maximal jets: 1D hydrodynamical jets revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumley, Patrick; Ceccobello, Chiara; Connors, Riley M. T.; Cavecchi, Yuri

    2017-05-01

    In this work we discuss the recent criticism by Zdziarski (2016, A&A, 586, A18) of the maximal jet model derived in Falcke & Biermann (1995, A&A, 293, 665). We agree with Zdziarski that in general a jet's internal energy is not bounded by its rest-mass energy density. We describe the effects of the mistake on conclusions that have been made using the maximal jet model and show when a maximal jet is an appropriate assumption. The maximal jet model was used to derive a 1D hydrodynamical model of jets in agnjet, a model that does multiwavelength fitting of quiescent/hard state X-ray binaries and low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. We correct algebraic mistakes made in the derivation of the 1D Euler equation and relax the maximal jet assumption. We show that the corrections cause minor differences as long as the jet has a small opening angle and a small terminal Lorentz factor. We find that the major conclusion from the maximal jet model, the jet-disk symbiosis, can be generally applied to astrophysical jets. We also show that isothermal jets are required to match the flat radio spectra seen in low-luminosity X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei, in agreement with other works.

  14. Cavitating Jet Method and System for Oxygenation of Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Georges L.

    2012-01-01

    Reclamation and re-use of water is critical for space-based life support systems. A number of functions must be performed by any such system including removal of various contaminants and oxygenation. For long-duration space missions, this must be done with a compact, reliable system that requires little or no use of expendables and minimal power. DynaJets cavitating jets can oxidize selected organic compounds with much gr