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Sample records for abrasive wear tests

  1. Low stress abrasive wear behavior of a hardfaced steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, R.; Prasad, B. K.; Jha, A. K.; Modi, O. P.; Das, S.; Yegneswaran, A. H.

    1998-04-01

    A plain carbon steel was overlayed with a wear-resistant hardfacing alloy by manual arc welding. Low stress abrasive wear tests were conducted with an ASTM rubber wheel abrasion tester using crushed silica and as the abrasive medium. The wear rate decreased with sliding distance, and there was an overall improvement in the abrasive wear resistance as a result of overlaying. The wear behavior of the samples has been discussed in terms of microstructural features while the examination of wear surface and subsurface regions provides insight into the wear mechanisms.

  2. Abrasive wear of alumina fibre-reinforced aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axen, N.; Alahelisten, A.; Jacobson, S.

    1994-04-01

    The friction and abrasive wear behaviour of an Al-Si1MgMn aluminium alloy reinforced with 10, 15 and 30 vol.% of alumina fibers has been evaluated. The influence of fiber content, matrix hardness, applied load as well as the hardness and size of the abrasive grits was investigated. The tests were performed with a pin-on-drum two-body abrasion apparatus. The wear mechanisms were studied using scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that fiber reinforcement increases the wear resistance in milder abrasive situations, i.e. small and soft abrasives and low loads. However, in tougher abrasive situations, meaning coarse and hard abrasives and high loads, the wear resistance of the composites is equal to or, in some cases, even lower than that of the unreinforced material. It is also shown that the coefficient of friction decreases with increasing fiber content and matrix hardness of the composites.

  3. Adhesion and wear behaviour of NCD coatings on Si3N4 by micro-abrasion tests.

    PubMed

    Silva, F G; Neto, M A; Fernandes, A J S; Costa, F M; Oliveira, F J; Silva, R F

    2009-06-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings offer an excellent alternative for tribological applications, preserving most of the intrinsic mechanical properties of polycrystalline CVD diamond and adding to it an extreme surface smoothness. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics are reported to guarantee high adhesion levels to CVD microcrystalline diamond coatings, but the NCD adhesion to Si3N4 is not yet well established. Micro-abrasion tests are appropriate for evaluating the abrasive wear resistance of a given surface, but they also provide information on thin film/substrate interfacial resistance, i.e., film adhesion. In this study, a comparison is made between the behaviour of NCD films deposited by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) and microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) techniques. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic discs were selected as substrates. The NCD depositions by HFCVD and MPCVD were carried out using H2-CH4 and H2-CH4-N2 gas mixtures, respectively. An adequate set of growth parameters was chosen for each CVD technique, resulting in NCD films having a final thickness of 5 microm. A micro-abrasion tribometer was used, with 3 microm diamond grit as the abrasive slurry element. Experiments were carried out at a constant rotational speed (80 r.p.m.) and by varying the applied load in the range of 0.25-0.75 N. The wear rate for MPCVD NCD (3.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(-5) mm3 N(-1) m(-1)) is compatible with those reported for microcrystalline CVD diamond. The HFCVD films displayed poorer adhesion to the Si3N4 ceramic substrates than the MPCVD ones. However, the HFCVD films show better wear resistance as a result of their higher crystallinity according to the UV Raman data, despite evidencing premature adhesion failure.

  4. Wear characterization of abrasive waterjet nozzles and nozzle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanduri, Madhusarathi

    Parameters that influence nozzle wear in the abrasive water jet (AWJ) environment were identified and classified into nozzle geometric, AWJ system, and nozzle material categories. Regular and accelerated wear test procedures were developed to study nozzle wear under actual and simulated conditions, respectively. Long term tests, using garnet abrasive, were conducted to validate the accelerated test procedure. In addition to exit diameter growth, two new measures of wear, nozzle weight loss and nozzle bore profiles were shown to be invaluable in characterizing and explaining the phenomena of nozzle wear. By conducting nozzle wear tests, the effects of nozzle geometric, and AWJ system parameters on nozzle wear were systematically investigated. An empirical model was developed for nozzle weight loss rate. To understand the response of nozzle materials under varying AWJ system conditions, erosion tests were conducted on samples of typical nozzle materials. The effect of factors such as jet impingement angle, abrasive type, abrasive size, abrasive flow rate, water pressure, traverse speed, and target material was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on eroded samples as well as worn nozzles to understand the wear mechanisms. The dominant wear mechanism observed was grain pullout. Erosion models were reviewed and along the lines of classical erosion theories a semi-empirical model, suitable for erosion of nozzle materials under AWJ impact, was developed. The erosion data correlated very well with the developed model. Finally, the cutting efficiency of AWJ nozzles was investigated in conjunction with nozzle wear. The cutting efficiency of a nozzle deteriorates as it wears. There is a direct correlation between nozzle wear and cutting efficiency. The operating conditions that produce the most efficient jets also cause the most wear in the nozzle.

  5. Characterization of the resistance of pyrolytic carbon to abrasive wear.

    PubMed

    Vitale, E; Giusti, P

    1995-12-01

    Si-alloyed pyrolitic carbon (PyC) is currently employed in many biomedical devices, due to its fairly good biological compatibility and non biodegradeability. For prosthetic heart valve applications, required to operate safely for many years, the resistance to abrasive wear is one of the limiting factors which must be accurately evaluated. The present study reports on abrasive wear testing of Ti/PyC and PyC/PyC sliding couples. For both couples it was found that the wear behaviour can be shifted from a low wear regime, characterised by very small wear rates and reduced scatter, to a high wear regime, characterised by high wear rates and high scatter, due to the presence of particle contamination coming from the environment and/or from the specimen polishing process. Actual biomedical devices, particularly heart valves, should not experience the high wear regime, due to the absence of any hard particle contamination source. The wear observed in these items is in fact minimal and may depend on mechanisms other than abrasive wear. In these conditions the experimental evaluation of the wear behaviour should definetely be performed by tests on actual devices.

  6. Hardfacing and wear plates battle abrasion

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.F.

    1983-06-01

    This article examines abrasion-resistant steels and hardfacing as two effective weapons at the disposal of material handlers. It points out that abrasion is probably the single most destructive form of wear in the mixing and processing of coal. Particulate matter such as quartz sand and other minerals including coal curtail in-service life of dragline buckets, chute, crusher rolls, gates and valves, exhauster fan blades, target plates, truck beds, hoppers, vibrating pans, grinding mills, piping elbows, etc. The advantages of abrasion-resistant steels and hardfacing can be obtained in the form of a composite wear plate-hardfacing on a carbon steel backup plate. It concludes that the composite wear plate represents a major innovation since its advantages include ease of handling, low cost and easy installation, minimum on-site welding time and versatility. Its use is limited only to the consumer's creativity in application.

  7. A physically-based abrasive wear model for composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gun Y.; Dharan, C.K.H.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2001-05-01

    A simple physically-based model for the abrasive wear of composite materials is presented based on the mechanics and mechanisms associated with sliding wear in soft (ductile) matrix composites containing hard (brittle) reinforcement particles. The model is based on the assumption that any portion of the reinforcement that is removed as wear debris cannot contribute to the wear resistance of the matrix material. The size of this non-contributing portion of the reinforcement is estimated by modeling the three primary wear mechanisms, specifically plowing, interfacial cracking and particle removal. Critical variables describing the role of the reinforcement, such as its relative size and the nature of the matrix/reinforcement interface, are characterized by a single contribution coefficient, C. Predictions are compared with the results of experimental two-body (pin-on drum) abrasive wear tests performed on a model aluminum particulate-reinforced epoxy matrix composite material.

  8. Predicting abrasive wear with coupled Lagrangian methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Florian; Eberhard, Peter

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a mesh-less approach for the simulation of a fluid with particle loading and the prediction of abrasive wear is presented. We are using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method for modeling the fluid and the discrete element method (DEM) for the solid particles, which represent the loading of the fluid. These Lagrangian methods are used to describe heavily sloshing fluids with their free surfaces as well as the interface between the fluid and the solid particles accurately. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations model is applied for handling turbulences. We are predicting abrasive wear on the boundary geometry with two different wear models taking cutting and deformation mechanisms into account. The boundary geometry is discretized with special DEM particles. In doing so, it is possible to use the same particle type for both the calculation of the boundary conditions for the SPH method as well as the DEM and for predicting the abrasive wear. After a brief introduction to the SPH method and the DEM, the handling of the boundary and the coupling of the fluid and the solid particles are discussed. Then, the applied wear models are presented and the simulation scenarios are described. The first numerical experiment is the simulation of a fluid with loading which is sloshing inside a tank. The second numerical experiment is the simulation of the impact of a free jet with loading to a simplified pelton bucket. We are especially investigating the wear patterns inside the tank and the bucket.

  9. The interactions between attrition, abrasion and erosion in tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Shellis, R Peter; Addy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear is the result of three processes: abrasion (wear produced by interaction between teeth and other materials), attrition (wear through tooth-tooth contact) and erosion (dissolution of hard tissue by acidic substances). A further process (abfraction) might potentiate wear by abrasion and/or erosion. Knowledge of these tooth wear processes and their interactions is reviewed. Both clinical and experimental observations show that individual wear mechanisms rarely act alone but interact with each other. The most important interaction is the potentiation of abrasion by erosive damage to the dental hard tissues. This interaction seems to be the major factor in occlusal and cervical wear. The available evidence is insufficient to establish whether abfraction is an important contributor to tooth wear in vivo. Saliva can modulate erosive/abrasive tooth wear, especially through formation of pellicle, but cannot prevent it.

  10. Interaction between attrition,abrasion and erosion in tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; Shellis, R P

    2006-01-01

    Tooth wear is the result of three processes: abrasion (wear produced by interaction between teeth and other materials), attrition (wear through tooth-tooth contact) and erosion (dissolution of hard tissue by acidic substances). A further process (abfraction) might potentiate wear by abrasion and/or erosion. Both clinical and experimental observations show that individual wear mechanisms rarely act alone but interact with each other. The most important interaction is the potentiation of abrasion by erosive damage to the dental hard tissues. This interaction seems to be the major factor in occlusal and cervical wear. The available evidence seems insufficient to establish whether abfraction is an important contributor to tooth wear in vivo. Saliva can modulate erosive/abrasive tooth wear through formation of pellicle and by remineralisation but cannot prevent it.

  11. Abrasive wear by coal-fueled diesel engine and related particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, L.K.

    1992-09-01

    The development of commercially viable diesel engines that operate directly on pulverized coal-fuels will require solution to the problem of severe abrasive wear. The purpose of the work described in this report was to investigate the nature of the abrasive wear problem. Analytical studies were carried out to determine the characteristics of the coal-fuel and associated combustion particles responsible for abrasion. Laboratory pinon-disk wear tests were conducted on oil-particle mixtures to determine the relationship between wear rate and a number of different particle characteristics, contact parameters, specimen materials properties, and other relevant variables.

  12. Improvement in high stress abrasive wear property of steel by hardfacing

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Mondal, D.P.; Khaira, H.K.; Jha, A.K.

    1999-12-01

    High stress abrasive wear behavior of mild steel, medium carbon steel, and hardfacing alloy has been studied to ascertain the extent of improvement in the wear properties after hardfacing of steel. High stress abrasive wear tests were carried out by sliding the specimen against the abrasive media consisting of silicon carbide particles, rigidly bonded on paper base and mounted on disk. Maximum wear was found in the case of mild steel followed by a medium carbon alloy steel and a hardfacing alloy. Different compositions of steels and constituent phases present led to different wear rates of the specimen. The extent of improvement in wear performance of steel due to hardfacing is quite appreciable (twice compared to mild steel). Microstructural examination of the wear surface has been carried out to understand the wear mechanism.

  13. Dynamical simulation of an abrasive wear process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elalem, Khaled; Li, D. Y.

    1999-05-01

    A dynamic computer model was developed to simulate wear behavior of materials on micro-scales. In this model, a material system is discretized and mapped onto a lattice or grid. Each lattice site represents a small volume of the material. During a wear process, a lattice site may move under the influence of external force and the interaction between the site and its adjacent sites. The site-site interaction is a function of mechanical properties of the material such as the elastic modulus, yield strength, work hardening and the fracture strain. Newton's law of motion is used to determine the movement of lattice sites during a wear process. The strain between a pair of sites is recoverable if it is within the elastic deformation range; otherwise plastic deformation takes place. A bond between two adjacent sites is broken when its strain exceeds a critical value. A site or a cluster of sites is worn away if all bonds connecting the site or the cluster to its nearest neighbors are broken. The model well describes the strain distribution in a contact region, in consistence with a finite element analysis. This model was applied to several metallic materials abraded under the ASTM G65 abrasion condition, and the results were compared to experimental observations. Good agreement between the modeling and the experiment was found.

  14. An Investigation of Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Al 2014-SiC Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çalin, Recep; Cilasun, Niyazi Selçuk

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of SiC reinforcement volume fractions on hardness, porosity and abrasive wear behaviour were examined in Al 2014-SiC (<92.3 μm) reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) of 3%, 6% and 12% reinforcement-volume (R-V) ratios produced by melt-stirring. Abrasive wear tests were carried out by 320 mesh Al2O3 abrasive paper and a pin-on-disc wear test apparatus, under 10N, 20N and 30N load, and at 0.2 ms-1 sliding speed. The same specimens were tested by 150, 240 and 320 mesh abrasive paper at 0.2 ms-1 sliding speed, under 10N, 20N and 30N load. After the tests, the microstructures of the worn surfaces were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies and EDS analyses. Besides, the amount of hardness and porosity of the specimens were identified. It was recorded that the amounts of hardness and porosity increases as the SiC reinforcement in the composite increases. The highest amount of abrasive wear was recorded in the specimens with 3% reinforcements. It was identified that the amount of abrasive wear decreases while the SiC reinforcement in the composite structure increases by volume, and that the amount of porosity and reinforcement volume (R-V) ratio are important parameters in abrasive wear.

  15. High stress abrasive wear behavior of some hardfaced surfaces produced by thermal spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, A. K.; Gachake, Arati; Prasad, B. K.; Dasgupta, Rupa; Singh, M.; Yegneswaran, A. H.

    2002-02-01

    Steel surfaces were thermally sprayed with nickel chromium boron (NCB) powder (with and without tungsten carbide) using an oxy-acetylene torch. The sprayed (hard) surfaces and substrate were characterized for abrasive wear properties. Test parameters such as load and sliding distance were varied. A significant improvement in the abrasive wear resistance (inverse of wear rate) was noted for the thermally sprayed surfaces as compared to that of the substrate. Wear surfaces, subsurface regions, and debris were examined in order to ascertain the operating wear mechanisms. Substrate (mild steel), because of its low hardness, suffered severe wear through the cutting, ploughing, and wedging action of the hard abrasive (silicon carbide). Deep cuts on the worn surface, a bulky transfer layer, subsurface cracks, and large-size debris were observed. However, wear was reduced due to high hardness of the layer of NCB powder on the substrate, which resisted the penetration of abrasive into the surface. Presence of tungsten carbide in the layer of NCB powder further reduced the wear of the corresponding specimen because of very high hardness of the tungsten carbide. Shallow wear grooves and finer debris were observed for the NCB coating with and without tungsten carbide. Cutting was the predominating wear mechanism in the case of coatings.

  16. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da; Ritchie, Robert O.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  17. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  18. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  19. Microstructure Evolution and Abrasive Wear Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadke, Shreyash; Khatirkar, Rajesh K.; Shekhawat, Satish K.; Jain, Shreyans; Sapate, Sanjay G.

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the effect of quenching and aging treatment on microstructure and abrasive wear of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The as-received alloy was solution treated at 1339 K, then oil quenched, followed by aging at 823 K for 4 h (14,400 s). The microstructures of as-received and quench-aged specimens were characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron backscattered diffraction techniques. The as-received specimen consisted of very fine α grains (average grain size 2 μm) with β phase uniformly dispersed throughout. The microstructure of the quench-aged specimen showed α plates (formed by the decomposition of α' during aging). The β phase precipitated out of α' martensite during aging and hence was dispersed uniformly in the α matrix. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was quench-aged to achieve maximum hardness with a view that the increased hardness would lead to an improvement in abrasive wear behavior. Two-body abrasive wear tests were carried out on the as-received and quench-aged specimens using pin-on-disk apparatus with SiC as abrasive media (150-grit size). The effect of sliding distance and normal load on the abrasive wear behavior was studied. The wear resistance of the as-received specimen was greater than that of quench-aged specimen, while hardness of the as-received specimen was lower than that of quench-aged specimen. The abrasive wear behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been explained based on morphology/microstructure of the alloy and the associated wear mechanism(s).

  20. Two-body, dry abrasive wear of Fe/Cr/C experimental alloys - relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, C.K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A systematic study of abrasive wear resistance of Fe/Cr/Mn based alloys has been carried out using a two body pin-on-disc wear machine. Abrasives used were silicon carbide, alumina and quartz. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abrasive wear resistance and to investigate the relationships between microstructure, mechanical properties, and abrasive wear resistance for these experimental alloys. Several commercial alloys were also tested to provide a basis for comparison. The goal of this study was to develop information so as to improve wear resistance of these experimental alloys by means of thermal treatments. Grain-refinement by double heat treatment was carried out in this research.

  1. Abrasive wear: The efects of fibres size on oil palm empty fruit bunch polyester composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasolang, S.; Kalam, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Suhadah, W. N.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to determine the effect of palm oil empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre size in dry sliding testing of polyester composite. These composite samples were produced by mixing raw OPEFB fibre with resin. The samples were prepared at different sizes of fibre (100, 125, 180 and 250μm). Abrasion Resistance Tester (TR-600) was used to carried out abrasive wear tests in dry sliding conditions. These tests were performed at room temperature for two different loads (10 and 30N) and at a constant sliding velocity of 1.4m/s. The specific wear rates of OPEFB polyester composites were obtained. The morphology of composite surface before and after tests was also examined using 3D microscope imaging. Preliminary work on thermal distribution at the abrasive wheel point was also conducted for selected samples.

  2. Influence of alumina and titanium dioxide coatings on abrasive wear resistance of AISI 1045 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Remolina, A.; Marulanda, J.

    2016-02-01

    This project aims to compare the behaviour of an AISI 1045 steel's abrasive wear resistance when is covered with aluminium oxide (Al2O3) or Titanium dioxide (TiO2), of nanometric size, using the technique of thermal hot spray, which allows to directly project the suspension particles on the used substrate. The tests are performed based on the ASTM G65-04 standard (Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Apparatus). The results show that the amount of, lost material increases linearly with the travelled distance; also determined that the thermal treatment of hardening-tempering and the alumina and titanium dioxide coatings decrease in average a 12.9, 39.6 and 29.3% respectively the volume of released material during abrasive wear test.

  3. Relationships Between Abrasive Wear, Hardness, and Surface Grinding Characteristics of Titanium-Based Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Jolly, Brian C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to support the development of grinding models for titanium metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by investigating possible relationships between their indentation hardness, low-stress belt abrasion, high-stress belt abrasion, and the surface grinding characteristics. Three Ti-based particulate composites were tested and compared with the popular titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The three composites were a Ti-6Al-4V-based MMC with 5% TiB{sub 2} particles, a Ti-6Al-4V MMC with 10% TiC particles, and a Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-7.5%W binary alloy matrix that contained 7.5% TiC particles. Two types of belt abrasion tests were used: (a) a modified ASTM G164 low-stress loop abrasion test, and (b) a higher-stress test developed to quantify the grindability of ceramics. Results were correlated with G-ratios (ratio of stock removed to abrasives consumed) obtained from an instrumented surface grinder. Brinell hardness correlated better with abrasion characteristics than microindentation or scratch hardness. Wear volumes from low-stress and high-stress abrasive belt tests were related by a second-degree polynomial. Grindability numbers correlated with hard particle content but were also matrix-dependent.

  4. Abrasive Wear Performance of Aluminium Modified Epoxy-Glass Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Vikram G.; Mishra, Punyapriya; Al Dabbas, Hassan A.; Panda, H. S.; Fernandez, Johnathan Bruce

    2015-07-01

    For a long time, Aluminum filled epoxies molds have been used in rapid tooling process. These molds are very economical when applied in manufacturing of low volume of plastic parts. To improve the thermal conductivity of the material, the metallic filler material is added to it and the glass fiber improves the wear resistance of the material. These two important parameters establish the life of composites. The present work reports on abrasive wear behavior of Aluminum modified epoxy and glass fiber composite with 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of aluminum particles. Through pin on disc wear testing machine, we studied the wear behaviors of composites, and all these samples were fabricated by using hand layup process. Epoxy resin was used as matrix material which was reinforced with Glass fiber and Aluminum as filler. The composite with 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of Al was cast with dimensions 100 × 100 × 6 mm. The specimens were machined to a size of 6 × 6 × 4 mm for abrasive testing. Abrasive tests were carried out for different grit paper sizes, i.e., 150, 320, 600 at different sliding distance, i.e., 20, 40, 60 m at different loads of 5, 10 and 15 N and at constant speed. The weight loss due to wear was calculated along with coefficient of friction. Hardness was found using Rockwell hardness machine. The SEM morphology of the worn out surface wear was analyzed to understand the wear mechanism. Results showed that the addition of Aluminum particles was beneficial for low abrasive conditions.

  5. Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Performance of Ni-Wc Composite Microwave Clad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Amit; Zafar, Sunny; Sharma, Apurbba Kumar

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, Ni-WC powder was deposited on mild steel substrate to develop clads through microwave hybrid heating technique. The cladding trials were carried out in an industrial microwave applicator at 1.1 kW for 540 s. The Ni-WC composite clads were characterized for microstructure and abrasive wear performance through combination of x-ray diffraction, electron and optical microscopy, microhardness, and wear tests. Phase analysis of the Ni-WC clad indicated the presence of stable carbides such as WC, W2C, Ni2W4C, and Fe6W6C. The microstructure study of the clad layer revealed the presence of a uniformly distributed interlocked WC-based reinforcement embedded in the Ni-based matrix. The average Vicker's microhardness in the clad layer was observed to be 1028 ± 90 HV, which was approximately three times the microhardness of the substrate. Abrasive wear resistance of the microwave clads was superior to the MS substrate. Abrasion was the main wear mechanism in the Ni-WC clads and the substrate samples. However, the presence of WC-based reinforcement in the composite clads reduced microcutting, resulting in enhanced wear resistance.

  6. Evidence for Martian electrostatic charging and abrasive wheel wear from the Wheel Abrasion Experiment on the Pathfinder Sojourner rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.; Wilt, David M.; Matijevic, Jacob R.

    1999-04-01

    The Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE) on the Mars Pathfinder rover was designed to find out how abrasive the Martian dust would be on strips of pure metals attached to one of the wheels. A specially modified wheel, with 15 thin film samples (five each of three different metals), specularly reflected sunlight to a photovoltaic sensor. When the wheel was rotated to present the different sample surfaces to the sensor, the resulting signal was interpreted in terms of dust adhesion and abrasive wear. Many data sequences were obtained. Ground tests of similar wheels in a simulated Martian environment showed that static charging levels of 100-300 V could be expected. To prevent the possibility of Paschen discharge in the low-pressure Martian atmosphere, charge dissipation points were added to the Sojourner rover and were shown in ground tests to keep charging levels at 80 V or less. Nevertheless, significant dust accumulations on Sojourner's wheels may be interpreted as evidence for electrostatic charging. Simple considerations of the expected maximum level of charging and electrostatic dust adhesion lead to an estimate for the size of the adhering dust grains. From the WAE data, it is hypothesized that the photoelectric effect is the most important mechanism for slow discharge in Martian daylight. Sensor signals obtained late in the Pathfinder mission show that significant wheel wear was seen on the metal wheel strips, with the most wear on the thinnest aluminum samples and the least on the thickest nickel and platinum samples. An estimate is made of the reflectance of the adhering Martian dust. The depth of dig of the WAE wheel shows that the dust is in some places very loose and in others tightly packed. Finally, comparison of the WAE results with ground test results makes possible a comparison of the Martian soil with mineral grain types and sizes found on Earth and show that the Martian dust is fine-grained and of limited hardness.

  7. Effect of abrasive grit size on wear of manganese-zinc ferrite under three-body abrasion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1987-01-01

    Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites under three-body abrasion. The abrasion mechanism of Mn-Zn ferrite changes drastically with the size of abrasive grits. With 15-micron (1000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion of Mn-Zn ferrite is due principally to brittle fracture; while with 4- and 2-micron (4000- and 6000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion is due to plastic deformation and fracture. Both microcracking and plastic flow produce polycrystalline states on the wear surfaces of single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites. Coefficient of wear, total thickness of the deformed layers, and surface roughness of the wear surfaces increase markedly with an increase in abrasive grit size. The total thicknesses of the deformed layers are 3 microns for the ferrite abraded by 15-micron SiC, 0.9 microns for the ferrite abraded by 4-micron SiC, and 0.8 microns for the ferrite abraded by 1-micron SiC.

  8. A Study on 3-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Aluminium 8011 / Graphite Metal Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha Shankar, B.; Anil, K. C.; Patil, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    Metals and alloys have found their vital role in many applications like structural, corrosive, tribological, etc., in engineering environment. The alloys/composites having high strength to low weight ratio have gained attention of many researchers recently. In this work, graphite reinforced Aluminium 8011 metal matrix composite was prepared by conventional stir casting route, by varying the weight % of reinforcement. Uniform distribution of Graphite in matrix alloy was confirmed by optical micrographs. Prepared composite specimens were subjected to 3-body abrasive testing by varying applied load and time, the silica particles of 400 grit size were used as abrasive particles. It was observed that with the increase of weight% of Graphite the wear resistance of composite was also increasing and on comparison it was found that reinforced composite gives good wear resistance than base alloy.

  9. RPP-WTP Slurry Wear Evaluation: Slurry Abrasivity

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    2002-06-03

    This report deals with the task of evaluating wear in the cross-flow ultrafiltration system and specifically the need to define a representative slurry in order to obtain prototypic wear rates. The filtration system will treat many different wastes, but it is not practical to run a test for each one. This is especially true when considering that the planned period for testing is 2000 hours long and procurement of appropriate simulants is costly. Considering time and cost, one waste stream needs to be chosen to perform the wear test.

  10. Microstructural effects in abrasive wear. Quarterly progress report, September 15-December 15, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, N F; Kosel, T H; Channigiri, M; Desai, V; Fulcher, J

    1980-01-15

    This is the 11th quarterly report describing research aimed at establishing quantitative relations between microstructure and wear resistance of highly alloyed materials, including high-Cr white irons and experimental Co-base and Ni-base powder metallurgy (PM) alloys. The specific types of wear under study are low-stress abrasion and gouging wear encountered in mining, coal conversion and transfer applications. The white irons range in carbide volume fracton (v/sub f/) from 10 to 45%. They are of carefully balanced composition to produce maximum carbide hardness, v/sub f/ and matrix hardenability at minimum alloy content. Effort has been devoted to metallographic characterization of these alloys and to low-stress abrasion testing against dry SiO/sub 2/. Low-stress abrasion resistance passes through a maximum at intermediate v/sub f/, a finding which corroborates wet-sand, low-stress test results from another laboratory. Low- and high-matrix alloy content Co-base alloys are also under investigation. Both types of alloys have been processed by powder metallurgy (PM) to display a uniform array of fine, medium or coarse carbides in a FCC matrix. Extensive effort has been expended to develop metallographic procedures for characterizing the microstructures of the alloys. Of particular significance is the development of a one-step electrolytic etching-staining procedure which reveals matrix, matrix grain boundaries and carbides simultaneously in high contrast.

  11. Three-body abrasive wear characteristics under reciprocating motion of CFRP in vibrating environment

    SciTech Connect

    Teraoka, Sadakazu; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi; Nakagawa, Tatsuo

    1996-12-31

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been widely used in industry because of their attractive mechanical characteristics. Such CFRP parts are invariably subjected to three-body wear due to small indentations and machine vibrations. In this study, the wear characteristics under the three-body condition and the abrasive wear of CFRP were investigated by using a vibrating environment and silicon carbide abrasive grains.

  12. Minimal alterations on the enamel surface by micro-abrasion: in vitro roughness and wear assessments

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES, Marcela Charantola; MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; OLIVEIRA, Gabriela Ulian; FRANCO, Eduardo Batista; BASEGGIO, Wagner; WANG, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro changes on the enamel surface after a micro-abrasion treatment promoted by different products. Material and Methods: Fifty (50) fragments of bovine enamel (15 mm x 5 mm) were randomly assigned to five groups (n=10) according to the product utilized: G1 (control)= silicone polisher (TDV), G2= 37% phosphoric acid (3M/ESPE) + pumice stone (SS White), G3= Micropol (DMC Equipment), G4= Opalustre (Ultradent) and G5= Whiteness RM (FGM Dental Products). Roughness and wear were the responsible variables used to analyze these surfaces in four stages: baseline, 60 s and 120 s after the micro-abrasion and after polishing, using a Hommel Tester T1000 device. After the tests, a normal distribution of data was verified, with repeated ANOVA analyses (p≤0.05) which were used to compare each product in different stages. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied for individual comparisons between the products in each stage (p≤0.05). Results: Means and standard deviations of roughness and wear (mm) after all the promoted stages were: G1=7.26(1.81)/13.16(2.67), G2=2.02(0.62)/37.44(3.33), G3=1.81(0.91)/34.93(6.92), G4=1.92(0.29)/38.42(0.65) and G5=1.98(0.53)/33.45(2.66). At 60 seconds, all products tended to produce less surface roughness with a variable gradual decrease over time. After polishing, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups, except for G1. Independent of the product utilized, the enamel wear occurred after the micro-abrasion. Conclusions: In this in vitro study, enamel micro-abrasion presented itself as a conservative approach, regardless of the type of the paste compound utilized. These products promoted minor roughness alterations and minimal wear. The use of phosphoric acid and pumice stone showed similar results to commercial products for the micro-abrasion with regard to the surface roughness and wear. PMID:23739863

  13. Study of abrasive wear rate of silicon using n-alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danyluk, S.

    1982-01-01

    The work carried out at the University of Illinois at Chicago for the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project under contract No. 956053 is summarized. The abrasion wear rate of silicon in a number of fluid environments and the parameters that influence the surface mechanical properties of silicon were determined. Three tests were carried out in this study: circular and linear multiple-scratch test, microhardness test and a three-point bend test. The pertinent parameters such as effect of surface orientation, dopant and fluid properties were sorted. A brief review and critique of previous work is presented.

  14. Influence of material characteristics on the abrasive wear response of some hardfacing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, A.K.; Prasad, B.K.; Dasgupta, R.; Modi, O.P.

    1999-04-01

    This study examines the abrasive wear behavior of two iron-base hardfacing materials with different combinations of carbon and chromium after deposition on a steel substrate. Effects of applied load and sliding distance on the wear behavior of the specimens were studied. Operating material removal mechanisms also were analyzed through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of typical wear surfaces, subsurface regions, and debris particles. The results suggest a significant improvement in the wear resistance of the hardfaced layers over that of the substrate. Further, the specimens overlaid with the material with low carbon and high chromium contents attained better wear resistance than the one consisting of more carbon but less chromium. The former specimens also attained superior hardness. Smoother abrasion grooves on the wear surfaces and finer debris formation during the abrasion of the hardfaced samples were consistent with wear resistance superior to that of the substrate.

  15. Wear Resistance and Wear Mechanism of a Hot Dip Aluminized Steel in Sliding Wear Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhiyong; Hao, Xiaoyang; Huang, Yao; Gu, Lingyun; Ren, Yu; Zheng, Ruipeng

    2016-12-01

    Sliding wear experiments were conducted on a hot dip aluminized steel to investigate its wear resistance and wear mechanism. The wear tests were also carried out on a hot dip galvanized steel and the base material (steel Q345) as a comparison. Results show that the wear resistance and hardness of the hot dip aluminized steel are significantly higher than that of the hot dip galvanized steel and the steel Q345 at room temperature. The better wear resistance of the hot dip aluminized steel attributes mainly to the formation of a transition layer containing abundant Fe-Al intermetallic compounds and the transformation of wear-resisting oxides during the friction process. The main phase in the transition layer is Fe2Al5. The thickness of the transition layer is about 90-120 μm. When the wear load increases from 3 N to 19 N, the wear type of the aluminized layer transform from adhesive wear (3 N) into abrasive wear (7 N) and finally into slight wear mixed with oxidation (higher than 11 N).

  16. Performance of Flame Sprayed Ni-WC Coating under Abrasive Wear Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsha, S.; Dwivedi, D. K.; Agarwal, A.

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the influence of a post spray heat treatment on the microstructure, microhardness and abrasive wear behavior of the flame sprayed Ni-WC (EWAC 1002 ET) coating deposited on the mild steel. Coatings were deposited by using an oxy-acetylene flame spraying torch (Superjet Eutalloy L & T, India). The wear behavior of the coating was evaluated using a pin on disc wear system against SiC abrasive medium of 120 and 600 grades at 5, 10, 15, and 20 N normal load. Results revealed that the influence of normal load on wear is governed by the microstructure, hardness and abrasive grit size. The heat treatment increased average microhardness of the coating. However, it was found that the hardness does not correctly indicate the abrasive wear resistance of Ni-WC coating in an as sprayed and heat treated condition. The heat treatment of the coating improved its abrasive wear resistance against fine abrasive medium while the wear resistance against coarse abrasive was found to be a function of a normal load. At low-normal load (5 and 10 N) the heat treated coating showed lower-wear rate than as spayed coating while at high-normal loads (15 and 20 N) heat treated coating was subjected to higher-wear rate than as sprayed coating. In general, an increase in normal load increased the wear rate. The scanning electron microscopy study indicated that the wear largely takes place by groove formation and scoring of eutectic matrix and the fragmentation of the carbide particles.

  17. The abrasive wear of plasma sprayed nanoscale tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewksbury, Graham Alfred

    Thermal spray coatings composed of a variety of carbide sizes and cobalt contents were sprayed with a high energy plasma spray system. The size of the carbides used fell into three rough groupings, micrometer scale carbides (1--2 mum), submicrometer (700--300 nm), and nanoscale (≈100 nm). The feedstock powder was evaluated in terms of their size distribution, external morphology, internal morphology, and initial carbide size. Two different fixtures were used in spraying to evaluate the effect of cooling rate on the wear resistance of the coatings. The microstructures of the sprayed coatings were examined using optical metallography, SEM, FESEM, TEM, XRD and chemical analysis. The coatings were evaluated in low stress abrasive wear by the ASTM G-65 Dry Sand Rubber Wheel test. Furthermore, the porosity and hardness of the coatings were evaluated. The cobalt content was found to be the predominant influence on the wear rate of the coatings. The decrease in the carbide size was not found to effect the wear rate of the coatings. Coatings sprayed on the 'hot' fixture were found to have slightly improved wear resistance as compared to coatings sprayed on the 'cold' fixture. The wear rates of the coatings were found to be a function of the WC/Co volume ratio.

  18. Effect of radiation cross-linking on the abrasive wear behaviour of polyethylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gul, Rizwan M.; Khan, Tahir I.

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the differences in the dry abrasive wear behavior of different polyethylenes, and compares the effect of radiation cross-linking on the wear behavior. Four different types of polyethylenes: LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE and UHMWPE were studied. Cross-linking was carried out by high energy electron beam with radiation dose of 200 kGy. The results show that in unirradiated state UHMWPE has excellent wear resistance, with HDPE showing comparable wear properties; both LDPE and LLDPE exhibit high wear rate. Cross-linking improves wear rate of LDPE and UHMWPE, however, the wear rate of HDPE and LLDPE increases with cross-linking.

  19. Effect of Experimental Variables of Abrasive Wear on 3D Surface Roughness and Wear Rate of Al-4.5 % Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Mallik, Manab; Mandal, Nilrudra; Dutta, Samik; Roy, Himadri; Lohar, Aditya Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This investigation was primarily carried out to examine the abrasive wear behavior of as cast Al-4.5 % Cu alloy. Wear tests have been carried out using an abrasive wear machine with emery paper embedded with SiC particles acting as abrasive medium. The experiments were planned using central composite design, with, load, cycle and grit size as input variables, whereas wear rate and 3D roughness were considered as output variable. Analysis of variance was applied to check the adequacy of the mathematical model and their respective parameters. Microstructural investigations of the worn surfaces have been carried out to explain the observed results and to understand the wear micro-mechanisms as per the planned experiments. Desirability function optimization technique was finally employed to optimize the controlling factors. The observed results revealed that, grit size plays a significant role in the variation of wear rate and 3D roughness as compared to load and cycles. Based on the significance of interactions, the regression equations were derived and verified further with a number of confirmation runs to assess the adequacy of the model. A close agreement (±10 %) between the predicted and experimentally measured results was obtained from this investigation.

  20. Abrasive wear by diesel engine coal-fuel and related particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, L.K.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the work summarized in this report was to obtain a basic understanding of the factors which are responsible for wear of the piston ring and cylinder wall surfaces in diesel engines utilizing coal-fuel. The approach included analytical studies using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analyses to characterize coal-fuel and various combustion particles, and two different wear tests. The wear tests were a modified pin-on-disk test and a block-on-ring test capable of either unidirectional or reciprocating-rotational sliding. The wear tests in general were conducted with mixtures of the particles and lubricating oil. The particles studied included coal-fuel, particles resulting from the combustion of coal fuel, mineral matter extracted during the processing of coal, and several other common abrasive particle types among which quartz was the most extensively examined. The variables studied included those associated with the particles, such as particle type, size, and hardness; variables related to contact conditions and the surrounding environment; and variables related to the type and properties of the test specimen materials.

  1. A review on nozzle wear in abrasive water jet machining application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syazwani, H.; Mebrahitom, G.; Azmir, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses a review on nozzle wear in abrasive water jet machining application. Wear of the nozzle becomes a major problem since it may affect the water jet machining performance. Design, materials, and life of the nozzle give significance effect to the nozzle wear. There are various parameters that may influence the wear rate of the nozzle such as nozzle length, nozzle inlet angle, nozzle diameter, orifice diameter, abrasive flow rate and water pressure. The wear rate of the nozzle can be minimized by controlling these parameters. The mechanism of wear in the nozzle is similar to other traditional machining processes which uses a cutting tool. The high pressure of the water and hard abrasive particles may erode the nozzle wall. A new nozzle using a tungsten carbide-based material has been developed to reduce the wear rate and improve the nozzle life. Apart from that, prevention of the nozzle wear has been achieved using porous lubricated nozzle. This paper presents a comprehensive review about the wear of abrasive water jet nozzle.

  2. Comparison of dry wear characteristics of two abrasion-resistant steels: Q/T C1095 and 15B37H

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, G.; Tandon, K.N.; Iqbal, K.; Wang, Y.

    1995-10-01

    The dry reciprocating wear characteristics of two abrasion-resistant steels, C1095 and 15B37H, against an abrasive material were studied. Results showed that abrasive wear and surface fatigue were the primary wear mechanisms. The wear failure of the steels was related to frictional softening during wear.

  3. Tribological properties of amorphous alloys and the role of surfaces in abrasive wear of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The research approach undertaken by the authors relative to the subject, and examples of results from the authors are reviewed. The studies include programs in adhesion, friction, and various wear mechanisms (adhesive and abrasive wear). The materials which have been studied include such ceramic and metallic materials as silicon carbide, ferrites, diamond, and amorphous alloys.

  4. Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with attention to the effects of reused abradant

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Dehoff, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    Abrasive wear is among the most common and costliest causes for material wastage, and it occurs in many forms. A simple method has been developed to quantify the response of metals and alloys to two-body wet abrasion. A metallographic polishing machine was modified to create a disk-on-flat sliding test rig. Adhesive-backed SiC grinding papers were used under fixed load and speed to rank the abrasive wear of seven alloy steels, some of which are candidates for drill cones for geothermal drilling. Standardized two-body abrasion tests, like those described in ASTM G132, feed unused abrasive into the contact; however, the current work investigated whether useful rankings could still be obtained with a simpler testing configuration in which specimens repeatedly slide on the same wear path under water-lubricated conditions. Tests using abrasive grit sizes of 120 and 180 resulted in the same relative ranking of the alloys although the coarser grit produced more total wear. Wear decreased when the same abrasive disk was re-used for up to five runs, but the relative rankings of the steels remained the same. This procedure was presented to ASTM Committee G2 on Wear and Erosion as a potential standard test for wet two-body abrasive wear.

  5. An experimental modeling and acoustic emission monitoring of abrasive wear in a steel/diabase pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchuganov, M. A.; Filippov, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Podgornyh, O. A.; Shamarin, N. N.; Filippova, E. O.

    2016-11-01

    The earthmoving of permafrost soil is a critical task for excavation of minerals and construction on new territories. Failure by abrasive wear is the main reason for excavation parts of earthmoving and soil cutting machines. Therefore investigation of this type of wear is a challenge for developing efficient and wear resistant working parts. This paper is focused on conducting tribological experiments with sliding the steel samples over the surface of diabase stone sample where abrasive wear conditions of soil cutting are modeled experimentally. The worn surfaces of all samples have been examined and transfer of metal and stone particles revealed. The acoustic emission (AE) signals have been recorded and related to the results of worn surface analysis. he acoustic emission (AE) signals have been recorded and related to the results of worn surface analysis. As shown the wear intensity correlates to that of acoustic emission. Both acoustic emission signal median frequency and energy are found to be sensitive to the wear mode.

  6. Estimation of the abrasive wear coefficient in Lillehei-Kaster cardiac valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Reif, T H; Silver, M D; Koppenhoefer, H; Huffstutler, M C

    1986-01-01

    An approximate hemodynamic theory, which predicts the opening dynamics of the Lillehei-Kaster heart valve, is used in conjunction with an abrasive wear model to predict the wear process on the shields. The hemodynamic theory predicts markedly different opening dynamics between the mitral and aortic positions and is shown to give excellent correlation with the experimental results of other investigations. The abrasive wear model is also shown to give excellent correlation with the experiments of others when the abrasive wear coefficient is taken as k = 6.4 X 10(-6). The theoretical results of this effort and the experimental data from clinical explants of other investigators is used to predict that occluder dislodgement is unlikely in less than 90 yr for either the mitral or aortic positions (for a mean cardiac output of 3.8 l.min-1 and a mean heart rate of 70 beats min-1).

  7. Susceptibility of acid-softened enamel to mechanical wear--ultrasonication versus toothbrushing abrasion.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, A; Wegehaupt, F; Werner, C; Attin, T

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the amounts of softened enamel removable by ultrasonication and by toothbrushing abrasion of briefly eroded samples. Thirty bovine enamel samples were demineralized in hydrochloric acid (pH 2.1) for 60 s and were then either brushed with 350 brushing strokes in toothpaste slurry (group A) or distilled water (group B) or were ultrasonicated for 120 s (group C). Enamel loss was measured after 10, 20, 50 and then after every 50 brushing strokes or after 5, 30, 60 and 120 s ultrasonication. Samples were indented with a Knoop diamond after erosion, and enamel loss due to abrasion or wear was calculated from the change in indentation depth after mechanical treatment. Within- and between-group comparisons were performed by ANOVA or t test. Initially, enamel loss increased with increasing brushing treatment or ultrasonication time. Enamel loss did not increase after 300 brushing strokes in group A (534 +/- 169 nm) or 250 brushing strokes in group B (423 +/- 80 nm), or after 60 s ultrasonication (231 +/- 72 nm). Enamel loss was significantly higher in groups A and B than in group C. The results confirm that ultrasonication removes only the outer, more highly demineralized part of the softened enamel layer. Results also indicate that toothbrushing abrasion removes more softened enamel from briefly eroded enamel than ultrasonication, and therefore probably removes partly demineralized enamel from the deeper part of the softened layer. In vivo, excessive toothbrushing might remove the softened enamel layer almost completely.

  8. Abrasive Wear Behaviour of COPPER-SiC and COPPER-SiO2 Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umale, Tejas; Singh, Amarjit; Reddy, Y.; Khatitrkar, R. K.; Sapate, S. G.

    The present paper reports abrasive wear behaviour of copper matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide and silica particles. Copper - SiC (12%) and Copper-SiO2 (9%) composites were prepared by powder metallurgical technique. Metallography, image analysis and hardness studies were carried out on copper composites. The abrasive wear experiments were carried out using pin on disc apparatus. The effect of sliding distance and load was studied on Copper - SiC (12%) and Copper-SiO2 (9%) composites. The abrasive wear volume loss increased with sliding distance in both the composites although the magnitude of increase was different in each case. Copper - SiC (12%) composites exhibited relatively better abrasion resistance as compared to and Copper-SiO2 (9%) composites. The abraded surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope to study the morphology of abraded surfaces and operating wear mechanism. The analysis of wear debris particles was also carried out to substantiate the findings of the investigation.

  9. Microstructural effects in abrasive wear: Final report for period September 15, 1981--March 14, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kosel, T.H.

    1988-03-08

    This report summarizes research performed on abrasion of metallic alloys. The work was designed to improve our understanding of the factors affecting abrasion rates in two-phase alloys containing large, hard second-phase particles (SPPs) such as carbides, since this class of alloys generally has very high abrasion resistance owing to the presence of such carbides. The project was divided into sections dealing with material removal in the carbide and matrix phases. The materials studied included Stellite and high Cr-Mo white cast irons and a set of specially prepared model alloys containing one of six types of artificial SPPs dispersed in a sintered matrix of pure Cu. Scratch tests were employed to simulate abrasion mechanisms, and specially designed scratch test systems were fabricated to permit scratch testing in-situ in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and to permit scratches to be made at fixed depths of cut rather than fixed loads. Three types of abrasion tests were employed; a dry-sand rubber wheel abrasion test; a low-speed ''gouging'' abrasion test employing a special low-speed Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ grinding wheel; and a pin-on-disc abrasion test using abrasive paper. Abrasive type and size was varied in the rubber wheel and the pin-on-disc tests. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Rig for testing the relative wear resistance of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Berdikov, V.F.; Diulin, A.I.; Efimchuk, V.P.; Pushkarev, O.I.; Finogenov, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have developed a simple and compact rig for studying the relative wear resistance of materials subjected to mechanical abrasion and friction. The rig has an electronic control system. It was used to test the relative wear resistance of a wide range of superhard and brittle materials under mechanical abrasion against a counterbody. The counterbody was made of modified iron and the test medium was a diamond suspension in oil. The results showed that specimen wear exhibits a linear relationship with abrasion time (in the range of 0.5-20 min.) at unit pressure from 0.01 to 0.10 MPa. That a standard wear pattern exists within a wide range of parameters indicates that abrasive conditions are highly stable and makes it possible to control conditions. The rig was used to establish the relative wear resistance of several abrasives, minerals, and refractory compounds. The very large difference (15.2 times) between the most and least-resistant materials (tungsten carbide and fluoride) illustrates the sensitivity of the methodology.

  11. Influence of toothbrushing on enamel softening and abrasive wear of eroded bovine enamel: an in situ study.

    PubMed

    Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Machado, Maria Aparecida De Andrade Moreira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the surface softening and abrasive wear of eroded bovine enamel with or without the influence of toothbrushing. Five volunteers took part in this in situ study of 5 days. They wore acrylic palatal appliances containing 6 bovine enamel blocks divided in two rows with 3 blocks, which corresponded to the studied groups: erosion without toothbrushing (GI) and erosion with toothbrushing (GII). The blocks were subjected to erosion by immersion of the appliances in a cola drink for 10 minutes, 4 times a day. After that, no treatment was performed in one row (GI), whereas the other row was brushed (GII). The appliance was then replaced into the mouth. Enamel alterations were determined using profilometry and microhardness tests. Data were tested using paired Students t test (p < 0.05). The mean wear values (microm) and percentage of superficial microhardness change (%SMHC) were respectively: GI--2.77 +/- 1.21/91.61 +/- 3.68 and GII--3.80 +/- 0.91/58.77 +/- 11.47. There was a significant difference in wear (p = 0.001) and %SMHC (p = 0.001) between the groups. It was concluded that the wear was more pronounced when associated to toothbrushing abrasion. However, toothbrushing promoted less %SMHC due to the removal of the altered superficial enamel layer.

  12. Is bovine dentine an appropriate substitute for human dentine in erosion/abrasion tests?

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, F; Gries, D; Wiegand, A; Attin, T

    2008-05-01

    The study aimed to compare the dentine wear of primary and permanent human and bovine teeth because of erosion/abrasion and evaluate if bovine dentine is an appropriate substitute for human dentine in further erosion/abrasions tests. Dentine samples from deciduous molars and human third molars as well as from calves' and cattle's lower incisors were prepared and baseline surface profiles were recorded. Each day all samples were demineralized in 1% citric acid, tooth brushed with 100 brushing strokes with toothpaste slurry and stored in artificial saliva for the rest of the day. This cycle was run for 20 days. Afterwards, new surface profiles were recorded and dentine wear was calculated by a customized computer program. Dentine wear because of erosion/abrasion was not statistically, significantly different for human third molars and cattle's lower incisors (P = 0.7002). The dentine wear because of erosion/abrasion of deciduous molars and calves' lower incisors was significantly different (P < 0.0000). No statistically significant difference in the dentine wear of human third molars and cattle's lower incisors was observed, so that the use of cattle's lower incisors as substitute for adult human teeth for further investigations in erosion/abrasion studies could be accepted.

  13. Abrasive wear of high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) superalloy coatings under vibration load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandeva, M.; Ivanova, B.; Karastoyanov, D.; Grozdanova, T.; Assenova, E.

    2017-02-01

    The present paper considers wear of coatings deposited by HVOF (High velocity oxy-fuel) technology, under conditions of dry friction against abrasive surface accompanied with the action of vibrations perpendicular to the sliding axis. Results are obtained with four type coatings: two types with Ni matrix of composition 602P – without preliminary heating of the basic surface (the substrate) and after substrate heating up to 650°C in a chamber; coating WC-12Co with tungsten matrix and coating obtained by 1:1 proportion powder mixture of both compositions 602P and WC-12Co. Results about the thickness, hardness and coating’ morphology are presented, as well as dependences of the wear and the relative wear resistance on vibration speeds in the interval 3.03 to 21.08 mm/s. New results are obtained about the nonlinear relationship between abrasive wear and vibration speed showing minimal wear for all specimens by 6.04 mm/s. It is found that lowest wear shows WC-12Co coating in the entire interval of vibration speed variation: 3.03 to 21.08 mm/s. The obtained results are new in the literature; they are not presented and published by the authors.

  14. Liquid abrasive pressure pot scoping tests report

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The primary initiatives of the LITCO Decontamination Development group at the Idaho Chemical Process Plant (ICPP) are the development of methods to eliminate the use of sodium bearing decontamination chemicals and minimization of the amount of secondary waste generated during decontamination activities. In July of 1994, a Commerce Business Daily (CBD) announcement was issued by the INEL to determine commercial interest in the development of an in-situ liquid abrasive grit blasting system. As a result of the CBD announcement, Klieber & Schulz issued an Expression of Interest letter which stated they would be interested in testing a prototype Liquid Abrasive Pressure Pot (LAPP). LITCO`s Decontamination group and Kleiber & Schulz entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) in which the Decontamination Development group tested the prototype LAPP in a non-radioactive hot cell mockup. Test results are provided.

  15. Three-Body Abrasion Testing Using Lunar Dust Simulants to Evaluate Surface System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Budinski, Kenneth G.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Klaus, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous unexpected operational issues relating to the abrasive nature of lunar dust, such as scratched visors and spacesuit pressure seal leaks, were encountered during the Apollo missions. To avoid reoccurrence of these unexpected detrimental equipment problems on future missions to the Moon, a series of two- and three-body abrasion tests were developed and conducted in order to begin rigorously characterizing the effect of lunar dust abrasiveness on candidate surface system materials. Two-body scratch tests were initially performed to examine fundamental interactions of a single particle on a flat surface. These simple and robust tests were used to establish standardized measurement techniques for quantifying controlled volumetric wear. Subsequent efforts described in the paper involved three-body abrasion testing designed to be more representative of actual lunar interactions. For these tests, a new tribotester was developed to expose samples to a variety of industrial abrasives and lunar simulants. The work discussed in this paper describes the three-body hardware setup consisting of a rotating rubber wheel that applies a load on a specimen as a loose abrasive is fed into the system. The test methodology is based on ASTM International (ASTM) B611, except it does not mix water with the abrasive. All tests were run under identical conditions. Abraded material specimens included poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), hardened 1045 steel, 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and 1018 steel. Abrasives included lunar mare simulant JSC- 1A-F (nominal size distribution), sieved JSC-1A-F (<25 m particle diameter), lunar highland simulant NU-LHT-2M, alumina (average diameter of 50 m used per ASTM G76), and silica (50/70 mesh used per ASTM G65). The measured mass loss from each specimen was converted using standard densities to determine total wear volume in cm3. Abrasion was dominated by the alumina and the simulants were only similar to the silica (i.e., sand) on the softer materials of

  16. Microstructure and abrasive wear of cobalt-based laser coatings

    SciTech Connect

    de Mol van Otterloo, J.L.; De Hosson, J.T.M.

    1997-01-15

    Cobalt-based alloys are used as wear-resistant materials for hardfacing cheap steel substrates. A substantial enhancement in mechanical properties of cobalt-based superalloys is attributed to the martensitic fcc {yields} hcp phase transformation. Alloying elements can be classified as phase modifiers (Ni and Fe stabilize fcc whereas W and Cr stabilize hcp), solid-solution strengtheners (W and Mo), which affect only the matrix, and elements that form carbides (Cr-rich M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, M = metal). Of the different depositing techniques such as plasma spray, tungsten inert gas, oxyacetylene flame and laser cladding, the latter delivers coatings with a low dilution with the substrate material and no pores. Moreover, the laser cladding process has the advantage of being well controllable. This paper reports on the deposition of five different cobalt-based Stellite alloys on steel substrates by laser cladding.

  17. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were badly abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub -layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This Paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, and shares the results and conclusions of the testing.

  18. The effect of daily fluoride mouth rinsing on enamel erosive/abrasive wear in situ.

    PubMed

    Stenhagen, K R; Hove, L H; Holme, B; Tveit, A B

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether application of fluoride agents on enamel results in lasting resistance to erosive/abrasive wear. We investigated if one daily mouth rinse with sodium fluoride (NaF), stannous fluoride (SnF(2)) or titanium tetrafluoride (TiF(4)) solutions protected enamel against erosive/abrasive wear in situ (a paired, randomised and blind study). Sixteen molars were cut into 4 specimens, each with one amalgam filling (measurement reference surface). Two teeth (2 × 4 specimens) were mounted bilaterally (buccal aspects) on acrylic mandibular appliances and worn for 9 days by 8 volunteers. Every morning, the specimens were brushed manually with water (30 s) extra-orally. Then fluoride solutions (0.4% SnF(2) pH 2.5; 0.15% TiF(4) pH 2.1; 0.2% NaF pH 6.5, all 0.05 M F) were applied (2 min). Three of the specimens from each tooth got different treatment, and the fourth served as control. At midday, the specimens were etched for 2 min in 300 ml fresh 0.01 M hydrochloric acid and rinsed in tap water. This etch procedure was repeated in the afternoon. Topographic measurements were performed by a white-light interferometer. Mean surface loss (±SD) for 16 teeth after 9 days was: SnF(2) 1.8 ± 1.9 µm, TiF(4) 3.1 ± 4.8 µm, NaF 26.3 ± 4.7 µm, control 32.3 ± 4.4 µm. Daily rinse with SnF(2), TiF(4) and NaF resulted in 94, 90 and 18% reduction in enamel erosive/abrasive wear, respectively, compared with control (p < 0.05). The superior protective effect of daily rinse with either stannous or titanium tetrafluoride solutions on erosive/abrasive enamel wear is promising.

  19. Abrasive Wear Failure Analysis of Tungsten Carbide Hard facing on Carbon Steel Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobi, A. L. Mohd; Kamdi, Z.; Ismail, M. I.; Nagentrau, M.; Roslan, L. N. H.; Mohamad, Z.; Omar, A. S.; Latif, N. Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This study investigate the abrasive wear failure of tungsten carbide hardfacing on continuous digester (CD) blade (carbon steel) in an environment of sulphuric acid and ilmenite ore mixture. Comparison being made on the hardness, thickness and microstructural of the hardfacing between unworn and 3 months old worn blade on few locations around the blade. The cross sections of the blade revealed non-uniform coverage of the hardfacing on the blade for both worn and unworn blade. The edge of the blade has the least amount of hardfacing thickness which with time acts as the point of failure during the wear process. The hardness obtained from both the unworn and worn samples are around 25% lower from the hardfacing electrode manufacturer’s hardness specification. Microstructural micrograph analysis of the hardfacing revealed non uniform size carbide with non-uniform distributed of carbide in the hardfacing layer.

  20. Abrasion and erosion testing of materials used in power production from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Tylczak, Joseph H.; Adler, Thomas A.; Rawers, James C.

    2003-09-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of studying abrasive wear, related to mineral testing, handling, and processing. The center has also been instrumental in the design and development of wear test procedures and equipment. Research capabilities at ARC include Pin-on-Drum, Pin-on-Disk, and Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel abrasion tests, Jaw Crusher gouging test, Ball-on-Ball Impact test, and Jet erosion tests. Abrasive and erosive wear studies have been used to develop both new alloys and improved heat treatments of commercial alloys. As part of ARC’s newest iteration on wear testing to evaluate materials for use in new and existing pulverized coal combustion and gasifier power systems, the ARC has designed and constructed a new High Temperature Hostile Atmosphere Erosion Wear Test (HAET). This new piece of test apparatus is designed for erosive particle velocities of 10-40 m/sec and temperatures from room temperature (23°C) to 800+°C, with special control over the gas atmosphere. A variable speed whirling arm design is used to vary the impact energy of the gravity fed erosive particles. The specimens are mounted at the edge of a disk and allow a full range of impingement angles to be selected. An electric furnace heats the specimens in an enclosed retort to the selected temperature. Tests include both oxidizing conditions and reducing conditions. A range of gases, including CO, CO2, CH4, H2, H2S, HCl, N2, O2, and SO2 can be mixed and delivered to the retort. During the erosion testing a stream of abrasive powder is delivered in front of the specimens. This apparatus is designed to use low abrasive fluxes, which simulate real operating conditions in commercial power plants. Currently ~270 μm SiO2 particles are being used to simulate the abrasive impurities typically found in coal. Since operators are always striving for longer lifetimes and higher operating temperatures, this apparatus can help elucidate mechanisms of wastage and identify superior

  1. A critical review of non-carious cervical (wear) lesions and the role of abfraction, erosion, and abrasion.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D W; Shah, P

    2006-04-01

    The terms 'abfraction' and 'abrasion' describe the cause of lesions found along the cervical margins of teeth. Erosion, abrasion, and attrition have all been associated with their formation. Early research suggested that the cause of the V-shaped lesion was excessive horizontal toothbrushing. Abfraction is another possible etiology and involves occlusal stress, producing cervical cracks that predispose the surface to erosion and abrasion. This article critically reviews the literature on abrasion, erosion, and abrasion, and abfraction. The references were obtained by a MEDLINE search in March, 2005, and from this, hand searches were undertaken. From the literature, there is little evidence, apart from laboratory studies, to indicate that abfraction exists other than as a hypothetical component of cervical wear.

  2. Abrasive Wear Behavior of In Situ TiC Reinforced with Al-4.5%Cu Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anand; Jha, P. K.; Mahapatra, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the investigation on weight loss and coefficient of friction of TiC reinforced Al-4.5%Cu in situ metal matrix composites. Experiments were conducted using pin-on-disc apparatus against abrasive paper by varying the applied load, sliding distance, and weight percentage of TiC. The results indicated significant improvement in the mechanical properties and wear resistance of experimental composites as compared to the parent metal matrix. The percentage of porosity though increased with increasing TiC reinforcement. The variation of weight loss of composites increased linearly with increasing applied load and sliding distance, whereas decreased with increasing weight percentage of TiC reinforcement. The coefficient of friction decreased linearly with increasing applied load and TiC reinforcement. SEM micrographs of worn surfaces show a well compacted transfer layer of wear debris along with wear track over the sliding surface. Grooves, delamination, and crack propagation were also observed in all test samples. The effective depth of penetration and size of debris was seen to reduce with increasing wt.% of TiC reinforcement in metal matrix.

  3. Abrasive Wear Behavior of WC Reinforced Ni-BASED Composite Coating Sprayed and Fused by Oxy-Acetylene Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qun; Chen, Zhenhua; Ding, Zhang Xiong; Chen, Ding

    Microstructure of WC reinforced Ni-based self-fluxing alloy composite coating sprayed and fused by oxy-acetylene flame was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The wear performance of the coating was studied by a MLS-225 wet sand rubber wheel abrasive wear tester at various loads and sizes of abrasive particles. Also, the wear resistance of the coating was compared with uncoated ASTM1020 steel. The results indicated that the coating is bonded metallurgically to the substrate and has a homogeneous microstructure composed of both coarse WC and fine carbide and boride grains such as Cr7C3, Cr23C6, and Ni2B which disperse uniformly in the matrix of γ-Ni solid solution and Ni3B. The worn mass loss of the coating and ASTM1020 steel both increased with the load and size of abrasive particles, also, the coating has exhibited excellent abrasive wear resistance compared with ASTM1020 steel.

  4. In Situ Wear Test on Thermal Spray Coatings in a Large Chamber Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Weifeng; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Selvadurai, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the determination of the mass loss is usually used for a quantitative evaluation of wear tests, while the analysis of wear tracks is utilized for a qualitative evaluation of wear. Both evaluation methods can only be used after the wear testing process and their results only present the final outcome of the wear test. However, the changes during the wear test and the time-dependent wear mechanisms are of great interest as well. A running wear test in a large chamber scanning electron microscope (SEM) offers the first opportunity to observe the wear process in situ. Different wear mechanisms, such as the adhesive, abrasive wear, surface fatigue and tribochemical reaction, can be recorded with high magnification. Within this research, a special pin-on-disk testing device is designed for a vacuum environment. Using this device, arc-sprayed NiCrBSi coatings and high-velocity-oxygen-fuel-sprayed WC-12Co coatings were tested in a large chamber SEM with Al2O3 ceramic balls as wear counterparts. During the wear testing, different wear mechanisms were determined and the processes were recorded in short video streams.

  5. Mars Pathfinder Wheel Abrasion Experiment Ground Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Siebert, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sent a mission to the martian surface, called Mars Pathfinder. The mission payload consisted of a lander and a rover. The primary purpose of the mission was demonstrating a novel entry, descent, and landing method that included a heat shield, a parachute, rockets, and a cocoon of giant air bags. Once on the surface, the spacecraft returned temperature measurements near the Martian surface, atmosphere pressure, wind speed measurements, and images from the lander and rover. The rover obtained 16 elemental measurements of rocks and soils, performed soil-mechanics, atmospheric sedimentation measurements, and soil abrasiveness measurements.

  6. Wear of materials - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ludema, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on materials testing to determine wear resistance. Topics considered at the conference included the wear of metals in a magnetic field, ceramics in advanced heat engine applications, wear tests of silicon carbides, microstructure, hardfacing alloys, sliding friction, coated systems, abrasion, erosion, test methods, tribology, stacking fault energy, and adhesion.

  7. A new methodology for hydro-abrasive erosion tests simulating penstock erosive flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumelas, V.; Maj, G.; Le Calvé, P.; Smith, M.; Gambiez, B.; Mourrat, X.

    2016-11-01

    Hydro-abrasive resistance is an important property requirement for hydroelectric power plant penstock coating systems used by EDF. The selection of durable coating systems requires an experimental characterization of coating performance. This can be achieved by performing accelerated and representative laboratory tests. In case of severe erosion induced by a penstock flow, there is no suitable method or standard representative of real erosive flow conditions. The presented study aims at developing a new methodology and an associated laboratory experimental device. The objective of the laboratory apparatus is to subject coated test specimens to wear conditions similar to the ones generated at the penstock lower generatrix in actual flow conditions. Thirteen preselected coating solutions were first been tested during a 45 hours erosion test. A ranking of the thirteen coating solutions was then determined after characterisation. To complete this first evaluation and to determine the wear kinetic of the four best coating solutions, additional erosion tests were conducted with a longer duration of 216 hours. A comparison of this new method with standardized tests and with real service operating flow conditions is also discussed. To complete the final ranking based on hydro-abrasive erosion tests, some trial tests were carried out on penstock samples to check the application method of selected coating systems. The paper gives some perspectives related to erosion test methodologies for materials and coating solutions for hydraulic applications. The developed test method can also be applied in other fields.

  8. Wear of materials 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Ludema, K.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on wear resistance. Topics considered at the conference included erosion in aluminium oxides, abrasive wear tests, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, wear tests of low-cobalt alloys for hardfacing nuclear components, microstructure, the elevated temperature erosion of steels, and steels under cyclic operation in corrosive liquids.

  9. Third-body abrasive wear challenge of 32 mm conventional and 44 mm highly crosslinked polyethylene liners in a hip simulator model.

    PubMed

    Sorimachi, T; Clarke, I C; Williams, P A; Gustafson, A; Yamamoto, K

    2009-07-01

    Hip simulator studies have shown that wear in the polyethylene liners used for total hip replacements increased with the larger-diameter femoral balls and could also be exacerbated by third-body abrasion. However, they also indicated that the more highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXPE) bearings were more wear resistant than conventional polyethylene (CXPE) bearings. Unfortunately the HXPE bearings appeared to be particularly sensitive to adverse wear conditions. One simulator study in particular indicated that poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) debris increased wear sixfold by means of two-body abrasive interactions rather than the supposed third-body abrasion or roughening effects of the Co-Cr surfaces. There has been no confirmation of such novel theories. Therefore the goal of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of large-diameter HXPE bearings to the third-body PMMA wear challenge in a hip simulator model. An orbital hip simulator was used in standard test mode with a physiological load profile. The 32 mm control liners were machined from moulded GUR1050 and gamma irradiated to 35 kGy under nitrogen (CXPE). The 44 mm liners were also from moulded blanks, gamma irradiated to 75 kGy, machined to shape, given a proprietary heat treatment, and sterilized by gas plasma (HXPE). As in the published simulator model, the study was conducted in three phases. In phase 1, all cups were run in standard ('clean') lubricant for 1.5 x 10(6) cycles duration. In phase 2, three CXPE cups and six HXPE cups were run for 2 x 10(6) cycles with a slurry of PMMA particles added to the lubricant. In phase 3, the implants were again run in 'clean' lubricant for 2 x 10(6) cycles duration. In addition, three HXPE cups were run as wear controls for 5.5 x 10(6) cycles duration in clean lubricant. In phase-1, the HXPE liners demonstrated twelvefold reduced wear compared with the CXPE controls. The 32 mm and 44 mm Co-Cr balls were judged of comparable roughnesses. However, the surface

  10. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Muller, Matt T.; Simpson, Lin J.

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.

  11. Effect of experimental parameters on the high-stress abrasive wear behavior of steels and a software package for its prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, R.; Roy, A.; Prasad, B.K.; Yegneswaran, A.H.

    1999-06-01

    The effect of different experimental factors on the high-stress abrasive wear properties of steels has been studied. A correlation among the factors has been established by linear regression analysis. A computer software in Microsoft Basic language utilizing linear regression analysis has been developed with the capability of predicting the wear response of steels from the experimental factors.

  12. Simplified Abrasion Test Methodology for Candidate EVA Glove Lay-Ups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabel, Emily; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, space suit outer-layer fabrics were badly abraded after performing just a few extravehicular activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots that penetrated the outer-layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than 8 hrs of surface operations. Current plans for the exploration planetary space suits require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on a lunar or Martian surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last 40 years and improve on the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo Program. Over the past 25 years the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division has focused on tumble testing as means of simulating wear on the outer layer of the space suit fabric. Most recently, in 2009, testing was performed on 4 different candidate outer layers to gather baseline data for future use in design of planetary space suit outer layers. In support of the High Performance EVA Glove Element of the Next Generation Life Support Project, testing a new configuration was recently attempted in which require 10% of the fabric per replicate of that need in 2009. The smaller fabric samples allowed for reduced per sample cost and flexibility to test small samples from manufacturers without the overhead to have a production run completed. Data collected from this iteration was compared to that taken in 2009 to validate the new test method. In addition the method also evaluated the fabrics and fabric layups used in a prototype thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG) developed for EVA gloves under the NASA High Performance EVA Glove Project. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, results of the validation study, and results of the TMG testing.

  13. Corneal Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... can damage the cornea. This includes dust, sand, wood shavings, hay, sparks, bugs, pieces of paper, and ... prevent a corneal abrasion, make sure to wear protection for your eyes, such as safety goggles or ...

  14. Effects of a Destabilization Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Behavior of High-Chromium White Cast Iron Investigated Using Different Characterization Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasan, Hakan; Erturk, Fatih

    2013-11-01

    The hypoeutectic white cast iron was subjected to various destabilization heat treatment temperatures of 1173 K, 1273 K, and 1373 K (900 °C, 1000 °C, and 1100 °C) for 2 hours. The as-cast and destabilized specimens were characterized by optical metallography, classical direct comparison, and the Rietveld method. The volume fractions of carbides were measured by optical metallography. Moreover, the volume fractions of retained austenite and martensite were measured by the classical direct comparison method. Despite the limitations of optical metallography and the classical direct comparison method, the Rietveld method was successively and accurately applied to determine the volume fractions of all phases. In addition, the Rietveld analysis yielded certain results, such as the crystallographic properties of the phases that can be used to explain the relationship between the microstructural parameters and the wear behavior. Abrasive wear tests with different sliding speeds were carried out on the as-cast and destabilized alloys to identify the effect of microstructural parameters on the wear behavior. The results indicated that the morphologies of secondary carbides, the crystallographic properties of the phases, and the proper combination of the amount of martensite, retained austenite, and carbides were the principle parameters that affect the hardness and wear behavior of the alloy.

  15. Multiple Hollow Cathode Wear Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been baselined for use on the Space Station to reduce station charging. The plasma contactor provides a low impedance connection to space plasma via a plasma produced by an arc discharge. The hollow cathode of the plasma contactor is a refractory metal tube, through which xenon gas flows, which has a disk-shaped plate with a centered orifice at the downstream end of the tube. Within the cathode, arc attachment occurs primarily on a Type S low work function insert that is next to the orifice plate. This low work function insert is used to reduce cathode operating temperatures and energy requirements and, therefore, achieve increased efficiency and longevity. The operating characteristics and lifetime capabilities of this hollow cathode, however, are greatly reduced by oxygen bearing contaminants in the xenon gas. Furthermore, an optimized activation process, where the cathode is heated prior to ignition by an external heater to drive contaminants such as oxygen and moisture from the insert absorbed during exposure to ambient air, is necessary both for cathode longevity and a simplified power processor. In order to achieve the two year (approximately 17,500 hours) continuous operating lifetime requirement for the plasma contactor, a test program was initiated at NASA Lewis Research Center to demonstrate the extended lifetime capabilities of the hollow cathode. To date, xenon hollow cathodes have demonstrated extended lifetimes with one test having operated in excess of 8000 hours in an ongoing test utilizing contamination control protocols developed by Sarver-Verhey. The objectives of this study were to verify the transportability of the contamination control protocols developed by Sarver-Verhey and to evaluate cathode contamination control procedures, activation processes, and cathode-to-cathode dispersions in operating characteristics with time. These were accomplished by conducting a 2000 hour wear test of four hollow

  16. Abrasion Testing of Critical Components of Hydrokinetic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, Monty; Ali, Muhammad; Ravens, Tom

    2013-12-06

    The objective of the Abrasion Testing of Critical Components of Hydrokinetic Devices (Project) was to test critical components of hydrokinetic devices in waters with high levels of suspended sediment – information that is widely applicable to the hydrokinetic industry. Tidal and river sites in Alaska typically have high suspended sediment concentrations. High suspended sediment also occurs in major rivers and estuaries throughout the world and throughout high latitude locations where glacial inputs introduce silt into water bodies. In assessing the vulnerability of technology components to sediment induced abrasion, one of the greatest concerns is the impact that the sediment may have on device components such as bearings and seals, failures of which could lead to both efficiency loss and catastrophic system failures.

  17. Influence of matrix structure on the abrasion wear resistance and toughness of a hot isostatic pressed white iron matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagounis, E.; Lindroos, V. K.; Talvitie, M.

    1996-12-01

    The influence of the matrix structure on the mechanical properties of a hot isostatic pressed (hipped) white iron matrix composite containing 10 vol pct TiC is investigated. The matrix structure was systematically varied by heat treating at different austenitizing temperatures. Various subsequent treatments were also employed. It was found that an austenitizing treatment at higher temperatures increases the hardness, wear resistance, and impact toughness of the composite. Although after every different heat treatment procedure the matrix structure of the composite was predominantly martensitic, with very low contents of retained austenite, some other microstructural features affected the mechanical properties to a great extent. Abrasion resistance and hardness increased with the austenitizing temperature because of the higher carbon content in martensite in the structure of the composite. Optimum impact energy values were obtained with structures containing a low amount of M (M7C3+M23C6) carbides in combination with a decreased carbon content martensite. Structure austenitized at higher temperatures showed the best tempering response. A refrigerating treatment was proven beneficial after austenitizing the composite at the lower temperature. The greatest portion in the increased martensitic transformation in comparison to the unreinforced alloy, which was observed particularly after austenitizing the composite at higher temperatures,[1] was confirmed to be mechanically induced. The tempering cycle might have caused some additional chemically induced transformation. The newly examined iron-based composite was found to have higher wear resistance than the most abrasion-resistant ferroalloy material (white cast iron).

  18. Determining the functional and material properties needed for abrasive wear prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, I.

    2016-08-01

    Abrassive wear is a complex mechanical process with specific characteristics, dependent on the bodies velocities and load, the quality of contact surfaces, the mechanical properties of the superficial layers, lubrication etc. During the friction of the bodies in contact, the mechanical properties and the micro-topography of superficial layers change, most of the time irrecoverable, leading to the shut-down of the technical system they are part of. The present paper proposes a theoretical and experimental analysis of the abrassive wear behaviour of a coupling made of steel/cast iron as well as the detection of the wear trace dependent on the inclination angle of the harder material asperities (penetrator).

  19. Abrasive Wear of Four Direct Restorative Materials by Standard and Whitening Dentifrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    creating cervical lesions and altering tooth surface is an area of interest in the dental community . This has led to the development of a number of...study of root caries : baseline and incidenc data. Journal of Dental Restorations, 64(9), 1141-1144. Barnes, D., Blank, L., Gingell, J., & Gilner, P... Community Dental Oral Epidemiology, 7(1), 57-64. Bull, W. H., Callender, R. M., Pugh, B. R., & Wood, G. D. (1968). The abrasion and cleaning

  20. Role of abrasion and corrosion in grinding media wear. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.J.; Iwasaki, I.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of slurry rheological properties on the erosive wear of grinding media and grinding efficiency (percent minus 325 mesh) have been studied in a laboratory ball mill using minus 10 mesh quartzite. A laboratory procedure was also utilized to evaluate the tendency for the slurry to coat the grinding media. Media wear decreased continuously with increasing percent solids while grinding efficiency was maximized at 60% solids. Slurry percent solids were found to be the critical factor affecting media wear in high percent solids slurries while other factors such as viscosity were more important at lower percent solids. This was demonstrated by the use of a grinding aid in a 70% solids slurry which resulted in only a small increase in wear (44 to 45.6 mg/ball) despite a significant reduction in viscosity (2359 mPa S at 75 rpm). Slurry relative viscosity was found to control the thickness of the slurry coating the balls which was in turn related in a direct linear manner to media wear. In terms of percent minus 325 mesh, the effects of viscosity and ball coating were in agreement with those presented in the literature. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of ball surfaces and visual inspection of the movement of the ball charge both tended to support the theory of grinding in ball mills through nipping more so than attrition.

  1. Wear testing of crosslinked polyethylene: wear rate variability and microbial contamination.

    PubMed

    Brandt, J-M; Vecherya, A; Guenther, L E; Koval, S F; Petrak, M J; Bohm, E R; Wyss, U P

    2014-06-01

    The wear performance of two types of crosslinked polyethylene (Marathon™ and XLK™, DePuy Synthes Inc., Warsaw, IN) was evaluated in a pin-on-disc wear tester, a hip wear simulator, and a knee wear simulator. Sodium azide was used as the microbial inhibitor in the calf serum-based lubricant. In the pin-on-disc wear tester, the Marathon wear rate of 5.33±0.54mm(3)/Mc was significantly lower (p=0.002) than the wear rate of 6.43±0.60mm(3)/Mc for XLK. Inversely, the Marathon wear rate of 15.07±1.03mm(3)/Mc from the hip wear simulator was 2.2-times greater than the XLK wear rate of 6.71±1.03mm(3)/Mc from the knee wear simulator. Differences in implant design, conformity, GUR type, and kinematic test conditions were suggested to account for the difference between the wear rates generated in the different types of wear testing apparati. In all wear tests, sodium azide was ineffective at inhibiting microbial growth in the lubricant. Eight different organisms were identified in the lubricant samples from the wear tests, which suggested the necessity of using an alternative, more effective microbial inhibitor. Careful sample preparation and thorough cleaning has shown to improve the consistency of the wear results. The wear rates generated in the hip and knee wear simulators closely reflected the wear behaviour of Marathon and XLK reported in published data that were tested under similar conditions.

  2. Behavior of HVOF WC-10Co4Cr Coatings with Different Carbide Size in Fine and Coarse Particle Abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabchi, Arash; Varis, Tommi; Turunen, Erja; Suhonen, Tomi; Liu, Xuwen; Hannula, S.-P.

    2010-01-01

    A modified ASTM G 65 rubber wheel test was employed in wet and dry conditions using 220 nm titania particles and 368 μm sand particles, respectively. Both tests were conducted on WC-CoCr coatings produced with two powders with different carbide grain sizes (conventional and sub-micron) to address the effect of carbide size and abrasive medium characteristics on the wear performance. The same spot before and after the wet abrasion wear testing was analyzed in detail using SEM to visualize wear mechanisms. It was shown that the wear mechanism depends on the relative size of the carbide and abrasive particles. Wear mechanisms in dry sand abrasion were studied by analyzing the single scratches formed by individual abrasive particles. Interaction of surface open porosity with moving abrasive particles causes formation of single scratches. By tailoring the carbide size, the wear performance can be improved.

  3. Fatigue Testing of Abrasive Water Jet Cut Titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E.; Williford, Ralph E.

    2009-06-08

    Battelle Memorial Institute as part of its U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830 to operate the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provides technology assistance to qualifying small businesses in association with a Technology Assistance Program (TAP). Qualifying companies are eligible to receive a set quantity of labor associated with specific technical assistance. Having applied for a TAP agreement to assist with fatigue characterization of Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cut titanium specimens, the OMAX Corporation was awarded TAP agreement 09-02. This program was specified to cover dynamic testing and analysis of fatigue specimens cut from titanium alloy Ti-6%Al-4%V via AWJ technologies. In association with the TAP agreement, a best effort agreement was made to characterize fatigue specimens based on test conditions supplied by OMAX.

  4. The increase in cobalt release in metal-on-polyethylene hip bearings in tests with third body abrasives.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Danielle; Traynor, Alison; Collins, Simon N; Shelton, Julia C

    2015-09-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving metal-on-metal hip replacements have been attributed to corrosion products as observed by elevated cobalt and chromium ions in the blood. Although the majority of cases are reported in metal-on-metal, incidences of these reactions have been reported in the metal-on-polyethylene patient population. To date, no in vitro study has considered cobalt release for this bearing combination. This study considered four 28 mm and seven 52 mm diameter metal-on-polyethylene bearings tested following ISO standard hip simulator conditions as well as under established abrasive conditions. These tests showed measurable cobalt in all bearings under standard conditions. Cobalt release, as well as polyethylene wear, increased with diameter, increasing from 52 to 255 ppb. The introduction of bone cement particles into the articulation doubled polyethylene wear and cobalt release while alumina particles produced significant damage on the heads demonstrated by cobalt levels of 70,700 ppb and an increased polyethylene wear from a mean value of 9-160 mm(3)/mc. Cobalt release was indicative of head damage and correlated with polyethylene wear at the next gravimetric interval. The removal of third body particles resulted in continued elevated cobalt levels in the 52 mm diameter bearings tested with alumina compared to standard conditions but the bearings tested with bone cement particles returned to standard levels. The polyethylene wear in the bone cement tested bearings also recovered to standard levels, although the alumina tested bearings continued to wear at a higher rate of 475 mm(3)/mc. Cobalt release was shown to occur in metal-on-polyethylene bearings indicating damage to the metal head resulting in increased polyethylene wear. While large diameter metal-on-polyethylene bearings may provide an increased range of motion and a reduced dislocation risk, increased levels of cobalt are likely to be released and this needs to be fully

  5. The High performance of nanocrystalline CVD diamond coated hip joints in wear simulator test.

    PubMed

    Maru, M M; Amaral, M; Rodrigues, S P; Santos, R; Gouvea, C P; Archanjo, B S; Trommer, R M; Oliveira, F J; Silva, R F; Achete, C A

    2015-09-01

    The superior biotribological performance of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings grown by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was already shown to demonstrate high wear resistance in ball on plate experiments under physiological liquid lubrication. However, tests with a close-to-real approach were missing and this constitutes the aim of the present work. Hip joint wear simulator tests were performed with cups and heads made of silicon nitride coated with NCD of ~10 μm in thickness. Five million testing cycles (Mc) were run, which represent nearly five years of hip joint implant activity in a patient. For the wear analysis, gravimetry, profilometry, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy techniques were used. After 0.5 Mc of wear test, truncation of the protruded regions of the NCD film happened as a result of a fine-scale abrasive wear mechanism, evolving to extensive plateau regions and highly polished surface condition (Ra<10nm). Such surface modification took place without any catastrophic features as cracking, grain pullouts or delamination of the coatings. A steady state volumetric wear rate of 0.02 mm(3)/Mc, equivalent to a linear wear of 0.27 μm/Mc favorably compares with the best performance reported in the literature for the fourth generation alumina ceramic (0.05 mm(3)/Mc). Also, squeaking, quite common phenomenon in hard-on-hard systems, was absent in the present all-NCD system.

  6. Wear of nanofilled dental composites in a newly-developed in vitro testing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C.

    Purpose. In vivo wear of dental composites can lead to loss of individual tooth function and the need to replace a composite restoration. To evaluate the wear performance of new and existing dental composites, we developed a novel system for measuring in vitro wear and we used this system to analyze the mechanisms of wear of nanofilled composite materials. Methods. A modified wear testing device was designed based on the Alabama wear testing machine. The new device consists of: (1) an antagonist which is lowered to and raised from the composite specimen by weight loading, (2) a motorized stage to cause the antagonist to slide 2mm on the composite surface, and (3) pumps for applying lubricant to the specimens. Various testing parameters of the device were examined before testing, including the impulse force, the third-body medium, the lubricant and antagonist. The parameters chosen for this study were 20N at 1Hz with a 33% glycerine lubricant and stainless steel antagonist. Three nano-composites were fabricated with a BisGMA polymer matrix and 40nm SiO2 filler particles at three filler loads (25%, 50% and 65%). The mechanical properties of the composites were measured. The materials were then tested in the modified wear testing device under impact wear, sliding wear and a combination of impact and sliding wear. The worn surfaces were then analyzed with a non-contact profilometer and SEM. Results. The volumetric wear data indicated that increasing filler content beyond 25% decreased the wear resistance of the composites. Increasing filler content increased hardness and decreased toughness. SEM evaluation of the worn specimens indicated that the 25% filled materials failed by fatigue and the 50% and 65% filled materials failed by abrasive wear. Impact wear produced fretting in this device and sliding wear is more aggressive than impact wear. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study and previous studies on this topic, manufacturers are recommended to use a filler

  7. Solidification structure and abrasion resistance of high chromium white irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Laird, G.

    1997-06-01

    Superior abrasive wear resistance, combined with relatively low production costs, makes high Cr white cast irons (WCIs) particularly attractive for applications in the grinding, milling, and pumping apparatus used to process hard materials. Hypoeutectic, eutectic, and hypereutectic cast iron compositions, containing either 15 or 26 wt pct chromium, were studied with respect to the macrostructural transitions of the castings, solidification paths, and resulting microstructures when poured with varying superheats. Completely equiaxed macrostructures were produced in thick section castings with slightly hypereutectic compositions. High-stress abrasive wear tests were then performed on the various alloys to examine the influence of both macrostructure and microstructure on wear resistance. Results indicated that the alloys with a primarily austenitic matrix had a higher abrasion resistance than similar alloys with a pearlitic/bainitic matrix. Improvement in abrasion resistance was partially attributed to the ability of the austenite to transform to martensite at the wear surface during the abrasion process.

  8. The Impact of Retained Austenite Characteristics on the Two-Body Abrasive Wear Behavior of Ultrahigh Strength Bainitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanaswamy, Balaji; Hodgson, Peter; Timokhina, Ilana; Beladi, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    In the current study, a high-carbon, high-alloy steel (0.79 pct C, 1.5 pct Si, 1.98 pct Mn, 0.98 pct Cr, 0.24 pct Mo, 1.06 pct Al, and 1.58 pct Co in wt pct) was subjected to an isothermal bainitic transformation at a temperature range of 473 K to 623 K (200 °C to 350 °C), resulting in different fully bainitic microstructures consisting of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite. With a decrease in the transformation temperature, the microstructure was significantly refined from ~300 nm at 623 K (350 °C) to less than 60 nm at 473 K (200 °C), forming nanostructured bainitic microstructure. In addition, the morphology of retained austenite was progressively altered from film + blocky to an exclusive film morphology with a decrease in the temperature. This resulted in an enhanced wear resistance in nanobainitic microstructures formed at low transformation temperature, e.g., 473 K (200 °C). Meanwhile, it gradually deteriorated with an increase in the phase transformation temperature. This was mostly attributed to the retained austenite characteristics ( i.e., thin film vs blocky), which significantly altered their mechanical stability. The presence of blocky retained austenite at high transformation temperature, e.g., 623 K (350 °C) resulted in an early onset of TRIPing phenomenon during abrasion. This led to the formation of coarse martensite with irregular morphology, which is more vulnerable to crack initiation and propagation than that of martensite formed from the thin film austenite, e.g., 473 K (200 °C). This resulted in a pronounced material loss for the fully bainitic microstructures transformed at high temperature, e.g., 623 K (350 °C), leading to distinct sub-surface layer and friction coefficient curve characteristics. A comparison of the abrasive behavior of the fully bainitic microstructure formed at 623 K (350 °C) and fully pearlitic microstructure demonstrated a detrimental effect of blocky retained austenite with low mechanical stability on

  9. Comprehensive study of the abrasive wear and slurry erosion behavior of an expanded system of high chromium cast iron and microstructural modification for enhanced wear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Reinaldo Javier

    High chromium cast irons (HCCIs) have been demonstrated to be an effective material for a wide range of applications in aggressive environments, where resistances to abrasion, erosion and erosion-corrosion are required. For instance, machinery and facilities used in mining and extraction in Alberta's oil sands suffer from erosion and erosion-corrosion caused by silica-containing slurries, which create challenges for the reliability and maintenance of slurry pumping systems as well as other processing and handling equipment. Considerable efforts have been made to determine and understand the relationship between microstructural features of the HCCIs and their wear performance, in order to guide the material selection and development for specific service conditions with optimal performance. The focus was previously put on a narrow group of compositions dictated by ASTM A532. However, with recent advances in casting technology, the HCCI compositional range can be significantly expanded, which potentially brings new alloys that can be superior to those which are currently employed. This work consists of three main aspects of study. The first one is the investigation of an expanded system of white irons with their composition ranging from 1 to 6 wt.% C and 5 to 45 wt.% Cr, covering 53 alloys. This work has generated wear and corrosion maps and established correlation between the performance and microstructural features for the alloys. The work was conducted in collaboration with the Materials Development Center of Weir Minerals in Australia, and the results have been collected in a database that is used by the company to guide materials selection for slurry pump components in Alberta oil sands and in other mining operations throughout the world. The second part consists of three case studies on effects of high chromium and high carbon, respectively, on the performance of the HCCIs. The third aspect is the development of an approach to enhance the wear resistance of

  10. Assessment of Abrasive Wear of Nanostructured WC-Co and Fe-Based Coatings Applied by HP-HVOF, Flame, and Wire Arc Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, C. R. C.; Libardi, R.; Camargo, F.; Fals, H. C.; Ferraresi, V. A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal spray processes have been widely used to minimize losses caused by wear mechanisms. Sprayed deposits using conventional wire and powder materials have been long solving tribological problems in engineering equipment. More recently, the option for new different technologies and consumables like nanostructured powder materials and nanocomposite cored wires have expanded the possibilities for technical solutions. Cored wire technology allows the use of compositions that cannot be drawn into wire form like carbides in metallic matrix and high-temperature materials, thus, intensifying the use of spraying processes with low operating cost to demanding wear and corrosion applications. The objective of this work was to study the mechanical characteristics and wear performance of coatings obtained by Flame, Wire Arc, and HVOF spraying using selected nanostructured WC10Co4Cr, WC12Co, and Fe-based 140 MXC powder and wire materials. Abrasive wear performance of the coatings was determinate following the ASTM G-65 standard. Based on the results, a higher abrasive wear resistance was found for the HVOF-sprayed WC10Co4Cr nanostructured coating.

  11. Vuilleumier Cooler Wear Rate Test Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    such combination would be a silicon carbide or chromium silicide rider sliding against a hardcoated Inconel 718 liner. If rider wear is excessive, the...rupture energy These properties are related to experimental parameters that are easily measured. The elastic energy potential of a material is...ultimate strength. It is only necessary to realize that these bulk material properties depend on test conditions such as deformation rate and temperature

  12. Wear resistant alloys for coal handling equipment. Final technical report, October 1, 1977-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, W.M.; Parker, E.R.; Misra, A.; Finnie, I.

    1981-01-01

    In the progress report for 1977-1979, an extensive literature survey was completed in the areas of abrasive wear mechanisms, wear testing and microstructural effects on abrasive wear. Definitions of the various abrasive wear processes were clarified. A laboratory wear tester capable of simulating high stress two-body abrasive wear and low stress three-body wear was designed, constructed and calibrated. Experiments were run on some standard metals and alloys in the annealed, work hardened, and heat treated conditions under both two-body and three-body wear. In the 1979 to 1980 period, a detailed analysis of the abrasive size effect was performed based on the observations made on two- and three-body abrasion and erosion. It was concluded that the size effect was due to a shallow surface layer exhibiting higher flow stress than the bulk material when the material is abraded or eroded. The effect of certain variables on the wear resistance of different pure metals was compared for two-body abrasion, three-body abrasion and erosion. The variables studied are annealed hardness of the worn metal, the increase in hardness of the worn metal before the wear process due to work hardening and heat treatment, applied load, distance travelled, the abrasive particle size and abrasive hardness. The effect of most of these variables is similar for the three different wear processes. The existing low-stress, open three-body abrasive wear tester was modified and calibrated for testing abrasive wear up to 600/sup 0/C. Some standard materials were tested and in the case of pure aluminum it was found that the wear rate decreased with increase in temperature.

  13. How have wear testing and joint simulator studies helped to discriminate among materials and designs?

    PubMed

    McKellop, Harry A; D'Lima, Darryl

    2008-01-01

    Historically, hip joint simulators most often have been used to model wear of a bearing surface against a bearing surface. These simulators have provided highly accurate predictions of the in vivo wear of a broad spectrum of bearing materials, including cross-linked polyethylenes, metal-on-metal, ceramic-on-ceramic, and others in development. In recent years, more severe conditions have been successfully modeled, including jogging, stair climbing, ball-cup micro separation, third-body abrasion, and neck-socket impingement. These tests have served to identify improved materials and to eliminate some with inadequate wear resistance prior to their clinical use. Simulation of the knee joint is inherently more complex than it is for the hip. It is more difficult to compare the results of laboratory tests with actual clinical performance, due to the lack of accurate in vivo measures of wear. Nevertheless, knee simulators, based on force control or motion control, have successfully reproduced the type of surface damage that occurs in vivo (eg, burnishing, scratching, pitting) as well as the size and shapes of the resultant wear particles. Knee simulators have been used to compare molded versus machined polyethylene components, highly cross-linked polyethylenes, fixed versus mobile bearings, and oxidized zirconia and other materials, under optimal conditions as well as more severe wear modes, such as malalignment, higher loading and activity levels, and third-body roughening.

  14. A level set methodology for predicting the effect of mask wear on surface evolution of features in abrasive jet micro-machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzynski, T.; Papini, M.

    2012-07-01

    A previous implementation of narrow-band level set methodology developed by the authors was extended to allow for the modelling of mask erosive wear in abrasive jet micro-machining (AJM). The model permits the prediction of the surface evolution of both the mask and the target simultaneously, by representing them as a hybrid and continuous mask-target surface. The model also accounts for the change in abrasive mass flux incident to both the target surface and, for the first time, the eroding mask edge, that is brought about by the presence of the mask edge itself. The predictions of the channel surface and eroded mask profiles were compared with measurements on channels machined in both glass and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) targets at both normal and oblique incidence, using tempered steel and elastomeric masks. A much better agreement between the predicted and measured profiles was found when mask wear was taken into account. Mask wear generally resulted in wider and deeper glass target profiles and wider PMMA target profiles, respectively, when compared to cases where no mask wear was present. This work has important implications for the AJM of complex MEMS and microfluidic devices that require longer machining times.

  15. Polymer wear and its control

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in polymer (P) tribology are discussed in reviews and reports based on contributions to a symposium held by the Division of Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering of the Americal Chemical Society in St. Louis in spring 1984. Topics examined are mechanisms of P wear, controls of P wear, the tribological behavior of Ps, wear of biomaterials and P composites, characterization and measurements of P wear, and degradation and wear of polymeric films and filaments. Consideration is given to the fracture and surface energetics of P wear, fatigue-abrasive mechanisms of P wear, plasma modification of P surfaces, the wear characteristics of articular cartilage, the role of fillers in the wear of high-density polyethylene, the tribology of fiber-reinforced polyimides sliding against steel and Si3N4, laboratory and in-service wear tests of Ps, and the effect of degree of crystallinity on wear of poly(ethylene terephthalate).

  16. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  17. Influence of a corrosive-abrasive medium on the wear resistance of 12Kh18N10T steel with surface hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Golubets, V.M.; Kozub, V.V.; Shchuiko, Ya.V.; Pashechko, M.I.

    1987-11-01

    The authors study the wear and corrosion resistance of 12Kh18N10T steel after diffusion boriding, electrospark alloying, and combined hardening in a corrosive abrasive medium consisting of 50 percent sand and 3 percent NaCl with hydrochloric acid added to obtain a pH of 1. Metallographic analysis revealed a 40-micrometer-deep case with a microhardness of 6-8.5 GPa on the surface. X-ray diffraction established that the boride case consists of an FeB phase alloyed with chromium and nickel. Results are graphed.

  18. Abrasive Endoprosthetic Wear Particles Inhibit IFN-γ Secretion in Human Monocytes Via Upregulating TNF-α-Induced miR-29b.

    PubMed

    Bu, Yan-Min; Zheng, De-Zhi; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The adverse biological responses to prostheses wear particles commonly led to the failure of total hip arthroplasty. Among the released cytokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been found to be a critical functional factor during osteoclast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of IFN-γ in wear particles-induced cells still needs to be determined. Four kinds of abrasive endoprosthetic wear particle were used to treat THP-1 cells, including polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), zirconiumoxide (ZrO2), commercially pure titanium (cpTi), and titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-7Nb), with a concentration of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg/ml for 48 h. The expression of IFN-γ and miR-29b was detected by real-time RT-PCR or ELISA. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the regulation of miR-29b on IFN-γ. The effect of miR-29b inhibitor on the expression of wear particle-induced IFN-γ was detected. The expression of miR-29b was examined in THP-1 cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The expression of IFN-γ was downregulated and the level of miR-29b was increased in THP-1 cells pretreated with wear particles. IFN-γ was a target of miR-29b. Wear particles inhibited the expression of IFN-γ through miR-29b. The expression of miR-29b was significantly reduced in THP-1 cells treated with TNF-α neutralizing antibody and particles comparing to that in the cells treated with particles alone. Wear particles inhibit the IFN-γ secretion in human monocytes, which was associated with the upregulating TNF-α-induced miR-29b.

  19. Wear Testing of Moving Components in Ultra-High Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Arnelia; McAlister, T.; Ellis, R.; Mosleh, M.

    2010-11-01

    Wear and friction in moving parts in an Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) environment is a fundamental challenge in the design of mechanical assemblies in fusion experiments. In a reactor-scale experiment, constraints have been placed on the material choices and mechanical motions within the system due to their vacuum environment. Wear and friction only serve to complicate these constraints. Textured surfaces, bonded lubricants, and vacuum compatible greases have shown promise as possible means of reducing friction and wear. We have designed a machine for testing wear in a UHV environment, at room temperature, and elevated temperatures. This poster describes the design of the wear test machine and its operating parameters. We have presented an outline of the material test program along with a discussion of the pros and cons of anti-friction and anti-wear treatments.

  20. Influence of Al2O3 Particle Size on Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Abrasive Wear Behavior of Flame-Sprayed and Remelted NiCrBSi Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, K. A.; Cano, D. L.; Caudet, C. T.; Damra, M. S.; Cervera, I.; Bellés, J.; Ortells, P.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of micrometric alumina (low surface area-to-volume ratio) and nanometric alumina (high surface area-to-volume ratio) on microstructure, hardness and abrasive wear of a NiCrBSi hardfacing alloy coating applied to an AISI 304 substrate using flame spraying (FS) combined with surface flame melting (SFM) is studied. Remelting after spraying improved the mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings. Microstructural characterization using XRD, SEM and EDS indicated that alumina additions produced similar phases (NiSi, Ni3B, CrC and Ni31Si12) regardless of the alumina size, but the phases differed in morphology, size distribution and relative proportions from one coating to another. The addition of 12 wt.% nanometric Al2O3 increased the phases concentration more than five- to sixfold and reduced the hard phases size about four-to threefold compared with NiCrBSi + 12 wt.% micrometric Al2O3. Nanoalumina led to reduced mass loss during abrasive wear compared to micrometric alumina and greater improvement in hardness.

  1. Wear resistance properties of austempered ductile iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Y. S.; Kingsbury, G. R.

    1998-02-01

    A detailed review of wear resistance properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI) was undertaken to examine the potential applications of this material for wear parts, as an alternative to steels, alloyed and white irons, bronzes, and other competitive materials. Two modes of wear were studied: adhesive (frictional) dry sliding and abrasive wear. In the rotating dry sliding tests, wear behavior of the base material (a stationary block) was considered in relationship to countersurface (steel shaft) wear. In this wear mode, the wear rate of ADI was only one-fourth that of pearlitic ductile iron (DI) grade 100-70-03; the wear rates of aluminum bronze and leaded-tin bronze, respectively, were 3.7 and 3.3 times greater than that of ADI. Only quenched DI with a fully martensitic matrix slightly outperformed ADI. No significant difference was observed in the wear of steel shafts running against ADI and quenched DI. The excellent wear performance of ADI and its countersurface, combined with their relatively low friction coefficient, indicate potential for dry sliding wear applications. In the abrasive wear mode, the wear rate of ADI was comparable to that of alloyed hardened AISI 4340 steel, and approximately one-half that of hardened medium-carbon AISI 1050 steel and of white and alloyed cast irons. The excellent wear resistance of ADI may be attributed to the strain-affected transformation of high-carbon austenite to martensite that takes place in the surface layer during the wear tests.

  2. Wear testing of materials and surfaces for total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Walker, P S; Blunn, G W; Lilley, P A

    1996-01-01

    A simple wear test was investigated for evaluating the wear and damage of material pairs when used in total knee replacement. The test consisted of an axially loaded metallic femoral indentor and a reciprocating ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) flat disk that represented the tibial component. A number of variables were studied including the effect of conformity by varying the radii of the femoral surface, distilled water or serum as a lubricant, different femoral materials, and different types of UHMWPE. In general, the different morphologies of the surface wear of the UHMWPE were similar to those seen on retrieved total knee replacements. Increased conformity with a cylindrical indentor gave a reduced wear rate initially, compared with that of the lower conformity spherical indentor. However, the wear rates were similar subsequent to this initial wearing in phase. Transfer films of UHMWPE were observed on the cobalt-chrome indentors for both serum and distilled water lubrication, although this film was more extensive for distilled water. The lowest wear rate was observed when oxidized zirconium was used on the femoral side, which was attributed to greater wettability, surface hardness, and immunity to oxidative wear. Tests using cobalt-chrome femoral cylinders and different grades of UHMWPE showed different wear rates. Of these PEs, GUR 415 showed less wear than both RCH 1000 and UHMWPE containing numerous fusion defects. For the latter, wear was attributed to a fatigue mechanism, although in most cases it was associated with surface phenomena rather than subsurface cracking. However, in some specimens of UHMWPE subsurface crack propagations occurred with defects. The test method is discussed in relation to its applicability to the evaluation and comparison of bearing materials and surfaces, with particular application to total knee replacements.

  3. Wear resistance of quenched and tempered AISI 4137H steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumuluru, Murali D.

    1986-02-01

    Abrasive wear resistance of quenched and tempered AISI 4137H steel was studied using the dry sand/rubber wheel test. The variables studied included hardness, tempering temperature, and cleanliness of the steel. The effect of sulfide inclusions on the relative wear performance of the steel was examined. Debris from the wear tests was analyzed using SEM and sieve analysis. The effects of steel cleanliness and sulfide inclusion shape on abrasion resistance are explained in terms of the relative ease for chip formation and its subsequent detachability during the abrasion process.

  4. Assessment of the abrasion potential of pesticide-treated seeds using the Heubach test

    PubMed Central

    Zwertvaegher, Ingrid K. A.; Foqué, Dieter; Devarrewaere, Wouter; Verboven, Pieter; Nuyttens, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During sowing of pesticide-treated seeds, pesticide-laden dust and abraded seed particles may be emitted to the environment, possibly leading to environmental contamination and posing health risks. In many countries there is currently no legislation concerning the acceptable amount of dust of treated seeds. This study aimed to gain insight in the abrasion potential of available pesticide-treated seeds and its associated factors. The abrasion potential of 45 seed samples of 7 different species (viz. sugar beet, oat, barley, wheat, spelt, pea, and maize) was determined using the Heubach test and amounts of dust were expressed as g 100 kgseeds −1, g 100,000 seeds−1, and g ha−1. The abrasion potential fell generally within the boundaries of maximum permissible values adopted by different countries. Species, seed treatment company, number of active ingredient (AIs) and combination of AIs had significant effects on the abrasion potential, whereas little or no effect of agitation and conservation was found. However, species were situated differently with respect to each other depending on the unit in which the abrasion potential was expressed. A standard unit that takes into account the species’ seed rate is suggested to give the fairest assessment of dust drift risk and would allow international comparison. PMID:27812241

  5. Assessment of the abrasion potential of pesticide-treated seeds using the Heubach test.

    PubMed

    Zwertvaegher, Ingrid K A; Foqué, Dieter; Devarrewaere, Wouter; Verboven, Pieter; Nuyttens, David

    2016-10-01

    During sowing of pesticide-treated seeds, pesticide-laden dust and abraded seed particles may be emitted to the environment, possibly leading to environmental contamination and posing health risks. In many countries there is currently no legislation concerning the acceptable amount of dust of treated seeds. This study aimed to gain insight in the abrasion potential of available pesticide-treated seeds and its associated factors. The abrasion potential of 45 seed samples of 7 different species (viz. sugar beet, oat, barley, wheat, spelt, pea, and maize) was determined using the Heubach test and amounts of dust were expressed as g 100 kgseeds(-1), g 100,000 seeds(-1), and g ha(-1). The abrasion potential fell generally within the boundaries of maximum permissible values adopted by different countries. Species, seed treatment company, number of active ingredient (AIs) and combination of AIs had significant effects on the abrasion potential, whereas little or no effect of agitation and conservation was found. However, species were situated differently with respect to each other depending on the unit in which the abrasion potential was expressed. A standard unit that takes into account the species' seed rate is suggested to give the fairest assessment of dust drift risk and would allow international comparison.

  6. Design and wear testing of a temporomandibular joint prosthesis articulation.

    PubMed

    van Loon, J P; Verkerke, G J; de Vries, M P; de Bont, L G

    2000-02-01

    As part of the development of a total temporomandibular joint prosthesis, a prosthesis articulation was designed. The articulation consists of a spherical head (ball) of the mandibular part, rotating against an enveloping ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disc with a flat cranial side, which slides along the opposing skull part. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro wear rate of the articulation, and to predict the in vivo wear rate from the results. Based on a disc thickness of 5 mm and a ball diameter of 8 mm, the stresses within the disc were calculated by means of a finite element computer model. The wear rate of the ball-disc articulation was determined by in vitro wear tests, with a stainless-steel ball rotating against a UHMWPE disc in a serum-based lubricant. Eight discs were tested for seven million cycles each. The in vitro wear rate of the disc-skull part articulation was calculated from the test results of the ball-disc articulation. The maximum Von Mises' stress was less than the yield strength of UHMWPE and, therefore, was sufficiently low. The in vitro wear rate of the ball-disc articulation was 0.47 mm3 per million cycles. The in vivo expected total wear rate is 0.65 mm3 per year, corresponding with a yearly decrease of disc thickness of 0.0094 mm. Although it is difficult to judge whether this wear rate is sufficiently low, because the influence of UHMWPE wear particles in the TMJ region is unknown, both the expected wear rate and the decrease of thickness appear to be acceptable.

  7. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  12. CR TKA UHMWPE Wear Tested after Artificial Aging of the Vitamin E Treated Gliding Component by Simulating Daily Patient Activities

    PubMed Central

    Schwiesau, Jens; Fritz, Bernhard; Kutzner, Ines; Bergmann, Georg; Grupp, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The wear behaviour of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is dominated by two wear mechanisms: the abrasive wear and the delamination of the gliding components, where the second is strongly linked to aging processes and stress concentration in the material. The addition of vitamin E to the bulk material is a potential way to reduce the aging processes. This study evaluates the wear behaviour and delamination susceptibility of the gliding components of a vitamin E blended, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) cruciate retaining (CR) total knee arthroplasty. Daily activities such as level walking, ascending and descending stairs, bending of the knee, and sitting and rising from a chair were simulated with a data set received from an instrumented knee prosthesis. After 5 million test cycles no structural failure of the gliding components was observed. The wear rate was with 5.62 ± 0.53 mg/million cycles falling within the limit of previous reports for established wear test methods. PMID:25506594

  13. Influence of Corrosion on the Abrasion of Cutter Steels Used in TBM Tunnelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espallargas, N.; Jakobsen, P. D.; Langmaack, L.; Macias, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abrasion on tunnel boring machine (TBM) cutters may be critical in terms of project duration and costs. Several researchers are currently studying the degradation of TBM cutter tools used for excavating hard rock, soft ground and loose soil. So far, the primary focus of this research has been directed towards abrasive wear. Abrasive wear is a very common process in TBM excavation, but with a view to the environment in which the tools are working, corrosion may also exert an influence. This paper presents a selection of techniques that can be used to evaluate the influence of corrosion on abrasion on TBM excavation tools. It also presents the influence of corrosion on abrasive wear for some initial tests, with constant steel and geomaterial and varying properties of the excavation fluids (soil conditioners, anti-abrasion additives and water). The results indicate that the chloride content in the water media greatly influences the amount of wear, providing evidence of the influence of corrosion on the abrasion of the cutting tools. The presence of conditioning additives tailored to specific rock or soil conditions reduces wear. However, when chloride is present in the water, the additives minimise wear rates but fail to suppress corrosion of the cutting tools.

  14. The biochemical characteristics of wear testing lubricants affect polyethylene wear in orthopaedic pin-on-disc testing.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Leah E; Turgeon, Thomas R; Bohm, Eric R; Brandt, Jan-M

    2015-01-01

    Lubricant protein concentration is known to affect crosslinked polyethylene wear in in vitro testing; however, the biochemical nature of these lubricants may also have a significant effect on wear and dictate its clinical relevance. A modified approach to pin-on-disc testing was implemented to explore the effect of four biochemically different lubricants on the wear of two types of crosslinked polyethylene materials (XLK™ and Marathon™; DePuy Synthes, Warsaw, IN, USA). XLK was associated with higher wear rates than Marathon. In comparison to lubricants containing deionized water, lubricants containing phosphate buffered saline solution and hyaluronic acid increased osmolality by up to 1.2 times and thermal stability by up to 1.4 times. This biochemical change reduced wear by up to 12.5 times. Wear rates for XLK and Marathon differed by a factor of 3.2 using lubricants with phosphate buffered saline solution as the dilutive media, but only 2.0 for lubricants with deionized water. Interestingly, varying the concentration of hyaluronic acid did not have a significant effect on wear, and differences between XLK and Marathon wear rates were not found to be statistically significant when hyaluronic acid was added to the lubricant. The findings of this study showed that increasing the osmolality and thermal stability of lubricants to more clinical levels decreased wear; however, the effect of hyaluronic acid on wear may not be apparent in simplistic pin-on-disc testing. It was suggested that phosphate buffered saline solution be used as the dilutive media of choice in order to better differentiate the ranking of materials while maintaining some clinical relevance.

  15. Abrasive Properties of Test and Training Site Soils: Relative Hardness of Fine Particle Fraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    scales and mea- and examined for striations by incident light micro- surement techniques are reviewed by Sarkar (1980), scopy. Rabinowicz (1965...wear of cordage more likely approaches three- bor 1954, Howell et al. 1959, Rabinowicz 1965, body wear, as described by Rabinowicz (1965). Sarkar 1980...CONCLUSIONS Friction in Textiles. New York: Textile Book Publish- ers (Interscience). Soil specimens from several test and training Rabinowicz , E

  16. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Abrasion of mechanical components and fabrics by soil on Earth is typically minimized by the effects of atmosphere and water. Potentially abrasive particles lose sharp and pointed geometrical features through erosion. In environments where such erosion does not exist, such as the vacuum of the Moon, particles retain sharp geometries associated with fracturing of their parent particles by micrometeorite impacts. The relationship between hardness of the abrasive and that of the material being abraded is well understood, such that the abrasive ability of a material can be estimated as a function of the ratio of the hardness of the two interacting materials. Knowing the abrasive nature of an environment (abrasive)/construction material is crucial to designing durable equipment for use in such surroundings. The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement; in some cases, considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for de tailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness par ameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Further - more, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized

  17. Cryogenically treated gin saw wear test-Second season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the second year of comparative testing of crygenically treated gin saws versus standard gin saws. Paired sets of standard and experimental saws were installed in Lummus saw gin stands that were operated side by side during the 2015/2016 ginning season. Test criteria will include saw wear e...

  18. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width as currently defined by the ASTM G 171 Standard. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement, in some cases considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for detailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness parameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Data are presented to show that different combinations of scratch tips and abraded materials can actually yield the same scratch width, but result in different volume displacement or removal measurements and therefore, the ZOI method is more discriminating than the ASTM method scratch width. Furthermore, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for our specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized manner, and not just by scratch width alone, is reinforced. This benefit is made apparent when a tip creates an intricate contour having multiple peaks and valleys within a single scratch. This work lays the foundation for updating scratch measurement standards to improve modeling and characterization of three-body abrasion test results.

  19. An experiment system for testing synergetic erosion caused by sand abrasion and cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, L.; Liu, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhu, L.; Xu, H. Q.; Meng, X. C.; Yu, J. C.; Ma, S. P.; Wang, K.

    2014-03-01

    An advanced comprehensive test system, designed for testing synergetic erosion due to cavitation and sand abrasion in hydraulic machinery, is presented in this paper. This system includes an integrated test rig, control platform, and state-of-the-art measurement etc. For the integrated test system, there are three test modes, Venturi-section water tunnel, rotating disc and rotating disc with jet nozzle. The maximum velocity is 45 m/s for Venturi-section water tunnel test mode, and 85 m/s for rotating disc test mode. The pressure range for those two test modes can be regulated within -0.09 MPa~0.6 MPa. The highest flow relative velocity is 120 m/s for rotating disc with jet nozzle test mode. All key parameters measured from the test rig, such as flow discharge, pressure, sand concentration, temperature etc, can be displayed online and processed in the control platform. This new test system provides researchers with the possibility to measure cavitation erosion, sand abrasion and the synergetic damage in hydraulic machinery. Further, flow visualization analysis, weight loss measurements and erosion outline measurements are available using the system.

  20. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Task 7, Extended wear testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wakenell, J.F.; Fritz, S.G.; Schwalb, J.A.

    1991-07-01

    Over the past several years, interest has arisen in the development of coal-fired diesel engines for the purpose of efficiently utilizing the extensive coal reserves in the United States, and therefore reducing dependence on foreign oil. One process, which is being considered for use in producing clean coal fuel products involves mild gasification. This process produces by-products which can be further refined and, when blended with neat diesel fuel, used as an engine fuel. The purpose of this task was to test a blend of this coal liquid and diesel fuel (referred to as coal-lite) in an engine, and determine if any detrimental results were observed. This was done by performing a back-to-back performance and emission test of neat diesel fuel and the coal-lite fuel, followed by a 500-hour test of the coal-lite fuel, and completed by a back-to-back performance and emission test of the coal-lite fuel and neat diesel fuel.

  1. Testing of a Fiber Optic Wear, Erosion and Regression Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the physical processes and harsh environments associated with erosion and wear in propulsion environments makes their measurement and real-time rate quantification difficult. A fiber optic sensor capable of determining the wear (regression, erosion, ablation) associated with these environments has been developed and tested in a number of different applications to validate the technique. The sensor consists of two fiber optics that have differing attenuation coefficients and transmit light to detectors. The ratio of the two measured intensities can be correlated to the lengths of the fiber optic lines, and if the fibers and the host parent material in which they are embedded wear at the same rate the remaining length of fiber provides a real-time measure of the wear process. Testing in several disparate situations has been performed, with the data exhibiting excellent qualitative agreement with the theoretical description of the process and when a separate calibrated regression measurement is available good quantitative agreement is obtained as well. The light collected by the fibers can also be used to optically obtain the spectra and measure the internal temperature of the wear layer.

  2. Wear behavior of austenite containing plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Christina E.

    As a follow up to Wolfram's Master of Science thesis, samples from the prior work were further investigated. Samples from four steel alloys were selected for investigation, namely AR400F, 9260, Hadfield, and 301 Stainless steels. AR400F is martensitic while the Hadfield and 301 stainless steels are austenitic. The 9260 exhibited a variety of hardness levels and retained austenite contents, achieved by heat treatments, including quench and tempering (Q&T) and quench and partitioning (Q&P). Samples worn by three wear tests, namely Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel (DSRW), impeller tumbler impact abrasion, and Bond abrasion, were examined by optical profilometry. The wear behaviors observed in topography maps were compared to the same in scanning electron microscopy micrographs and both were used to characterize the wear surfaces. Optical profilometry showed that the scratching abrasion present on the wear surface transitioned to gouging abrasion as impact conditions increased (i.e. from DSRW to impeller to Bond abrasion). Optical profilometry roughness measurements were also compared to sample hardness as well as normalized volume loss (NVL) results for each of the three wear tests. The steels displayed a relationship between roughness measurements and observed wear rates for all three categories of wear testing. Nanoindentation was used to investigate local hardness changes adjacent to the wear surface. DSRW samples generally did not exhibit significant work hardening. The austenitic materials exhibited significant hardening under the high impact conditions of the Bond abrasion wear test. Hardening in the Q&P materials was less pronounced. The Q&T microstructures also demonstrated some hardening. Scratch testing was performed on samples at three different loads, as a more systematic approach to determining the scratching abrasion behavior. Wear rates and scratch hardness were calculated from scratch testing results. Certain similarities between wear behavior in scratch testing

  3. Wear behavior of pressable lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhongxiao; Izzat Abdul Rahman, Muhammad; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Ling

    2016-07-01

    This article reports effects of surface preparation and contact loads on abrasive wear properties of highly aesthetic and high-strength pressable lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LDGC). Abrasive wear testing was performed using a pin-on-disk device in which LDGC disks prepared with different surface finishes were against alumina pins at different contact loads. Coefficients of friction and wear volumes were measured as functions of initial surface finishes and contact loads. Wear-induced surface morphology changes in both LDGC disks and alumina pins were characterized using three-dimensional laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that initial surface finishes of LDGC specimens and contact loads significantly affected the friction coefficients, wear volumes and wear-induced surface roughness changes of the material. Both wear volumes and friction coefficients of LDGC increased as the load increased while surface roughness effects were complicated. For rough LDGC surfaces, three-body wear was dominant while for fine LDGC surfaces, two-body abrasive wear played a key role. Delamination, plastic deformation, and brittle fracture were observed on worn LDGC surfaces. The adhesion of LDGC matrix materials to alumina pins was also discovered. This research has advanced our understanding of the abrasive wear behavior of LDGC and will provide guidelines for better utilization and preparation of the material for long-term success in dental restorations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 968-978, 2016.

  4. Wear Behaviour of Pressible Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhongxiao; Rahman, Muhammad Izzat Abdul; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports effects of surface preparation and contact loads on abrasive wear properties of highly aesthetic and high-strength pressible lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LDGC). Abrasive wear testing was performed using a pin-on-disk device in which LDGC disks prepared with different surface finishes were against alumina pins at different contact loads. Coefficients of friction and wear volumes were measured as functions of initial surface finishes and contact loads. Wear-induced surface morphology changes in both LDGC disks and alumina pins were characterized using 3D laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results show that initial surface finishes of LDGC specimens and contact loads significantly affected the friction coefficients, wear volumes and wear-induced surface roughness changes of the material. Both wear volumes and friction coefficients of LDGC increased as the load increased while surface roughness effects were complicated. For rough LDGC surfaces, three-body wear was dominant while for fine LDGC surfaces, two-body abrasive wear played a key role. Delamination, plastic deformation and brittle fracture were observed on worn LDGC surfaces. The adhesion of LDGC matrix materials to alumina pins was also discovered. This research has advanced our understanding of the abrasive wear behaviour of LDGC and will provide guidelines for better utilisation and preparation of the material for long-term success in dental restorations. PMID:25980530

  5. Abrasive wear under multiscratching of polystyrene + single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites. Effect of sliding direction and modification by ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez, M. D.; Carrión, F. J.; Espejo, C.; Martínez-López, E.; Sanes, J.

    2011-08-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (NTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes modified (NTms) by the room-temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl, 3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([OMIM]BF 4) were added in a 1 wt.% to polystyrene (PS) and processed by compression or injection moulding to obtain PS + NT and PS + NTm, respectively. Friction coefficients and abrasive wear from penetration depth, residual depth and viscoelastic recovery were determined under multiple scratching. The effect of the moulding process, the additives and the sliding direction was studied. Compression moulded PS shows a transition to more severe damage after a critical number of successive passes. Addition of NTs or NTms to compression moulded PS induces a strain hardening effect and reduces friction, residual depth and viscoelastic recovery. Strain hardening is also observed in injection moulded PS with sliding in the longitudinal and random directions, but not in the transverse direction. The scratch resistance of PS + NTm depends on sliding direction. The lowest friction coefficient and residual depth values, and the highest viscoelastic recovery were found for injection moulded PS + NTm, in the sliding direction parallel to injection flow. Mechanisms of surface damage are discussed upon scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-field emission scanning electron microscopy (FIB-FESEM), 3D surface topography, surface roughness and profilometry observations.

  6. Tribology: Wear test selection for design and application

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, A.W.; Bayer, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    One important area of concern that has not been covered in previous symposia by the ASTM's Committee on Wear and Erosion is the connection between laboratory testing and actual operating performance of systems or components. This connection between laboratory testing, test results, and final design and performance is a crucial one in the practical application of tribology science and engineering. One of the aims of this symposium was to show by example how successful simulative testing has been accomplished. Specific examples are presented from a number of applications involving different forms of wear, including some from such specialized areas as computer peripherals, engines, and prosthetic devices. An important consideration in all the presentations was the identification of critical use conditions. Nine of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Standardization of a Volumetric Displacement Measurement for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, K. W. Jr.; Kobrick, R. L.; Klaus, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    A limitation has been identified in the existing test standards used for making controlled, two-body abrasion scratch measurements based solely on the width of the resultant score on the surface of the material. A new, more robust method is proposed for analyzing a surface scratch that takes into account the full three-dimensional profile of the displaced material. To accomplish this, a set of four volume- displacement metrics was systematically defined by normalizing the overall surface profile to denote statistically the area of relevance, termed the Zone of Interaction. From this baseline, depth of the trough and height of the plowed material are factored into the overall deformation assessment. Proof-of-concept data were collected and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of this proposed methodology. This technique takes advantage of advanced imaging capabilities that allow resolution of the scratched surface to be quantified in greater detail than was previously achievable. When reviewing existing data analysis techniques for conducting two-body abrasive scratch tests, it was found that the ASTM International Standard G 171 specified a generic metric based only on visually determined scratch width as a way to compare abraded materials. A limitation to this method was identified in that the scratch width is based on optical surface measurements, manually defined by approximating the boundaries, but does not consider the three-dimensional volume of material that was displaced. With large, potentially irregular deformations occurring on softer materials, it becomes unclear where to systematically determine the scratch width. Specifically, surface scratches on different samples may look the same from a top view, resulting in an identical scratch width measurement, but may vary in actual penetration depth and/or plowing deformation. Therefore, two different scratch profiles would be measured as having identical abrasion properties, although they differ

  8. Wear testing and particle characterisation of sequentially crosslinked polyethylene acetabular liners using different femoral head sizes.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Carmen; Fabry, Christian; Middelborg, Lars; Fulda, Gerhard; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2013-08-01

    Larger femoral heads lead to a decreased risk of total hip dislocation and an improved range of motion. However, the larger diameter is associated with increased wear rates. The low wear rates of crosslinked polyethylene opens up the possibility of using larger heads. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the wear of conventional non-crosslinked versus sequentially crosslinked polyethylene liners in combination with different ceramic head sizes (28, 36, 44 mm). Wear testing was performed in a hip simulator according to ISO 14242. Wear particles from the polyethylene liners were characterized after wear testing. The wear measurements revealed a significant increase in the wear of crosslinked polyethylene liners with larger heads. By sequential crosslinking, however, the gravimetric wear using larger heads was reduced to a fractional amount of the wear using conventional polyethylene. Significant differences were observed for particle morphology but not for the number of particles when comparing non-crosslinked and crosslinked polyethylene.

  9. Friction and wear with a single-crystal abrasive grit of silicon carbide in contact with iron base binary alloys in oil: Effects of alloying element and its content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron-base binary alloys (alloying elements were Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh, and W) in contact with a rider of 0.025-millimeter-radius, single-crystal silicon carbide in mineral oil. Results indicate that atomic size and content of alloying element play a dominant role in controlling the abrasive-wear and -friction properties of iron-base binary alloys. The coefficient of friction and groove height (wear volume) general alloy decrease, and the contact pressure increases in solute content. There appears to be very good correlation of the solute to iron atomic radius ratio with the decreasing rate of coefficient of friction, the decreasing rate of groove height (wear volume), and the increasing rate of contact pressure with increasing solute content C. Those rates increase as the solute to iron atomic radius ratio increases from unity.

  10. Resistance of dentin coating materials against abrasion by toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Gando, Iori; Ariyoshi, Meu; Ikeda, Masaomi; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2013-01-01

    Thin-film coating of root dentin surface by all-in-one adhesives has been shown to be an effective option to prevent root surface caries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear resistance against toothbrush abrasion of two all-in-one coating materials; Shield Force (SF) and Hybrid Coat (HC). Bovine dentin surfaces were covered with one of the coating materials; SF or HC. After storage in water for 24 h, the testing surface was subjected to the toothbrush abrasion test up to 50,000 cycles either in water or toothpaste slurry. The remaining thickness of the coating material was measured using SEM. Toothpaste slurry significantly increased rate of tooth brush abrasion of the coating materials. While SF and HC wore at a similar pace under toothbrush abrasion, SF had a thicker coat and could protect dentin longer, up to 50,000 cycles.

  11. The microstructural dependence of wear resistance in austenite containing plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, Preston Charles

    The purpose of this project was to examine the microstructural dependence of wear resistance of various plate steels, with interests in exploring the influence of retained austenite (RA). Materials resistant to abrasive wear are desirable in the industrial areas of agriculture, earth moving, excavation, mining, mineral processing, and transportation. Abrasive wear contributes to significant financial cost associated with wear to the industry. The motivation for the current study was to determine whether it would be beneficial from a wear resistance perspective to produce plate steels with increased amounts of retained austenite. This thesis investigates this motivation through a material matrix containing AR400F, Abrasive (0.21 wt pct C, 1.26 wt pct Mn, 0.21 wt pct Si, 0.15 wt pct Ni, 0.18 wt pct Mo), Armor (0.46 wt pct C, 0.54 wt pct Mn, 0.36 wt pct Si, 1.74 wt pct Ni, 0.31 wt pct Mo), 9260, 301SS, Hadfield, and SAE 4325 steels. The Abrasive, Armor and 9260 steels were heat treated using different methods such as quench and temper, isothermal bainitic hold, and quench and partitioning (Q&P). These heat treatments yielded various microstructures and the test matrix allowed for investigation of steels with similar hardness and varying levels of RA. The wear test methods used consisted of dry sand rubber wheel (DSRW), impeller-tumbler impact-abrasion (impeller), and Bond abrasion wear testing. DSRW and impeller wear resistance was found to increase with hardness and retained austenite levels at certain hardness levels. Some Q&P samples exhibited similar or less wear than the Hadfield steels in DSRW and impeller tests. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of wear surfaces revealed different wear mechanisms for the different wear test methods ranging from micro-plowing, to micro-cutting and to fragmentation.

  12. Experimental testing of total knee replacements with UHMW-PE inserts: impact of severe wear test conditions.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Carmen; Reinders, Joern; Schwiesau, Jens; Paulus, Alexander; Kretzer, Jan Philippe; Grupp, Thomas; Utzschneider, Sandra; Bader, Rainer

    2015-03-01

    Aseptic implant loosening due to inflammatory reactions to wear debris is the main reason for the revision of total knee replacements (TKR). Hence, the decrease in polyethylene wear particle generation from the articulating surfaces is aimed at improving implant design and material. For preclinical testing of new TKR systems standardized wear tests are required. However, these wear tests do not reproduce the entire in vivo situation, since the pattern and amount of wear and subsequent implant failure are underestimated. Therefore, daily activity, kinematics, implant aging and position, third-body-wear and surface properties have to be considered to estimate the wear of implant components in vivo. Hence, severe test conditions are in demand for a better reproduction of the in vivo situation of TKR. In the present article an overview of different experimental wear test scenarios considering clinically relevant polyethylene wear situations using severe test conditions is presented.

  13. Standardization of a Volumetric Displacement Measurement for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    A limitation has been identified in the existing test standards used for making controlled, two-body abrasion scratch measurements based solely on the width of the resultant score on the surface of the material. A new, more robust method is proposed for analyzing a surface scratch that takes into account the full three-dimensional profile of the displaced material. To accomplish this, a set of four volume displacement metrics are systematically defined by normalizing the overall surface profile to statistically denote the area of relevance, termed the Zone of Interaction (ZOI). From this baseline, depth of the trough and height of the ploughed material are factored into the overall deformation assessment. Proof of concept data were collected and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of this proposed methodology. This technique takes advantage of advanced imaging capabilities that now allow resolution of the scratched surface to be quantified in greater detail than was previously achievable. A quantified understanding of fundamental particle-material interaction is critical to anticipating how well components can withstand prolonged use in highly abrasive environments, specifically for our intended applications on the surface of the Moon and other planets or asteroids, as well as in similarly demanding, harsh terrestrial settings

  14. Wear Testing of Moderate Activities of Daily Living Using In Vivo Measured Knee Joint Loading

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Vot, Leo; Gibney, Christian; Nowack, Moritz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W) has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing) produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities. PMID:25811996

  15. Friction and wear in surface micromachined tribological test devices

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.C.; Dugger, M.T.

    1997-08-01

    We report on the design, construction, and initial testing of surface micromachined devices for measuring friction and wear. The devices measure friction coefficients on both horizontal deposited polysilicon surfaces and vertical etched polysilicon surfaces. The contact geometry of the rubbing surfaces is well-defined, and a method is presented for the determination of the normal and frictional forces. Initial observations on test devices which have been dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and devices coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane suggest that the coatings increase the lifetime of the devices and the repeatability of the results.

  16. Wear Testing of the HERMeS Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Gilland, James H.; Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Ahern, Drew M.; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel A.; Hofer, Richard R.; Sekerak, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Hall-Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) thruster is being developed and tested at NASA GRC and NASA JPL through support of the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) as primary propulsion for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). This thruster is advancing the state-of-the-art of Hall-effect thrusters and is intended to serve as a precursor to higher power systems for human interplanetary exploration. A 2000-hour wear test has been initiated at NASA GRC with the HERMeS Technology Demonstration Unit One and three of four test segments have been completed totaling 728 h of operation. This is the first test of a NASA-designed magnetically shielded thruster to extend beyond 300 hr of continuous operation. Trends in performance, component wear, thermal design, plume properties, and back-sputtered deposition are discussed for two wear-test segments of 246 h and 360 h. The first incorporated graphite pole covers in an electrical configuration where cathode was electrically connected to thruster body. The second utilized traditional alumina pole covers with the thruster body floating. It was shown that the magnetic shielding in both configurations completely eliminated erosion of the boron nitride discharge channel but resulted in erosion of the inner pole cover. The volumetric erosion rate of the graphite pole covers was roughly 2/3 that of the alumina pole covers and the thruster exhibited slightly better performance. Buildup of back-sputtered carbon on the BN channel at a rate of roughly 1.5 µm/kh is shown to have negligible impact on the performance.

  17. Investigation of abrasion in Al–MgO metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Muharr em Pul; Çalin, Recep; Gül, Ferhat

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the effects of reinforcement volume fractions on abrasive wear behavior were examined in Al–MgO reinforced metal matrix composites of 5%, 10% and 15% reinforcement – volume ratios produced by melt-stirring. Abrasive wear tests were carried out by 60, 80 and 100 mesh sized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} abrasive papers and pin-on-disc wear test apparatus under 10, 20 and 30 N loads at 0.2 m/s sliding speed. The mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture strength were determined. Subsequent to the wear tests, the microstructures of worn surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscope analyses. While increased MgO reinforcement volume fraction in the composite resulted increased hardness, fracture strength was determined to decrease. Additionally, it was found that increased MgO reinforcement volume fraction in the composite was accompanied with increased wear loss and porosity as well as reinforcement – volume ratio was identified to be significant determinants of abrasive wear behavior.

  18. Wear testing of a DJOA finger prosthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Thomas J

    2010-08-01

    Although the market for replacement of diseased metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints is dominated by single-piece silicone prostheses, several two-piece designs have been implanted. One such is the Digital Joint Operative Arthroplasty (DJOA) which consists of a part-spherical stainless steel metacarpal component which articulates within a matching concave phalangeal component made of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). A DJOA MCP prosthesis was tested using a clinically-validated finger simulator while a second DJOA prosthesis acted as a statically-loaded soak-control. Testing ran to 7.1 million cycles of flexion-extension. It was found that the UHMWPE components, both test and control, gained in weight by a similar amount. Therefore apparently there was no wear of the test components. However, the initial and final surface finish values of the test stainless steel metacarpal head were relatively high. Calculations based on this roughness data, plus recent dynamically-loaded soak data, may explain the apparent lack of wear.

  19. Astronaut Russell Schweickart wears EMU and PLSS for countdown test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 9 prime crew, wears the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) which he will use during his scheduled Apollo 9 extravehicular activity. In addition to the space suit and bubble helmet, the EMU also includes a portable life support system (PLSS) back pack, an Oxygen Purge System (seen atop the PLSS), and a Remote Control Unit on his chest. When this photograph was taken, Schweickart was suited up to participate in an Apollo 9 Countdown Demonstration Test.

  20. In vitro tests of substitute lubricants for wear testing orthopaedic biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Scholes, Susan C; Joyce, Thomas J

    2013-06-01

    Bovine serum is the lubricant recommended by several international standards for the wear testing of orthopaedic biomaterials; however, there are issues over its use due to batch variation, degradation, cost and safety. For these reasons, alternative lubricants were investigated. A 50-station Super-CTPOD (circularly translating pin-on-disc) wear test rig was used, which applied multidirectional motion to ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene test pins rubbing against cobalt chromium discs. Thirteen possible alternative lubricants were tested. The use of soy protein as a lubricant gave statistically higher wear, while soya oil, olive oil, Channel Island milk, whole milk, whey, wheatgerm oil, 11 mg/mL egg white, albumin/globulin mix and albumin/globulin/chondroitin sulphate mix all gave statistically lower wear than bovine serum. The lubricants giving the closest wear results to bovine serum were 20 and 40 mg/mL egg white solutions. A light absorbance assay found that these egg white solutions suffered from a high degradation rate that increased with increasing protein content. While egg white solutions offer the best alternative lubricant to bovine serum due to the wear volumes produced, cost-effectiveness and safety of handling, protein degradation will still occur, leading to the need for regular lubricant replacement. Of the lubricants tested in this study, none were found to be superior to bovine serum.

  1. Corneal Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... help you take these steps: If you wear contact lenses, take them out. Rinse your eye with clean ... doctor may suggest pain medications. If you wear contact lenses, your doctor may tell you not to wear ...

  2. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Task 3, Traditional approaches to wear prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    Contamination of the lube-oil with hard abrasive particles leads to a three-body abrasive wear mechanism that highly accelerates piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-fueled diesel engines. One approach to reducing that wear is to modify the size and orientation of surface asperities on the cylinder to enhance the formation of a hydrodynamic film, and to provide avenues of escape for particles that would otherwise be trapped in the wear zone. Another approach is to introduce additives into the contaminated lube-oil that further enhance hydrodynamic film formation, form chemical films on the wearing surfaces, or form films on the contaminant particles. This work focuses on defining the effects of cylinder liner surface finish, various configurations of slots in the cylinder liner surface, and various additives in the contaminated lube-oil on the wear process. Wear tests were initiated in a bench apparatus using coal-ash contaminated lube-oil to test the various wear configurations. The results of these tests indicate that the formation of a hydrodynamic film between the ring and cylinder specimens is enhanced by increasing surface roughness, and by orienting the surface asperities normal to the direction of ring travel but modifications to the cylinder liner surface did not greatly reduce the wear rate. Additives to the lubricant seemed to have a much more significant effect on wear, with a dispersant additive highly accelerating the wear, while a detergent additive was able to reduce the wear almost to the rate achieved where there was no contaminant.

  3. Influence on the wear resistance of the particle size used in coatings of Alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Guzmán, R.; Ramirez, Z. Y.

    2017-01-01

    In the literature, it is common to find that the size of the particles used in coatings through thermal spraying processes influences the hardness and wear resistance thereof; this project aimed to quantify the importance of this parameter in the adhesive and abrasive wear resistance when aluminium oxide is deposited on a substrate of AISI 1020 steel, through a thermal spraying by flame process. The methodology consisted of: a) morphological characterization of the powder used in the coatings by scanning electron microscopy, b) deposition of coatings, c) testing of adhesive and abrasive wear (ASTM G99-05 Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus and ASTM G65–04 Standard test method for measuring abrasion using dry sand/rubber wheel apparatus), and d) statistical analysis to determine the influence of particle size on wear resistance. The average size of the powder used for coatings was 92, 1690, 8990 and 76790nm. The obtained results allow to identify an inversely proportional behaviour between particle size and wear resistance, in both types of wear (adhesive and abrasive) is shown a logarithmic trend indicating an increase in loss mass during the test as the particle size is also increased and therefore a decrease in wear resistance of the coating.

  4. Inspection of wear particles in oils by using a fuzzy classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamalainen, Jari J.; Enwald, Petri

    1994-11-01

    The reliability of stand-alone machines and larger production units can be improved by automated condition monitoring. Analysis of wear particles in lubricating or hydraulic oils helps diagnosing the wear states of machine parts. This paper presents a computer vision system for automated classification of wear particles. Digitized images from experiments with a bearing test bench, a hydraulic system with an industrial company, and oil samples from different industrial sources were used for algorithm development and testing. The wear particles were divided into four classes indicating different wear mechanisms: cutting wear, fatigue wear, adhesive wear, and abrasive wear. The results showed that the fuzzy K-nearest neighbor classifier utilized gave the same distribution of wear particles as the classification by a human expert.

  5. Monitoring and Testing the Parts Cleaning Stations, Abrasive Blasting Cabinets, and Paint Booths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Tracee M.

    2004-01-01

    I have the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) this summer. One of the EMO's tasks is to make sure the Environmental Management System is implemented to the entire Glenn Research Center (GRC). The Environmental Management System (EMS) is a policy or plan that is oriented toward minimizing an organization's impact to the environment. Our EMS includes the reduction of solid waste regeneration and the reduction of hazardous material use, waste, and pollution. With the Waste Management Team's (WMT) help, the EMS can be implemented throughout the NASA Glenn Research Center. The WMT is responsible for the disposal and managing of waste throughout the GRC. They are also responsible for the management of all chemical waste in the facility. My responsibility is to support the waste management team by performing an inventory on parts cleaning stations, abrasive cabinets, and paint booths through out the entire facility. These booths/stations are used throughout the center and they need to be monitored and tested for hazardous waste and material. My job is to visit each of these booths/stations, take samples of the waste, and analyze the samples.

  6. Dentifrice fluoride and abrasivity interplay on artificial caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Hani M; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    Incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces may be subjected to toothbrushing, potentially leading to remineralization and/or abrasive wear. The interplay of dentifrice abrasivity and fluoride on this process is largely unknown and was investigated on three artificially created lesions with different mineral content/distribution. 120 bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n = 10), resulting from the association of (1) lesion type [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC); carboxymethylcellulose solution (CMC); hydroxyethylcellulose gel (HEC)], (2) slurry abrasive level [low (REA 4/ RDA 69); high (REA 7/RDA 208)], and (3) fluoride concentration [0/275 ppm (14.5 mM) F as NaF]. After lesion creation, specimens were brushed in an automated brushing machine with the test slurries (50 strokes 2×/day). Specimens were kept in artificial saliva in between brushings and overnight. Enamel surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry after lesion creation, 1, 3 and 5 days. Two enamel sections (from baseline and post-brushing areas) were obtained and analyzed microradiographically. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 5%). Brushing with high-abrasive slurry caused more SL than brushing with low-abrasive slurry. For MeC and CMC lesions, fluoride had a protective effect on SL from day 3 on. Furthermore, for MeC and CMC, there was a significant mineral gain in the remaining lesions except when brushed with high-abrasive slurries and 0 ppm F. For HEC, a significant mineral gain took place when low-abrasive slurry was used with fluoride. The tested lesions responded differently to the toothbrushing procedures. Both slurry fluoride content and abrasivity directly impacted SL and mineral gain of enamel caries lesions.

  7. Wear Modalities and Mechanisms of the Mining Non-asbestos Composite Brake Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jiusheng; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Zhencai; Tong, Minming; Lu, Yuhao; Peng, Yuxing

    2013-08-01

    The mining brake material is generally made of composite materials and its wear has important influences on the braking performance of disc brakes. In order to improve the braking reliability of mine hoisters, this paper did some tribological investigations on the mining brake material to reveal its wear modalities and mechanisms. The mining non-asbestos brake shoe and 16Mn steel were selected as braking pairs and tested on a pad-on-disc friction tester. And a SEM was used to observe the worn surface of the brake shoe. It is shown that the non-asbestos brake material has mainly five wear modalities: adhesive wear, abrasive wear, cutting wear, fatigue wear and high heat wear. At the front period of a single braking the wear modality is mainly composed of some light mechanical wear such as abrasive, cutting and point adhesive. With the temperature rising at the back period it transforms to some heavy mechanical wear such as piece adhesive and fatigue. While in several repeated brakings once the surface temperature rises beyond the thermal-decomposition point of the bonding material, the strong destructive high heat wear takes leading roles on the surface. And a phenomenon called friction catastrophe (FC) occurs easily, which as a result causes a braking failure. It is considered that the friction heat has important influences on the wear modalities of the brake material. And the reduction of friction heat must be an effective technical method for decreasing wear and avoiding braking failures.

  8. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    Contamination of the lube-oil with hard abrasive particles leads to a three-body abrasive wear mechanism that highly accelerates piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-fueled diesel engines. One approach to reducing that wear is to modify the size and orientation of surface asperities on the cylinder to enhance the formation of a hydrodynamic film, and to provide avenues of escape for particles that would otherwise be trapped in the wear zone. Another approach is to introduce additives into the contaminated lube-oil that further enhance hydrodynamic film formation, form chemical films on the wearing surfaces, or form films on the contaminant particles. This work focuses on defining the effects of cylinder liner surface finish, various configurations of slots in the cylinder liner surface, and various additives in the contaminated lube-oil on the wear process. Wear tests were initiated in a bench apparatus using coal-ash contaminated lube-oil to test the various wear configurations. The results of these tests indicate that the formation of a hydrodynamic film between the ring and cylinder specimens is enhanced by increasing surface roughness, and by orienting the surface asperities normal to the direction of ring travel but modifications to the cylinder liner surface did not greatly reduce the wear rate. Additives to the lubricant seemed to have a much more significant effect on wear, with a dispersant additive highly accelerating the wear, while a detergent additive was able to reduce the wear almost to the rate achieved where there was no contaminant.

  9. Wear behaviour of epoxy resin filled with hard powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formisano, A.; Boccarusso, L.; Minutolo, F. Capece; Carrino, L.; Durante, M.; Langella, A.

    2016-10-01

    The development of high performance materials based on epoxy resin finds a growing number of applications in which high wear resistance is required. One major drawback in many of these applications is the relatively poor wear resistance of the epoxy resin. Therefore, in order to investigate on the possibility of increasing wear resistance of thermoset polymers filled with hard powders, sliding tests are carried out by means of a pin on disc apparatus. In particular, composite resins, constituted by an epoxy resin filled with different contents and sizes of Silicon Carbide powder, are analyzed; the wear resistance, in terms of volume loss, is measured for different abrasive counterfaces and loads.

  10. A study of coal particle shape and three-body wear: Part 1, Design and development of a new three-body wear testing machine: Part 2, Particle shape and three-body wear

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.N.; Means, K.H.; James, R.; Thompson, T.

    1991-01-01

    Three-body wear involves two surfaces and an intermediate particle trapped between the two surfaces. A machine has been constructed to measure normal and frictional forces due to three-body wear. This machine accurately positions specimens a predetermined distance apart from each other and introduces particles to the interface between the specimens. Different types of specimen combinations have been tested to give a variety of data. Loads that result from the wear test are sampled and stored. Wear coefficients and rates of wear have been calculated for all specimens. (VC)

  11. Corneal Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes a Corneal Abrasion? Your eye has other defenses besides the orbital bone: The eyelids and eyelashes ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  12. Corneal Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... fingernails short, too.Use care when putting in contact lenses. Make sure you clean them properly each day.Don’t sleep in your contact lenses.Trim low-hanging tree branches. Corneal abrasion treatment ...

  13. Polyurethane unicondylar knee prostheses: simulator wear tests and lubrication studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholes, S. C.; Unsworth, A.; Jones, E.

    2007-01-01

    Many materials are used as artificial joint bearing surfaces; these include conventional stainless steel or CoCrMo-on-ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), CoCrMo on itself and alumina-on-alumina. However, these joints have a limited lifespan resulting in failure of the prosthesis and the need for revision surgery. A number of materials have been introduced recently in an attempt to overcome these problems. Polycarbonate urethane (PU) is a compliant material that can be used as an artificial joint bearing surface which has been developed to mimic the natural synovial joint more accurately by promoting fluid film lubrication. Tribological tests were performed on CoCrMo-on-PU unicondylar knee prostheses to assess their performance in vitro. The wear produced by these components was considerably lower than that found for conventional joints. They also exhibited low friction and operated close to full-fluid film lubrication with viscosities of lubricant similar to those found in patients with arthritis. These tests gave encouraging results for the tribological performance of this material couple for use as an alternative bearing combination.

  14. Polyurethane unicondylar knee prostheses: simulator wear tests and lubrication studies.

    PubMed

    Scholes, S C; Unsworth, A; Jones, E

    2007-01-07

    Many materials are used as artificial joint bearing surfaces; these include conventional stainless steel or CoCrMo-on-ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), CoCrMo on itself and alumina-on-alumina. However, these joints have a limited lifespan resulting in failure of the prosthesis and the need for revision surgery. A number of materials have been introduced recently in an attempt to overcome these problems. Polycarbonate urethane (PU) is a compliant material that can be used as an artificial joint bearing surface which has been developed to mimic the natural synovial joint more accurately by promoting fluid film lubrication. Tribological tests were performed on CoCrMo-on-PU unicondylar knee prostheses to assess their performance in vitro. The wear produced by these components was considerably lower than that found for conventional joints. They also exhibited low friction and operated close to full-fluid film lubrication with viscosities of lubricant similar to those found in patients with arthritis. These tests gave encouraging results for the tribological performance of this material couple for use as an alternative bearing combination.

  15. A comparison of the tribological behaviour of Y-TZP in tea and coffee under micro-abrasion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, S.; Stack, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    The micro-abrasion of Y-TZP, a candidate dental restorative material, was investigated in a range of caffeine-containing solutions which included tea and coffee. Additions of sugar and milk were used to test the effects of viscosity and pH on the wear rate. The results indicated a significant increase in wear rate in the various solutions, with some correlation between wear rate and increases in viscosity and this was linked to enhance particle entrainment in the more viscous solutions. The generally lower wear rate in tea compared to coffee was associated with a longer ageing period in this solution before uniform wear was observed. Micro-abrasion maps were used to characterize the differences in performance for the material in the environments studied.

  16. Elucidation of wear mechanisms by ferrographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The use of ferrographic analysis in conjunction with light and scanning electron microscopy is described for the elucidation of wear mechanisms taking place in operating equipment. Example of adhesive wear, abrasive wear, corrosive wear, rolling element fatigue, lubricant breakdown, and other wear modes are illustrated. In addition, the use of magnetic solutions to precipitate nonmagnetic debris from aqueous and nonaqueous fluids is described.

  17. Evaluation of the wear properties of high interstitial stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tylczak, J.H.; Rawers, J.C.; Alman, D.E.

    2007-04-01

    Adding carbon to high nitrogen steels increases interstitial concentrations over what can be obtained with nitrogen addition alone. This can results in an increase in hardness, strength, and wear resistance. The alloys produced for this study were all based on commercially available high-nitrogen Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steel. This study is the first significant wear study of these new high interstitial nitrogen-carbon stainless steel alloys. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk abrasion, dry sand/rubber wheel abrasion, impeller impact, and jet erosion. Increasing interstitial concentration increased strength and hardness and improved wear resistance under all test conditions. The results are discussed in terms of overall interstitial alloy concentration.

  18. Wear tests of polymer composite compressor seal materials in hydrogen environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, K.; Bayliss, R.; Hillman, B.

    1999-07-01

    A high-speed reciprocating wear test rig with moisture control facilities has been further developed for undertaking wear tests in hydrogen environments with moisture content of 1--1,OOO ppmV to evaluate the wear performance of four commercial compressor seal materials. The test results are presented and compared to those obtained in nitrogen environment, where available. It was found that the wear rate and the friction coefficient of sample A increased significantly as moisture content decreased below {approximately}150 ppmV, whilst the other three samples showed much less or no dependence of the wear rates and the friction coefficients upon moisture content. Moreover, at moisture content below {approximately}150 ppmV, significant differences in the wear rate as well as friction coefficients were observed for Sample B in hydrogen and in nitrogen. The tests showed that, for a material for compressor applications, it is vitally important to undertake wear tests in the gas to be compressed and at the appropriate moisture levels to obtain a realistic evaluation of wear performance of the material.

  19. Friction and wear behavior of aluminum and composite airplane skins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Friction and wear behavior was determined for small skin specimens under abrasive loading conditions typical of those occurring on the underside of a transport airplane during emergency belly landing. A test apparatus consisting of a standard belt sander provided the sliding surface. Small test specimens constructed of aluminum, standard graphite-epoxy composite, aramid-epoxy composite, and toughened-resin composites were tested undar a range of pressures, belt velocities, and belt-surface textures. The effects of these test variables on the wear rate and the coefficient of friction are discussed and comparisons are made between the composite materials and aluminum. The effect of fiber orientation in the composite materials on wear rate was also investigated. In addition, tests were performed in which thermocouples were imbedded into the various test specimens to obtain temperature-time histories during abrasion.

  20. A scanning electron-microscopic study of in vitro abrasion of mammalian tooth enamel under compressive loads.

    PubMed

    Maas, M C

    1994-01-01

    Microscopic tooth-wear (microwear) patterns can be an important tool for assessing modes and rates of abrasive tooth wear, but their analysis and interpretation is complicated by the fact that microwear is influenced by many factors. Three of these factors were here tested under conditions of compressive loading: (1) species differences in enamel structure, (2) abrasive particle size and (3) magnitude of force. Teeth of four species (Homo sapiens, Lemur fulvus, Ovis aries and Crocodylus rhombifer) were abraded in vitro using three sizes of abrasive silicon-carbide grit (average diameters 73, 23 and 14 microns), at two loads (50 and 100 kg). Microwear features were assessed by scanning electron microscopy of lightly etched enamel surfaces and epoxy replicas. Microwear pits (length:width < 4:1) were the predominant feature type. Factorial analysis of variance of rank-transformed, feature-area measurements demonstrated that, under conditions of compressive loading, the size of abrasive particles was the primary determinant of microwear size. These results contrast with previous experimental tests of abrasion by predominantly shearing loads, where feature size was influenced by interaction among experimental factors, including the microscopic orientation of enamel crystallites. Although magnitude of compressive force was not a factor in microwear size variation, it may be a critical factor in explaining the presence or absence of microwear on tooth surfaces. The relatively small compressive bite force generated during typical chewing may not consistently produce abrasive pitting. These experiments demonstrate that, as the same abrasive regime can produce both large and small pits, the mechanism by which wear features are formed (i.e. compression or adhesion) cannot be determined from the size of features alone. Nevertheless, the dependence of pit size on abrasive particle size demonstrates that metrical variation in wear features can elucidate important attributes of

  1. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.

    1991-10-01

    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  2. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.

    1991-10-01

    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  3. Wear Test Results of Candidate Materials for the OK-542 Towed Array Handling Machine Level Winder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-29

    were being considered. Unfortunately, these other options, which included thermal spraying , carbide inserts and wear coatings required long lead...applications. these include various wear-resistant coatings, thermal spraying , and the use of special inserts. 4 TM941159 Based on the testing and

  4. Results of a 1000-hour wear test of 30-cm carbon-carbon ion optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Brophy, John R.; Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a 1000-hour wear test intended to determine the erosion resistance and voltage standoff capability of the optics in a relevant environment, i.e. duration testing on an NSTAR-like thruster.

  5. The development of an in vitro test method for predicting the abrasion resistance of textile and metal components of endovascular stent grafts.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tong; Choules, Brian D; Rust, Jon P; King, Martin W

    2014-04-01

    Implantable endovascular stent grafts have become a frequent option for the treatment of abdominal and thoracic aneurysms. Given that such devices are permanent implants, the question of long-term biostability needs to be addressed. This article describes the development of an in vitro stent graft abrasion test method between the graft fabric and metal stent of an endovascular device. Three endpoints were established to determine the abrasion resistance between the fabric and stent surfaces after a predetermined number of abrasion cycles. During initial testing, two types of graft fabric materials, multifilament woven polyester fabric and monofilament woven polyester fabric, and two types of stent materials, laser cut nitinol stents and regular nitinol stent wire, were evaluated under dry and wet conditions. The results have shown that this test method is viable for testing the relative abrasion resistance of the components of endovascular stent grafts. The abrasion resistance of both fabrics was lower in a wet environment compared to being tested dry. Additionally, the multifilament polyester fabric had better abrasion resistance than the monofilament polyester fabric. The laser cut nitinol stent was more aggressive in creating holes and breaking yarns, while the regular nitinol stent wire caused a greater loss in fabric strength.

  6. Development and Testing of Abrasion Resistant Hard Coats For Polymer Film Reflectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Gee, R.; DiGrazia, M.

    2010-10-01

    Reflective polymer film technology can significantly reduce the cost of solar reflectors and installed Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants by both reduced material cost and lower weight. One challenge of polymer reflectors in the CSP environment pertains to contact cleaning methods typically used with glass mirrors. Such contact cleaning methods can scratch the surface of polymer reflectors and thereby reduce specular reflectance. ReflecTech, Inc. (a subsidiary of SkyFuel, Inc.) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to devise and develop an abrasion resistant coating (ARC) suitable for deposition onto polymer based mirror film. A number of candidate ARC products were identified as candidate formulations. Industrial collaborators prepared samples having their ARCs deposited onto ReflecTech Mirror Film pre-laminated to aluminum sheet substrates. Samples were provided for evaluation and subjected to baseline (unweathered) and accelerated exposure conditions and subsequently characterized for abrasion resistance and adhesion. An advanced ARC product has been identified that exhibits outstanding initial abrasion resistance and adhesion to ReflecTech Mirror Film. These properties were also retained after exposure to the various accelerated stress conditions. This material has been successfully manufactured as a 1.5 m wide roll-to-roll construction in a production environment.

  7. The influence of aluminum and carbon on the abrasion resistance of high manganese steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckholz, Samuel August

    Abrasive wear testing of lightweight, austenitic Fe-Mn-Al-C cast steel has been performed in accordance with ASTM G65 using a dry sand, rubber wheel, abrasion testing apparatus. Testing was conducted on a series of Fe-30Mn-XAl-YC-1Si-0.5Mo chemistries containing aluminum levels from 2.9 to 9.5 wt.% and carbon levels from 0.9 to 1.83 wt.%. Solution treated materials having an austenitic microstructure produced the highest wear resistance. Wear resistance decreased with higher aluminum, lower carbon, and higher hardness after age hardening. In the solution treated condition the wear rate was a strong function of the aluminum to carbon ratio and the wear rate increased with a parabolic dependence on the Al/C ratio, which ranged from 1.8 to 10.2. Examination of the surface wear scar revealed a mechanism of plowing during abrasion testing and this method of material removal is sensitive to work hardening rate. Work hardening behavior was determined from tensile tests and also decreased with increasing Al/C ratio and after aging hardening. The loss of wear resistance is related to short range ordering of Al and C in the solution treated materials and kappa-carbide precipitation in age hardened materials and both contribute to planar slip and lower work hardening rates. A high carbon tool steel (W1) and a bainitic low alloy steel (SAE 8620) were also tested for comparison. A lightweight steel containing 6.5 wt.% Al and 1.2 wt.% C has wear resistance comparable to within 5% of the bainitic SAE 8620 steel forging currently used for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle track shoe and this cast Fe-Mn-Al-C steel, at equivalent tensile properties, would be 10% lighter.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Nozzle in Abrasive Water Jet Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, S.; Chandresekaran, M.; Muthuraman, V.; Sathish, S.

    2017-03-01

    Abrasive water jet cutting is one of the most recently developed non-traditional manufacturing technologies. The general nature of flow through the machining, results in rapid wear of the nozzle which decrease the cutting performance. It is well known that the inlet pressure of the abrasive water suspension has main effect on the erosion characteristics of the inner surface of the nozzle. The objective of the project is to analyze the effect of inlet pressure on wall shear and exit kinetic energy. The analysis would be carried out by varying the inlet pressure of the nozzle, so as to obtain optimized process parameters for minimum nozzle wear. The two phase flow analysis would be carried by using computational fluid dynamics tool CFX. The availability of minimized process parameters such as of abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) is limited to water and experimental test can be cost prohibitive.

  9. In vitro wear simulation on the RandomPOD wear testing system as a screening method for bearing materials intended for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Saikko, Vesa

    2014-08-22

    The 16-station RandomPOD wear test system, previously validated for prosthetic hip wear, was used in the simulation of knee wear mechanisms with a ball-on-flat test configuration. This consisted of a CoCr pin with a ground and polished spherical bearing surface (radius 28 mm) against a conventional, gamma-sterilized UHMWPE disk in serum lubrication. The biaxial motion, consisting of x and y translations, and the load was non-cyclic. Relative to the disk, the center of contact wandered within a circle of 10mm diameter, and the average sliding velocity was 15.5mm/s (ranging from 0 to 31 mm/s). The load varied non-cyclically between 0 and 142 N (average 73 N). In the 60-day test with 16 similar wear couples, moderate adhesive wear, the principal wear mechanism of a well-functioning prosthetic knee, dominated. This showed as a burnished, circular wear mark (diameter 13.2mm, area 137 mm(2)). The wear factor was 2.04 ± 0.03 × 10(-6)mm(3)/Nm (mean ± 95 percent confidence limit). For the first time a truly multidirectional, realistic and uniform, large capacity pin-on-disk simulation of knee wear mechanisms was implemented.

  10. Wear resistance of ductile irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Y. S.

    1994-06-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the wear resistance of different grades of ductile iron as alterna-tives to high- tensile- strength alloyed and inoculated gray irons and bronzes for machine- tool and high-pressure hydraulic components. Special test methods were employed to simulate typical conditions of reciprocating sliding wear with and without abrasive- contaminated lubricant for machine and press guideways. Quantitative relationships were established among wear rate, microstructure and micro-hardness of structural constituents, and nodule size of ductile iron. The frictional wear resistance of duc-tile iron as a bearing material was tested with hardened steel shafts using standard test techniques under continuous rotating movement with lubricant. Lubricated sliding wear tests on specimens and compo-nents for hydraulic equipment and apparatus were carried out on a special rig with reciprocating motion, simulating the working conditions in a piston/cylinder unit in a pressure range from 5 to 32 MPa. Rig and field tests on machine- tool components and units and on hydraulic parts have confirmed the test data.

  11. Cryogenically treated gin saw wear test – Third season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw blades in saw gin stands are replaced at regular intervals due to wear and are a significant expense item. Extending the working life of gin saw blades would result in cost savings for gin repair and maintenance. It was reported that the lumber industry uses cryogenic treatment to significantl...

  12. The friction and wear of metals and binary alloys in contact with an abrasive grit of single-crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various metals and iron-base binary alloys (alloying elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh, and W) in contact with single-crystal silicon carbide riders. Results indicate that the coefficient of friction and groove height (corresponding to the wear volume) decrease linearly as the shear strength of the bulk metal increases. The coefficient of friction and groove height generally decrease with an increase in solute content of binary alloys. A separate correlation exists between the solute to iron atomic radius ratio and the decreasing rates of change of coefficient of friction and groove height with increasing solute content. These rates of change are minimum at a solute to iron radius ratio of unity. They increase as the atomic ratio increases or decreases linearly from unity. The correlations indicate that atomic size is an important parameter in controlling friction and wear of alloys.

  13. Testing of Alternative Abrasives for Water-Jet Cutting at C Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Krogstad, Eirik J.

    2013-08-01

    Legacy waste from defense-related activities at the Hanford Site has predominantly been stored in underground tanks, some of which have leaked; others may be at risk to do so. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal is to empty the tanks and transform their contents into more stable waste forms. To do so requires breaking up, and creating a slurry from, solid wastes in the bottoms of the tanks. A technology developed for this purpose is the Mobile Arm Retrieval System. This system is being used at some of the older single shell tanks at C tank farm. As originally planned, access ports for the Mobile Arm Retrieval System were to be cut using a high- pressure water-jet cutter. However, water alone was found to be insufficient to allow effective cutting of the steel-reinforced tank lids, especially when cutting the steel reinforcing bar (“rebar”). The abrasive added in cutting the hole in Tank C-107 was garnet, a complex natural aluminosilicate. The hardness of garnet (Mohs hardness ranging from H 6.5 to 7.5) exceeds that of solids currently in the tanks, and was regarded to be a threat to Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant systems. Olivine, an iron-magnesium silicate that is nearly as hard as garnet (H 6.5 to 7), has been proposed as an alternative to garnet. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory proposed to test pyrite (FeS2), whose hardness is slightly less (H 6 to 6.5) for 1) cutting effectiveness, and 2) propensity to dissolve (or disintegrate by chemical reaction) in chemical conditions similar to those of tank waste solutions. Cutting experiments were conducted using an air abrader system and a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM 1767 Low Alloy Steel), which was used as a surrogate for rebar. The cutting efficacy of pyrite was compared with that of garnet and olivine in identical size fractions. Garnet was found to be most effective in removing steel from the target; olivine and pyrite were less

  14. Assessments of Hollow Cathode Wear in the Xenon Ion Propulsion System (XIPs(c)) by Numerical Analyses and Wear Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The standard approach presently followed by NASA to qualify electric propulsion for the required mission throughput has been based largely on life tests, which can be costly and time consuming. Revised electric propulsion lifequalification approaches are being formulated that combine analytical and/or computational methods with (shorter-duration) wear tests. As a model case, a wear test is being performed at JPL to assess the lifetime of the discharge hollow cathode in the Xenon Ion Propulsion System (XIPS(c)), a 25-cm ion engine developed by L-3 Communications Electron Technologies, Inc. for commercial applications. Wear and plasma data accumulated throughout this life-assessment program are being used to validate the existing 2-D hollow cathode code OrCa2D. We find that the OrCa2D steady-state solution predicts very well the time-averaged plasma data and the keeper voltage after 5500 hrs of operation in high-power mode. When the wave motion that occurs naturally in these devices is accounted for, based on an estimate of the maximum wave amplitude, the molybdenum-keeper erosion profile observed in the XIPS(c) discharge cathode is also reproduced within a factor of two of the observation. When the same model is applied to predict the erosion of a tantalum keeper we find that erosion is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude compared to the molybdenum keeper due the significantly lower sputtering yield of tantalum. A tantalum keeper would therefore allow keeper lifetimes that greatly exceed the present requirements for deep-space robotic missions considered by NASA. Moreover, such large reduction of the erosion renders the largest uncertainties in the models, which are associated with the wave amplitude estimates and the electron transport model, negligible.

  15. Comparative wear tests of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene and cross-linked polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Harsha, A P; Joyce, Tom J

    2013-05-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major concern in hip implant failure. Therefore, recent research work has focussed on wear-resistant materials, one of the most important of which is cross-linked polyethylene. In view of this, the objective of this study was to compare the in vitro wear performance of cross-linked polyethylene to traditional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. In order to mimic appropriate in vivo conditions, a novel high-capacity wear tester called a circularly translating pin-on-disc was used. The results of this in vitro study demonstrated that the wear rate for cross-linked polyethylene was about 80% lower than that of conventional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. This difference closely matches in vivo results reported in the literature for total hip replacements that use the two biopolymers. The in vitro results were also verified against ASTM F732-00 (standard test method for wear testing of polymeric materials for use in total joint prostheses). The 50-station circularly translating pin-on-disc proved to be a reliable device for in vitro wear studies of orthopaedic biopolymers.

  16. Ferrographic analysis of wear debris generated in accelerated rolling element fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Parker, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The types and quantities of wear particles generated during accelerated ball rolling contact fatigue tests were determined. Ball specimens were made of AMS 5749, a corrosion resistant, high-temperature bearing steel. The lubricant was a super-refined naphthenic mineral oil. Conditions included a maximum Hertz stress of 5.215 times 10 to the 9th power Pa and a shaft speed of 10,000 rpm. Four types of wear particles were observed; normal rubbing wear particles, fatigue spall particles, spheres, and friction polymer.

  17. On the mechanism of running-in during wear tests of a babbitt B83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeeva, A. Kh.; Valeev, I. Sh.; Fazlyakhmetov, R. F.; Pshenichnyuk, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    Based on an analysis of changes in the structure of cast babbitt of grade B83 in the process of wear tests and on a comparison of the wear curves of cast babbitt and electroplated coating of the same phase composition, there is proposed a wear mechanism at the running-in stage of B83, which is reduced to the spalling-off of coarse particles of the intermetallic β phase, pressing-in of the cleaved particles into the soft plastic matrix, and the formation of a fairly homogeneous coating uniformly paved by small, hard particles.

  18. Ferrographic analysis of wear debris generated in accelerated rolling element fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Parker, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Ferrographic analysis was used to determine the types and quantities of wear particles generated during accelerated rolling contact fatigue tests. The NASA five-ball rolling contact fatigue tester was used. Ball specimens were made of AMS 5749, a corrosion-resistant high-temperature bearing steel. The lubricant was a super-refined naphthenic mineral oil. Conditions included a maximum Hertz stress of 5.52 billion Pa and a shaft speed of 10,000 rpm. Four types of wear particles were observed: normal rubbing wear particles, fatigue spall particles, spheres, and friction polymer.

  19. Characterization of wear debris generated in accelerated rolling-element fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Parker, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    A ferrographic analysis was used to determine the types and quantities of wear debris generated during accelerated rolling contact fatigue tests. The five-ball rolling contact fatigue tester was used. Ball specimens were made of a corrosion resistant, high-temperature bearing steel. The lubricant was a superrefined naphthenic mineral oil. Conditions included a maximum Hertz stress of 5.52 10 to the 9th power Pa and a shaft speed of 10,000 rpm. Four types of wear debris were observed: (1) normal rubbing wear particles, (2) fatigue microspall particles, (3) spheres, and (4) friction polymer deposits. The characterization of wear debris as a function of time was of limited use in predicting fatigue failures in these accelerated tests.

  20. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 5; Abrasion: Plowing and Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    Chapter 5 discusses abrasion, a common wear phenomenon of great economic importance. It has been estimated that 50% of the wear encountered in industry is due to abrasion. Also, it is the mechanism involved in the finishing of many surfaces. Experiments are described to help in understanding the complex abrasion process and in predicting friction and wear behavior in plowing and/or cutting. These experimental modelings and measurements used a single spherical pin (asperity) and a single wedge pin (asperity). Other two-body and three-body abrasion studies used hard abrasive particles.

  1. The friction and wear of metals and binary alloys in contact with an abrasive grit of single-crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various metals and iron-base binary alloys (alloying elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh and W) in contact with single crystal silicon carbide riders. Results indicate that the friction force in the plowing of metal and the groove height (corresponding to the wear volume of the groove) decrease linearly as the shear strength of the bulk metal increases. The coefficient of friction and groove height generally decrease, and the contact pressure increases with an increase in solute content of binary alloys. There appears to be very good correlation of the solute to iron atomic ratio with the decreasing rate of change of coefficient of friction, the decreasing rate of change of groove height and the increasing rate of change of contact pressure with increasing solute content. These rates of change increase as the solute to iron atomic radius ratio increases or decreases from unity.

  2. Tumbling experiments to test fragmentation and abrasion of rocks from the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, F.; Fluekiger, L.; Cox, S. C.; Beyssac, O.

    2011-12-01

    Detrital cobbles and pebbles were collected from rivers draining the Southern Alps in the South Island of New Zealand. Our objective was to obtain a time-series of abrasion and fragmentation processes, in order to replicate fluvial processes and understand the relative erosion resistance of bedrock lithologies. Lithologies included variably metamorphosed greywacke-sandstone, semischist and schist, reflecting the range of rocks in the hangingwall of the Alpine Fault exhumed by differential uplift, and granite and gneiss in the footwall. Rocks were cut into 3cm cubes, weighed individually and washed in millipore water, then photographed. Experimental sample sets, matching the proportions of rock lithologies observed in the riverbeds, were placed in rectangular 20 litre containers together with 2 litres of fresh rainwater. Containers were rotated in a concrete mixer at 26 revolutions per minute for 2, 4, 12 and 49 hours, with a duplicate geochemical blank sample left for 50 hrs without tumbing. Each set of tumbled material was then extracted, photographed, classified, sorted into size fractions, weighed and saved for further analysis. Samples of sand, silt, rock-contaminated water and suspended sediment were also collected for filtering of suspended sediment, petrography and chemical analysis. Tumbling produced dramatic differences in the behaviour of different rocks, particularly in the relative strength of sandstone, semischist and schist lithologies. Cubes of schist fragmented into tabular pieces and rounded quickly, within two hours, compared with semischist and sandstone which retained cuboid forms and suffered only minor rounding of edges after 49 hours tumbling. Fine-grained material produced as a by-product was dominated by a silt/clay fraction that increased in quantity with tumbling time. Relatively little sand-sized sediment was generated, and its quantity decreased with tumbling time as it was also transformed into finer material. The experiment highlights

  3. Assessment of exposures and potential risks to the US adult population from wear (attrition and abrasion) of gold and ceramic dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Richardson, G Mark; Clemow, Scott R; Peters, Rachel E; James, Kyle J; Siciliano, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Little has been published on the chemical exposures and risks of dental restorative materials other than from dental amalgam and composite resins. Here we provide the first exposure and risk assessment for gold (Au) alloy and ceramic restorative materials. Based on the 2001-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we assessed the exposure of US adults to the components of Au alloy and ceramic dental restorations owing to dental material wear. Silver (Ag) is the most problematic component of Au alloy restorations, owing to a combination of toxicity and proportional composition. It was estimated that adults could possess an average of four tooth surfaces restored with Au alloy before exceeding, on average, the reference exposure level (REL) for Ag. Lithium (Li) is the most problematic component of dental ceramics. It was estimated that adults could possess an average of 15 tooth surfaces restored with ceramics before exceeding the REL for Li. Relative risks of chemical exposures from dental materials decrease in the following order: Amalgam>Au alloys>ceramics>composite resins.

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Flow in Abrasive Water Jet Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, S.; Sathish, S.; Jothi Prakash, V. M.; Gopalakrishnan, T.

    2017-03-01

    Abrasive water jet cutting is one of the most recently developed non-traditional manufacturing technologies. In this machining, the abrasives are mixed with suspended liquid to form semi liquid mixture. The general nature of flow through the machining, results in fleeting wear of the nozzle which decrease the cutting performance. The inlet pressure of the abrasive water suspension has main effect on the major destruction characteristics of the inner surface of the nozzle. The aim of the project is to analyze the effect of inlet pressure on wall shear and exit kinetic energy. The analysis could be carried out by changing the taper angle of the nozzle, so as to obtain optimized process parameters for minimum nozzle wear. The two phase flow analysis would be carried by using computational fluid dynamics tool CFX. It is also used to analyze the flow characteristics of abrasive water jet machining on the inner surface of the nozzle. The availability of optimized process parameters of abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) is limited to water and experimental test can be cost prohibitive. In this case, Computational fluid dynamics analysis would provide better results.

  5. Wear simulation of a sliding system by means of large-scale specimen testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaets, P.

    1994-04-01

    A problem of severe wear occurred at the guidance system of a door of a sea-lock. The sea-water immersed guidance was a linear system with aluminium bronze bearing material on stainless steel rail material. A satisfactory laboratory simulation of the wear behavior of the guidance system was achieved by testing with large test specimens. The materials were tested under different load and speed conditions and different rail surface roughnesses. Technically and economically, improvement of the bearing will have to be realized by choosing a better material combination, as neither speed and load changes nor surface roughness changes offer sufficient improvement.

  6. Corrosive wear principles

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, W.J.

    1993-12-31

    The dual effects of corrosion and wear operate together in such industries as paper and pulp, coal handling, mining, and sugar beet extraction. There is a synergistic effect that causes far greater wastage to carbon steels, alloy steels, and even much more abrasion resistant cast irons. Several laboratory and in situ studies have been conducted to better understand the contributions of corrosion and wear to the wastage process. The environmental conditions are usually set by the process. However, there are a few instances where inhibitors as sodium nitrite, sodium chromate, and sodium metasilicate have been successfully used to reduce metal wastage of carbon steels. Hardness has been found to be an unreliable guide to performance under wet sliding conditions. Heat treated alloy steels and cast irons are inferior to stainless steels. Even distilled water is too severe a corrodent for steels. While the austenitic stainlesses perform the best, cold rolling to increase hardness does not further improve their performance. The surface roughness of stainless steels gets smoother during corrosive wear testing while it gets rougher for the alloy steels. This observation substantiated the reputation of improved slideability for stainless alloys over alloy steels.

  7. Wear and wear mechanism simulation of heavy-duty engine intake valve and seat inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Narasimhan, S.; Larson, J. M.; Schaefer, S. K.

    1998-02-01

    A silicon-chromium alloy frequently used for heavy-duty diesel engine intake valves was tested against eight different insert materials with a valve seat wear simulator. Wear resistance of these combinations was ranked. For each test, the valve seat temperature was controlled at approximately 510 °C, the number of cycles was 864,000 (or 24 h), and the test load was 17,640 N. The combination of the silicon-chromium valve against a cast iron insert produced the least valve seat wear, whereas a cobalt-base alloy insert produced the highest valve seat wear. In the overall valve seat recession ranking, however, the combination of the silicon-chromium valve and an iron-base chromium-nickel alloy insert had the least total seat recession, whereas the silicon-chromium valve against cobalt-base alloy, cast iron, and nickel-base alloy inserts had significant seat recession. Hardness and microstructure compatibility of valve and insert materials are believed to be significant factors in reducing valve and insert wear. The test results indicate that the mechanisms of valve seat and insert wear are a complex combination of adhesion and plastic deformation. Adhesion was confirmed by material transfer, while plastic deformation was verified by shear strain (or radial flow) and abrasion. The oxide films formed during testing also played a significant role. They prevented direct metal-to-metal contact and reduced the coefficient of friction on seat surfaces, thereby reducing adhesive and deformation-controlled wear.

  8. Analysis of wear-debris from full-scale bearing fatigue tests using the ferrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    The ferrograph was used to determine the types and quantities of wear particles generated during full-scale bearing fatigue tests. Deep-groove ball bearings made from AISI 52100 steel were used. A MIL-L-23699 tetraester lubricant was used in a recirculating lubrication system containing a 49 mm absolute filter. Test conditions included a maximum Hertz stress of 2.4 GPa, a shaft speed of 15,000 rpm, and a lubricant supply temperature of 74 C (165 F). Four fatigue failures were detected by accelerometers in this test set. In general, the ferrograph was more sensitive (up to 23 hr) in detecting spall initiation than either accelerometers or the normal spectrographic oil analysis. Four particle types were observed: normal rubbing wear particles, spheres, nonferrous particles, and severe wear (spall) fragments.

  9. Analysis of wear debris from full-scale bearing fatigue tests using the Ferrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Ferrograph was used to determine the types of quantities of wear particles generated during full-scale bearing fatigue tests. Deep-groove ball bearings made from AISI 52100 steel were used. A MIL-L-23699 tetraester lubricant was used in a recirculating lubrication system containing a 49-micron absolute filter. Test conditions included a maximum Hertz stress of 2.4 GPa, a shaft speed of 15,000 rpm and a lubricant supply temperature of 74 C (165 F). Four fatigue failures were detected by accelerometers in this test set. In general, the Ferrograph was more sensitive (up to 23 h) in detecting spall initiation than either accelerometers or the normal spectrographic oil analysis (SOAP). Four particle types were observed: normal rubbing wear particles, spheres, nonferrous particles, and severe wear (spall) fragments.

  10. Airborne brake wear debris: size distributions, composition, and a comparison of dynamometer and vehicle tests.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Paul G; Xu, Ning; Dalka, Tom M; Maricq, M Matti

    2003-09-15

    Particle size distributions of light-duty vehicle brake wear debris are reported with careful attention paid to avoid sampling biases. Electrical low-pressure impactor and micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor measurements yield consistent size distributions, and the net particulate matter mass from each method is in good agreement with gravimetric filter measurements. The mass mean diameter of wear debris from braking events representative of urban driving is 6 microm, and the number-weighted mean is 1-2 microm for three currently used classes of lining materials: low metallic, semimetallic, and non-asbestos organic (NAO). In contrast, the wear rates are very material dependent, both in number and mass of particles, with 3-4 times higher emissions observed from the low metallic linings as compared to the semimetallic and NAO linings. Wind tunnel and test track measurements demonstrate the appearance of micron size particles that correlate with braking events, with approximately 50% of the wear debris being airborne for the test vehicle in this study. Elemental analysis of the wear debris reveals a consistent presence of the elements Fe, Cu, and Ba in both dynamometer and test track samples.

  11. The Concomitant Evolution of Wear and Squeaking in Dual-Severity, Lubricated Wear Testing of Ceramic-on-Ceramic Hip Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Anthony; Tibbitts, Ira; Brannon, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic-on-ceramic hip bearings were tested in short-term wear tests with a systematically varied contact force. Continuous vibration and intermittent surface roughness measurements were obtained to elucidate potential causes of in vivo hip joint squeaking. The three-phase test comprised alternating cycles of edge loading and concentric articulation, always using ample serum lubricant. A 50,000-cycle wear trial in which the contact force during concentric articulation was distant from the head’s wear patch yielded no squeaking and practically no liner roughening. In 10-cycle trials of an edge-worn head coupled with a pristine liner, the contact force was varied in magnitude and point of application; immediate, recurrent squeaking occurred only when the contact force exceeded a critical threshold value and was centered upon the head’s wear patch. In a 27,000-cycle wear trial with the contact force applied near the margin of the head’s wear patch, recurrent squeaking emerged progressively as the liner’s inner surface was roughened via its articulation with the worn portion of the head. The results reveal key conditions that yield recurrent squeaking in vitro in various scenarios without resorting to implausible dry conditions. A fundamental theory explains that hip squeaking is induced by myriad stress waves emanating from asperity collisions; yet, the root cause is edge loading. PMID:22354674

  12. Dental Surface Texture Characterization Based on Erosive Tooth Wear Processes.

    PubMed

    Hara, A T; Livengood, S V; Lippert, F; Eckert, G J; Ungar, P S

    2016-05-01

    The differential diagnosis of dental wear lesions affects their clinical management. We hypothesized that surface texture parameters can differentiate simulated erosion, abrasion, and erosion-abrasion lesions on human enamel and dentin. This in vitro study comprised 2 parts (both factorial 4 × 2), with 4 lesion types (erosion, abrasion, erosion-abrasion, and sound [no lesion; control]) and 2 substrates (enamel and dentin). Flattened/polished dental specimens were used in part 1, whereas natural dental surfaces were used in part 2. Testing surfaces were evaluated in blind conditions, using average surface roughness (Sa) and the following scale-sensitive fractal analysis parameters: area-scale fractal complexity (Asfc), exact proportion length-scale anisotropy of relief (eplsar), scale of maximum complexity (Smc), and textural fill volume (Tfv). Two-way analyses of variance, followed by Fisher's protected least significant difference tests (α = 0.05), were used to evaluate the effects of lesion and substrate. Classification trees were constructed to verify the strength of potential associations of the tested parameters. In part 1,Asfc, Sa, and Tfv were able to differentiate erosion and erosion-abrasion lesions from the sound (no lesion) control in both substrates; only Asfc differentiated erosion and erosion-abrasion enamel lesions (allP< 0.05). The best association of parameters correctly classified up to 84% and 94% of the lesions on enamel and dentin, respectively. In part 2, only Asfc differentiated erosion and erosion-abrasion lesions from the sound (no lesion) control in both substrates, whereas eplsar was able to differentiate erosion from erosion-abrasion (allP< 0.05). The association of parameters correctly classified up to 81% and 91% of the lesions in enamel and dentin, respectively.Asfc, Sa, and Tfv were able to differentiate erosion and erosion-abrasion lesions, despite their complicated surface textures. The association of parameters improved the

  13. High pressure slurry pump. Sand slurry test loop design and results. Wear parts lifetime analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fongaro, S.; Severini, P.; Vinciguerra, G.

    2000-07-01

    This paper shows the experimental phase, following previous work presented at the Sixth International Conference on ``Multiphase Flow in Industrial Plants'', Milan, September 98. A Sand Water Slurry Test Loop has been tested using different sand percentages for a total power of 680 HP with a flow-rate of 35,000 [gpm] and pressure of 2300 [psig]. Its design considered, carefully, the particles build-up effect respecting flow velocity and dead space along the loop and into the hydraulics. The test pump is a TRIPLEX SINGLE ACTING that is one third of the COAL SLURRY SEPTUPLEX PUMP designed for a CHINA PROJECT. Wear rate on the main parts of an high pressure slurry pump have been analyzed running at 145 rpm (piston mean speed of 3.3 [ft/s]) with a net flow of 33,290 [gpm] and pressures between 1216 and 1575 [psig]. Tests gave indications of a damaging process on valves, piston seals and the relative weight on the overall damages. Design changes of piston-seal and its material have been done, results being a longer parts lifetime. The authors compared the results with literature on coal slurry and other sand tests. The pump speed, i.e., valve cycle, isn't the main wear factor, while the fluid speed under the valve is. Their goals are to improve the wear parts lifetime and define functions to relate the wear to operating parameters, design choice, and materials used.

  14. Corrosive Wear in Wet Ore Grinding Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Denny A.

    1985-06-01

    Wear processes in ball and rod mills have recently received increased attention in order to increase efficiency and conserve grinding media. Direct removal of metal from the grinding media surface by abrasive wear occurs in both dry and wet grinding. Additional corrosive wear is apparent during wet grinding, in which less resistant corrosion product films are abraded away. Inhibitors and higher pH solutions, in which corrosion product films are more tenacious, improve wear resistance during wet grinding. Softer surfaces are less resistant to corrosive wear, suggesting that film formation and subsequent film abrasion on newly furrowed surfaces must be a factor.

  15. Wear of Cast Chromium Steels With TiC Reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan,O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Tylczak, J.H.

    2001-10-01

    Wear resistance of a series of new titanium carbide reinforced cast chromium steels was investigated under various wear conditions. The steels which were melted in a vacuum induction furnace contained 12 Cr, 3-5 Ti, 1-2 C in weight percent. Microstructure of these materials was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, light optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microstructure of steels consisted of TiC phase dispersed in a martensitic matrix. High-stress and low-stress abrasion tests, and an erosion test, were utilized to understand the wear behavior of these materials under different environments. The steels were tested in as-cast and heat treated conditions. Wear rates of the cast Cr/TiC steels were compared to those of an AISI type 440C steel and P/M composites reinforced with TiC.

  16. Wind abrasion on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Aeolian activity was predicted for Mars from earth based observations of changing surface patterns that were interpreted as dust storms. Mariner 9 images showed conclusive evidence for aeolian processes in the form of active dust storms and various aeolian landforms including dunes and yardangs. Windspeeds to initiate particle movement are an order of magnitude higher on Mars than on Earth because of the low atmospheric density on Mars. In order to determine rates of abrasion by wind blown particles, knowledge of three factors is required: (1) particle parameters such as numbers and velocities of windblown grains as functions of windspeeds at various heights above the surface; (2) the susceptibility to abrasion of various rocks and minerals; and (3) wind frequencies and speeds. For estimates appropriate to Mars, data for the first two parameters can be determined through lab and wind tunnel tests; data for the last two factors are available directly from the Viking Lander meteorology experiments for the two landing sites.

  17. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior and Wear Mechanism of Five Different Veneering Porcelains

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jie; Zhang, Qianqian; Qiu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Minhao; Yu, Haiyang; Gao, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of this research was to investigate the wear behavior and wear mechanism of five different veneering porcelains. Methods Five kinds of veneering porcelains were selected in this research. The surface microhardness of all the samples was measured with a microhardness tester. Wear tests were performed on a ball-on-flat PLINT fretting wear machine, with lubrication of artificial saliva at 37°C. The friction coefficients were recorded by the testing system. The microstructure features, wear volume, and damage morphologies were recorded and analyzed with a confocal laser scanning microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The wear mechanism was then elucidated. Results The friction coefficients of the five veneering porcelains differ significantly. No significant correlation between hardness and wear volume was found for these veneering porcelains. Under lubrication of artificial saliva, the porcelain with higher leucite crystal content exhibited greater wear resistance. Additionally, leucite crystal size and distribution in glass matrix influenced wear behavior. The wear mechanisms for these porcelains were similar: abrasive wear dominates the early stage, whereas delamination was the main damage mode at the later stage. Furthermore, delamination was more prominent for porcelains with larger crystal sizes. Significance Wear compatibility between porcelain and natural teeth is important for dental restorative materials. Investigation on crystal content, size, and distribution in glass matrix can provide insight for the selection of dental porcelains in clinical settings. PMID:26368532

  18. Casing wear caused by tooljoint hardfacing

    SciTech Connect

    Best, B.

    1986-02-01

    Casing wear caused by new tooljoint hardfacings, such as fine-mesh tungsten-carbide hardfacing and a hardfacing covered with a layer of relatively soft material, has been investigated in the laboratory. The tests were performed on a full-scale test facility with field conditions-forces, motions, and fluids-simulated as closely as possible. It was found that the major mechanisms responsible for casing wear by tooljoints are adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and ploughing. Wear mechanisms can be classified as mild, normal, and severe. A thorough understanding of these mechanisms could lead to measures for lessening casing wear. This can be achieved with (1) tooljoints that have a sufficiently large, smooth, round, and uniform surface and (2) an appropriate mud that has a sufficiently high content of soft solid particles, such as barites, to form a layer in the tooljoint/casing contact area so that metal-to-metal contact is avoided and small, hard mud particles are embedded.

  19. Development of a linear pin wear test machine. [304 ss on 3. 50 maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Schmale, D.T.; Bourcier, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    In support of a study of the mechanical properties of amorphous alloys produced by laser surface melting, a linear pin wear test machine has been developed and constructed. The machine repeatedly follows a single straight path in one direction through the use of simple kinematic principles. The wear pin is held in a tone arm-like assembly which rides on an off-center rotating bearing. Wear track length can be adjusted by varying bearing eccentricity and tone-arm offset, while wear track location may be changed by specimen translation via two micrometer mounted ball slides. Frictional force is measured by using a load cell mounted on precision bearings while displacement is monitored by using a precalibrated LVDT. The specimen holder is designed to hold irregular specimens up to 0.46 x 1.90 x 2.54 cm. Selected frictional load and displacement data are recorded using a digital oscilloscope. Results of tests performed on an annealed 304 stainless steel specimen using a 350 maraging steel pin are presented.

  20. Improved single- and multi-contact life-time testing of dental restorative materials using key characteristics of the human masticatory system and a force/position-controlled robotic dental wear simulator.

    PubMed

    Raabe, D; Harrison, A; Ireland, A; Alemzadeh, K; Sandy, J; Dogramadzi, S; Melhuish, C; Burgess, S

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new in vitro wear simulator based on spatial parallel kinematics and a biologically inspired implicit force/position hybrid controller to replicate chewing movements and dental wear formations on dental components, such as crowns, bridges or a full set of teeth. The human mandible, guided by passive structures such as posterior teeth and the two temporomandibular joints, moves with up to 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) in Cartesian space. The currently available wear simulators lack the ability to perform these chewing movements. In many cases, their lack of sufficient DOF enables them only to replicate the sliding motion of a single occlusal contact point by neglecting rotational movements and the motion along one Cartesian axis. The motion and forces of more than one occlusal contact points cannot accurately be replicated by these instruments. Furthermore, the majority of wear simulators are unable to control simultaneously the main wear-affecting parameters, considering abrasive mechanical wear, which are the occlusal sliding motion and bite forces in the constraint contact phase of the human chewing cycle. It has been shown that such discrepancies between the true in vivo and the simulated in vitro condition influence the outcome and the quality of wear studies. This can be improved by implementing biological features of the human masticatory system such as tooth compliance realized through the passive action of the periodontal ligament and active bite force control realized though the central nervous system using feedback from periodontal preceptors. The simulator described in this paper can be used for single- and multi-occlusal contact testing due to its kinematics and ability to exactly replicate human translational and rotational mandibular movements with up to 6 DOF without neglecting movements along or around the three Cartesian axes. Recorded human mandibular motion and occlusal force data are the reference inputs of the simulator

  1. Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2: Scientific Operating Procedure Series: Release (R)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Possible applications include CNTs incorporated in epoxy or other polymer matrices and TiO2 embedded in concrete . The particle number/mass concentration...i.e., epoxy test samples, CNT reinforced epoxy test samples, commercially available CNTs, concrete disks, plates painted with ENM-containing...show possible release of 30 nm TiO2 particles from self-cleaning concrete . ERDC SR-16-2 13 Figure 3. Total particle concentration released

  2. Comparative study of the wear behavior of composites for posterior restorations.

    PubMed

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana J; de Menezes, Márcio; Serra, Mônica C

    2007-01-01

    This investigation sought to compare the abrasive wear rates of resin composites designed for posterior applications. Seventy-five specimens were fabricated with conventional hybrid (Charisma and Filtek Z250) or packable composites (Filtek P60, Solitaire II and Tetric Ceram HB), according to a randomized complete block design (n = 15). Specimens were finished and polished metallographically and subjected to abrasive wear which was performed under a normal load of 13N at a frequency of 2 Hz using a pneumatic device (MSM/Elquip) in the presence of a mucin-containing artificial saliva. Wear was quantified profilometrically in five different locations of each specimen after 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000 and after every each 50,000 through 250,000 cycles. A split-plot ANOVA showed a significant difference between the wear resistance of composites (alpha = 0.05). Tukey's test ascertained that while the composites Filtek Z250 and Charisma wore significantly less than any other of the materials tested, Tetric Ceram HB experienced the greatest wear rates. Filtek P60 and Solitaire II showed intermediate rates of material removal. The wear pattern of composites proved to be biphasic with the primary phase having the faster wear rate. In conclusion, packable resin composites may not have superior wear compared to conventional hybrid composites.

  3. Multiple Hollow Cathode Wear Testing for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    1994-01-01

    A wear test of four hollow cathodes was conducted to resolve issues associated with the Space Station plasma contactor. The objectives of this test were to evaluate unit-to-unit dispersions, verify the transportability of contamination control protocols developed by the project, and to evaluate cathode contamination control and activation procedures to enable simplification of the gas feed system and heater power processor. These objectives were achieved by wear testing four cathodes concurrently to 2000 hours. Test results showed maximum unit-to-unit deviations for discharge voltages and cathode tip temperatures to be +/-3 percent and +/-2 percent, respectively, of the nominal values. Cathodes utilizing contamination control procedures known to increase cathode lifetime showed no trends in their monitored parameters that would indicate a possible failure, demonstrating that contamination control procedures had been successfully transferred. Comparisons of cathodes utilizing and not utilizing a purifier or simplified activation procedure showed similar behavior during wear testing and pre- and post-test performance characterizations. This behavior indicates that use of simplified cathode systems and procedures is consistent with long cathode lifetimes.

  4. Ferrographic analysis of wear debris from full-scale bearing fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Ferrograph was used to determine the types and quantities of wear particles generated during full scale bearing fatigue tests. Deep-groove ball bearings made from steel were used. A tetraester lubricant was used in a recirculating lubricant system containing a 49 micrometers absolute filter. Test conditions include a maximum Hertz stress of 2.4 GPa, a shaft speed of 15,000 rpm, and a lubricant supply temperature of 74 C (165 F). Four fatigue failures were detected by accelerometers in this test set. In general, the Ferrograph was more sensitive (up to 23 hr) in detecting spall initiation than either accelerometers or the normal spectrographic oil analysis. Four particle types were observed: normal rubbing weather particles, spheres, nonferrous particles, and severe wear (spall) fragments.

  5. The 2.3 kW Ion Thruster Wear Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkes, James; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sovey, James S.; Kussmaul, Michael J.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    A 30-cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for auxiliary and primary propulsion on missions of national interest. Specific efforts include thruster design optimizations, component life testing and validation, and performance characterizations. Under this program, the ion thruster will be brought to engineering model development status. This paper describes the results of a 2.3-kW 2000-hour wear test performed to identify life limiting phenomena, measure the performance and characterize the operation of the thruster, and obtain wear, erosion, and surface contamination data. These data are being using as a data base for proceeding with additional life validation tests, and to provide input to flight thruster design requirements.

  6. Interpretation of friction and wear in DLC film: role of surface chemistry and test environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polaki, S. R.; Kumar, N.; Madapu, K.; Ganesan, K.; Krishna, N. G.; Srivastava, S. K.; Abhaya, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    In spite of the large amount of tribological work carried out to explain the friction and wear mechanism in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, some of the core issues relating to the evolution of reactive species across sliding interfaces and their role on the friction and wear mechanism remain unclear. The phase composition, film density and hydrogen content present in a DLC film can be tailored by substrate biasing during film deposition to achieve a nearly vanishing friction coefficient. Furthermore, nitrogen doping in DLC films significantly improves wear resistance, and sliding occurs in a nearly wearless regime. Undoped and nitrogen-doped DLC films exhibit a nearly frictionless value with ultra-low wear behavior when tests are performed in argon, nitrogen and methane atmospheres. The antifriction and antiwear properties of the DLC films were improved with the reduction of adsorbed oxygen impurities on the film surface. This behavior was understood by correlating the oxygen impurities present at the surface/subsurface region of the DLC film while using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and depth-resolved Auger electron spectroscopy.

  7. Treating corneal abrasions.

    PubMed

    Wingate, S

    1999-06-01

    Although corneal abrasions are commonly seen in primary care settings, the primary care literature contains scant references on detecting and managing this problem. This article provides an overview of corneal abrasion assessment and treatment. Four common etiologies of abrasion are discussed: traumatic abrasion, contact lens abrasion, foreign body abrasion, and recurrent erosion. Parameters for the history and physical examination are outlined, including sections on contact lens removal, lid eversion, and fluorescein staining. Treatment regimens for each of the etiologies are discussed, with a focus on current research on using pressure eye patches as an intervention. Indications for referral to an ophthalmologist are noted.

  8. End-of-test Performance and Wear Characterization of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long-Duration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel Andrew; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes results from the end-of-test performance characterization of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long-Duration Test (LDT). Sub-component performance as well as overall thruster performance is presented and compared to results over the course of the test. Overall wear of critical thruster components is also described, and an update on the first failure mode of the thruster is provided.

  9. The influence of heat treatment on the high-stress abrasion resistance and fracture toughness of alloy white cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sare, I. R.; Arnold, B. K.

    1995-07-01

    The influence of a range of austenitizing and subcritical (tempering) heat treatments on the high-stress abrasion resistance and fracture toughness of four commercially significant grades of alloy white cast iron was investigated. Complementing an earlier study[1] on the influence of a more limited range of heat treatments on the gouging abrasion performance of the same alloys, the results showed that the effect of austenitizing temperature on high-stress abrasion pin test weight loss differed for each alloy. With increasing austenitizing temperature, these results ranged from a substantial improvement in wear performance and retention of hardness through to vir-tually no change in wear performance and substantial falls in hardness. Fracture toughness, however, increased markedly in all alloys with increasing austenitizing temperature. Tempering treatments in the range 400 °C to 600 °C, following hardening at the austenitizing temperature used commonly in industrial practice for each alloy, produced significant changes in both hard-ness and wear performance, but negligible changes in fracture toughness. Most importantly, the data showed that selection of the correct temperature for subcritical heat treatment to reduce the retained austenite content for applications involving repeated impact loading is critical if abrasion resistance is not to suffer.

  10. Development of intermetallic-hardened abrasion-resistant weld hardfacing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    School, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Chromium and cobalt are strategic materials in the US and both are major constituents in many weld hardfacing alloys. Substitution for these materials or alternatives to their use was a primary direction of this investigation which was conducted in conjunction with the US Bureau of Mines. Minimization of the use of strategic materials was the criteria guiding the development of intermetallic-hardened abrasion resistant weld hardfacing materials. Other criteria were that the new alloy contain a hard intermetallic compound in an FCC matrix, and that these intermetallic compounds be stable at room temperature. A survey of ternary systems was made and the Fe-Mo-Ni system was selected to provide a basis for alloy development. Fe-Mo-Ni alloys synthesized by arc-melting and similar alloys made by welding possessed similar microstructures, a (Fe, Ni){sub 7}Mo{sub 6} intermetallic plus austenite eutectic in an austenitic matrix. These materials exhibited poor abrasive resistance. Silicon additions to the alloy promoted formation of a Laves phase FeMoSi intermetallic which helped increase the abrasive wear resistance. Through a series of alloy chemistry iterations a final composition of Fe-20Mo-15Ni-5Si was selected. Heat treatment of this alloy at 550 to 650 C caused second phase precipitation in the matrix and raised the hardness about 14 points HRC to 50 HRC. The alloy's wear rate, measured with the pin-on-drum abrasive wear test, was 6.3 to 6.5 mg/m. However this was twice the wear rate observed in commercial high-carbon high-chromium alloys. Based on examination of the alloy microstructures, their chemistry, and an analysis of the Fe-Mo-Si phase system; directions for further research are to increase the molybdenum and silicon content to produce a Fe-20Mo-10Ni-15Si composition.

  11. Abrasion and deformed layer formation of manganese-zinc ferrite in sliding contact with lapping tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and the deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite simulated heads during contact with lapping tapes. The crystaline state of the head is changed drastically during the abrasion process. Crystalline states ranging from nearly amorphous to highly textured polycrystalline can be produced on the wear surface of a single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite head. The total thickness of the deformed layer was approximately 0.8 microns. This thickness increased as the load and abrasive grit size increased. The anisotropic wear of the ferrite was found to be inversely proportional to the hardness of the wear surface. The wear was lower in the order 211 111 10 0110. The wear of the ferrite increased markedly with an increase in sliding velocity and abrasive grit size.

  12. Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Flyash Reinforced ZA-27 Alloy Based Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. C.; Krishna, M.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the wear rate of ZA-27 alloy composites reinforced with fly ash particles from 1 to 3 wt% in steps of 1 wt%. The compo-casting method has been used to fabricate the composites using Raichur fly ash of average size 3-5 microns. The wear specimens are tested under dry conditions using a pin-on-disc sliding wear testing machine with wear loads of 20-120 N in steps of 20 N, and the sliding distances in the range of 0.5 km to 2.5 km. The results indicate that the wear rate of the composites is less than that of the matrix alloy and it further decreases with the increase in fly ash content. However, the material loss in terms of wear rate and wear volume increases with the increase in load and sliding distance, both in the cases of composites and the matrix alloy. An increase in the applied load increases the wear severity by changing the wear mechanism from abrasion to particle-cracking induced delamination wear. It is found that with the increase in fly ash content, the wear resistance increases monotonically. The observations have been explained using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the worn surfaces of the composites.

  13. Risk Assessment for Tooth Wear.

    PubMed

    Kontaxopoulou, Isavella; Alam, Sonia

    2015-08-01

    Tooth wear has an increasing prevalence in the UK population. The aetiology is commonly multifactorial, and the aetiopathology is through a combination of erosion, attrition, abrasion and abfraction. Erosion is associated with intrinsic or extrinsic acids, and therefore subjects with reflux disease and eating disorders are at increased risk. Fruit juice, fruits and carbonated drink consumption, frequency of consumption and specific habits are also risk factors. Attrition is more prevalent in bruxists. Other habits need to be considered when defining the risk of tooth wear. Abrasion is usually associated with toothbrushing and toothpastes, especially in an already acidic environment. Patients with extensive lesions that affect dentin may be at higher risk, as well as those presenting with unstained lesions. Monitoring of the progress of tooth wear is recommended to identify those with active tooth wear. Indices for tooth wear are a helpful aid.

  14. Dynamic and kinematic effects in the friction and wear of rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrard, David Peter

    Research is presented which focuses on the micro-mechanical processes that dominate the friction and wear of rubber. New test concepts and equipment were developed to study the dynamic and kinematic effects involved in these processes. Several new analytical tools were presented to explain the observed results in quantifiable terms. Experiments conducted on filled NR confirmed that a transition in wear behavior does not occur across a wide range of power inputs. Examination of the debris distributions across the contact revealed that an agglomeration process of intrinsic particles occurs, the extent of which is purely a function of distance from the contact's leading edge. This revelation is used to explain the commonly reported bimodal size distribution of debris generated during rubber wear and to expose the mechanical process that generates intrinsic debris as the primary cause of wear. The effect of contact length (i.e. extent of agglomeration) on corresponding friction and wear levels was studied. The effects of dynamically changing slip orientation on the properties of a coated abrasive and the friction and wear of a filled SBR were studied. The process of removal of intrinsic debris from a rubber surface was described in terms of a micro-mechanical fatigue fracture process that occurs at varying rates that are dependent on the frictional work acting on the average intrinsic nodule. The model was successfully tested against previously published data and new data and was shown to account for pressure and abrasive effects with one set of two constants. The potential effects of pattern morphologies on rubber friction and wear were examined as well. The wear patterns showed a clear tendency to roll up as opposed to peeling back. The intrinsic wear model was then applied to a description of pattern wear by assuming that the rate of intrinsic abrasion across a pattern is simply a function of the local pressure distribution which varies from the front to the back

  15. Wear mechanisms of milling inserts: Dry and wet cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, J.; Tung, S.C.; Barber, G.C.

    1998-07-01

    There is less literature on wear of milling tools than on wear of turning tools because milling is one of the most complicated machining operations. The intermittent milling action creates mechanical and thermal surges that distinguish milling from single-point machining. A systematic tool life study for face milling inserts was conducted with and without coolant. Workpieces made of 4140 steel were cut by C5 grade carbide inserts under various cutting conditions. The comparison between dry and wet cutting shows that caution should be taken when applying a coolant for milling operations. Special tests should be carried out in evaluating potential coolant candidates. It is not always true that coolant enhances tool life for milling. Wear mechanisms are presented by means of war maps. Identified wear mechanisms are: micro-attrition, micro-abrasion, mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, thermal pitting, and edge chipping.

  16. Fabrication and wear test of a continuous fiber/particulate composite total surface hip replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. C.; Ling, F. F.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Continuous fiber woven E-glass composite femoral shells having the ame elastic properties as bone were fabricated. The shells were then encrusted with filled epoxy wear resistant coatings and run dry against ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups in 42,000 and 250,000 cycle were tests on a total hip simulator. The tribological characteristics of these shells atriculating with the acetabular cups are comparable to a vitallium bal articulating with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene cup.

  17. Friction and abrasion of elastomeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.

    1975-01-01

    An abrasion apparatus is described. Experimental measurements are reported for four representative elastomeric materials, including a typical high-quality tire tread material and a possible replacement material for aircraft tire treads based on transpolypentenamer (TPPR). Measurements are carried out at different levels of frictional work input, corresponding to different severities of wear, and at both ambient temperature and at 100 C. Results indicate the marked superiority in abrasion resistance of the material based on TPPR, especially at 100 C, in comparison with the other materials examined.

  18. Wear resistance of TiAlSiN thin coatings.

    PubMed

    Silva, F J G; Martinho, R P; Alexandre, R J D; Baptista, A P M

    2012-12-01

    In the last decades TiAIN coatings deposited by PVD techniques have been extensively investigated but, nowadays, their potential development for tribological applications is relatively low. However, new coatings are emerging based on them, trying to improve wear behavior. TiAlSiN thin coatings are now investigated, analyzing if Si introduction increases the wear resistance of PVD films. Attending to the application, several wear test configurations has been recently used by some researchers. In this work, TiAISiN thin coatings were produced by PVD Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering technique and they were conveniently characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) provided with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Electron Probe Micro-Analyzer (EPMA), Micro Hardness (MH) and Scratch Test Analysis. Properties as morphology, thickness, roughness, chemical composition and structure, hardness and film adhesion to the substrate were investigated. Concerning to wear characterization, two very different ways were chosen: micro-abrasion with ball-on-flat configuration and industrial non-standardized tests based on samples inserted in a feed channel of a selected plastic injection mould working with 30% (wt.) glass fiber reinforced polypropylene. TiAISiN coatings with a small amount of about 5% (wt.) Si showed a similar wear behavior when compared with TiAIN reported performances, denoting that Si addition does not improve the wear performance of the TiAIN coatings in these wear test conditions.

  19. Is bovine dentine an appropriate substitute in abrasion studies?

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Widmer, Raffaella; Attin, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The study aimed to compare the wear behaviour of human and bovine dentine due to toothbrushing with different relative dentin abrasivity (RDA) toothpastes. Forty human and 40 bovine dentine samples were prepared from bovine lower incisors or human premolars roots, and baseline surface profiles were recorded. The samples were distributed to four groups (each group n = 10 human and 10 bovine samples) and brushed with fluoridated experimental toothpastes with different RDAs (group A: RDA 10, B: RDA 20, C: RDA 50, and D: RDA 100). Toothbrushing was performed in an automatic brushing machine with a brushing frequency of 60 strokes per minute and a brushing force of 2.5 N. After 2, 5, 10, and 25 min of toothbrushing, new surface profiles were recorded, and the dentine wear was calculated with a customized computer programme. The dentine wear of human and bovine dentine within the four groups was compared with unpaired t tests. No statistically significant difference was recorded for the dentine wear of human and bovine samples within the different groups.

  20. Diagnosis and management of dental wear.

    PubMed

    Harpenau, Lisa A; Noble, Warden H; Kao, Richard T

    2011-04-01

    Dental wear is loss of tooth structure resulting from erosion, attrition, abrasion, and, possibly, abfraction. Clinical/experimental data suggest no single damaging mechanism but rather simultaneous interaction of these destructive processes. The most important interaction is abrasion/attrition potentiated by dental erosion. Awareness of this pathosis is not well-appreciated by the public and dental professionals because the signs may be subtle. This article focuses on the recognition, diagnosis, and management of dental wear.

  1. Microstructures and Abrasive Properties of the Oxide Coatings on Al6061 Alloys Prepared by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Different Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Byun, Sangsik; Lee, Chan Gyu; Koo, Bon Heun; Wang, Yi Qi; Song, Jung Il

    Al2O3 coatings were prepared on T6-tempered Al6061 alloys substrate under a hybrid voltage (AC 200 V-60 Hz and DC 260 V value) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in 30 min. The effects of different electrolytes on the abrasive behaviors of the coatings were studied by conducting dry ball-on-disk wear tests. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate the coating microstructure. XRD analysis results show that the coatings mainly consist of α- and γ-Al2O3, and some mullite and AlPO4 phase in Na2SiO3 and Na3PO4 containing electrolytes, respectively. The wear test results show that the coatings which were PEO-treated in Na3PO4 containing electrolyte presented the most excellent abrasive resistance property.

  2. In Situ, Time-Resolved Accelerator Grid Erosion Measurements in the NSTAR 8000 Hour Ion Engine Wear Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J.

    1997-01-01

    Time-resolved, in situ measurements of the charge exchange ion erosion pattern on the downstream face of the accelerator grid have been made during an ongoin wear test of the NSTAR 30 cm ion thruster.

  3. Results of a 2000 hour wear test of the NEXIS ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.; Schneider, Analyn C; Sengupta, Anita

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Electric Xenon Ion System (NEXIS) ion thruster was developed for potential outer planet robotic missions under NASA's Prometheus program. This engine was designed to operate at power levels ranging from 16 to over 20 kWe at specific impulses of 6000 to 7500 s for burn times of up to 10 years, satisfying the requirements of nuclear electric propulsion systems such as that on the proposed Prometheus 1 mission to explore the icy moons of Jupiter. State-of-the-art performance and life assessment tools were used to design the thruster. Following the successful performance validation of a Laboratory Model thruster, Development Model hardware was fabricated and subjected to vibration and wear testing. The results of a 2000-hour wear test are reported herein. Thruster performance achieved the target requirements and was steady for the duration of the test. Ion optics performance was similarly stable. Discharge loss increases of 6 eV/ion were observed in the first 500 hours of the test and were attributed to primary electron energy decreases due to cathode insert conditioning. Relatively high recycle rates were observed and were identified to be high-voltage-to-ground arcs in the back of the thruster caused by wire insulation outgassing and electron penetration through the plasma screen. Field emission of electrons between the accelerator and screen grids was observed and attributed to evolution of field emitter sites at accelerator grid aperture edges caused by ion bombardment. Preliminary modeling and analysis indicates that the NEXIS engine can meet mission performance requirements over the required lifetime. Finally, successful validation of the NEXIS design methodology, design tools, and technologies with the results of the wear test and companion performance and vibration tests presents significant applicability of the NEXIS development effort to missions of near-term as well as long-term interest for NASA.

  4. Failure mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament prostheses: in vitro wear study.

    PubMed

    Poddevin, N; King, M W; Guidoin, R G

    1997-01-01

    Previous retrieval studies analyzing the cause of failure of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) prostheses identified a wear mechanism. However, the relative importance of yarn on bone compared to yarn on yarn wear has not been clearly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elucidate which type of wear is the dominant cause of clinical failure. A variety of ACL prosthetic structures were exposed to two in vitro tests: one for yarn on yarn and the other for a novel yarn on bone wear test system. The latter included the use of both smooth (uncut) and rough (cut) bone surfaces to simulate the conditions around the condyle and at the exit of the tibial tunnel, respectively. The damaged textile structures were viewed by SEM. The various fiber fracture morphologies were identified and classified for the two types of wear tests; for the smooth and rough bone surfaces; for the braided, knitted, woven, and twisted textile structures; and for the three types of fibers that were included: polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene. The results confirmed that yarn on bone and yarn on yarn wear phenomena are associated with significantly different failure mechanisms. While the more aggressive rough (or cut) bone causes more rapid and intense fiber damage and faster ACL failure than the smooth (uncut) osseous surface, both abradants cause the same type of abrasive wear phenomenon. Differences in failure mechanisms were identified between the different textile structures and the different fiber types. By interpreting the damaged fiber images from clinically failed and retrieved ACL prostheses, we are now able to confirm that the predominant cause of synthetic ACL failure is yarn on bone abrasion. Improvements in future ACL prosthesis designs will only be possible by eliminating or minimizing the effect of this type of abrasive wear.

  5. Identifying Deformation and Strain Hardening Behaviors of Nanoscale Metallic Multilayers Through Nano-wear Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Economy, David Ross; Mara, Nathan A.; Schoeppner, R.; Schultz, Bradley M.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2016-01-13

    In complex loading conditions (e.g. sliding contact), mechanical properties, such as strain hardening and initial hardness, will dictate the long-term performance of materials systems. With this in mind, the strain hardening behaviors of Cu/Nb nanoscale metallic multilayer systems were examined by performing nanoindentation tests within nanoscratch wear boxes and undeformed, as-deposited regions. Both the architecture and substrate influence were examined by utilizing three different individual layer thicknesses (2, 20, and 100 nm) and two total film thicknesses (1 and 10 μm). After nano-wear deformation, multilayer systems with thinner layers showed less volume loss as measured by laser scanning microscopy. Additionally, the hardness of the deformed regions significantly rose with respect to the as-deposited measurements, which further increased with greater wear loads. Strain hardening exponents for multilayers with thinner layers (2 and 20 nm, n ≈ 0.018 and n ≈ 0.022 respectively) were less than was determined for 100 nm systems (n ≈ 0.041). These results suggest that singledislocation based deformation mechanisms observed for the thinner systems limit the extent of achievable strain hardening. This conclusion indicates that impacts of both architecture strengthening and strain hardening must be considered to accurately predict multilayer performance during sliding contact across varying length scales.

  6. Identifying Deformation and Strain Hardening Behaviors of Nanoscale Metallic Multilayers Through Nano-wear Testing

    DOE PAGES

    Economy, David Ross; Mara, Nathan A.; Schoeppner, R.; ...

    2016-01-13

    In complex loading conditions (e.g. sliding contact), mechanical properties, such as strain hardening and initial hardness, will dictate the long-term performance of materials systems. With this in mind, the strain hardening behaviors of Cu/Nb nanoscale metallic multilayer systems were examined by performing nanoindentation tests within nanoscratch wear boxes and undeformed, as-deposited regions. Both the architecture and substrate influence were examined by utilizing three different individual layer thicknesses (2, 20, and 100 nm) and two total film thicknesses (1 and 10 μm). After nano-wear deformation, multilayer systems with thinner layers showed less volume loss as measured by laser scanning microscopy. Additionally,more » the hardness of the deformed regions significantly rose with respect to the as-deposited measurements, which further increased with greater wear loads. Strain hardening exponents for multilayers with thinner layers (2 and 20 nm, n ≈ 0.018 and n ≈ 0.022 respectively) were less than was determined for 100 nm systems (n ≈ 0.041). These results suggest that singledislocation based deformation mechanisms observed for the thinner systems limit the extent of achievable strain hardening. This conclusion indicates that impacts of both architecture strengthening and strain hardening must be considered to accurately predict multilayer performance during sliding contact across varying length scales.« less

  7. Determining pump wear and remaining life from electric submersible pump test curves. [Wear and service life estimation of oil well pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Divine, D.L.; Lannom, R.W.; Johnson, R.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The remaining useful life of an electric submersible pump (ESP) is an important economic consideration in deciding whether the used pump should be returned to service without repair. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative techniques to determine the type and amount of wear that a pump has experienced from analysis of pump test data. This paper discusses methods of categorizing used pumps, depending on the wear and associated performance deterioration. This work also describes failure modes, pump reliability, and the concept of pump (product) infant mortality. The authors show that a used pump can be more reliable and have a longer run life than a new or rebuilt pump. They use test data, tear-down analysis, and a case history to develop these concepts.

  8. Wear mechanisms in a nonrotating wire rope

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, K.K.; Dogan, C.P.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-04-01

    A nonrotating wire rope used in main hoist operations is being examined by the US Bureau of Mines to determine operative wear mechanisms. Typically, bending and loading the ropes during service cause small, localized movements at interwire contacts, leading to material loss through wear.The cumulative effect of both material loss by wear and wire breakage by fatigue failure accelerates rope retirement. If the macroscopic mechanics of wire rope failure are to be understood, microscopic deformation and degradation processes must be identified and quantified. As a first step in this study, interwire wear and deformation were studied using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and hardness measurements. Both fretting and abrasive wear were identified as wear mechanisms. Preferential sites for fretting and abrasive wear were identified and are discussed regarding rope construction and geometry and the tribo-system.

  9. Restorative resins: abrasion vs. mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, K D

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to examine whether it is possible by simple and reliable laboratory tests to evaluate the abrasion by food of Class 1 restorative resins. The results point to the following main conclusions: for the smooth-surface resins, i.e. the micro-filled composite and the unfilled resins, the Wallace hardness test appears to be a valid parameter for abrasion; the greater the depth of penetration of the Vickers diamond of this apparatus, the more severe abrasion is to be expected. The mode of abrasion in this type of resin is scratching. Porosity in the resins strongly enhances the abrasion. For the rough-surface resins, i.e. the conventional composites, a dual effect of the filler particles was concluded. The filler particles on the one hand protect the matrix against abrasion, but cause, on the other hand, in time an increase of the surface roughness of the composite and thereby via increased friction an increase of the abrasion. Considerations on possible ways to improve the present-day restorative resins are presented. It is stressed that the results obtained refer only to abrasion of Class 1 fillings by food.

  10. Friction and Wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomey, Jacques

    1952-01-01

    From the practical point of view, this analysis shows that each problem of friction or wear requires its particular solution. There is no universal solution; one or other of the factors predominates and defines the choice of the solution. In certain cases, copper alloys of great thermal conductivity are preferred; in others, plastics abundantly supplied with water. Sometimes, soft antifriction metals are desirable to distribute the load; at other times, hard metals with high resistance to abrasion or heat.

  11. Preparation and characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/nanoclay nanocomposite flat sheet membranes for abrasion resistance.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chi Yan; Groth, Andrew; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel

    2014-06-15

    Membranes with more resilience to abrasive wear are highly desired in water treatment, especially for seawater desalination. Nanocomposite poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/nanoclay membranes were prepared by phase inversion and then tested for abrasion resistance. Their material properties were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Nanoclay Cloisite(®) 15A was utilised as the inorganic nanoparticle incorporated into PVDF. FTIR results showed a shifting of the PVDF crystalline phase from α to β thus indicating that the nanoclay altered the PVDF host material's structure and mechanical properties in terms of stiffness and toughness. Water permeation test showed that nanoclay at low concentration tended to reduce water flux. All nanocomposite membranes, with between 1 wt% and 5 wt% initial nanoclay loading, were more abrasion resistant than the control PVDF membrane. However, the 1 wt% exhibited superior resistance, lasting two times longer than the reference PVDF membrane under the same abrasive condition. The 1 wt% nanoclay membrane appeared less abraded by SEM observation, while also having the greatest tensile strength improvement (from 4.5 MPa to 4.9 MPa). This membrane also had the smallest agglomerated nanoclay particle size and highest toughness compared to the higher nanoclay content membranes. Nanoclays are therefore useful for improving abrasion resistance of PVDF membranes, but optimal loadings are essential to avoid losing essential mechanical properties.

  12. The measurement of abrasive particles velocities in the process of abrasive water jet generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeleňák, Michal; Foldyna, Josef; Říha, Zdeněk

    2014-08-01

    An optimization of the design of the abrasive cutting head using the numerical simulation requires gathering as much information about processes occurring in the cutting head as possible. Detailed knowledge of velocities of abrasive particles in the process of abrasive water jet generation is vital for the verification of the numerical model. A method of measurement of abrasive particles at the exit of focusing tube using the FPIV technique was proposed and preliminary tests are described in the paper. Results of analysis of measured velocity fields are presented in the paper.

  13. Friction and wear behavior of aluminum and composite I-beam stiffened airplane skins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    Friction and wear behavior was determined for I-beam stiffened skins constructed of aluminum, graphite-epoxy composite, and glass hybrid composite under abrasive loading conditions typical of those occurring on the underside of a transport airplane during an emergency belly landing. A test apparatus was developed to abrade the test specimens on actual runway surface under a range of pressures (2-5 psi) and velocities (16-50 mph). These parameters were chosen to fall within the range of conditions typical of an airframe sliding on a runway surface. The effects of the test variables on the wear rate and the coefficient of friction are discussed and comparisons are made between the composite materials and aluminum. In addition, the test apparatus was equipped to monitor the temperature variations on the backside of the skins during abrasion and these results are presented.

  14. A new test machine for measuring friction and wear in controlled atmospheres to 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new high-temperature friction and wear test apparatus (tribometer). The tribometer can be used as a pin-on-disk or pin-on-ring configuration and is specially designed to measure the tribological properties of ceramics and high temperature metallic alloys from room temperature to 1200 C. Sliding mode can be selected to be either unidirectional at velocities up to 22 m/sec or oscillating at frequencies up to 4.6 Hz and amplitudes up to + or - 60 deg. The test atmosphere is established by a controlled flow rate of a purge gas. All components within the test chamber are compatible with oxidizing, inert or reducing gases.

  15. A new test machine for measuring friction and wear in controlled atmospheres to 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a new high temperature friction and wear test apparatus (tribometer) at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The tribometer can be used as a pin-on-disk or pin-on-ring configuration and is specially designed to measure the tribological properties of ceramics and high temperature metallic alloys from room temperature to 1200 C. Sliding mode can be selected to be either unidirectional at velocities up to 22 m/sec or oscillating at frequencies up 4.5 Hz and amplitudes up to + or - 60 deg. The test atmosphere is established by a controlled flow rate of a purge gas. All components within the test chamber are compatible with oxidizing, inert, or reducing gases.

  16. Wear resistance of a metal surface modified with minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, S. V.; Kislov, V. G.; Balasch, P. V.; Skazochkin, A. V.; Bondarenko, G. G.; Tikhonov, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the advantages of the new technology of mineral coating of metal products for the friction pair of mechanical systems. It presents the research results of the wear rate of the samples made of 12X13 steel (X12Cr13) with mineral layers, in the experiments with a piston ring sliding inside a cylinder liner with grease. The wear rate of the samples with mineral layers is lower almost by two factors than that of the samples made of grey foundry iron and untreated samples. As the result of slip/rolling abrasion tests of parts with mineral layers under conditions of high contact pressure, a suggestion was made concerning probable mechanics of surface wear.

  17. Wear resistance and wear mechanisms in polymer + metal composites.

    PubMed

    Olea-Mejia, Oscar; Brostow, Witold; Buchman, Eli

    2010-12-01

    We have investigated composites containing metallic micro-size and nano-sized particles as the 10 wt% dispersed phase. Branched low density polyethylene (LDPE) was the matrix. Microsized metals were Al, Ag and Ni; nanosized metals were Al and Ag. Several mechanisms of wear are observed in function of the kind and size of metal used: deformation, delamination, abrasion, adhesion and rolls formation. The presence of Ag particles increases the wear rate as compared to neat LDPE. The presence of Al particles lowers the wear of LDPE significantly; nanoparticles are more effective than microparticles.

  18. Wear of hot rolling mill rolls: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuzic, S.; Strafford, K. N.; Subramanian, C.; Savage, G.

    1994-08-01

    Rolling is today one of the most important industrial processes because a greater volume of material is worked by rolling than by any other technique. Roll wear is a multiplex process where mechanical and thermal fatigue combines with impact, abrasion, adhesion and corrosion, which all depend on system interactions rather than material characteristics only. The situation is more complicated in section rolling because of the intricacy of roll geometry. Wear variables and modes are reviewed along with published methods and models used in the study and testing of roll wear. This paper reviews key aspects of roll wear control - roll material properties, roll pass design, and system factors such as temperature, loads and sliding velocity. An overview of roll materials is given including adamites, high Cr materials, high speed tool steels and compound rolls. Non-uniform wear, recognized as the most detrimental phenomenon in section rolling, can be controlled by roll pass design. This can be achieved by computer-aided graphical and statistical analyses of various pass series. Preliminary results obtained from pilot tests conducted using a two-disc hot wear rig and a scratch tester are discussed.

  19. Investigation of the time-dependent wear behavior of veneering ceramic in porcelain fused to metal crowns during chewing simulations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiawen; Tian, Beimin; Wei, Ran; Wang, Weiguo; Zhang, Hongyun; Wu, Xiaohong; He, Lin; Zhang, Shaofeng

    2014-12-01

    The excessive abrasion of occlusal surfaces in ceramic crowns limits the service life of restorations and their clinical results. However, little is known about the time-dependent wear behavior of ceramic restorations during the chewing process. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the dynamic evolution of the wear behavior of veneering porcelain in PFM crowns as wear progressed, as tested in a chewing simulator. Twenty anatomical metal-ceramic crowns were prepared using Ceramco III as the veneering porcelain. Stainless steel balls served as antagonists. The specimens were dynamically loaded in a chewing simulator with 350N up to 2.4×10(6) loading cycles, with additional thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C. During the testing, several checkpoints were applied to measure the substance loss of the crowns' occlusal surfaces and to evaluate the microstructure of the worn areas. After 2.4×10(6) cycles, the entire wear process of the veneering porcelain in the PFM crowns revealed three wear stages (running-in, steady and severe wear stages). The occlusal surfaces showed traces of intensive wear on the worn areas during the running-in wear stage, and they exhibited the propagation of cracks in the subsurface during steady wear stage. When the severe wear stage was reached, the cracks penetrated the ceramic layer, causing the separation of porcelain pieces. It also exhibited a good correlation among the microstructure, the wear loss and the wear rate of worn ceramic restorations. The results suggest that under the conditions of simulated masticatory movement, the wear performance of the veneering porcelain in PFM crowns indicates the apparent similarity of the tribological characteristics of the traditional mechanical system. Additionally, the evaluation of the wear behavior of ceramic restorations should be based on these three wear stages.

  20. Effect of salivary stimulation on erosion of human and bovine enamel subjected or not to subsequent abrasion: an in situ/ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Rios, D; Honório, H M; Magalhães, A C; Delbem, A C B; Machado, M A A M; Silva, S M B; Buzalaf, M A R

    2006-01-01

    This in situ/ex vivo study evaluated whether saliva stimulated by chewing gum could prevent or reduce the wear and the percent change in microhardness (%SMH) of bovine and human enamel submitted to erosion followed by brushing abrasion immediately or after 1 h. During 2 experimental 7-day crossover phases, 9 previously selected volunteers wore intraoral palatal devices, with 12 enamel specimens (6 human and 6 bovine). In the first phase, the volunteers immersed the device for 5 min in 150 ml of cola drink, 4 times per day (at 8, 12, 16 and 20 h). Immediately after the immersions, no treatment was performed in 4 specimens, 4 other specimens were immediately brushed (0 min) using a fluoride dentifrice, and the device was replaced into the mouth. After 60 min, the remaining 4 specimens were brushed. In the second phase, the procedures were repeated, but after the immersions, the volunteers stimulated the salivary flow rate by chewing a sugar-free gum for 30 min. Changes in wear and %SMH were measured. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed statistical differences (p<0.05) for the following comparisons. The chewing gum promoted less wear and %SMH. A decreasing %SMH and an increasing enamel wear were observed in the following conditions: erosion only, 60 min and 0 min. The human enamel presented greater %SMH and less wear compared to bovine enamel. The data suggest that the salivary stimulation after an erosive or erosive/abrasive attack can reduce the dental wear and the %SMH.

  1. Effect Of Temperature Variation On Wear Behaviour Of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, S. K.; Ahmad, S.; Abdullah, B.; Pahroraji, H. F.; Hamami, G.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of boronizing temperatures on the wear and hardness properties of austenitic stainless steel were investigated in this study. The samples were prepared in accordance to standard samples preparation for wear and hardness test. Pack boronizing were conducted using EKabor®1 powder medium at two different temperatures which are 850°C and 950°C. The wear resistance properties were evaluated though pin on disk test and the surface characterization was analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), observation. Vickers microhardness tester was performed to obtain the hardness of the samples. The results indicated that there are presences of FeB and Fe2B phases on both samples, but thicker FeB phase was produced at Po-950 samples. This resulted in reduction of abrasion wear properties but major improvement of the hardness properties of boronized stainless steel.

  2. Study on the potential inhibition of root dentine wear adjacent to fluoride-containing restorations.

    PubMed

    Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Hara, Anderson Takeo; Domiciano, Silvia Jorge; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether the vicinity of root dentine that had been restored with fluoride-releasing materials was at reduced risk for erosive/abrasive wear compared to root dentine restored with a non-fluoride-containing material. According to a randomized complete block design, standardized cavities prepared on the surface of 150 bovine root dentine slabs were restored with glass-ionomer cement, resin-modified glass ionomer, polyacid-modified resin composite, fluoride-containing or conventional composite. Specimens were coated with two layers of an acid-resistant nail varnish exposing half of the dentine surface and half of the restoration. Subsequently, specimens were either eroded in an acidic drink or left uneroded, then exposed to artificial saliva and abraded in a toothbrushing machine. Wear depth in the vicinity of restorations was quantified by a stylus profilometer, based on the nonabraded areas surrounding the erosion/abrasion region. Two-way ANOVA did not demonstrate significant interaction between restoratives and eroded-uneroded dentine (p=0.5549) nor significant difference among restorative materials (p=0.8639). Tukey's test ascertained that the wear depth was higher for eroded than for uneroded groups. Fluoride-releasing materials seemed to negligibly inhibit wear in the vicinity of restored root dentine subjected to erosive/abrasive challenges.

  3. Brushing abrasion of eroded bovine enamel pretreated with topical fluorides.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Lugtenborg, M; Ruben, J L; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2006-01-01

    Topical fluorides have been proposed for the prevention of erosive dental wear. This study evaluated the in vitro effect of a single professional application of 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4), 1% amine fluoride (AmF) and 0.1% difluorosilane varnish (FV) in preventing wear due to combined erosion and brushing abrasion. One hundred and eight bovine enamel samples were used. Control groups were not pretreated with any product (C), pretreated with a fluoride-free varnish (FV-bl) or pretreated with fluoride varnish and subsequently submitted to varnish removal (FV-r). Wear was modeled by submitting the fluoride-treated and control groups to 3 cycles of the following regimens: erosion/remineralization (er/remin), abrasion/remineralization (abr/remin) or erosion/abrasion/remineralization (er/abr/remin). Erosion was simulated by immersion of the samples for 10 min in citric acid 50 mM (pH 3). Abrasion was carried out for 1 min (200 strokes, load 150 g) in a wear device. Remineralization (2 h artificial saliva) took place between the cycles. Two-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant interaction (pwear regimens. Under er/remin a significant wear protective effect was found for the FV, FV-r and FV-bl groups. Abr/remin resulted in some enamel loss for the TiF4 and AmF groups, but the amounts lost were not statistically significant (p=0.185 and p=1.000, respectively). Under er/abr/remin all products showed a significant protective effect, except for TiF4. It was concluded that FV and AmF protected bovine enamel against erosion followed by brushing abrasion in vitro.

  4. Wear Scar Similarities between Retrieved and Simulator-Tested Polyethylene TKR Components: An Artificial Neural Network Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how representative wear scars of simulator-tested polyethylene (PE) inserts compare with retrieved PE inserts from total knee replacement (TKR). By means of a nonparametric self-organizing feature map (SOFM), wear scar images of 21 postmortem- and 54 revision-retrieved components were compared with six simulator-tested components that were tested either in displacement or in load control according to ISO protocols. The SOFM network was then trained with the wear scar images of postmortem-retrieved components since those are considered well-functioning at the time of retrieval. Based on this training process, eleven clusters were established, suggesting considerable variability among wear scars despite an uncomplicated loading history inside their hosts. The remaining components (revision-retrieved and simulator-tested) were then assigned to these established clusters. Six out of five simulator components were clustered together, suggesting that the network was able to identify similarities in loading history. However, the simulator-tested components ended up in a cluster at the fringe of the map containing only 10.8% of retrieved components. This may suggest that current ISO testing protocols were not fully representative of this TKR population, and protocols that better resemble patients' gait after TKR containing activities other than walking may be warranted. PMID:27597955

  5. Wear Scar Similarities between Retrieved and Simulator-Tested Polyethylene TKR Components: An Artificial Neural Network Approach.

    PubMed

    Orozco Villaseñor, Diego A; Wimmer, Markus A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how representative wear scars of simulator-tested polyethylene (PE) inserts compare with retrieved PE inserts from total knee replacement (TKR). By means of a nonparametric self-organizing feature map (SOFM), wear scar images of 21 postmortem- and 54 revision-retrieved components were compared with six simulator-tested components that were tested either in displacement or in load control according to ISO protocols. The SOFM network was then trained with the wear scar images of postmortem-retrieved components since those are considered well-functioning at the time of retrieval. Based on this training process, eleven clusters were established, suggesting considerable variability among wear scars despite an uncomplicated loading history inside their hosts. The remaining components (revision-retrieved and simulator-tested) were then assigned to these established clusters. Six out of five simulator components were clustered together, suggesting that the network was able to identify similarities in loading history. However, the simulator-tested components ended up in a cluster at the fringe of the map containing only 10.8% of retrieved components. This may suggest that current ISO testing protocols were not fully representative of this TKR population, and protocols that better resemble patients' gait after TKR containing activities other than walking may be warranted.

  6. New Mechanisms of rock-bit wear in geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Macini, Paolo

    1996-01-24

    This paper presents recent results of an investigation on failure mode and wear of rock-bits used to drill geothermal wells located in the area of Larderello (Italy). A new wear mechanism, conceived from drilling records and dull bit evaluation analysis, has been identified and a particular configuration of rock-bit has been developed and tested in order to reduce drilling costs. The role of high Bottom Hole Temperature (BHT) on rock-bit performances seems not yet very well understood: so far, only drillability and formation abrasiveness are generally considered to account for poor drilling performances. In this paper, the detrimental effects of high BHT on sealing and reservoir system of Friction Bearing Rock-bits (FBR) have been investigated, and a new bearing wear pattern for FBR's run in high BHT holes has been identified and further verified via laboratory inspections on dull bits. A novel interpretation of flat worn cutting structure has been derived from the above wear pattern, suggesting the design of a particular bit configuration. Test bits, designed in the light of the above criteria, have been prepared and field tested successfully. The paper reports the results of these tests, which yielded a new rock-bit application, today considered as a standad practice in Italian geothermal fields. This application suggests that the correct evaluation of rock-bit wear can help to improve the overall drilling performances and to minimize drilling problems through a better interpretation of the relationships amongst rock-bits, formation properties and downhole temperature.

  7. Wear Performance of Cu-Alloyed Austempered Ductile Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Uma; Batra, Nimish; Sharma, J. D.

    2013-04-01

    An investigation was carried out to examine the influence of structural and mechanical properties on wear behavior of austempered ductile iron (ADI). Ductile iron (DI) samples were austenitized at 900 °C for 60 min and subsequently austempered for 60 min at three temperatures: 270, 330, and 380 °C. Microstructures of the as-cast DI and ADIs were characterized using optical and scanning microscopy, respectively. The structural parameters, volume fraction of austenite, carbon content of austenite, and ferrite particle size were determined using x-ray diffraction technique. Mechanical properties including Vicker's hardness, 0.2% proof strength, ultimate tensile strength, ductility, and strain hardening coefficient were determined. Wear tests were carried out under dry sliding conditions using pin-on-disk machine with a linear speed of 2.4 m/s. Normal load and sliding distance were 45 N and 1.7 × 104 m, respectively. ADI developed at higher austempering temperature has large amounts of austenite, which contribute toward improvement in the wear resistance through stress-induced martensitic transformation, and strain hardening of austenite. Wear rate was found to depend on 0.2% proof strength, ductility, austenite content, and its carbon content. Study of worn surfaces and nature of wear debris revealed that the fine ausferrite structure in ADIs undergoes oxidational wear, but the coarse ausferrite structure undergoes adhesion, delamination, and mild abrasion too.

  8. A study of the abrasive resistance of metal alloys with applications in dental prosthetic fixators.

    PubMed

    Gil, F J; Fernández, E; Manero, J M; Planell, J A; Sabrià, J; Cortada, M; Giner, L

    1995-01-01

    Wear is one of the main surface failure mechanisms in materials and it will play a leading role in substitutive dental biomaterials. The aim of the present study is to compare the abrasive wear of different metallic materials used in dental applications. The results show that the abrasive wear of alloys based on precious metals such as Pt, Pd, Au and Ag is higher than for Ti and Ti based alloys. The alloy with the highest wear resistance is the Co-Cr which exhibits as well the highest hardness and Young's modulus. Since the method corresponds to a well-established abrasive wear standard, the behaviour of the different materials can be easily compared.

  9. Investigations on the trajectories of magnetic abrasive grains in magnetic induction-free abrasive wire sawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Yao, Chunyan; Tang, Chen; Qiu, Tengwei; Xu, Xuefeng

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a novel method of magnetic induction-free abrasive wire sawing. The ferromagnetic wire is magnetized in a uniform magnetic field, forming a high-gradient magnetic field that separates into paramagnetic and diamagnetic regions. Paramagnetic abrasive grains are attracted to the paramagnetic region and adhere to the wire surface but are repelled from the diamagnetic region. The trajectory of the magnetic abrasive grains is analyzed in a mathematical model and in COMSOL Multiphysics simulations. The results are verified by test investigations on the motions and adsorption of the magnetic abrasive grains using a dynamic microscope system. The detailed grain trajectories are investigated in a numerical model. Because it actively transports grains toward the wire (where they can be transported to the sawing channel), our proposed method achieves more efficient wire sawing performance than traditional free abrasive wire sawing. Such efficient performance is highly sought in silicon wafering technologies, which are commonly used in the solar and semiconductor industries.

  10. Heat treatment effect on microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of Cr26 white cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shaoping; Shen, Yehui; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Dequan

    2015-01-01

    High chromium cast iron(HCCI) is taken as material of coal water slurry pump impeller, but it is susceptible to produce serious abrasive wear and erosion wear because of souring of hard coal particles. The research on optimization of heat treatments to improve abrasive wear properties of HCCI is insufficient, so effect of heat treatments on the microstructure, hardness, toughness, and wear resistance of Cr26 HCCI is investigated to determine the optimal heat treatment process for HCCI. A series of heat treatments are employed. The microstructures of HCCI specimens are examined by using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The hardness and impact fracture toughness of as-cast and heat treated specimens are measured. The wear tests are assessed by a Type M200 ring-on block wear tester. The results show the following: With increase of the quenching temperature from 950 °C to 1050 °C, the hardness of Cr26 HCCI increased to a certain value, kept for a time and then decreased. The optimal heat treatment process is 2 h quenching treatment at 1000 °C, followed by a subsequent 2 h tempering at 400 °C. The hardness of HCCI is related to the precipitation and redissolution of secondary carbides in the process of heat treatment. The subsequent tempering treatment would result in a slight decrease of hardness but increase of toughness. The wear resistance is much related to the "supporting" effect of the matrix and the "protective" effect of the hard carbide embedded in the matrix, and the wear resistance is further dependent on the hardness and the toughness of the matrix. This research can provide an important insight on developing an optimized heat treatment method to improve the wear resistance of HCCI.

  11. Contact air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  12. Solid Bonded Films or Monolithic Ceramics in Tracked Chains of Construction Equipments for Wear Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    case abrasive. The following experiments were performed as three-body abrasion and as unlubricated ( dry ) test without abrasive. Under 30 kN, the...practical operation, the undercarriage and the tracked chain can be sujected to abrasives or non- abrasive conditions. In consequence, dry test without

  13. Clinical measurement of tooth wear: Tooth wear indices

    PubMed Central

    López-Frías, Francisco J.; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Llamas-Carreras, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Attrition, erosion, and abrasion result in alterations to the tooth and manifest as tooth wear. Each classification corresponds to a different process with specific clinical features. Classifications made so far have no accurate prevalence data because the indexes do not necessarily measure a specific etiology, or because the study populations can be diverse in age and characteristics. Tooth wears (attrition, erosion and abrasion) is perceived internationally as a growing problem. However, the interpretation and comparison of clinical and epidemiological studies, it is increasingly difficult because of differences in terminology and the large number of indicators/indices that have been developed for the diagnosis, classification and monitoring of the loss of dental hard tissue. These indices have been designed to identify increasing severity and are usually numerical, none have universal acceptance, complicating the evaluation of the true increase in prevalence reported. This article considers the ideal requirements for an erosion index. A literature review is conducted with the aim of analyzing the evolution of the indices used today and discuss whether they meet the clinical needs and research in dentistry. Key words:Tooth wear, tooth wear indices, attrition, erosion, abrasion, abfraction. PMID:24558525

  14. Clinical measurement of tooth wear: Tooth wear indices.

    PubMed

    López-Frías, Francisco J; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Llamas-Carreras, José M; Segura-Egea, Juan J

    2012-02-01

    Attrition, erosion, and abrasion result in alterations to the tooth and manifest as tooth wear. Each classification corresponds to a different process with specific clinical features. Classifications made so far have no accurate prevalence data because the indexes do not necessarily measure a specific etiology, or because the study populations can be diverse in age and characteristics. Tooth wears (attrition, erosion and abrasion) is perceived internationally as a growing problem. However, the interpretation and comparison of clinical and epidemiological studies, it is increasingly difficult because of differences in terminology and the large number of indicators/indices that have been developed for the diagnosis, classification and monitoring of the loss of dental hard tissue. These indices have been designed to identify increasing severity and are usually numerical, none have universal acceptance, complicating the evaluation of the true increase in prevalence reported. This article considers the ideal requirements for an erosion index. A literature review is conducted with the aim of analyzing the evolution of the indices used today and discuss whether they meet the clinical needs and research in dentistry. Key words:Tooth wear, tooth wear indices, attrition, erosion, abrasion, abfraction.

  15. Abrasion resistance of medical glove materials.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Donna L; Schwerin, Matthew R; Kisielewski, Richard W; Kotz, Richard M; Chaput, Maria P; Varney, George W; To, Theresa M

    2004-01-15

    Due to the increasing demand for nonlatex medical gloves in the health-care community, there is a need to assess the durability of alternative glove materials. This study examines durability characteristics of various glove materials by abrasion resistance testing. Natural rubber latex (latex), polyvinyl chloride (vinyl), acrylonitrile butadiene (nitrile), polychloroprene (neoprene), and a styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS) were tested. All test specimens, with the exception of the vinyl, were obtained from surgical gloves. Unaged out-of-the-box specimens as well as those subjected to various degrees of artificial aging were included in the study. After the abrasion sequence, the barrier integrity of the material was assessed through the use of a static leak test. Other traditional tests performed on these materials were viral penetration to validate the abrasion data and tear testing for comparative purposes. The results indicate that specific glove-material performance is dependent upon the particular test under consideration. Most notably, abrasion, even in controlled nonsevere conditions, may compromise to varying degrees the barrier integrity of latex, vinyl, SEBS, nitrile, and neoprene glove materials. However, as evidenced by the results of testing three brands of neoprene gloves, the abrasion resistance of any one glove material may be significantly affected by variations in production processes.

  16. Wearing test with 2 different types of latex gloves with and without the use of a skin protection cream.

    PubMed

    Allmers, H

    2001-01-01

    72 subjects reporting symptoms indicating Type I hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves were included in this study. 44 of them had a positive prick test to NRL. They underwent wearing tests using 2 types of NRL gloves with high (n=63) and low (n=70) allergen contents. Unigloves Malaysia with a high allergen content caused positive skin reactions in 47% of SPT-positive and no IgE-negative subjects. After application of Hand Sense skin protection cream, the frequency of positive skin responses in wearing tests decreased to 30% in prick-test-positive subjects. The Biogel Diagnostic gloves with low allergen caused hypersensitivity with and without Hand Sense in 2 cases (5%) of the prick-test-positive. 60% of all test participants had a positive prick test to NRL. No prick-test-negative subjects showed any urticaria during the glove-wearing test. Our study demonstrates that high allergen contents in latex gloves frequently elicit skin responses in NRL-sensitized subjects. Since other skin protection creams have shown to increase allergic symptoms, it is encouraging to report that Hand Sense skin cream may hamper the uptake of allergens from gloves, thus decreasing allergic reactions.

  17. Wear of nanofilled dental composites at varying filler concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nanofiller concentration on the mechanisms of wear of a dental composite. Nanofilled composites were fabricated with a bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate polymer and 40 nm SiO2 filler particles at three filler loads (25, 50, and 65 wt %). The elastic modulus, flexural strength, and hardness of the composites and the unfilled resin were measured. The materials (n = 8) were tested in the modified wear testing device at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 cycles with 20N force at 1 Hz. A 33% glycerine lubricant and stainless steel antagonist were used. The worn composite and antagonist surfaces were analyzed with noncontact profilometry and SEM. The volumetric wear data indicated that there are significant differences between filler concentrations and cycles (p < 0.05). A trend was noted that increasing filler content beyond 25% decreased the wear resistance of the composites. Increasing filler content increased hardness and modulus and increased flexural strength up to 50% fill. SEM evaluation of the worn specimens indicated that the resin and 25% filled materials exhibited cracking and failed by fatigue and the 50 and 65% filled materials exhibited microcutting and failed by abrasive wear. Based on the results of this study, composite manufacturers are recommended to use a filler concentration between 25 and 50% when using nanosized filler particles.

  18. Testing and Analysis of NEXT Ion Engine Discharge Cathode Assembly Wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.; Foster, John E.; Soulas, George C.; Nakles, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Experimental and analytical investigations were conducted to predict the wear of the discharge cathode keeper in the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster. The ion current to the keeper was found to be highly dependent upon the beam current, and the average beam current density was nearly identical to that of the NSTAR thruster for comparable beam current density. The ion current distribution was highly peaked toward the keeper orifice. A deterministic wear assessment predicted keeper orifice erosion to the same diameter as the cathode tube after processing 375 kg of xenon. A rough estimate of discharge cathode assembly life limit due to sputtering indicated that the current design exceeds the qualification goal of 405 kg. Probabilistic wear analysis showed that the plasma potential and the sputter yield contributed most to the uncertainty in the wear assessment. It was recommended that fundamental experimental and modeling efforts focus on accurately describing the plasma potential and the sputtering yield.

  19. Characterization of protein degradation in serum-based lubricants during simulation wear testing of metal-on-metal hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Maskiewicz, Victoria K; Williams, Paul A; Prates, Sarah J; Bowsher, John G; Clarke, Ian C

    2010-08-01

    A size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC) method has been developed which is capable of separation and quantitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine serum globulin (BSG) components of serum-based lubricant (SBL) solutions. This allowed characterization of the stability profiles of these proteins when acting as lubricants during hip wear simulation, and identification of wear-specific mechanisms of degradation. Using cobalt-chromium metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints, it was observed that BSA remained stable for up to 3 days (215K cycles) of wear testing after which the protein degraded in a fairly linear fashion. BSG on the other hand, began to degrade immediately and in a linear fashion with a rate constant of 5% per day. Loss of both proteins occurred via the formation of high molecular weight aggregates which precipitated out of solution. No fragmentation of the polypeptide backbone of either protein was observed. Data obtained suggest that protein degradation was not due to microbial contamination, denaturation at the air-water interface, or frictional heating of articulating joint surfaces in these studies. We conclude that the primary source of protein degradation during MOM simulation testing occurs via high shear rates experienced by SBL solutions at articulating surfaces, possibly coupled with metal-protein interactions occurring as new and reactive metal surfaces are generated during wear testing. The development of this analytical methodology will allow new studies to clarify the role of SBL solutions in wear simulation studies and the interactions and lubricating properties of serum proteins with prosthetic surfaces other than MOM.

  20. End-of-Test Performance and Wear Characterization of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long-Duration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is developing the next-generation solar electric ion propulsion system with significant enhancements beyond the state-of-the-art NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) ion propulsion system to provide future NASA science missions with enhanced capabilities. A Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated in June 2005 to validate the thruster service life modeling and to quantify the thruster propellant throughput capability. Testing was recently completed in February 2014, with the thruster accumulating 51,184 hours of operation, processing 918 kg of xenon propellant, and delivering 35.5 MN-s of total impulse.As part of the test termination procedure, a comprehensive performance characterization was performed across the entire NEXT throttle table. This was performed prior to planned repairs of numerous diagnostics that had become inoperable over the course of the test. After completion of these diagnostic repairs in November 2013, a comprehensive end-of-test performance and wear characterization was performed on the test article prior to exposure to atmosphere. These data have confirmed steady thruster performance with minimal degradation as well as mitigation of numerous life limiting mechanisms encountered in the NSTAR design. Component erosion rates compare favorably to pretest predictions based on semi-empirical models used for the thruster service life assessment. Additional data relating to ion beam density profiles, facility backsputter rates, facility backpressure effects on thruster telemetry, and modulation of the neutralizer keeper current are presented as part of the end-of-test characterization. Presently the test article for the NEXT LDT has been exposed to atmosphere and placed within a clean room environment, with post-test disassembly and inspection underway.

  1. Etude de la degradation des refractaires aluminosiliceux par abrasion, chocs thermiques et corrosion par l'aluminium: Correlation et interaction des mecanismes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntakaburimvo, Nicodeme

    Aluminosilicate refractories used for melting and holding furnaces on which the present work was focused are submitted to mechanical abuse such as abrasion, mechanical impact and erosion, on one hand; and to chemical degradation by corrosion, as well as to thermal stresses, mostly due to thermal shocks; on the other hand. This thesis is focused on four main objectives. The first one is related to the designing of an experimental set-up allowing abrasion testing of refractories. The second deals with the separate study of the deterioration of aluminosilicate refractories by abrasion, thermal shock and corrosion. The third is the correlation between these three mechanisms while the fourth is related to the interaction between thermal shock and corrosion. One of the contributions of this thesis is the realisation of the above mentioned experimental set-up, which permits to carry out refractories abrasion testing, as well as at room and high temperature, in the absence or in the presence of molten metal. The fact of testing refractory resistance when it is submitted separately and simultaneously to the action of dynamic corrosion, erosion and abrasion leads to the studying of the influence of each of these three mechanisms on the other. One of the characteristics of the designed set-up is the fact that it allows to adjust the seventy testing conditions according to the mechanical resistance of the test material. The other important point is related to the fact the abrasion tests were carried out in such manner to permit degradation quantification, otherwise than by the traditional method of loss of weight measurement; particularly by measuring the wear depth and the residual material properties, such as the rupture force and the strength. A perfect correlation was observed between the wear depth and the loss of weight, both being negatively correlated with the residual rupture force. The abrasion resistance was found to be globally positively correlated with the

  2. Evaluation Of Saltstone Mixer Paddle Configuration For Improved Wear Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M. M.; Fowley, M. D.; Pickenheim, B. R.

    2012-09-27

    A soft metal with low wear resistance (6000 series aluminum), was used to minimize run time while maximizing wear rate. Two paddle configurations were tested, with the first four paddles after the augers replaced by the wear paddles. The first configuration was all flat paddles, with the first paddle not aligned with the augers and is consistent with present SPF mixer. The second configuration had helical paddles for the first three stages after the augers and a flat paddle at the fourth stage. The first helical paddle was aligned with the auger flight for the second configuration. The all flat paddle configuration wear rate was approximately double the wear rate of the helical paddles for the first two sets of paddles after the augers. For both configurations, there was little or no wear on the third and fourth paddle sets based on mass change, indicating that the fully wetted premix materials are much less abrasive than the un-wetted or partially wetted premix. Additionally, inspection of the wear surface of the paddles at higher magnification showed the flat paddles were worn much more than the helical and is consistent with the wear rates. Aligning the auger discharge flight with the first set of helical paddles was effective in reducing the wear rate as compared to the flat paddle configuration. Changing the paddle configuration from flat to helical resulted in a slight increase in rheological properties. Although, both tests produced grout-like material that is within the processing rage of the SPF, it should be noted that cement is not included in the premix and water was used rather than salt solution, which does affect the rheology of the fresh grout. The higher rheological properties from the helical wear test are most likely due to the reduced number of shearing paddles in the mixer. In addition, there is variation in the rheological data for each wear test. This is most likely due to the way that the dry feeds enter the mixer from the dry feeder. The

  3. Wear of gamma-crosslinked polyethylene acetabular cups against roughened femoral balls.

    PubMed

    McKellop, H; Shen, F W; DiMaio, W; Lancaster, J G

    1999-12-01

    Crosslinking of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene has been shown to markedly improve its wear resistance in clinical studies and laboratory tests using hip joint simulators. However, because most of the laboratory studies have been done under clean conditions using prosthesis-quality, highly polished counterfaces, there is concern regarding how well an intentionally crosslinked polyethylene acetabular cup will resist abrasion by a femoral ball that has been damaged by third-body abrasion in vivo. To investigate this, conventional and radiation crosslinked-remelted acetabular cups of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene were tested in a hip joint simulator bearing against smooth femoral balls and against balls with moderate and severe roughening. Cups were tested with and without aging to accelerate any oxidative degradation. The crosslinked cups were produced by exposing extruded GUR 4150 bar stock of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene to 5 Mrad gamma radiation under a partial vacuum and then the bars were remelted to extinguish residual free radicals. Artificial aging at 70 degrees C under 5 atm oxygen for 14 days induced negligible oxidation in the crosslinked and remelted material. Against smooth balls, the wear of the crosslinked cups, with or without aging, averaged approximately 15% of that of the conventional cups. Against the moderately rough balls, the wear rate of the conventional cups was unchanged, whereas the wear rate increased slightly for the nonaged and aged crosslinked cups, but was still only 26% and 20% of that of the conventional cups, respectively. Against extremely rough balls, the mean wear rates increased markedly for each material such that during the final 1 million cycle interval, the average wear rates of the nonaged and the aged crosslinked cups were 72% and 47% of that of the conventional cups, respectively. That is, the crosslinked polyethylene showed substantially better wear resistance than conventional polyethylene

  4. Modeling and Tool Wear in Routing of CFRP

    SciTech Connect

    Iliescu, D.; Fernandez, A.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.

    2011-01-17

    This paper presents the prediction and evaluation of feed force in routing of carbon composite material. In order to extend tool life and improve quality of the machined surface, a better understanding of uncoated and coated tool behaviors is required. This work describes (1) the optimization of the geometry of multiple teeth tools minimizing the tool wear and the feed force, (2) the optimization of tool coating and (3) the development of a phenomenological model between the feed force, the routing parameters and the tool wear. The experimental results indicate that the feed rate, the cutting speed and the tool wear are the most significant factors affecting the feed force. In the case of multiple teeth tools, a particular geometry with 14 teeth right helix right cut and 11 teeth left helix right cut gives the best results. A thick AlTiN coating or a diamond coating can dramatically improve the tool life while minimizing the axial force, roughness and delamination. A wear model has then been developed based on an abrasive behavior of the tool. The model links the feed rate to the tool geometry parameters (tool diameter), to the process parameters (feed rate, cutting speed and depth of cut) and to the wear. The model presented has been verified by experimental tests.

  5. Wear mechanisms and improvements of wear resistance in cobalt-chromium alloy femoral components in artificial total knee joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Que, Like

    Wear is one of the major causes of artificial total knee arthroplasty (TKA) failure. Wear debris can cause adverse reactions to the surrounding tissue which can ultimately lead to loosening of the prosthesis. The wear behavior of UHMWPE tibial components have been studied extensively, but relatively little attention has been paid to the CoCrMo femoral component. The goal of the present study was to investigate the wear mechanisms of CoCrMo femoral components, to study the effect of CoCrMo alloy surface roughness on the wear of UHMWPE, and to determine the effect of heat treatments on the wear resistance of the CoCrMo implant alloys. The surface roughness of twenty-seven retrieved CoCrMo femoral components was analyzed. A multiple station wear testing machine and a wear fixture attached to an MTS 858 bionix system were built and used for in vitro wear studies of the CoCrMo/UHMWPE bearing couple. Solution and aging treatments were applied to the CoCrMo alloys. A white light interference surface profilometer (WLISP) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to measure the surface roughness and to study wear mechanisms of CoCrMo alloy. An optical microscope was used for alloy microstructure study. X-ray diffraction tests were performed to identify alloy phase transformation after aging. The micro-structure, hardness, and wear resistance of the alloys were studied. Surface roughness was used to quantify alloy wear, and the minimum number of surface roughness measurements required to obtain a reliable and repeatable characterization of surface roughness for a worn alloy surface was determined. The surfaces of the retrieved CoCrMo femoral components appeared to be damaged by metal particles embedded in the UHMWPE tibial component and metal-on-metal wear due to UHMWPE tibial component through-wear. Surface roughness of the femoral components was not correlated with patient age, weight, sex, or length of implantation. In vitro wear tests showed that when the Co

  6. Effect of load on the friction-wear behavior of magnetron sputtered DLC film at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ze, Sun; Dejun, Kong

    2017-01-01

    A DLC (diamond-like carbon) film was deposited on a YT14 cemented carbide cutting tool by using magnetron sputtering. The surface-interfacial morphologies, chemical composition, and phases of the obtained DLC film were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction, respectively. The friction and wear characteristics of the DLC film were investigated under different loads, the distribution of the chemical elements on the worn tracks were analyzed by using a plane scan analysis, and the wear mechanism of the DLC film was also examined. The results showed that the DLC particles were uniformly covered on the substrate with a thickness of about 600 nm, and the diamond peaks at the crystal face of (1 1 1), and (2 2 0) appear at diffraction angles of 44.40, and 75.52°, respectively. The average coefficients of friction of the DLC film under loads of 2, 4, and 6 N were 0.65, 0.65, and 0.49, respectively, and the corresponding wear rates were 0.33  ×  10‑9, 0.26  ×  10‑9, and 0.25  ×  10‑9 mm3 N‑1 s‑1, respectively. Therefore, the film represents outstanding reducing friction and wear resistance. With the increasing wear loads, the atomic fraction of C decreased, while that of O increased; the oxidation reaction occurred in the wear test. The wear mechanisms under a load of 2 N were abrasive wear, adhesive wear and oxidation wear, while that under a load of 4 N were adhesive wear and oxidation wear, and that under the load of 6 N were only oxidation wear.

  7. The wear behavior between hardfacing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.; Wu, L.T.

    1996-11-01

    Hardface weld cladding in industry most commonly uses cobalt-based STELLITE Nos. 6 and 12 and nickel-based Colmonoy Nos. 56, 83, and 88 for plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding of 4140 steel. Frictional and abrasion wear of weld layers are compared with that of the widely used nitridized, low-level SKD6, SACM1 steel alloys and with centrifugal-cast nickel-based Colmonoy No. 68 bimetal. Experimental results show that cobalt alloys are not suitable for low-alloy steel frictional wear. However, nickel alloys are quite compatible. Resistance to abrasive wear increased in the experimental materials according to the level of hardness. Wear resistance was compromised in experimental materials when the hard phase was too dispersed.

  8. Diagnosis and management of dental wear.

    PubMed

    Harpenau, Lisa A; Noble, Warden H; Kao, Richard T

    2012-01-01

    Dental wear is loss of tooth structure resulting from erosion, attrition, abrasion and, possibly, abfraction. Clinical/experimental data suggest no single damaging mechanism, but rather simultaneous interaction of these destructive processes. The most important interaction is abrasion/attrition potentiated by dental erosion. Awareness of this pathosis is not well-appreciated by the public and dental professionals because the signs may be subtle. This article focuses on recognizing, diagnosing and managing dental wear. Dental wear is a challenging problem for clinicians because of the subtlety of early changes; confusion about the etiology of the problem; and the dilemma of when or how to manage the etiology. Unfortunately, failure to recognize and manage the process often results in inaction until the breakdown is severe. At that point, the structural breakdown is so advanced that major rehabilitative treatment often is needed. This introductory article discusses diagnosing and managing dental wear.

  9. Wear of steel by rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.; Pulford, C. T. R.

    1978-01-01

    Wear of a steel blade used as a scraper to abrade rubber surfaces has been found to take place much more rapidly on a cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber) surface than on a cis-polybutadiene surface, and much more rapidly in an inert atmosphere than in air. These observations are attributed to the direct attack upon steel of free-radical species generated by mechanical rupture of elastomer molecules during abrasion.

  10. Valve for abrasive material

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Harold S.

    1982-01-01

    A ball valve assembly for controlling the flow of abrasive particulates including an enlarged section at the bore inlet and an enlarged section at the bore outlet. A refractory ceramic annular deflector is positioned in each of the enlarged sections, substantially extending the useful life of the valve.

  11. Effect of Heat Treatment on Wear Resistance of Nickel Aluminide Coatings Deposited by HVOF and PTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benegra, M.; Santana, A. L. B.; Maranho, O.; Pintaude, G.

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the wear resistance of nickel aluminide coatings deposited using plasma transferred arc (PTA) and high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) processes. Wear resistance was measured in rubber wheel abrasion tests. In both deposition processes, the same raw material (nickel aluminide powder) was atomized and deposited on a 316L steel plate substrate. After deposition, specimens were subjected to thermal cycling, aiming solubilization and precipitation. Coatings deposited using PTA developed different microstructures as a result of the incorporation of substrate elements. However, despite the presence of these microstructures, they performed better than coatings processed using HVOF before the heat treatment. After thermal cycling, the superficial hardness after the wear tests for both processes was similar, resulting in similar mass losses.

  12. Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Functionally Graded Nano-SiC/2014Al Composites Produced by Powder Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Guo; Li, Chuan-Peng; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhu, Jia-Ning; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2017-02-01

    Functionally graded 2014Al/SiC composites (FGMs) with varying volume fractions (1-7%) of nano-SiC particulates (n-SiCp) were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The effect of n-SiCp content on corrosion and wear behaviors was studied. The microstructures of composites were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion behavior of the composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization scans in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Corrosion results show that corrosion current of composite layer with 3 vol.% n-SiC was much lower than that of 2014Al matrix. Mechanical properties of the composites were assessed by microhardness tests and ball-on-disk wear tests. As the applied load changed from 15 to 30 N, wear rates of the composites increased significantly and the wear mechanism transformed from mild to severe wear regime. It also shows that 3 vol.% n-SiCp/2014Al composite layer observed the lowest wear rate where adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms played a major role. These results suggest that the n-SiCp are effective candidates for fabricating FGMs for the applications demanding a tough core and a hard, wear or corrosion resisting surface.

  13. Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Functionally Graded Nano-SiC/2014Al Composites Produced by Powder Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Guo; Li, Chuan-Peng; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhu, Jia-Ning; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2016-12-01

    Functionally graded 2014Al/SiC composites (FGMs) with varying volume fractions (1-7%) of nano-SiC particulates (n-SiCp) were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The effect of n-SiCp content on corrosion and wear behaviors was studied. The microstructures of composites were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion behavior of the composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization scans in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Corrosion results show that corrosion current of composite layer with 3 vol.% n-SiC was much lower than that of 2014Al matrix. Mechanical properties of the composites were assessed by microhardness tests and ball-on-disk wear tests. As the applied load changed from 15 to 30 N, wear rates of the composites increased significantly and the wear mechanism transformed from mild to severe wear regime. It also shows that 3 vol.% n-SiCp/2014Al composite layer observed the lowest wear rate where adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms played a major role. These results suggest that the n-SiCp are effective candidates for fabricating FGMs for the applications demanding a tough core and a hard, wear or corrosion resisting surface.

  14. Effect of low temperature annealing on the wear properties of NITINOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukunda, Sriram; Nath. S, Narendra; Herbert, Mervin A.; Mukunda, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy is a wonder material that is a solution looking for problems. The material finds wide biomedical applications like endodontic files for root canal treatment and cardiovascular stents. This material has rendered the surgical procedure simple compared to that with the existing Stainless Steel (SS) or titanium ones. NiTi as an endodontic file would cause less discomfort to the patients in comparison to that with far stiffer SS or titanium ones. Here nearly equi-atomic 50:50 commercial NiTi rods were subjected to low temperature aging at 300 to 450°C. The wear resistance of the as-received and the heat-treated samples was studied using adhesive wear tests on hardened steel counter face. Abrasive wear tests were run against Alumina disc to simulate the working of endodontic drills and files against dental hard and soft tissues. The abrasive wear resistance is expected to be proportional to the Vickers Hardness of the material and is high for the 450°C heat-treated sample. A correlation between the mechanical properties and microstructures of this material is attempted

  15. The Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed WC: Metal Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Liam P.; Pilkington, Antony

    2014-09-01

    WC-based cermet coatings containing various metallic binders such as Ni, Co, and Cr are known for their superior tribological properties, particularly abrasion resistance and enhanced surface hardness. Consequently, these systems are considered as replacements for traditional hard chrome coatings in critical aircraft components such as landing gear. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a comparative study on the dry sliding wear behavior of three WC-based cermet coatings (WC-12Ni, WC-20Cr2C3-7Ni, and WC-10Co-4Cr), when deposited on carbon steel substrates. Ball on disk wear tests were performed on the coatings using a CSEM Tribometer (pin-on-disk) with a 6-mm ruby ball at 20 N applied load, 0.2 m/s sliding velocity, and sliding distances up to 2000 m. Analysis of both the coating wear track and worn ruby ball was performed using optical microscopy and an Alphastep-250 profilometer. The results of the study revealed both wear of the ruby ball and coated disks allowed for a comparison of both the ball wear and coating wear for the systems considered. Generally, the use of Co and Cr as a binder significantly improved the sliding wear resistance of the coating compared to Ni and/or Cr2C3.

  16. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins

    PubMed Central

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm2 and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm2of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics. PMID:27651887

  17. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins.

    PubMed

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm(2) and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm(2)of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  18. Modified Balance Error Scoring System (M-BESS) test scores in athletes wearing protective equipment and cleats

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Aftab Mohammad; Al Juma, Saad; Bhatti, Junaid Ahmad; Delaney, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Background Balance testing is an important part of the initial concussion assessment. There is no research on the differences in Modified Balance Error Scoring System (M-BESS) scores when tested in real world as compared to control conditions. Objective To assess the difference in M-BESS scores in athletes wearing their protective equipment and cleats on different surfaces as compared to control conditions. Methods This cross-sectional study examined university North American football and soccer athletes. Three observers independently rated athletes performing the M-BESS test in three different conditions: (1) wearing shorts and T-shirt in bare feet on firm surface (control); (2) wearing athletic equipment with cleats on FieldTurf; and (3) wearing athletic equipment with cleats on firm surface. Mean M-BESS scores were compared between conditions. Results 60 participants were recruited: 39 from football (all males) and 21 from soccer (11 males and 10 females). Average age was 21.1 years (SD=1.8). Mean M-BESS scores were significantly lower (p<0.001) for cleats on FieldTurf (mean=26.3; SD=2.0) and for cleats on firm surface (mean=26.6; SD=2.1) as compared to the control condition (mean=28.4; SD=1.5). Females had lower scores than males for cleats on FieldTurf condition (24.9 (SD=1.9) vs 27.3 (SD=1.6), p=0.005). Players who had taping or bracing on their ankles/feet had lower scores when tested with cleats on firm surface condition (24.6 (SD=1.7) vs 26.9 (SD=2.0), p=0.002). Conclusions Total M-BESS scores for athletes wearing protective equipment and cleats standing on FieldTurf or a firm surface are around two points lower than M-BESS scores performed on the same athletes under control conditions. PMID:27900181

  19. Sowing simulation tests of a pneumatic drill equipped with systems aimed at reducing the emission of abrasion dust from maize dressed seed.

    PubMed

    Biocca, Marcello; Conte, Elisa; Pulcini, Patrizio; Marinelli, Enzo; Pochi, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of dressed seed for spring sowing is a widespread practice to control some pests with reduced doses of chemical products. However some insecticides employed in maize seed dressing, namely belonging to the neonicotinoid family and fipronil, have been claimed to play a role in the decline of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Pneumatic drills used in maize sowing are charged with contributing to the dispersion of the abrasion dust produced by dressed seeds, favoring the contamination of the honeybee habitat. Different devices similar to air deflectors have been introduced on pneumatic drills in order to reduce dust drift. During previous field tests carried out by the authors during recent years reduction of dust concentration both in the air and at soil surface has been shown as a consequence of their application. As field tests are affected by the variability of environmental parameters (namely wind speed and direction) the results are not always reliable, comparable and of a general validity. This paper refers to a sowing simulation test system in which pneumatic drills can be tested at a fixed point under controlled conditions of the main environmental parameters. In the test area, protected by external influences, artificial wind conditions are created by means of a fan. The drill, suitably placed in the test area, operates the seed distribution "sur place" by means of an electric engine connected to the drill's driving wheel. A 22.5 m long sampling area, leeward with respect to the drill position, has been identified. Along the sampling area a series of Petri dishes has been placed, with the aim of capturing the depositing dust and providing the concentration of the active ingredients (a.i.) at ground level. At the same time, three air samplers with PTFE diskette filters have been used for the detection of the a.i. The test system has been used for the test of a pneumatic drill, equipped with and without air deflectors, using maize seed dressed with

  20. Friction, wear, transfer, and wear surface morphology of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Tribological studies at 25 C in a 50-percent-relative-humidity air atmosphere were conducted using hemispherically tipped 440 C HT (high temperature) stainless steel pins sliding against ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disks. The results indicate that sliding speed, sliding distance, contact stress and specimen geometry can markedly affect friction, UHMWPE wear, UHMWPE transfer and the type of wear mechanisms that occur. Adhesion appears to be the predominant wear mechanism; but after long sliding distances at slow speeds, heavy ridges of transfer result which can induce fatigue-like wear on the UHMWPE disk wear track. In one instance, abrasive wear to the metallic pin was observed. This was caused by a hard particle embedded in the UHMWPE disk wear track.

  1. Friction, wear, transfer and wear surface morphology of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Tribological studies at 25 C in a 50-percent-relative-humidity air atmosphere were conducted using hemispherically tipped 440 C HT (high temperature) stainless steel pins sliding against ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disks. The results indicate that sliding speed, sliding distance, contact stress and specimen geometry can markedly affect friction, UHMWPE wear, UHMWPE transfer and the type of wear mechanisms that occur. Adhesion appears to be the predominant wear mechanism; but after long sliding distances at slow speeds, heavy ridges of transfer result which can induce fatigue-like wear on the UHMWPE disk wear track. In one instance, abrasive wear to the metallic pin was observed. This was caused by a hard particle embedded in the UHMWPE disk wear track.

  2. Wear rate control of peek surfaces modified by femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammouti, S.; Pascale-Hamri, A.; Faure, N.; Beaugiraud, B.; Guibert, M.; Mauclair, C.; Benayoun, S.; Valette, S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the effect of laser texturing on the tribological properties of PEEK surfaces under a ball-on-flat contact configuration. Thus, surfaces with circular dimples of various diameters and depth were created. Tests were conducted with a normal load of 5 N and a sliding velocity of 0.01 m s-1, using bovine calf serum at 37.5 °C as a lubricant. The tribological conditions including the sliding frequency and the lubricant viscosity indicate that tests were performed under boundary lubrication regime. Results showed that discs with higher dimple depth exhibited higher friction coefficient and caused more abrasive wear on the ball specimen. Nevertheless, tribosystems (ball and disc) with dimpled disc surfaces showed a higher wear resistance. In the frame of our experiments, wear rates obtained for tribosystems including dimpled surfaces were 10 times lower than tribosystems including limited patterned or untextured surfaces. Applications such as design of spinal implants may be concerned by such a surface treatment to increase wear resistance of components.

  3. Localized and generalized simulated wear of resin composites.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, W W; Takamizawa, T; Erickson, R L; Tsujimoto, A; Latta, M; Miyazaki, M

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine the wear of resin composite materials using both a localized and generalized wear simulation model. Twenty specimens each of seven resin composites (Esthet•X HD [HD], Filtek Supreme Ultra [SU], Herculite Ultra [HU], SonicFill [SF], Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill [TB], Venus Diamond [VD], and Z100 Restorative [Z]) were subjected to a wear challenge of 400,000 cycles for both localized and generalized wear in a Leinfelder-Suzuki wear simulator (Alabama machine). The materials were placed in custom cylinder-shaped stainless steel fixtures. A stainless steel ball bearing (r=2.387 mm) was used as the antagonist for localized wear, and a stainless steel, cylindrical antagonist with a flat tip was used for generalized wear. A water slurry of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads was used as the abrasive media. A noncontact profilometer (Proscan 2100) with Proscan software was used to digitize the surface contours of the pretest and posttest specimens. AnSur 3D software was used for wear assessment. For localized testing, maximum facet depth (μm) and volume loss (mm(3)) were used to compare the materials. The mean depth of the facet surface (μm) and volume loss (mm(3)) were used for comparison of the generalized wear specimens. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test were used for data analysis of volume loss for both localized and generalized wear, maximum facet depth for localized wear, and mean depth of the facet for generalized wear. The results for localized wear simulation were as follows [mean (standard deviation)]: maximum facet depth (μm)--Z, 59.5 (14.7); HU, 99.3 (16.3); SU, 102.8 (13.8); HD, 110.2 (13.3); VD, 114.0 (10.3); TB, 125.5 (12.1); SF, 195.9 (16.9); volume loss (mm(3))--Z, 0.013 (0.002); SU, 0.026 (0.006); HU, 0.043 (0.008); VD, 0.057 (0.009); HD, 0.058 (0.014); TB, 0.061 (0.010); SF, 0.135 (0.024). Generalized wear simulation results were as follows: mean depth of facet (μm)--Z, 9.3 (3

  4. Monitoring of Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition through Oil and Wear Debris Analysis: A Full-Scale Testing Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2016-10-01

    Despite the wind industry's dramatic development during the past decade, it is still challenged by premature turbine subsystem/component failures, especially for turbines rated above 1 MW. Because a crane is needed for each replacement, gearboxes have been a focal point for improvement in reliability and availability. Condition monitoring (CM) is a technique that can help improve these factors, leading to reduced turbine operation and maintenance costs and, subsequently, lower cost of energy for wind power. Although technical benefits of CM for the wind industry are normally recognized, there is a lack of published information on the advantages and limitations of each CM technique confirmed by objective data from full-scale tests. This article presents first-hand oil and wear debris analysis results obtained through tests that were based on full-scale wind turbine gearboxes rated at 750 kW. The tests were conducted at the 2.5-MW dynamometer test facility at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The gearboxes were tested in three conditions: run-in, healthy, and damaged. The investigated CM techniques include real-time oil condition and wear debris monitoring, both inline and online sensors, and offline oil sample and wear debris analysis, both onsite and offsite laboratories. The reported results and observations help increase wind industry awareness of the benefits and limitations of oil and debris analysis technologies and highlight the challenges in these technologies and other tribological fields for the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers and other organizations to help address, leading to extended gearbox service life.

  5. Modeling of cumulative tool wear in machining metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, N.P.; Tan, V.K.; Oon, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are notoriously known for their low machinability because of the abrasive and brittle reinforcement. Although a near-net-shape product could be produced, finish machining is still required for the final shape and dimension. The classical Taylor`s tool life equation that relates tool life and cutting conditions has been traditionally used to study machinability. The turning operation is commonly used to investigate the machinability of a material; tedious and costly milling experiments have to be performed separately; while a facing test is not applicable for the Taylor`s model since the facing speed varies as the tool moves radially. Collecting intensive machining data for MMCs is often difficult because of the constraints on size, cost of the material, and the availability of sophisticated machine tools. A more flexible model and machinability testing technique are, therefore, sought. This study presents and verifies new models for turning, facing, and milling operations. Different cutting conditions were utilized to assess the machinability of MMCs reinforced with silicon carbide or alumina particles. Experimental data show that tool wear does not depend on the order of different cutting speeds since abrasion is the main wear mechanism. Correlation between data for turning, milling, and facing is presented. It is more economical to rank machinability using data for facing and then to convert the data for turning and milling, if required. Subsurface damages such as work-hardened and cracked matrix alloy, and fractured and delaminated particles are discussed.

  6. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  7. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  8. Abrasion of Candidate Spacesuit Fabrics by Simulated Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rogers, Kerry J.; Sheehy, Brennan H.

    2009-01-01

    A protocol has been developed that produced the type of lunar soil abrasion damage observed on Apollo spacesuits. This protocol was then applied to four materials (Kevlar (DuPont), Vectran (Kuraray Co., Ltd.), Orthofabric, and Tyvek (DuPont)) that are candidates for advanced spacesuits. Three of the four new candidate fabrics (all but Vectran) were effective at keeping the dust from penetrating to layers beneath. In the cases of Kevlar and Orthofabric this was accomplished by the addition of a silicone layer. In the case of Tyvek, the paper structure was dense enough to block dust transport. The least abrasive damage was suffered by the Tyvek. This was thought to be due in large part to its non-woven paper structure. The woven structures were all abraded where the top of the weave was struck by the abrasive. Of these, the Orthofabric suffered the least wear, with both Vectran and Kevlar suffering considerably more extensive filament breakage.

  9. A simple surrogate test method to rank the wear performance of prospective ceramic materials under hip prosthesis edge-loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Anthony P; Brannon, Rebecca M

    2014-02-01

    This research has developed a novel test method for evaluating the wear resistance of ceramic materials under severe contact stresses simulating edge loading in prosthetic hip bearings. Simply shaped test specimens - a cylinder and a spheroid - were designed as surrogates for an edge-loaded, head/liner implant pair. Equivalency of the simpler specimens was assured in the sense that their theoretical contact dimensions and pressures were identical, according to Hertzian contact theory, to those of the head/liner pair. The surrogates were fabricated in three ceramic materials: Al2 O3 , zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA), and ZrO2 . They were mated in three different material pairs and reciprocated under a 200 N normal contact force for 1000-2000 cycles, which created small (<1 mm(2) ) wear scars. The three material pairs were ranked by their wear resistance, quantified by the volume of abraded material measured using an interferometer. Similar tests were performed on edge-loaded hip implants in the same material pairs. The surrogates replicated the wear rankings of their full-scale implant counterparts and mimicked their friction force trends. The results show that a proxy test using simple test specimens can validly rank the wear performance of ceramic materials under severe, edge-loading contact stresses, while replicating the beginning stage of edge-loading wear. This simple wear test is therefore potentially useful for screening and ranking new, prospective materials early in their development, to produce optimized candidates for more complicated full-scale hip simulator wear tests.

  10. Fabrication and Wear Behavior Analysis on AlCrFeNi High Entropy Alloy Coating Under Dry Sliding and Oil Lubrication Test Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yipin; Wang, Shouren; Sun, Bin; Wang, Yan; Qiao, Yang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, AlCrFeNi high entropy alloy coating was fabricated on the surface of Q235 steel using hot pressing sintering process. The coating has the controlled thickness size and excellent mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD and hardness testing method were used to study the morphology, phase structure and hardness of high entropy alloys coating. The lattice distortion plays a significant role in increasing the hardness. Coating formation mechanism caused by the element diffusion under the hot pressing effect is also discussed in the paper. Simultaneously, the dry sliding and oil lubrication wear tests, wear morphology observation and wear mechanism discussion were completed. As the result shows, AlCrFeNi high entropy alloys coating exhibits superior wear resistance either at dry sliding or oil lubrication tests owing to its hard high entropy solid solution structure.

  11. Receiving Wear-Resistance Coverings Additives of Nanoparticles of Refractory Metals at a Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzakov, M. A.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Bykovskiy, D. P.; Andreev, A. O.; Birukov, V. P.; Markushov, Y. V.

    2016-02-01

    Laser cladding technology was used to conduct experiments on production of wear-resistant coatings with additive nanoparticles of refractory metals (WC, TaC). Mechanical testing of coating abrasion was made using Brinell-Howarth method. The obtained data was compared with wear- resistance of commercial powder containing WC. It was found that at a concentration 10-15% coating with nanopowder additives shows a dramatic increase in wear-resistance by 4-6 times as compared to carbon steel substrate. There were conducted metallurgical studies of coatings on inverse electron reflection. There was determined elemental composition of deposited coating and substrate, and microhardness measured. It was found that structure of deposited coating with nanoparticles is fine.

  12. Abrasive water jet cutting as a new procedure for cutting cancellous bone--in vitro testing in comparison with the oscillating saw.

    PubMed

    Schwieger, Karsten; Carrero, Volker; Rentzsch, Reemt; Becker, Axel; Bishop, Nick; Hille, Ekkehard; Louis, Hartmut; Morlock, Michael; Honl, Matthias

    2004-11-15

    The quality of bone cuts is assessed by the accuracy and biological potency of the cut surfaces. Conventional tools (such as saws and milling machines) can cause thermal damage to bone tissue. Water jet cutting is nonthermal; that is, it does not generate heat. This study investigates whether the abrasive jet cutting quality in cancellous bone with a biocompatible abrasive is sufficient for the implantation of endoprostheses or for osteotomies. Sixty porcine femoral condyles were cut with an abrasive water jet and with an oscillating saw. alpha-lactose-monohydrate was used as a biocompatible abrasive. Water pressure (pW = 35 and 70 MPa) and abrasive feed rate (m = 0.5, 1, and 2 g/s) were varied. As a measure of the quality of the cut surface the cutting gap angle (delta) and the surface roughness (Ra) were determined. The surface roughness was lowest for an abrasive feed rate of m = 2 g/s (jet direction: 39 +/- 16 microm, advance direction: 54 +/- 22 microm). However, this was still significantly higher than the surface roughness for the saw group (jet direction: 28 +/- 12 microm, advance direction: 36 +/- 19 microm) (p < 0.001 for both directions). At both pressure levels the greatest cutting gap angle was observed for a mass flow rate of m = 1 g/s (pW = 35 MPa: delta = 2.40 +/- 4.67 degrees ; pW = 70 MPa: delta = 4.13 +/- 4.65 degrees), which was greater than for m = 0.5 g/s (pW = 35 MPa: delta = 1.63 +/- 3.89 degrees ; pW = 70 MPa: delta = 0.36 +/- 1.70 degrees) and m = 2 g/s (pW =70 MPa: delta = 0.06 +/- 2.40 degrees). Abrasive water jets are suitable for cutting cancellous bone. The large variation of the cutting gap angle is, however, unfavorable, as the jet direction cannot be adjusted by a predefined value. If it is possible to improve the cutting quality by a further parameter optimization, the abrasive water jet may be the cutting technique of the future for robotic usage.

  13. High frequency circular translation pin-on-disk method for accelerated wear testing of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene as a bearing material in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Saikko, Vesa

    2015-01-21

    The temporal change of the direction of sliding relative to the ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component of prosthetic joints is known to be of crucial importance with respect to wear. One complete revolution of the resultant friction vector is commonly called a wear cycle. It was hypothesized that in order to accelerate the wear test, the cycle frequency may be substantially increased if the circumference of the slide track is reduced in proportion, and still the wear mechanisms remain realistic and no overheating takes place. This requires an additional slow motion mechanism with which the lubrication of the contact is maintained and wear particles are conveyed away from the contact. A three-station, dual motion high frequency circular translation pin-on-disk (HF-CTPOD) device with a relative cycle frequency of 25.3 Hz and an average sliding velocity of 27.4 mm/s was designed. The pins circularly translated at high frequency (1.0 mm per cycle, 24.8 Hz, clockwise), and the disks at low frequency (31.4mm per cycle, 0.5 Hz, counter-clockwise). In a 22 million cycle (10 day) test, the wear rate of conventional gamma-sterilized UHMWPE pins against polished CoCr disks in diluted serum was 1.8 mg per 24 h, which was six times higher than that in the established 1 Hz CTPOD device. The wear mechanisms were similar. Burnishing of the pin was the predominant feature. No overheating took place. With the dual motion HF-CTPOD method, the wear testing of UHMWPE as a bearing material in total hip arthroplasty can be substantially accelerated without concerns of the validity of the wear simulation.

  14. Degradation of nontoxic fouling-release coatings as a result of abrasion and long-term exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.E.; Baier, R.E.; Forsberg, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    Previous work by this research group demonstrates that methylsilicone-based coatings having critical surface tensions between 20 and 25 mN/m allow easy mechanical detachment of zebra mussel infestations and other fouling for at least 2 years. Continuing evaluations of the coated test panels and trash racks at test sites in western New York confirm and extend the 2-year findings. Coatings which, in addition, contain elutable oils display an apparent further resistance to initial colonization by zebra mussels, but this early benefit does not carry over to the brush-removal forces required for cleaning of the once-fouled coating. Several of the elastomeric methylsilicone coatings are prone to cutting and abrasion damage, limiting their suitability for heavy-duty use and/or situations requiring periodic cleaning. Since standard tests for abrasion and wear developed for paints are not applicable to elastomeric coatings, our laboratory is using a brush abrasion test to evaluate fouling-release coatings for an increasing series of wet brushing cycles.

  15. Wear Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis Research Center developed a tribometer for in-house wear tests. Implant Sciences Corporation (ISC), working on a NASA contract to develop coatings to enhance the wear capabilities of materials, adapted the tribometer for its own use and developed a commercial line of user-friendly systems. The ISC-200 is a pin-on-disk type of tribometer, functioning like a record player and creating a wear groove on the disk, with variables of speed and load. The system can measure the coefficient of friction, the wear behavior between materials, and the integrity of thin films or coatings. Applications include measuring wear on contact lenses and engine parts and testing disk drives.

  16. Abrasion of 6 dentifrices measured by vertical scanning interference microscopy

    PubMed Central

    PASCARETTI-GRIZON, Florence; MABILLEAU, Guillaume; CHAPPARD, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The abrasion of dentifrices is well recognized to eliminate the dental plaque. The aims of this study were to characterize the abrasive powders of 6 dentifrices (3 toothpastes and 3 toothpowders) and to measure the abrasion on a test surface by Vertical Scanning Interference microscopy (VSI). Material and Methods Bright field and polarization microscopy were used to identify the abrasive particles on the crude dentifrices and after prolonged washes. Scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis characterized the shape and nature of the particles. Standardized and polished blocks of poly(methylmethacrylate) were brushed with a commercial electric toothbrush with the dentifrices. VSI quantified the mean roughness (Ra) and illustrated in 3D the abraded areas. Results Toothpastes induced a limited abrasion. Toothpowders induced a significantly higher roughness linked to the size of the abrasive particles. One powder (Gencix® produced a high abrasion when used with a standard testing weight. However, the powder is based on pumice particles covered by a plant homogenate that readily dissolves in water. When used in the same volume, or after dispersion in water, Ra was markedly reduced. Conclusion Light and electron microscopy characterize the abrasive particles and VSI is a new tool allowing the analysis of large surface of abraded materials. PMID:24212995

  17. The Wear of Polymers by Transfer to Hard, Rough Surfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-27

    with polymer debris , and the maximum wear which occurs as the bearing area ratio is increased. Multiple traversal wear experiments were run at...abrasive scratches on polished surfaces [1]. It was also noted that in multiple traversal experiments the polymer wear debris collected in the low points on...the surface and eventually filled in the surface to the point where the normal load was supported by the debris . This process was accompanied by a

  18. Single-asperity contributions to multi-asperity wear simulated with molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, S. J.; Cihak-Bayr, U.; Bianchi, D.

    2016-03-01

    We use a molecular dynamics approach to simulate the wear of a rough ferrite surface due to multiple hard, abrasive particles under variation of normal pressure, grinding direction, and particle geometry. By employing a clustering algorithm that incorporates some knowledge about the grinding process such as the main grinding direction, we can break down the total wear volume into contributions from the individual abrasive particles in a time-resolved fashion. The resulting analysis of the simulated grinding process allows statements on wear particle generation, distribution, and stability depending on the initial topography, the grinding angle, the normal pressure, as well as the abrasive shape and orientation with respect to the surface.

  19. Effect of different concentrations of fluoride in dentifrices on dentin erosion subjected or not to abrasion in situ/ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, A C; Rios, D; Moino, A L; Wiegand, A; Attin, T; Buzalaf, M A R

    2008-01-01

    This in situ/ex vivo study assessed the effect of different concentrations of fluoride in dentifrices on dentin subjected to erosion or to erosion plus abrasion. Ten volunteers took part in this crossover and double-blind study performed in 3 phases (7 days). They wore acrylic palatal appliances containing 4 bovine dentin blocks divided in two rows: erosion and erosion plus abrasion. The blocks were subjected to erosion by immersion ex vivo in a cola drink (60 s, pH 2.6) 4 times daily. During this step, the volunteers brushed their teeth with one of three dentifrices D (5,000 ppm F, NaF, silica); C (1,100 ppm F, NaF, silica) and placebo (22 ppm F, silica). Then, the respective dentifrice slurry (1:3) was dripped on dentin surfaces. While no further treatment was performed in one row, the other row was brushed using an electric toothbrush for 30 s ex vivo. The appliances were replaced in the mouth and the volunteers rinsed with water. Dentin loss was determined by profilometry and analyzed by 2-way ANOVA/Bonferroni test (a = 0.05). Dentin loss after erosive-abrasive wear was significantly greater than after erosion alone. Wear was significantly higher for the placebo than for the D and C dentifrices, which were not significantly different from each other. It can be concluded that the presence of fluoride concentrations around 1,100 ppm in dentifrices is important to reduce dentin wear by erosion and erosion + abrasion, but the protective effect does not increase with fluoride concentration.

  20. A New Analysis Method of the Dry Sliding Wear Process Based on the Low Cycle Fatigue Theory and the Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi, Mohammad; Taheri, Ali Karimi; Bakhtiarydavijani, Amirhamed

    2014-03-01

    In the present work, a combination of a dynamic explicit finite element model and the low cycle fatigue theory is used to simulate the steady-state abrasive wear occurring between an as-cast eutectoid steel and a carbide-tungsten disk. While the low cycle fatigue theory has been used to model wear in softer non-ferrous alloys, this work shows its applicability and accuracy for use in harder alloys, such as the eutectoid steel used in this research which is strengthened with added chromium. The novelty of this work lies in calculating the Manson-Coffin relation constants from a coupled finite element model with experimental tests instead of the previously used Slip line method. The D Manson-Coffin constant, obtained around 2, is in agreement with previous works given in the literature showing that the low cycle fatigue is a general wear mechanism in the steady-state wear of the alloy tested in this work.

  1. Effects of Surface Modification and Bulk Geometry on the Biotribological Behavior of Cross-Linked Polyethylene: Wear Testing and Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Saiga, Kenichi; Taketomi, Shuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Kadono, Yuho; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Moro, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The wear and creep deformation resistances of polymeric orthopedic bearing materials are both important for extending their longevity. In this study, we evaluated the wear and creep deformation resistances, including backside damage, of different polyethylene (PE) materials, namely, conventional PE, cross-linked PE (CLPE), and poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)- (PMPC-) grafted CLPE, through wear tests and finite element analysis. The gravimetric and volumetric degrees of wear of disks (3 or 6 mm in thickness) of these materials against a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy pin were examined using a multidirectional pin-on-disk tester. Cross-linking and PMPC grafting decreased the gravimetric wear of the PE disks significantly. The volumetric wear at the bearing surface and the volumetric penetration in the backside of the 3-mm thick PE disk were higher than those of the 6-mm thick PE disk, regardless of the bearing material. The geometrical changes induced in the PE disks consisted of creep, because the calculated internal von Mises stress at the bearing side of all disks and that at the backside of the 3-mm thick disks exceeded their actual yield strengths. A highly hydrated bearing surface layer, formed by PMPC grafting, and a cross-linking-strengthened substrate of adequate thickness are essential for increasing the wear and creep deformation resistances. PMID:26583106

  2. Abrasion protection in process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Accetta, J.

    1996-07-01

    Process piping often is subjected to failure from abrasion or a combination of abrasion and corrosion. Abrasion is a complex phenomenon, with many factors involved to varying degrees. Hard, mineral based alumina ceramic and basalt materials are used to provide protection against abrasion in many piping systems. Successful life extension examples are presented from many different industries. Lined piping components require special attention with regard to operating conditions as well as design and engineering considerations. Economic justification involves direct cost comparisons and avoided costs.

  3. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Prototype Model 1R (PM1R) Ion Thruster and Propellant Management System Wear Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.; Sovey, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the NEXT wear test are presented. This test was conducted with a 36-cm ion engine (designated PM1R) and an engineering model propellant management system. The thruster operated with beam extraction for a total of 1680 hr and processed 30.5 kg of xenon during the wear test, which included performance testing and some operation with an engineering model power processing unit. A total of 1312 hr was accumulated at full power, 277 hr at low power, and the remainder was at intermediate throttle levels. Overall ion engine performance, which includes thrust, thruster input power, specific impulse, and thrust efficiency, was steady with no indications of performance degradation. The propellant management system performed without incident during the wear test. The ion engine and propellant management system were also inspected following the test with no indication of anomalous hardware degradation from operation.

  4. Advance Abrasion Resistant Materials for Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.

    2004-06-01

    The high-density infrared (HDI) transient-liquid coating (TLC) process was successfully developed and demonstrated excellent, enhanced (5 times higher than the current material and process) wear performance for the selected functionally graded material (FGM) coatings under laboratory simulated, in-service conditions. The mating steel component exhibited a wear rate improvement of approximately one and a half (1.5) times. After 8000 cycles of. wear testing, the full-scale component testing demonstrated that the coating integrity was still excellent. Little or no spalling was observed to occur.

  5. ADVANCED ABRASION RESISTANT MATERIALS FOR MINING

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, G.M.

    2004-04-08

    The high-density infrared (HDI) transient-liquid coating (TLC) process was successfully developed and demonstrated excellent, enhanced (5 times higher than the current material and process) wear performance for the selected functionally graded material (FGM) coatings under laboratory simulated, in-service conditions. The mating steel component exhibited a wear rate improvement of approximately one and a half (1.5) times. After 8000 cycles of wear testing, the full-scale component testing demonstrated that the coating integrity was still excellent. Little or no spalling was observed to occur.

  6. Microstructure and wear properties of LENS deposited medical grade CoCrMo.

    PubMed

    Janaki Ram, G D; Esplin, C K; Stucker, B E

    2008-05-01

    There is a growing interest in metal-on-metal bearing surfaces for orthopedic implants. Although some success has been achieved in applications like hip implants which involve a large contact area, non-conforming joints, such as knees, have proved more difficult. The current work examines the applicability of a novel additive manufacturing process, Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS), the registered trademark and service mark of Sandia National Laboratories and Sandia Corporation), for producing CoCrMo implants. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the optimum parameters for deposition of CoCrMo. Microstructural studies, hardness tests, and dry sand/rubber wheel abrasive wear tests were conducted on the LENS deposits. The results showed that metallurgically sound deposits can be produced using the LENS process under optimized conditions. The hardness of the LENS deposited CoCrMo was found to be comparable to that of standard CoCrMo wrought material; however, wear tests indicated that LENS deposits were considerably less resistant to abrasive wear than wrought CoCrMo. The reasons for this behaviour are discussed based on microstructural observations.

  7. Abrasion resistant composition

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Keith D; Barnes, Christopher A; Henderson, Stephen L

    2014-05-13

    A surface covering composition of abrasion resistant character adapted for disposition in overlying bonded relation to a metal substrate. The surface covering composition includes metal carbide particles within a metal matrix at a packing factor of not less than about 0.6. Not less than about 40 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter in the range of +14-32 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix. Not less than about 3 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter of +60 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix.

  8. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsley, M. Brad; Sebright, Jason L.

    2008-11-18

    Wear and corrosion of structures cuts across industries and continues to challenge materials scientists and engineers to develop cost effective solutions. Industries typically seek mature technologies that can be implemented for production with rapid or minimal development and have little appetite for the longer-term materials research and development required to solve complex problems. The collaborative work performed in this project addressed the complexity of this problem in a multi-year program that industries would be reluctant to undertake without government partnership. This effort built upon the prior development of Advanced Abrasion Resistant Materials conduct by Caterpillar Inc. under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41054. In this referenced work, coatings were developed that exhibited significant wear life improvements over standard carburized heat treated steel in abrasive wear applications. The technology used in this referenced work, arc lamp fusing of thermal spray coatings, was one of the primary technical paths in this work effort. In addition to extending the capability of the coating technology to address corrosion issues, additional competitive coating technologies were evaluated to insure that the best technology was developed to meet the goals of the program. From this, plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding was selected as the second primary technology that was investigated. Specifically, this project developed improved, cost effective surfacing materials and processes for wear and corrosion resistance in both sliding and abrasive wear applications. Materials with wear and corrosion performance improvements that are 4 to 5 times greater than heat treated steels were developed. The materials developed were based on low cost material systems utilizing ferrous substrates and stainless steel type matrix with hard particulates formed from borides and carbides. Affordability was assessed against other competing hard surfacing or coating

  9. Study on correlating rain erosion resistance with sliding abrasion resistance of DLC on germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardos, Michael N.; Soriano, Bonnie L.; Propst, Steven H.

    1990-12-01

    Whirling arm rain erosion tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) tribonietry were performed in parallel with germanium (Ge) flats coated with sputtered DLC films ranging in thickness from 0. 25 zin to ''1 in. Our aim was to establish some correlation between delamination resistance of the DLC under rain drop impact and under environmentallycontrolled tangential shear conditions. The DLC tested at rain erosion velocities of 112 156 and 201 in. s1 (250 350 and 450 mph) showed a correlation between DLC thickness and mnicrofracturecaused delamination where the pit density decreased and pit size increased with coating thickness. Sliding a CVD polycrystalline diamond covered a-SiC pin tip against DLC-coated e flats undr controlled loads speeds and in 1. 33 x 10 Pa (1 x 10 torr) vacuum of the SEM triboineter abrasively removed the thin films inunediately. The thick films lasted for 3 to 10 cycles followed by catastrophic delamination from the wear path in large flakes. The data indicate that delamination of the DLC under any of the test conditions is controlled mainly by the increasing internal stresses developing with progressively higher film thicknesses. These tests served as a prelixainary study using high temperature SEM tribometry measuring abrasion resistance of DLC and polycrystalline diamond films as an approximation for rain erosion resistance under ultrahigh velocity and thermal shock conditions. SPIE Vol. 1325 Diamond Optics /11 (1990) / 99

  10. Wear behaviors of HVOF sprayed WC-12Co coatings by laser remelting under lubricated condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejun, Kong; Tianyuan, Sheng

    2017-03-01

    A HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) sprayed WC-12Co coating was remelted with a CO2 laser. The surface-interface morphologies and phases were analyzed by means of SEM (scanning electron microscopy), and XRD (X-ray diffraction), respectively. The friction and wear behaviors of WC-12Co coating under the dry and lubricated conditions were investigated with a wear test. The morphologies and distributions of chemical elements on worn scar were analyzed with a SEM, and its configured EDS (energy diffusive spectrometer), respectively, and the effects of lubricated condition on COFs (coefficient of friction) and wear performance were also discussed. The results show that the adhesion between the coating and the substrate is stronger after laser remetling (LR), in which mechanical bonding, accompanying with metallurgical bonding, was found. At the load of 80 N, the average COF under the dry and lubricated friction conditions is 0.069, and 0.052, respectively, the latter lowers by 23.3% than the former, and the wear rate under the lubricated condition decreases by 302.3% than that under the dry condition. The wear mechanism under the dry and lubrication conditions is primarily composed of abrasive wear, cracking, and fatigue failure.

  11. The effects of abrasives on electrical submersible pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.L. )

    1990-06-01

    The electrical submersible pump (ESP) is a high-speed rotating device. Its operational life in oil wells can depend on the type and quantities of abrasives present in the produced fluid. This paper reports on a set of experiments performed in a specialized abrasive test loop. In the test, the size and quantity of abrasives were varied along with flow rate through the pump. This paper also examines recent literature on sand production and explores some of the practical problems in sand measurement.

  12. Wear Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Acetal Spur, Helical, Bevel and Worm Gears Using a TS Universal Test Rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Samy; Osman, T. A.; Abdalla, Abdelrahman H.; Zohdy, Gamal A.

    2015-12-01

    Although the applications of nanotechnologies are increasing, there remains a significant barrier between nanotechnology and machine element applications. This work aims to remove this barrier by blending carbon nanotubes (CNT) with common types of acetal polymer gears (spur, helical, bevel and worm). This was done by using adhesive oil (paraffin) during injection molding to synthesize a flange and short bars containing 0.02% CNT by weight. The flanges and short bars were machined using hobbing and milling machines to produce nanocomposite polymer gears. Some defects that surfaced in previous work, such as the appearance of bubbles and unmelted pellets during the injection process, were avoided to produce an excellent dispersion of CNT in the acetal. The wear resistances of the gears were measured by using a TS universal test rig using constant parameters for all of the gears that were fabricated. The tests were run at a speed of 1420 rpm and a torque of 4 Nm. The results showed that the wear resistances of the CNT/acetal gears were increased due to the addition of CNT, especially the helical, bevel and worm gears.

  13. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear debris generated in vivo and in laboratory tests; the influence of counterface roughness.

    PubMed

    Hailey, J L; Ingham, E; Stone, M; Wroblewski, B M; Fisher, J

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of counterface roughness and lubricant on the morphology of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear debris generated in laboratory wear tests, and to compare this with debris isolated from explanted tissue. Laboratory tests used UHMWPE pins sliding against stainless steel counterfaces. Both water and serum lubricants were used in conjunction with rough and smooth counterfaces. The lubricants and tissue from revision hip surgery were processed to digest the proteins and permit filtration. This involved denaturing the proteins with potassium hydroxide (KOH), sedimentation of any remaining proteins, and further digestion of these proteins with chromic acid. All fractions were then passed through a 0.2 micron membrane, and the debris examined using scanning electron microscopy. The laboratory studies showed that the major variable influencing debris morphology was counterface roughness. The rougher counterfaces produced larger numbers of smaller particles, with a size range extending below 1 micron. For smooth counterfaces there were fewer of these small particles, and evidence of larger platelets, greater than 10 microns in diameter. Analysis of the debris from explanted tissues showed a wide variation in the particle size distribution, ranging from below 1 micron up to several millimetres in size. Of major clinical significance in relation to osteolysis and loosening is roughening of the femoral components, which may lead to greater numbers of the sub-micron-sized particles.

  14. 3D FEM Simulation of Flank Wear in Turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attanasio, Aldo; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Giardini, Claudio

    2011-05-01

    This work deals with tool wear simulation. Studying the influence of tool wear on tool life, tool substitution policy and influence on final part quality, surface integrity, cutting forces and power consumption it is important to reduce the global process costs. Adhesion, abrasion, erosion, diffusion, corrosion and fracture are some of the phenomena responsible of the tool wear depending on the selected cutting parameters: cutting velocity, feed rate, depth of cut, …. In some cases these wear mechanisms are described by analytical models as a function of process variables (temperature, pressure and sliding velocity along the cutting surface). These analytical models are suitable to be implemented in FEM codes and they can be utilized to simulate the tool wear. In the present paper a commercial 3D FEM software has been customized to simulate the tool wear during turning operations when cutting AISI 1045 carbon steel with uncoated tungsten carbide tip. The FEM software was improved by means of a suitable subroutine able to modify the tool geometry on the basis of the estimated tool wear as the simulation goes on. Since for the considered couple of tool-workpiece material the main phenomena generating wear are the abrasive and the diffusive ones, the tool wear model implemented into the subroutine was obtained as combination between the Usui's and the Takeyama and Murata's models. A comparison between experimental and simulated flank tool wear curves is reported demonstrating that it is possible to simulate the tool wear development.

  15. Can pin-on-disk testing be used to assess the wear performance of retrieved UHMWPE components for total joint arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven M; MacDonald, Daniel W; Kocagöz, Sevi; Tohfafarosh, Mariya; Baykal, Doruk

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of using multidirectional pin-on-disk (POD) testing to characterize wear behavior of retrieved ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The POD wear behavior of 25 UHMWPE components, retrieved after 10 years in vivo, was compared with 25 that were shelf aged for 10-15 years in their original packaging. Components were gamma sterilized (25-40 kGy) in an air or reduced oxygen (inert) package. 9 mm diameter pins were fabricated from each component and evaluated against CoCr disks using a super-CTPOD with 100 stations under physiologically relevant, multidirectional loading conditions. Bovine serum (20 g/L protein concentration) was used as lubricant. Volumetric wear rates were found to vary based on the aging environment, as well as sterilization environment. Volumetric wear rates were the lowest for the pins in the gamma inert, shelf aged cohort. These results support the utility of using modern, multidirectional POD testing with a physiologic lubricant as a novel method for evaluating wear properties of retrieved UHMWPE components. The data also supported the hypothesis that wear rates of gamma-inert liners were lower than gamma-air liners for both retrieved and shelf aging conditions. However, this difference was not statistically significant for the retrieved condition.

  16. The Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Microarc Oxidation Composite Coatings Containing Nano-Hexagonal Boron Nitride (HBN) Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenwei; Di, Shichun

    2017-03-01

    The composite coatings containing HBN were prepared on 2024 aluminum alloy by microarc oxidation in the electrolyte with nano-HBN particles. The microstructure, surface roughness, phase composition, hardness, adhesion strength and wear resistance of composite coatings were analyzed by SEM, EDS, laser confocal microscope, XRD, Vickers hardness tester, scratch test and ball-on-disc abrasive tests. The results revealed that composite coatings were mainly composed of γ-Al2O3, α-Al2O3, mullite and HBN. With increasing the content of HBN particles in the electrolyte, the size and number of the pores on the surface of composite coatings decreased significantly. Compared to the MAO coatings without HBN, the composite coatings exhibited better wear resistance, as demonstrated by the lower friction coefficient and the lower wear rate.

  17. Self-healing Characteristics of Collagen Coatings with Respect to Surface Abrasion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-03-24

    A coating based on collagen with self-healing properties was developed for applications in mechanical components that are prone to abrasion due to contact with a counter surface. The inherent swelling behavior of collagen in water was exploited as the fundamental mechanism behind self-healing of a wear scar formed on the surface. The effects of freeze-drying process and water treatment of the collagen coatings on their mechanical and self-healing properties were analyzed. Water was also used as the medium to trigger the self-healing effect of the collagen coatings after the wear test. It was found that collagen coatings without freeze-drying did not demonstrate any self-healing effect whereas the coatings treated by freeze-drying process showed remarkable self-healing effect. Overall, collagen coatings that were freeze-dried and water treated showed the best friction and self-healing properties. Repeated self-healing ability of these coatings with respect to wear scar was also demonstrated. It was also confirmed that the self-healing property of the collagen coating was effective over a relatively wide range of temperature.

  18. Self-healing Characteristics of Collagen Coatings with Respect to Surface Abrasion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-01-01

    A coating based on collagen with self-healing properties was developed for applications in mechanical components that are prone to abrasion due to contact with a counter surface. The inherent swelling behavior of collagen in water was exploited as the fundamental mechanism behind self-healing of a wear scar formed on the surface. The effects of freeze-drying process and water treatment of the collagen coatings on their mechanical and self-healing properties were analyzed. Water was also used as the medium to trigger the self-healing effect of the collagen coatings after the wear test. It was found that collagen coatings without freeze-drying did not demonstrate any self-healing effect whereas the coatings treated by freeze-drying process showed remarkable self-healing effect. Overall, collagen coatings that were freeze-dried and water treated showed the best friction and self-healing properties. Repeated self-healing ability of these coatings with respect to wear scar was also demonstrated. It was also confirmed that the self-healing property of the collagen coating was effective over a relatively wide range of temperature. PMID:27010967

  19. Self-healing Characteristics of Collagen Coatings with Respect to Surface Abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-03-01

    A coating based on collagen with self-healing properties was developed for applications in mechanical components that are prone to abrasion due to contact with a counter surface. The inherent swelling behavior of collagen in water was exploited as the fundamental mechanism behind self-healing of a wear scar formed on the surface. The effects of freeze-drying process and water treatment of the collagen coatings on their mechanical and self-healing properties were analyzed. Water was also used as the medium to trigger the self-healing effect of the collagen coatings after the wear test. It was found that collagen coatings without freeze-drying did not demonstrate any self-healing effect whereas the coatings treated by freeze-drying process showed remarkable self-healing effect. Overall, collagen coatings that were freeze-dried and water treated showed the best friction and self-healing properties. Repeated self-healing ability of these coatings with respect to wear scar was also demonstrated. It was also confirmed that the self-healing property of the collagen coating was effective over a relatively wide range of temperature.

  20. Diamond-Fluoroplastic Composites for Abrasive Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrianova, O. A.; Kirillin, A. D.; Chersky, I. N.

    2001-07-01

    Composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and natural technical diamond powders from Yakutia diamond deposits are developed. It is shown that the compositions based on PTFE and a technical diamond powder at a content of up to 60 wt.%, due to their good physicomechanical characteristics, low friction coefficient, and good wetting of diamond particles by polymer, make is possible to create abrasive tools for polishing and grinding hard metals and semiprecious and precious stones with high serviceability and operational life combined with a considerable increase in the quality of treated surfaces and operational stability of the tools. It is found that PTFE, being a more elastic and softer matrix than the traditional ones, exhibits a self-sharpening effect of diamond grains upon grinding hard surfaces, when the grains go deep into the elastic matrix, the matrix wears out, and the working part of the tool becomes enriched with the diamond powder. These conclusions are confirmed by electron microscopic investigations. It is shown that the introduction of ultradisperse fillings (up to 2 wt.%) into such compositions allows us to improve the characteristics of abrasive tools considerably, especially for grinding hard semiprecious stones. The physicomechanical and frictional characteristics of the compositions and specific examples of their application in the jewelry industry and in stone working are discussed.

  1. Wearing gloves in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Infection control - wearing gloves; Patient safety - wearing gloves; Personal protective equipment - wearing gloves; PPE - wearing gloves; Nosocomial infection - wearing gloves; Hospital acquired infection - wearing gloves

  2. Study on torsional fretting wear behavior of a ball-on-socket contact configuration simulating an artificial cervical disk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Wang, Fei; Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Qingliang; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-10-01

    A ball-on-socket contact configuration was designed to simulate an artificial cervical disk in structure. UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) hot pressed by powders and Ti6Al4V alloy were selected as the material combination of ball and socket. The socket surface was coated by a ~500 nm C-DLC (carbon ion implantation-diamond like carbon) mixed layer to improve its surface nano hardness and wear resistance. The torsional fretting wear behavior of the ball-on-socket model was tested at different angular displacements under 25% bovine serum lubrication with an axial force of 100 N to obtain more realistic results with that in vivo. The fretting running regimes and wear damage characteristics as well as wear mechanisms for both ball and socket were studied based on 2D (two dimension) optical microscope, SEM (scanning electron microscope) and 3D (three dimension) profiles. With the increase of angular displacement amplitude from 1° to 7°, three types of T-θ (Torsional torque-angular displacement amplitude) curves (i.e., linear, elliptical and parallelogram loops) corresponding to running regimes of PSR (partial slip regime), MR (mixed regime) and SR (slip regime) were observed and analyzed. Both the central region and the edge zone of the ball and socket were damaged. The worn surfaces were characterized by wear scratches and wear debris. In addition, more severe wear damage and more wear debris appeared on the central region of the socket at higher angular displacement amplitude. The dominant damage mechanism was a mix of surface scratch, adhesive wear and abrasive wear for the UHMWPE ball while that for the coated socket was abrasive wear by PE particles and some polishing and rolling process on the raised overgrown DLC grains. The frictional kinetic behavior, wear type, damage region and damage mechanism for the ball-on-socket model revealed significant differences with those of a ball-on-flat contact while showing better consistency with that of in

  3. Comparative evaluation of surface properties of enamel and different esthetic restorative materials under erosive and abrasive challenges: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Makkar, Sameer; Kumar, Rajneesh; Pasricha, Shinam; Gupta, Pranav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Noncarious tooth surface loss is a normal physiological process occurring throughout the life, but it can often become a problem affecting function, esthetics or cause pain. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of erosive and abrasive challenges on the surface microhardness and surface wear of enamel and three different restorative materials, that is, nanofilled composite, microfilled composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) by using Vickers microhardness tester and profilometer respectively. Subjects and Methods: Nanofilled composite (Filtek™ Z350 × T), microfilled composite (Heliomolar®) and RMGIC (Fuji II LC) were used in the study. Results: Nanofilled composite resin has the best resistance to erosion and/or abrasion among all the materials tested, followed by microfilled composite and RMGIC respectively. Conclusion: Toothbrush abrasion has a synergistic effect with erosion on substance loss of human enamel, composites, and RMGIC. The susceptibility to acid and/or toothbrush abrasion of human enamel was higher compared to restorative materials. PMID:26752876

  4. Role of the Bogachev - Mints Concept of Metastability of Austenite in Choosing Wear-Resistant Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Filippov, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The significance of the Bogachev - Mints concept of metastability of austenite for the choice of strain-hardenable steel, cast iron, and facing alloys resisting mechanical kinds of wear (cavitation-, erosion-, and abrasion-induced) is discussed.

  5. Wear properties of polyethylene-metal and polyethylene-ceramic bearings for hip joint replacements: The effect of temperature and protein precipitation in hip simulator tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yen-Shuo

    Ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene (PE) cups bearing against metal or ceramic balls are the most commonly used combinations of materials for human hip joint replacements. The wear properties of these materials are typically evaluated in the laboratory using hip joint wear simulators, while lubricated with bovine serum. A previous test evaluating the PE cups against cobalt-chrome (CoCr), zirconia (Zr) and alumina balls demonstrated the sensitivity of serum proteins to elevated temperature; especially for Zr/PE, which showed the highest protein precipitation and bulk lubricant temperature but the lowest cup wear. In the present investigation, a temperature control system was used on a hip simulator to systematically evaluate the relationship between temperature and denaturation of the serum proteins which, in turn, affects the friction and wear properties of the prosthetic materials being tested. In order to control protein precipitation, the interface was temperature reduced by circulating coolant at 4°C through the center of the CoCr or Zr balls during a wear test. With cooling, protein assay of the serum showed 66% and 50% reductions in protein precipitation with the CoCr and Zr balls, respectively. The wear rate of the PE cups against the CoCr balls decreased by an average of 44%, whereas two of the three PE cups running against Zr balls exhibited slight increases in their wear rates, and the third showed a two fold increase. Under scanning electron microscopy, there were marked differences in the worn surfaces of the cups for the various conditions, and differences in the morphology of the PE wear debris recovered from the serum. For example, granular particles predominated without cooling, whereas fibrous particles predominated with cooling. Since particles generated in vivo (i.e., retrieved from periprosthetic tissues) typically show approximately equal proportions of granules and fibrils, the use of an intermediate coolant temperature might provide

  6. Computer modeling of wear in extrusion and forging of automotive exhaust valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulsyan, R.; Shivpuri, R.

    1995-04-01

    In an automotive engine valve forging process, the billet is cold sheared, induction heated, and fed to a mechanical press for a two-stage forging operation with the first stage being extrusion. The main limiting factor in this operation is the wear of the dies during the first stage, extrusion. In this study. abrasive wear was identified as the primary mode of wear, and computer simulation was used to investigate the effect of process variables, such as press speed, initial billet temperature, and die preheat temperature upon abrasive wear. The result generated by this study should be applicable to other part geometry and not limited just to exhaust valves.

  7. Cyanoacrylates and corneal abrasion.

    PubMed

    Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1989-01-01

    Cyanoacrylate-containing adhesives such as Super Glue, Krazy Glue, and a vast array of artificial nail adhesives are monomers which rapidly polymerize and bond in the presence of water or weak bases. Inadvertent contact with skin or tissue can also cause rapid bonding with resultant irritation. To assess the magnitude of problems associated with ocular contamination involving cyanoacrylates, a 12-month prospective study was conducted. 34 cases (21 adult and 13 pediatric) were collected. In all cases, contaminated eyes were thoroughly irrigated with tepid water for 15 minutes. 15 patients (44%) suffered a corneal abrasion, as determined by ophthalmic exam, necessitating treatment with antibiotics, cycloplegics, and patching. Individuals reporting complete resolution were irrigated with 20 minutes of exposure, while patients suffering mechanical injury delayed decontamination for a minimum of 15 minutes. In addition to immediate irrigation of eyes exposed to cyanoacrylates, we recommend an ophthalmologic evaluation to rule out the possibility of mechanical injury.

  8. Process monitoring evaluation and implementation for the wood abrasive machining process.

    PubMed

    Saloni, Daniel E; Lemaster, Richard L; Jackson, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    Wood processing industries have continuously developed and improved technologies and processes to transform wood to obtain better final product quality and thus increase profits. Abrasive machining is one of the most important of these processes and therefore merits special attention and study. The objective of this work was to evaluate and demonstrate a process monitoring system for use in the abrasive machining of wood and wood based products. The system developed increases the life of the belt by detecting (using process monitoring sensors) and removing (by cleaning) the abrasive loading during the machining process. This study focused on abrasive belt machining processes and included substantial background work, which provided a solid base for understanding the behavior of the abrasive, and the different ways that the abrasive machining process can be monitored. In addition, the background research showed that abrasive belts can effectively be cleaned by the appropriate cleaning technique. The process monitoring system developed included acoustic emission sensors which tended to be sensitive to belt wear, as well as platen vibration, but not loading, and optical sensors which were sensitive to abrasive loading.

  9. Wear rate quantifying in real-time using the charged particle surface activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.

    1997-02-01

    Surface activation, commonly known as Thin Layer Activation (TLA), is currently employed in over 30 accelerator laboratories around the world for wear and/or corrosion monitoring in industrial plants [1-6]. TLA was primarily designed and developed to meet requirements of potential industrial partners, in order to transfer this technique from research to industry. The method consists of accelerated ion bombardment of a surface of interest, e.g., a machine part subjected to wear. Loss of material owing to wear, erosive corrosion or abrasion is characterized by monitoring the resultant changes in radioactivity. In principle, depending upon the case at hand, one may choose to measure either the remnant activity of the component of interest or to monitor the activity of the debris. For applications of the second type, especially when a lubricating agent is involved, dedicated installations have been constructed and adapted to an engine or a tribological testing stand in order to assure oil circulation around an externally placed detection gauge. This way, the wear particles suspended in the lubricant can be detected and the material loss rates quantified in real time. Moreover, in specific cases, such as the one presented in this paper, remnant activity measurements prove to be useful tools for complementary results. This paper provides a detailed presentation of such a case: in situ resistance-to-wear testing of two types of piston rings.

  10. Friction and wear behaviors of compacted graphite iron with different biomimetic units fabricated by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Na; Shan, Hongyu; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Darong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xia, Wen; Ren, Luquan

    2012-07-01

    Mimicking the biological characters on the cuticles of pangolin scales, biomimetic units were fabricated on the surfaces of compacted graphite cast iron (CGI) with different unit materials using laser cladding process. The influences of various unit materials including TiC, WC, B4C and Al2O3 powders on the friction and wear behaviors of CGI were investigated. The wear resistance mechanism of biomimetic specimens was discussed. The results indicated that the wear resistance of biomimetic specimens cladding TiC was the best; the specimens cladding WC or B4C were in the middle; and the specimens cladding Al2O3 was the worst. The sequence of friction coefficient values of biomimetic specimens cladding different ceramic powders from high to low was B4C, TiC, WC and Al2O3. The wear mechanism of untreated specimen was mainly adhesion wear, abrasive wear as well as the oxidation wear, whereas the adhesive wear and abrasive wear was the main wear mechanism of the regions of substrate in biomimetic specimens and slight adhesion, abrasive wear and fatigue wear on the regions of biomimetic units.

  11. Correlation of microstructure with the wear resistance and fracture toughness of white cast iron alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipovic, M.; Kamberovic, Z.; Korac, M.; Gavrilovski, M.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this investigation was to set down (on the basis of the results obtained by the examination of white cast iron alloys with different contents of alloying elements) a correlation between chemical composition and microstructure, on one hand, and the properties relevant for this group of materials, i.e., wear resistance and fracture toughness, on the other. Experimental results indicate that the volume fraction of the eutectic carbide phase (M3C or M7C3) have an important influence on the wear resistance of white iron alloys under low-stress abrasion conditions. Besides, the martensitic or martensite-austenitic matrix microstructure more adequately reinforced the eutectic carbides, minimizing cracking and removal during wear, than did the austenitic matrix. The secondary carbides which precipitate in the matrix regions of high chromium iron also influence the abrasion behaviour. The results of fracture toughness tests show that the dynamic fracture toughness in white irons is determined mainly by the properties of the matrix. The high chromium iron containing 1.19 wt% V in the as-cast condition, showed the greater fracture toughness when compared to other experimental alloys. The higher toughness was attributed to strengthening during fracture, since very fine secondary carbide particles were present mainly in an austenitic matrix.

  12. Improvement in wear performance of surgical Ti-6Al-4V alloy by ion implantation of nitrogen or carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Buchanan, R.A.; Rigney, E.D. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    The effects of ion implantations of either nitrogen or carbon on the corrosive-wear performance of surgical Ti-6A1-4V alloy were investigated. In vitro tests made use of an apparatus which could produce certain chemical and mechanical aspects of a sliding interface such as that which occurs between alloy and polyethylene components of an artificial hip (or knee) joint. Cylindrical samples of the Ti alloy were rotated between loaded, conforming pads made of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) while these test components were immersed either in a saline solution or a saline solution with bovine serum added. During the tests open-circuit corrosion currents for the alloy were measured by the Tafel extrapolation technique. Profilometry studies were done before and after the tests. Alloy samples implanted with either nitrogen or carbon remained as-new for all test conditions. Unimplanted control samples were severely scored. Corrosion currents as measured under the mechanical action were reduced by a factor of approximately one hundred by the ion implantation treatments. It is concluded that nitrogen or carbon ion implantation produces a marked improvement in the corrosive wear performance of the alloy in these tests. It is inferred that abrasive wear is the dominant mechanism of material removal. In addition, apparently owing to reduction of wear debris in the sliding interface, ion treatment of the alloy greatly improves wear performance of the mating UHMWPE component. 11 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Effect of acetabular cup abduction angle on wear of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene in hip simulator testing.

    PubMed

    Korduba, Laryssa A; Essner, Aaron; Pivec, Robert; Lancin, Perry; Mont, Michael A; Wang, Aiguo; Delanois, Ronald E

    2014-10-01

    The effect of acetabular component positioning on the wear rates of metal-on-polyethylene articulations has not been extensively studied. Placement of acetabular cups at abduction angles of more than 40° has been noted as a possible reason for early failure caused by increased wear. We conducted a study to evaluate the effects of different acetabular cup abduction angles on polyethylene wear rate, wear area, contact pressure, and contact area. Our in vitro study used a hip joint simulator and finite element analysis to assess the effects of cup orientation at 4 angles (0°, 40°, 50°, 70°) on wear and contact properties. Polyethylene bearings with 28-mm cobalt-chrome femoral heads were cycled in an environment mimicking in vivo joint fluid to determine the volumetric wear rate after 10 million cycles. Contact pressure and contact area for each cup abduction angle were assessed using finite element analysis. Results were correlated with cup abduction angles to determine if there were any differences among the 4 groups. The inverse relationship between volumetric wear rate and acetabular cup inclination angle demonstrated less wear with steeper cup angles. The largest abduction angle (70°) had the lowest contact area, largest contact pressure, and smallest head coverage. Conversely, the smallest abduction angle (0°) had the most wear and most head coverage. Polyethylene wear after total hip arthroplasty is a major cause of osteolysis and aseptic loosening, which may lead to premature implant failure. Several studies have found that high wear rates for cups oriented at steep angles contributed to their failure. Our data demonstrated that larger cup abduction angles were associated with lower, not higher, wear. However, this potentially "protective" effect is likely counteracted by other complications of steep cup angles, including impingement, instability, and edge loading. These factors may be more relevant in explaining why implants fail at a higher rate if

  14. The nature of surfaces and their influence in wear mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The wear of materials is strongly dependent upon the nature of the solid surfaces in contact, their properties and the nature of their films. Oxide films, orientation, crystal transformations, adhesive binding, crystal structure, hardness, and the presence of alloying agents are all shown to affect one or more of the forms of wear. The three most common forms of wear, adhesive, abrasive, and corrosive, are discussed in terms of the way each is affected by various material properties. Results presented indicate how wear can be optimized by concern for properties of materials.

  15. Effect of different fluoride concentrations of experimental dentifrices on enamel erosion and abrasion.

    PubMed

    Moretto, M J; Magalhães, A C; Sassaki, K T; Delbem, A C B; Martinhon, C C R

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that fluoride products are able to reduce erosive tooth wear. Thus, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with different fluoride concentrations as well as of a low-fluoridated dentifrice supplemented with trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel erosion and abrasion. One hundred twenty bovine enamel blocks were assigned to the following experimental dentifrices: placebo, 1,100 microg F/g, 500 microg F/g plus 3% TMP and 5,000 microg F/g. The groups of enamel blocks were additionally subdivided into conditions of erosion (ERO) and of erosion plus abrasion (ERO + ABR). For 7 days, the blocks were subjected to erosive challenges (immersion in Sprite 4 times a day for 5 min each time) followed by a remineralizing period (immersion in artificial saliva between erosive challenges for 2 h). After each erosive challenge, the blocks were exposed to slurries of the dentifrices (10 ml/sample for 15 s). Sixty of the blocks were additionally abraded by brushing using an electric toothbrush (15 s). The alterations of the enamel were quantified using the Knoop hardness test and profilometry (measurements in micrometers). The data were analyzed using a 2-way ANOVA test followed by a Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05). In in vitro conditions, the 5,000 microg F/g and 500 microg F/g plus 3% TMP dentifrices had a greater protective effect when compared with the 1,100 microg F/g dentifrice, under both ERO and ERO + ABR conditions. The results suggest that dentifrices alone are not capable of completely inhibiting tooth wear.

  16. Influences of die channel angles on microstructures and wear behaviors of AZ61 wrought magnesium alloy fabricated by extrusion-shear process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hong-J.; Sun, Z.; Ou, Z.-W.

    2016-12-01

    Extrusion-shear (ES) process for magnesium alloy is a newly developed plastic deformation process, and ES process combines direct extrusion and two steps of ECAE (equal channel angular extrusion). To investigate the effects of the die channel angles on the microstructures and wear behaviors of AZ61 wrought magnesium alloy, the samples used in this study were fabricated by ES process with different die channel angles (120° and 135°). The microstructures of the samples were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (SEM). The cumulative strains in the ES process were predicted by approaches of numerical simulation and theoretical calculation. To characterize the wear resistance of the samples, pin-on-disk tests under dry sliding conditions with various normal loads and reciprocating frequencies were conducted. To define the wear mechanisms of AZ61 magnesium alloy, the worn surfaces after wear tests were analyzed by SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Based on the results obtained, die channel angles have significant influences on the grain refinements and wear behaviors of the samples. Decreasing channel angles of the ES die will not only refine the microstructures of magnesium alloys effectively and improve their harnesses, but also improve their wear resistance as decreasing channel angles results in higher friction coefficients and wear rates. With the increase in applied loads and frequencies, wear mechanisms change from mild wear (adhesion, abrasion and oxidation) to severe wear (delamination, plastic deformation and melting). In summary, the wear resistance of ES-processed AZ61 magnesium alloy could be improved by decreasing channel angles of ES dies.

  17. A comparative study of tribological behavior of plasma and D-gun sprayed coatings under different wear modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, G.; Prasad, K. U. M.; Rao, D. S.; Joshi, S. V.

    1998-06-01

    In recent years, thermal sprayed protective coatings have gained widespread acceptance for a variety of industrial applications. A vast majority of these applications involve the use of thermal sprayed coatings to combat wear. While plasma spraying is the most versatile variant of all the thermal spray processes, the detonation gun (D-gun) coatings have been a novelty until recently because of their proprietary nature. The present study is aimed at comparing the tribological behavior of coatings deposited using the two above techniques by focusing on some popular coating materials that are widely adopted for wear resistant applications, namely, WC-12% Co, A12O3, and Cr3C2-MCr. To enable a comprehensive comparison of the above indicated thermal spray techniques as well as coating materials, the deposited coatings were extensively characterized employing microstructural evaluation, microhardness measurements, and XRD analysis for phase constitution. The behavior of these coatings under different wear modes was also evaluated by determining their tribological performance when subjected to solid particle erosion tests, rubber wheel sand abrasion tests, and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests. The results from the above tests are discussed here. It is evident that the D-gun sprayed coatings consistently exhibit denser microstructures and higher hardness values than their plasma sprayed counterparts. The D-gun coatings are also found to unfailingly exhibit superior tribological performance superior to the corresponding plasma sprayed coatings in all wear tests. Among all the coating materials studied, D-gun sprayed WC-12%Co, in general, yields the best performance under different modes of wear, whereas plasma sprayed Al2O3 shows least wear resistance to every wear mode.

  18. Evaluation of particles released from single-wall carbon nanotube/polymer composites with or without thermal aging by an accelerated abrasion test.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Kondo, Akira; Shigeta, Masahiro; Endoh, Shigehisa; Uejima, Mitsugu; Ogura, Isamu; Naito, Makio

    2014-01-01

    To provide data required for assessing the environmental health and safety risks of nanocomposites, abrasion-induced particle release from single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/polymer composites with or without thermal aging were evaluated by a shot blast system. First, overall composite weight loss (i.e., overall particle release) as a result of shot blasting was measured. Incorporating 5 wt% SWCNTs in polystyrene (PS) matrix was observed to reduce overall particle release by approximately 30% compared with pure PS. Heat treatment of the 5 wt% SWCNT/PS composites at 100°C for 10 days induced very slight change in overall particle release due to shot blasting. However, heat treatment at 350°C for 1 hr greatly deteriorated the abrasion resistance of the composites, enhancing overall particle release. Second, to verify the existence and form of SWCNTs released from the composites, released particles were observed by electron microscopy. Micron-sized particles with protruding SWCNTs and submicron-sized SWCNT clusters were observed in the particles released from the composites. Heat treatment of the composites at 350°C for 1 hr enhanced SWCNT release, which mainly formed clusters or rope-like bundles.

  19. Wear and fatigue behavior of nano-structured dental resin composites.

    PubMed

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Ferracane, Jack L; Ferracane, Lucas L

    2006-07-01

    Theoretically, nano-structured dental resin composites are purported to have increased wear and fatigue resistance compared with microfill composites and may favor the achievement of restoratives with better long-term performance. This study sought to assess the behavior of nano-structured composites resulting from either abrasion and fatigue loading. Ten specimens (12 x 5 x 2.5 mm) were prepared from each of five composites: Ceram-X mono, Filtek Supreme, Grandio, Premise, and Heliomolar (serving as the microfill control). A surface profile was recorded using a three-dimensional profiling system, and the specimens were subjected to 10(5) cycles of three-body abrasion in the new OHSU oral wear simulator. A second profile was generated and the before and after profiles were fit and analyzed. The volume loss and maximum depth of the wear facet on each specimen were calculated. Another 30 specimens (25 x 2 x 2 mm) were tested for flexural fatigue limit (FFL) in four-point bending via the staircase method. The test was carried out until 10(4) cycles were completed or until fracturing the specimen. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test demonstrated greater volumetric loss for Grandio and Ceram-X than that observed for the remaining composites. Kruskal-Wallis and the least significant difference test ascertained that Heliomolar, Grandio, and Supreme showed significantly higher FFL than Ceram-X and Premise. In terms of wear and fatigue resistance, nano-structured composites may perform either similarly or comparatively worse than a microfilled composite.

  20. Enhanced wear resistivity of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass processed by high-pressure torsion under reciprocating dry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Soo-Hyun; Pi, Dong-Hai; Guo, Jing; Kato, Hidemi; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-05-01

    Wear properties of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are important for industrial applications as much as strength and ductility. Free volume of BMGs is a significant factor which decides wear mechanism and resistance. Increased free volume of a Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 BMG processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) affected wear resistance under dry reciprocating conditions. Two- and three-body abrasive wear as well as the delamination of oxide layers simultaneously operated during the wear tests of both as-cast and HPT-processed BMG (HPT-BMG). However, the HPT- BMG had a larger area of the oxide layers on a worn surface compared to the as-cast BMG at the early stage of the wear tests. The increased free volume by the HPT process resulted in ductile plastic deformation, prohibited crack propagation, and delayed delamination of the oxide layers. Therefore, the HPT-BMG had thicker oxide layers, which acted as an adequate protection and increased wear properties of the Zr-based BMG.

  1. Wear performance of neat and vitamin E blended highly cross-linked PE under severe conditions: The combined effect of accelerated ageing and third body particles during wear test.

    PubMed

    Affatato, Saverio; De Mattia, Jonathan Salvatore; Bracco, Pierangiola; Pavoni, Eleonora; Taddei, Paola

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of third-body particles on the in vitro wear behaviour of three different sets of polyethylene acetabular cups after prolonged testing in a hip simulator and accelerated ageing. Vitamin E-blended, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE_VE), cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and conventional polyethylene (STD_PE) acetabular cups were simulator tested for two million cycles under severe conditions (i.e. by adding third-body particles to the bovine calf serum lubricant). Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopic analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and crosslink density measurements were used to characterize the samples at a molecular level. The STD_PE cups had twice mass loss than the XLPE_VE components and four times than the XLPE samples; statistically significant differences were found between the mass losses of the three sets of cups. The observed wear trend was justified on the basis of the differences in cross-link density among the samples (XLPE>XLPE_VE>STD_PE). FTIR crystallinity profiles, bulk DSC crystallinity and surface micro-Raman crystallinity seemed to have a similar behaviour upon testing: all of them (as well as the all-trans and ortho-trans contents) revealed the most significant changes in XLPE and XLPE_VE samples. The more severe third-body wear testing conditions determined more noticeable changes in all spectroscopic markers with respect to previous tests. Unexpectedly, traces of bulk oxidation were found in both STD_PE (unirradiated) and XLPE (remelting-stabilized), which were expected to be stable to oxidation; on the contrary, XLPE_VE demonstrated a high oxidative stability in the present, highly demanding conditions.

  2. The influence of bone and bone cement debris on counterface roughness in sliding wear tests of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene on stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Caravia, L; Dowson, D; Fisher, J; Jobbins, B

    1990-01-01

    Studies of explanted hip prostheses have shown high wear rates of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) acetabular cups and roughening of the surface of the metallic femoral head. Bone and bone cement particles have also been found in the articulating surfaces of some joints. It has been proposed that bone or bone cement particles may cause scratching and deterioration in the surface finish of metallic femoral heads, thus producing increased wear rates and excessive amounts of wear debris. Sliding wear tests of UHMWPE pins on stainless steel have been performed with particles of different types of bone and bone cement added. Damage to the stainless steel counterface and the motion of particles through the interface have been studied. Particles of bone cement with zirconium and barium sulphate additives and particles of cortical bone scratched the stainless steel counterface. The cement particles with zirconium additive produced significantly greater surface damage. The number of particles entering the contact and embedding in the UHMWPE pin was dependent on particle size and geometry, surface roughness and contact stress. Particles are likely to cause surface roughening and increased wear rates in artificial joints.

  3. Dental abrasion as a cutting process.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Peter W; Wagner, Mark; Al-Fadhalah, Khaled; Almusallam, Abdulwahab S; Michael, Shaji; Thai, Lidia A; Strait, David S; Swain, Michael V; van Casteren, Adam; Renno, Waleed M; Shekeban, Ali; Philip, Swapna M; Saji, Sreeja; Atkins, Anthony G

    2016-06-06

    A mammalian tooth is abraded when a sliding contact between a particle and the tooth surface leads to an immediate loss of tooth tissue. Over time, these contacts can lead to wear serious enough to impair the oral processing of food. Both anatomical and physiological mechanisms have evolved in mammals to try to prevent wear, indicating its evolutionary importance, but it is still an established survival threat. Here we consider that many wear marks result from a cutting action whereby the contacting tip(s) of such wear particles acts akin to a tool tip. Recent theoretical developments show that it is possible to estimate the toughness of abraded materials via cutting tests. Here, we report experiments intended to establish the wear resistance of enamel in terms of its toughness and how friction varies. Imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to assess the damage involved. Damage ranged from pure plastic deformation to fracture with and without lateral microcracks. Grooves cut with a Berkovich diamond were the most consistent, suggesting that the toughness of enamel in cutting is 244 J m(-2), which is very high. Friction was higher in the presence of a polyphenolic compound, indicating that this could increase wear potential.

  4. Wear Behaviour of Al-6061/SiC Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium Al-6061 base composites, reinforced with SiC particles having mesh size of 150 and 600, which is fabricated by stir casting method and their wear resistance and coefficient of friction has been investigated in the present study as a function of applied load and weight fraction of SiC varying from 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 %. The dry sliding wear properties of composites were investigated by using Pin-on-disk testing machine at sliding velocity of 2 m/s and sliding distance of 2000 m over a various loads of 10, 20 and 30 N. The result shows that the reinforcement of the metal matrix with SiC particulates up to weight percentage of 35 % reduces the wear rate. The result also show that the wear of the test specimens increases with the increasing load and sliding distance. The coefficient of friction slightly decreases with increasing weight percentage of reinforcements. The wear surfaces are examined by optical microscopy which shows that the large grooved regions and cavities with ceramic particles are found on the worn surface of the composite alloy. This indicates an abrasive wear mechanism, which is essentially a result of hard ceramic particles exposed on the worn surfaces. Further, it was found from the experimentation that the wear rate decreases linearly with increasing weight fraction of SiC and average coefficient of friction decreases linearly with increasing applied load, weight fraction of SiC and mesh size of SiC. The best result has been obtained at 35 % weight fraction and 600 mesh size of SiC.

  5. Refractory Wear Mechanisms in the Nonferrous Metal Industry: Testing and Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregurek, D.; Ressler, A.; Reiter, V.; Franzkowiak, A.; Spanring, A.; Prietl, T.

    2013-11-01

    Nonferrous pyrometallurgical processes today operate at a high intensity requiring the best standards for the furnace refractory systems. From one plant to another, there is a range of process conditions such as temperature, slag chemistry, and feed types, and each of these parameters can influence refractory life. It is generally understood that process changes at plants can impact refractory life. The ability to test and understand refractory responses to a wide range of furnace operating conditions is therefore important. The RHI Technology Centre in Leoben, Austria is well equipped with laboratory and pilot plant facilities to evaluate refractory suitability over the range of conditions encountered in modern nonferrous pyrometallurgical systems. This article describes refractory testing at the RHI Technology Centre of the impact of two metallurgical slags on a number of different RHI test bricks. The slags were a fayalite slag and a calcium ferrite slag supplied by two smelter plants. High-temperature corrosion tests were carried out in a 250-mm-diameter induction furnace and a 165-mm-diameter short rotary kiln; each unit was lined with a number of refractory bricks and tested against attack by the particular slag. After testing, the refractory bricks were subjected to several laboratory tests to determine the extent of corrosion. Optimal refractory choices for the customers' plants were developed based on the test results.

  6. A 100 Hour Wear Test of the NASA NSTAR Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, J. E.; Patterson, M. J.; Brown, J. R.; Rawlin, V. K.; Sovey, J. S.; Myers, R. M.; Blandino, J. J.; Goodfellow, K. D.; Garner, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    In a NASA program to validate 30 cm Xenon ion thruster technology for use in planetary missions a combination of analysis and testing is being used to establish engine reliability. Five long duration tests are planned to identify new failure mechanisms and characterize the parameters which drive known damage accumulation failure modes.

  7. Development of wear-resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components. Volume 1, Coating development and tribological testing: Final report: DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, M.G.S.

    1992-06-01

    The tribological properties of a variety of advanced coating materials have been evaluated under conditions which simulate the piston ring -- cylinder liner environment near top ring reversal in a heavy duty diesel engine. Coated ``ring`` samples were tested against a conventional pearlitic grey cast iron liner material using a high temperature reciprocating wear test rig. Tests were run with a fresh CE/SF 15W40lubricant at 200 and 350{degrees}C, with a high-soot, engine-tested oil at 200{degrees}C and with no lubrication at 200{degrees}C. For lowest wear under boundary lubricated conditions, the most promising candidates to emerge from this study were high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) Cr{sub 3} C{sub 2} - 20% NiCr and WC - 12% Co cermets, low temperature arc vapor deposited (LTAVD) CrN and plasma sprayed chromium oxides. Also,plasma sprayed Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} materials were found to give excellent wear resistance in unlubricated tests and at extremely high temperatures (450{degrees}C) with a syntheticoil. All of these materials would offer substantial wear reductions compared to the conventional electroplated hard chromium ring facing and thermally sprayed metallic coatings, especially at high temperatures and with high-soot oils subjected to degradation in diesel environments. The LTAVD CrN coating provided the lowest lubricated wear rates of all the materials evaluated, but may be too thin (4 {mu}m) for use as a top ring facing. Most of the coatings evaluated showed higher wear rates with high-soot, engine-tested oil than with fresh oil, with increases of more than a factor of ten in some cases. Generally, metallic materials were found to be much more sensitive to soot/oil degradation than ceramic and cermet coatings. Thus, decreased ``soot sensitivity`` is a significant driving force for utilizing ceramic or cermet coatings in diesel engine wear applications.

  8. Abrasion behavior of aluminum and composite skin coupons, stiffened skins and stiffened panels representative of transport airplane structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    A three-phase investigation was conducted to compare the friction and wear response of aluminum and graphite-epoxy composite materials when subjected to loading conditions similar to those experienced by the skin panels on the underside of a transport airplane during an emergency belly landing on a runway surface. The first phase involved a laboratory test which used a standard belt sander to provide the sliding abrasive surface. Small skin-coupon test specimens were abraded over a range of pressures and velocities to determine the effects of these variables on the coefficient of friction and wear rate. The second phase involved abrading I-beam stiffened skins on actual runway surface over the same range of pressures and velocities used in the first phase. In the third phase, large stiffened panels which most closely resembled transport fuelage skin construction were abraded on a runway surface. This report presents results from each phase of the investigation and shows comparisons between the friction and wear behavior of the aluminum and graphite-epoxy composite materials.

  9. Development of a synovial fluid analogue with bio-relevant rheology for wear testing of orthopaedic implants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alan M; Fleming, Leigh; Wudebwe, Uchena; Bowen, James; Grover, Liam M

    2014-04-01

    The rheological properties of synovial fluid (SF) are crucial to the performance of joint prostheses. During the development of joint prostheses, wear tests are performed, which simulate joint movements in diluted solutions (usually between 25 and 33% v/v) of bovine serum which has very different rheological properties compared with native SF, where rheology is maintained by hyaluronan. Consequently, there is a need to develop a more suitable artificial SF. In this study, we used rheological techniques to understand SF flow properties which provided an insight into the mechanical behaviour required of a practical SF analogue. Steady-shear viscosity measurements were performed to reveal changes as a function of shear rate. To analyse the viscoelastic properties small deformation oscillatory measurements of storage modulus (G') loss modulus (G″) and complex viscosity (η(⁎)) were made. The rheological properties of the SF where compared with those of the polysaccharides sodium alginate, gellan gum and mixtures of both polymers. Initial results revealed classic shear thinning behaviour for the SF with a small Newtonian plateau at low shear rates with a gradual reduction in viscosity with increasing shear rate. Viscoelasticity measurements also showed that at low frequencies of oscillation there was a viscous response with G″ greater than G' and at higher frequencies there was an elastic response. Rheological properties were found to be similar to that of a 50:50 mix of 2% w/v high molecular weight alginate and 0.75% w/v gellan gum. Importantly, the lubricating behaviour of the serum differed significantly from the biopolymer blend over a full range of sliding velocities. The biopolymer blend was shown to lubricate the opposing surfaces more effectively. This difference was attributed to the more rapid alignment of the polysaccharide during shear when compared with the bovine albumin (the most abundant protein in serum), which typically exhibits a globular

  10. Wear particle analysis using the ferrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The use of the Ferrograph in analyzing wear particles from a variety of different sources is reported. Examples of wear particles from gas turbine engines, bearing tests, friction and wear tests, hydraulic systems, and human joints are illustrated. In addition, the separation of bacteria and human cells is described.

  11. Wear characteristics from the extended lift test of the DS1 flight spare ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, A.; Brophy, J. R.; Goodfellow, K. D.

    2003-01-01

    An on-going life test of the Deep Space One flight spare ion thruster, is being conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The thruster has operated for over 27,290 hours and processed in excess of 219 kg of xenon propellant.

  12. 16 CFR 1610.34 - Only uncovered or exposed parts of wearing apparel to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... procedures set forth in § 1610.6. (b) If the outer layer of plastic film or plastic-coated fabric of a...—Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film. If the outer layer adheres to all or a portion of one... characteristics of the film or coating, the uncovered or exposed layer shall be tested in accordance with...

  13. 16 CFR 1610.34 - Only uncovered or exposed parts of wearing apparel to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures set forth in § 1610.6. (b) If the outer layer of plastic film or plastic-coated fabric of a...—Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film. If the outer layer adheres to all or a portion of one... characteristics of the film or coating, the uncovered or exposed layer shall be tested in accordance with...

  14. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-05-01

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry1,2,3. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago1. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear. First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test. All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  15. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-05-04

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear.First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test.All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  16. The potential of deciduous and permanent bovine enamel as substitute for deciduous and permanent human enamel: Erosion-abrasion experiments.

    PubMed

    Attin, Thomas; Wegehaupt, Florian; Gries, David; Wiegand, Annette

    2007-10-01

    Aim of the present study was to compare toothbrushing abrasion of eroded human and bovine enamel utilizing a toothpaste slurry. The surfaces of each 36 teeth from cattle and calves and from each 36 human wisdom teeth and deciduous teeth were polished. Each 12 specimens from the respective tooth type were used for assessing toothbrushing abrasion only (A), erosion only (E) and the combination of erosion and toothbrushing abrasion (EA). The EA samples were subjected to 20 cycles comprising a demineralization/remineralization procedure directly followed by toothbrushing abrasion (100 strokes, 300 g load, toothpaste slurry: 3 ml artificial saliva mixed with 1g dentifrice). Demineralization in form of erosion was performed with 1% citric acid (1 min), remineralization with artificial saliva (15 min). Between the cycles, the samples were stored in artificial saliva. Wear of the treated surfaces with reference to untreated areas was determined profilometrically. The samples subjected to abrasion only (A) did not show a significantly different wear between the different kinds of teeth. The comparisons of substance loss between teeth of different species revealed that hard tissue loss of the human deciduous teeth was significantly lower as compared to calves' teeth after both erosion and erosion-abrasion. Also, both erosion only and erosion-abrasion caused higher enamel loss in cattle's teeth than in human wisdom teeth. It is concluded that human eroded enamel offers better resistance against brushing than bovine enamel.

  17. Materials selection for abrasive duty

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    The abrasion of equipment caused by the throughput of large volumes of solids or dust is a major problem in mining, handling and processing minerals such as coal and limestone, and in the disposal of waste products such as ash. Loss of material from the surfaces over which these materials pass is caused by the combined effects of impact abrasion, sliding abrasion, and chemical attack. Factors which affect these processes include properties of the conveying medium, and properties of the solids, such as particle size, structural composition, size mix, as well as the velocity of the material, the bulk volume of material passing, and the frequency of plant operation. Guidelines are given for materials selection and the use of linings in the coal handling plant, pulverized coal pipework, and ash disposal plant is reviewed for coal-fired power plants.

  18. Effects of surface grinding conditions on the reciprocating friction and wear behavior of silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Zanoria, E.S.

    1997-12-31

    The relationship between two significantly different surface grinding conditions and the reciprocating ball-on-flat friction and wear behavior of a high-quality, structural silicon nitride material (GS-44) was investigated. The slider materials were silicon nitride NBD 200 and 440C stainless steel. Two machining conditions were selected based on extensive machining and flexural strength test data obtained under the auspices of an international, interlaboratory grinding study. The condition categorized as {open_quotes}low strength{close_quote} grinding used a coarse 80 grit wheel and produced low flexure strength due to machining-induced flaws in the surface. The other condition, regarded as {open_quotes}high strength grinding,{close_quotes} utilized a 320 grit wheel and produced a flexural strength nearly 70% greater. Grinding wheel surface speeds were 35 and 47 m/s. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted following the procedure described in a newly-published ASTM standard (G- 133) for linearly-reciprocating wear. Tests were performed in directions both parallel and perpendicular to the grinding marks (lay) using a 25 N load, 5 Hz reciprocating frequency, 10 mm stroke length, and 100 m of sliding at room temperature. The effects of sliding direction relative to the lay were more pronounced for stainless steel than for silicon nitride sliders. The wear of stainless steel was less than the wear of the silicon nitride slider materials because of the formation of transfer particles which covered the sharp edges of the silicon nitride grinding grooves and reduced abrasive contact. The wear of the GS-44 material was much greater for the silicon nitride sliders than for the stainless steel sliders. The causes for the effects of surface-grinding severity and sliding direction on friction and wear of GS-44 and its counterface materials are explained.

  19. [Grinding of titanium. 1. Commercial and experimental wheels made of silicon carbide abrasives].

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, O; Watanabe, K; Okawa, S; Nakano, S; Shiokawa, N; Kobayashi, M; Tamura, H

    1990-01-01

    Cast titanium was ground with commercial and experimental wheels made of silicon carbide abrasives, and their grinding performance was investigated. With the vitrified wheels made of the GC abrasive, at a higher the wheel circumferential speed and heavier the grinding pressure, the cutting rate was greater, accompanied by violent wear of the wheel. Being independent of the wheel speed, the grinding ratio reached about 1 under pressure heavier than 100 gf. The MgO-MgCl2-bonded wheels of the C abrasive exhibited a similar tendency. The manner in which the wheel was moved over the work during grinding proved to be very important, compared with the Ni-Cr alloy as reported previously. Only depression of the wheel against the work resulted in chemical attrition of the abrasive and discoloration of the work surface, or grinding burn, due to oxidation of titanium. Even when the wheel was moved over the work, chip-formation process of the cutting edge was far from ideal, and the work surface was contaminated due to reaction of titanium with the abrasive. At a higher wheel circumferential speed, more chips were loaded or built-up in the wheel and strongly rubbed the work surface, resulting in violent wear of the wheel; loading and dislodging of such chips were repeated.

  20. Cover and Erosion Asymmetry in Saltation-Abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, C. P.; Parker, G.

    2014-12-01

    Erosion in bedrock-floored rivers is both driven and limited by the amount of sediment transported along the bed. Some sediment boosts wear rates, whereas too much generates a protective cover. This phenomenon determines the shape of river channels in a variety of landscapes and limits how fast they evolve. Here we reevaluate data from a well-known bedrock wear experiment to throw new light on how the saltation-abrasion process. Instead of a symmetric form for erosion versus sediment flux relative to transport capacity, we find the erosion rate peak shifts towards lower sediment fluxes when blocking of oblique saltation trajectories is taken into account. The theoretical context for this reevaluation is a cover-saltation-abrasion model, based on queueing theory (QT), for bedload transport over a planar bedrock bed. The QT approach provides some clarity in the stochastic treatment of granular impacts and cover, and generates closed-form solutions for wear rate in terms of sediment flux and simplified saltation geometry. Applied to the Sklar & Dietrich (2001) experiments in a very small recirculating flume, the two-parameter QT model fits the observed relation between erosion rate and sediment load, infers sediment flux as a function of load, admits non-negligible wear rates for a mean sediment depth of one grain, i.e., for full cover on average, but also suggests that bedrock erosion is blocked at >=50% instantaneous cover. The QT model makes testable predictions for future laboratory experiments and highlights the need for specific improvements in more comprehensive treatments of bedrock erosion and cover.

  1. Brushing abrasion of eroded dentin after application of sodium fluoride solutions.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Zirkel, C; Hellwig, E

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of sodium fluoride solutions on brushing abrasion of eroded dentin. Dentin specimens were prepared from 60 bovine incisors. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin, ground flat, polished and subsequently covered with tape exposing an area of 1.8 mm x 10.0 mm in the center of the exposed dentin. The samples were alternatingly stored in a demineralizing solution (5 min) and a remineralizing solution (1 min) for 5 times. The erosive soft drink Sprite light(R) served as a demineralizing solution and artificial saliva was used as a remineralizing solution. Prior to storage in artificial saliva 15 specimens were each treated for 1 min with 250 and 2,000 ppm fluoride solution, respectively. Fifteen specimens were treated with distilled water instead of the fluoride solution (= eroded controls). The remaining samples were neither eroded with the soft drink nor fluoridated (= uneroded controls). After each immersion in artificial saliva the specimens were submitted to abrasion in a toothbrushing machine. After 5 demineralization-remineralization brushing cycles the total amount of tooth wear due to erosion and subsequent abrasion was profilometrically evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed the significantly lowest wear in the uneroded controls and the highest amount of abrasion in the eroded controls. Application of the fluoride solutions increased the wear resistance of the eroded dentin specimens, showing significantly better protection by the high-concentration compared to the low-concentration solution. The susceptibility to abrasion of the eroded dentin specimens treated with the high-concentration fluoride solution did not differ significantly from the uneroded dentin samples. It is concluded that application of 2,000 ppm sodium fluoride solutions immediately before toothbrushing significantly reduces abrasion of eroded dentin in vitro.

  2. Damage tolerant functionally graded materials for advanced wear and friction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prchlik, Lubos

    The research work presented in this dissertation focused on processing effects, microstructure development, characterization and performance evaluation of composite and graded coatings used for friction and wear control. The following issues were addressed. (1) Definition of prerequisites for a successful composite and graded coating formation by means of thermal spraying. (2) Improvement of characterization methods available for homogenous thermally sprayed coating and their extension to composite and graded materials. (3) Development of novel characterization methods specifically for FGMs, with a focus on through thickness property measurement by indentation and in-situ curvature techniques. (4) Design of composite materials with improved properties compared to homogenous coatings. (5) Fabrication and performance assessment of FGM with improved wear and impact damage properties. Materials. The materials studied included several material systems relevant to low friction and contact damage tolerant applications: MO-Mo2C, WC-Co cermets as materials commonly used sliding components of industrial machinery and NiCrAlY/8%-Yttria Partially Stabilized Zirconia composites as a potential solution for abradable sections of gas turbines and aircraft engines. In addition, uniform coatings such as molybdenum and Ni5%Al alloy were evaluated as model system to assess the influence of microstructure variation onto the mechanical property and wear response. Methods. The contact response of the materials was investigated through several techniques. These included methods evaluating the relevant intrinsic coating properties such as elastic modulus, residual stress, fracture toughness, scratch resistance and tests measuring the abrasion and friction-sliding behavior. Dry-sand and wet two-body abrasion testing was performed in addition to traditional ball on disc sliding tests. Among all characterization techniques the spherical indentation deserved most attention and enabled to

  3. A modified version of the combined in-diffusion/abrasive peeling technique for measuring diffusion of strongly sorbing radionuclides in argillaceous rocks: a test study on the diffusion of caesium in Opalinus Clay.

    PubMed

    Van Loon, Luc R; Müller, Werner

    2014-08-01

    A filter free diffusion set-up was developed for measuring the diffusion of strongly sorbing radionuclides in indurated argillaceous rocks such as Opalinus Clay (OPA) that normally disintegrate when contacted with a solution. Small bore cores drilled parallel to the bedding plane and embedded in epoxy resin were found to be stable and could be used for performing in-diffusion measurements. The method was tested with the diffusion of caesium, spiked with caesium-134, in Opalinus Clay. The profile of Cs in the clay sample was determined with a modified version of the abrasive peeling technique. The diffusion parameters obtained for caesium were in fair agreement with those determined earlier using the classical through-diffusion technique where stainless steel filters were used to confine the samples.

  4. Abrasive tip treatment for use on compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    A co-spray process was used which simultaneously but separately introduces abrasive grits and metal matrix powder into the plasma stream and entraps the abrasive grits within a molten matrix to form an abrasive coating as the matrix material solidifies on test specimen surfaces. Spray trials were conducted to optimize spray parameter settings for the various matrix/grit combinations before actual spraying of the test specimens. Rub, erosion, and bond adhesion tests were conducted on the coated specimens in the as-sprayed condition as well as on coated specimens that were aged for 100 hours at a temperature of 866K (1100 F). Microscopic examinations were performed to determine the coating abrasive-particle content, the size and shape of the adhesive particles in the coating, and the extent of compositional or morphological changes resulting from the aging process. A nickel chromium/aluminum composite with No. 150 size (0.002 to 0.005 inch) silicon carbide grits was selected as the best matrix/abrasive combination of the candidates surveyed for coating compressor blade tips.

  5. NASA interdisciplinary collaboration in tribology. A review of oxidational wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, T. F. J.

    1983-01-01

    An in-depth review of oxidational wear of metals is presented. Special emphasis is given to a description of the concept of oxidational wear and the formulation of an Oxidational Wear Theory. The parallelism between the formation of an oxide film for dry contact conditions and the formation of other surface films for a lubricated contact is discussed. The description of oxidational wear is prefaced with a unification of wear modes into two major classes of mild and severe wear including both lubricated and dry contacts. Oxidational wear of metals is a class of mild wear where protective oxide films are formed at real areas of contact and during the time of contact at temperataure T sub c. When the oxide reaches a critical thickness, frequently in the range of 1 to 3 microns, the oxide breaks up and eventually appears as a wear particle. These oxides are preferentially formed on plateaux which alternately carry the load as they reach their critical thickness and are removed. If the system is operated at elevated temperatures, thick oxides can form both out of contact and between the plateaux. Temperature is important in determining the structure of the oxide film present. Spinel oxide (Fe3O4) which forms above 300 C is more protective than the lower temperature rhomobohedral (alpha-Fe2O3) oxide which is abrasive. An Oxidational Wear Theory is derived using a modified Archard wear law expressed in terms of activation energy (Qp) and Arrhenius constant (Ap).

  6. Increasing the wear resistance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene by adding solid lubricating fillers

    SciTech Connect

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Poltaranin, M. A.; Ivanova, L. R.; Suan, T. Nguen

    2014-11-14

    In order to compare effectiveness of adding solid lubricating fillers for polymeric composites based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with graphite, molybdenum disulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene, their tribotechnical characteristics under dry friction, boundary lubrication and abrasive wearing were investigated. The optimal weight fractions of fillers in terms of improving wear resistance have been determined. The supramolecular structure and topography of wear track surfaces of UHMWPE-based composites with different content of fillers have been studied.

  7. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Melissa H X; Hill, Robert G; Anderson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38-80 μm) versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm) in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p < 0.05) despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine.

  8. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Melissa H. X.; Hill, Robert G.; Anderson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38–80 μm) versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm) in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p < 0.05) despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine. PMID:26697067

  9. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2009-11-01

    The work summarized here comprises the concluding effort of a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies. It supports the development of a better understanding of advanced diesel engine designs in which enhanced power density, energy efficiency, and emissions control place increasing demands upon the durability of engine materials. Many kinds of metallic alloys are used in engines depending on the operating stresses, temperatures, and chemical environments. Exhaust valves, for example, are subjected to high temperatures and repetitive surface contacts that place demands on durability and frictional characteristics of the materials. Valves must continue to seal the combustion chamber properly for thousands of hours of cyclic engine operation and under varying operating conditions. It was the focus of this effort to understand the wear processes in the valve-seat area and to develop a model for the surface deformation and wear of that important interface. An annotated bibliography is provided to illustrate efforts to understand valve wear and to investigate the factors of engine operation that affect its severity and physical manifestation. The project for which this modeling effort was the final task, involved construction of a high-temperature repetitive impact test system as well as basic tribology studies of the combined processes of mechanical wear plus oxidation at elevated temperatures. Several publications resulted from this work, and are cited in this report. The materials selected for the experimental work were high-performance alloys based on nickel and cobalt. In some cases, engine-tested exhaust valves were made available for wear analysis and to ensure that the modes of surface damage produced in experiments were simulative of service. New, production-grade exhaust valves were also used to prepare test specimens for experimental work along with the other alloy samples. Wear analysis of valves and seats

  10. A fundamental review of the friction and wear behavior of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    The basic concepts associated with the friction and wear of materials are discussed as they relate to ceramics. Properties of ceramics such as crystal structure, crystallographic orientation, mechanical deformation, and surface chemistry are reviewed as they influence friction and wear. Both adhesive and abrasive wear of ceramics are discussed. The friction and wear of ceramics are examined in contact with themselves and when in contact with metals. The influences of environmental constituents such as water and hydrocarbons on friction and wear are reviewed. Materials discussed, by way of example, include aluminum oxide, rutile, calcium fluoride, and lithium fluoride.

  11. A fundamental review of the friction and wear behavior of ceramics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    The basic concepts associated with the friction and wear of materials are discussed as they relate to ceramics. Properties of ceramics such as crystal structure, crystallographic orientation, mechanical deformation and surface chemistry are reviewed as they influence friction and wear. Both adhesive and abrasive wear of ceramics are discussed. The friction and wear of ceramics are examined in contact with themselves and when in contact with metals. The influences of environmental constituents such as water and hydrocarbons on friction and wear are reviewed. Materials discussed, by way of example, include aluminum oxide, rutile, calcium fluoride, and lithium fluoride.

  12. New concepts in air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Porth, R N

    1998-03-01

    There is no doubt that air abrasion is going to be part of the millennial shift in dentistry away from traditional treatment modalities. With the change in incidence and morphology of caries as a result of the hardening effect of fluoride on enamel, this ability to remove only decayed areas and permanently seal the less susceptible areas becomes increasingly desirable.

  13. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall... Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-1964. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall... Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-1964. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall... Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-1964. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall... Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-1964. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding...

  17. Abrasion of Candidate Spacesuit Fabrics by Simulated Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rogers, Kerry J.; Sheehy, Brennan H.

    2009-01-01

    A protocol has been developed that produced the type of lunar soil abrasion damage observed on Apollo spacesuits. This protocol was then applied to four materials (Kevlar(Registered TradeMark), Vectran(Registered TradeMark), Orthofabric, and Tyvek(Registered TradeMark)) that are candidates for advanced spacesuits. Three of the four new candidate fabrics (all but Vectran(Registered TradeMark)) were effective at keeping the dust from penetrating to layers beneath. In the cases of Kevlar(Registered TradeMark) and Orthofabric this was accomplished by the addition of a silicone layer. In the case of Tyvek , the paper structure was dense enough to block dust transport. The least abrasive damage was suffered by the Tyvek(Registered TradeMark). This was thought to be due in large part to its non-woven paper structure. The woven structures were all abraded where the top of the weave was struck by the abrasive. Of these, the Orthofabric suffered the least wear, with both Vectran(Registered TradeMark) and Kevlar(Registered TradeMark) suffering considerably more extensive filament breakage.

  18. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullová, Daša; Đurčanská, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  19. Wear behavior of electroless Ni-P-W coating under lubricated condition - a Taguchi based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Arkadeb; Duari, Santanu; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Sahoo, Prasanta

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims to investigate the tribological behavior of electroless Ni-P-W coating under engine oil lubricated condition to ascertain its suitability in automotive applications. Coating is deposited onto mild steel specimens by the electroless method. The experiments are carried out on a pin - on - disc type tribo tester under lubrication. Three tribotesting parameters namely the applied normal load, sliding speed and sliding duration are varied at their three levels and their effects on the wear depth of the deposits are studied. The experiments are carried out based on the combinations available in Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array (OA). Optimization of the tribo-testing parameters is carried out using Taguchi's S/N ratio method to minimize the wear depth. Analysis of variance carried out at a confidence level of 99% indicates that the sliding speed is the most significant parameter in controlling the wear behavior of the deposits. Coating characterization is done using scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques. It is seen that the wear mechanism under lubricated condition is abrasive in nature.

  20. Structure characterization and wear performance of NiTi thermal sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinca, N.; Isalgué, A.; Fernández, J.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2010-08-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) has been studied for many years for its shape memory and pseudoelastic properties, as well as its biocompatibility, which make it suitable for many biomedical applications. However, SMA NiTi is also interesting for relevant wear resistance near the transition temperature which, along with its high oxidation and corrosion resistance, suggests its use as a coating to increase the lifetime of some components. Also, whereas bulk material properties have been characterized in respect of the nominal composition, manufacturing methods and thermo-mechanical treatments, NiTi overlays have been investigated much less. Most existent works in this field specifically deal with magnetron sputtering technology for thin films and its use in micro-devices (micro-electro-mechanical systems, MEMS), just some works refer to vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) for thicker coatings. The present paper explores and compares the microstructure and wear-related properties of coatings obtained from atomized NiTi powders, by VPS as well as by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) techniques. In the present case, the wear behaviour of the NiTi deposits has been studied by rubber-wheel equipment and ball-on-disk tests. The results obtained at room temperature show that the APS-quenched coatings exhibit a preferential dry sliding wear mechanism, while the VPS and HVOF coatings show an abrasive mechanism.

  1. Comparison microstructure and sliding wear properties of nickel-cobalt/CNT composite coatings by DC, PC and PRC current electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karslioglu, Ramazan; Akbulut, Hatem

    2015-10-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) alloys and Ni-Co/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite coatings were prepared under direct current (DC), pulse current (PC) and pulse reverse current (PRC) methods. The effect of different deposition currents on the surface microstructure, crystallographic structure, microhardness, and reciprocating sliding wear behavior were investigated. MWCNT co-deposition caused to modify Ni-Co surface morphology, decrease in grain size, and increase in surface roughness, since MWCNTs effected the deposition mechanisms of Ni-Co alloy. The nanocomposite coatings deposited using PC and PRC deposition exhibited significant improvement in microhardness and wear resistance due to unique enhanced reinforcement of MWCNTs in Ni-Co coatings. Reciprocating sliding wear tests evidenced that co-deposition of MWCNTs provided effective load bearing ability and self-lubrication between the friction surfaces. However, the friction coefficient increases for all the nanocomposites produced with DC, PC and PRC methods showed to be increased. In the Ni-Co alloy coatings, the predominant wear mechanisms was delamination caused by fatigue micro cracking whereas in the MWCNT co-deposited composites wear mechanism showed abrasive grooves and plastic deformation due to decreased real contact area.

  2. Gin saw wear test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most current gin saw manufacturers use a 1074 steel or similar as a basis to manufacture their saw blades. The saw teeth are individually punched on the edges of the blades and then the blade goes through a heat treating process prior to use. There are indications from other industries with similar ...

  3. A Profilometric Study to Assess the Role of Toothbrush and Toothpaste in Abrasion Process

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar Singh, Siddharth; Gupta, Anjali; Roy, Sayak; Sareen, Mohit; Khajuria, Sarang

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Despite of many studies conducted on toothbrushes and toothpaste to find out the culprit for abrasion, there is no clear cut evidence to pin point the real cause for abrasion. Purpose An in vitro assessment of the role of different types of toothbrushes (soft/ medium/hard) in abrasion process when used in conjunction with and without a dentifrice. Materials and Method Forty five freshly extracted, sound, human incisor teeth were collected for this study. Enamel specimens of approximately 9 mm2 were prepared by gross trimming of extracted teeth using a lathe machine (Baldor 340 Dental lathe; Ohio, USA). They were mounted on separate acrylic bases. The specimens were divided into three groups, each group containing 15 mounted specimens. Group 1 specimens were brushed with soft toothbrush; Group 2 brushed with medium toothbrush and Group 3 with hard toothbrush. Initially, all the mounted specimens in each group were brushed using dentifrice and then the same procedure was repeated with water as control. Profilometric readings were recorded pre and post to tooth brushing and the differences in readings served as proxy measure to assess surface abrasion. These values were then compared to each other. Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test were performed. Results The results showed that brushing, with water alone, caused less abrasion than when toothpaste was added (p< 0.008). When brushed with water, the harder toothbrush caused more abrasion (higher Ra-value), but when toothpaste was added, the softer toothbrush caused more abrasion (p< 0.001). Conclusion Besides supporting the fact that toothpaste is needed to create a significant abrasion, this study also showed that a softer toothbrush can cause more abrasion than harder ones. The flexibility of bristles is only secondary to abrasion process and abrasivity of dentifrice has an important role in abrasion process. PMID:26535407

  4. Mechanics of the pad-abrasive-wafer contact in chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkaya, Dincer

    2009-12-01

    In chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), a rigid wafer is forced on a rough, elastomeric polishing pad, while a slurry containing abrasive particles flows through the interface. The applied pressure on the wafer is carried partially by the 2-body pad-wafer contact (direct contact) and partially by the 3-body contact of pad, wafer and abrasive particles ( particle contact). The fraction of the applied pressure carried by particle contacts is an important factor affecting the material removal rate (MRR) as the majority of the material is removed by the abrasive particles trapped between the pad asperities and the wafer. In this thesis, the contact of a rough, deformable pad and a smooth, rigid wafer in the presence of rigid abrasive particles at the contact interface is investigated by using contact mechanics and finite element (FE) modeling. The interactions between the pad, the wafer and the abrasive particles are modeled at different scales of contact, starting from particle level interactions, and gradually expanding the contact scale to the multi-asperity contact of pad and wafer. The effect of surface forces consisting of van der Waals and electrical double layer forces acting between the wafer and the abrasive particles are also investigated in this work. The wear rate due to each abrasive particle is calculated based on the wafer-abrasive particle contact force, and by considering adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms. A passivated layer on the wafer surface with a hardness and thickness determined by the chemical effects is modeled, in order to characterize the effect of chemical reactions between slurry and wafer on the MRR. The model provides accurate predictions for the MRR as a function of pad related parameters; pad elastic modulus, pad porosity and pad topography, particle related parameters; particle size and concentration, and slurry related parameters; slurry pH, thickness and hardness of the passivated surface layer of wafer. A good qualitative

  5. Relations of Counterface Hardness with Wear Behavior and Tribo-Oxide Layer of AISI H13 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. Y.; Wang, S. Q.; Li, X. X.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, K. M.; Cui, X. H.

    2016-12-01

    Dry sliding wear tests of AISI H13 steel (50 HRC) against AISI D2 steel counterface with three hardness levels (55, 50, and 42 HRC) were performed at 298 K to 873 K (25 °C to 600 °C). The relations of counterface hardness with the wear behavior and tribo-oxide layer of AISI H13 steel were explored. When sliding against the different-hardness counterface, H13 steel presents appreciably changed wear behavior as a function of temperature. For H d/ H p (the hardness ratio of disk to pin) > 1, the wear rate increases with the increase of temperature, but the wear rate variation is roughly inversed for H d/ H p < 1. For H d/ H p = 1, the wear rate first decreases to reach the lowest value at 473 K (200 °C) and then rapidly increases with the increase of temperature. The lowest wear rate appears at 298 K (25 °C) for H d/ H p > 1, at 474 K (200 °C) for H d/ H p = 1, and at 673 K (400 °C) for H d/ H p < 1. As no-oxide tribolayer exists below 473 K (200 °C), the wear behavior roughly complies with Archard's equation; adhesive and abrasive wear prevail, regardless of H d/ H p. As tribo-oxide layer exists at 473 K (200 °C) or above, the wear behavior depends on the tribo-oxide layer and thermal strength of the substrate, i.e., the stability of the tribo-oxide layer. Oxidative mild wear prevails at 473 K to 873 K (200 °C to 600 °C) for H d/ H p < 1 and merely at 473 K (200 °C) for H d/ H p = 1. However, a mild-to-severe transition of oxidative wear occurs at 473 K to 873 K (200 °C to 600 °C) for H d/ H p > 1 and at 673 K to 873 K (400 °C to 600 °C) for H d/ H p = 1. These findings suggest that the tribo-oxide layers are liable to exist stably for H d/ H p ≤ 1 but to readily delaminate for H d/ H p > 1.

  6. A Multidirectional Tribo-System: Wear of UHMWPE under Sliding, Rolling, and Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patten, Elias Wolfgang

    Total knee replacements (TKR) have become a successful surgical procedure for addressing end-stage osteoarthritis, with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene and cobalt chrome alloy (UHMWPE/Co-Cr) serving as the bearing materials of choice for decades. However, more than 10% of TKRs fail and require revision surgery. The predominant challenge with UHMWPE is the particulate debris generated through wear-mediated processes; wear debris from the UHMWPE tibial bearing surface leading to loosening is still the main cause for post-fifth-year revisions. UHMWPE wear in hip arthroplasty has been linked to microstructural evolution at the surface from multidirectional sliding in the hip joint but little is known about how the microstructure responds to clinically relevant sliding conditions in the knee. This is likely because wear tests are typically performed under basic motion parameters with simplified geometry (pin-on-disk tests) while the knee has more complex kinematics: it is neither a ball-and-socket joint nor a simple hinge joint, but has 2D sliding, rolling/slip motion, and rotation. There is also disagreement over how to best quantify cross-shear and how to model how much wear it will cause. A custom multidirectional tribo-system was used to investigate the individual and combined effects of the different motions in TKR: 2D sliding, rolling, and rotation, for a total of eight separate kinematic conditions. The trends in wear rates and wear factors for these different motions were compared with many different definitions for magnitudes and ratios of cross-shear. Additionally, the wear surfaces were examined for wear mechanism and the microstructural changes in lamellae orientation for the different motions were analyzed. To mimic the tribological conditions of a condyle in a TKR, polished Co-Cr spheres were articulated against flat, smooth UHMWPE disks with physiologically relevant loading, speed, and lubrication conditions. The motion parameters were selected

  7. Experimental Study of the Rolling-Sliding Contact Conditions in a PA66/STEEL Gear Using Twin-Disc Test Rig: Friction and Wear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbarek, Meftah; Rhaiem, Sadok; Kharrat, Mohamed; Dammak, Maher

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of sliding ratio on the tribological response of the contact between the teeth of a metal/polymer gear in the regions close to the pitch point. For this purpose, a new twin-disc test rig was developed on the basis of two discs of different diameters rotating one above the other at the same angular speed. Two different materials were used: non-alloyed structural steel (C45) and polyamide (PA66). The effect of the slip ratio (4%, 12%, 20% and 28%) was studied at a constant pressure of 34 MPa and a constant angular speed of 300 rpm. In addition, the contact conditions were controlled with measurements of the two discs surface temperatures. The results indicate that the wear and the friction are closely related to the contact temperature generated by the sliding phenomenon. At low slip ratio (4% and 12%), the coefficient of friction and the temperature are characterized by a quasi-linear increase with time, and the wear increases slowly. At higher slip ratio (20% and 28%), the coefficient of friction and the temperature presents a steady state, and the wear increases dramatically. During the test, a film of transferred PA66 is formed on the steel surface causing the development of adhesive interactions between the contacting discs which increase the friction coefficient and the contact temperature. The high thermal conductivity of steel as compared to that of the polymer can reduce enormously the contact temperature generated by the sliding process.

  8. Needs and challenges in precision wear measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    1996-01-10

    Accurate, precise wear measurements are a key element in solving both current wear problems and in basic wear research. Applications range from assessing durability of micro-scale components to accurate screening of surface treatments and thin solid films. Need to distinguish small differences in wear tate presents formidable problems to those who are developing new materials and surface treatments. Methods for measuring wear in ASTM standard test methods are discussed. Errors in using alterate methods of wear measurement on the same test specimen are also described. Human judgemental factors are a concern in common methods for wear measurement, and an experiment involving measurement of a wear scar by ten different people is described. Precision in wear measurement is limited both by the capabilities of the measuring instruments and by the nonuniformity of the wear process. A method of measuring wear using nano-scale indentations is discussed. Current and future prospects for incorporating advanced, higher-precision wear measurement methods into standards are considered.

  9. Gradients of occlusal wear in hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists.

    PubMed

    Deter, Christina A

    2009-03-01

    Occlusal wear was recorded in maxillary teeth from three North American late Archaic (3385 +/- 365 cal BC) hunter-gatherer sites (n = 306) and late Anasazi-early Zuni agricultural sites ( approximately 1300 AD) (n = 87). Comparisons were undertaken using descriptive and inferential statistics to determine differences between these groups, and along the maxillary tooth row. The hunter-gatherers had a significantly greater percentage of occlusal wear than the agriculturalists. For both hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists, occlusal wear was greatest on the central incisors and first molars. The third molars had the least amount of wear. It was inferred from these results that the hunter-gatherers had a more abrasive diet, and different daily task activities compared to the agriculturalists. One further finding was that wear patterns on anterior and posterior teeth are influenced by the order that teeth erupt into the jaw, as well as diet and behavior.

  10. Patterns of dental wear in the Lengua Indians of Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Kieser, J A; Groeneveld, H T; Preston, C B

    1985-01-01

    Wear patterns were examined on dental casts of 202 living Lengua Indians from the Chaco area of Paraguay. Consideration was given to the development of the molar helicoidal plane, age-related changes in occlusal attrition, coalescence of dentine exposures, interproximal attrition, and erupted crown height. This study lends support to Osborn's theory of the helicoidal plane development by showing that attrition enhances rather than modifies posteruption molar occlusal planes. The rate of interproximal attrition was found to slow down with the eruption and functional initiation of the third molars. Sinuous and cavo-convex interproximal contact areas that are generated with age, however, appeared to be less abrasion resistant than straight surfaces, hence leading to an increase in interproximal attrition rates with advanced age. Maximum crown height reduction occurred between the ages of 20 and 40 years in central incisors, canines, and first molars. Kruskal-Wallis tests and log linera models failed to demonstrate significant sexually dimorphic or antimeric differences in wear patterns of Lengua teeth.

  11. Abrasive swivel assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Hashish, Mohamed; Marvin, Mark

    1990-01-01

    An abrasive swivel assembly for providing a rotating, particle-laden fluid stream and, ultimately, a rotating particle-laden fluid jet is disclosed herein. This assembly includes a tubular arrangement for providing a particle-free stream of fluid, a swivel assembly for rotating a section of the tubular arrangement, and a tubular end section for introducing solid particles into the particle-free fluid stream at a point along the rotating tubular section, whereby to produce a particle-laden fluid stream. This last-mentioned stream can then be used in combination with a cooperating nozzle arrangement for providing a rotating particle-laden fluid jet. In an actual working embodiment, the fluid stream is of sufficiently high pressure so that the abrasive jet can be used as a cutting jet.

  12. Abrasive swivel assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Hashish, Mohamed; Marvin, Mark

    1989-01-01

    An abrasive swivel assembly for providing a rotating, particle-laden fluid stream and, ultimately, a rotating particle-laden fluid jet is disclosed herein. This assembly includes a tubular arrangement for providing a particle-free stream of fluid, means for rotating a section of the tubular arrangement, and means for introducing solid particles into the particle-free fluid stream at a point along the rotating tubular section, whereby to produce a particle-laden fluid stream. This last-mentioned stream can then be used in combination with a cooperating nozzle arrangement for providing a rotating particle-laden fluid jet. In an actual working embodiment, the fluid stream is of sufficiently high pressure so that the abrasive jet can be used as a cutting jet.

  13. Measuring pebble abrasion on a mixed sand and gravel beach using abrasion baskets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Stephenson, Wayne

    2015-11-01

    The abrasion of sediments on mixed sand and gravel beaches has important consequences for local sediment budgets as abrasion often accounts for the major loss of beach volume. Here we report an innovative method using abrasion baskets to measure abrasion in the swash zone of mixed sand and gravel beaches. This method offers significant advantages over laboratory-based tumbler experiments traditionally used to determine abrasion rates. The very high recovery rate from our method is also a significant advantage over previous field methods using radio frequency identification technology to measure abrasion where tagged particles are often lost. Either three or five abrasion baskets were placed across the swash zone on a mixed sand and gravel beach at Timaru, South Island, New Zealand, to measure the abrasion occurring on labeled sediments placed in the baskets. Over two experiments, results showed measurable abrasion across the swash zone with higher abrasion rates occurring in the middle of the swash zone and lower rates towards the swash limit and at the breaker zone. Results also illustrate the role of changing wave energy on abrasion loss. A relationship between particle size and abrasion rate was also found, similar to previous laboratory results reported in the literature. Our preliminary experiments lead us to define an abrasion zone and this idea may help shape future research on abrasion processes on mixed sand and gravel beaches.

  14. Experimental abrasion of detrital gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeend, Warren E.

    1975-01-01

    The physical breakdown and abrasion rates of gold were studied using a tumbler to simulate natural high-energy environments. The gold fragments were tumbled for periods ranging from 30 to 240 h with different combinations of sand, cobbles, and water at velocities of 0.5 and 2.0 mi/h (0.85 and 3.22 km/h). With sand and gravel, the common bedload of the rivers that deposited the gold-bearing Tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Sierra Nevada, gold is abraded at rates of 0.015 to 0.007 percent (by weight) per hour of travel (at 0.5 mi/h or 0.845 km/h). Cobbles, rather than sand, are responsible for most of the physical changes and abrasion of the gold. Ten gold fragments tumbled for 120 h with cobbles and water (no sand) were broken down to 68 recoverable fragments and lost about 25 percent of their weight to particles smaller than could be recovered using conventional panning techniques. Gold tumbled for 120 h with sand and water lost less than 1 percent of its weight. Gold was abraded faster by wet sand than by dry sand. Velocity appears to be more important as a factor in abrasion of gold than travel distance a fourfold increase in velocity produced a tenfold increase in hourly abrasion rates of gold. Scanning electron microscope examination of the gold fragments after the tumbling experiments revealed differences in surface texture between fragments tumbled with (1) sand, (2) sand and cobbles, and (3) cobbles only.

  15. CFD Based Erosion Modelling of Abrasive Waterjet Nozzle using Discrete Phase Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim Kamarudin, Naqib; Prasada Rao, A. K.; Azhari, Azmir

    2016-02-01

    In Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) machining, the nozzle is the most critical component that influences the performance, precision and economy. Exposure to a high speed jet and abrasives makes it susceptible to wear erosion which requires for frequent replacement. The present works attempts to simulate the erosion of the nozzle wall using computational fluid dynamics. The erosion rate of the nozzle was simulated under different operating conditions. The simulation was carried out in several steps which is flow modelling, particle tracking and erosion rate calculation. Discrete Phase Method (DPM) and K-ε turbulence model was used for the simulation. Result shows that different operating conditions affect the erosion rate as well as the flow interaction of water, air and abrasives. The simulation results correlates well with past work.

  16. Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Mary J.

    1992-01-01

    The Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application is in support of the Abrasion Resistance Materials Screening Test. The fundamental assumption made for the SEM abrasion analysis was that woven fabrics to be used as the outermost layer of the protective overgarment in the design of the future, planetary space suits perform best when new. It is the goal of this study to determine which of the candidate fabrics was abraded the least in the tumble test. The sample that was abraded the least will be identified at the end of the report as the primary candidate fabric for further investigation. In addition, this analysis will determine if the abrasion seen by the laboratory tumbled samples is representative of actual EVA Apollo abrasion.

  17. Air flow exploration of abrasive feed tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shijin; Li, Xiaohong; Gu, Yilei

    2009-12-01

    An abrasive water-jet cutting process is one in which water pressure is raised to a very high pressure and forced through a very small orifice to form a very thin high speed jet beam. This thin jet beam is then directed through a chamber and then fed into a secondary nozzle, or mixing tube. During this process, a vacuum is generated in the chamber, and garnet abrasives and air are pulled into the chamber, through an abrasive feed tube, and mixes with this high speed stream of water. Because of the restrictions introduced by the abrasive feed tube geometry, a vacuum gradient is generated along the tube. Although this phenomenon has been recognized and utilized as a way to monitor nozzle condition and abrasive flowing conditions, yet, until now, conditions inside the abrasive feed line have not been completely understood. A possible reason is that conditions inside the abrasive feed line are complicated. Not only compressible flow but also multi-phase, multi-component flow has been involved in inside of abrasive feed tube. This paper explored various aspects of the vacuum creation process in both the mixing chamber and the abrasive feed tube. Based on an experimental exploration, an analytical framework is presented to allow theoretical calculations of vacuum conditions in the abrasive feed tube.

  18. Hardfacing fights wear in oil sands operation

    SciTech Connect

    Llewellyn, R.; Tuite, C.

    1995-03-01

    Wear attack is responsible for high production losses and over $40 million per year in equipment repairs and replacement costs at Syncrude`s synthetic crude oil plant near Fort McMurray in Northern Alberta. Most of this damage is caused by the fine quartz particle constituents which predominate in oil sands. It occurs in a multiplicity of forms which can be classified into three primary mechanisms: Sliding abrasive wear and sporadic impact, which affects mainly mining equipment; Slurry abrasion and erosion, which occur in bitumen extraction, separation plants, and in tailings lines; and High-temperature erosion, which is often augmented by corrosion in bitumen upgrading operations. Process streams in this area also contain fine coke particles and catalyst debris. The paper gives an overview of Syncrude`s operations in mining, extraction, and upgrading, then describes the following: wear materials and protection systems, surface engineering systems, weld deposited hardfacing, benefits, surface modification system experience, thermal spray coating experience, disk centrifuge bowls, investigation of plasma arc spraying, and combating pump erosion.

  19. Design of erosion/abrasion studies--insights and rational concepts.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In vitro and in situ studies modelling the wear of dental hard tissues due to erosion and abrasion are characterised by a high variation in study designs and experimental parameters. Based on a summary of the existing protocols, the present review aimed to describe and discuss the parameters which must be carefully considered in erosion-abrasion research, especially when it is intended to simulate clinical conditions. Experimental characteristics and parameters were retrieved from a total of 42 in vitro and 20 in situ studies. The key experimental characteristics included parameters of erosion (duration and pH) and abrasion (duration, kinds of toothbrush and toothpaste, brushing force, and time point) as well as co-factors (e.g. dental hard tissue). The majority of studies used models with alternating erosion/abrasion treatments intended to simulate clinical conditions, while other studies exaggerated clinical conditions intentionally, often using only a single erosion/abrasion treatment. Both in vitro and in situ models shared a high level of standardisation, but several studies showed a trend to severe erosion (e.g. >5 min/cycle) or extensive brushing (e.g. >100 brushing strokes/cycle) at a high frequency and repetition rate. Thus, studies often tend to produce a higher amount of wear than in the clinical situation, especially as modifying biological factors (e.g. the dilution of the erosive solution by saliva and the protective effect of the pellicle) cannot be simulated adequately. With respect to the existing models, it seems advisable to diminish duration and frequency of erosion and abrasion to more realistic clinical conditions when the everyday situation is to be simulated. Experimental parameters must be chosen with care to ensure that the problem is investigated in an appropriate mode at standardised conditions and with adequate measuring systems to allow prediction of clinical outcomes.

  20. Abrasive water-jet cutting; remote hot cell application

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.; Funnell, G.J.

    1988-09-01

    In the process of selecting a failed equipment cut-up tool for the Process Facility Modifications (PFM) Project, a system using an Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) was developed and tested for remote disassembly of failed equipment by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, PFM Mechanical Development Unit.

  1. Pattern of outsole shoe heel wear in infantry recruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Excessive shoe heel abrasion is of concern to patients, parents and shoe manufacturers, but little scientific information is available. The purpose of this study was to describe the phenomenon in a group of infantry recruits performing similar physical activity, and search for biomechanical factors that might be related. Methods Seventy-six subjects (median age 19) enrolled. Pre-training parameters measured included height, weight, tibial length, foot arch height and foot progression angle. Digital plantar pressure maps were taken to calculate arch indexes. Shoe heel abrasion was assessed manually after 14 weeks of training with different-sized clock transparencies and a calliper. Results Outsole abrasion was posterolateral, averaging 12 degrees on each shoe. The average heel volume that was eroded was almost 5 cm3. The angle of maximum wear was related to right foot progression angle (r = 0.27, p = 0.02). Recruits with lateral ankle sprains had higher angles of maximal abrasion (17° versus 10°, p = 0.26) and recruits with lateral heel abrasion had more lateral ankle sprains (14% versus 3%, p = 0.12). Conclusion While shoe heel wear affects many people, very little has been done to measure it. In this study in healthy subjects, we found the main abrasion to be posterolateral. This seems to be related to foot progression angle. It was not related to hindfoot valgus/varus or other factors related to subtalar joint motion. These findings do not warrant modification of subtalar joint motion in order to limit shoe heel abrasion. PMID:23098624

  2. Aeolian Abrasion, a Dominant Erosion Agent in the Martian Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N.; Cooper, G.; Eddlemon, E.; Greeley, R.; Laity, J.; Phoreman, J.; Razdan, A.; van Note, S.; White, B.; Wilson, G.

    2004-12-01

    Aeolian abrasion is one of the predominant erosion mechanisms on Mars today. Martian ventifacts record the climate under which the rocks were modified (wind direction, wind speeds and particle flux) and therefore tie into the overall climatic regime of the planet. By better understanding the rates at which rocks abrade and the features diagnostic of specific climatic conditions, we can gain insight into past climates. Herein we report on numerical models, wind tunnel experiments, and field work to determine 1) Particle and kinetic fluxes on Earth and Mars, 2) the degree to which these parameters control abrasion, and 3) how, in detail, rocks of various shapes and compositions erode over time. Kinetic energy generally increases with height, whereas flux decreases, and impact angles, which affect energy transfer, and rebound effects are functions of the rock facet angle. This results in a non-linear relationship between abrasion potential and height that is a function of wind speed, planetary environment, and target geometry. We have computed the first three of these parameters numerically using a numerical saltation code, combined with published flux calculations These results have been compared to wind tunnel tests of flux vs. height, abrasion of erodible targets, and high speed video analysis under terrestrial and Martian pressures. We are also using high resolution laser scanning to characterize textures, shapes, and weathering changes for terrestrial and Martian rocks at the 100s of microns scale. We find that facet angle, texture, and rock heterogeneity are of critical importance in determining the rate and style of abrasion. Field and theoretical results demonstrate that high speed winds, not the integrated flux of lower speeds, and sand, not dust, produce most rock abrasion. On Mars, this requires sustained winds above 20-25 m/s at the near surface, a challenge in the current environment.

  3. The study of ionic liquids and carbon nanotubes to reduce friction and wear in PS, PC and PMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo Conesa, Cayetano

    Polymer nanocomposites obtained from nanophases such as carbon nanotubes represent one of the most important strategies in order to improve the mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials. The present work describes the use of carbon nanotubes and ionic liquids with the objective of reducing the friction coefficients and wear rates of polystyrene, polycarbonate and polymethylmethacrylate. New ionic nanofluids have been prepared and characterized from alkylimidazolium ionic liquids and single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes. When used as external lubricants of polycarbonate--stainless steel contacts, under the pin-on-disk configuration, these new nanofluids give rise to ultralow friction coefficients and negligible wear damage. New polystyrene, polycarbonate and polymethylmethacrylate matrix nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes or ionic liquid-modified carbon nanotubes have been obtained and characterized. The wear resistance of the new nanocomposites has been determined by pin-on-disk tests, as a function of the dispersed nanophases. The resistance to abrasive wear of the polystyrene matrix nanocomposites has been determined by multiple scratch tests, as a function of the dispersed nanophases, the normal applied load and the manufacturing process.

  4. Fretting Wear of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Lerch, Bradley A.; Draper, Susan L.

    2001-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the wear behavior of gamma titanium aluminide (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb in atomic percent) in contact with a typical nickel-base superalloy under repeated microscopic vibratory motion in air at temperatures from 296-823 K. The surface damage observed on the interacting surfaces of both Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb and superalloy consisted of fracture pits, oxides, metallic debris, scratches, craters, plastic deformation, and cracks. The Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb transferred to the superalloy at all fretting conditions and caused scuffing or galling. The increasing rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures led to a drop in Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear at 473 K. Mild oxidative wear was observed at 473 K. However, fretting wear increased as the temperature was increased from 473-823 K. At 723 and 823 K, oxide disruption generated cracks, loose wear debris, and pits on the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear surface. Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear generally decreased with increasing fretting frequency. Both increasing slip amplitude and increasing load tended to produce more metallic wear debris, causing severe abrasive wear in the contacting metals. Keywords

  5. Dental Wear: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Di Benedetto, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Dental wear can be differentiated into different types on the basis of morphological and etiological factors. The present research was carried out on twelve extracted human teeth with dental wear (three teeth showing each type of wear: erosion, attrition, abrasion, and abfraction) studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study aimed, through analysis of the macro- and micromorphological features of the lesions (considering the enamel, dentin, enamel prisms, dentinal tubules, and pulp), to clarify the different clinical and diagnostic presentations of dental wear and their possible significance. Our results, which confirm current knowledge, provide a complete overview of the distinctive morphology of each lesion type. It is important to identify the type of dental wear lesion in order to recognize the contributing etiological factors and, consequently, identify other more complex, nondental disorders (such as gastroesophageal reflux, eating disorders). It is clear that each type of lesion has a specific morphology and mechanism, and further clinical studies are needed to clarify the etiological processes, particularly those underlying the onset of abfraction. PMID:25548769

  6. Dental wear: a scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Levrini, Luca; Di Benedetto, Giulia; Raspanti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Dental wear can be differentiated into different types on the basis of morphological and etiological factors. The present research was carried out on twelve extracted human teeth with dental wear (three teeth showing each type of wear: erosion, attrition, abrasion, and abfraction) studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study aimed, through analysis of the macro- and micromorphological features of the lesions (considering the enamel, dentin, enamel prisms, dentinal tubules, and pulp), to clarify the different clinical and diagnostic presentations of dental wear and their possible significance. Our results, which confirm current knowledge, provide a complete overview of the distinctive morphology of each lesion type. It is important to identify the type of dental wear lesion in order to recognize the contributing etiological factors and, consequently, identify other more complex, nondental disorders (such as gastroesophageal reflux, eating disorders). It is clear that each type of lesion has a specific morphology and mechanism, and further clinical studies are needed to clarify the etiological processes, particularly those underlying the onset of abfraction.

  7. Tooth wear: diet analysis and advice.

    PubMed

    Young, William George

    2005-04-01

    Diet analysis and advice for patients with tooth wear is potentially the most logical intervention to arrest attrition, erosion and abrasion. It is saliva that protects the teeth against corrosion by the acids which soften enamel and make it susceptible to wear. Thus the lifestyles and diet of patients at risk need to be analysed for sources of acid and reasons for lost salivary protection. Medical conditions which put patients at risk of tooth wear are principally: asthma, bulimia nervosa, caffeine addiction, diabetes mellitus, exercise dehydration, functional depression, gastroesophageal reflux in alcoholism, hypertension and syndromes with salivary hypofunction. The sources of acid are various, but loss of salivary protection is the common theme. In healthy young Australians, soft drinks are the main source of acid, and exercise dehydration the main reason for loss of salivary protection. In the medically compromised, diet acids and gastroesophageal reflux are the sources, but medications are the main reasons for lost salivary protection. Diet advice for patients with tooth wear must: promote a healthy lifestyle and diet strategy that conserves the teeth by natural means of salivary stimulation; and address the specific needs of the patients' oral and medical conditions. Individualised, patient-empowering erosion WATCH strategies; on Water, Acid, Taste, Calcium and Health, are urgently required to combat the emerging epidemic of tooth wear currently being experienced in westernised societies.

  8. Simulation of tibial counterface wear in mobile bearing knees with uncoated and ADLC coated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jones, V C; Barton, D C; Auger, D D; Hardaker, C; Stone, M H; Fisher, J

    2001-01-01

    A multidirectional pin-on-plate reciprocating machine was used to compare the wear performance of UHMWPE sliding against cast cobalt chrome (CoCr) plates that were either untreated or coated with Amorphous Diamond Like Carbon (ADLC). The test conditions were based on a 1/5 scale model representative of in vivo motion at the tibial counterfaces of unconstrained mobile bearing knees. The average +/- STERR wear rates were 13.78+/-1.06 mm3/Mcycles for the ADLC counterfaces and 0.504+/-0.12 mm3/Mcycles for the control CoCr counterfaces. All of the pins run on the ADLC counterfaces exhibited the same patterns of blistering along the central axis, and severe abrasion elsewhere to the extent that all of the original machining marks were removed after just one week of testing. The average value of friction coefficient was 0.24 for the ADLC counterfaces and 0.073 for the control CoCr counterfaces. The factor of 3.5 increase was statistically significant at p < 0.05. In the tribological evaluation of ADLC coatings for tibial trays in mobile bearing knees, this study shows that this specific Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) ADLC showed significantly poorer frictional and wear performance than uncoated surfaces which was sufficient to negate any potential benefits of improved resistance to third body damage.

  9. Grain decoration in aluminum oxynitride (ALON) from polishing on bound abrasive laps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Leslie L.; Marino, Anne E.; Hayes, Jennifer C.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (ALON) is a polycrystalline material that has proven difficult to polish due to its grain structure. Bound abrasives are an effective means for polishing ALON, and work is being done with them to obtain good surfaces, with reasonable removal rates. Laps consisting of abrasives bound in epoxy matrices were created for polishing ALON. The effects of varying abrasive type, abrasive concentration, lap shape, coolant and load were studied. Metrology procedures were developed to monitor different aspects of the grain structure and numerically evaluate grain boundary decoration. Strategies were developed to polish ALON at acceptable rates with reasonably good surface quality. Work is directed toward finding optimal bound abrasive lap formulations that can be fabricated into ring and/or contour tools for testing on CNC machining platforms.

  10. Grain decoration in aluminum oxynitride (ALON) from polishing on bound abrasive laps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Anne E.; Hayes, Jennifer; Gregg, Leslie L.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (ALON) is a material with desirable qualities for a variety of applications that has proven difficult to polish because of its grain structure. Bound abrasives may prove to be an effective means of polishing it, and work is being done with them to obtain good surfaces on ALON, with reasonable removal rates. Laps consisting of abrasives bound in epoxy matrices have been created for polishing ALON. The effects of varying abrasive type, abrasive concentration, lap shape, coolant and load are being studied. Metrology procedures are being developed to monitor different aspects of the grain structure and numerically evaluate its decoration. Strategies have been developed to polish ALON at acceptable rates with reasonably good surface quality. Work is directed toward finding optimal bound abrasive lap formulations that can be fabricated into ring and/or contour tools for testing on CNC machining platforms.

  11. Abrasivity of toothpastes. An in vitro study of toothpastes marketed in Norway.

    PubMed

    Svinnseth, P N; Gjerdet, N R; Lie, T

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the abrasivity of 23 toothpastes available on the Norwegian market. Additionally, the pH was registered. The testing was based on The British Standards Institution's specification for toothpastes, using a profilometer technique to evaluate the abrasion. The results showed that the abrasivity ranged from 0.049 to 1.367 relative to a standard reference paste. The products were classified as having 'none/slight', 'medium', or 'high' abrasivity. The pH varied between 3.7 and 10.1. Products with low pH showed evidence of a combined erosive/abrasive effect. For some brands there were statistically significant differences between the fluoride and the nonfluoride version.

  12. Rate of wind abrasion on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Leach, R. N.; Williams, S. H.; Krinsley, D. H.; Marshall, J. R.; White, B. R.; Pollack, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A brief description is given of the experiments performed to obtain data on windblown particles and abrasion of rocks in a simulated Martian environment. Preliminary results are presented and combined with Viking meteorological data in estimating rates of wind abrasion at the VL-1 site on Mars. Attention is also given to the implications that the results have for Martian surface history. Calculations of the present rates of abrasion by windblown particles on Mars yield values ranging from 0.021 cm/yr to nearly zero, depending on the target, the agent of abrasion, and the availability of windblown particles.

  13. The effect of erosion and abrasion on surface properties of composite resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoleriu, S.; Andrian, S.; Pancu, G.; Nica, I.; Munteanu, A.; Balan, A.; Iovan, G.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the surface roughness of two commercial composite resins submitted to erosive attack, to abrasive wear and to association of erosive and abrasive challenge. Standardized samples of G-snial anterior (GC Company) and Essentia (GC Company) composite resins were randomly split in 6 groups. In group 1 the samples were maintained in artificial saliva until the evaluation of surface roughness. In group 2 the samples were submitted only to erosive attack, in group 3 only to abrasive challenge and in groups 4,5, and 6 the erosive attack was followed by abrasive challenge immediately (group 4), 30 minutes after the erosive attack (group 5) and one hour after the erosive attack (group 6). The specimens were evaluated using surface roughness measuring tester SJ-210 (Mitutoyo Corporation, Japan) and the mean surface roughness values (Ra, μm) of each specimen were registered. A significantly increase of both composite resins surface roughness was recorded after erosive attack and abrasive challenge. Toothbrushing 60 minutes after acidic contact determined no significant differences in surface roughness of composite resins.

  14. Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, Silvio; Ilarri, Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technology was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the manufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel. Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, generally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminated aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 minutes of the cleaning time. (authors)

  15. Abrasive drill for resilient materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Resilient materials normally present problem in obtaining accurate and uniform hole size and position. Tool is fabricated from stiff metal rod such as tungsten or carbon steel that has diameter slightly smaller than required hole. Piercing/centering point is ground on one end of rod. Rod is then plasma-sprayed (flame-sprayed) with suitable hard abrasive coating. High-speed, slow-feed operation of tool is necessary for accurate holes, and this can be done with drill press, hard drill, or similar machines.

  16. A Study of the Pickup of Abrasive Particles during Abrasion of Annealed Aluminum on Silicon Carbide Abrasive Papers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    annealed aluminium during abrasion on silicon carbide abrasive papers. Neither optical nor scanning electron microscopy adequately characterises the...despite its limitations when examining rough surfaces. The present results show that the pickup of silicon carbide particles increases with increase in

  17. Can Wet Rocky Granular Flows Become Debris Flows Due to Fine Sediment Production by Abrasion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabnia, O.; Sklar, L. S.; Bianchi, G.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flows are rapid mass movements in which elevated pore pressures are sustained by a viscous fluid matrix with high concentrations of fine sediments. Debris flows may form from coarse-grained wet granular flows as fine sediments are entrained from hillslope and channel material. Here we investigate whether abrasion of the rocks within a granular flow can produce sufficient fine sediments to create debris flows. To test this hypothesis experimentally, we used a set of 4 rotating drums ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 m diameter. Each drum has vanes along the boundary ensure shearing within the flow. Shear rate was varied by changing drum rotational velocity to maintain a constant Froude Number across drums. Initial runs used angular clasts of granodiorite with a tensile strength of 7.6 MPa, with well-sorted coarse particle size distributions linearly scaled with drum radius. The fluid was initially clear water, which rapidly acquired fine-grained wear products. After each 250 m tangential distance, we measured the particle size distributions, and then returned all water and sediment to the drums for subsequent runs. We calculate particle wear rates using statistics of size and mass distributions, and by fitting the Sternberg equation to the rate of mass loss from the size fraction > 2mm. Abundant fine sediments were produced in the experiments, but very little change in the median grain size was detected. This appears to be due to clast rounding, as evidenced by a decrease in the number of stable equilibrium resting points. We find that the growth in the fine sediment concentration in the fluid scales with unit drum power. This relationship can be used to estimate fine sediment production rates in the field. We explore this approach at Inyo Creek, a steep catchment in the Sierra Nevada, California. There, a significant debris flow occurred in July 2013, which originated as a coarse-grained wet granular flow. We use surveys to estimate flow depth and velocity where super

  18. Degradation of experimental composite materials and in vitro wear simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givan, Daniel Allen

    2001-12-01

    The material, mechanical, and clinical aspects of surface degradation of resin composite dental restorative materials by in vitro wear simulation continues to be an area of active research. To investigate wear mechanisms, a series of experimental resin composites with variable and controlled filler particle shape and loading were studied by in vitro wear simulation. The current investigation utilized a simulation that isolated the wear environment, entrapped high and low modulus debris, and evaluated the process including machine and fluid flow dynamics. The degradation was significantly affected by filler particle shape and less by particle loading. The spherical particle composites demonstrated wear loss profiles suggesting an optimized filler loading may exist. This was also demonstrated by the trends in the mechanical properties. Very little difference in magnitude was noted for the wear of irregular particle composites as a function of particulate size; and as a group they were more wear resistant than spherical particle composites. This was the result of different mechanisms of wear that were correlated with the three-dimensional particle shape. The abrasive effects of the aggregate particles and the polymeric stabilization of the irregular shape versus the destabilization and "plucking" of the spherical particles resulted in an unprotected matrix that accounted for significantly greater wear of spherical composite. A model and analysis was developed to explain the events associated with the progressive material wear loss. The initial phase was explained by fatigue-assisted microcracking and loss of material segments in a zone of high stress immediately beneath a point of high stress contact. The early phase was characterized by the development of a small facet primarily by fatigue-assisted microcracking. Although the translation effects were minimal, some three-body and initial two-body wear events were also present. In the late phases, the abrasive effects

  19. Wear and friction properties of experimental Ti-Si-Zr alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, Serhii; Datskevich, Oleg; Kulak, Leonid; Jacobson, Staffan; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical applications due to their higher biocompatibility in comparison to other metallic biomaterials. However, they commonly contain aluminum and vanadium, whose ions may be detrimental to the nervous system. Furthermore, they suffer from poor wear resistance, which limits their applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tribological performance of experimental Ti-1.25Si-5Zr, Ti-2.5Si-5Zr, Ti-6Si-5Zr and Ti-2.5Si-5Zr-0.2Pd alloys as compared to that of control Ti-6Al-4V, CoCr F75 and CoCr F799 alloys. Friction and wear tests were performed using a standard ball-on-disc rig in serum solution at ambient temperature with Si3N4-balls as counterparts. The alloys microstructure and hardness were investigated using optical microscopy, XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Vickers indentation. The coefficients of friction of the experimental Ti-Si-Zr alloys were generally lower than the commercial ones with Ti-6Si-5Zr presenting the lowest value (approx. 0.1). Their wear rates were found to be 2-7 times lower than that of the commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy, but still higher than those of the CoCr alloys. SEM analysis of worn surfaces showed that abrasion was the predominant wear mechanism for all studied materials. Wear and friction were influenced by the formation and stability of transfer layers, and while commercial Ti-6Al-4V as well as the experimental Ti-Si-Zr alloys demonstrated extensive material transfer to the ceramic counterparts, the CoCr alloys did not show such material transfer.

  20. Microstructural analyses and wear behavior of the cemented carbide tools after laser surface treatment and PVD coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Davi; Diniz, Anselmo Eduardo; Lima, Milton Sérgio Fernandes

    2013-10-01

    Adhesion is one of the most important characteristics of coating on cutting tools. Poor coating adhesion on the tool favors fragmentation and release of hard abrasive particles between the tool and the workpiece. These particles interact with the surfaces of the tool, accelerating its wear and decreasing tool life. One possible solution is the use of laser texturing prior to coating in order to achieve a desired surface topography with enhanced adhesion properties. In the texturing, a high-frequency short-pulse laser changes surface characteristics, generating resolidified material and selective vaporization. This work evaluated the effectiveness of laser texturing in improving the substrate-coating adhesion of PVD coated cemented carbide tools. To this end, the substrates were textured with a Nd:YAG laser, in four different intensities, and then coated with a PVD TiAlN film. To ascertain the effectiveness of laser texturing, Rockwell C indentation and turning experiments were performed on both textured tools and conventional unlasered tools. The PVD coated laser-textured tool showed better performance in the indentation and turning tests than the standard tools. A comparative evaluation of tool wear mechanisms indicated that texturing did not change the wear mechanisms, but altered their importance to tool wear. The anchoring provided by the higher roughness of the textured surface increased the adhesion of the coating on the substrate, thus increasing tool life. Additionally, the chemical modification of the carbide grains due to the laser heating might be responsible for an enhanced adhesion between coating and substrate.

  1. Wear of engineering materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    Nearly 60 papers discuss fundamental and applied research in the areas of wear, erosion and wear-corrosion of materials. Focus is on ceramics, ceramic and polymer-matrix composites, and coatings; the effect of sliding wear and wear-corrosion of materials in manufacturing processes, automobiles and bearings; and wear and erosion of materials used in fossil-fuel power plants, minerals processing and heavy manufacturing.

  2. Effects of the different frequencies and loads of ultrasonic surface rolling on surface mechanical properties and fretting wear resistance of HIP Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Qu, S. G.; Pan, Y. X.; Li, X. Q.

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of the different frequencies and loads of multi-pass ultrasonic surface rolling (MUSR) on surface layer mechanical properties, microstructure and fretting friction and wear characteristics of HIP (hot isostatic pressing) Ti-6Al-4 V alloy. Some microscopic analysis methods (SEM, TEM and EDS) were used to characterize the modified surface layer of material after MUSR treatment. The results indicated that the material in sample surface layer experienced a certain extent plastic deformation, and accompanied by some dense dislocations and twins generation. Moreover surface microhardness and residual stress of samples treated by MUSR were also greatly improved compared with the untreated. The fretting friction and wear properties of samples treated by MUSR in different conditions are tested at 10 and 15 N in dry friction conditions. It could be found that friction coefficient and wear volume loss were significantly declined in the optimal result. The main wear mechanism of MUSR-treated samples included abrasive wear, adhesion and spalling.

  3. Eutectic modification in a low-chromium white cast iron by a mixture of titanium, rare earths, and bismuth: Part II. effect on the wear behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; Aguilar, S. L.; Maldonado, C.

    2005-06-01

    In this work, we studied the wear behavior of a low-Cr white cast iron (WCI) modified with ferrotitanium-rare earths-bismuth (Fe-Ti-RE-Bi) up to 2%. These additions modified the eutectic carbide structure of the alloy from continuous ledeburite into a blocky, less interconnected carbide network. The modified structure was wear tested under pure sliding conditions against a hardened M2 steel counter-face using a load of 250 N. It was observed that wear resistance increased as the modifier admixture increased. The modified structure had smaller more isolated carbides than the WCI with no Fe-Ti-RE-Bi additions. It was observed that large carbides fracture during sliding, which destabilizes the structure and causes degradation in the wear behavior. A transition from abrasive to oxidative wear after 20 km sliding occurred for all alloys. In addition, the modified alloys exhibited higher values of hardness and fracture toughness. These results are discussed in terms of the modified eutectic carbide microstructure.

  4. Wear Behavior of Thermal Spray Coatings on Rotavator Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Amardeep Singh; Grewal, Jasmaninder Singh; Jain, Deepak; Kang, Shivani

    2012-03-01

    A rotavator is a motorized cultivator, popularly used to decrease the total time and human efforts in soil preparation. However, under dynamic loading, rotavator blades are subjected to extreme abrasive wear. The objective of this study was to enhance the working life of the rotavator blade in order to decrease the idle time required to reinstate the blade periodically during cultivation. The objective was carried out by means of thermal spray coatings, where the effect of the coatings on the extent of wear and the wear characteristics of the rotavator blades were examined. Three different detonation gun sprayed coatings, namely WC-Co-Cr, Cr3C2NiCr and Stellite-21 were compared in this study on high tensile steel rotavator blades. The wear rates of Cr3C2NiCr and Stellite-21 coated blades showed significant superiority over the uncoated blade, but not as much as shown by WC-Co-Cr coated blade.

  5. Bendable Extension For Abrasive-Jet Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Walter

    1989-01-01

    Hard-to-reach places cleaned more easily. Extension for abrasive-jet apparatus bent to provide controlled abrasive cleaning of walls in deep cavities or other hard-to-reach places. Designed for controlled removal of penetrant inspection dyes from inside castings, extension tube also used for such general grit-blasting work as removal of scratches.

  6. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Gorin, Andrew H.; Seals, Roland D.

    1994-01-01

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  7. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Gorin, A.H.; Seals, R.D.

    1994-11-22

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  8. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  9. Tooth wear in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis): mesowear analysis classifies free-ranging specimens as browsers but captive ones as grazers.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Brasch, Juliane; Castell, Johanna C; Kaiser, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    Captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) mostly do not attain the longevity possible for this species and frequently have problems associated with low energy intake and fat storage mobilization. Abnormal tooth wear has been among the causes suggested as an underlying problem. This study utilizes a tooth wear scoring method ("mesowear") primarily used in paleobiology. This scoring method was applied to museum specimens of free-ranging (n=20) and captive (n=41) giraffes. The scoring system allows for the differentiation between attrition--(typical for browsers, as browse contains little abrasive silica) and abrasion--(typical for grazers, as grass contains abrasive silica) dominated tooth wear. The dental wear pattern of the free-ranging population is dominated by attrition, resembles that previously published for free-ranging giraffe, and clusters within browsing herbivores in comparative analysis. In contrast, the wear pattern of the captive population is dominated by abrasion and clusters among grazing herbivores in comparative analyses. A potential explanation for this difference in tooth wear is likely related to the content of abrasive elements in zoo diets. Silica content (measured as acid insoluble ash) is low in browse and alfalfa. However, grass hay and the majority of pelleted compound feeds contain higher amounts of silica. It can be speculated that the abnormal wear pattern in captivity compromises tooth function in captive giraffe, with deleterious long-term consequences.

  10. A Review of Sub-Scale Test Methods to Evaluate the Friction and Wear of Ring and Liner Materials for Spark- and Compression Ignition Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    2002-01-22

    A review was conducted of past laboratory-scale test methods and to assess their validity for ranking materials and lubricants for use as piston and liner materials in compression-ignition (CI) and spark-ignition (SI) engines. Most of the previous work was aimed at simulating SI engine environments. This report begins with a discussion of the numerous factors that can affect the validity of an approach to simulating engine conditions in a laboratory. These include not only mechanical, chemical and thermal factors, but also human factors as regards how the vehicle is operated and maintained. The next section provides an annotated review of open literature publications that address the issues of laboratory simulation of engine components. A comparison of these studies indicates a lack of sufficient standardization in procedures to enable a systematic comparison of one publication to another. There were just a few studies that compared several laboratory test methods to engine test results, and these indicated that some test methods correlate, at least qualitatively, better than others. The last section provides a series of recommendations for improving the accuracy and validity of laboratory-scale simulations of engine behavior. It became clear that much of the engine wear damage occurs during start-up when the engine is cold, and this calls into the question the usefulness of test methods that attempt to simulate steady-state running conditions. It is recommended that a new standard test method, perhaps developed with the help of the ASTM wear and erosion committee, be developed. It would use cold start-up conditions in the presence of degraded oil, or simulated degraded oil.

  11. Abrasion resistant coating and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Sordelet, Daniel J.; Besser, Matthew F.

    2001-06-05

    An abrasion resistant coating is created by adding a ductile phase to a brittle matrix phase during spray coating where an Al--Cu--Fe quasicrystalline phase (brittle matrix) and an FeAl intermetallic (ductile phase) are combined. This composite coating produces a coating mostly of quasicrystal phase and an inter-splat layer of the FeAl phase to help reduce porosity and cracking within the coating. Coatings are prepared by plasma spraying unblended and blended quasicrystal and intermetallic powders. The blended powders contain 1, 5, 10 and 20 volume percent of the intermetallic powders. The unblended powders are either 100 volume percent quasicrystalline or 100 volume percent intermetallic; these unblended powders were studied for comparison to the others. Sufficient ductile phase should be added to the brittle matrix to transform abrasive wear mode from brittle fracture to plastic deformation, while at the same time the hardness of the composite should not be reduced below that of the original brittle phase material.

  12. Abrasive waterjet machining of fiber reinforced composites: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalla, D. K.; Dhanasekaran, P. S.; Zhang, B.; Asmatulu, R.

    2012-04-01

    Machining of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is a major secondary manufacturing activity in the aircraft and automotive industries. Traditional machining of these composites is difficult due to the high abrasiveness nature of their reinforcing constituents. Almost all the traditional machining processes involve in the dissipation of heat into the workpiece which can be resulted in damage to workpiece and rapid wear of the cutting tool. This serious issue has been overcome by water jetting technologies. Abrasive waterjet machining (AWJM) is a nontraditional method and one of the best options for machining FRPs. This paper presents a review of the ongoing research and development in AWJM of FRPs, with a critical review of the physics of the machining process, surface characterization, modeling and the newer application to the basic research. Variable cutting parameters, limitations and safety aspects of AWJM and the noise related issues due to high flow rate of water jet will be addressed. Further challenges and scope of the future development in AWJM are also presented in detail.

  13. Abrasion Resistant Coating and Method of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Sordelet, Daniel J.; Besser, Matthew F.

    1999-06-25

    An abrasion resistant coating is created by adding a ductile phase to a brittle matrix phase during spray coating where an Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline phase (brittle matrix) and an FeAl intermetallic (ductile phase) are combined. This composite coating produces a coating mostly of quasicrystal phase and an inter-splat layer of the FeAl phase to help reduce porosity and cracking within the coating. Coatings are prepared by plasma spraying unblended and blended quasicrystal and intermetallic powders. The blended powders contain 1, 5, 10 and 20 volume percent of the intermetallic powders. The unblended powders are either 100 volume percent quasicrystalline or 100 volume percent intermetallic; these unblended powders were studied for comparison to the others. Sufficient ductile phase should be added to the brittle matrix to transform abrasive wear mode from brittle fracture to plastic deformation, while at the same time the hardness of the composite should not be reduced below that of the original brittle phase material.

  14. Characterization and dispersion of pollutant releases from the abrasive blasting of lead paint from steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Rana, B.

    1999-07-01

    The characterization of airborne and spent material for abrasive blasting of steel paint was performed as part of the Environmental Impact Statement for Lead Paint Removal Operations on New York City Department of Transportation Bridges1. Laboratory tests were performed on painted steel components of the Williamsburg Bridge, to determine the sizes of particles typically released into the air as aerosol and onto the ground as bulk material, as a result of accidental releases from abrasive blasting operations. Two of the most commonly used abrasives for paint removal on steel structures, recyclable steel grit and expendable abrasives were subjected to the laboratory tests. The results of the tests were used to determine the percentage of existing paint and abrasive which becomes airborne and the resultant particle size distributions, which were employed in the air quality concentration and deposition modeling for the EIS. Particle size distributions of the airborne material indicated that the profiles of airborne lead and particulate matter have a mean particle size between 15 and 21 microns. Spent abrasives and paint chips that settle on the floor are larger in size with a mean diameter greater than 259 microns, although up to 6% of this material has a mean diameter less than 50 microns. The percentage of paint and expendable abrasives that become airborne as a result of abrasive blasting were estimated to be as high as 9.0 and 12.4%, respectively. Potential release rates were derived for total accumulation (duration of the project), annual, quarterly, 24-hour, and 1-hour time averaging periods for abrasives, lead, and other metals. Pollutant releases were simulated as individual sources at multiple release heights with the Environment Protection Agency's ISC3ST model for six representative bridges near potential places of public exposure.

  15. Abrasive blast material utilization in asphalt roadbed material

    SciTech Connect

    Means, J.L.; Nehring, K.W.; Heath, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    The State of California has promulgated rules on California-only hazardous wastes that offer the potential for some of these wastes to be recycled or reused. Abrasive blast material (ABM) from military and commercial operations such as sandblasting may fall into the category of waste that can be reused. Experiments were conducted on spent sandblasting grit to determine whether the grit could be incorporated into asphalt concrete for use as roadbed material, and a test roadbed was laid to evaluate the long-term stability of the metals found in the grit. Incorporation of the ABM in asphalt helps reduce the mobility of metal contaminants making the material suitable for reuse. The results of the initial characterization, treatability testing, and follow-up measurements of core samples taken from the test roadbed are presented to show that the use of abrasive blast material in asphalt roadbed material is a viable option under the proposed California regulatory standards.

  16. Surface roughness and gloss of current CAD/CAM resin composites before and after toothbrush abrasion.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Saiki, Osamu; Nogawa, Hiroshi; Hiraba, Haruto; Okazaki, Tomoyo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gloss and surface roughness behaviors of newly developed CAD/CAM composite blocks with different filler contents and characteristics. The gloss and surface roughness were quantified before and after a toothbrush dentifrice abrasion test; the results were compared to the gloss and surface roughness of a ceramic CAD/CAM block. Knoop hardness was determined before abrasion test. The results were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey HSD, and Dunnett t test (p<0.05). The rank order of Knoop hardness was as follows: Vita Mark II>Vita Enamic>Gradia block>Shofu Block HC, Lava Ultimate≥Katana Avencia block≥Cerasmart. After toothbrush abrasion, a significant difference in the gloss unit was detected between the Shofu Block HC material and the ceramic block. The Ra and Rz of the Cerasmart and Shofu Block HC materials were significantly larger than those of the ceramic block after toothbrush abrasion.

  17. AIBA as Free Radical Initiator for Abrasive-Free Polishing of Hard Disk Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hong; Ren, Xiaoyan

    2015-04-01

    In order to optimize the existing slurry for abrasive-free polishing (AFP) of a hard disk substrate, a water-soluble free radical initiator, 2,2'-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AIBA) was introduced into H2O2-based slurry in the present work. Polishing experiment results with AIBA in the H2O2 slurry indicate that the material removal rate (MRR) increases and the polished surface has a lower surface roughness. The mechanism of AIBA in AFP was investigated using electron spin-resonance spectroscopy and UV-Visible analysis, which showed that the concentration of hydroxyl radical (a stronger oxidizer than H2O2) in the slurry was enhanced in the present of AIBA. The structure of the film formed on the substrate surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, auger electron spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technology, showing that a looser and porous oxide film was found on the hard disk substrate surface when treated with the H2O2-AIBA slurry. Furthermore, potentiodynamic polarization tests show that the H2O2-AIBA slurry has a higher corrosion current density, implying that a fast dissolution reaction can occur on the substrate surface. Therefore, we can conclude that the stronger oxidation ability, loose oxide film on the substrate surface, and the higher corrosion-wear rate of the H2O2-AIBA slurry lead to the higher MRR.

  18. Brushing abrasion of luting cements under neutral and acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Buchalla, W; Attin, T; Hellwig, E

    2000-01-01

    Four resin based materials (Compolute Aplicap, ESPE; Variolink Ultra, Vivadent; C&B Metabond, Parkell and Panavia 21, Kuraray), two carboxylate cements (Poly-F Plus, Dentsply DeTrey and Durelon Maxicap, ESPE), two glass-ionomer cements (Fuji I, GC and Ketac-Cem Aplicap, ESPE), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, 3M) one polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Cem, Dentsply DeTrey) and one zinc phosphate cement (Harvard, Richter & Hoffmann) were investigated according to their brushing resistance after storage in neutral and acidic buffer solutions. For this purpose 24 cylindrical acrylic molds were each filled with the materials. After hardening, the samples were stored for seven days in 100% relative humidity and at 37 degrees C. Subsequently, they were ground flat and polished. Then each specimen was covered with an adhesive tape leaving a 4 mm wide window on the cement surface. Twelve samples of each material were stored for 24 hours in a buffer solution with a pH of 6.8. The remaining 12 samples were placed in a buffer with a pH of 3.0. All specimens were then subjected to a three media brushing abrasion (2,000 strokes) in an automatic brushing machine. Storage and brushing were performed three times. After 6,000 brushing strokes per specimen, the tape was removed. Brushing abrasion was measured with a computerized laser profilometer and statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's Standardized Range Test (p < or = 0.05). The highest brushing abrasion was found for the two carboxylate cements. The lowest brushing abrasion was found for one resin based material, Compolute Aplicap. With the exception of three resin-based materials, a lower pH led to a higher brushing abrasion.

  19. NEXT Long-Duration Test Plume and Wear Characteristics after 16,550 h of Operation and 337 kg of Xenon Processed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is developing the next-generation ion propulsion system with significant enhancements beyond the state-of-the-art. The NEXT ion propulsion system provides improved mission capabilities for future NASA science missions to enhance and enable Discovery, New Frontiers, and Flagship-type NASA missions. As part of a comprehensive thruster service life assessment utilizing both testing and analyses, a Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated to validate and qualify the NEXT propellant throughput capability to a qualification-level of 450 kg, 1.5 times the mission-derived throughput requirement of 300 kg. This wear test is being conducted with a modified, flight-representative NEXT engineering model ion thruster, designated EM3. As of June 25, 2008, the thruster has accumulated 16,550 h of operation: the first 13,042 h at the thruster full-input-power of 6.9 kW with 3.52 A beam current and 1800 V beam power supply voltage. Operation since 13,042 h, i.e., the most recent 3,508 h, has been at an input power of 4.7 kW with 3.52 A beam current and 1180 V beam power supply voltage. The thruster has processed 337 kg of xenon (Xe) surpassing the NSTAR propellant throughput demonstrated during the extended life testing of the Deep Space 1 flight spare. The NEXT LDT has demonstrated a total impulse of 13.3 106 N s; the highest total impulse ever demonstrated by an ion thruster. Thruster plume diagnostics and erosion measurements are obtained periodically over the entire NEXT throttle table with input power ranging 0.5 to 6.9 kW. Observed thruster component erosion rates are consistent with predictions and the thruster service life assessment. There have not been any observed anomalous erosion and all erosion estimates indicate a thruster throughput capability that exceeds 750 kg of Xe, an equivalent of 36,500 h of continuous operation at the full-power operating condition. This paper presents the erosion measurements and plume

  20. Tool wear of a single-crystal diamond tool in nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Terano, Motoki

    2015-12-01

    Tool wear characteristics of a diamond tool in ductile mode machining are presented in this paper. Nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate was conducted to examine the tool wear rate of a single-crystal diamond tool. Effects of lubrication on the tool wear rate were also evaluated. A numerical simulation technique was developed to evaluate the tool temperature and normal stress acting on the wear surface. From the simulation results it was found that the tool temperature does not increase during the machining experiment. It is also demonstrated that tool wear is attributed to the abrasive wear mechanism, but the effect of the adhesion wear mechanism is minor in nano-groove machining. It is found that the tool wear rate is reduced by using water or kerosene as a lubricant.

  1. Wear and Tear - Mechanical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the long term wear and tear, or aging, of the mechanical subsystem of a spacecraft. The mechanical subsystem is herein considered to be the primary support structure (as in a skeleton or exoskeleton) upon which all other spacecraft systems rest, and the associated mechanisms. Mechanisms are devices which have some component that moves at least once, in response to some type of passive or active control system. For the structure, aging may proceed as a gradual degradation of mechanical properties and/or function, possibly leading to complete structural failure over an extended period of time. However, over the 50 years of the Space Age such failures appear to be unusual. In contrast, failures for mechanisms are much more frequent and may have a very serious effect on mission performance. Just as on Earth, all moving devices are subject to normal (and possibly accelerated) degradation from mechanical wear due to loss or breakdown of lubricant, misalignment, temperature cycling effects, improper design/selection of materials, fatigue, and a variety of other effects. In space, such environmental factors as severe temperature swings (possibly 100's of degrees C while going in and out of direct solar exposure), hard vacuum, micrometeoroids, wear from operation in a dusty or contaminated environment, and materials degradation from radiation can be much worse. In addition, there are some ground handling issues such as humidity, long term storage, and ground transport which may be of concern. This chapter addresses the elements of the mechanical subsystem subject to wear, and identifies possible causes. The potential impact of such degradation is addressed, albeit with the recognition that the impact of such wear often depends on when it occurs and on what specific components. Most structural elements of the mechanical system typically are conservatively designed (often to a safety factor of greater than approximately 1.25 on yield for

  2. Quantitative image analysis for evaluating the abrasion resistance of nanoporous silica films on glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Karsten H.; Karlsson, Stefan; Limbach, Rene; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-12-01

    The abrasion resistance of coated glass surfaces is an important parameter for judging lifetime performance, but practical testing procedures remain overly simplistic and do often not allow for direct conclusions on real-world degradation. Here, we combine quantitative two-dimensional image analysis and mechanical abrasion into a facile tool for probing the abrasion resistance of anti-reflective (AR) coatings. We determine variations in the average coated area, during and after controlled abrasion. Through comparison with other experimental techniques, we show that this method provides a practical, rapid and versatile tool for the evaluation of the abrasion resistance of sol-gel-derived thin films on glass. The method yields informative data, which correlates with measurements of diffuse reflectance and is further supported by qualitative investigations through scanning electron microscopy. In particular, the method directly addresses degradation of coating performance, i.e., the gradual areal loss of antireflective functionality. As an exemplary subject, we studied the abrasion resistance of state-of-the-art nanoporous SiO2 thin films which were derived from 5-6 wt% aqueous solutions of potassium silicates, or from colloidal suspensions of SiO2 nanoparticles. It is shown how abrasion resistance is governed by coating density and film adhesion, defining the trade-off between optimal AR performance and acceptable mechanical performance.

  3. Quantitative image analysis for evaluating the abrasion resistance of nanoporous silica films on glass

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Karsten H.; Karlsson, Stefan; Limbach, Rene; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    The abrasion resistance of coated glass surfaces is an important parameter for judging lifetime performance, but practical testing procedures remain overly simplistic and do often not allow for direct conclusions on real-world degradation. Here, we combine quantitative two-dimensional image analysis and mechanical abrasion into a facile tool for probing the abrasion resistance of anti-reflective (AR) coatings. We determine variations in the average coated area, during and after controlled abrasion. Through comparison with other experimental techniques, we show that this method provides a practical, rapid and versatile tool for the evaluation of the abrasion resistance of sol-gel-derived thin films on glass. The method yields informative data, which correlates with measurements of diffuse reflectance and is further supported by qualitative investigations through scanning electron microscopy. In particular, the method directly addresses degradation of coating performance, i.e., the gradual areal loss of antireflective functionality. As an exemplary subject, we studied the abrasion resistance of state-of-the-art nanoporous SiO2 thin films which were derived from 5–6 wt% aqueous solutions of potassium silicates, or from colloidal suspensions of SiO2 nanoparticles. It is shown how abrasion resistance is governed by coating density and film adhesion, defining the trade-off between optimal AR performance and acceptable mechanical performance. PMID:26656260

  4. Structural changes in and the wear of the rock cutting element of a bulldozer during operation under the North conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, G. G.; Yakovleva, S. P.; Kychkin, A. K.; Vasil'Eva, M. I.; Struchkov, N. F.; Fedorov, M. V.

    2009-10-01

    The phenomenon of accelerated wear of a ripper crown in a digging machine (bulldozer) under the North operating conditions is studied. The elemental composition, microstructure, microhardness of the crown metal and the wear surface relief characteristics are determined. It is found that, under complex heat-force conditions of loading during the exploitation of cryolite rocks, the metal in the active surface of the rock cutting element undergoes intense softening as a result of the formation of a secondary structure, namely, frictioninduced sorbite. As a result of an insufficient level of the wear resistance of the crown metal and its plasticization, the traces of abrasive wear become deeper and plastic impact-abrasive wear takes place.

  5. High-temperature frictional wear behavior of MCrAlY-based coatings deposited by atmosphere plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chong; Wang, Lei; Song, Xiu

    2017-02-01

    Al2O3-Cr2O3/NiCoCrAlYTa coatings were prepared via atmosphere plasma spraying (APS). The microstructure and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser confocal scanning microscopy (LSCM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The dry frictional wear behavior of the coatings at 500°C in static air was investigated and compared with that of 0Cr25Ni20 steel. The results show that the coatings comprise the slatted layers of oxide phases, unmelted particles, and pores. The hot abrasive resistance of the coatings is enhanced compared to that of 0Cr25Ni20, and their mass loss is approximately one-fifteenth that of 0Cr25Ni20 steel. The main wear failure mechanisms of the coatings are abrasive wear, fatigue wear, and adhesive wear.

  6. Optimization of pulsed DC PACVD parameters: Toward reducing wear rate of the DLC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Mansoureh; Mahboubi, Farzad; Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza

    2016-12-01

    The effect of pulsed direct current (DC) plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) parameters such as temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH4 flow ratio on the wear behavior and wear durability of the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). DLC films were deposited on nitrocarburized AISI 4140 steel. Wear rate and wear durability of the DLC films were examined with the pin-on-disk method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques were used for studying wear mechanisms, chemical structure, and hardness of the DLC films. RSM results show that duty cycle is one of the important parameters that affect the wear rate of the DLC samples. The wear rate of the samples deposited with a duty cycle of >75% decreases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. In contrast, for a duty cycle of <65%, the wear rate increases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. The wear durability of the DLC samples increases with an increase in the duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH4 flow ratio at the deposition temperature between 85 °C and 110 °C. Oxidation, fatigue, abrasive wear, and graphitization are the wear mechanisms observed on the wear scar of the DLC samples deposited with the optimum deposition conditions.

  7. Wear Performance of Laser Processed Tantalum Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Dittrick, Stanley; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    This first generation investigation evaluates the in vitro tribological performance of laser-processed Ta coatings on Ti for load-bearing implant applications. Linear reciprocating wear tests in simulated body fluid showed one order of magnitude less wear rate, of the order of 10−4mm3(N.m)−1, for Ta coatings compared to Ti. Our results demonstrate that Ta coatings can potentially minimize the early-stage bone-implant interface micro-motion induced wear debris generation due to their excellent bioactivity comparable to that of hydroxyapatite (HA), high wear resistance and toughness compared to popular HA coatings. PMID:22058608

  8. Wear Characteristics of Polymer -Based Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Y.; Mirzayev, H.

    2015-11-01

    The dry wear of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-based composites, including bronze-filled composites (B60), glass-filled composites (G15), and carbon-filled composites (C25), produced by the mold casting method were investigated under different sliding conditions. The Taguchi L27 method and the analysis of variance were used to identify the effect of process parameters on the wear of tested materials. Experimental results showed that the wear resistance of G15 polymer composites was better than those of C25 and B60 ones. The specific wear rate decreased with increasing sliding distance and load, but partly decreased with increasing tensile strength.

  9. A comparative evaluation of wear of enamel caused by ceramics with different fusion temperatures.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Meenakshi; Jain, Deshraj

    2013-12-01

    Dental ceramics are the most used esthetic fixed Prosthodontic restorative material today. However, dentists remain suspicious about their potential abrasivity. Lower-fusing ceramic materials developed, are claimed to be wear friendly. This study was conducted to compare the wear of enamel of extracted teeth against one conventionally used ceramic VMK-95 (fusing temperature 930 °C) and two new lower-fusing ceramics-Omega 900 and Finesse with fusing temperatures 900 and 760 °C respectively, used for metal-ceramic restorations. Metal disks were prepared from ceramic alloy and divided into three groups of 10 disks each on which VMK-95, Omega 900 and Finesse ceramics were applied respectively. Ceramic disks and tooth specimen were mounted on custom-made wear simulator and subjected to predefined masticatory test. Each tooth specimen was profiled by laser triangulation sensor before and after masticatory test. Difference in height was calculated. The results showed that mean loss of height of tooth was least against Finesse (0.3431 + 0.0177 mm) followed by Omega 900 (0.4076 + 0.0135 mm) and VMK-95 (0.6177 + 0.014 mm). Statistical analysis revealed statistically significant difference between VMK-95 & Omega 900 and VMK-95 & Finesse. The difference in loss of height of tooth against Finesse & Omega 900 is statistically insignificant (P < 0.001). The results of this study indicate that lower-fusing dental ceramics cause less wear of opposing enamel.

  10. Proper bit design improves penetration rate in abrasive horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Gentges, R.J. )

    1993-08-09

    Overall drilling penetration rates nearly tripled, and drill bit life nearly doubled compared to conventional bits when specially designed natural diamond and polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits were used during a seven-well horizontal drilling program. The improvement in drilling performance from better-designed bits lowered drilling costs at ANR Pipeline Co.'s Reed City gas storage field in Michigan. Laboratory tests with scaled down bits used on abrasive cores helped determine the optimum design for drilling the gas storage wells. The laboratory test results and actual field data were used to develop a matrix-body natural diamond bit, which was later modified to become a matrix-body, blade-type polycrystalline diamond compact bit. This bit had excellent penetration rates and abrasion resistance. The paper describes the background to the project, bit selection, natural diamond bits, field results, new bit designs, and field results from the new design.

  11. Wheel Abrasion Experiment Metals Selection for Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Hoffman, Richard; Hill, Maria M.; Kaloyeros, Alain E.

    1996-01-01

    A series of metals was examined for suitability for the Wheel Abrasion Experiment, one of ten microrover experiments of the Mars Pathfinder Mission. The seven candidate metals were: Ag, Al, Au, Cu, Ni, Pt, and W. Thin films of candidate metals from 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer thick were deposited on black anodized aluminum coupons by e-beam and resistive evaporation and chemical vapor deposition. Optical, corrosion, abrasion, and adhesion criteria were used to select Al, Ni, and Pt. A description is given of the deposition and testing of thin films, followed by a presentation of experimental data and a brief discussion of follow-on testing and flight qualification.

  12. Simple isolation method for the bulk isolation of wear particles from metal on metal bearing surfaces generated in a hip simulator test.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang; Royle, Matt; Lali, Ferdinand V; Hart, Alister J; Collins, Simon; Housden, Jonathan; Shelton, Julia C

    2012-04-01

    Isolation and characterization of metal-on-metal (MoM) wear particles from simulator lubricants is essential to understand wear behaviour, ion release and associated corrosive activity related to the wear particles. Substantial challenges remain to establish a simple, precise and repeatable protocol for the isolation and analysis of wear particles due to their extremely small size, their tendency to agglomerate and degrade. In this paper, we describe a simple and efficient method for the bulk isolation and characterisation of wear particles from MoM bearings. Freeze drying was used to remove the large volume of water from the serum lubricant, enzymes used to digest the proteins and ultracentrifugation to finally isolate and purify the particles. The present study involved a total of eight steps for the isolation process and a wear particle extraction efficiency of 45% was achieved.

  13. Abrasion resistant track shoe grouser

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Keith D; Diekevers, Mark S; Afdahl, Curt D; Steiner, Kevin L; Barnes, Christopher A

    2013-04-23

    A track shoe for a track-type vehicle. The track shoe includes a base plate and a grouser projecting away from the base plate. A capping surface structure of substantially horseshoe shaped cross-section is disposed across a distal portion of the grouser. The capping surface structure covers portions of a distal edge surface and adjacent lateral surfaces. The capping surface structure is formed from an material characterized by enhanced wear resistance relative to portions of the grouser underlying the capping surface structure.

  14. Numerical modelling of tool wear in turning with cemented carbide cutting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, P.; Estrems, M.; Faura, F.

    2007-04-07

    A numerical model is proposed for analysing the flank and crater wear resulting from the loss of material on cutting tool surface in turning processes due to wear mechanisms of adhesion, abrasion and fracture. By means of this model, the material loss along cutting tool surface can be analysed, and the worn surface shape during the workpiece machining can be determined. The proposed model analyses the gradual degradation of cutting tool during turning operation, and tool wear can be estimated as a function of cutting time. Wear-land width (VB) and crater depth (KT) can be obtained for description of material loss on cutting tool surface, and the effects of the distinct wear mechanisms on surface shape can be studied. The parameters required for the tool wear model are obtained from bibliography and experimental observation for AISI 4340 steel turning with WC-Co cutting tools.

  15. Metal wear in Lillehei-Kaster heart valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Silver, M D; Koppenhoefer, H; Heggtveit, H A; Reif, T H

    1985-08-01

    Ten Lillehei-Kaster heart valve prostheses, in situ for up to 10 years and recovered at surgery or necropsy, were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. All showed metal wear on the luminal aspect of their struts. The volume of wear related to the duration a prosthesis had been in situ. The worn metal showed distinct, transverse surface corrugations, which became more obvious with time. Aortic prostheses wore more and faster than mitral ones. One strut usually showed more wear than the other, a change likely due to specific manufacturing methods. It is believed that the pattern of wear is caused by a velocity-controlled stick-slip abrasive wear process, resulting from an interaction between the edge of the moving pyrolytic carbon disc, the struts' titanium surface, and the protein coat covering that surface. None of the patients had prosthesis dysfunction attributable to metal wear. Disc escape seems unlikely considering the degree of wear observed after 10 years. Furthermore, the surface corrugations did not appear to cause disc sticking or other problems. However, clinicians might consider monitoring patients who have borne these prostheses for greater than 10 years.

  16. Conjoint corrosion and wear in titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Williams, R L; Williams, D F

    1999-04-01

    When considering titanium alloys for orthopaedic applications it is important to examine the conjoint action of corrosion and wear. In this study we investigate the corrosion and wear behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-13Nb-13Zr in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), bovine albumin solutions in PBS and 10% foetal calf serum solutions in PBS. The tests were performed under four different conditions to evaluate the influence of wear on the corrosion and corrosion on the wear behaviour as follows: corrosion without wear, wear-accelerated corrosion, wear in a non-corrosive environment and wear in a corrosive environment. The corrosion behaviour was investigated using cyclic polarisation studies to measure the ability of the surface to repassivate following breakdown of the passive layer. The properties of the repassivated layer were evaluated by measuring changes in the surface hardness of the alloys. The amount of wear that had occurred was assessed from weight changes and measurement of the depth of the wear scar. It was found that in the presence of wear without corrosion the wear behaviour of Ti-13Nb-13Zr was greater than that of Ti-6Al-7Nb or Ti-6Al-4V and that in the presence of proteins the wear of all three alloys is reduced. In the presence of corrosion without wear Ti-13Nb-13Zr was more corrosion resistant than Ti-6Al-7Nb which was more corrosion resistant than Ti-6Al-4V without proteins whereas in the presence of protein the corrosion resistance of Ti-13Nb-13Zr and Ti-6Al-7Nb was reduced and that of Ti-6Al-4V increased. In the presence of corrosion and wear the corrosion resistance of Ti-13Nb-13Zr is higher than that of Ti-6Al-7Nb or Ti-6Al-4V in PBS but in the presence of proteins the corrosion resistance of Ti-13Nb-13Zr and Ti-6Al-7Nb are very similar but higher than that of Ti-6Al-4V. The wear of Ti-13Nb-13Zr is lower than that of Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V with or without the presence of proteins in a corrosive environment. Therefore the overall

  17. Wear-mechanism modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, M.F. . Dept. of Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Goals of the program are to calculate the surface temperatures in dry sliding, develop a soft wear tester for ceramics, survey the wear mechanisms in brittle solids, and couple the temperature calculations with models to give wear maps for brittle solids. (DLC)

  18. Scanning electron microscopy of dentition: methodology and ultrastructural morphology of tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Shkurkin, G V; Almquist, A J; Pfeihofer, A A; Stoddard, E L

    1975-01-01

    Scanning electron micrographs were taken of sets of human molars-those of paleo-Indians used in mastication of, ostensibly, a highly abrasive diet, and those of contemporary Americans. Different ultrastructural patterns of enamel wear were observed between the groups.

  19. Checking Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... to get rid of the infection. Luckily, most cuts, scratches, and abrasions will go away on their own, thanks to your body's amazing ability to heal ... Story on Scars Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin What's a Scab? ...

  20. Abrasion and resistant discharge valve developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottwald, W. L.

    1969-01-01

    Discharge valve capable of withstanding intense radiation and high abrasion was developed for use in a fluidized bed reactor. The valve which employs a replaceable Teflon seal, has only one moving part and is designed for remote assembly and disassembly.

  1. Abrasion Collar Around Shrapnel Entry Wound.

    PubMed

    Gujaral, Pootheril Balan; Ajay, Balachandran

    2017-02-28

    Abrasion collar is usually described as a feature of bullet entry wounds caused by friction and indentation. The present case is that of the peculiar entry wound caused by a piece of flying shrapnel which was ejected from a furnace in a steel plant. The scrap metal which exploded in the plant was sourced from the West Asia region. The entry wound on the chest was circular and had an abrasion collar around it. The projectile was a cylindrical object of obscure origin. The forensic science laboratory put forth the possibility that the projectile was a component of an artillery fuze. A decades old study which employed high-speed photography has rejected the possibility that abrasion collars are produced by friction. High-velocity projectiles other than bullets can also produce abrasion collars as the rubbing of the bullet against the skin or its rotation are not the causative mechanisms.

  2. Abrasion by aeolian particles: Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Marshall, J. R.; White, B. R.; Pollack, J. B.; Marshall, J.; Krinsley, D.

    1984-01-01

    Estimation of the rate of aeolian abrasion of rocks on Mars requires knowledge of: (1) particle flux, (2) susceptibilities to abrasion of various rocks, and (3) wind frequencies on Mars. Fluxes and susceptibilities for a wide range of conditions were obtained in the laboratory and combined with wind data from the Viking meteorology experiment. Assuming an abundant supply of sand-sized particles, estimated rates range up to 2.1 x 10 to the minus 2 power cm of abrasion per year in the vicinity of Viking Lander 1. This rate is orders of magnitude too great to be in agreement with the inferred age of the surface based on models of impact crater flux. The discrepancy in the estimated rate of abrasion and the presumed old age of the surface cannot be explained easily by changes in climate or exhumation of ancient surfaces. The primary reason is thought to be related to the agents of abrasion. At least some sand-sized (approx. 100 micrometers) grains appear to be present, as inferred from both lander and orbiter observations. High rates of abrasion occur for all experimental cases involving sands of quartz, basalt, or ash. However, previous studies have shown that sand is quickly comminuted to silt- and clay-sized grains in the martian aeolian regime. Experiments also show that these fine grains are electrostatically charged and bond together as sand-sized aggregates. Laboratory simulations of wind abrasion involving aggregates show that at impact velocities capable of destroying sand, aggregates from a protective veneer on the target surface and can give rise to extremely low abrasion rates.

  3. Corrosion and Wear Studies of Cr3C2NiCr-HVOF Coatings Sprayed on AA7050 T7 Under Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, M.; Suegama, P. H.; Espallargas, N.; Fugivara, C. S.; Dosta, S.; Guilemany, J. M.; Benedetti, A. V.

    2009-09-01

    In this work, cermet coatings were prepared by high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) technique using a Diamalloy 3007 powder. The influence of the spray parameters on corrosion, friction, and abrasive wear resistance was studied. The samples were obtained using the standard conditions (253 L/min of oxygen and 375 L/min of compressed air), higher oxygen flux (341 L/min), and higher carrier gas flux (500 L/min). The coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray diffraction and SEM studies showed well-bounded coating/substrate interface, pores, metallic matrix, chromium oxides, carbides, and carbides dissolution into the matrix. In comparison with the standard condition, the sample prepared using higher oxygen flux showed the highest carbide dissolution because of the high temperature achieved in the spray process. When the carrier gas flux was increased, the sample showed denser structure because of the higher particle velocity. The friction and abrasive wear resistance of the coatings were studied using rubber wheel and ball-on-disk tests. All samples showed similar sliding and abrasive behavior, and all of them showed better performance than the aluminum alloy. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated using open-circuit potential ( E OC) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization curves. The coating prepared with higher carrier gas flux showed the highest corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution and probably no pitting attack to the substrate occurred even after around 26 h of test. Tests performed for longer immersion times showed that the total impedance values significantly decreased (6 and 4 times) for samples sprayed using standard and higher oxygen flux, and no great change for sample sprayed using higher carrier gas flux was observed. The last sample presents a corrosion resistance around 200 times higher than the others.

  4. Studies on polishing of Ti and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy with five dental abrasives.

    PubMed

    Hirata, T; Nakamura, T; Takashima, F; Maruyama, T; Taira, M; Takahashi, J

    2001-08-01

    Titanium (Ti) and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy were examined for their polishing behaviour by conducting manually controlled polishing tests using five dental abrasives [carborundum point (CR) and silicone points (R1 and R2)] driven by a high torque micromotor with rotational speeds ranging from 2000 to 15 000 r.p.m. Polishing of Ti resulted in less volume of removal upon polishing, a rougher surface and larger loss of abrasives, compared with polishing of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. Polishing of Ti with a rotational speed of 15 000 r.p.m. led to the largest volume of removal upon polishing, whilst that of 10 000 r.p.m. produced the optimal volume for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. It was concluded that Ti was much more difficult to polish, requiring special care (e.g. frequent exchange of abrasives). Development of new abrasives for polishing Ti is required.

  5. Abrasive-waterjet machining of isogrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashish, Mohamed; Marvin, Mark; Monserud, David

    1990-12-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of machining isogrid structures with abrasive-waterjets (AWJs). The main objective was to mill isogrid patterns in surfaces with accurate depth control using an AWJ. Three different approaches using AWJs were tested: linear cutting of isogrid patterns for diffusion bonding, milling with conventional AWJ nozzles, and milling with a single-angled rotary AWJ nozzle. It was shown that pocket milling with conventional AWJs is the most feasible of those tested. The milling can be done internally on preformed aluminum tubes, and the AWJ can also be used on materials other than aluminum. Accurate depth control can be achieved at high productivity rates. As an example, it is projected that a 48-inch-diameter skirt 12 inches high could be milled with an isogrid pattern in 6.3 hours. Milled isogrid patterns can be controlled to 0.001 inch, and thin walls of less than 0.025 inch are achievable. Milling isogrid patterns with conventional AWJs could be very economical, but additional development efforts are required to optimize the milling process and to demonstrate the milling of prototype parts.

  6. A lexicon for wear of metal-on-metal hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    McKellop, Harry A; Hart, Alister; Park, Sang-Hyun; Hothi, Harry; Campbell, Pat; Skinner, John A

    2014-09-01

    Research on metal-on-metal (MoM) hip bearings has generated an extensive vocabulary to describe the wear processes and resultant surface damage. However, a lack of consistency and some redundancy exist in the current terminology. To facilitate the understanding of MoM tribology and to enhance communication of results among researchers and clinicians, we propose four categories of wear terminology: wear modes refer to the in vivo conditions under which the wear occurred; wear mechanisms refer to fundamental wear processes (adhesion, abrasion, fatigue, and tribochemical reactions); wear damage refers to the resultant changes in the morphology and/or composition of the surfaces; and wear features refer to the specific wear phenomena that are described in terms of the relevant modes, mechanisms, and damage. Clarifying examples are presented, but it is expected that terms will be added to the lexicon as new mechanisms and types of damage are identified. Corrosion refers to electrochemical processes that can remove or add material and thus also generate damage. Corrosion can act alone or may interact with mechanical wear. Examples of corrosion damage are also presented. However, an in-depth discussion of the many types of corrosion and their effects is beyond the scope of the present wear lexicon.

  7. Computational analysis of polyethylene wear in anatomical and reverse shoulder prostheses.

    PubMed

    Quental, C; Folgado, J; Fernandes, P R; Monteiro, J

    2015-02-01

    The wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, UHMWPE, components has been associated with the failure of joint prostheses in the hip, knee, and shoulder. Considering that in vitro experiments are generally too expensive and time-consuming, computational models are an attractive alternative to study the wear behavior of UHMWPE components. The objective of the present study was to develop a computational wear model to evaluate the wear resistance of anatomical and reverse shoulder prostheses. The effects of the wear law and the updating of the UHMWPE surface on the prediction of wear were also considered. Apart from Archard's law, a new wear law, so-called second generation law, which includes the concept of cross-shear and a pressure-independent wear factor, was considered. The wear analyses were performed considering three shoulder joint motions. The muscle and joint reaction forces applied were estimated by an inverse biomechanical model of the upper limb. The results show that abrasive wear is as important for the reverse components as it is for the anatomical. Nevertheless, the volumetric wears estimated over 1 year are within the range considered clinically desirable to reduce the risk of osteolysis. For the anatomical components, the predictions from Archard's law compare better, than those of the second generation law, to the experimental and clinical data available in the literature. Yet, the opposite result is obtained for the reverse components. From the numerical point of view, an updating procedure for the UHMWPE surface is mandatory to improve the numerical predictions.

  8. Development of underwater cutting system by abrasive water-jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demura, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi

    1993-09-01

    The technology to cut objects in the ocean's depths with abrasive water jets was examined for possible application in view of the greater water depths and sophistication involved in work on the ocean floor today. A test model was developed to study this technology's safety and practicability. The test model was designed for use at great water depths and has functions and a configuration that are unlike equipment used on land. A continuous, stable supply of abrasive is a distinctive design feature. In land applications, there had been problems with plugged tubes and an uneven supply. For this reason, the abrasive was converted to slurry form, and a continuous pressurized tube pump system was adopted for supply to the nozzle head. Also, a hydraulic motor that does not employ oil or electric power was used to provide an underwater drive that is environment-friendly. The report outlines the technology's general design concept including its distinctive functions and its configuration for use at great depths, and the report provides great detail on the equipment.

  9. Characterization of Effective Parameters in Abrasive Waterjet Rock Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae-Min; Cho, Gye-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The rock cutting performance of an abrasive waterjet is affected by various parameters. In this study, rock cutting tests are conducted with different energy (i.e., water pressure, traverse speed, and abrasive feed rate), geometry (i.e., standoff distance), and material parameters [i.e., uniaxial compressive strength (UCS)]. In particular, experimental tests are carried out at a long standoff distance (up to 60 cm) to consider field application. The effective parameters of the rock cutting process are identified based on the relationships between the cutting performance indices (depth, width, and volume) and parameters. In addition, the cutting efficiency is analyzed with effective parameters as well as different pump types and the number of cutting passes considering the concept of kinetic jet energy. Efficiency analysis reveals that the cutting depth efficiency tends to increase with an increase in the water pressure and traverse speed and with a decrease in the standoff distance and UCS. Cutting volume efficiency strongly depends on standoff distance. High efficiency of cutting volume is obtained at a long standoff distance regardless of the pump type. The efficiency analysis provides a realistic way to optimize parameters for abrasive waterjet rock excavation.

  10. Relationship of cheek tooth abrasion to fluoride-induced permanent incisor lesions in livestock.

    PubMed

    Shupe, J L; Christofferson, P V; Olson, A E; Allred, E S; Hurst, R L

    1987-10-01

    Teeth from cattle, sheep, and horses that ingested various fluoride intakes and teeth from field studies of these species plus deer, elk, and bison were examined for abnormalities. Approximately 99,000 animals in 322 herds were examined for fluorosis. From field studies, 988 cattle of various ages and with different degrees of dental fluorosis were slaughtered and necropsied. The severity of fluoride-induced mottling, hypoplasia, and abnormal abrasion of paired permanent incisor teeth was correlated with abrasion of premolar and molar (cheek) teeth that form and mineralize at approximately the same age. Severe irregular wear of cheek teeth impaired mastication and resulted in poor utilization of feed and unthriftiness. Excessive amounts of fluoride during tooth formation and mineralization induce characteristic dental changes. Offspring from the fluoride-affected animals did not have discernible fluoride-induced lesions in the deciduous teeth.

  11. Preparation of sol-gel derived microcrystalline corundum abrasives with hexagonal platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Zhu, Yu-Mei; Gao, Kai; Li, Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different additives on the mechanical properties, microstructures, and wear behavior of corundum abrasives were investigated. When the number of additive phases increases, the sintering temperature and wear rate decrease, while the densification and mechanical properties increase. The additive SiO2 is responsible for the development of equiaxed grains, whereas both CaO and MgO promote the development of platelike grains. By controlling the molar ratio of additives, it is possible to obtain different microstructures. With SiO2-MgO-CaO (molar ratio, 2:1:1) as the additives and nano α-Al2O3 powders as the seed, microcrystalline corundum abrasives with hexagonal platelets were obtained using sol-gel process by sintering at 1300°C for 0.5 h. The average diameter and thickness of hexagonal platelets are 1.38 μm and 360 nm respectively, the single-particle compressive strength is 26.44 N, and the wear rate is (3.06±0.21)×10-7 mm3/(N·m).

  12. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825... Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person wears an approved safety harness when aloft or working topside in heavy weather. Tests, Drills,...

  13. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  14. Enamel wear opposing polished and aged zirconia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J O; Janyavula, S; Lawson, N C; Lucas, T J; Cakir, D

    2014-01-01

    Aging of dental zirconia roughens its surface through low temperature degradation. We hypothesized that age-related roughening of zirconia crowns may cause detrimental wear to the enamel of an opposing tooth. To test our hypothesis, we subjected artificially aged zirconia and reference specimens to simulated mastication in a wear device and measured the wear of an opposing enamel cusp. Additionally, the roughness of the pretest surfaces was measured. The zirconia specimens, artificially aged by autoclave, showed no significant increase in roughness compared to the nonaged specimens. Furthermore, no significant difference in material or opposing enamel wear between the aged and nonaged zirconia was seen. All zirconia specimens showed less material and opposing enamel wear than the enamel to enamel control or veneering porcelain specimens. Scanning electron micrographs showed relatively smooth surfaces of aged and nonaged zirconia following wear testing. The micrographs of the veneering ceramic showed sharp fractured edges and fragments of wear debris. Zirconia may be considered a wear-friendly material for restorations opposing enamel, even after simulated aging.

  15. An evaluation of wear of human enamel opposed by ceramics of different surface finishes

    PubMed Central

    Mulay, Gauri; Dugal, Ramandeep; Buhranpurwala, Murtuza

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Surface of porcelain restoration is a matter of clinical concern because of its abrasive action on the opposing enamel. Purpose: This study comparatively evaluated wear of enamel when opposed by three different surface finishes of ceramic. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 metal-ceramic discs (10 mm × 2 mm) with different surface finishes were fabricated. They were divided into four groups of autoglazed ceramic surface, over glazed ceramic surface, ceramic surface polished with Shofu polishing kit and ceramic surface polished with DFS polishing wheels and paste. Each group comprised of 15 discs. Sixty human teeth samples were prepared from freshly extracted, unrestored, caries free, nonattrited maxillary first premolars. Each tooth sample was weighed before wear testing using AT200 Mettler Toledo electronic analytical balance of 0.0001 g accuracy. Occlusal surfaces of these teeth were then abraded against the substrates in a wear machine for a total of 10,000 cycles. Each tooth sample was weighed after 5000 cycles and after the total of 10,000 cycles, respectively, using the same balance. Differences in weight of tooth samples before and after wear testing were evaluated statistically using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's correction for multiple group comparisons. Results: The values obtained for percentage weight loss after 10,000 cycles for over glazed ceramic surface were marginally higher than values obtained for autoglazed surface. It was observed that values obtained for percentage weight loss by polished ceramic after 10,000 cycles were statistically less as compared to the values obtained with autoglazed and over glazed ceramic surface (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the values obtained by polished ceramic surfaces of two different groups. Conclusion: Enamel wear produced by polished porcelain is substantially less than autoglazed and over glazed porcelain. No significant

  16. The WAFTER: A versatile wear and friction tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewsbury, P.

    1987-06-01

    Described are the design and use of a pins-on-disc wear and friction testing machine, constructed for use in the Wear Technology Group. The tester is capable of assessing sliding wear at speeds up to 4 m/sec and loads up to 40 N. During a wear run the friction and contact resistance are constantly monitored giving a clear picture of the condition of the surfaces.

  17. Wear characteristics of UHMW polyethylene: a method for accurately measuring extremely low wear rates.

    PubMed

    McKellop, H; Clarke, I C; Markolf, K L; Amstutz, H C

    1978-11-01

    The wear of UHMW polyethylene bearing against 316 stainless steel or cobalt chrome alloy was measured using a 12-channel wear tester especially developed for the evaluation of candidate materials for prosthetic joints. The coefficient of friction and wear rate was determined as a function of lubricant, contact stress, and metallic surface roughness in tests lasting two to three million cycles, the equivalent of several years' use of a prosthesis. Wear was determined from the weight loss of the polyethylene specimens corrected for the effect of fluid absorption. The friction and wear processes in blood serum differed markedly from those in saline solution or distilled water. Only serum lubrication produced wear surfaces resembling those observed on removed prostheses. The experimental method provided a very accurate reproducible measurement of polyethylene wear. The long-term wear rates were proportional to load and sliding distance and were much lower than expected from previously published data. Although the polyethylene wear rate increased with increasing surface roughness, wear was not severe except with very coarse metal surfaces. The data obtained in these studies forms a basis for the subsequent comparative evaluation of potentially superior materials for prosthetic joints.

  18. Blast Coating of Superelastic NiTi Wire with PTFE to Enhance Wear Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Conor F.; Roche, Kevin; Twomey, Barry; Hodgson, Darel; Stanton, Kenneth T.

    2015-03-01

    This work investigates the deposition of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) onto a superelastic NiTi wire using an ambient temperature-coating technique known as CoBlast. The process utilises a stream of abrasive (Al2O3) and a coating medium (PTFE) sprayed simultaneously at the surface of the substrate. Superelastic NiTi wire is used in guidewire applications, and PTFE coatings are commonly applied to reduce damage to vessel walls during insertion and removal, and to aid in accurate positioning by minimising the force required to advance, retract or rotate the wire. The CoBlast coated wires were compared to wire treated with PTFE only. The coated samples were examined using variety of techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), microscopy, surface roughness, wear testing and flexural tests. The CoBlast coated samples had an adherent coating with a significant resistance to wear compared to the samples coated with PTFE only. The XRD revealed that the process gave rise to a stress-induced martensite phase in the NiTi which may enhance mechanical properties. The study indicates that the CoBlast process can be used to deposit thin adherent coatings of PTFE onto the surface of superelastic NiTi.

  19. Erosive Wear Behavior of High-Alloy Cast Iron and Duplex Stainless Steel under Mining Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganandh, J.; Natarajan, S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    Centrifugal pumps used in the lignite mines encounter erosive wear problems, leading to a disastrous failure of the pump casings. This paper attempts to evaluate the erosive wear resistance of Ni-Hard 4, high-chromium iron, and Cast CD4MCu duplex stainless steel (DSS), for mining conditions. The prepared test coupons were subjected to an erosion test by varying the impingement velocity and the angle of impingement, under two different pH conditions of 3 and 7, which pertained to the mining conditions. XRD analysis was carried out to confirm the phases present in the alloy. The eroded surface was subjected to SEM analysis to identify the erosion mechanisms. The surface degradation of Ni-Hard 4 and high-chromium iron came from a low-angle abrasion with a grooving and plowing mechanism at a low angle of impingement. At normal impingement, deep indentations resulted in lips and crater formations, leading to degradation of the surface in a brittle manner. A combined extrusion-forging mechanism is observed in the CD4MCu DSS surface at all the impingement angles.

  20. c-axis preferential orientation of hydroxyapatite accounts for the high wear resistance of the teeth of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jimin; He, Chong; Xia, Biao; Li, Yan; Feng, Qiong; Yin, Qifang; Shi, Xinghua; Feng, Xue; Wang, Hongtao; Yao, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Biological armors such as mollusk shells have long been recognized and studied for their values in inspiring novel designs of engineering materials with higher toughness and strength. However, no material is invincible and biological armors also have their rivals. In this paper, our attention is focused on the teeth of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) which is a predator of shelled mollusks like snails and mussels. Nanoscratching test on the enameloid, the outermost layer of the teeth, indicates that the natural occlusal surface (OS) has much higher wear resistance compared to the other sections. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystallites in the vicinity of OS possess c-axis preferential orientation. The superior wear resistance of black carp teeth is attributed to the c-axis preferential orientation of HAp near the OS since the (001) surface of HAp crystal, which is perpendicular to the c-axis, exhibits much better wear resistance compared to the other surfaces as demonstrated by the molecular dynamics simulation. Our results not only shed light on the origin of the good wear resistance exhibited by the black carp teeth but are of great value to the design of engineering materials with better abrasion resistance. PMID:27001150

  1. c-axis preferential orientation of hydroxyapatite accounts for the high wear resistance of the teeth of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jimin; He, Chong; Xia, Biao; Li, Yan; Feng, Qiong; Yin, Qifang; Shi, Xinghua; Feng, Xue; Wang, Hongtao; Yao, Haimin

    2016-03-01

    Biological armors such as mollusk shells have long been recognized and studied for their values in inspiring novel designs of engineering materials with higher toughness and strength. However, no material is invincible and biological armors also have their rivals. In this paper, our attention is focused on the teeth of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) which is a predator of shelled mollusks like snails and mussels. Nanoscratching test on the enameloid, the outermost layer of the teeth, indicates that the natural occlusal surface (OS) has much higher wear resistance compared to the other sections. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystallites in the vicinity of OS possess c-axis preferential orientation. The superior wear resistance of black carp teeth is attributed to the c-axis preferential orientation of HAp near the OS since the (001) surface of HAp crystal, which is perpendicular to the c-axis, exhibits much better wear resistance compared to the other surfaces as demonstrated by the molecular dynamics simulation. Our results not only shed light on the origin of the good wear resistance exhibited by the black carp teeth but are of great value to the design of engineering materials with better abrasion resistance.

  2. Casing wear caused by tooljoint hardfacing

    SciTech Connect

    Best, B.

    1983-10-01

    Casing wear due to new tooljoint hardfacings such as fine-mesh tungsten-carbide hardfacing and a hardfacing covered with a layer of relatively soft material have been tested in the laboratory. The tests have been performed on a full-scale test facility simulating field conditions in terms of forces, motions and fluids as closely as possible. The test equipment and procedure are described. The major casing wear mechanisms by tooljoints are given. Wear mechanisms can be classified in terms of mild, normal and severe. In this paper it is shown that proper understanding of these mechanisms could lead to measures to achieve mild casing wear. These mechanisms are illustrated with test results.

  3. Adhesive Wear of Rollers in Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaeef, Iqbal; Krantz, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    This work was done to support NASA's James Webb Space Telescope that is equipped with a Near Infrared Camera and Spectrograph and Micro Shutter Assembly (MSA). A MSA mechanism's qualification test in cryogenic vacuum at 30deg K for 96K cycles resulted in roller wear and formation of some debris. Lab tests in vacuum were conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to understand the wear of Ti6Al4V mated with 440F steel rollers. Misalignment angle was found to have the most significant effect on debris formation. At misalignment angle of 1.4deg, significant amount of wear debris were formed within 50,000 cycles. Very few wear particles were found for a zero misalignment angle, and the total wear was small even after 367,000 cycles. The mode of wear in all the tests was attributed to adhesion, which was clearly evident from video records as well as the plate-like amalgamated debris material from both rollers. The adhesive wear rate was found to be approximately proportional to the misalignment angle. The wear is a two-way phenomenon, and the mixing of both roller materials in wear debris was confirmed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and EDX spectra. While there was a net loss of mass from the steel rollers, XRF and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra showed peaks of Ti on steel rollers, and peaks of Fe on Ti rollers. These results are useful for designers in terms of maintaining appropriate tolerances to avoid misalignment of rolling elements and the resulting severe wear

  4. An energy dissipation and cross shear time dependent computational wear model for the analysis of polyethylene wear in total knee replacements.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sean T; Bohm, Eric R; Petrak, Martin J; Wyss, Urs P; Brandt, Jan-M

    2014-03-21

    The cost and time efficiency of computational polyethylene wear simulations may enable the optimization of total knee replacements for the reduction of polyethylene wear. The present study proposes an energy dissipation wear model for polyethylene which considers the time dependent molecular behavior of polyethylene, aspects of tractive rolling and contact pressure. This time dependent - energy dissipation wear model was evaluated, along with several other wear models, by comparison to pin-on-disk results, knee simulator wear test results under various kinematic conditions and knee simulator wear test results that were performed following the ISO 14243-3 standard. The proposed time dependent - energy dissipation wear model resulted in improved accuracy for the prediction of pin-on-disk and knee simulator wear test results compared with several previously published wear models.

  5. Lunar Dust Simulant in Mechanical Component Testing - Paradigm and Practicality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, T.; Street, K.; Abel, P.; Richmond, R.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the uniquely harsh lunar surface environment, terrestrial test activities may not adequately represent abrasive wear by lunar dust likely to be experienced in mechanical systems used in lunar exploration. Testing to identify potential moving mechanism problems has recently begun within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center Mechanical Systems Lunar Dust Assessment activity in coordination with the Exploration Technology and Development Program Dust Management Project, and these complimentary efforts will be described. Specific concerns about differences between simulant and lunar dust, and procedures for mechanical component testing with lunar simulant will be considered. In preparing for long term operations within a dusty lunar environment, the three fundamental approaches to keeping mechanical equipment functioning are dust avoidance, dust removal, and dust tolerance, with some combination of the three likely to be found in most engineering designs. Methods to exclude dust from contact with mechanical components would constitute mitigation by dust avoidance, so testing seals for dust exclusion efficacy as a function of particle size provides useful information for mechanism design. Dust of particle size less than a micron is not well documented for impact on lunar mechanical components. Therefore, creating a standardized lunar dust simulant in the particulate size range of ca. 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer is useful for testing effects on mechanical components such as bearings, gears, seals, bushings, and other moving mechanical assemblies. Approaching actual wear testing of mechanical components, it is beneficial to first establish relative wear rates caused by dust on commonly used mechanical component materials. The wear mode due to dust within mechanical components, such as abrasion caused by dust in grease(s), needs to be considered, as well as the effects of vacuum, lunar thermal cycle, and electrostatics on wear rate.

  6. Research on wear properties of centrifugal dredge pump based on liquid-solid two-phase fluid simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, G. J.; Luo, Y. Y.; Wang, Z. W.

    2015-01-01

    The impeller and casing of dredge pump are worn by sediment in the flow. However, there are few studies about abrasion of the impeller and casing for normal pump operating conditions. This paper investigated the relationship between the wear rates on the surfaces of the impeller as well as casing and the sediment concentration, with the distribution of the wear rates for normal pump operating condition analyzed. An Eulerian-Lagrangian Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) procedure was used to simulate steady liquid-solid two-phase flow for various operating conditions. The Finnie model was then used to predict the abrasion. The results show that, the wear rate relative value of impeller and casing surface increase as the sediment concentration increases. The wear rate relative value of impeller and casing surface is larger when the pump is in low flow rate condition, and the value of casing surface is larger than that of the impeller. The wear rate relative value of pump is low when pump is in high efficiency condition. This paper shows the abrasion characteristics on the impeller and casing with sediment flow and provides reference data for predicting the abrasion conditions in the flow passage components for a dredge pump.

  7. Effect of alloy additions on wear resistance of nickel based hardfacing

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Y.L.; Chen, K.Y.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the influence of the microstructure and hardness of the nickel based hardfacing alloy on wear resistance of deposit layers when different alloy elements are added. Different deposit layers were obtained by SMAW in which AWS RNiCr bare electrodes were coated by fluxes, to which different measures of ferro-niobium, ferro-chromium, and carbon had been added. The result of the experiment showed that when subject to abrasive wear, if the abrasive particles were silicon carbide, the increase of the volume fraction of the hard phase had only a slight effect on improving the wear resistance of the deposit layers. On adhesive wear, the niobium added specimens formed some spherical niobium carbide particles in the matrix of the deposit layer which reduced the friction coefficient of the specimens. The addition of carbon and chromium can enhance macrohardness and wear resistance of the welding deposit significantly. This same addition will also aid wear resistance by forming a continuous phase in the microstructure of the deposit metal. While there was no significant difference between the macrohardnesses of the metals, the form of this precipitate in the deposit metals was actually the most important factor in their wear resistance.

  8. Factors affecting polyethylene wear in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Markus S; Stachowiak, Gwidon W

    2002-02-01

    A complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is fatigue-type wear, which can destroy a tibial inlay in <10 years. This deleterious wear mechanism occurs during cyclic loading if the yield stress of polyethylene is exceeded. Because increased stress on and within the polyethylene inlay is associated with increased wear, it is important to reduce the inlay stress by either activity restrictions or conformity changes of design. All stress parameters are more sensitive to conformity changes (eg, design changes) than to load changes (eg, activity restrictions). However, the reduction of stress on and within the polyethylene through increased conformity will increase the stress at the tibial fixation interfaces. An attempt was made to solve this problem with the introduction of mobile-bearing designs. Many mobile-bearing designs exist with good long-term results. One important difference among the various designs is the amount of flexion range with full conformity between the femoral component and the tibial inlay. Although a single radius design reduces polyethylene stress throughout the flexion range, it may be disadvantageous for a revision design to intraoperatively adapt to different degrees of constraint. Aseptic loosening and osteolysis due to small abrasive and adhesive wear particles have also been reported as a cause of failure. The design and material parameters affecting polyethylene wear in TKAs, as well as the potential detrimental effects of wear particle size, are the key issues in defining the life of a TKA.

  9. A comparative study of sliding wear of nonmetallic dental restorative materials with emphasis on micromechanical wear mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dupriez, Nataliya Deyneka; von Koeckritz, Ann-Kristin; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the in vitro tribological behavior of modern nonmetallic restorative materials. Specimen prepared of IPS e.max Press lithium disilicate glass ceramic, IPS Empress Esthetic leucite-reinforced glass ceramic, Everest ZS Blanks yttria-stabilized zirconia and Lava Ultimate composite were subjected to wear using a wear machine designed to simulate occlusal loads. The wear of the investigated materials and antagonists were evaluated by a three-dimensional surface scanner. The quantitative wear test results were used to compare and rank the materials. Specimens were divided into two groups with steatite and alumina antagonists. For each antagonist material an analysis of variance was applied. As a post hoc test of the significant differences, Tukey's honest significant difference test was used. With steatite antagonist: wear of zirconia < wear of leucite-reinforced ceramic < wear of lithium disilicate ceramic < wear of Lava Ultimate composite. No significant wear difference was found for steatite antagonist. The wear of IPS e.max Press and Lava Ultimate against hard alumina was found to be twice lower as compared to their wear when opposing to steatite. The differences were associated with materials mechanical properties (hardness and fracture toughness) and with materials microstructure. Wear mechanisms are discussed.

  10. Wear Resistant Carbide-based Thermal Sprayed Coatings: Process, Properties, Mechanical Degradation and Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabchi, Arash

    correlation between relative abrasive particle size/carbide particle size and observed wear mechanism. Additionally effect of surface open porosities was highlighted. A surface damage mechanisms map was developed for coatings under increasing tangential force. This work has significant implications in improved material and process design of composite wear resistant structures and systems as it provides comprehensive qualitative insight to the wear mechanism of complex composite thermally sprayed structures under different tribological contact conditions. Additionally, this work provides an establishment between process, microstructure, properties and performance for this class of materials.

  11. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing... that contains an abrasive material, such as silica pumice, intended to remove debris from the...

  12. Wear characteristics of bonded solid film lubricant under high load condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiraoka, Naofumi; Sasaki, Akira; Kawashima, Noritsugu; Honda, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    Wear properties of phenolic resin bonded molybdenum disulfide film lubricant were studied. In-vacuo journal bearing tests were performed to evaluate the wear-life of this film lubricant. The wear-life depends on substrate materials and on sliding velocity. Pretreated substrate surfaces were examined to reveal the reasons for these results. Additionally, investigations on film wear mechanisms were made.

  13. Wear Assessment of Conical Pick used in Coal Cutting Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, Saurabh; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath; Hloch, Sergej

    2015-09-01

    Conical pick is a widely used tool for cutting coal in mines. It has a cemented carbide tip inserted in a steel body. Cemented carbide has been in use for many years for coal/rock cutting because it has the optimum combination of hardness, toughness and resistance against abrasive wear. As coal/rock is a heterogeneous substance, the cutting tool has to undergo various obstructions at the time of excavation that cause the tool to wear out. The cracks and fractures developing in the cemented carbide limit the life of the tool. For a long time, different wear mechanisms have been studied to develop improved grades of cemented carbide with high wear resistance properties. The research is still continuing. Moreover, due to the highly unpredictable nature of coal/rock, it is not easy to understand the wear mechanisms. In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the wear mechanisms in four conical picks, which were used in a continuous miner machine for underground mining of coal. The wearing pattern of the conical pick indicates damage in its cemented carbide tip as well as the steel body. The worn out parts of the tools have been critically examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) point analysis. Mainly four types of wear mechanisms, namely, coal/rock intermixing, plastic deformation, rock channel formation and crushing and cracking, have been detected. The presence of coal/rock material and their respective concentrations in the selected area of worn out surface were observed using the spectra generated by EDX analysis.

  14. The Effect of Pleural Abrasion on the Treatment of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Mo-yu; Cai, Shuang-qi; Chen, Yi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Pleural abrasion has been widely used to control the recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). However, controversy still exists regarding the advantages and disadvantages of pleural abrasion compared with other interventions in preventing the recurrence of PSP. Methods The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched up to December 15, 2014 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of pleural abrasion with those of other interventions in the treatment of PSP. The study outcomes included the PSP recurrence rate and the occurrence rate of adverse effects. Results Mechanical pleural abrasion and apical pleurectomy after thoracoscopic stapled bullectomy exhibited similarly persistent postoperative air leak occurrence rates (p = 0.978) and 1-year PSP recurrence rates (p = 0.821), whereas pleural abrasion led to reduced residual chest pain and discomfort (p = 0.001) and a smaller rate of hemothorax (p = 0.036) than did apical pleurectomy. However, the addition of minocycline pleurodesis to pleural abrasion did not reduce the pneumothorax recurrence rate compared with apical pleurectomy (3.8% for both procedures) but was associated with fewer complications. There was no statistical difference in the pneumothorax recurrence rate between mechanical pleural abrasion and chemical pleurodesis with minocycline on either an intention-to-treat basis (4 of 42 versus 0 of 42, p = 0.12; Fisher exact test) or after exclusions (2 of 40 versus 0 of 42, p = 0.24; Fisher exact test). Pleural abrasion plus minocycline pleurodesis also did not reduce the pneumothorax recurrence rate compared with pleural abrasion alone (p = 0.055). Moreover, pleural abrasion plus minocycline pleurodesis was associated with more intense acute chest pain. The postoperative overall recurrence rate in patients who underwent staple line coverage with absorbable cellulose mesh and fibrin glue was similar to that

  15. Effect of Toothpastes with Different Abrasives on Eroded Human Enamel: An in situ/ex vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Meire Coelho; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Vieirac, Ricardo de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the abrasive effect of CaCO3 and SiO2-based fluoride-free experimental toothpastes on eroded human permanent dental enamel and evaluate the effectiveness of waiting periods between acid exposure and tooth brushing. Twelve volunteers wore palatal appliances containing human enamel blocks for two periods of five days each. The appliances were immersed in a soft drink for five minutes four times a day (9:00 am, 11:00 am, 2:00 pm and 4:00 pm). On two occasions, two blocks were not submitted to additional treatment; two blocks were brushed (30 s) either with a CaCO3 or SiO2 toothpaste immediately after erosion and two blocks were brushed 1 h after erosion. Thus, the sample was divided into six groups: erosion alone (CaCO3 and SiO2 control); brushing with fluoride-free toothpaste (CaCO3 immediate and 1 h after erosion; SiO2 immediate and 1 h after erosion). Significant differences in wear depth were found between the enamel blocks in the CaCO3 immediate and 1 h after erosion groups and the blocks in the CaCO3 control group (p=0.001; p=0.022). No significant differences were found regarding the change in roughness and wear depth between blocks submitted to immediate abrasion and 1 h after erosion (CaCO3 and SiO2). The data revealed that surface roughness and wear depth is increased when erosion is combined with dental abrasion, regardless of the abrasive used. Waiting for 1 h to brush the eroded blocks offered no protective effect. PMID:24198851

  16. Wear products of total hip arthroplasty: The case of polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Massin, P; Achour, S

    2017-03-01

    Among the bearing surfaces involved in a total hip arthroplasty, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is the weak link. It is submitted to the friction of a harder bearing, producing wear particles, which, in turn, initiate an inflammatory reaction ultimately leading to osteolysis. This kind of bone deterioration sometimes turns out to an aggressive granuloma and may provoke implant loosening. Wear resistance of UHMWPE depends on its molecular weight and crystallinity. Some steps of the manufacturing process were improved to optimize its tribological properties and to slow down degradation resulting from mechanical (abrasion) and chemical (oxidation) phenomena. Its preparation and conservation must be performed in an inert atmosphere, i.e. without ambient oxygen. Its resistance to abrasion depends on its cross-linking degree. Its cross-linking rate was observed to increase proportionally to the irradiation doses, improving its wear resistance. However, its mechanical properties are impaired and moreover, it becomes oxidation sensitive. It is therefore necessary to submit it to a thermal treatment to eliminate free radicals that were produced during irradiation. More recently impregnation by vitamin E, a powerful anti-oxidant product, was proposed to preserve the polymer from in vivo oxidation while maintaining its mechanical properties. We raised the hypothesis that last-generation UHMWPE could offer the same wear resistance as the most performing bearings (ceramic-on-ceramic). Recent clinical results confirm the tribological performance of highly crosslinked UHMWPE in vivo. However, it remains to be seen whether this excellent wear resistance would persist under eccentric load such as edge loading, and if, in the long run, this kind of bearing proves capable of reducing the risk of osteolysis in young and active patients.