Manipulating Abrikosov vortices with soft magnetic stripes
Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Buzdin, A. I.; ...
2017-05-22
Here, tuning the polarization of a periodic array of magnetic stripes on top of a superconducting film allows control of Abrikosov vortex motion. Using direct magneto-optical imaging of the vortex patterns, we demonstrate that the proximity of the magnetic stripe ends to the edges of the superconducting film can strongly alter the vortex dynamics. We observe qualitatively different vortex behavior when the stripes overlap with the film edges. From the resulting unique magnetic flux patterns, we calculate the magnetic pinning strength of our stripe array and study effects of the modified edge barrier on vortex guidance and gating that resultmore » from different polarizations of the stripes .« less
Manipulating Abrikosov vortices with soft magnetic stripes
Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Buzdin, A. I.
Here, tuning the polarization of a periodic array of magnetic stripes on top of a superconducting film allows control of Abrikosov vortex motion. Using direct magneto-optical imaging of the vortex patterns, we demonstrate that the proximity of the magnetic stripe ends to the edges of the superconducting film can strongly alter the vortex dynamics. We observe qualitatively different vortex behavior when the stripes overlap with the film edges. From the resulting unique magnetic flux patterns, we calculate the magnetic pinning strength of our stripe array and study effects of the modified edge barrier on vortex guidance and gating that resultmore » from different polarizations of the stripes .« less
Abrikosov fluxonics in washboard nanolandscapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.
2017-02-01
Abrikosov fluxonics, a domain of science and engineering at the interface of superconductivity research and nanotechnology, is concerned with the study of the properties and dynamics of Abrikosov vortices in nanopatterned superconductors, with particular focus on their confinement, manipulation, and exploitation for emerging functionalities. Vortex pinning, guided vortex motion, and the ratchet effect are three main fluxonic ;tools; which allow for the dynamical (pinned or moving), the directional (angle-dependent), and the orientational (current polarity-sensitive) control of the fluxons, respectively. Thanks to the periodicity of the vortex lattice, several groups of effects emerge when the vortices move in a periodic pinning landscape: Spatial commensurability of the location of vortices with the underlying pinning nanolandscape leads to a reduction of the dc resistance and the microwave loss at the so-called matching fields. Temporal synchronization of the displacement of vortices with the number of pinning sites visited during one half ac cycle manifests itself as Shapiro steps in the current-voltage curves. Delocalization of vortices oscillating under the action of a high-frequency ac drive can be tuned by a superimposed dc bias. In this short review a set of experimental results on the vortex dynamics in the presence of periodic pinning potentials in Nb thin films is presented. The consideration is limited to one particular type of artificial pinning structures - directly written nanolandscapes of the washboard type, which are fabricated by focused ion beam milling and focused electron beam induced deposition. The reported results are relevant for the development of fluxonic devices and the reduction of microwave losses in superconducting planar transmission lines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samokhvalov, A. V.; Mel'nikov, A. S.; Buzdin, A. I.
2012-05-01
We study the intervortex interaction in thin films of layered superconductors for the magnetic field tilted with respect to the c axis. In such a case, the crossing lattice of Abrikosov vortices (AVs) and Josephson vortices appears. The interaction between pancake vortices, forming the AVs, with Josephson ones, produces the zigzag deformation of the AV line. This deformation induces a long-range attraction between Abrikosov vortices and, in thin films, it competes with another long-range interaction, i.e., with Pearl's repulsion. This interplay results in the formation of clusters of Abrikosov vortices, which can be considered as vortex molecules. The number of vortices in such clusters depends on field tilting angle and film thickness.
Abrikosov receives Ukrainian Gold Medal | Argonne National Laboratory
, Brochures and Reports Summer Science Writing Internship Careers Education Community Diversity Directory and Reports Summer Science Writing Internship Abrikosov receives Ukrainian Gold Medal By Lynn Tefft
Magnetic gates and guides for superconducting vortices
Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Buzdin, A. I.
Here, we image the motion of superconducting vortices in niobium film covered with a regular array of thin permalloy stripes. By altering the magnetization orientation in the stripes using a small in-plane magnetic field, we can tune the strength of interactions between vortices and the stripe edges, enabling acceleration or retardation of the superconducting vortices in the sample and consequently introducing strong tunable anisotropy into the vortex dynamics. We discuss our observations in terms of the attraction/repulsion between point magnetic charges carried by vortices and lines of magnetic charges at the stripe edges, and derive analytical formulas for the vortex-magneticmore » stripes coupling. Our approach demonstrates the analogy between the vortex motion regulated by the magnetic stripe array and electric carrier flow in gated semiconducting devices. Scaling down the geometrical features of the proposed design may enable controlled manipulation of single vortices, paving the way for Abrikosov vortex microcircuits and memories.« less
Magnetic gates and guides for superconducting vortices
Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Buzdin, A. I.; ...
2017-04-04
Here, we image the motion of superconducting vortices in niobium film covered with a regular array of thin permalloy stripes. By altering the magnetization orientation in the stripes using a small in-plane magnetic field, we can tune the strength of interactions between vortices and the stripe edges, enabling acceleration or retardation of the superconducting vortices in the sample and consequently introducing strong tunable anisotropy into the vortex dynamics. We discuss our observations in terms of the attraction/repulsion between point magnetic charges carried by vortices and lines of magnetic charges at the stripe edges, and derive analytical formulas for the vortex-magneticmore » stripes coupling. Our approach demonstrates the analogy between the vortex motion regulated by the magnetic stripe array and electric carrier flow in gated semiconducting devices. Scaling down the geometrical features of the proposed design may enable controlled manipulation of single vortices, paving the way for Abrikosov vortex microcircuits and memories.« less
Anomalous Josephson effect controlled by an Abrikosov vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, S.; Goldobin, E.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.; Tamarat, Ph.; Lounis, B.; Buzdin, A.
2017-12-01
The possibility of a fast and precise Abrikosov vortex manipulation by a focused laser beam opens the way to create laser-driven Josephson junctions. We theoretically demonstrate that a vortex pinned in the vicinity of the Josephson junction generates an arbitrary ground state phase which can be equal not only to 0 or π but to any desired φ0 value in between. Such φ0 junctions have many peculiar properties and may be effectively controlled by the optically driven Abrikosov vortex. Also we theoretically show that the Josephson junction with the embedded vortex can serve as an ultrafast memory cell operating at sub THz frequencies.
A. A. Abrikosov Publications at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)
(ANL/MSD/CP-91922, Apr. 1996) "The Dependance of Delta and Tc on Hopping and the Temperature Variation of {delta} in a Layered Model of HTSC"; Abrikosov, A. A.; Klemm, R. A.; Physica C, 191: 224
Melting of the Abrikosov flux lattice in anisotropic superconductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beck, R. G.; Farrell, D. E.; Rice, J. P.; Ginsberg, D. M.; Kogan, V. G.
1992-01-01
It has been proposed that the Abrikosov flux lattice in high-Tc superconductors is melted over a significant fraction of the phase diagram. A thermodynamic argument is provided which establishes that the angular dependence of the melting temperature is controlled by the superconducting mass anisotropy. Using a low-frequency torsional-oscillator technique, this relationship has been tested in untwinned single-crystal YBa2Cu3O(7-delta). The results offer decisive support for the melting proposal.
Carapella, G.; Sabatino, P.; Barone, C.; Pagano, S.; Gombos, M.
2016-01-01
Vortices are topological defects accounting for many important effects in superconductivity, superfluidity, and magnetism. Here we address the stability of a small number of such excitations driven by strong external forces. We focus on Abrikosov-Josephson vortex that appears in lateral superconducting S/S’/S weak links with suppressed superconductivity in S’. In such a system the vortex is nucleated and confined in the narrow S’ region by means of a small magnetic field and moves under the effect of a force proportional to an applied electrical current with a velocity proportional to the measured voltage. Our numerical simulations show that when a slow moving Abrikosov-Josephson vortex is driven by a strong constant current it becomes unstable with respect to a faster moving excitation: the Josephon-like vortex. Such a current-driven transition explains the structured dissipative branches that we observe in the voltage-current curve of the weak link. When vortex matter is strongly confined phenomena as magnetoresistance oscillations and reentrance of superconductivity can possibly occur. We experimentally observe these phenomena in our weak links. PMID:27752137
Imaging of super-fast dynamics and flow instabilities of superconducting vortices
Embon, L.; Anahory, Y.; Jelić, Ž. L.; ...
2017-07-20
Quantized magnetic vortices driven by electric current determine key electromagnetic properties of superconductors. And while the dynamic behavior of slow vortices has been thoroughly investigated, the physics of ultrafast vortices under strong currents remains largely unexplored. Here, we use a nanoscale scanning superconducting quantum interference device to image vortices penetrating into a superconducting Pb film at rates of tens of GHz and moving with velocities of up to tens of km/s, which are not only much larger than the speed of sound but also exceed the pair-breaking speed limit of superconducting condensate. These experiments reveal formation of mesoscopic vortex channelsmore » which undergo cascades of bifurcations as the current and magnetic field increase. Our numerical simulations predict metamorphosis of fast Abrikosov vortices into mixed Abrikosov-Josephson vortices at even higher velocities. Our work offers an insight into the fundamental physics of dynamic vortex states of superconductors at high current densities, crucial for many applications.« less
2015-11-02
Cloud vortices off Heard Island, south Indian Ocean. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of sea ice off Heard Island on Nov 2, 2015 at 5:02 AM EST (09:20 UTC). Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team
2017-12-08
Cloud vortices off Heard Island, south Indian Ocean. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of sea ice off Heard Island on Nov 2, 2015 at 5:02 AM EST (09:20 UTC). Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farrel, D. E.; Williams, C. M.; Wolf, S. A.; Bansal, N. P.; Kogan, V. G.
1988-01-01
The torque on a superconductor in a magnetic field H has been thought to be dominated by trapped flux or sample shape effects, but it has recently been suggested that an anisotropic type-II material should experience an intrinsic torque for H(c1) much less than H, which in turn is less than H(c2). The predicted phenomenon results from transverse magnetization of the Abrikosov lattice. Measurements are presented on copper-oxide superconductors which delineate the experimental regime in which extrinsic effects are negligible and confirm the existence of the predicted intrinsic torque.
Ovchinnikov, Yu. N., E-mail: ovc@itp.ac.ru; Sigal, I. M.
2016-07-15
The “soft” transverse mode of gapless excitations related to the deformation of a triangular Abrikosov lattice with a single flux quantum per unit cell at an arbitrary value of the Ginzburg–Landau parameter κ is investigated. An Abrikosov lattice with the angle φ = π/3 between the unit cell vectors is shown to be unstable in a narrow range of values, 1 < κ < 1.000634. The excitation spectrum of the mode under consideration at low values of the momentum k (in the k{sup 2} approximation) is isotropic at k lying in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field.
Constraining the double gluon distribution by the single gluon distribution
Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof; Lewandowska, Emilia; Serino, Mirko; ...
2015-10-03
We show how to consistently construct initial conditions for the QCD evolution equations for double parton distribution functions in the pure gluon case. We use to momentum sum rule for this purpose and a specific form of the known single gluon distribution function in the MSTW parameterization. The resulting double gluon distribution satisfies exactly the momentum sum rule and is parameter free. Furthermore, we study numerically its evolution with a hard scale and show the approximate factorization into product of two single gluon distributions at small values of x, whereas at large values of x the factorization is always violatedmore » in agreement with the sum rule.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peshier*, André; Giovannoni, Dino
2016-01-01
We put forward the idea that the quark-gluon plasma might exist way below the usual confinement temperature Tc. Our argument rests on the possibility that the plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions could reach a transient quasi-equilibrium with ‘over-occupied’ gluon density, as advocated by Blaizot et al. Taking further into account that gluons acquire an effective mass by interaction effects, they can have a positive chemical potential and therefore behave similarly to non-relativistic bosons. Relevant properties of this dense state of interacting gluons, which we dub serried glue, can then be inferred on rather general grounds from Maxwell's relation.
Lincoln, Don
2018-01-16
Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilabâs Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter â a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.
Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.
1993-01-01
The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.
2017-12-08
July 4th, 2002: Description: As air flows over and around objects in its path, spiraling eddies, known as Von Karman vortices, may form. The vortices in this image were created when prevailing winds sweeping east across the northern Pacific Ocean encountered Alaska’s Aleutian Islands. Source: Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/
Gluon TMDs in Quarkonium Production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boer, Daniël
2017-03-01
Quarkonium production offers good possibilities to study gluon TMDs. In this proceedings contribution this topic is explored for the linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons and unpolarized gluons inside transversely polarized hadrons. It is argued that χ _{b0/2} and η _b production at LHC are best to study the effects of linearly polarized gluons in hadronic collisions, by means of angular independent ratios of ratios of cross sections. This can be directly compared to cos 2φ asymmetries in heavy quark pair and dijet production in DIS at a future high-energy Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), which probe the same TMDs. In the small- x limit this corresponds to the Weizsäcker-Williams (WW) gluon distributions, which should show a change in behavior for transverse momenta around the saturation scale. Together with investigations of the dipole (DP) gluon distributions, this can provide valuable information about the polarization of the Color Glass Condensate if sufficiently small x-values are reached. Quarkonia can also be useful in the study of single transverse spin asymmetries. For transversely polarized hadrons the gluon distribution can be asymmetric, which is referred to as the Sivers effect. It leads to single spin asymmetries in for instance J{/}ψ (pair) production at AFTER@LHC, which probe the WW or f-type gluon Sivers TMD. It allows for a test of a sign-change relation w.r.t. the gluon Sivers TMD probed at an EIC in open heavy quark pair production. Single spin asymmetries in backward inclusive C-odd quarkonium production, such as J{/}ψ production, may offer probes of the DP or d-type gluon Sivers TMD at small x-values in the polarized proton, which in that limit corresponds to a correlator of a single Wilson loop, describing the spin-dependent odderon.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (Inventor); Holmes, Harlan K. (Inventor); Moore, Thomas C. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
A crossflow vorticity sensor for the detection of crossflow vorticity characteristics is described. The sensor is comprised of crossflow sensors which are noninvasively adhered to a swept wing laminar surface either singularly, in multi-element strips, in polar patterns, or in orthogonal patterns. These crossflow sensors are comprised of hot-film sensor elements which operate as a constant temperature anemometer circuit to detect heat transfer rate changes. Accordingly, crossflow vorticity characteristics are determined via cross-correlation. In addition, the crossflow sensors have a thickness which does not exceed a maximum value h in order to avoid contamination of downstream crossflow sensors.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2002-09-08
Aircraft wake vortices can pose a threat, especially in the terminal environment where aircraft operate in close proximity. Vortex separation standards preclude hazardous encounters, but are oftentimes very conservative. A key to increasing airport c...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cushman-Roisin, B.
Following on a tradition of biannual meetings, the 5th Colloquium on the Modeling of Oceanic Vortices was held May 21-23, 1990, at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. The colloquium series, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, is intended to gather oceanographers who contribute to our understanding of oceanic mesoscale vortices via analytical, numerical and experimental modeling techniques.
Optical vortices with starlight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anzolin, G.; Tamburini, F.; Bianchini, A.; Umbriaco, G.; Barbieri, C.
2008-09-01
Aims: In this paper we present our first observations at the Asiago 122 cm telescope of ℓ = 1 optical vortices generated with starlight beams. Methods: We used a fork-hologram blazed at the first diffraction order as a phase modifying device. The multiple system Rasalgethi (α Herculis) in white light and the single star Arcturus (α Bootis) through a 300 Å bandpass were observed using a fast CCD camera. In the first case we could adopt the Lucky Imaging approach to partially correct for seeing effects. Results: For both stars, the optical vortices could be clearly detected above the smearing caused by the mediocre seeing conditions. The profiles of the optical vortices produced by the beams of the two main components of the α Her system are consistent with numerically simulated on-axis and off-axis optical vortices. The optical vortices produced by α Boo can also be reproduced by numerical simulations. Our experiments confirm that the ratio between the intensity peaks of an optical vortex can be extremely sensitive to off-axis displacements of the beam. Conclusions: Our results give insights for future astronomical applications of optical vortices both for space telescopes and ground-based telescopes with good seeing conditions and adaptive optics devices. The properties of optical vortices can be used to perform high precision astrometry and tip/tilt correction of the isoplanatic field. We are now designing a ℓ = 2 optical vortex coronagraph around a continuous spiral phase plate. We also point out that optical vortices could find extremely interesting applications also in the infrared and radio wavelengths.
Bootstrapping quarks and gluons
Chew, G.F.
1979-04-01
Dual topological unitarization (DTU) - the approach to S-matrix causality and unitarity through combinatorial topology - is reviewed. Amplitudes associated with triangulated spheres are shown to constitute the core of particle physics. Each sphere is covered by triangulated disc faces corresponding to hadrons. The leading current candidate for the hadron-face triangulation pattern employs 3-triangle basic subdiscs whose orientations correspond to baryon number and topological color. Additional peripheral triangles lie along the hadron-face perimeter. Certain combinations of peripheral triangles with a basic-disc triangle can be identified as quarks, the flavor of a quark corresponding to the orientation of its edges thatmore » lie on the hadron-face perimeter. Both baryon number and flavor are additively conserved. Quark helicity, which can be associated with triangle-interior orientation, is not uniformly conserved and interacts with particle momentum, whereas flavor does not. Three different colors attach to the 3 quarks associated with a single basic subdisc, but there is no additive physical conservation law associated with color. There is interplay between color and quark helicity. In hadron faces with more than one basic subdisc, there may occur pairs of adjacent flavorless but colored triangles with net helicity +-1 that are identifiable as gluons. Broken symmetry is an automatic feature of the bootstrap. T, C and P symmetries, as well as up-down flavor symmetry, persist on all orientable surfaces.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Bikash; Pal, Santanu; Raha, Sibaji
Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is a state of matter predicted by the theory of strong interactions - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The area of QGP lies at the interface of particle physics, field theory, nuclear physics and many-body theory, statistical physics, cosmology and astrophysics. In its brief history (about a decade), QGP has seen a rapid convergence of ideas from these previously diverging disciplines. This volume includes the lectures delivered by eminent specialists to students without prior experience in QGP. Each course thus starts from the basics and takes the students by steps to the current problems. The chapters are self-contained and pedagogic in style. The book may therefore serve as an introduction for advanced graduate students intending to enter this field or for physicists working in other areas. Experts in QGP may also find this volume a handy reference. Specific examples, used to elucidate how theoretical predictions and experimentally accessible quantities may not always correspond to one another, make this book ideal for self-study for beginners. This feature will also make the volume thought-provoking for QGP practitioners.
Center vortices in confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexandru, Viorel-Andrei
2001-11-01
The confinement property of quarks is still one of the puzzles of today's physics. Although QCD is believed to accurately describe the interaction between quarks, due to the peculiar nature of the theory we are still unable to prove that it confines the quarks. Most analytical efforts in QCD are based on perturbative techniques which are useless in studying confinement. Lattice gauge theory enables us to get non-perturbative results. We use lattice techniques to investigate one of the proposed mechanisms of quark confinement, namely the center vortex idea. We first present a cursory introduction to lattice theory and the methods used to detect confinement on the lattices. We then show how the center vortices are suppose to produce confinement using center vortices to study Z2 lattice gauge theory. A review of the current studies regarding the idea of center vortices follows. The last chapter is dedicated to studying a particular definition of center vortices due to Tomboulis. We show how to implement this definition of vortices in numerical simulations and use numerical simulations to check the assumptions underlying the formalism. We also compare Tomboulis definition with other methods used to identify vortices on lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalita, Jiten C.; Biswas, Sougata; Panda, Swapnendu
2018-04-01
Till date, the sequence of vortices present in the solid corners of steady internal viscous incompressible flows was thought to be infinite. However, the already existing and most recent geometric theories on incompressible viscous flows that express vortical structures in terms of critical points in bounded domains indicate a strong opposition to this notion of infiniteness. In this study, we endeavor to bridge the gap between the two opposing stream of thoughts by diagnosing the assumptions of the existing theorems on such vortices. We provide our own set of proofs for establishing the finiteness of the sequence of corner vortices by making use of the continuum hypothesis and Kolmogorov scale, which guarantee a nonzero scale for the smallest vortex structure possible in incompressible viscous flows. We point out that the notion of infiniteness resulting from discrete self-similarity of the vortex structures is not physically feasible. Making use of some elementary concepts of mathematical analysis and our own construction of diametric disks, we conclude that the sequence of corner vortices is finite.
Vortices at Microwave Frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Enrico; Pompeo, Nicola; Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.
2017-11-01
The behavior of vortices at microwave frequencies is an extremely useful source of information on the microscopic parameters that enter the description of the vortex dynamics. This feature has acquired particular relevance since the discovery of unusual superconductors, such as cuprates. Microwave investigation then extended its field of application to many families of superconductors, including the artificially nanostructured materials. It is then important to understand the basics of the physics of vortices moving at high frequency, as well as to understand what information the experiments can yield (and what they can not). The aim of this brief review is to introduce the readers to some basic aspects of the physics of vortices under a microwave electromagnetic field, and to guide them to an understanding of the experiment, also by means of the illustration of some relevant results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lembessis, V. E.; Babiker, M.; Andrews, D. L.
2009-01-01
It is shown how the total internal reflection of orbital-angular-momentum-endowed light can lead to the generation of evanescent light possessing rotational properties in which the intensity distribution is firmly localized in the vicinity of the surface. The characteristics of these surface optical vortices depend on the form of the incident light and on the dielectric mismatch of the two media. The interference of surface optical vortices is shown to give rise to interesting phenomena, including pattern rotation akin to a surface optical Ferris wheel. Applications are envisaged to be in atom lithography, optical surface tweezers, and spanners.
Effect of fluctuations on the NMR relaxation beyond the Abrikosov vortex state
Glatz, A.; Galda, A.; Varlamov, A. A.
2015-08-25
Here, the effect of fluctuations on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate W = T –1 1 is studied in a complete phase diagram of a two-dimensional superconductor above the upper critical field line H c2(T). In the region of relatively high temperatures and low magnetic fields, the relaxation rate W is determined by two competing effects. The first one is its decrease in the result of suppression of the quasiparticle density of states (DOS) due to formation of fluctuation Cooper pairs (FCPs). The second one is a specific, purely quantum relaxation process of the Maki-Thompson (MT) type, whichmore » for low field leads to an increase of the relaxation rate. The latter describes particular fluctuation processes involving self-pairing of a single electron on self-intersecting trajectories of a size up to phase-breaking length ℓ Φ which becomes possible due to an electron spin-flip scattering event at a nucleus. As a result, different scenarios with either growth or decrease of the NMR relaxation rate are possible upon approaching the normal-metal–type-II superconductor transition. The character of fluctuations changes along the line H c2(T) from the thermal long-wavelength type in weak magnetic fields to the clusters of rotating FCPs in fields comparable to Hc2(0). We find that below the well-defined temperature T* 0 ≈ 0.6T c0, the MT process becomes ineffective even in the absence of intrinsic pair breaking. The small scale of the FCP rotations ξ xy in such high fields impedes formation of long (≲ℓ Φ) self-intersecting trajectories, causing the corresponding relaxation mechanism to lose its efficiency. This reduces the effect of superconducting fluctuations in the domain of high fields and low temperatures to just the suppression of quasiparticle DOS, analogous to the Abrikosov vortex phase below the H c2(T) line.« less
Toward modeling wingtip vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeman, O.
1993-01-01
Wingtip vortices are generated by lifting airfoils; their salient features are compactness and relatively slow rate of decay. The principal motivation for studying the far field evolution of wingtip vortices is the need to understand and predict the extent of the vortex influence during aircraft take-off or landing. On submarines a wingtip vortex ingested into a propeller can be a source of undesirable noise. The main objectives of this research are (1) to establish theoretical understanding of the principal mechanisms that govern the later (diffusive) stages of a turbulent vortex, (2) to develop a turbulence closure model representing the basic physical mechanisms that control the vortex diffusive stage, and further (3) to investigate coupling between the near and far field evolutions; in other words, to study the effect of initial conditions on the vortex lifetime and the ultimate state.
Axisymmetric Vortices with Swirl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elcrat, A.
2007-11-01
This talk is concerned with finding solutions of the Euler equations by solving elliptic boundary value problems for the Bragg-Hawthorne equation L u= -urr -(1/r)ur - = r^2f (u) + h(u). Theoretical results have been given for previously (Elcrat and Miller, Differential and Integral Equations 16(4) 2003, 949-968) for problems with swirl and general classes of profile functions f, h by iterating Lu(n+1)= rf(u)n)) + h(u(n)), and showing u(n) converges montonically to a solution. The solutions obtained depend on the initial guess, which can be thought of as prescribing level sets of the vortex. When a computational program was attempted these monotone iterations turned out to be numerically unstable, and a stable computation was acheived by fixing the moment of the cross section of a vortex in the merideanal plane. (This generalizes previous computational results in Elcrat, Fornberg and Miller, JFM 433 2001, (315-328) We obtain famillies of vortices related to vortex rings with swirl, Moffatt's generalization of Hill's vortex and tubes of vorticity with swirl wrapped around the symmetry axis. The vortices are embedded in either an irrotational flow or a flow with shear, and we deal with the transition form no swirl in the vortex to flow with only swirl, a Beltrami flow.
Fluctuation spectroscopy: From Rayleigh-Jeans waves to Abrikosov vortex clusters
Varlamov, A. A.; Galda, A.; Glatz, A.
2018-03-27
the critical temperature and quantum fluctuations at zero temperature in the vicinity of the second critical field. The analysis of the latter allows us to present fluctuation formation as a fragmentation of the Abrikosov lattice. Finally, this review highlights a series of experimental findings followed by microscopic description and numerical analysis of the effects of fluctuations on numerous properties of superconductors in the entire phase diagram and beyond the superconducting phase.« less
Fluctuation spectroscopy: From Rayleigh-Jeans waves to Abrikosov vortex clusters
Varlamov, A. A.; Galda, A.; Glatz, A.
the critical temperature and quantum fluctuations at zero temperature in the vicinity of the second critical field. The analysis of the latter allows us to present fluctuation formation as a fragmentation of the Abrikosov lattice. Finally, this review highlights a series of experimental findings followed by microscopic description and numerical analysis of the effects of fluctuations on numerous properties of superconductors in the entire phase diagram and beyond the superconducting phase.« less
Fluctuation spectroscopy: From Rayleigh-Jeans waves to Abrikosov vortex clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varlamov, A. A.; Galda, A.; Glatz, A.
2018-01-01
critical temperature and quantum fluctuations at zero temperature in the vicinity of the second critical field. The analysis of the latter allows us to present fluctuation formation as a fragmentation of the Abrikosov lattice. This review highlights a series of experimental findings followed by microscopic description and numerical analysis of the effects of fluctuations on numerous properties of superconductors in the entire phase diagram and beyond the superconducting phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caron-Huot, Simon
2015-05-01
We propose the eikonal approximation as a simple and reliable tool to analyze relativistic high-energy processes, provided that the necessary subtleties are accounted for. An important subtlety is the need to include eikonal phases for a rapidity-dependent collection of particles, as embodied by the Balitsky-JIMWLK rapidity evolution equation. In the first part of this paper, we review how the phenomenon of gluon reggeization and the BFKL equations can be understood simply (but not too simply) in the eikonal approach. We also work out some previously overlooked implications of BFKL dynamics, including the observation that starting from four loops it is incompatible with a recent conjecture regarding the structure of infrared divergences. In the second part of this paper, we propose that in the strict planar limit the theory can be developed to all orders in the coupling with no reference at all to the concept of "reggeized gluon." Rather, one can work directly with a finite, process-dependent, number of Wilson lines. We demonstrate consistency of this proposal by an exact computation in N=4 super Yang-Mills, which shows that in processes mediated with two Wilson lines the reggeized gluon appears in the weak coupling limit as a resonance whose width is proportional to the coupling. We also provide a precise operator definition of Lipatov's integrable spin chain, which is manifestly integrable at any value of the coupling as a result of the duality between scattering amplitudes and Wilson loops in this theory.
Vortical flow management techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, Dhanvada M.; Campbell, James F.
1987-01-01
The aerodynamic performance and controllability of advanced, highly maneuverable supersonic aircraft can be enhanced by means of 'vortex management', which refers to the purposeful manipulation and reordering of stable and concentrated vortical structures due to flow separations from highly swept leading edges and slender forebodies at moderate-to-high angles-of-attack. Attention is presently given to a variety of results obtained in the course of experiments on generic research models at NASA Langley, clarifying their underlying aerodynamics and evaluating their performance-improvement potential. The vortex-management concepts discussed encompass aerodynamic compartmentation of highly swept leading edges, vortex lift augmentation and modulation, and forebody vortex manipulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenblatt, David
2005-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.
Vortices revealed: Swimming faster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Houwelingen, Josje; van de Water, Willem; Kunnen, Rudie; van Heijst, Gertjan; Clercx, Herman
2016-11-01
Understanding and optimizing the propulsion in human swimming requires insight into the hydrodynamics of the flow around the swimmer. Experiments and simulations addressing the hydrodynamics of swimming have been conducted in studies before, including the visualization of the flow using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The main objective in this study is to develop a system to visualize the flow around a swimmer in practice inspired by this technique. The setup is placed in a regular swimming pool. The use of tracer particles and lasers to illuminate the particles is not allowed. Therefore, we choose to work with air bubbles with a diameter of 4 mm, illuminated by ambient light. Homogeneous bubble curtains are produced by tubes implemented in the bottom of the pool. The bubble motion is captured by six cameras placed in underwater casings. A first test with the setup has been conducted by pulling a cylinder through the bubbles and performing a PIV analysis. The vorticity plots of the resulting data show the expected vortex street behind the cylinder. The shedding frequency of the vortices resembles the expected frequency. Thus, it is possible to identify and follow the coherent structures. We will discuss these results and the first flow measurements around swimmers.
Quark ACM with topologically generated gluon mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhury, Ishita Dutta; Lahiri, Amitabha
2016-03-01
We investigate the effect of a small, gauge-invariant mass of the gluon on the anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) of quarks by perturbative calculations at one-loop level. The mass of the gluon is taken to have been generated via a topological mass generation mechanism, in which the gluon acquires a mass through its interaction with an antisymmetric tensor field Bμν. For a small gluon mass ( < 10 MeV), we calculate the ACM at momentum transfer q2 = -M Z2. We compare those with the ACM calculated for the gluon mass arising from a Proca mass term. We find that the ACM of up, down, strange and charm quarks vary significantly with the gluon mass, while the ACM of top and bottom quarks show negligible gluon mass dependence. The mechanism of gluon mass generation is most important for the strange quarks ACM, but not so much for the other quarks. We also show the results at q2 = -m t2. We find that the dependence on gluon mass at q2 = -m t2 is much less than at q2 = -M Z2 for all quarks.
Stability of streamwise vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khorrami, M. K.; Grosch, C. E.; Ash, R. L.
1987-01-01
A brief overview of some theoretical and computational studies of the stability of streamwise vortices is given. The local induction model and classical hydrodynamic vortex stability theories are discussed in some detail. The importance of the three-dimensionality of the mean velocity profile to the results of stability calculations is discussed briefly. The mean velocity profile is provided by employing the similarity solution of Donaldson and Sullivan. The global method of Bridges and Morris was chosen for the spatial stability calculations for the nonlinear eigenvalue problem. In order to test the numerical method, a second order accurate central difference scheme was used to obtain the coefficient matrices. It was shown that a second order finite difference method lacks the required accuracy for global eigenvalue calculations. Finally the problem was formulated using spectral methods and a truncated Chebyshev series.
Fluid transport by dipolar vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
I, Eames; J.-B, Flór
1998-08-01
The transport properties of dipolar vortices propagating on an f-plane are studied experimentally by examining the distortion of a series of material surfaces. The observations are compared with a model based on characterising the flow around the dipole as irrotational flow past a rigid cylinder of volume V. Measurements made of the volume of fluid permanently displaced forward by the vortices, agree to within 20% of that predicted by the proposition of Darwin [Darwin, C., 1953. A note on hydrodynamics. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc., 49, 342-354], namely that the vortex will displace a volume CMV forward, where CM=1 for a Lamb's dipole. The results are applied to examine fluid transport by dipolar vortices propagating on the β-plane, where the ambient potential vorticity field causes easterly propagating dipolar vortices to meander sinusoidally between the North and South. We demonstrate that as the vortex moves between the North and South, it exchanges a volume CMV sin α by the drift effect (where α is the angle between the velocity of the dipole and the material surface), which is generally larger than that attributed to other mechanisms such as lobe shedding. The results are applied to give new insight to the effect of vortices in enhancing diffusion, and the secondary flow generated by the transport of ambient potential vorticity.
HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.
LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.
2005-04-11
The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies thatmore » the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear matter at extremely
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.
2011-01-01
As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.
Numerical studies of interacting vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, G. C.; Hsu, C. H.
1985-01-01
To get a basic understanding of the physics of flowfields modeled by vortex filaments with finite vortical cores, systematic numerical studies of the interactions of two dimensional vortices and pairs of coaxial axisymmetric circular vortex rings were made. Finite difference solutions of the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were carried out using vorticity and stream function as primary variables. Special emphasis was placed on the formulation of appropriate boundary conditions necessary for the calculations in a finite computational domain. Numerical results illustrate the interaction of vortex filaments, demonstrate when and how they merge with each other, and establish the region of validity for an asymptotic analysis.
Vorticity Transfer in Shock Wave Interactions with Turbulence and Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agui, J. H.; Andreopoulos, J.
1998-11-01
Time-dependent, three-dimensional vorticity measurements of shock waves interacting with grid generated turbulence and concentrated tip vortices were conducted in a large diameter shock tube facility. Two different mesh size grids and a NACA-0012 semi-span wing acting as a tip vortex generator were used to carry out different relative Mach number interactions. The turbulence interactions produced a clear amplification of the lateral and spanwise vorticity rms, while the longitudinal component remained mostly unaffected. By comparison, the tip vortex/shock wave interactions produced a two fold increase in the rms of longitudinal vorticity. Considerable attention was given to the vorticity source terms. The mean and rms of the vorticity stretching terms dominated by 5 to 7 orders of magnitude over the dilitational compression terms in all the interactions. All three signals of the stretching terms manifested very intermittent, large amplitude peak events which indicated the bursting character of the stretching process. Distributions of these signals were characterized by extremely large levels of flatness with varying degrees of skewness. These distribution patterns were found to change only slightly through the turbulence interactions. However, the tip vortex/shock wave interactions brought about significant changes in these distributions which were associated with the abrupt structural changes of the vortex after the interaction.
Spatiotemporal optical vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jhajj, Nihal; Larkin, Ilia; Rosenthal, Eric; Zahedpour, Sina; Wahlstrand, Jared; Milchberg, Howard
2017-04-01
We present the first experimental evidence, supported by theory and simulation, of spatiotemporal optical vortices (STOVs). A STOV is an optical vortex with phase and energy circulation in a spatiotemporal plane. Depending on the sign of the material dispersion, the local electromagnetic energy flow is saddle or spiral about the STOV. STOVs are shown to be a fundamental element of the nonlinear collapse and subsequent propagation of short optical pulses in material media. STOVs conserve topological charge, constraining their birth, evolution, and annihilation. We measure a self-generated STOV consisting of a ring-shaped null in the electromagnetic field about which the phase is spiral, forming a dynamic torus that is concentric with and tracks the propagating pulse. Our results, here obtained for optical pulse collapse and filamentation in air, are generalizable to a broad class of nonlinearly propagating waves. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Grant No. W911NF1410372), Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant No. FA95501310044), National Science Foundation (Grant No. PHY1301948), and Army Research Office (Grant No. W911NF1410372).
Jovian vortices by simulated annealing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrison, P. J.; Flierl, G. R.; Swaminathan, R. V.
2017-11-01
We explore the conditions required for isolated vortices to exist in sheared zonal flows and the stability of the underlying zonal winds. This is done using the standard 2-layer quasigeostrophic model with the lower layer depth becoming infinite; however, this model differs from the usual layer model because the lower layer is not assumed to be motionless but has a steady configuration of alternating zonal flows. Steady state vortices are obtained by a simulated annealing computational method introduced in, generalized and applied in in fluid flow, and used in the context of magnetohydrodynamics in. Various cases of vortices with a constant potential vorticity anomaly atop zonal winds and the stability of the underlying winds are considered using a mix of computational and analytical techniques. U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-FG05-80ET-53088.
Theory of free electron vortices
Schattschneider, P.; Verbeeck, J.
2011-01-01
The recent creation of electron vortex beams and their first practical application motivates a better understanding of their properties. Here, we develop the theory of free electron vortices with quantized angular momentum, based on solutions of the Schrödinger equation for cylindrical boundary conditions. The principle of transformation of a plane wave into vortices with quantized angular momentum, their paraxial propagation through round magnetic lenses, and the effect of partial coherence are discussed. PMID:21930017
The gluon Sivers distribution: Status and future prospects
Boer, Daniël; Lorcé, Cédric; Pisano, Cristian; ...
2015-06-28
In this study, we review what is currently known about the gluon Sivers distribution and what are the opportunities to learn more about it. Because single transverse spin asymmetries in p↑p → πX provide only indirect information about the gluon Sivers function through the relation with the quark-gluon and tri-gluon Qiu-Sterman functions, current data from hadronic collisions at RHIC have not yet been translated into a solid constraint on the gluon Sivers function.
Jupiter's Great Red Spot and other vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marcus, Philip S.
1993-01-01
A theoretical explanation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) as the self-organization of vorticity in turbulence is presented. A number of properties of the GRS and other Jovian vortices that are unambiguous from the data are listed. The simplest possible model that explains these properties one at a time rather than in a difficult all-encompassing planetary global circulation model is presented. It is shown that Jovian vortices reflect the behavior of quasi-geostrophic (QG) vortices embedded in an east-west wind with bands of uniform potential vorticity. It is argued that most of the properties of the Jovian vortices can be easily explained and understood with QG theory. Many of the signatures of QG vortices are apparent on Voyager images. In numerical and laboratory experiments, QG vortices relax to approximately steady states like the Jovian vortices, rather than oscillating or rotating Kida ellipses.
Bugaev, K. A.; Petrov, V. K.; Zinovjev, G. M.
2009-05-15
The influence of the medium-dependent finite width of quark gluon plasma (QGP) bags on their equation of state is analyzed within an exactly solvable model. It is argued that the large width of the QGP bags not only explains the observed deficit in the number of hadronic resonances but also clarifies the reason why the heavy QGP bags cannot be directly observed as metastable states in a hadronic phase. The model allows us to estimate the minimal value of the width of QGP bags being heavier than 2 GeV from a variety of the lattice QCD data and get thatmore » the minimal resonance width at zero temperature is about 600 MeV, whereas the minimal resonance width at the Hagedorn temperature is about 2000 MeV. As shown, these estimates are almost insensitive to the number of the elementary degrees of freedom. The recent lattice QCD data are analyzed and it is found that in addition to the {sigma}T{sup 4} term the lattice QCD pressure contains T-linear and T{sup 4}lnT terms in the range of temperatures between 240 and 420 MeV. The presence of the last term in the pressure bears almost no effect on the width estimates. Our analysis shows that at high temperatures the average mass and width of the QGP bags behave in accordance with the upper bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the linear asymptotics), whereas at low temperatures they obey the lower bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the square root one). Since the model explicitly contains the Hagedorn mass spectrum, it allows us to remove an existing contradiction between the finite number of hadronic Regge families and the Hagedorn idea of the exponentially growing mass spectrum of hadronic bags.« less
Electromagnetohydrodynamic vortices and corn circles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikuchi, H.
A novel type of large-scale vortex formation has theoretically been found in helical turbulence in terms of hydrodynamic, electric, magnetic, and space charge fields in an external electric (and magnetic) field. It is called 'electro-MHD (EMHD) vortices' and is generated as a result of self-organization processes in nonequilibrium media by the transfer of energy from small- to large-scale sizes. Explanations for 'corn circles', circular symmetric ground patterns found in a corn field in southern England, are provided on the basis of a new theory of the EMHD vortices under consideration.
The gluon structure of hadrons and nuclei from lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shanahan, Phiala
2018-03-01
I discuss recent lattice QCD studies of the gluon structure of hadrons and light nuclei. After very briefly highlighting new determinations of the gluon contributions to the nucleon's momentum and spin, presented by several collaborations over the last year, I describe first calculations of gluon generalised form factors. The generalised transversity gluon distributions are of particular interest since they are purely gluonic; they do not mix with quark distributions at leading twist. In light nuclei they moreover provide a clean signature of non-nucleonic gluon degrees of freedom, and I present the first evidence for such effects, based on lattice QCD calculations. The planned Electron-Ion Collider, designed to access gluon structure quantities, will have the capability to test this prediction, and measure a range of gluon observables including generalised gluon distributions and transverse momentum dependent gluon distributions, within the next decade.
Combustor with multistage internal vortices
Shang, Jer Y.; Harrington, Richard E.
1989-01-01
A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard area to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard.
Combustor with multistage internal vortices
Shang, Jer Yu; Harrington, R.E.
1987-05-01
A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard areas to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard. 2 figs.
Paraboloids and Vortices in Hydrodynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodman, John M.
1969-01-01
Describes an apparatus designed to demonstrate vortical flow of a fluid. The apparatus consists of a transparent acrylic cylinder, with a drain hole, and mounted so that it can be rotated about its axis at speeds up to 1000 rpm. Experimental observations with water as the fluid under study are reported. (LC)
Numerical analysis of the unintegrated double gluon distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elias, Edgar; Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof; Staśto, Anna M.
2018-01-01
We present detailed numerical analysis of the unintegrated double gluon distribution which includes the dependence on the transverse momenta of partons. The unintegrated double gluon distribution was obtained following the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin method as a convolution of the perturbative gluon splitting function with the collinear integrated double gluon distribution and the Sudakov form factors. We analyze the dependence on the transverse momenta, longitudinal momentum fractions and hard scales. We find that the unintegrated gluon distribution factorizes into a product of two single unintegrated gluon distributions in the region of small values of x, provided the splitting contribution is included and the momentum sum rule is satisfied.
Review of vortices in wildland fire
Jason M. Forthofer; Scott L. Goodrick
2011-01-01
Vortices are almost always present in the wildland fire environment and can sometimes interact with the fire in unpredictable ways, causing extreme fire behavior and safety concerns. In this paper, the current state of knowledge of the interaction of wildland fire and vortices is examined and reviewed. A basic introduction to vorticity is given, and the two common...
Gluon Bremsstrahlung in Weakly-Coupled Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, Peter
2009-11-01
I report on some theoretical progress concerning the calculation of gluon bremsstrahlung for very high energy particles crossing a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma. (i) I advertise that two of the several formalisms used to study this problem, the BDMPS-Zakharov formalism and the AMY formalism (the latter used only for infinite, uniform media), can be made equivalent when appropriately formulated. (ii) A standard technique to simplify calculations is to expand in inverse powers of logarithms ln(E/T). I give an example where such expansions are found to work well for ω/T≳10 where ω is the bremsstrahlung gluon energy. (iii) Finally, I report on perturbative calculations of q̂.
Gluon amplitudes as 2 d conformal correlators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasterski, Sabrina; Shao, Shu-Heng; Strominger, Andrew
2017-10-01
Recently, spin-one wave functions in four dimensions that are conformal primaries of the Lorentz group S L (2 ,C ) were constructed. We compute low-point, tree-level gluon scattering amplitudes in the space of these conformal primary wave functions. The answers have the same conformal covariance as correlators of spin-one primaries in a 2 d CFT. The Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relation between three- and four-point gluon amplitudes is recast into this conformal basis.
Squeezed colour states in gluon jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kilin, S. YA.; Kuvshinov, V. I.; Firago, S. A.
1993-01-01
The possibility of the formation of squeezed states of gluon fields in quantum chromodynamics due to nonlinear nonperturbative self interaction during jet evolution in the process of e(+)e(-) annihilation into hadrons, which are analogous to the quantum photon squeezed states in quantum electrodynamics, is demonstrated. Additionally, the squeezing parameters are calculated.
Quark-gluon plasma (Selected Topics)
Zakharov, V. I., E-mail: vzakharov@itep.ru
Introductory lectures to the theory of (strongly interacting) quark-gluon plasma given at the Winter School of Physics of ITEP (Moscow, February 2010). We emphasize theoretical issues highlighted by the discovery of the low viscosity of the plasma. The topics include relativistic hydrodynamics, manifestations of chiral anomaly in hydrodynamics, superfluidity, relativistic superfluid hydrodynamics, effective stringy scalars, holographic models of Yang-Mills theories.
Exploring Quarks, Gluons and the Higgs Boson
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johansson, K. Erik
2013-01-01
With real particle collision data available on the web, the amazing dynamics of the fundamental particles of the standard model can be explored in classrooms. Complementing the events from the ATLAS experiment with animations of the fundamental processes on the quark and gluon level makes it possible to better understand the invisible world of…
Sambamurti Memorial Lecture: Spotlight on the Gluon
Michael Begelas
2017-12-09
Begel uses results from the Fermilab D0 and E706 experiments to explain how the production rate and energy spectrum of photons produced during proton collisions helped to clarify how the energy inside the proton is shared between quarks and gluons.
Marine Vortices and Their Computation
2003-03-01
have received attention, the HSVA [23] and the KRISO KVLCC2 tankers. Strong bilge vortices have a distinctive hook pattern in the axial velocity...contours at the propeller plane, as shown in Fig. 2 for the KRISO KVLCC2 from the experimental data of Van et al [24]. The HSVA tanker was the focus of a...quite well with nonisotropic Reynolds stress turbulence models. This was reiterated for the KRISO KVLCC2 Tanker which was a validation test case for the
Using a Classical Gluon Cascade to study the Equilibration of a Gluon-Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McConnell, Lucas
2015-10-01
Using a classical gluon cascade, we study the thermalisation of a gluon-plasma in a homogeneous box by considering the time evolution of the entropy, and in particular how the thermalisation time depends on the strong coupling αs. We then partition the volume into cells with a linearly increasing temperature gradient in one direction, and homogeneous/isotropic in the the other two directions. We allow the gluons to stream in one direction in order to study how they then evolve spatially. We examine cases with and without collisions. We study the entropy as well as the flow-velocity in the z-direction and find that the system initially has a flow which dissipates over time as the gluons become distributed homogeneously throughout the box.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deveaud-Plédran, Benoit
2012-02-01
Polariton quantum fluids may be created both spontaneously through a standard phase transition towards a Bose Einstein condensate, or may be resonantly driven with a well-defined speed. Thanks to the photonic component of polaritons, the properties of the quantum fluid may be accessed rather directly with in particular the possibility of detained interferometric studies. Here, I will detail the dynamics of vortices, obtained with a picosecond time resolution, in different configurations, with in particular their phase dynamics. I will show in particular the dynamics the dynamics of spontaneous creation of a vortex, the dissociation of a full vortex into two half vortices as well as the dynamics of the dissociation of a dark soliton line into a street of pairs of vortices. Work done at EPFL by a dream team of Postdocs PhD students and collaborators: K. Lagoudakis, G. Nardin, T. Paraiso, G. Grosso, F. Manni, Y L'eger, M. Portella Oberli, F. Morier-Genoud and the help of our friend theorists V, Savona, M. Vouters and T. Liew.
Plane mixing layer vortical structure kinematics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leboeuf, Richard L.
1993-01-01
The objective of the current project was to experimentally investigate the structure and dynamics of the streamwise vorticity in a plane mixing layer. The first part of this research program was intended to clarify whether the observed decrease in mean streamwise vorticity in the far-field of mixing layers is due primarily to the 'smearing' caused by vortex meander or to diffusion. Two-point velocity correlation measurements have been used to show that there is little spanwise meander of the large-scale streamwise vortical structure. The correlation measurements also indicate a large degree of transverse meander of the streamwise vorticity which is not surprising since the streamwise vorticity exists in the inclined braid region between the spanwise vortex core regions. The streamwise convection of the braid region thereby introduces an apparent transverse meander into measurements using stationary probes. These results corroborated with estimated secondary velocity profiles in which the streamwise vorticity produces a signature which was tracked in time.
Two applications of potential vorticity thinking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Walter A.
1987-01-01
The phenomena of dissipative destabilization of external Rossby waves and the acceleration of the zonal mean jet during baroclinic life cycles are described in terms of potential vorticity. The main principle of the potential temperature variations at rigid boundaries have the same effect on the interior flow as do sheets of potential vorticity located just within the boundaries. It is noted that the potential vorticity theory is useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of meterological phenomena.
Numerical Simulation of Protoplanetary Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, H.; Barranco, J. A.; Marcus, P. S.
2003-01-01
The fluid dynamics within a protoplanetary disk has been attracting the attention of many researchers for a few decades. Previous works include, to list only a few among many others, the well-known prescription of Shakura & Sunyaev, the convective and instability study of Stone & Balbus and Hawley et al., the Rossby wave approach of Lovelace et al., as well as a recent work by Klahr & Bodenheimer, which attempted to identify turbulent flow within the disk. The disk is commonly understood to be a thin gas disk rotating around a central star with differential rotation (the Keplerian velocity), and the central quest remains as how the flow behavior deviates (albeit by a small amount) from a strong balance established between gravitational and centrifugal forces, transfers mass and momentum inward, and eventually forms planetesimals and planets. In earlier works we have briefly described the possible physical processes involved in the disk; we have proposed the existence of long-lasting, coherent vortices as an efficient agent for mass and momentum transport. In particular, Barranco et al. provided a general mathematical framework that is suitable for the asymptotic regime of the disk; Barranco & Marcus (2000) addressed a proposed vortex-dust interaction mechanism which might lead to planetesimal formation; and Lin et al. (2002), as inspired by general geophysical vortex dynamics, proposed basic mechanisms by which vortices can transport mass and angular momentum. The current work follows up on our previous effort. We shall focus on the detailed numerical implementation of our problem. We have developed a parallel, pseudo-spectral code to simulate the full three-dimensional vortex dynamics in a stably-stratified, differentially rotating frame, which represents the environment of the disk. Our simulation is validated with full diagnostics and comparisons, and we present our results on a family of three-dimensional, coherent equilibrium vortices.
Alexei Abrikosov and Superconductivity
Superconducting Cuprates Based on Experimental Evidence, , DOE Technical Report Download Adobe PDF Reader Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site
Making sound vortices by metasurfaces
Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang
Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.
Making sound vortices by metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Jia, Han; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha; Liu, Zhengyou
2016-08-01
Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.
Study of Spin through Gluon Poles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anikin, I. V.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O. V.; Volchanskiy, N.
2017-12-01
Based on the use of contour gauge and collinear factorization, we propose a new set of single spin asymmetry which can be measured in polarized Drell-Yan process by SPD@NICA. We stress that all of discussed single spin asymmetries exist owing to the gluon poles manifesting in the twist-3 or twist-2⊗twist-3 parton distributions related to the transverse-polarized Drell-Yan process.
Nonperturbative study of the four gluon vertex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binosi, D.; Ibañez, D.; Papavassiliou, J.
2014-09-01
In this paper we study the nonperturbative structure of the SU(3) four-gluon vertex in the Landau gauge, concentrating on contributions quadratic in the metric. We employ an approximation scheme where "one-loop" diagrams are computed using fully dressed gluon and ghost propagators, and tree-level vertices. When a suitable kinematical configuration depending on a single momentum scale p is chosen, only two structures emerge: the tree-level four-gluon vertex, and a tensor orthogonal to it. A detailed numerical analysis reveals that the form factor associated with this latter tensor displays a change of sign (zero-crossing) in the deep infrared, and finally diverges logarithmically. The origin of this characteristic behavior is proven to be entirely due to the masslessness of the ghost propagators forming the corresponding ghost-loop diagram, in close analogy to a similar effect established for the three-gluon vertex. However, in the case at hand, and under the approximations employed, this particular divergence does not affect the form factor proportional to the tree-level tensor, which remains finite in the entire range of momenta, and deviates moderately from its naive tree-level value. It turns out that the kinematic configuration chosen is ideal for carrying out lattice simulations, because it eliminates from the connected Green's function all one-particle reducible contributions, projecting out the genuine one-particle irreducible vertex. Motivated by this possibility, we discuss in detail how a hypothetical lattice measurement of this quantity would compare to the results presented here, and the potential interference from an additional tensorial structure, allowed by Bose symmetry, but not encountered within our scheme.
Relativistic Shock Waves in Viscous Gluon Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouras, I.; Molnár, E.; Niemi, H.; Xu, Z.; El, A.; Fochler, O.; Greiner, C.; Rischke, D. H.
2009-07-01
We solve the relativistic Riemann problem in viscous gluon matter employing a microscopic parton cascade. We demonstrate the transition from ideal to viscous shock waves by varying the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s from zero to infinity. We show that an η/s ratio larger than 0.2 prevents the development of well-defined shock waves on time scales typical for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Comparisons with viscous hydrodynamic calculations confirm our findings.
Systematics of quark/gluon tagging
Gras, Philippe; Höche, Stefan; Kar, Deepak
By measuring the substructure of a jet, one can assign it a “quark” or “gluon” tag. In the eikonal (double-logarithmic) limit, quark/gluon discrimination is determined solely by the color factor of the initiating parton (C F versus C A). In this paper, we confront the challenges faced when going beyond this leading-order understanding, using both parton-shower generators and first-principles calculations to assess the impact of higher-order perturbative and nonperturbative physics. Working in the idealized context of electron-positron collisions, where one can define a proxy for quark and gluon jets based on the Lorentz structure of the production vertex, we findmore » a fascinating interplay between perturbative shower effects and nonperturbative hadronization effects. Turning to proton-proton collisions, we highlight a core set of measurements that would constrain current uncertainties in quark/gluon tagging and improve the overall modeling of jets at the Large Hadron Collider.« less
Open charm production and low x gluons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Oliveira, E. G.; Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.
2018-04-01
We compare the rapidity, y , and the beam energy, √{s } , behaviors of the cross section of the data for D meson production in the forward direction that were measured by the LHCb Collaboration. We describe the observed cross sections using NLO perturbative QCD, and choose the optimal factorization scale for the LO contribution which provides the resummation of the large double logarithms. We emphasize the inconsistency observed in the y and √{s } behaviors of the D meson cross sections. The y behavior indicates a very flat x dependence of the gluon PDF in the unexplored low x region around x ˜1 0-5 . However, to describe the √{s } dependence of the data we need a steeper gluon PDF with decreasing x . Moreover, an even steeper behavior is needed to provide an extrapolation which matches on to the well known gluons found in the global PDF analyses for x ˜1 0-3 . The possible role of nonperturbative effects is briefly discussed.
Systematics of quark/gluon tagging
Gras, Philippe; Höche, Stefan; Kar, Deepak; ...
2017-07-18
By measuring the substructure of a jet, one can assign it a “quark” or “gluon” tag. In the eikonal (double-logarithmic) limit, quark/gluon discrimination is determined solely by the color factor of the initiating parton (C F versus C A). In this paper, we confront the challenges faced when going beyond this leading-order understanding, using both parton-shower generators and first-principles calculations to assess the impact of higher-order perturbative and nonperturbative physics. Working in the idealized context of electron-positron collisions, where one can define a proxy for quark and gluon jets based on the Lorentz structure of the production vertex, we findmore » a fascinating interplay between perturbative shower effects and nonperturbative hadronization effects. Turning to proton-proton collisions, we highlight a core set of measurements that would constrain current uncertainties in quark/gluon tagging and improve the overall modeling of jets at the Large Hadron Collider.« less
Glauber gluons and multiple parton interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaunt, Jonathan R.
2014-07-01
We show that for hadronic transverse energy E T in hadron-hadron collisions, the classic Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) argument for the cancellation of Glauber gluons breaks down at the level of two Glauber gluons exchanged between the spectators. Through an argument that relates the diagrams with these Glauber gluons to events containing additional soft scatterings, we suggest that this failure of the CSS cancellation actually corresponds to a failure of the `standard' factorisation formula with hard, soft and collinear functions to describe E T at leading power. This is because the observable receives a leading power contribution from multiple parton interaction (or spectator-spectator Glauber) processes. We also suggest that the same argument can be used to show that a whole class of observables, which we refer to as MPI sensitive observables, do not obey the standard factorisation at leading power. MPI sensitive observables are observables whose distributions in hadron-hadron collisions are disrupted strongly by the presence of multiple parton interactions (MPI) in the event. Examples of further MPI sensitive observables include the beam thrust B {/a, b +} and transverse thrust.
Tunneling decay of false vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han
2013-10-01
We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.
Dynamics of Three Vortices on a Sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borisov, Alexey V.; Mamaev, Ivan S.; Kilin, Alexander A.
2018-01-01
This paper is concerned with the dynamics of vortices on a sphere. It is shown that, as a result of reduction, the problem reduces to investigating a system with a nonlinear Poisson bracket. The topology of a symplectic leaf in the case of three vortices is studied.
A thermodynamically general theory for convective vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renno, Nilton O.
2008-08-01
Convective vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb lower-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject higher-entropy-energy to space. These vortices range from small to large-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective vortices is important to our understanding of some of the basic features of planetary atmospheres. The heat engine framework is a useful tool for studying convective vortices. However, current theories assume that convective vortices are reversible heat engines. Since there are questions about how reversible real atmospheric heat engines are, their usefulness for studying real atmospheric vortices is somewhat controversial. In order to reduce this problem, a theory for convective vortices that includes irreversible processes is proposed. The paper's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines that includes the effects of irreversible processes. It is shown that a simplified version of this expression is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. It is speculated that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also sheds light on other basic features of convective vortices such as their physical appearance.
Tunneling decay of false vortices with gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, Manu B.; Yajnik, Urjit A.; Yeom, Dong-han
2017-11-01
We study the effect of vortices on the tunneling decay of a symmetry-breaking false vacuum in three spacetime dimensions with gravity. The scenario considered is one in which the initial state, rather than being the homogeneous false vacuum, contains false vortices. The question addressed is whether, and, if so, under which circumstances, the presence of vortices has a significant catalyzing effect on vacuum decay. After studying the existence and properties of vortices, we study their decay rate through quantum tunneling using a variety of techniques. In particular, for so-called thin-wall vortices we devise a one-parameter family of configurations allowing a quantum-mechanical calculation of tunneling. Also for thin-wall vortices, we employ the Israel junction conditions between the interior and exterior spacetimes. Matching these two spacetimes reveals a decay channel which results in an unstable, expanding vortex. We find that the tunneling exponent for vortices, which is the dominant factor in the decay rate, is half that for Coleman-de Luccia bubbles. This implies that vortices are short-lived, making them cosmologically significant even for low vortex densities. In the limit of the vanishing gravitational constant we smoothly recover our earlier results for the decay of the false vortex in a model without gravity.
Cyclonic Vortices in Polar Airmasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Businger, Steven
Cyclonic vortices in polar airmasses are investigated to determine their storm-scale and mesoscale structures and the nature of the environments conducive to their formation. Case studies of polar low outbreaks show that the environments conducive to the development of strong polar lows include deep outflow of arctic air over open water and a broad closed-low aloft. Once favorable environmental conditions for the formation of polar lows have developed, several storms may form in close proximity to each other during a relatively short time interval. Furthermore, these conditions may persist for several days. To develope a climatology of the synoptic environments conducive to the formation of polar lows, NMC gridded data were composited. The results reveal the presence of significant negative anomalies in the temperature and height fields at the 500 mb level on the days when mature polar lows were present, indicating the presence of strong positive vorticity and low static stability over the area. Aircraft observations made during the 1984 FOX field study indicate that convection in an incipient comma cloud was organized into distinct rainbands ((TURN)50 km wavelength), with tops extending to the tropopause. Equivalent -potential vorticity, computed from cross sections of the dropwindsonde data, showed that the region in which the convective activity was embedded was unstable to moist -symmetric overturnings. As the comma cloud approached a pre-existing polar front, a wave cyclone rapidly developed on the front. Surface data showed unexpectedly strong winds and heavy rain squalls when the comma cloud passed Juneau. Comprehensive data sets were collected in two comma cloud systems during CYCLES. Rainbands, with a wavelength of (TURN)50 km, were present in both comma-cloud systems. Precipitation cores, produced by embedded convection within the rainbands contained updraft speeds of (TURN)1-2 m s('-1) and relatively high liquid water counts; they retained their
What causes Mars' annular polar vortices?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.; Guzewich, S. D.
2017-01-01
A distinctive feature of the Martian atmosphere is that the winter polar vortices exhibit annuli of high potential vorticity (PV) with a local minimum near the pole. These annuli are seen in observations, reanalyses, and free-running general circulation model simulations of Mars, but are not generally a feature of Earth's polar vortices, where there is a monotonic increase in magnitude of PV with latitude. The creation and maintenance of the annular polar vortices on Mars are not well understood. Here we use simulations with a Martian general circulation model to the show that annular vortices are related to another distinctive, and possibly unique in the solar system, feature of the Martian atmosphere: the condensation of the predominant atmospheric gas species (CO2) in polar winter regions. The latent heat associated with CO2 condensation leads to destruction of PV in the polar lower atmosphere, inducing the formation of an annular PV structure.
Dynamical gluon mass in the instanton vacuum model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musakhanov, M.; Egamberdiev, O.
2018-04-01
We consider the modifications of gluon properties in the instanton liquid model (ILM) for the QCD vacuum. Rescattering of gluons on instantons generates the dynamical momentum-dependent gluon mass Mg (q). First, we consider the case of a scalar gluon, no zero-mode problem occurs and its dynamical mass Ms (q) can be found. Using the typical phenomenological values of the average instanton size ρ = 1 / 3 fm and average inter-instanton distance R = 1 fm we get Ms (0) = 256 MeV. We then extend this approach to the real vector gluon with zero-modes carefully considered. We obtain the following expression Mg2 (q) = 2 Ms2 (q). This modification of the gluon in the instanton media will shed light on nonperturbative aspect on heavy quarkonium physics.
Small-x asymptotics of the gluon helicity distribution
Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Pitonyak, Daniel; Sievert, Matthew D.
2017-10-27
Here, we determine the small-x asymptotics of the gluon helicity distribution in a proton at leading order in perturbative QCD at large N c. To achieve this, we begin by evaluating the dipole gluon helicity TMD at small x. In the process we obtain an interesting new result: in contrast to the unpolarized dipole gluon TMD case, the operator governing the small-x behavior of the dipole gluon helicity TMD is different from the operator corresponding to the polarized dipole scattering amplitude (used in our previous work to determine the small-x asymptotics of the quark helicity distribution).
Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Murchikova, Elena
2017-03-24
In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium 3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. Here, we study first-order hy-drodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiralmore » magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We also demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.« less
SU(3) Landau gauge gluon and ghost propagators using the logarithmic lattice gluon field definition
Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael; Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, 12489 Berlin; Menz, Christoph
2011-03-01
We study the Landau gauge gluon and ghost propagators of SU(3) gauge theory, employing the logarithmic definition for the lattice gluon fields and implementing the corresponding form of the Faddeev-Popov matrix. This is necessary in order to consistently compare lattice data for the bare propagators with that of higher-loop numerical stochastic perturbation theory. In this paper we provide such a comparison, and introduce what is needed for an efficient lattice study. When comparing our data for the logarithmic definition to that of the standard lattice Landau gauge we clearly see the propagators to be multiplicatively related. The data of themore » associated ghost-gluon coupling matches up almost completely. For the explored lattice spacings and sizes discretization artifacts, finite size, and Gribov-copy effects are small. At weak coupling and large momentum, the bare propagators and the ghost-gluon coupling are seen to be approached by those of higher-order numerical stochastic perturbation theory.« less
A vorticity budget for the Gulf Stream
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Bras, Isabela; Toole, John
2017-04-01
We develop a depth-averaged vorticity budget framework to diagnose the dynamical balance of the Gulf Stream, and apply this framework to observations and the ECCO state estimate (Wunsch and Heimbach 2013) above the thermocline in the subtropical North Atlantic. Using the hydrographic and ADCP data along the WOCE/CLIVAR section A22 and a variety of wind stress data products, we find that the advective vorticity flux out of the western region is on the same order as the wind stress forcing over the eastern portion of the gyre. This is consistent with a large-scale balance between a negative source of vorticity from wind stress forcing and a positive source of vorticity in the western region. Additionally, the form of the vorticity flux indicates that the Gulf Stream has a significant inertial component. In the ECCO state estimate, we diagnose a seasonal cycle in advective vorticity flux across a meridional section associated with seasonal fluctuations in Gulf Stream transport. This vorticity flux is forced by wind stress over the eastern subtropical North Atlantic and balanced by lateral friction with the western boundary. The lateral friction in ECCO is a necessary parameterization of smaller scale processes that occur in the real ocean, and quantifying these remains an open and interesting question. This simplified framework provides a means to interpret large scale ocean dynamics. In our application, it points to wind stress forcing over the subtropical North Altantic as an important regulator of the Gulf Stream and hence the climate system.
Characteristics of mesoscale vortices over China in 2015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Yu; Sun, Jisong; Pan, Yinong
2017-12-01
Mesoscale vortices, which appear at middle and lower levels of rainstorms, are cyclonic circulations with a size ranging from tens of kilometers to several hundred kilometers. Mesoscale vortices often have close relationships with convective activities. The ERA-Interim dataset and an automatic vortex-searching method were used to identify the mesoscale vortices occurring over China in 2015 and their basic characteristics were analyzed. The mesoscale vortices are divided into three categories: mesoscale convective vortices, mesoscale stratiform vortices, and mesoscale dry vortices. The mesoscale convective vortices have the largest intensity, size, and duration, whereas the mesoscale dry vortices have the smallest. Mesoscale convective vortices are able to form in any direction of the parent mesoscale convective system, although the secondary convection tends to appear to the southeast of the parent vortices. The mesoscale vortices tend to generate in the transition area between high and low altitudes. The leeward side of the Tibetan Plateau is the main source region of mesoscale vortices in China. Most of vortices are generated at midday and midnight. The activities of mesoscale convective vortices and mesoscale stratiform vortices peak in summer, whereas those of the mesoscale dry vortices peak in winter.
Vortices and turbulence in trapped atomic condensates
White, Angela C.; Anderson, Brian P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.
2014-01-01
After more than a decade of experiments generating and studying the physics of quantized vortices in atomic gas Bose–Einstein condensates, research is beginning to focus on the roles of vortices in quantum turbulence, as well as other measures of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. Such research directions have the potential to uncover new insights into quantum turbulence, vortices, and superfluidity and also explore the similarities and differences between quantum and classical turbulence in entirely new settings. Here we present a critical assessment of theoretical and experimental studies in this emerging field of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. PMID:24704880
Topological vortices in gauge models of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xin-Hui; Li, Xueqin; Hao, Jin-Bo
2018-06-01
Graphene-like structure possessing the topological vortices and knots, and the magnetic flux of the vortices configuration quantized, are proposed in this paper. The topological charges of the vortices are characterized by Hopf indices and Brower degrees. The Abelian background field action (BF action) is a topological invariant for the knot family, which is just the total sum of all the self-linking numbers and all the linking numbers. Flux quantization opens the possibility of having Aharonov-Bohm-type effects in graphene without external electromagnetic field.
Einstein–Bose condensation of Onsager vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valani, Rahil N.; Groszek, Andrew J.; Simula, Tapio P.
2018-05-01
We have studied statistical mechanics of a gas of vortices in two dimensions. We introduce a new observable—a condensate fraction of Onsager vortices—to quantify the emergence of the vortex condensate. The condensation of Onsager vortices is most transparently observed in a single vortex species system and occurs due to a competition between solid body rotation (see vortex lattice) and potential flow (see multiple quantum vortex state). We propose an experiment to observe the condensation transition of the vortices in such a single vortex species system.
Virtual photon impact factors with exact gluon kinematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialas, A.; Navelet, H.; Peschanski, R.
2001-06-01
An explicit analytic formula for the transverse and longitudinal impact factors ST, L( N, γ) of the photon using kT factorization with exact gluon kinematics is given. Applications to the QCD dipole model and the extraction of the unintegrated gluon structure function from data are proposed.
Tornadoes and other atmospheric vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deissler, R. G.
1976-01-01
The growth of random vortices in an atmosphere with buoyant instability and vertical wind shear is studied along with the velocities in a single gravity-driven vortex; a frictionless adiabatic model which is supported by laboratory experiments is first considered. The effects of axial drag, heat transfer, and precipitation-induced downdrafts are then calculated. Heat transfer and axial drag tend to have stabilizing effects; they reduce the downdrafts of updrafts due to buoyancy. It is found that downdrafts or tornadic magnitude might occur in negatively-buoyant columns. The radial-inflow velocity required to maintain a given maximum tangential velocity in a tornado is determined by using a turbulent vortex model. Conditions under which radial-inflow velocities become sufficiently large to produce tangential velocities of tornadic magnitude are determined. The radial velocities in the outer regions, as well as the tangential velocities in the inner regions may be large enough to cause damage. The surface boundary layer, which is a region where large radial inflows can occur, is studied, and the thickness of the radial-inflow friction layer is estimated. A tornado model which involves a rotating parent cloud, as well as buoyancy and precipitation effects, is discussed.
Scattering on two Aharonov-Bohm vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogomolny, E.
2016-12-01
The problem of two Aharonov-Bohm (AB) vortices for the Helmholtz equation is examined in detail. It is demonstrated that the method proposed by Myers (1963 J. Math. Phys. 6 1839) for slit diffraction can be generalised to obtain an explicit solution for AB vortices. Due to the singular nature of AB interaction the Green function and scattering amplitude for two AB vortices obey a series of partial differential equations. Coefficients entering these equations, fulfil ordinary non-linear differential equations whose solutions can be obtained by solving the Painlevé III equation. The asymptotics of necessary functions for very large and very small vortex separations are calculated explicitly. Taken together, this means that the problem of two AB vortices is exactly solvable.
Nonperturbative quark, gluon, and meson correlators of unquenched QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cyrol, Anton K.; Mitter, Mario; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils
2018-03-01
We present nonperturbative first-principle results for quark, gluon, and meson 1PI correlation functions of two-flavor Landau-gauge QCD in the vacuum. These correlation functions carry the full information about the theory. They are obtained by solving their functional renormalization group equations in a systematic vertex expansion, aiming at apparent convergence. This work represents a crucial prerequisite for quantitative first-principle studies of the QCD phase diagram and the hadron spectrum within this framework. In particular, we have computed the gluon, ghost, quark, and scalar-pseudoscalar meson propagators, as well as gluon, ghost-gluon, quark-gluon, quark, quark-meson, and meson interactions. Our results stress the crucial importance of the quantitatively correct running of different vertices in the semiperturbative regime for describing the phenomena and scales of confinement and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking without phenomenological input.
Vorticity Distributions in Unsteady Flow Separation
1988-11-08
a significant result, which was presented at the Unsteady Separated Flow Workshop at the Air Force Academy last July, and which is ready for...i~~A’I C amsi4 61102F 2307 A2 11 Ti-,LE (Incluce Security Claw fication) Vorticity Distributions in Unsteady Flow Separation 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...LSIIAINO HSPG / UNCLASSIFIED Report MEUA-IT-88-2 VORTICITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN UNSTEADY FLOW SEPARATION Frederick S. Sherman Department of Mechanical
On the motion of multiple helical vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, D. H.; Boersma, J.
2001-11-01
The analysis of the self-induced velocity of a single helical vortex (Boersma & Wood 1999) is extended to include equally spaced multiple vortices. This arrangement approximates the tip vortices in the far wake of multi-bladed wind turbines, propellers, or rotors in ascending, descending, or hovering flight. The problem is reduced to finding, from the Biot Savart law, the additional velocity of a helix due to an identical helix displaced azimuthally. The resulting Biot Savart integral is further reduced to a Mellin Barnes integral representation which allows the asymptotic expansions to be determined for small and for large pitch. The Biot Savart integral is also evaluated numerically for a total of two, three and four vortices over a range of pitch values. The previous finding that the self-induced velocity at small pitch is dominated by a term inversely proportional to the pitch carries over to multiple vortices. It is shown that a far wake dominated by helical tip vortices is consistent with the one-dimensional representation that leads to the Betz limit on the power output of wind turbines. The small-pitch approximation then allows the determination of the blade&s bound vorticity for optimum power extraction. The present analysis is shown to give reasonable estimates for the vortex circulation in experiments using a single hovering rotor and a four-bladed propeller.
Pions as gluons in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao
2018-04-01
We derive the nonlinear sigma model as a peculiar dimensional reduction of Yang-Mills theory. In this framework, pions are reformulated as higher-dimensional gluons arranged in a kinematic configuration that only probes cubic interactions. This procedure yields a purely cubic action for the nonlinear sigma model that exhibits a symmetry enforcing color-kinematics duality. Remarkably, the associated kinematic algebra originates directly from the Poincaré algebra in higher dimensions. Applying the same construction to gravity yields a new quartic action for Born-Infeld theory and, applied once more, a cubic action for the special Galileon theory. Since the nonlinear sigma model and special Galileon are subtly encoded in the cubic sectors of Yang-Mills theory and gravity, respectively, their double copy relationship is automatic.
Coupled dynamics in gluon mass generation and the impact of the three-gluon vertex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binosi, Daniele; Papavassiliou, Joannis
2018-03-01
We present a detailed study of the subtle interplay transpiring at the level of two integral equations that are instrumental for the dynamical generation of a gluon mass in pure Yang-Mills theories. The main novelty is the joint treatment of the Schwinger-Dyson equation governing the infrared behavior of the gluon propagator and of the integral equation that controls the formation of massless bound-state excitations, whose inclusion is instrumental for obtaining massive solutions from the former equation. The self-consistency of the entire approach imposes the requirement of using a single value for the gauge coupling entering in the two key equations; its fulfilment depends crucially on the details of the three-gluon vertex, which contributes to both of them, but with different weight. In particular, the characteristic suppression of this vertex at intermediate and low energies enables the convergence of the iteration procedure to a single gauge coupling, whose value is reasonably close to that extracted from related lattice simulations.
Shear and bulk viscosity of high-temperature gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Le; Hou, De-Fu
2018-05-01
We calculate the shear viscosity (η) and bulk viscosity (ζ) to entropy density (s) ratios η/s and ζ/s of a gluon plasma system in kinetic theory, including both the elastic {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the inelastic soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} processes. Due to the suppressed contribution to η and ζ in the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the effective g≤ftrightarrow {gg} gluon splitting, Arnold, Moore and Yaffe (AMY) and Arnold, Dogan and Moore (ADM) have got the leading order computations for η and ζ in high-temperature QCD matter. In this paper, we calculate the correction to η and ζ in the soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} process with an analytic method. We find that the contribution of the collision term from the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} soft gluon bremsstrahlung process is just a small perturbation to the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} scattering process and that the correction is at ∼5% level. Then, we obtain the bulk viscosity of the gluon plasma for the number-changing process. Furthermore, our leading-order result for bulk viscosity is the formula \\zeta \\propto \\tfrac{{α }s2{T}3}{ln}{α }s-1} in high-temperature gluon plasma. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MSTC) under the “973” Project (2015CB856904(4)) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11735007, 11521064)
Gaseous Vortices in Barred Spiral Galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
England, Martin N.; Hunter, James H., Jr.
1995-01-01
During the course of examining many two-dimensional, as well as a smaller sample of three-dimensional, models of gas flows in barred spiral galaxies, we have been impressed by the ubiquitous presence fo vortex pairs, oriented roughly perpendicular to their bars, with one vortex on each side. The vortices are obvious only when viewed in the bar frame, and the centers of their velocity fields usually are near Lagrangian points L(sub 4,5). In all models that we have studied, the vortices form on essentially the same time scale as that for the development of gaseous spiral arms, typically two bar rotations. Usually the corotation radius, r(sub c), lies slightly beyond the end of the bar. Depending upon the mass distributions of the various components, gas spirals either into, or out of, the vortices: In the former case, the vortices become regions of high density, whereas the opposite is true if the gas spirals out of a vortex. The models described in this paper have low-density vortices, as do most of the models we have studied. Moreover, usually the vortex centers lie approximately within +/- 15 deg of L(sub 4,5). In the stellar dynamic limit, when pressure and viscous forces are absent, short-period orbits exist, centered on L(sub 4,5). These orbits need not cross and therefore their morphology is that of gas streamlines, that is, vortices. We believe that the gas vortices in our models are hydrodynamic analogues of closed, short-period, libration orbits centered on L(sub 4,5).
Initial Circulation and Peak Vorticity Behavior of Vortices Shed from Airfoil Vortex Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wendt, Bruce J.; Biesiadny, Tom (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
An extensive parametric study of vortices shed from airfoil vortex generators has been conducted to determine the dependence of initial vortex circulation and peak vorticity on elements of the airfoil geometry and impinging flow conditions. These elements include the airfoil angle of attack, chord length, span, aspect ratio, local boundary layer thickness, and free stream Mach number. In addition, the influence of airfoil-to-airfoil spacing on the circulation and peak vorticity has been examined for pairs of co-rotating and counter-rotating vortices. The vortex generators were symmetric airfoils having a NACA-0012 cross-sectional profile. These airfoils were mounted either in isolation, or in pairs, on the surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio was about 17 percent. The circulation and peak vorticity data were derived from cross-plane velocity measurements acquired with a seven-hole probe at one chord-length downstream of the airfoil trailing edge location. The circulation is observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. With these parameters held constant, the circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio. The peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the airfoil angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. Unlike circulation, however, the peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at an aspect ratio of about 2.0 before falling off again at higher values of aspect ratio. Co-rotating vortices shed from closely spaced pairs of airfoils have values of circulation and peak vorticity under those values found for vortices shed from isolated airfoils of the same geometry. Conversely, counter-rotating vortices show enhanced values of circulation and peak vorticity when compared to values
Gluon tomography from deeply virtual Compton scattering at small x
Hatta, Yoshitaka; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng
2017-06-29
We present a full evaluation of the deeply virtual Compton scattering cross section in the dipole framework in the small-x region. The result features the cosφ and cos2φ azimuthal angular correlations, which have been missing in previous studies based on the dipole model. In particular, the cos2φ term is generated by the elliptic gluon Wigner distribution of which the measurement at the planned electron-ion collider provides important information about the gluon tomography at small x. Here, we also show the consistency with the standard collinear factorization approach based on the quark and gluon generalized parton distributions.
Interaction of vortices with flexible piezoelectric beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goushcha, Oleg; Akaydin, Huseyin Dogus; Elvin, Niell; Andreopoulos, Yiannis
2012-11-01
A cantilever piezoelectric beam immersed in a flow is used to harvest fluidic energy. Pressure distribution induced by naturally present vortices in a turbulent fluid flow can force the beam to oscillate producing electrical output. Maximizing the power output of such an electromechanical fluidic system is a challenge. In order to understand the behavior of the beam in a fluid flow where vortices of different scales are present, an experimental facility was set up to study the interaction of individual vortices with the beam. In our set up, vortex rings produced by an audio speaker travel at specific distances from the beam or impinge on it, with a frequency varied up to the natural frequency of the beam. Depending on this frequency both constructive and destructive interactions between the vortices and the beam are observed. Vortices traveling over the beam with a frequency multiple of the natural frequency of the beam cause the beam to resonate and larger deflection amplitudes are observed compared to excitation from a single vortex. PIV is used to compute the flow field and circulation of each vortex and estimate the effect of pressure distribution on the beam deflection. Sponsored by NSF Grant: CBET #1033117.
Chiral magnetic and vortical effects in high-energy nuclear collisions—A status report
Kharzeev, D. E.; Liao, J.; Voloshin, S. A.; ...
2016-05-01
Here, the interplay of quantum anomalies with magnetic field and vorticity results in a variety of novel non-dissipative transport phenomena in systems with chiral fermions, including the quark–gluon plasma. Among them is the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME)—the generation of electric current along an external magnetic field induced by chirality imbalance. Because the chirality imbalance is related to the global topology of gauge fields, the CME current is topologically protected and hence non-dissipative even in the presence of strong interactions. As a result, the CME and related quantum phenomena affect the hydrodynamical and transport behavior of strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, andmore » can be studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions where strong magnetic fields are created by the colliding ions. Evidence for the CME and related phenomena has been reported by the STAR Collaboration at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL, and by the ALICE Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The goal of the present review is to provide an elementary introduction into the physics of anomalous chiral effects, to describe the current status of experimental studies in heavy ion physics, and to outline the future work, both in experiment and theory, needed to eliminate the existing uncertainties in the interpretation of the data.« less
Measurements of Supersonic Wing Tip Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smart, Michael K.; Kalkhoran, Iraj M.; Benston, James
1994-01-01
An experimental survey of supersonic wing tip vortices has been conducted at Mach 2.5 using small performed 2.25 chords down-stream of a semi-span rectangular wing at angle of attack of 5 and 10 degrees. The main objective of the experiments was to determine the Mach number, flow angularity and total pressure distribution in the core region of supersonic wing tip vortices. A secondary aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of using cone probes calibrated with a numerical flow solver to measure flow characteristics at supersonic speeds. Results showed that the numerically generated calibration curves can be used for 4-hole cone probes, but were not sufficiently accurate for conventional 5-hole probes due to nose bluntness effects. Combination of 4-hole cone probe measurements with independent pitot pressure measurements indicated a significant Mach number and total pressure deficit in the core regions of supersonic wing tip vortices, combined with an asymmetric 'Burger like' swirl distribution.
Vorticity field measurement using digital inline holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mallery, Kevin; Hong, Jiarong
2017-11-01
We demonstrate the direct measurement of a 3D vorticity field using digital inline holographic microscopy. Microfiber tracer particles are illuminated with a 532 nm continuous diode laser and imaged using a single CCD camera. The recorded holographic images are processed using a GPU-accelerated inverse problem approach to reconstruct the 3D structure of each microfiber in the imaged volume. The translation and rotation of each microfiber are measured using a time-resolved image sequence - yielding velocity and vorticity point measurements. The accuracy and limitations of this method are investigated using synthetic holograms. Measurements of solid body rotational flow are used to validate the accuracy of the technique under known flow conditions. The technique is further applied to a practical turbulent flow case for investigating its 3D velocity field and vorticity distribution.
Identification of vortices in complex flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, P.; Balachandar, S.; Adrian, R. J.
2007-12-01
Dating back to Leonardo da Vinci's famous sketches of vortices in turbulent flows, fluid dynamicists for over five centuries have continued to visualize and interpret complex flows in terms of motion of vortices. Nevertheless, much debate surrounds the question of how to unambiguously define vortices in complex flows. This debate has resulted in the availability of many vortex identification criteria---mathematical statements of what constitutes a vortex. Here we review the popularly used local or point- wise vortex identification criteria. Based on local flow kinematics, we describe a unified framework to interpret the similarities and differences in the usage of these criteria. We discuss the limitations on the applicability of these criteria when there is a significant component of vortex interactions. Finally, we provide guidelines for applying these criteria to geophysical flows.
Faults Get Colder Through Transient Granular Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Einav, I.; Rognon, P.; Miller, T.; Sulem, J.
2018-03-01
Fault temperatures govern their weakening and control the dynamics of earthquakes during slip. Despite predictions of significant temperature rise within fault gouges during earthquake events, observations of frictional melting zones along exhumed faults are relatively rare. Could there be a heat transfer mechanism, previously not considered, that results in ubiquitously colder faults during earthquakes? We demonstrate that the remarkable, previously neglected mechanism of heat transfer through transient granular vortices may be at the core of this. We present and analyze results from perpetual simple shear experiments on a system of granular disks with which we are able to quantify the sizes and lifetimes of granular vortices within fault gouges during earthquakes. We then develop a formula that captures the contribution these vortices have on heat transfer. Using this formula, we show that crustal faults such as those in the San Andreas system may experience a maximum temperature rise 5 to 10 times lower than previously thought.
Vorticity and divergence in the solar photosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, YI; Noyes, Robert W.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.
1995-01-01
We have studied an outstanding sequence of continuum images of the solar granulation from Pic du Midi Observatory. We have calculated the horizontal vector flow field using a correlation tracking algorithm, and from this determined three scalar field: the vertical component of the curl; the horizontal divergence; and the horizontal flow speed. The divergence field has substantially longer coherence time and more power than does the curl field. Statistically, curl is better correlated with regions of negative divergence - that is, the vertical vorticity is higher in downflow regions, suggesting excess vorticity in intergranular lanes. The average value of the divergence is largest (i.e., outflow is largest) where the horizontal speed is large; we associate these regions with exploding granules. A numerical simulation of general convection also shows similar statistical differences between curl and divergence. Some individual small bright points in the granulation pattern show large local vorticities.
The gluon condensation at high energy hadron collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wei; Lan, Jiangshan
2017-03-01
We report that the saturation/CGC model of gluon distribution is unstable under action of the chaotic solution in a nonlinear QCD evolution equation, and it evolves to the distribution with a sharp peak at the critical momentum. We find that this gluon condensation is caused by a new kind of shadowing-antishadowing effects, and it leads to a series of unexpected effects in high energy hadron collisions including astrophysical events. For example, the extremely intense fluctuations in the transverse-momentum and rapidity distributions of the gluon jets present the gluon-jet bursts; a sudden increase of the proton-proton cross sections may fill the GZK suppression; the blocking QCD evolution will restrict the maximum available energy of the hadron-hadron colliders.
Rapidity evolution of gluon TMD from low to moderate x
Balitsky, Ian; Tarasov, A.
2015-10-05
In this article, we study how the rapidity evolution of gluon transverse momentum dependent distribution changes from nonlinear evolution at smallmore » $$x \\ll 1$$ to linear evolution at moderate $$x \\sim 1$$.« less
Gluon TMD in particle production from low to moderate x
Balitsky, I.; Tarasov, A.
2016-06-28
We study the rapidity evolution of gluon transverse momentum dependent distributions appearing in processes of particle production and show how this evolution changes from small to moderate Bjorken x.
Martian Polar Vortices: Comparison of Reanalyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waugh, D. W.; Toigo, A. D.; Guzewich, S. D.; Greybush, S. J.; Wilson, R. J.; Montabone, L.
2016-01-01
The structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices is examined using two recently available reanalysis systems: version 1.0 of the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) and a preliminary version of the Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS). There is quantitative agreement between the reanalyses in the lower atmosphere, where Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data are assimilated, but there are differences at higher altitudes reflecting differences in the free-running general circulation model simulations used in the two reanalyses. The reanalyses show similar potential vorticity (PV) structure of the vortices: There is near-uniform small PV equatorward of the core of the westerly jet, steep meridional PV gradients on the polar side of the jet core, and a maximum of PV located off of the pole. In maps of 30 sol mean PV, there is a near-continuous elliptical ring of high PV with roughly constant shape and longitudinal orientation from fall to spring. However, the shape and orientation of the vortex varies on daily time scales, and there is not a continuous ring of PV but rather a series of smaller scale coherent regions of high PV. The PV structure of the Martian polar vortices is, as has been reported before, very different from that of Earth's stratospheric polar vortices, but there are similarities with Earth's tropospheric vortices which also occur at the edge of the Hadley Cell, and have near-uniform small PV equatorward of the jet, and a large increase of PV poleward of the jet due to increased stratification.
Aerodynamics and vortical structures in hovering fruitflies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xue Guang; Sun, Mao
2015-03-01
We measure the wing kinematics and morphological parameters of seven freely hovering fruitflies and numerically compute the flows of the flapping wings. The computed mean lift approximately equals to the measured weight and the mean horizontal force is approximately zero, validating the computational model. Because of the very small relative velocity of the wing, the mean lift coefficient required to support the weight is rather large, around 1.8, and the Reynolds number of the wing is low, around 100. How such a large lift is produced at such a low Reynolds number is explained by combining the wing motion data, the computed vortical structures, and the theory of vorticity dynamics. It has been shown that two unsteady mechanisms are responsible for the high lift. One is referred as to "fast pitching-up rotation": at the start of an up- or downstroke when the wing has very small speed, it fast pitches down to a small angle of attack, and then, when its speed is higher, it fast pitches up to the angle it normally uses. When the wing pitches up while moving forward, large vorticity is produced and sheds at the trailing edge, and vorticity of opposite sign is produced near the leading edge and on the upper surface, resulting in a large time rate of change of the first moment of vorticity (or fluid impulse), hence a large aerodynamic force. The other is the well known "delayed stall" mechanism: in the mid-portion of the up- or downstroke the wing moves at large angle of attack (about 45 deg) and the leading-edge-vortex (LEV) moves with the wing; thus, the vortex ring, formed by the LEV, the tip vortices, and the starting vortex, expands in size continuously, producing a large time rate of change of fluid impulse or a large aerodynamic force.
Martian polar vortices: Comparison of reanalyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waugh, D. W.; Toigo, A. D.; Guzewich, S. D.; Greybush, S. J.; Wilson, R. J.; Montabone, L.
2016-09-01
The structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices is examined using two recently available reanalysis systems: version 1.0 of the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) and a preliminary version of the Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS). There is quantitative agreement between the reanalyses in the lower atmosphere, where Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data are assimilated, but there are differences at higher altitudes reflecting differences in the free-running general circulation model simulations used in the two reanalyses. The reanalyses show similar potential vorticity (PV) structure of the vortices: There is near-uniform small PV equatorward of the core of the westerly jet, steep meridional PV gradients on the polar side of the jet core, and a maximum of PV located off of the pole. In maps of 30 sol mean PV, there is a near-continuous elliptical ring of high PV with roughly constant shape and longitudinal orientation from fall to spring. However, the shape and orientation of the vortex varies on daily time scales, and there is not a continuous ring of PV but rather a series of smaller scale coherent regions of high PV. The PV structure of the Martian polar vortices is, as has been reported before, very different from that of Earth's stratospheric polar vortices, but there are similarities with Earth's tropospheric vortices which also occur at the edge of the Hadley Cell, and have near-uniform small PV equatorward of the jet, and a large increase of PV poleward of the jet due to increased stratification.
Concentration of vorticity due to selective decay in doubly periodic vortices and a vortex pair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hattori, Yuji
2018-01-01
Strong vortices like tornadoes, typhoons, and tropical cyclones are often created in geophysical flows. It is important to understand the mechanism for the creation of these strong vortices. Recently, we found a purely hydrodynamic mechanism for the concentration of vorticity: it is due to selective decay in which circulation decays faster than angular momentum and energy. In this paper, two problems are investigated by direct numerical simulation to seek universality of this mechanism: doubly periodic vortices disturbed by an unstable eigenmode and a vortex pair disturbed by localized disturbances. In the former case, concentration of vorticity occurs when the wavenumber of the eigenmode is large, while it does not occur for small wavenumbers. For small wavenumbers the disturbances grow to a large amplitude eventually destroying the base flow. For large wavenumber, on the other hand, the growth of the disturbances saturates before destroying the base flow. Selective decay of inviscid invariants is shown to be responsible for the concentration of vorticity as in the previous study. In the case of a vortex pair disturbed by localized disturbances concentration of vorticity occurs twice: the first concentration is not related to selective decay; however, the second weak concentration is most likely due to selective decay.
Spatially-partitioned many-body vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klaiman, S.; Alon, O. E.
2016-02-01
A vortex in Bose-Einstein condensates is a localized object which looks much like a tiny tornado storm. It is well described by mean-field theory. In the present work we go beyond the current paradigm and introduce many-body vortices. These are made of spatially- partitioned clouds, carry definite total angular momentum, and are fragmented rather than condensed objects which can only be described beyond mean-field theory. A phase diagram based on a mean-field model assists in predicting the parameters where many-body vortices occur. Implications are briefly discussed.
Vortices and the related principles of hydrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Betz, A
1921-01-01
Here, conceptions concerning vortices are illustrated by the simplest possible examples. Mathematical formulas and similar means of presentation, which, for the most part, do not help the understanding of persons not versed therein, have been avoided as much as possible. Instead, the author has endeavored to demonstrate the phenomena by means of simple geometrical and mechanical illustrations. For the sake of clarity, the author chiefly considers currents in one plane only, a situation that can be readily represented by diagrams. Some of the peculiarities of vortices in three dimensional flow are briefly discussed.
Inward propagating chemical waves in Taylor vortices.
Thompson, Barnaby W; Novak, Jan; Wilson, Mark C T; Britton, Melanie M; Taylor, Annette F
2010-04-01
Advection-reaction-diffusion (ARD) waves in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in steady Taylor-Couette vortices have been visualized using magnetic-resonance imaging and simulated using an adapted Oregonator model. We show how propagating wave behavior depends on the ratio of advective, chemical and diffusive time scales. In simulations, inward propagating spiral flamelets are observed at high Damköhler number (Da). At low Da, the reaction distributes itself over several vortices and then propagates inwards as contracting ring pulses--also observed experimentally.
Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Skokov, Vladimir V.
2018-04-30
We show that, in the saturation/Color Glass Condensate framework, odd azimuthal harmonics of the two-gluon correlation function with a long-range separation in rapidity are generated by the higher-order saturation corrections in the interactions with the projectile and the target. At the very least, the odd harmonics require three scatterings in the projectile and three scatterings in the target. We derive the leading-order expression for the two-gluon production cross section which generates odd harmonics: the expression includes all-order interactions with the target and three interactions with the projectile. Here, we evaluate the obtained expression both analytically and numerically, confirming that themore » odd-harmonics contribution to the two-gluon production in the saturation framework is non-zero.« less
Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Skokov, Vladimir V.
We show that, in the saturation/Color Glass Condensate framework, odd azimuthal harmonics of the two-gluon correlation function with a long-range separation in rapidity are generated by the higher-order saturation corrections in the interactions with the projectile and the target. At the very least, the odd harmonics require three scatterings in the projectile and three scatterings in the target. We derive the leading-order expression for the two-gluon production cross section which generates odd harmonics: the expression includes all-order interactions with the target and three interactions with the projectile. Here, we evaluate the obtained expression both analytically and numerically, confirming that themore » odd-harmonics contribution to the two-gluon production in the saturation framework is non-zero.« less
Monopolar vortices as relative equilibria and their dissipative decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandefliert, B. W.; Vangroesen, E. W. C.
1991-11-01
Families of confined rotating monopolar vortices are characterized using a variational formulation with the angular momentum as the driving force for confinement. The characterization for positive monopolar vortices given, can be extended to negative vortices or to vortices within a rotating frame of reference. Besides the uniform Kirchhoff paths, new branches of vorticity solutions are found restricting the dynamics to levelsets of both the angular momentum and the quadratic anisotropy. The rotation rate of the smooth vorticity structures depends on the vorticity profile. This is made perceptible by considering both minimum energy vortices and minimizing vortices, rotating counterclockwise and clockwise respectively. An approximation for the decay of the vortices due to dissipation is given in terms of the dissipation of the integrals in the inviscid system. This description enables us to consider dissipation of vortices without loss of confinement. The elliptical Kirchhoff patches are found to symmetrize into circular patches. The minimum energy vortices gradually diminish while expending their support, while the maximum energy vortices are unstable for the dissipative evolution.
A factor involved in efficient breakdown of supersonic streamwise vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiejima, Toshihiko
2015-03-01
Spatially developing processes in supersonic streamwise vortices were numerically simulated at Mach number 5.0. The vortex evolution largely depended on the azimuthal vorticity thickness of the vortices, which governs the negative helicity profile. Large vorticity thickness greatly enhanced the centrifugal instability, with consequent development of perturbations with competing wavenumbers outside the vortex core. During the transition process, supersonic streamwise vortices could generate large-scale spiral structures and a number of hairpin like vortices. Remarkably, the transition caused a dramatic increase in the total fluctuation energy of hypersonic flows, because the negative helicity profile destabilizes the flows due to helicity instability. Unstable growth might also relate to the correlation length between the axial and azimuthal vorticities of the streamwise vortices. The knowledge gained in this study is important for realizing effective fuel-oxidizer mixing in supersonic combustion engines.
The motion of wake vortices in the terminal environment
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1974-11-12
The phenomenon of aircraft wake vortices has been known since the beginning of powered flight. However, the potential danger of encountering wake vortices has only recently become apparent. Within a few years, a significant fraction of the civil air ...
Hentschinski, M; Kusina, A; Kutak, K; Serino, M
2018-01-01
We calculate the transverse momentum dependent gluon-to-gluon splitting function within [Formula: see text]-factorization, generalizing the framework employed in the calculation of the quark splitting functions in Hautmann et al. (Nucl Phys B 865:54-66, arXiv:1205.1759, 2012), Gituliar et al. (JHEP 01:181, arXiv:1511.08439, 2016), Hentschinski et al. (Phys Rev D 94(11):114013, arXiv:1607.01507, 2016) and demonstrate at the same time the consistency of the extended formalism with previous results. While existing versions of [Formula: see text] factorized evolution equations contain already a gluon-to-gluon splitting function i.e. the leading order Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) kernel or the Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) kernel, the obtained splitting function has the important property that it reduces both to the leading order BFKL kernel in the high energy limit, to the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) gluon-to-gluon splitting function in the collinear limit as well as to the CCFM kernel in the soft limit. At the same time we demonstrate that this splitting kernel can be obtained from a direct calculation of the QCD Feynman diagrams, based on a combined implementation of the Curci-Furmanski-Petronzio formalism for the calculation of the collinear splitting functions and the framework of high energy factorization.
Polar Vortices Observed in Ferroelectric | Berkeley Lab
vortices" that appear to be the electrical cousins of magnetic skyrmions holds intriguing structures are confined to magnetic systems and aren't possible in ferroelectric materials, but through the . Ferroic materials display unique electrical or magnetic properties - or both in the case of multiferroics
Observation of Polarization Vortices in Momentum Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yiwen; Chen, Ang; Liu, Wenzhe; Hsu, Chia Wei; Wang, Bo; Guan, Fang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Lu, Ling; Zi, Jian
2018-05-01
The vortex, a fundamental topological excitation featuring the in-plane winding of a vector field, is important in various areas such as fluid dynamics, liquid crystals, and superconductors. Although commonly existing in nature, vortices were observed exclusively in real space. Here, we experimentally observed momentum-space vortices as the winding of far-field polarization vectors in the first Brillouin zone of periodic plasmonic structures. Using homemade polarization-resolved momentum-space imaging spectroscopy, we mapped out the dispersion, lifetime, and polarization of all radiative states at the visible wavelengths. The momentum-space vortices were experimentally identified by their winding patterns in the polarization-resolved isofrequency contours and their diverging radiative quality factors. Such polarization vortices can exist robustly on any periodic systems of vectorial fields, while they are not captured by the existing topological band theory developed for scalar fields. Our work provides a new way for designing high-Q plasmonic resonances, generating vector beams, and studying topological photonics in the momentum space.
A new diagnostic of stratospheric polar vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gimeno, Luis; de La Torre, Laura; Nieto, Raquel; Gallego, David; Ribera, Pedro; García-Herrera, Ricardo
2007-11-01
We studied the main climatological features of the Arctic and Antarctic stratospheric vortices, using a new approach based on defining the vortex edge as the 50 hPa geostrophic streamline of maximum average velocity at each hemisphere. Given the use of NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data, it was thought advisable to limit the study to the periods 1958 2004 for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and 1979 2004 for the Southern Hemisphere (SH). After describing the method and testing sample results with those from other approaches, we analysed the climatological means and trends of the four most distinctive characteristics of the vortices: average latitude, strength, area, and temperature. In general terms, our results confirm most of what is already known about the stratospheric vortices from previous studies that used different data and approaches. In addition, the new methodology provides some interesting new quantifications of the dominant wavenumber and its interannual variability, as well as the principal variability modes through an empirical orthogonal function analysis that was performed directly over the vortex trajectories. The main drawbacks of the methodology, such as noticeable problems characterising highly disturbed stratospheric structures as multiple or off-pole vortices, are also identified.
Experimental Study of Lift-Generated Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
The flow fields of vortices, whether bouyancy-driven or lift-generated, are fascinating fluid-dynamic phenomena which often possess intense swirl velocities and complex time-dependent behavior. As part of the on-going study of vortex behavior, this paper presents a historical overview of the research conducted on the structure and modification of the vortices generated by the lifting surfaces of subsonic transport aircraft. It is pointed out that the characteristics of lift-generated vortices are related to the aerodynamic shapes that produce them and that various arrangements of surfaces can be used to produce different vortex structures. The primary purpose of the research to be described is to find a way to reduce the hazard potential of lift-generated vortices shed by subsonic transport aircraft in the vicinity of airports during landing and takeoff operations. It is stressed that lift-generated vortex wakes are so complex that progress towards a solution requires application of a combined theoretical and experimental research program because either alone often leads to incorrect conclusions. It is concluded that a satisfactory aerodynamic solution to the wake-vortex problem at airports has not yet been found but a reduction in the impact of the wake-vortex hazard on airport capacity may become available in the foreseeable future through wake-vortex avoidance concepts currently under study. The material to be presented in this overview is drawn from aerospace journals that are available publicly.
Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.
2011-01-01
Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.
Observation of Polarization Vortices in Momentum Space.
Zhang, Yiwen; Chen, Ang; Liu, Wenzhe; Hsu, Chia Wei; Wang, Bo; Guan, Fang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Lu, Ling; Zi, Jian
2018-05-04
The vortex, a fundamental topological excitation featuring the in-plane winding of a vector field, is important in various areas such as fluid dynamics, liquid crystals, and superconductors. Although commonly existing in nature, vortices were observed exclusively in real space. Here, we experimentally observed momentum-space vortices as the winding of far-field polarization vectors in the first Brillouin zone of periodic plasmonic structures. Using homemade polarization-resolved momentum-space imaging spectroscopy, we mapped out the dispersion, lifetime, and polarization of all radiative states at the visible wavelengths. The momentum-space vortices were experimentally identified by their winding patterns in the polarization-resolved isofrequency contours and their diverging radiative quality factors. Such polarization vortices can exist robustly on any periodic systems of vectorial fields, while they are not captured by the existing topological band theory developed for scalar fields. Our work provides a new way for designing high-Q plasmonic resonances, generating vector beams, and studying topological photonics in the momentum space.
Vorticity dynamics in an intracranial aneurysm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, Trung; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2008-11-01
Direct Numerical Simulation is carried out to investigate the vortex dynamics of physiologic pulsatile flow in an intracranial aneurysm. The numerical solver is based on the CURVIB (curvilinear grid/immersed boundary method) approach developed by Ge and Sotiropoulos, J. Comp. Physics, 225 (2007) and is applied to simulate the blood flow in a grid with 8 million grid nodes. The aneurysm geometry is extracted from MRI images from common carotid artery (CCA) of a rabbit (courtesy Dr.Kallmes, Mayo Clinic). The simulation reveals the formation of a strong vortex ring at the proximal end during accelerated flow phase. The vortical structure advances toward the aneurysm dome forming a distinct inclined circular ring that connects with the proximal wall via two long streamwise vortical structures. During the reverse flow phase, the back flow results to the formation of another ring at the distal end that advances in the opposite direction toward the proximal end and interacts with the vortical structures that were created during the accelerated phase. The basic vortex formation mechanism is similar to that observed by Webster and Longmire (1998) for pulsed flow through inclined nozzles. The similarities between the two flows will be discussed and the vorticity dynamics of an aneurysm and inclined nozzle flows will be analyzed.This work was supported in part by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eitel-Amor, G.; Örlü, R.; Schlatter, P.; Flores, O.
2015-02-01
The present work presents a number of parallel and spatially developing simulations of boundary layers to address the question of whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence, and which role they play during transition. In the first part, the parent-offspring regeneration mechanism is investigated in parallel (temporal) simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to either turbulent channels or boundary layers (Reτ ≲ 590). The effect of a turbulent background superimposed on the mean flow is considered by using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are only created shortly after initialization, with all rotational structures decaying for later times. For hairpins in a clean (laminar) environment, the decay is relatively slow, while hairpins in weak turbulent environments (10% of νt) dissipate after a couple of eddy turnover times. In the second part, the role of hairpin vortices in laminar-turbulent transition is studied using simulations of spatial boundary layers tripped by hairpin vortices. These vortices are generated by means of specific volumetric forces representing an ejection event, creating a synthetic turbulent boundary layer initially dominated by hairpin-like vortices. These hairpins are advected towards the wake region of the boundary layer, while a sinusoidal instability of the streaks near the wall results in rapid development of a turbulent boundary layer. For Reθ > 400, the boundary layer is fully developed, with no evidence of hairpin vortices reaching into the wall region. The results from both the parallel and spatial simulations strongly suggest that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background is developed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former direct numerical
Cosmic Vorticity and the Origin Halo Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Steinmetz, Matthias; Gottlöber, Stefan; Knebe, Alexander; Hess, Steffen
2013-04-01
In the standard model of cosmology, structure emerges out of a non-rotational flow and the angular momentum of collapsing halos is induced by tidal torques. The growth of angular momentum in the linear and quasi-linear phases is associated with a shear, curl-free, flow and it is well described within the linear framework of tidal torque theory (TTT). However, TTT ceases to be applicable as halos approach turnaround when their ambient flow field becomes rotational. Subsequently, halos become embedded in a vortical flow field and the growth of their angular momentum is affected by the vorticity of their ambient velocity field. Using a cosmological simulation, we have examined the importance of the curl of the velocity field in determining halo spin, finding a significant alignment between the two: the vorticity tends to be perpendicular to the axis of the fastest collapse of the velocity shear tensor (e 1). This is independent of halo masses and cosmic web environment. Our results agree with previous findings on the tendency of halo spin to be perpendicular to e 1, and of the spin of (simulated) halos and (observed) galaxies to be aligned with the large-scale structure. It follows that angular momentum growth proceeds in two distinct phases. First, the angular momentum emerges out of a shear, curl-free, potential flow, as described by TTT. In the second phase, in which halos approach virialization, the angular momentum emerges out of a vortical flow and halo spin becomes partially aligned with the vorticity of the ambient flow field.
COSMIC VORTICITY AND THE ORIGIN HALO SPINS
Libeskind, Noam I.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Gottloeber, Stefan
2013-04-01
In the standard model of cosmology, structure emerges out of a non-rotational flow and the angular momentum of collapsing halos is induced by tidal torques. The growth of angular momentum in the linear and quasi-linear phases is associated with a shear, curl-free, flow and it is well described within the linear framework of tidal torque theory (TTT). However, TTT ceases to be applicable as halos approach turnaround when their ambient flow field becomes rotational. Subsequently, halos become embedded in a vortical flow field and the growth of their angular momentum is affected by the vorticity of their ambient velocity field.more » Using a cosmological simulation, we have examined the importance of the curl of the velocity field in determining halo spin, finding a significant alignment between the two: the vorticity tends to be perpendicular to the axis of the fastest collapse of the velocity shear tensor (e{sub 1}). This is independent of halo masses and cosmic web environment. Our results agree with previous findings on the tendency of halo spin to be perpendicular to e{sub 1}, and of the spin of (simulated) halos and (observed) galaxies to be aligned with the large-scale structure. It follows that angular momentum growth proceeds in two distinct phases. First, the angular momentum emerges out of a shear, curl-free, potential flow, as described by TTT. In the second phase, in which halos approach virialization, the angular momentum emerges out of a vortical flow and halo spin becomes partially aligned with the vorticity of the ambient flow field.« less
Computation of design parameters and visualization of Goertler vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verma, Alok K.
1984-01-01
A method for analyzing an airfoil regarding Goertler type instability was presented. A model for the visualizatin of Goertler vortices was designed and fabricated. A smoke generating apparatus was made to be used in the experiment. Experiments were conducted to photograph the vortices, however, the smoke generated was not enough to bring out the vortices.
Transverse-momentum-dependent gluon distributions from JIMWLK evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marquet, C.; Petreska, E.; Roiesnel, C.
2016-10-01
Transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) gluon distributions have different operator definitions, depending on the process under consideration. We study that aspect of TMD factorization in the small- x limit, for the various unpolarized TMD gluon distributions encountered in the literature. To do this, we consider di-jet production in hadronic collisions, since this process allows to be exhaustive with respect to the possible operator definitions, and is suitable to be investigated at small x. Indeed, for forward and nearly back-to-back jets, one can apply both the TMD factorization and Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approaches to compute the di-jet cross-section, and compare the results. Doing so, we show that both descriptions coincide, and we show how to express the various TMD gluon distributions in terms of CGC correlators of Wilson lines, while keeping N c finite. We then proceed to evaluate them by solving the JIMWLK equation numerically. We obtain that at large transverse momentum, the process dependence essentially disappears, while at small transverse momentum, non-linear saturation effects impact the various TMD gluon distributions in very different ways. We notice the presence of a geometric scaling regime for all the TMD gluon distributions studied: the "dipole" one, the Weizsäcker-Williams one, and the six others involved in forward di-jet production.
Evidence of ghost suppression in gluon mass scale dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Figueiredo, C. T.; Papavassiliou, J.
2018-03-01
In this work we study the impact that the ghost sector of pure Yang-Mills theories may have on the generation of a dynamical gauge boson mass scale, which hinges on the appearance of massless poles in the fundamental vertices of the theory, and the subsequent realization of the well-known Schwinger mechanism. The process responsible for the formation of such structures is itself dynamical in nature, and is governed by a set of Bethe-Salpeter type of integral equations. While in previous studies the presence of massless poles was assumed to be exclusively associated with the background-gauge three-gluon vertex, in the present analysis we allow them to appear also in the corresponding ghost-gluon vertex. The full analysis of the resulting Bethe-Salpeter system reveals that the contribution of the poles associated with the ghost-gluon vertex are particularly suppressed, their sole discernible effect being a slight modification in the running of the gluon mass scale, for momenta larger than a few GeV. In addition, we examine the behavior of the (background-gauge) ghost-gluon vertex in the limit of vanishing ghost momentum, and derive the corresponding version of Taylor's theorem. These considerations, together with a suitable Ansatz, permit us the full reconstruction of the pole sector of the two vertices involved.
Intensity of vortices: from soap bubbles to hurricanes
Meuel, T.; Xiong, Y. L.; Fischer, P.; Bruneau, C. H.; Bessafi, M.; Kellay, H.
2013-01-01
By using a half soap bubble heated from below, we obtain large isolated single vortices whose properties as well as their intensity are measured under different conditions. By studying the effects of rotation of the bubble on the vortex properties, we found that rotation favors vortices near the pole. Rotation also inhibits long life time vortices. The velocity and vorticity profiles of the vortices obtained are well described by a Gaussian vortex. Besides, the intensity of these vortices can be followed over long time spans revealing periods of intensification accompanied by trochoidal motion of the vortex center, features which are reminiscent of the behavior of tropical cyclones. An analysis of this intensification period suggests a simple relation valid for both the vortices observed here and for tropical cyclones. PMID:24336410
A study of coherence of soft gluons in hadron jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akrawy, M. Z.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P. P.; Anderson, K. J.; Armitage, J. C.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Ashton, P.; Azuelos, G.; Baines, J. T. M.; Ball, A. H.; Banks, J.; Barker, G. J.; Barlow, R. J.; Batley, J. R.; Becker, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Binder, U.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bock, P.; Breuker, H.; Brown, R. M.; Brun, R.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H. J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrin, J. T. M.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Cohen, I.; Collins, W. J.; Conboy, J. E.; Couch, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Debu, P.; Deninno, M. M.; Dieckmann, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M. S.; Duchovni, E.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Dumas, D. J. P.; El Mamouni, H.; Elcombe, P. A.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Farthouat, P.; Fischer, H. M.; Fong, D. G.; French, M. T.; Fukunaga, C.; Gaidot, A.; Ganel, O.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Geddes, N. I.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gensler, S. W.; Gentit, F. X.; Giacomelli, G.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gillies, J. D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorn, W.; Granite, D.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Hagedorn, H.; Hagemann, J.; Hansroul, M.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harrus, I.; Hart, J.; Hattersley, P. M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Heflin, E.; Hemingway, R. J.; Heuer, R. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Ho, C.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hobson, P. R.; Hochman, D.; Holl, B.; Homer, R. J.; Hou, S. R.; Howarth, C. P.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Humbert, R.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ihssen, H.; Imrie, D. C.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jobes, M.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jovanovic, P.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Kleinwort, C.; Klem, D. E.; Knop, G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kokott, T. P.; Köpke, L.; Kowalewski, R.; Kreutzmann, H.; Kroll, J.; Kuwano, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lamarche, F.; Larson, W. J.; Layter, J. G.; Le Du, P.; Leblanc, P.; Lee, A. M.; Lehto, M. H.; Lellouch, D.; Lennert, P.; Lessard, L.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Lorah, J. M.; Lorazo, B.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Ma, J.; Macbeth, A. A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Maringer, G.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; Maur, U.; McMahon, T. J.; McNutt, J. R.; McPherson, A. C.; Meijers, F.; Menszner, D.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Middleton, R. P.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Milstene, C.; Minowa, M.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Moss, M. W.; Murphy, P. G.; Murray, W. J.; Nellen, B.; Nguyen, H. H.; Nozaki, M.; O'Dowd, A. J. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neill, B. P.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogg, M.; Oh, H.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Pansart, J. P.; Patrick, G. N.; Pawley, S. J.; Pfister, P.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J. L.; Plane, D. E.; Poli, B.; Pouladdej, A.; Pritchard, T. W.; Quast, G.; Raab, J.; Redmond, M. W.; Rees, D. L.; Regimbald, M.; Riles, K.; Roach, C. M.; Robins, S. A.; Rollnik, A.; Roney, J. M.; Rossberg, S.; Rossi, A. M.; Routenburg, P.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Sanghera, S.; Sansum, R. A.; Sasaki, M.; Saunders, B. J.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Schappert, W.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schreiber, S.; Schwarz, J.; Shapira, A.; Shen, B. C.; Sherwood, P.; Simon, A.; Singh, P.; Siroli, G. P.; Skuia, A.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, T. J.; Snow, G. A.; Springer, R. W.; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Stier, H. E.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Turner, M. F.; Tysarczyk-Niemeyer, G.; Van den plas, D.; VanDalen, G. J.; Vasseur, G.; Virtue, C. J.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Krogh, J.; Wagner, A.; Wahl, C.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Waterhouse, J.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Weber, M.; Weisz, S.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; Weymann, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter, I.; Winterer, V.-H.; Wood, N. C.; Wotton, S.; Wuensch, B.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yaari, R.; Yang, Y.; Yekutieli, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zeuner, W.; Zorn, G. T.; OPAL Collaboration
1990-09-01
We study the inclusive momentum distribution of charged particles in multihadronic events produced in e +e - annihilations at ECM∼ M(Z 0). We find agreement with the analytical formulae for gluon production that include the phenomena of soft gluon interference. Using data from CM energies between 14 and 91 GeV, we study the dependence of the inclusive momentum distribution on the centre of momentum energy. We find that the analytical formulae describe the data over the entire energy range. Both the momentum distribution at a fixed energy and the change with energy are described by QCD shower Monte Carlo's which include either coherent gluon branchings or string fragmentation. Simple incoherent models with independent fragmentation fail to reproduce the energy dependence and momentum spectra.
Relativistic shock waves and Mach cones in viscous gluon matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouras, Ioannis; Molnár, Etele; Niemi, Harri; Xu, Zhe; El, Andrej; Fochler, Oliver; Lauciello, Francesco; Greiner, Carsten; Rischke, Dirk H.
2010-06-01
To investigate the formation and the propagation of relativistic shock waves in viscous gluon matter we solve the relativistic Riemann problem using a microscopic parton cascade. We demonstrate the transition from ideal to viscous shock waves by varying the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s. Furthermore we compare our results with those obtained by solving the relativistic causal dissipative fluid equations of Israel and Stewart (IS), in order to show the validity of the IS hydrodynamics. Employing the parton cascade we also investigate the formation of Mach shocks induced by a high-energy gluon traversing viscous gluon matter. For η/s = 0.08 a Mach cone structure is observed, whereas the signal smears out for η/s >= 0.32.
Gauge invariant gluon spin operator for spinless nonlinear wave solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Kim, Youngman; Pak, D. G.; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P. M.
2017-04-01
We consider nonlinear wave type solutions with intrinsic mass scale parameter and zero spin in a pure SU(2) quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A new stationary solution which can be treated as a system of static Wu-Yang monopole dressed in off-diagonal gluon field is proposed. A remarkable feature of such a solution is that it possesses a finite energy density everywhere. All considered nonlinear wave type solutions have common features: presence of the mass scale parameter, nonvanishing projection of the color fields along the propagation direction and zero spin. The last property requires revision of the gauge invariant definition of the spin density operator which is supposed to produce spin one states for the massless vector gluon field. We construct a gauge invariant definition of the classical gluon spin density operator which is unique and Lorentz frame independent.
Helical vortices: viscous dynamics and instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, Maurice; Selcuk, Can; Delbende, Ivan; Ijlra-Upmc Team; Limsi-Cnrs Team
2014-11-01
Understanding the dynamical properties of helical vortices is of great importance for numerous applications such as wind turbines, helicopter rotors, ship propellers. Locally these flows often display a helical symmetry: fields are invariant through combined axial translation of distance Δz and rotation of angle θ = Δz / L around the same z-axis, where 2 πL denotes the helix pitch. A DNS code with built-in helical symmetry has been developed in order to compute viscous quasi-steady basic states with one or multiple vortices. These states will be characterized (core structure, ellipticity, ...) as a function of the pitch, without or with an axial flow component. The instability modes growing in the above base flows and their growth rates are investigated by a linearized version of the DNS code coupled to an Arnoldi procedure. This analysis is complemented by a helical thin-cored vortex filaments model. ANR HELIX.
Emergent vortices in populations of colloidal rollers
Bricard, Antoine; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Das, Debasish; Savoie, Charles; Chikkadi, Vijayakumar; Shitara, Kyohei; Chepizhko, Oleksandr; Peruani, Fernando; Saintillan, David; Bartolo, Denis
2015-01-01
Coherent vortical motion has been reported in a wide variety of populations including living organisms (bacteria, fishes, human crowds) and synthetic active matter (shaken grains, mixtures of biopolymers), yet a unified description of the formation and structure of this pattern remains lacking. Here we report the self-organization of motile colloids into a macroscopic steadily rotating vortex. Combining physical experiments and numerical simulations, we elucidate this collective behaviour. We demonstrate that the emergent-vortex structure lives on the verge of a phase separation, and single out the very constituents responsible for this state of polar active matter. Building on this observation, we establish a continuum theory and lay out a strong foundation for the description of vortical collective motion in a broad class of motile populations constrained by geometrical boundaries. PMID:26088835
Stability of knotted vortices in wave chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Alexander; Dennis, Mark
Large scale tangles of disordered filaments occur in many diverse physical systems, from turbulent superfluids to optical volume speckle to liquid crystal phases. They can exhibit particular large scale random statistics despite very different local physics. We have previously used the topological statistics of knotting and linking to characterise the large scale tangling, using the vortices of three-dimensional wave chaos as a universal model system whose physical lengthscales are set only by the wavelength. Unlike geometrical quantities, the statistics of knotting depend strongly on the physical system and boundary conditions. Although knotting patterns characterise different systems, the topology of vortices is highly unstable to perturbation, under which they may reconnect with one another. In systems of constructed knots, these reconnections generally rapidly destroy the knot, but for vortex tangles the topological statistics must be stable. Using large scale simulations of chaotic eigenfunctions, we numerically investigate the prevalence and impact of reconnection events, and their effect on the topology of the tangle.
Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.
2011-04-01
Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using “first principles” molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.
Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He.
Lounasmaa, O V; Thuneberg, E
1999-07-06
In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe.
Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He
Lounasmaa, Olli V.; Thuneberg, Erkki
1999-01-01
In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe. PMID:10393895
Hydromagnetic vortices. II - Further dawnside events
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saunders, M. A.; Southwood, D. J.; Hones, E. W., Jr.
1983-01-01
It is shown that the 11 December 1977 plasma vortex event the subject of a multi-instrument investigation (Saunders et al., 1983) - was neither atypical nor uncommon, by describing the magnetic and plasma characteristics of three further vortices recorded within 3 weeks of, and at similar locations to, the 11 December study. One of the new events has added interest since magnetic pulsations were seen simultaneously on the ground in the vicinity of the satellite magnetic 'footprint'.
Self-Similar Compressible Free Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
vonEllenrieder, Karl
1998-01-01
Lie group methods are used to find both exact and numerical similarity solutions for compressible perturbations to all incompressible, two-dimensional, axisymmetric vortex reference flow. The reference flow vorticity satisfies an eigenvalue problem for which the solutions are a set of two-dimensional, self-similar, incompressible vortices. These solutions are augmented by deriving a conserved quantity for each eigenvalue, and identifying a Lie group which leaves the reference flow equations invariant. The partial differential equations governing the compressible perturbations to these reference flows are also invariant under the action of the same group. The similarity variables found with this group are used to determine the decay rates of the velocities and thermodynamic variables in the self-similar flows, and to reduce the governing partial differential equations to a set of ordinary differential equations. The ODE's are solved analytically and numerically for a Taylor vortex reference flow, and numerically for an Oseen vortex reference flow. The solutions are used to examine the dependencies of the temperature, density, entropy, dissipation and radial velocity on the Prandtl number. Also, experimental data on compressible free vortex flow are compared to the analytical results, the evolution of vortices from initial states which are not self-similar is discussed, and the energy transfer in a slightly-compressible vortex is considered.
Elliptic flow in small systems due to elliptic gluon distributions?
Hagiwara, Yoshikazu; Hatta, Yoshitaka; Xiao, Bo-Wen; ...
2017-05-31
We investigate the contributions from the so-called elliptic gluon Wigner distributions to the rapidity and azimuthal correlations of particles produced in high energy pp and pA collisions by applying the double parton scattering mechanism. We compute the ‘elliptic flow’ parameter v 2 as a function of the transverse momentum and rapidity, and find qualitative agreement with experimental observations. This shall encourage further developments with more rigorous studies of the elliptic gluon distributions and their applications in hard scattering processes in pp and pA collisions.
Elliptic flow in small systems due to elliptic gluon distributions?
Hagiwara, Yoshikazu; Hatta, Yoshitaka; Xiao, Bo-Wen
We investigate the contributions from the so-called elliptic gluon Wigner distributions to the rapidity and azimuthal correlations of particles produced in high energy pp and pA collisions by applying the double parton scattering mechanism. We compute the ‘elliptic flow’ parameter v 2 as a function of the transverse momentum and rapidity, and find qualitative agreement with experimental observations. This shall encourage further developments with more rigorous studies of the elliptic gluon distributions and their applications in hard scattering processes in pp and pA collisions.
REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS The quark-gluon medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dremin, Igor M.; Leonidov, Andrei V.
2011-02-01
The properties of the quark-gluon medium observed in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. The main experimental facts about these collisions are briefly described and compared with data about proton-proton collisions. Both microscopic and macroscopic approaches to their description are reviewed. The chromodynamics of the quark-gluon medium at high energies is mainly considered. The energy loss of partons moving in this medium is treated. The principal conclusion is that the medium possesses some collective properties which are crucial for understanding the experimental observations.
The evolution of the small x gluon TMD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jian
2016-06-01
We study the evolution of the small x gluon transverse momentum dependent (TMD) distribution in the dilute limit. The calculation has been carried out in the Ji-Ma-Yuan scheme using a simple quark target model. As expected, we find that the resulting small x gluon TMD simultaneously satisfies both the Collins-Soper (CS) evolution equation and the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) evolution equation. We thus confirmed the earlier finding that the high energy factorization (HEF) and the TMD factorization should be jointly employed to resum the different type large logarithms in a process where three relevant scales are well separated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Skokov, Vladimir V.
2018-05-01
We show that, in the saturation/color glass condensate framework, odd azimuthal harmonics of the two-gluon correlation function with a long-range separation in rapidity are generated by the higher-order saturation corrections in the interactions with the projectile and the target. At the very least, the odd harmonics require three scatterings in the projectile and three scatterings in the target. We derive the leading-order expression for the two-gluon production cross section which generates odd harmonics: the expression includes all-order interactions with the target and three interactions with the projectile. We evaluate the obtained expression both analytically and numerically, confirming that the odd-harmonics contribution to the two-gluon production in the saturation framework is nonzero.
Surfzone vorticity in the presence of extreme bathymetric variability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, D.; Elgar, S.; Raubenheimer, B.
2014-12-01
Surfzone vorticity was measured at Duck, NC using a novel 5-m diameter vorticity sensor deployed in 1.75 m water depth. During the 4-week deployment the initially alongshore uniform bathymetry developed 200-m long mega-cusps with alongshore vertical changes of 1.5 m or more. When waves were small and the vorticity sensor was seaward of the surfzone, vorticity variance and mean vorticity varied with the tidally modulated water depth, consistent with a net seaward flux of surfzone-generated vorticity. Vorticity variance increased with incident wave heights up to 2-m. However, vorticity variance remained relatively constant for incident wave heights above 2-m, and suggests that eddy energy may become saturated in the inner surfzone during large wave events. In the presence of mega-cusps the mean vorticity (shear) is often large and generated by bathymetrically controlled rip currents, while vorticity variance remains strongly correlated with the incident wave height. Funded by NSF, ASD(R&E), and WHOI Coastal Ocean Institute.
Creating the Primordial Quark-Gluon Plasma at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, John W.
2013-04-01
Ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) create an extremely hot system at temperatures (T) expected only within the first microseconds after the Big Bang. At these temperatures (T ˜ 2 x 10^12 K), a few hundred thousand times hotter than the sun's core, the known ``elementary'' particles cannot exist and matter ``melts'' to form a ``soup'' of quarks and gluons, called the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This ``soup'' flows easily, with extremely low viscosity, suggesting a nearly perfect hot liquid of quarks and gluons. Furthermore, the liquid is dense, highly interacting and opaque to energetic probes (fast quarks or gluons). RHIC has been in operation for twelve years and has established an impressive set of findings. Recent results from heavy ion collisions at the LHC extend the study of the QGP to higher temperatures and harder probes, such as jets (energetic clusters of particles), particles with extremely large transverse momenta and those containing heavy quarks. I will present a motivation for physics in the field and an overview of the new LHC heavy ion results in relation to results from RHIC.
From strangeness enhancement to quark-gluon plasma discovery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch, Peter; Müller, Berndt; Rafelski, Johann
2017-11-01
This is a short survey of signatures and characteristics of the quark-gluon plasma in the light of experimental results that have been obtained over the past three decades. In particular, we present an in-depth discussion of the strangeness observable, including a chronology of the experimental effort to detect QGP at CERN-SPS, BNL-RHIC, and CERN-LHC.
Vorticity and Λ polarization in baryon rich matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baznat, Mircea; Gudima, Konstantin; Prokhorov, George; Sorin, Alexander; Teryaev, Oleg; Zakharov, Valentin
2018-02-01
The polarization of Λ hyperons due to axial chiral vortical effect is discussed. The effect is proportional to (strange) chemical potential and is pronounced at lower energies in baryon-rich matter. The polarization of
Numerical studies of the margin of vortices with decaying cores
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, G. C.; Ting, L.
1986-01-01
The merging of vortices to a single one is a canonical incompressible viscous flow problem. The merging process begins when the core sizes or the vortices are comparable to their distances and ends when the contour lines of constant vorticity lines are circularized around one center. Approximate solutions to this problem are constructed by adapting the asymptotic solutions for distinct vortices. For the early stage of merging, the next-order terms in the asymptotic solutions are added to the leading term. For the later stage of merging, the vorticity distribution is reinitialized by vortices with overlapping core structures guided by the 'rule of merging' and the velocity of the 'vortex centers' are then defined by a minimum principle. To show the accuracy of the approximate solution, it is compared with the finite-difference solution.
Interactions and scattering of quantum vortices in a polariton fluid.
Dominici, Lorenzo; Carretero-González, Ricardo; Gianfrate, Antonio; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Rodrigues, Augusto S; Frantzeskakis, Dimitri J; Lerario, Giovanni; Ballarini, Dario; De Giorgi, Milena; Gigli, Giuseppe; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Sanvitto, Daniele
2018-04-13
Quantum vortices, the quantized version of classical vortices, play a prominent role in superfluid and superconductor phase transitions. However, their exploration at a particle level in open quantum systems has gained considerable attention only recently. Here we study vortex pair interactions in a resonant polariton fluid created in a solid-state microcavity. By tracking the vortices on picosecond time scales, we reveal the role of nonlinearity, as well as of density and phase gradients, in driving their rotational dynamics. Such effects are also responsible for the split of composite spin-vortex molecules into elementary half-vortices, when seeding opposite vorticity between the two spinorial components. Remarkably, we also observe that vortices placed in close proximity experience a pull-push scenario leading to unusual scattering-like events that can be described by a tunable effective potential. Understanding vortex interactions can be useful in quantum hydrodynamics and in the development of vortex-based lattices, gyroscopes, and logic devices.
Polarization in heavy-ion collisions: magnetic field and vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baznat, M.; Gudima, K.; Prokhorov, G.; Sorin, A.; Teryaev, O.; Zakharov, V.
2017-12-01
The polarization of hyperons due to axial chiral vortical effect is discussed. The effect is proportional to (strange) chemical potential and is pronounced at lower energies, contrary to that of magnetic field. The polarization of antihyperons has the same sign and larger magnitude. The emergence of vortical structures is observed in kinetic QGSM models. The hydrodynamical helicity separation receives the contribution of longitudinal velocity and vorticity implying the quadrupole structure of the latter. The transition from the quark vortical effects to baryons in confined phase may be achieved by exploring the axial charge. At the hadronic level the polarization corresponds to the cores of quantized vortices in pionic superfluid. The chiral vortical effects may be also studied in the frmework of Wigner function establishing the relation to the thermodynamical approach to polarization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanzadeh, Pedram
Large coherent vortices are abundant in geophysical and astrophysical flows. They play significant roles in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere, the atmosphere of gas giants, such as Jupiter, and the protoplanetary disks around forming stars. These vortices are essentially three-dimensional (3D) and baroclinic, and their dynamics are strongly influenced by the rotation and density stratification of their environments. This work focuses on improving our understanding of the physics of 3D baroclinic vortices in rotating and continuously stratified flows using 3D spectral simulations of the Boussinesq equations, as well as simplified mathematical models. The first chapter discusses the big picture and summarizes the results of this work. In Chapter 2, we derive a relationship for the aspect ratio (i.e., vertical half-thickness over horizontal length scale) of steady and slowly-evolving baroclinic vortices in rotating stratified fluids. We show that the aspect ratio is a function of the Brunt-Vaisala frequencies within the vortex and outside the vortex, the Coriolis parameter, and the Rossby number of the vortex. This equation is basically the gradient-wind equation integrated over the vortex, and is significantly different from the previously proposed scaling laws that find the aspect ratio to be only a function of the properties of the background flow, and independent of the dynamics of the vortex. Our relation is valid for cyclones and anticyclones in either the cyclostrophic or geostrophic regimes; it works with vortices in Boussinesq fluids or ideal gases, and non-uniform background density gradient. The relation for the aspect ratio has many consequences for quasi-equilibrium vortices in rotating stratified flows. For example, cyclones must have interiors more stratified than the background flow (i.e., super-stratified), and weak anticyclones must have interiors less stratified than the background (i.e., sub-stratified). In addition, this equation is useful to
Collision dynamics of two-dimensional non-Abelian vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mawson, Thomas; Petersen, Timothy C.; Simula, Tapio
2017-09-01
We study computationally the collision dynamics of vortices in a two-dimensional spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. In contrast to Abelian vortex pairs, which annihilate or pass through each other, we observe non-Abelian vortex pairs to undergo rungihilation—an event that converts the colliding vortices into a rung vortex. The resulting rung defect subsequently decays to another pair of non-Abelian vortices of different type, accompanied by a magnetization reversal.
Models for some aspects of atmospheric vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deissler, R. G.
1977-01-01
A frictionless adiabatic model is used to study the growth of random vortices in an atmosphere with buoyant instability and vertical wind shear, taking account of the effects of axial drag, heat transfer and precipitation-induced downdrafts. It is found that downdrafts of tornadic magnitude may occur in negatively buoyant columns. The radial-inflow velocity required to maintain a given maximum tangential velocity in a tornado is determined by using a turbulent vortex model. A tornado model which involves a rotating parent cloud as well as buoyancy and precipitation effects is also discussed.
Inviscid to turbulent transition of trailing vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iversen, J. D.
1974-01-01
The characteristics of the plateau region in the vortex system which trails from a lifting wing are discussed. The decay of the vortex due to viscous or turbulent shear is very slow in the plateau so that the maximum tangential speed in the vortices remains nearly constant for some distance downstream of roll-up and then begins to decrease, becoming inversely proportional to the square root of the distance downstream. Mathematical models are developed to analyze the structure of the plateau area. Solutions are obtained for both constant and variable eddy viscosity models.
Maxwell-Higgs vortices with internal structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazeia, D.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.
2018-05-01
Vortices are considered in relativistic Maxwell-Higgs systems in interaction with a neutral scalar field. The gauge field interacts with the neutral field via the presence of generalized permeability, and the charged and neutral scalar fields interact in a way dictated by the presence of first order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. The neutral field may be seen as the source field of the vortex, and we study some possibilities, which modify the standard Maxwell-Higgs solution and include internal structure to the vortex.
Internal energy flows in composite optical vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrer-Garcia, Manuel F.; Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.
2016-09-01
We study the energy ow pattern in the superposition of two off-axis optical vortices with orthogonal polarization states. This system presents a rich structure of polarization singularities, which allows us to study the transverse spin and orbital angular momentum of different polarization morphologies, which includes C points (stars, lemons and monstars) and L lines. We perform numerical simulations of the optical forces acting on submicron particles and show interesting configurations. We provide the set of control parameters to unambiguously distinguish between the spin and orbital ow contributions.
On relation between scalar interfaces and vorticity in inviscid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramesh, O. N.; Patwardhan, Saurabh
2013-11-01
A great variety of applications like pollutant mixing in the atmosphere, mixing of reactants in combustion highlight the importance of passive scalar dynamics in fluid flows. The other dynamically important variable in the study of fluid flow is the vorticity. Vorticity though, unlike a passive scalar, does affect the fluid motion. The dynamics of scalar (linear) and vorticity (non-linear) are governed by the equations which inherently have different characteristics. This paper addresses the question of the faithfulness of representation of vorticity by scalar marker and the motivation for this comes from the experiment of Head and Bandyopadhyay (1981) which showed the existence of coherent vortices by using smoke flow visualization in a turbulent boundary layer. We will show analytically in regions where the molecular diffusion effects are negligible, the vorticity and scalar gradients are orthogonal to each other. The iso- surface of scalar follows the vorticity in an inviscid situation. Also, we will demonstrate that in the case of unsteady burgers vortex and vortex shedding behind a finite circular cylinder, the scalar gradient is orthogonal to vorticity and inner product of vorticity and scalar gradients is zero in regions away from the wall.
Anomaly inflow on QCD axial domain-walls and vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Kenji; Imaki, Shota
2018-06-01
We study the chiral effective theory in the presence of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) vortices. Gauge invariance requires novel terms from vortex singularities in the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten action, which incorporate anomaly-induced currents along the vortices. We examine these terms for systems with QCD axial domain-walls bounded by vortices (vortons) under magnetic fields. We discuss how the baryon and electric charge conservations are satisfied in these systems through interplay between domain-walls and vortices, manifesting Callan-Harvey's mechanism of anomaly inflow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horton, W.; Perez, J. C.; Bengtson, R. D.; Carter, T. A.; Gekelman, W.; Fassler, M.
2003-10-01
A new five-pin probe design called the Vorticity Probe is presented that explicitly measures the vorticity in the ExB flow from the floating potentials independent on any absolute calibration errors. The five Tantulum probe tips are arranged in a diamond pattern with 5mm tip spacing. The fluctuating floating potential at each tip is measured and used to compute a finite-difference approximation of the ExB vorticity. The probe is tested in the LAPD device run with a variable bias between the anode and the chamber wall that creates a sharply localized Er-profile at 30cm from the axis of the 100cm diameter chamber. The fluctuations observed are peaked in the shear flow layer and are being correlated with theoretical calculations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for this plasma. Nonlinear calculations are presented and test particle motion in the mixture of waves and vortices are described. The spectrum at 15 to 30 kHz matches the theoretical prediction from the measured dEr/dr gradient that reaches 17kV/m^2 in the B=0.2T axial magnetic field. The parallel wavelength and azimuthal mode numbers are being measured for further comfirmation of the of the mode classification.
A direct determination of the gluon density in the proton at low x
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bähr, J.; Bán, J.; Ban, Y.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Barschke, R.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bispham, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Burton, M. J.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Clerbaux, B.; Colombo, M.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D. G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Droutskoi, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotox, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Glazov, A.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herynek, I.; Hess, M. F.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hiller, K. H.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Horisberger, R.; Hudgson, V. L.; Huet, Ph.; Hütte, M.; Hufnagel, H.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kazarian, S.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Köhne, J. H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krämerkämper, T.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Krüner-Marquis, U.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurča, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J.-F.; Lebedev, A.; Lehner, F.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Link, J.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; List, B.; Lobo, G.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lomas, J. W.; Lopez, G. C.; Lubimox, V.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Maraček, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, G.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, T.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Migliori, A.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Mroczko, E.; Müller, G.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Nicholls, T. C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg-Werther, M.; Oakden, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panaro, E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Pope, G.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rabbertz, K.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Rick, H.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, H. E.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Yoyon, C.; Rüter, K.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Rylko, R.; Sahlmann, N.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schacht, P.; Schiek, S.; Schleif, S.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, G.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schwab, B.; Sciacca, G.; Sefkow, F.; Seidel, M.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Spiekermann, J.; Spielman, S.; Spitzer, H.; Starosta, R.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stiewe, J.; Stößlein, U.; Stolze, K.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Uelkes, P.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Vandenplas, D.; Van Esch, P.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Verrecchia, P.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wagener, A.; Wagener, M.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wellisch, H. P.; West, L. R.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wittek, C.; Wright, A. E.; Wünsch, E.; Wulff, N.; Yiou, T. P.; Žáček, J.; Zarbock, D.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmer, M.; Zimmermann, W.; Zomer, F.; Zuber, K.; zur Nedden, M.; H1 Collaboration
1995-02-01
A leading order determination of the gluon density in the proton has been performed in the fractional momentum range 1.9 · 10 -3 < xg/ p < 0.18 by measuring multi-jet events from boson-gluon fusion in deep-inelastic scattering with the H1 detector at the electron-proton collider HERA. This direct determination of the gluon density was performed in a kinematic region previously not accessible. The data show a considerable increase of the gluon density with decreasing fractional momenta of the gluons.
Tomographic PIV Study of Hairpin Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabatino, Daniel; Rossmann, Tobias
2014-11-01
Tomographic PIV is used in a free surface water channel to quantify the flow behavior of hairpin vortices that are artificially generated in a laminar boundary layer. Direct injection from a 32:1 aspect ratio slot at low blowing ratios (0 . 1 < BR < 0 . 2) is used to generate an isolated hairpin vortex in a thick laminar boundary layer (485 < Reδ* < 600). Due to the large dynamic range of length and velocity scales (the resulting vortices have advection velocities 5X greater than their tangential velocities), a tailored optical arrangement and specialized post processing techniques are required to fully capture the small-scale behavior and long-time development of the flow field. Hairpin generation and evolution are presented using the λ2 criterion derived from the instantaneous, three-dimensional velocity field. The insight provided by the tomographic data is also compared to the conclusions drawn from 2D PIV and passive scalar visualizations. Finally, the three-dimensional behavior of the measured velocity field is correlated with that of a simultaneously imaged, passive scalar dye that marks the boundary of the injected fluid, allowing the examination of the entrainment behavior of the hairpin. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1040236.
Aharonov-Bohm effect with many vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franchini, Fabio; Scharff Goldhaber, Alfred
2008-12-01
The Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect is the prime example of a zero-field-strength configuration where a nontrivial vector potential acquires physical significance, a typical quantum mechanical effect. We consider an extension of the traditional A-B problem, by studying a two-dimensional medium filled with many point-like vortices. Systems like this might be present within a type II superconducting layer in the presence of a strong magnetic field perpendicular to the layer, and have been studied in different limits. We construct an explicit solution for the wave function of a scalar particle moving within one such layer when the vortices occupy the sites of a square lattice and have all the same strength, equal to half of the flux quantum. From this construction, we infer some general characteristics of the spectrum, including the conclusion that such a flux array produces a repulsive barrier to an incident low-energy charged particle, so that the penetration probability decays exponentially with distance from the edge.
Extraction of the gluon density of the proton at x
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R. L.; Thron, J.; Arzarello, F.; Ayad, R.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Ciralli, F.; Contin, A.; D'Auria, S.; Frasconi, F.; Gialas, I.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Crittenden, J.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Eckert, M.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Grothe, M.; Hartmann, H.; Haun, D.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Katz, U. F.; Mari, S. M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Paul, E.; Rembser, Ch.; Schattevoy, R.; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Llewellyn, T. J.; Morgado, C. J. S.; Norman, D. J. P.; O'Mara, J. A.; Tapper, R. J.; Wilson, S. S.; Yoshida, R.; Rau, R. R.; Arneodo, M.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Parsons, J. A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P. B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Eskreys, K.; Jelén, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zarȩbska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zajaç, J.; Kȩdzierski, T.; Kotański, A.; Przybycień, M.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Behrens, U.; Bienlein, J. K.; Böttcher, S.; Coldewey, C.; Drews, G.; Flasiński, M.; Gilkinson, D. J.; Göttlicher, P.; Gutjahr, B.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Heβling, H.; Hultschig, H.; Iga, Y.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Köpke, L.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kröger, W.; Krüger, J.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Löhr, B.; Löwe, M.; Lüke, D.; Mańczak, O.; Ng, J. S. T.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.; Roldán, J.; Schneekloth, U.; Schulz, W.; Selonke, F.; Stiliaris, E.; Voβ, T.; Westphal, D.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Grabosch, H. J.; Leich, A.; Meyer, A.; Rethfeldt, C.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Pelfer, P.; Anzivino, G.; Maccarrone, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Qian, S.; Votano, L.; Bamberger, A.; Freidhof, A.; Poser, T.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Schroeder, J.; Theisen, G.; Trefzger, T.; Brook, N. H.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Fleck, I.; Jamieson, V. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Utley, M. L.; Wilson, A. S.; Dannemann, A.; Holm, U.; Horstmann, D.; Kammerlocher, H.; Krebs, B.; Neumann, T.; Sinkus, R.; Wick, K.; Badura, E.; Burow, B. D.; Fürtjes, A.; Hagge, L.; Lohrmann, E.; Mainusch, J.; Milewski, J.; Nakahata, M.; Pavel, N.; Poelz, G.; Schott, W.; Terron, J.; Zetsche, F.; Bacon, T. C.; Beuselinck, R.; Butterworth, I.; Gallo, E.; Harris, V. L.; Hung, B. H.; Long, K. R.; Miller, D. B.; Morawitz, P. P. O.; Prinias, A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Whitfield, A. F.; Mallik, U.; McCliment, E.; Wang, M. Z.; Wang, S. M.; Wu, J. T.; Zhang, Y.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; An, S. H.; Hong, S. M.; Nam, S. W.; Park, S. K.; Suh, M. H.; Yon, S. H.; Imlay, R.; Kartik, S.; Kim, H.-J.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W.; Nadendla, V. K.; Barreiro, F.; Cases, G.; Graciani, R.; Hernández, J. M.; Hervás, L.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Puga, J.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Ikraiam, F.; Mayer, J. K.; Smith, G. R.; Corriveau, F.; Hanna, D. S.; Hartmann, J.; Hung, L. W.; Lim, J. N.; Matthews, C. G.; Patel, P. M.; Sinclair, L. E.; Stairs, D. G.; St. Laurent, M.; Ullmann, R.; Zacek, G.; Bashkirov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Stifutkin, A.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Kobrin, V. D.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Savin, A. A.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Solomin, A. N.; Zotov, N. P.; Bentvelsen, S.; Botje, M.; Chlebana, F.; Dake, A.; Engelen, J.; de Jong, P.; de Kamps, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kruse, A.; O'Dell, V.; Tenner, A.; Tiecke, H.; Verkerke, W.; Vreeswijk, M.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; van Woudenberg, R.; Acosta, D.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Honscheid, K.; Li, C.; Ling, T. Y.; McLean, K. W.; Murray, W. N.; Park, I. H.; Romanowski, T. A.; Seidlein, R.; Bailey, D. S.; Blair, G. A.; Byrne, A.; Cashmore, R. J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Daniels, D.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Harnew, N.; Lancaster, M.; Luffman, P. E.; Lindemann, L.; McFall, J.; Nath, C.; Quadt, A.; Uijterwaal, H.; Walczak, R.; Wilson, F. F.; Yip, T.; Abbiendi, G.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; De Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Limentani, S.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Bulmahn, J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Feild, R. G.; Oh, B. Y.; Whitmore, J. J.; D'Agostini, G.; Iori, M.; Marini, G.; Mattioli, M.; Nigro, A.; Tassi, E.; Hart, J. C.; McCubbin, N. A.; Prytz, K.; Shah, T. P.; Short, T. L.; Barberis, E.; Cartiglia, N.; Dubbs, T.; Heusch, C.; Van Hook, M.; Hubbard, B.; Lockman, W.; Rahn, J. T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Biltzinger, J.; Seifert, R. J.; Walenta, A. H.; Zech, G.; Abramowicz, H.; Briskin, G.; Dagan, S.; Levy, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishii, T.; Kuze, M.; Mine, S.; Nagasawa, Y.; Nagira, T.; Nakao, M.; Suzuki, I.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Chiba, M.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Homma, K.; Kitamura, S.; Nagayama, S.; Nakamitsu, Y.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Lamberti, L.; Maselli, S.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Dardo, M.; Bailey, D. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Benard, F.; Brkic, M.; Crombie, M. B.; Gingrich, D. M.; Hartner, G. F.; Joo, K. K.; Levman, G. M.; Martin, J. F.; Orr, R. S.; Sampson, C. R.; Teuscher, R. J.; Catterall, C. D.; Jones, T. W.; Kaziewicz, P. B.; Lane, J. B.; Saunders, R. L.; Shulman, J.; Blankenship, K.; Kochocki, J.; Lu, B.; Mo, L. W.; Bogusz, W.; Charchuł; a, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gajewski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kasprzak, M.; Krzyżanowski, M.; Muchorowski, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Wróblewski, A. K.; Zakrzewski, J. A.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Eisenberg, Y.; Glasman, C.; Karshon, U.; Revel, D.; Shapira, A.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Dasu, S.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Loveless, R. J.; Reeder, D. D.; Silverstein, S.; Smith, W. H.; Tsurugai, T.; Bhadra, S.; Frisken, W. R.; Furutani, K. M.; Zeus Collaboration
1995-02-01
The gluon momentum density xg( x, Q2) of the proton was extracted at Q2 = 20 GeV 2 for small values of x between 4 × 10 -4 and 10 -2 from the scaling violations of the proton structure function F2 measured recently by ZEUS in deep inelastic neutral current ep scattering at HERA. The extraction was performed in two ways. Firstly, using a global NLO fit to the ZEUS data on F2 at low x constrained by measurementsfrom NMC at larger x; and secondly using published approximate methods for the solution of the GLAP QCD evolution equations. Consistent results are obtained. A substantial increase of the gluon density is found at small x in comparison with the NMC result obtained at larger values of x.
Production of multiply heavy flavoured baryons from Quark Gluon Plasma
Becattini, F.; INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019, Sesto F.no
We show that in heavy ion collisions at LHC there could be a measurable production of baryons containing two or three heavy quarks from statistical coalescence. This production mechanism is peculiar of Quark Gluon Plasma and the predicted rates, in heavy ion collisions at LHC energy, exceed those from a purely hadronic scenario, particularly for {xi}bc and {omega}ccc. Thus, besides the interest in the discovery of these new states, enhanced ratios of these baryons over singly heavy flavoured hadrons, like B or D, in heavy ion collisions with respect to pp at the same energy, would be a clear indicationmore » of kinetical equilibration of heavy quarks in the Quark Gluon Plasma.« less
Quark-Gluon Soup -- The Perfectly Liquid Phase of QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinz, Ulrich
2015-03-01
At temperatures above about 150 MeV and energy densities exceeding 500 MeV/fm3, quarks and gluons exist in the form of a plasma of free color charges that is about 1000 times hotter and a billion times denser than any other plasma ever created in the laboratory. This quark-gluon plasma (QGP) turns out to be strongly coupled, flowing like a liquid. About 35 years ago, the nuclear physics community started a program of relativistic heavy-ion collisions with the goal of producing and studying QGP under controlled laboratory conditions. This article recounts the story of its successful creation in collider experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and CERN and the subsequent discovery of its almost perfectly liquid nature, and reports on the recent quantitatively precise determination of its thermodynamic and transport properties.
Towards a theory of stochastic vorticity-augmentation. [tornado model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, V. C.
1977-01-01
A new hypothesis to account for the formation of tornadoes is presented. An elementary one-dimensional theory is formulated for vorticity transfer between an ambient sheared wind and a transverse penetrating jet. The theory points out the relevant quantities to be determined in describing the present stochastic mode of vorticity augmentation.
Numerical Capture of Wing-tip Vortex Using Vorticity Confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Baili; Lou, Jing; Kang, Chang Wei; Wilson, Alexander; Lundberg, Johan; Bensow, Rickard
2012-11-01
Tracking vortices accurately over large distances is very important in many areas of engineering, for instance flow over rotating helicopter blades, ship propeller blades and aircraft wings. However, due to the inherent numerical dissipation in the advection step of flow simulation, current Euler and RANS field solvers tend to damp these vortices too fast. One possible solution to reduce the unphysical decay of these vortices is the application of vorticity confinement methods. In this study, a vorticity confinement term is added to the momentum conservation equations which is a function of the local element size, the vorticity and the gradient of the absolute value of vorticity. The approach has been evaluated by a systematic numerical study on the tip vortex trailing from a rectangular NACA0012 half-wing. The simulated structure and development of the wing-tip vortex agree well with experiments both qualitatively and quantitatively without any adverse effects on the global flow field. It is shown that vorticity confinement can negate the effect of numerical dissipation, leading to a more or less constant vortex strength. This is an approximate method in that genuine viscous diffusion of the vortex is not modeled, but it can be appropriate for vortex dominant flows over short to medium length scales where viscous diffusion can be neglected.
Analysis of vortical structures in turbulent natural convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Sangro; Lee, Changhoon
2014-11-01
Natural convection of fluid within two parallel walls, Rayleigh-Bénard convection, is studied by direct numerical simulation using a spectral method. The flow is in soft turbulence regime with Rayleigh number 106, 107, 108, Prandtl number 0 . 7 and aspect ratio 4. We investigate the relations between thermal plumes and vortical structures through manipulating the evolution equations of vorticity and velocity gradient tensor. According to simulation results, horizontal vorticity occurs near the wall and changes into vertical vorticity by vertical stretching of fluid element which is caused by vertical movement of the thermal plume. Additionally, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and invariants of velocity gradient tensor show the topologies of vortical structures, including how vortical structures are tilted or stretched. Difference of velocity gradient tensor between inside thermal plumes and background region is also investigated, and the result indicates that thermal plumes play an important role in changing the distribution of vortical structures. The results of this study are consistent with other researches which suggest that vertical vorticity is stronger in high Rayleigh number flows. Details will be presented in the meeting.
Pressure measurements of wake vortices near the ground
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1972-04-30
It has been known since the beginning of air flight that an : aircraft leaves in its wake a pair of highly concentrated, : counter-rotating trailing vortices. With the introduction of : jumbo jets, the vortices generated by these aircraft can become ...
Coupled Control of Flow Separation and Streamwise Vortical Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burrows, Travis; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari
2017-11-01
The flow in offset diffusers of modern propulsion systems are dominated by streamwise vorticity concentrations that advect of low-momentum fluid from the flow boundaries into the core flow and give rise to flow distortion and losses at the engine inlet. Because the formation of these vortices is strongly coupled to trapped vorticity concentrations within locally-separated flow domains over concave surfaces of the diffuser bends, this coupling is exploited for controlling the streamwise evolution of the vortices and thereby significantly reduce the flow distortion and losses. The scale and topology of the trapped vorticity are manipulated at an operating throat Mach number of 0.64 by using a spanwise array of fluidic oscillating jets that are placed upstream of the separation domain. The present investigations demonstrate that the actuation alters the structure of both the trapped and streamwise vortices. In particular, the distribution of the streamwise vortices is altered and their strength is diminished by actuation-induced streamwise vorticity concentrations of opposite sense. As a result, the actuation leads to significant suppression of pressure distortion at the engine inlet (by as much as 60%) at an actuation level that utilizes less than 0.4% of the diffuser's mass flow rate. Supported by ONR.
Aircraft Wake Vortices : An Assessment of the Current Situation
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1991-01-01
The state of knowledge about aircraft wake vortices in the summer of 1990 is summarized. With the advent of a new FAA wake vortex program, the current situation was assessed by answering five questions: (1) What do we know about wake vortices, (2) wh...
Entropy production during hadronization of a quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biró, Tamás S.; Schram, Zsolt; Jenkovszky, László
2018-02-01
We revisit some physical pictures for the hadronization of quark-gluon plasma, concentrating on the problem of entropy production during processes where the number of degrees of freedom is seemingly reduced due to color confinement. Based on observations on Regge trajectories we propose not having an infinite tower of hadronic resonances. We discuss possible entropy production mechanisms far from equilibrium in terms of stochastic dynamics.
Tree-level gluon amplitudes on the celestial sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreiber, Anders Ø.; Volovich, Anastasia; Zlotnikov, Michael
2018-06-01
Pasterski, Shao and Strominger have recently proposed that massless scattering amplitudes can be mapped to correlators on the celestial sphere at infinity via a Mellin transform. We apply this prescription to arbitrary n-point tree-level gluon amplitudes. The Mellin transforms of MHV amplitudes are given by generalized hypergeometric functions on the Grassmannian Gr (4 , n), while generic non-MHV amplitudes are given by more complicated Gelfand A-hypergeometric functions.
RHIC AND THE PURSUIT OF THE QUARK-GLUON PLASMA.
MITCHELL,J.T.
2001-07-25
There is a fugitive on the loose. Its name is Quark-Gluon Plasma, alias the QGP. The QGP is a known informant with knowledge about the fundamental building blocks of nature that we wish to extract. This briefing will outline the status of the pursuit of the elusive QGP. We will cover what makes the QGP tick, its modus operandi, details on how we plan to hunt the fugitive down, and our level of success thus far.
From quarks and gluons to baryon form factors
Eichmann, Gernot
2012-01-01
I briefly summarize recent results for nucleon and Δ(1232) electromagnetic, axial and transition form factors in the Dyson–Schwinger approach. The calculation of the current diagrams from the quark–gluon level enables a transparent discussion of common features such as: the implications of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark orbital angular momentum, the timelike structure of the form factors, and their interpretation in terms of missing pion-cloud effects. PMID:26766879
From quarks and gluons to baryon form factors.
Eichmann, Gernot
2012-04-01
I briefly summarize recent results for nucleon and [Formula: see text] electromagnetic, axial and transition form factors in the Dyson-Schwinger approach. The calculation of the current diagrams from the quark-gluon level enables a transparent discussion of common features such as: the implications of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark orbital angular momentum, the timelike structure of the form factors, and their interpretation in terms of missing pion-cloud effects.
Helical vortices: linear stability analysis and nonlinear dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selçuk, C.; Delbende, I.; Rossi, M.
2018-02-01
We numerically investigate, within the context of helical symmetry, the dynamics of a regular array of two or three helical vortices with or without a straight central hub vortex. The Navier-Stokes equations are linearised to study the instabilities of such basic states. For vortices with low pitches, an unstable mode is extracted which corresponds to a displacement mode and growth rates are found to compare well with results valid for an infinite row of point vortices or an infinite alley of vortex rings. For larger pitches, the system is stable with respect to helically symmetric perturbations. In the nonlinear regime, we follow the time-evolution of the above basic states when initially perturbed by the dominant instability mode. For two vortices, sequences of overtaking events, leapfrogging and eventually merging are observed. The transition between such behaviours occurs at a critical ratio involving the core size and the vortex-separation distance. Cases with three helical vortices are also presented.
Numerical simulation of the vortical flow around a pitching airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Xiang; Li, Gaohua; Wang, Fuxin
2017-04-01
In order to study the dynamic behaviors of the flapping wing, the vortical flow around a pitching NACA0012 airfoil is investigated. The unsteady flow field is obtained by a very efficient zonal procedure based on the velocity-vorticity formulation and the Reynolds number based on the chord length of the airfoil is set to 1 million. The zonal procedure divides up the whole computation domain in to three zones: potential flow zone, boundary layer zone and Navier-Stokes zone. Since the vorticity is absent in the potential flow zone, the vorticity transport equation needs only to be solved in the boundary layer zone and Navier-Stokes zone. Moreover, the boundary layer equations are solved in the boundary layer zone. This arrangement drastically reduces the computation time against the traditional numerical method. After the flow field computation, the evolution of the vortices around the airfoil is analyzed in detail.
Nanoscale assembly of superconducting vortices with scanning tunnelling microscope tip
Ge, Jun-Yi; Gladilin, Vladimir N.; Tempere, Jacques; Xue, Cun; Devreese, Jozef T.; Van de Vondel, Joris; Zhou, Youhe; Moshchalkov, Victor V.
2016-01-01
Vortices play a crucial role in determining the properties of superconductors as well as their applications. Therefore, characterization and manipulation of vortices, especially at the single-vortex level, is of great importance. Among many techniques to study single vortices, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) stands out as a powerful tool, due to its ability to detect the local electronic states and high spatial resolution. However, local control of superconductivity as well as the manipulation of individual vortices with the STM tip is still lacking. Here we report a new function of the STM, namely to control the local pinning in a superconductor through the heating effect. Such effect allows us to quench the superconducting state at nanoscale, and leads to the growth of vortex clusters whose size can be controlled by the bias voltage. We also demonstrate the use of an STM tip to assemble single-quantum vortices into desired nanoscale configurations. PMID:27934960
Vorticity imbalance and stability in relation to convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Read, W. L.; Scoggins, J. R.
1977-01-01
A complete synoptic-scale vorticity budget was related to convection storm development in the eastern two-thirds of the United States. The 3-h sounding interval permitted a study of time changes of the vorticity budget in areas of convective storms. Results of analyses revealed significant changes in values of terms in the vorticity equation at different stages of squall line development. Average budgets for all areas of convection indicate systematic imbalance in the terms in the vorticity equation. This imbalance resulted primarily from sub-grid scale processes. Potential instability in the lower troposphere was analyzed in relation to the development of convective activity. Instability was related to areas of convection; however, instability alone was inadequate for forecast purposes. Combinations of stability and terms in the vorticity equation in the form of indices succeeded in depicting areas of convection better than any one item separately.
Numerical study of vorticity-enhanced heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas
2013-11-01
Vortices produced by vibrated reeds and flapping foils can improve heat transfer efficiency in electronic hardware. Vortices enhance forced convection by boundary layer separation and thermal mixing in the bulk flow. In this work, we modeled and simulated the fluid flow and temperature in a 2-D channel flow with vortices injected at the upstream boundary. We classified four types of vortex streets depending on the Reynolds number and vortices' strengths and spacings, and studied the different vortex dynamics in each situation. We then used Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) to study the effect of the vortices on mixing and determined how the Nusselt number and Coefficients of performance vary with flow parameters and Peclet numbers.
Two-gluon and trigluon glueballs from dynamical holography QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yi-dian; Huang, Mei
2016-12-01
We study the scalar, vector and tensor two-gluon and trigluon glueball spectra in the framework of the 5-dimension dynamical holographic QCD model, where the metric structure is deformed self-consistently by the dilaton field. For comparison, the glueball spectra are also calculated in the hard-wall and soft-wall holographic QCD models. In order to distinguish glueballs with even and odd parities, we introduce a positive and negative coupling between the dilaton field and glueballs, and for higher spin glueballs, we introduce a deformed 5-dimension mass. With this set-up, there is only one free parameter from the quadratic dilaton profile in the dynamical holographic QCD model, which is fixed by the scalar glueball spectra. It is found that the two-gluon glueball spectra produced in the dynamical holographic QCD model are in good agreement with lattice data. Among six trigluon glueballs, the produced masses for 1±- and 2-- are in good agreement with lattice data, and the produced masses for 0--, 0+- and 2+- are around 1.5 GeV lighter than lattice results. This result might indicate that the three trigluon glueballs of 0--, 0+- and 2+- are dominated by the three-gluon condensate contribution. Supported by the NSFC (11175251, 11621131001), DFG and NSFC (CRC 110), CAS Key Project KJCX2-EW-N01, K.C.Wong Education Foundation, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS
Abelian non-global logarithms from soft gluon clustering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelley, Randall; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zuberi, Saba
2012-09-01
Most recombination-style jet algorithms cluster soft gluons in a complex way. This leads to previously identified correlations in the soft gluon phase space and introduces logarithmic corrections to jet cross sections, which are known as clustering logarithms. The leading Abelian clustering logarithms occur at least at next-to leading logarithm (NLL) in the exponent of the distribution. Using the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), we show that new clustering effects contributing at NLL arise at each order. While numerical resummation of clustering logs is possible, it is unlikely that they can be analytically resummed to NLL. Clustering logarithms make the anti-kT algorithm theoretically preferred, for which they are power suppressed. They can arise in Abelian and non-Abelian terms, and we calculate the Abelian clustering logarithms at O ( {α_s^2} ) for the jet mass distribution using the Cambridge/Aachen and kT algorithms, including jet radius dependence, which extends previous results. We find that clustering logarithms can be naturally thought of as a class of non-global logarithms, which have traditionally been tied to non-Abelian correlations in soft gluon emission.
Color instabilities in the quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mrówczyński, Stanisław; Schenke, Björn; Strickland, Michael
2017-04-01
When the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) - a system of deconfined quarks and gluons - is in a nonequilibrium state, it is usually unstable with respect to color collective modes. The instabilities, which are expected to strongly influence dynamics of the QGP produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, are extensively discussed under the assumption that the plasma is weakly coupled. We begin by presenting the theoretical approaches to study the QGP, which include: field theory methods based on the Keldysh-Schwinger formalism, classical and quantum kinetic theories, and fluid techniques. The dispersion equations, which give the spectrum of plasma collective excitations, are analyzed in detail. Particular attention is paid to a momentum distribution of plasma constituents which is obtained by deforming an isotropic momentum distribution. Mechanisms of chromoelectric and chromomagnetic instabilities are explained in terms of elementary physics. The Nyquist analysis, which allows one to determine the number of solutions of a dispersion equation without explicitly solving it, and stability criteria are also discussed. We then review various numerical approaches - purely classical or quantum - to simulate the temporal evolution of an unstable quark-gluon plasma. The dynamical role of instabilities in the processes of plasma equilibration is analyzed.
Color instabilities in the quark–gluon plasma
Mrówczyński, Stanisław; Schenke, Björn; Strickland, Michael
2017-04-09
When the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) – a system of deconfined quarks and gluons – is in a nonequilibrium state, it is usually unstable with respect to color collective modes. The instabilities, which are expected to strongly influence dynamics of the QGP produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, are extensively discussed under the assumption that the plasma is weakly coupled. Here, we begin by presenting the theoretical approaches to study the QGP, which include: field theory methods based on the Keldysh–Schwinger formalism, classical and quantum kinetic theories, and fluid techniques. The dispersion equations, which give the spectrum of plasma collective excitations, aremore » analyzed in detail. We pay particular attention to a momentum distribution of plasma constituents which is obtained by deforming an isotropic momentum distribution. Mechanisms of chromoelectric and chromomagnetic instabilities are explained in terms of elementary physics. The Nyquist analysis, which allows one to determine the number of solutions of a dispersion equation without explicitly solving it, and stability criteria are also discussed. We then review various numerical approaches – purely classical or quantum – to simulate the temporal evolution of an unstable quark–gluon plasma. The dynamical role of instabilities in the processes of plasma equilibration is analyzed.« less
Low-momentum ghost dressing function and the gluon mass
Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.
2010-09-01
We study the low-momentum ghost propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Landau gauge, assuming for the truncation a constant ghost-gluon vertex, as it is extensively done, and a simple model for a massive gluon propagator. Then, regular Dyson-Schwinger equation solutions (the zero-momentum ghost dressing function not diverging) appear to emerge, and we show the ghost propagator to be described by an asymptotic expression reliable up to the order O(q{sup 2}). That expression, depending on the gluon mass and the zero-momentum Taylor-scheme effective charge, is proven to fit pretty well some low-momentum ghost propagator data [I. L. Bogolubsky, E. M. Ilgenfritz, M.more » Muller-Preussker, and A. Sternbeck, Phys. Lett. B 676, 69 (2009); Proc. Sci., LAT2007 (2007) 290] from big-volume lattice simulations where the so-called ''simulated annealing algorithm'' is applied to fix the Landau gauge.« less
Jet Topics: Disentangling Quarks and Gluons at Colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metodiev, Eric M.; Thaler, Jesse
2018-06-01
We introduce jet topics: a framework to identify underlying classes of jets from collider data. Because of a close mathematical relationship between distributions of observables in jets and emergent themes in sets of documents, we can apply recent techniques in "topic modeling" to extract jet topics from the data with minimal or no input from simulation or theory. As a proof of concept with parton shower samples, we apply jet topics to determine separate quark and gluon jet distributions for constituent multiplicity. We also determine separate quark and gluon rapidity spectra from a mixed Z -plus-jet sample. While jet topics are defined directly from hadron-level multidifferential cross sections, one can also predict jet topics from first-principles theoretical calculations, with potential implications for how to define quark and gluon jets beyond leading-logarithmic accuracy. These investigations suggest that jet topics will be useful for extracting underlying jet distributions and fractions in a wide range of contexts at the Large Hadron Collider.
Enhancing critical current density of cuprate superconductors
Chaudhari, Praveen
2015-06-16
The present invention concerns the enhancement of critical current densities in cuprate superconductors. Such enhancement of critical current densities include using wave function symmetry and restricting movement of Abrikosov (A) vortices, Josephson (J) vortices, or Abrikosov-Josephson (A-J) vortices by using the half integer vortices associated with d-wave symmetry present in the grain boundary.
Stability and nonlinear adjustment of vortices in Keplerian flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodo, G.; Tevzadze, A.; Chagelishvili, G.; Mignone, A.; Rossi, P.; Ferrari, A.
2007-11-01
Aims:We investigate the stability, nonlinear development and equilibrium structure of vortices in a background shearing Keplerian flow Methods: We make use of high-resolution global two-dimensional compressible hydrodynamic simulations. We introduce the concept of nonlinear adjustment to describe the transition of unbalanced vortical fields to a long-lived configuration. Results: We discuss the conditions under which vortical perturbations evolve into long-lived persistent structures and we describe the properties of these equilibrium vortices. The properties of equilibrium vortices appear to be independent from the initial conditions and depend only on the local disk parameters. In particular we find that the ratio of the vortex size to the local disk scale height increases with the decrease of the sound speed, reaching values well above the unity. The process of spiral density wave generation by the vortex, discussed in our previous work, appear to maintain its efficiency also at nonlinear amplitudes and we observe the formation of spiral shocks attached to the vortex. The shocks may have important consequences on the long term vortex evolution and possibly on the global disk dynamics. Conclusions: Our study strengthens the arguments in favor of anticyclonic vortices as the candidates for the promotion of planetary formation. Hydrodynamic shocks that are an intrinsic property of persistent vortices in compressible Keplerian flows are an important contributor to the overall balance. These shocks support vortices against viscous dissipation by generating local potential vorticity and should be responsible for the eventual fate of the persistent anticyclonic vortices. Numerical codes have be able to resolve shock waves to describe the vortex dynamics correctly.
Charged and uncharged vortices in quasiclassical theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masaki, Yusuke; Kato, Yusuke
2018-03-01
The charging effect of a superconducting vortex core is very important for transport properties of superconducting vortices. The chiral p-wave superconductor, known as a topological superconductor (SC), has a Majorana fermion in a vortex core and the charging effect has been studied using microscopic Bogoliubov{de Gennes (BdG) theory. According to calculations based on the BdG theory, one type of the vortex is charged as well as the vortex of the s-wave SC, while the other is uncharged. We reproduce this interesting charging effect using an augmented quasiclassical theory in chiral p-wave SCs, by which we can deal with particle-hole asymmetry in the quasiclassical approximation.
Sound Generation by Aircraft Wake Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardin, Jay C.; Wang, Frank Y.
2003-01-01
This report provides an extensive analysis of potential wake vortex noise sources that might be utilized to aid in their tracking. Several possible mechanisms of aircraft vortex sound generation are examined on the basis of discrete vortex dynamic models and characteristic acoustic signatures calculated by application of vortex sound theory. It is shown that the most robust mechanisms result in very low frequency infrasound. An instability of the vortex core structure is discussed and shown to be a possible mechanism for generating higher frequency sound bordering the audible frequency range. However, the frequencies produced are still low and cannot explain the reasonably high-pitched sound that has occasionally been observed experimentally. Since the robust mechanisms appear to generate only very low frequency sound, infrasonic tracking of the vortices may be warranted.
Radial vorticity constraint in core flow modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asari, S.; Lesur, V.
2011-11-01
We present a new method for estimating core surface flows by relaxing the tangentially geostrophic (TG) constraint. Ageostrophic flows are allowed if they are consistent with the radial component of the vorticity equation under assumptions of the magnetostrophic force balance and an insulating mantle. We thus derive a tangentially magnetostrophic (TM) constraint for flows in the spherical harmonic domain and implement it in a least squares inversion of GRIMM-2, a recently proposed core field model, for temporally continuous core flow models (2000.0-2010.0). Comparing the flows calculated using the TG and TM constraints, we show that the number of degrees of freedom for the poloidal flows is notably increased by admitting ageostrophic flows compatible with the TM constraint. We find a significantly improved fit to the GRIMM-2 secular variation (SV) by including zonal poloidal flow in TM flow models. Correlations between the predicted and observed length-of-day variations are equally good under the TG and TM constraints. In addition, we estimate flow models by imposing the TM constraint together with other dynamical constraints: either purely toroidal (PT) flow or helical flow constraint. For the PT case we cannot find any flow which explains the observed SV, while for the helical case the SV can be fitted. The poor compatibility between the TM and PT constraints seems to arise from the absence of zonal poloidal flows. The PT flow assumption is likely to be negated when the radial magnetostrophic vorticity balance is taken into account, even if otherwise consistent with magnetic observations.
Network community-based model reduction for vortical flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopalakrishnan Meena, Muralikrishnan; Nair, Aditya G.; Taira, Kunihiko
2018-06-01
A network community-based reduced-order model is developed to capture key interactions among coherent structures in high-dimensional unsteady vortical flows. The present approach is data-inspired and founded on network-theoretic techniques to identify important vortical communities that are comprised of vortical elements that share similar dynamical behavior. The overall interaction-based physics of the high-dimensional flow field is distilled into the vortical community centroids, considerably reducing the system dimension. Taking advantage of these vortical interactions, the proposed methodology is applied to formulate reduced-order models for the inter-community dynamics of vortical flows, and predict lift and drag forces on bodies in wake flows. We demonstrate the capabilities of these models by accurately capturing the macroscopic dynamics of a collection of discrete point vortices, and the complex unsteady aerodynamic forces on a circular cylinder and an airfoil with a Gurney flap. The present formulation is found to be robust against simulated experimental noise and turbulence due to its integrating nature of the system reduction.
On the link between martian total ozone and potential vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, S.; Holmes, J.; Patel, M.
2016-12-01
We demonstrate for the first time that total ozone in the martian atmosphere is highly correlated with the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity, under certain conditions. The degree of correlation is investigated using a Mars global circulation model including a photochemical model. Potential vorticity is the quantity of choice to explore the dynamical nature of polar vortices because it contains information on winds and temperature in a single scalar variable.The correlation is found to display a distinct seasonal variation, with a strong positive correlation in both northern and southern winter at poleward latitudes in the northern and southern hemisphere respectively. The identified strong correlation implies variations in polar total ozone during winter are predominantly controlled by dynamical processes in these spatio-temporal regions. The weak correlation in northern and southern summer is due to the dominance of photochemical reactions resulting from extended exposure to sunlight. The total ozone/potential vorticity correlation is slightly weaker in southern winter due to topographical variations and the preference for ozone to accumulate in Hellas basin. In northern winter, total ozone can be used to track the polar vortex edge. The ozone/potential vorticity ratio is calculated for both northern and southern winter on Mars for the first time. Using the strong correlation in total ozone and potential vorticity in northern winter inside the polar vortex, it is shown that potential vorticity can be used as a proxy to deduce the distribution of total ozone where satellites cannot observe for the majority of northern winter. Where total ozone observations are available on the fringes of northern winter at poleward latitudes, the strong relationship of total ozone and potential vorticity implies that total ozone anomalies in the surf zone can be of use to investigate the origin of potential vorticity filaments.
On the link between martian total ozone and potential vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmes, James A.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.
2017-01-01
We demonstrate for the first time that total ozone in the martian atmosphere is highly correlated with the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity, under certain conditions. The degree of correlation is investigated using a Mars global circulation model including a photochemical model. Potential vorticity is the quantity of choice to explore the dynamical nature of polar vortices because it contains information on winds and temperature in a single scalar variable. The correlation is found to display a distinct seasonal variation, with a strong positive correlation in both northern and southern winter at poleward latitudes in the northern and southern hemisphere respectively. The identified strong correlation implies variations in polar total ozone during winter are predominantly controlled by dynamical processes in these spatio-temporal regions. The weak correlation in northern and southern summer is due to the dominance of photochemical reactions resulting from extended exposure to sunlight. The total ozone/potential vorticity correlation is slightly weaker in southern winter due to topographical variations and the preference for ozone to accumulate in Hellas basin. In northern winter, total ozone can be used to track the polar vortex edge. The ozone/potential vorticity ratio is calculated for both northern and southern winter on Mars for the first time. Using the strong correlation in total ozone and potential vorticity in northern winter inside the polar vortex, it is shown that potential vorticity can be used as a proxy to deduce the distribution of total ozone where satellites cannot observe for the majority of northern winter. Where total ozone observations are available on the fringes of northern winter at poleward latitudes, the strong relationship of total ozone and potential vorticity implies that total ozone anomalies in the surf zone of the northern polar vortex can potentially be used to determine the origin of potential vorticity filaments.
Lidar investigation of wake vortices generated by a landing aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smalikho, Igor N.; Banakh, Viktor A.; Falits, Andrey V.
2017-11-01
The results of measurements of parameters of aircraft wake vortices by a Stream Line coherent Doppler lidar during the three-day experiment on the airfield of Tolmachevo Airport are presented. We have analyzed spatial dynamics and evolution of the wake vortices generated by aircrafts of various types: from the Airbus A319 passenger aircraft to the heavy Boeing B747-8 cargo aircraft entering the landing at Tolmachevo Airport. It is shown that the Stream Line lidar may well be used to obtain reliable information about the presence and intensity of aircraft wake vortices in the vicinity of the runway.
An asymmetric pair of vortices adjacent to a spinning cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iosilevskii, G.; Seginer, A.
The two-dimensional flow field over a spinning circular cylinder is analyzed using an extension of the Foeppl method. Equilibrium equations for two asymmetric point vortices in the wake of the cylinder are solved for a case when both vortices are equidistant from the cylinder. The two Foeppl solutions for the cylinder are presented. It is observed that the spin does not affect the angle between the two vortices; however, it displaces the vortex pair in the spin direction and the sinus of the displacement angle is proportional to the spin rate.
Dynamics of circular arrangements of vorticity in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swaminathan, Rohith V.; Ravichandran, S.; Perlekar, Prasad; Govindarajan, Rama
2016-07-01
The merger of two like-signed vortices is a well-studied problem, but in a turbulent flow, we may often have more than two like-signed vortices interacting. We study the merger of three or more identical corotating vortices initially arranged on the vertices of a regular polygon. At low to moderate Reynolds numbers, we find an additional stage in the merger process, absent in the merger of two vortices, where an annular vortical structure is formed and is long lived. Vortex merger is slowed down significantly due to this. Such annular vortices are known at far higher Reynolds numbers in studies of tropical cyclones, which have been noticed to a break down into individual vortices. In the preannular stage, vortical structures in a viscous flow are found here to tilt and realign in a manner similar to the inviscid case, but the pronounced filaments visible in the latter are practically absent in the former. Five or fewer vortices initially elongate radially, and then reorient their long axis closer to the azimuthal direction so as to form an annulus. With six or more vortices, the initial alignment is already azimuthal. Interestingly at higher Reynolds numbers, the merger of an odd number of vortices is found to proceed very differently from that of an even number. The former process is rapid and chaotic whereas the latter proceeds more slowly via pairing events. The annular vortex takes the form of a generalized Lamb-Oseen vortex (GLO), and diffuses inward until it forms a standard Lamb-Oseen vortex. For lower Reynolds number, the numerical (fully nonlinear) evolution of the GLO vortex follows exactly the analytical evolution until merger. At higher Reynolds numbers, the annulus goes through instabilities whose nonlinear stages show a pronounced difference between even and odd mode disturbances. Here again, the odd mode causes an early collapse of the annulus via decaying turbulence into a single central vortex, whereas the even mode disturbance causes a more
Evidence for the Absence of Gluon Orbital Angular Momentum in the Nucleon
Brodsky, S.J.; Gardner, S.
2006-08-23
The Sivers mechanism for the single-spin asymmetry in unpolarized lepton scattering from a transversely polarized nucleon is driven by the orbital angular momentum carried by its quark and gluon constituents, combined with QCD final-state interactions. Both quark and gluon mechanisms can generate such a single-spin asymmetry, though only the quark mechanism can explain the small single-spin asymmetry measured by the COMPASS collaboration on the deuteron, suggesting the gluon mechanism is small relative to the quark mechanism. We detail empirical studies through which the gluon and quark orbital angular momentum contributions, quark-flavor by quark-flavor, can be elucidated.
Analysis of the proton longitudinal structure function from the gluon distribution function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boroun, G. R.; Rezaei, B.
2012-11-01
We make a critical, next-to-leading order, study of the relationship between the longitudinal structure function F L and the gluon distribution proposed in Cooper-Sarkar et al. (Z. Phys. C 39:281, 1988; Acta Phys. Pol. B 34:2911 2003), which is frequently used to extract the gluon distribution from the proton longitudinal structure function at small x. The gluon density is obtained by expanding at particular choices of the point of expansion and compared with the hard Pomeron behavior for the gluon density. Comparisons with H1 data are made and predictions for the proposed best approach are also provided.
How perfect can a gluon plasma be in perturbative QCD?
Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Deng Jian; Dong Hui
2011-02-01
The shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, {eta}/s, characterizes how perfect a fluid is. We calculate the leading order {eta}/s of a gluon plasma in perturbation using the kinetic theory. The leading order contribution only involves the elastic gg{r_reversible}gg (22) process and the inelastic gg{r_reversible}ggg (23) process. The hard-thermal-loop (HTL) treatment is used for the 22 matrix element, while the exact matrix element in vacuum is supplemented by the gluon Debye mass insertion for the 23 process. Also, the asymptotic mass is used for the external gluons in the kinetic theory. The errors from not implementing HTL and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdalmore » effect in the 23 process, and from the uncalculated higher order corrections, are estimated. Our result smoothly connects the two different approximations used by Arnold, Moore, and Yaffe (AMY) and Xu and Greiner (XG). At small {alpha}{sub s} ({alpha}{sub s}<<1), our result is closer to AMY's collinear result while at larger {alpha}{sub s} the finite angle noncollinear configurations become more important and our result is closer to XG's soft bremsstrahlung result. In the region where perturbation is reliable ({alpha}{sub s} < or approx. 0.1), we find no indication that the proposed perfect fluid limit {eta}/s{approx_equal}1/(4{pi}) can be achieved by perturbative QCD alone. Whether this can be achieve for {alpha}{sub s} > or approx. 0.1 is still an open question.« less
Threshold region for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion.
Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2012-09-07
We provide a quantitative determination of the effective partonic kinematics for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion in terms of the collider energy at the LHC. We use the result to assess, as a function of the Higgs boson mass, whether the large m(t) approximation is adequate and Sudakov resummation advantageous. We argue that our results hold to all perturbative orders. Based on our results, we conclude that the full inclusion of finite top mass corrections is likely to be important for accurate phenomenology for a light Higgs boson with m(H)~125 GeV at the LHC with √s=14 TeV.
Search for the Quark Gluon Plasma: A Status Report
Nagle, J. L.
2006-07-11
This document is the proceedings from an overview talk on the search for the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) given at the Particles and Nuclei International Conference (PANIC) in Santa Fe, New Mexico in October 2005. After five years of successful data taking at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, there is much to report in this field of physics. In this short review, we present a bulleted list of experimental discoveries and conclusions to date on the matter formed in these highest energy nuclear reactions.
Threshold resummation of soft gluons in hadronic reactions - an introduction.
Berger, E. L.
The authors discuss the motivation for resummation of the effects of initial-state soft gluon radiation, to all orders in the strong coupling strength, for processes in which the near-threshold region in the partonic subenergy is important. The author summarizes the method of perturbative resummation and its application to the calculation of the total cross section for top quark production at hadron colliders. Comments are included on the differences between the treatment of subleading logarithmic terms in this method and in other approaches.
Development of relativistic shock waves in viscous gluon matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouras, I.; Molnár, E.; Niemi, H.; Xu, Z.; El, A.; Fochler, O.; Greiner, C.; Rischke, D. H.
2009-11-01
To investigate the formation and the propagation of relativistic shock waves in viscous gluon matter we solve the relativistic Riemann problem using a microscopic parton cascade. We demonstrate the transition from ideal to viscous shock waves by varying the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s. We show that an η/s ratio larger than 0.2 prevents the development of well-defined shock waves on time scales typical for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. These findings are confirmed by viscous hydrodynamic calculations.
Signatures for strongly coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shuryak, Edward
2006-11-01
Dramatic changes had occurred with our understanding of Quark-Gluon Plasma, which is now believed to be rather strongly coupled, sQGP for short. Hydrodynamical behavior is seen experimentally, even for rather small systems (rather peripheral collisions). From elliptic flow the interest is shifting to even more sophysticated observable, the conical flow, created by quenched jets. The exact structure of sQGP remains unknown, at the moment the best picture seem to be a liquid made partly of binary bound states. As we discuss at the end, those can be possibly seen in the dilepton spectra, as "new vector mesons" above Tc.
Photon emission from quark-gluon plasma out of equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauksson, Sigtryggur; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles
2018-01-01
The photon emission from a nonequilibrium quark-gluon plasma is analyzed. We derive an integral equation that describes photon production through quark-antiquark annihilation and quark bremsstrahlung. It includes coherence between different scattering sites, also known as the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect. These leading-order processes are studied for the first time together in an out-of-equilibrium field theoretical treatment that enables the inclusion of viscous corrections to the calculation of electromagnetic emission rates. In the special case of an isotropic, viscous, plasma the integral equation only depends on three constants, which capture the nonequilibrium nature of the medium.
Gluon scattering amplitudes from gauge/string duality and integrability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satoh, Yuji
2014-06-01
We discuss the gluon scattering amplitudes of the four-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. By the gauge/string duality, the amplitudes at strong coupling are given by the area of the minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space, which can be analyzed by a set of integral equations of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) type. By using the two-dimensional integrable models and conformal field theories underlying the TBA system, we derive analytic expansions of the amplitudes around certain kinematic configurations.
A study on assimilating potential vorticity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yong; Ménard, Richard; Riishøjgaard, Lars Peter; Cohn, Stephen E.; Rood, Richard B.
1998-08-01
The correlation that exists between the potential vorticity (PV) field and the distribution of chemical tracers such as ozone suggests the possibility of using tracer observations as proxy PV data in atmospheric data assimilation systems. Especially in the stratosphere, there are plentiful tracer observations but a general lack of reliable wind observations, and the correlation is most pronounced. The issue investigated in this study is how model dynamics would respond to the assimilation of PV data. First, numerical experiments of identical-twin type were conducted with a simple univariate nuding algorithm and a global shallow water model based on PV and divergence (PV-D model). All model fields are successfully reconstructed through the insertion of complete PV data alone if an appropriate value for the nudging coefficient is used. A simple linear analysis suggests that slow modes are recovered rapidly, at a rate nearly independent of spatial scale. In a more realistic experiment, appropriately scaled total ozone data from the NIMBUS-7 TOMS instrument were assimilated as proxy PV data into the PV-D model over a 10-day period. The resulting model PV field matches the observed total ozone field relatively well on large spatial scales, and the PV, geopotential and divergence fields are dynamically consistent. These results indicate the potential usefulness that tracer observations, as proxy PV data, may offer in a data assimilation system.
Artificial ice using superconducting vortices (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trastoy Quintela, Juan; Malnou, Maxime; Ulysse, Christian; Bernard, Rozenn; Bergeal, Nicolas; Faini, Giancarlo; Lesueur, Jerome; Briatico, Javier; Villegas, Javier E.
2016-10-01
We use magnetic flux quanta (superconducting vortices) on artificial energy landscapes (pinning arrays) to create a new type of artificial ice. This vortex ice shows unusual temperature effects that offer new possibilities in the study of ice systems. We have investigated the matching of the flux lattice to pinning arrays that present geometrical frustration. The pinning arrays are fabricated on YBCO films using masked O+ ion irradiation. The details of the magneto-resistance imply that the flux lattice organizes into a vortex ice. The absence of history-dependent effects suggests that the vortex ice is highly ordered. Due to the technique used for the artificial energy landscape fabrication, we have the ability to change the pinning array geometry using temperature as a control knob. In particular we can switch the geometrical frustration on and off, which opens the door to performing a new type of annealing absent in other artificial ice systems. * Work supported by the French ANR "MASTHER", and the Fundación Barrié (Galicia, Spain)
Magnetic vortices in nanocaps induced by curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelgawad, Ahmed M.; Nambiar, Nikhil; Bapna, Mukund; Chen, Hao; Majetich, Sara A.
2018-05-01
Magnetic nanoparticles with room temperature remanent magnetic vortices stabilized by their curvature are very intriguing due to their potential use in biomedicine. In the present study, we investigate room temperature magnetic chirality in 100 nm diameter permalloy spherical caps with 10 nm and 30 nm thicknesses. Micromagnetic OOMMF simulations predict the equilibrium spin structure for these caps to form a vortex state. We fabricate the permalloy caps by sputtering permalloy on both close-packed and sparse arrays of polystyrene nanoparticles. Magnetic force microscopy scans show a clear signature of a vortex state in close-packed caps of both 10 nm and 30 nm thicknesses. Alternating gradient magnetometry measurements of the caps are consistent with a remnant vortex state in 30 nm thick caps and a transition to an onion state followed by a vortex state in 10 nm thick caps. Out-of-plane measurements supported by micromagnetic simulations shows that an out-of-plane field can stabilize a vortex state down to a diameter of 15 nm.
Equivariant Verlinde Formula from Fivebranes and Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gukov, Sergei; Pei, Du
2017-10-01
We study complex Chern-Simons theory on a Seifert manifold M 3 by embedding it into string theory. We show that complex Chern-Simons theory on M 3 is equivalent to a topologically twisted supersymmetric theory and its partition function can be naturally regularized by turning on a mass parameter. We find that the dimensional reduction of this theory to 2d gives the low energy dynamics of vortices in four-dimensional gauge theory, the fact apparently overlooked in the vortex literature. We also generalize the relations between (1) the Verlinde algebra, (2) quantum cohomology of the Grassmannian, (3) Chern-Simons theory on {Σ× S^1} and (4) index of a spin c Dirac operator on the moduli space of flat connections to a new set of relations between (1) the "equivariant Verlinde algebra" for a complex group, (2) the equivariant quantum K-theory of the vortex moduli space, (3) complex Chern-Simons theory on {Σ × S^1} and (4) the equivariant index of a spin c Dirac operator on the moduli space of Higgs bundles.
Control of vortical separation on conical bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mourtos, Nikos J.; Roberts, Leonard
1987-01-01
In a variety of aeronautical applications, the flow around conical bodies at incidence is of interest. Such applications include, but are not limited to, highly maneuverable aircraft with delta wings, the aerospace plane and nose portions of spike inlets. The theoretical model used has three parts. First, the single line vortex model is used within the framework of slender body theory, to compute the outer inviscid field for specified separation lines. Next, the three dimensional boundary layer is represented by a momentum equation for the cross flow, analogous to that for a plane boundary layer; a von Karman Pohlhausen approximation is applied to solve this equation. The cross flow separation for both laminar and turbulent layers is determined by matching the pressure at the upper and lower separation points. This iterative procedure yields a unique solution for the separation lines and consequently for the position of the vortices and the vortex lift on the body. Lastly, control of separation is achieved by blowing tangentially from a slot located along a cone generator. It is found that for very small blowing coefficients, the separation can be postponed or suppressedy completely.
Influence of flaps and engines on aircraft wake vortices
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1974-09-01
Although pervious investigations have shown that the nature of aircraft wake vortices depends on the aircraft type and flap configuration, the causes for these differences have not been clearly identified. In this Note we show that observed differenc...
Simulation of wake vortices descending in a stably stratified atmosphere.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1974-07-01
An experimental water tank simulation of aircraft wake vortices descending in a stable atmosphere has indicated that the atmospheric stability stops the downward movement and in some cases produces a subsequent rebound. The tests were carried out in ...
Decay characteristics of wake vortices from jet transport aircraft
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-01-06
For more than two decades cw doppler lidars have been used to study the decay of wake vortices generated by : jet transport aircraft. With appropriate scan and data processing strategies, the vortex tangential velocity profile can : be measured every...
EFFECTS OF DUST FEEDBACK ON VORTICES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS
Fu, Wen; Liang, Edison; Li, Hui
2014-11-10
We carried out two-dimensional, high-resolution simulations to study the effect of dust feedback on the evolution of vortices induced by massive planets in protoplanetary disks. Various initial dust to gas disk surface density ratios (0.001-0.01) and dust particle sizes (Stokes number 4 × 10{sup –4}-0.16) are considered. We found that while dust particles migrate inward, vortices are very effective at collecting them. When dust density becomes comparable to gas density within the vortex, a dynamical instability is excited and it alters the coherent vorticity pattern and destroys the vortex. This dust feedback effect is stronger with a higher initial dust/gasmore » density ratio and larger dust grain. Consequently, we found that the disk vortex lifetime can be reduced up to a factor of 10. We discuss the implications of our findings on the survivability of vortices in protoplanetary disks and planet formation.« less
Vortices and antivortices in two-dimensional ultracold Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bighin, G.; Salasnich, L.
2017-04-01
Vortices are commonly observed in the context of classical hydrodynamics: from whirlpools after stirring the coffee in a cup to a violent atmospheric phenomenon such as a tornado, all classical vortices are characterized by an arbitrary circulation value of the local velocity field. On the other hand the appearance of vortices with quantized circulation represents one of the fundamental signatures of macroscopic quantum phenomena. In two-dimensional superfluids quantized vortices play a key role in determining finite-temperature properties, as the superfluid phase and the normal state are separated by a vortex unbinding transition, the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Very recent experiments with two-dimensional superfluid fermions motivate the present work: we present theoretical results based on the renormalization group showing that the universal jump of the superfluid density and the critical temperature crucially depend on the interaction strength, providing a strong benchmark for forthcoming investigations.
Use of a commercial wind SODAR for measuring wake vortices
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2006-05-01
This paper describes the application of a commercial wind SODAR (SOnic Detection : And Ranging) to the measurement of aircraft wake vortices. Changes in data collection and : processing were required to extract vortex location and circulation from th...
Acoustic characterization of wake vortices in ground effect
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2005-01-01
The experience and findings of an exploratory effort to characterize the sound emitted by : aircraft wake vortices near the ground are presented. A line array of four directional : microphones was deployed and recorded the wakes of several commercial...
Vorticity Dynamics in Axial Compressor Flow Diagnosis and Design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jie-Zhi; Yang, Yan-Tao; Wu, Hong; Li, Qiu-Shi; Mao, Feng; Zhou, Sheng
2007-11-01
It is well recognized that vorticity and vortical structures appear inevitably in viscous compressor flows and have strong influence on the compressor performance. But conventional analysis and design procedure cannot pinpoint the quantitative contribution of each individual vortical structure to the integrated performance of a compressor, such as the stagnation-pressure ratio and efficiency. We fill this gap by using the so-called derivative-moment transformation which has been successfully applied to external aerodynamics. We show that the compressor performance is mainly controlled by the radial distribution of azimuthal vorticity, of which an optimization in the through-flow design stage leads to a simple Abel equation of the second kind. Solving the equation yields desired circulation distribution that optimizes the blade geometry. The advantage of this new procedure is demonstrated by numerical examples, including the posterior performance check by 3-D Navier-Stokes simulation.
The role of surface vorticity during unsteady separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melius, Matthew S.; Mulleners, Karen; Cal, Raúl Bayoán
2018-04-01
Unsteady flow separation in rotationally augmented flow fields plays a significant role in a variety of fundamental flows. Through the use of time-resolved particle image velocimetry, vorticity accumulation and vortex shedding during unsteady separation over a three-dimensional airfoil are examined. The results of the study describe the critical role of surface vorticity accumulation during unsteady separation and reattachment. Through evaluation of the unsteady characteristics of the shear layer, it is demonstrated that the buildup and shedding of surface vorticity directly influence the dynamic changes of the separation point location. The quantitative characterization of surface vorticity and shear layer stability enables improved aerodynamic designs and has a broad impact within the field of unsteady fluid dynamics.
Comparing the dynamics of skyrmions and superconducting vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Lin, S. Z.; Ray, D.; Reichhardt, C.
2014-08-01
Vortices in type-II superconductors have attracted enormous attention as ideal systems in which to study nonequilibrium collective phenomena, since the self-ordering of the vortices competes with quenched disorder and thermal effects. Dynamic effects found in vortex systems include depinning, nonequilibrium phase transitions, creep, structural order-disorder transitions, and melting. Understanding vortex dynamics is also important for applications of superconductors which require the vortices either to remain pinned or to move in a controlled fashion. Recently, topological defects called skyrmions have been realized experimentally in chiral magnets. Here we highlight similarities and differences between skyrmion dynamics and vortex dynamics. Many of the previous ideas and experimental setups that have been applied to superconducting vortices can also be used to study skyrmions. We also discuss some of the differences between the two systems, such as the potentially large contribution of the Magnus force in the skyrmion system that can dramatically alter the dynamics and transport properties.
Aircraft wake vortices : an annotated bibliography (1923-1990)
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1991-01-01
This annotated bibliography consists of abstracts of publications on aircraft wake : vortices. The material is arranged alphabetically by author(s) and then by month : and year of publication. Experimental and theoretical articles are included and : ...
Aircraft Wake Vortices - An Annotated Bibliography (1923-1975)
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1976-01-01
An annotated bibliography is presented which consists of 570 abstracts of publications on aircraft wake vortices. The material is arranged alphabetically by year of publication and covers the time period through 1975. Experimental and theoretical art...
Vortices and antivortices in two-dimensional ultracold Fermi gases
Bighin, G.; Salasnich, L.
2017-01-01
Vortices are commonly observed in the context of classical hydrodynamics: from whirlpools after stirring the coffee in a cup to a violent atmospheric phenomenon such as a tornado, all classical vortices are characterized by an arbitrary circulation value of the local velocity field. On the other hand the appearance of vortices with quantized circulation represents one of the fundamental signatures of macroscopic quantum phenomena. In two-dimensional superfluids quantized vortices play a key role in determining finite-temperature properties, as the superfluid phase and the normal state are separated by a vortex unbinding transition, the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Very recent experiments with two-dimensional superfluid fermions motivate the present work: we present theoretical results based on the renormalization group showing that the universal jump of the superfluid density and the critical temperature crucially depend on the interaction strength, providing a strong benchmark for forthcoming investigations. PMID:28374762
Measurements of Vorticity Vectors in Couette Flow with the Vorticity Optical Probe
1991-05-01
Web 1981). The three components of the vorticity vector are measured, any two of them quite accurately. Multipoint measurement arrangements have been...the distribution of trajectory lengths is given by POrN ) rN O<rN<R. fwio-R R -rN where R is the angular measure of the detector radius. (The random...orticitv were performed deep within the viscous sublaver v 2.3). .At y < 10. the fluctuating vortici, ,tatistics show good agreement with the simulatins of
Large-Eddy Simulations of Dust Devils and Convective Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spiga, Aymeric; Barth, Erika; Gu, Zhaolin; Hoffmann, Fabian; Ito, Junshi; Jemmett-Smith, Bradley; Klose, Martina; Nishizawa, Seiya; Raasch, Siegfried; Rafkin, Scot; Takemi, Tetsuya; Tyler, Daniel; Wei, Wei
2016-11-01
In this review, we address the use of numerical computations called Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) to study dust devils, and the more general class of atmospheric phenomena they belong to (convective vortices). We describe the main elements of the LES methodology. We review the properties, statistics, and variability of dust devils and convective vortices resolved by LES in both terrestrial and Martian environments. The current challenges faced by modelers using LES for dust devils are also discussed in detail.
Observations on streamwise vortices in laminar and turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morkovin, M. V.
1979-01-01
The frequent but often unsuspected presence of streamwise vortices in nominally two dimensional laminar and turbulent boundary layers and some of their consequences are described. Since there is no body of systematic information on streamwise vortices imbedded in boundary layers, a number of issues concerning their occurrence and behavior are discussed in the form of a set of succinct observations. Desirable experimental and numerical research to remedy the current lack of knowledge is recommended.
Zheng, Yue; Chen, W J
2017-08-01
Topological defects in condensed matter are attracting e significant attention due to their important role in phase transition and their fascinating characteristics. Among the various types of matter, ferroics which possess a switchable physical characteristic and form domain structure are ideal systems to form topological defects. In particular, a special class of topological defects-vortices-have been found to commonly exist in ferroics. They often manifest themselves as singular regions where domains merge in large systems, or stabilize as novel order states instead of forming domain structures in small enough systems. Understanding the characteristics and controllability of vortices in ferroics can provide us with deeper insight into the phase transition of condensed matter and also exciting opportunities in designing novel functional devices such as nano-memories, sensors, and transducers based on topological defects. In this review, we summarize the recent experimental and theoretical progress in ferroic vortices, with emphasis on those spin/dipole vortices formed in nanoscale ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics, and those structural domain vortices formed in multiferroic hexagonal manganites. We begin with an overview of this field. The fundamental concepts of ferroic vortices, followed by the theoretical simulation and experimental methods to explore ferroic vortices, are then introduced. The various characteristics of vortices (e.g. formation mechanisms, static/dynamic features, and electronic properties) and their controllability (e.g. by size, geometry, external thermal, electrical, magnetic, or mechanical fields) in ferromagnetics, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics are discussed in detail in individual sections. Finally, we conclude this review with an outlook on this rapidly developing field.
Visualization and Quantification of Rotor Tip Vortices in Helicopter Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David L.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Holst, Terry L.
2015-01-01
This paper presents an automated approach for effective extraction, visualization, and quantification of vortex core radii from the Navier-Stokes simulations of a UH-60A rotor in forward flight. We adopt a scaled Q-criterion to determine vortex regions and then perform vortex core profiling in these regions to calculate vortex core radii. This method provides an efficient way of visualizing and quantifying the blade tip vortices. Moreover, the vortices radii are displayed graphically in a plane.
Simulating living organisms with populations of point vortices
Schmieder, R.W.
1995-07-01
The author has found that time-averaged images of small populations of point vortices can exhibit motions suggestive of the behavior of individual organisms. As an example, the author shows that collections of point vortices confined in a box and subjected to heating can generate patterns that are broadly similar to interspecies defense in certain sea anemones. It is speculated that other simple dynamical systems can be found to produce similar complex organism-like behavior.
Hybrid Manipulation of Streamwise Vorticity in a Diffuser Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gissen, Abraham; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Culp, John; Glezer, Ari
2010-11-01
The formation of streamwise vorticity concentrations by exploiting the interaction of surface-mounted passive (micro-vanes) and active (synthetic jets) flow control elements with the cross flow is investigated experimentally in a small-scale serpentine duct at high subsonic speeds (up to M = 0.6). Streamwise vortices can be a key element in the mitigation of the adverse effects on pressure recovery and distortion caused by the naturally occurring secondary flows in embedded propulsion systems with complex inlet geometries. Counter rotating and single-sense vortices are formed using conventional passive micro-vanes and active high-power synthetic jet actuators. Interaction of the flow control elements is examined through a hybrid actuation scheme whereby synthetic jet actuation augments the primary vanes' vortices resulting in dynamic enhancement of their strength. It is shown that such sub-boundary layer individual vortices can merge and evolve into duct-scale vortical structures that counteract the inherent secondary flow and mitigates global flow distortion.
A Laboratory Study of Vortical Structures in Rotating Convection Plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Hao; Sun, Shiwei; Wang, Yuan; Zhou, Bowen; Thermal Turbulence Research Team
2015-11-01
A laboratory study of the columnar vortex structure in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is conducted. A rectangular water tank is uniformly heated from below and cooled from above, with Ra = (6 . 35 +/- 0 . 77) ×107 , Ta = 9 . 84 ×107 , Pr = 7 . 34 . The columnar vortices are vertically aligned and quasi steady. Two 2D PIV systems were used to measure velocity field. One system performs horizontal scans at 9 different heights every 13.6s, covering 62% of the total depth. The other system scans vertically to obtain the vertical velocity profile. The measured vertical vorticity profiles of most vortices are quasi-linear with height while the vertical velocities are nearly uniform with only a small curvature. A simple model to deduce vertical velocity profile from vertical vorticity profile is proposed. Under quasi-steady and axisymmetric conditions, a ``vortex core'' assumption is introduced to simplify vertical vorticity equation. A linear ODE about vertical velocity is obtained whenever a vertical vorticity profile is given and solved with experimental data as input. The result is approximately in agreement with the measurement. This work was supported by Undergraduates Training Project (J1103410).
Static and dynamic properties of heavily doped quantum vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pshenichnyuk, I. A.
2017-10-01
Quantum vortices in superfluids may capture matter and deposit it inside their core. By doping vortices with foreign particles one can effectively visualize them and study them experimentally. To acquire a better understanding of the interaction between quantum vortices and matter, and clarify the details of recent experiments, the properties of doped vortices are investigated here theoretically in the regimes where the doping mass becomes close to the total mass of superfluid particles forming a vortex. Such formations are dynamically stable and, possessing both vorticity and enhanced inertia, demonstrate properties that are different from the pure vortex case. The goal of this paper is to define and investigate the universal aspects of heavily doped vortex behavior, which can be realized in different types of quantum mixtures. The proposed 3D model is based on a system of coupled semiclassical matter wave equations that are solved numerically in a wide range of physical parameters. The size, geometry and binding energy of dopants in different regimes are discussed. The coupled motion of a vortex-dopant complex and decoupling conditions are studied. The reconnection of vortices, taken as an example of a fundamental process responsible for the evolution of a quantum turbulent state, is modeled to illustrate the difference between the light and heavy doping cases.
Airfoil Drag Reduction using Controlled Trapped Vorticity Concentrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desalvo, Michael; Glezer, Ari
2017-11-01
The aerodynamic performance of a lifting surface at low angles of attack (when the base flow is fully attached) is improved through fluidic modification of its ``apparent'' shape by superposition of near-surface trapped vorticity concentrations. In the present wind tunnel investigations, a controlled trapped vorticity concentration is formed on the pressure surface of an airfoil (NACA 4415) using a hybrid actuator comprising a passive obstruction of scale O(0.01c) and an integral synthetic jet actuator. The jet actuation frequency [Stact O(10)] is selected to be at least an order of magnitude higher than the characteristic unstable frequency of the airfoil wake, thereby decoupling the actuation from the global instabilities of the base flow. Regulation of vorticity accumulation in the vicinity of the actuator by the jet effects changes in the local pressure, leading in turn to changes in the airfoil's drag and lift. Trapped vorticity can lead to a significant reduction in drag and reduced lift (owing to the sense of the vorticity), e.g. at α =4° and Re = 6.7 .105 the drag and lift reductions are 14% and 2%, respectively. PIV measurements show the spatial variation in the distribution of vorticity concentrations and yield estimates of the corresponding changes in circulation.
A study of the temporal stability of multiple cell vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khorrami, Mehdi R.
1989-01-01
The effect of initial mean velocity field on the stability characteristics of longitudinal vortices is documented in detail. The temporal stability of isolated multiple cell vortices is considered. The types of vortices studied include single cell as well as two and three cell vortices. It is shown that cell multiplicity in the vortex core has drastic effects on the stability characteristics. On the basis of numerical calculations, it is concluded that the growth rates of instabilities in multiple cell vortices are substantially larger (two to threefold increases are observed) than those of a single cell vortex. It is also determined that there is a substantial increase in the effective range of axial and azimuthal wavenumbers where instabilities are present. But most importantly, there is the appearance of a variety of viscous modes of instability. In the case of vortices, these latter instabilities which highlight the importance of viscous forces have never been reported before. These effects are discussed in detail for the case of a two cell vortex.
Observations of ionospheric convection vortices - Signatures of momentum transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mchenry, M. A.; Clauer, C. R.; Friis-Christensen, E.; Kelly, J. D.
1988-01-01
Several classes of traveling vortices in the dayside ionospheric flow have been detected and tracked using the Greenland magnetometer chain. One class observed during quiet times consists of a continuous series of vortices moving generally antisunward for several hours at a time. Assuming each vortex to be the convection pattern produced by a small field aligned current moving across the ionosphere, the amount of field aligned current was found by fitting a modeled ground magnetic signature to measurements from the chain of magnetometers. The calculated field aligned current is seen to be steady for each vortex and neighboring vortices have currents of opposite sign. Low altitude DMSP observations indicate the vortices are on field lines which map to the inner edge of the low latitude boundary layer. Because the vortices are conjugate to the boundary layer, repeat in a regular fashion and travel antisunward, it is argued that this class of vortices is caused by surface waves at the magnetopause. No strong correlations between field aligned current strength and solar wind density, velocity, or Bz is found.
The structure of intense vorticity in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jimenez, J.; Wray, A. A.; Saffman, P. G.; Rogallo, R. S.
1992-01-01
The structure of the intense vorticity regions is studied in numerically simulated homogeneous, isotropic, equilibrium turbulent flow fields at four different Reynolds numbers in the range Re(sub lambda) = 36-171. In accordance with previous investigators, this vorticity is found to be organized in coherent, cylindrical or ribbon-like, vortices ('worms'). A statistical study suggests that they are just especially intense features of the background, O(omega'), vorticity. Their radii scale with the Kolmogorov microscale and their lengths with the integral scale of the flow. An interesting observation is that the Reynolds number based on the circulation of the intense vortices, gamma/nu, increases monotonically with Re(sub lambda), raising the question of the stability of the structures in the limit of Re(sub lambda) approaching infinity. One and two-dimensional statistics of vorticity and strain are presented; they are non-gaussian, and the behavior of their tails depends strongly on the Reynolds number. There is no evidence of convergence to a limiting distribution in our range of Re(sub lambda), even though the energy spectra and the energy dissipation rate show good asymptotic properties in the higher Reynolds number cases. Evidence is presented to show that worms are natural features of the flow and that they do not depend on the particular forcing scheme.
Strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shuryak, Edward
2017-07-01
A decade ago, a brief summary of the field of the relativistic heavy ion physics could be formulated as the discovery of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, sQGP for short, a near-perfect fluid with surprisingly large entropy-density-to-viscosity ratio. Since 2010, the LHC heavy ion program added excellent new data and discoveries. Significant theoretical efforts have been made to understand these phenomena. Now there is a need to consolidate what we have learned and formulate a list of issues to be studied next. Studies of angular correlations of two and more secondaries reveal higher harmonics of flow, identified as the sound waves induced by the initial state perturbations. As in cosmology, detailed measurements and calculations of these correlations helped to make our knowledge of the explosion much more quantitative. In particular, their damping had quantified the viscosity. Other kinetic coefficients—the heavy-quark diffusion constants and the jet quenching parameters—also show enhancements near the critical point T ≈Tc. Since densities of QGP quarks and gluons strongly decrease at this point, these facts indicate large role of nonperturbative mechanisms, e.g., scattering on monopoles. New studies of the p p and p A collisions at high multiplicities reveal collective explosions similar to those in heavy ion A A collisions. These "smallest drops of the sQGP" revived debates about the initial out-of-equilibrium stage of the collisions and mechanisms of subsequent equilibration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Songhua; Zhai, Xiaochun; Liu, Bingyi; Liu, Jintao
2018-04-01
Field observations for the wake vortices by Coherent Doppler Lidar (CDL) have been carried out at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA) and Tianjin Binhai International Airport (TBIA) to investigate the wake vortices evolution characteristics and the near-ground effect. This paper introduces the dynamic wake vortices and atmospheric turbulence monitoring technique, successfully demonstrating that the CDL can capture the key characteristics of wake vortices in real-time, including wake vortices intensity, spatial-temporal evolution and so forth.
Complex Convective Thermal Fluxes and Vorticity Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redondo, Jose M.; Tellez, Jackson; Sotillos, Laura; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar; Sanchez, Jesus M.; Furmanek, Petr; Diez, Margarita
2015-04-01
Local Diffusion and the topological structure of vorticity and velocity fields is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of convective cooling and/or heating[1,2]. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by an array of Thermoelectric devices (Peltier/Seebeck cells) these are controlled by thermal PID generating a buoyant heat flux [2]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine and fresh water in order to form density interfaces and low Prandtl number mixing with temperature gradients. The set of dimensionless parameters define conditions of numeric and small scale laboratory modeling of environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients were computed and visualized [3,4]. When convective heating and cooling takes place the combination of internal waves and buoyant turbulence is much more complicated if the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are high in order to study entrainment and mixing. Using ESS and selfsimilarity structures in the velocity and vorticity fieds and intermittency [3,5] that forms in the non-homogeneous flow is related to mixing and stiring. The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or nonmixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [6]and gravitational acceleration are analyzed considering the fractal and spectral structure of the fronts like in removable plate experiments for Rayleigh-Taylor flows. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied
Streamwise vortices destabilize swimming bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus).
Maia, Anabela; Sheltzer, Alex P; Tytell, Eric D
2015-03-01
In their natural environment, fish must swim stably through unsteady flows and vortices, including vertical vortices, typically shed by posts in a flow, horizontal cross-flow vortices, often produced by a step or a waterfall in a stream, and streamwise vortices, where the axis of rotation is aligned with the direction of the flow. Streamwise vortices are commonly shed by bluff bodies in streams and by ships' propellers and axial turbines, but we know little about their effects on fish. Here, we describe how bluegill sunfish use more energy and are destabilized more often in flow with strong streamwise vorticity. The vortices were created inside a sealed flow tank by an array of four turbines with similar diameter to the experimental fish. We measured oxygen consumption for seven sunfish swimming at 1.5 body lengths (BL) s(-1) with the turbines rotating at 2 Hz and with the turbines off (control). Simultaneously, we filmed the fish ventrally and recorded the fraction of time spent maneuvering side-to-side and accelerating forward. Separately, we also recorded lateral and ventral video for a combination of swimming speeds (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 BL s(-1)) and turbine speeds (0, 1, 2 and 3 Hz), immediately after turning the turbines on and 10 min later to test for accommodation. Bluegill sunfish are negatively affected by streamwise vorticity. Spills (loss of heading), maneuvers and accelerations were more frequent when the turbines were on than in the control treatment. These unsteady behaviors, particularly acceleration, correlated with an increase in oxygen consumption in the vortex flow. Bluegill sunfish are generally fast to recover from roll perturbations and do so by moving their pectoral fins. The frequency of spills decreased after the turbines had run for 10 min, but was still markedly higher than in the control, showing that fish partially adapt to streamwise vorticity, but not completely. Coping with streamwise vorticity may be an important energetic
Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and a test of QCD analytic calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gary, J. William
1999-03-01
Gluon jets are identified in e +e - hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon hets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The mean and first few higher moments of the gluon jet charged particle multiplicity distribution are compared to the analogous results found for light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. Large differences are observed between the mean, skew and curtosis values of the gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant factorial moments of the distributions are also measured, and are used to test the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the separated gluon and quark jet cumulant moments compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is good quantitative agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets. The data sample used is the LEP-1 sample of the OPAL experiment at LEP.
Using Linear Gluon Polarization Inside an Unpolarized Proton to Determine the Higgs Spin and Parity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
den Dunnen, Wilco J.
2014-06-01
Gluons inside an unpolarized proton are in general linearly polarized in the direction of their transverse momentum, rendering the LHC effectively a polarized gluon collider. This polarization can be utilized in the determination of the spin and parity of the newly found Higgs-like boson. We focus here on the determination of the spin using the azimuthal Collins-Soper angle distribution.
Quark-gluon tagging with shower deconstruction: Unearthing dark matter and Higgs couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira de Lima, Danilo; Petrov, Petar; Soper, Davison; Spannowsky, Michael
2017-02-01
The separation of quark and gluon initiated jets can be an important way to improve the sensitivity in searches for new physics or in measurements of Higgs boson properties. We present a simplified version of the shower deconstruction approach as a novel observable for quark-gluon tagging. Assuming topoclusterlike objects as input, we compare our observable with energy correlation functions and find a favorable performance for a large variety of jet definitions. We address the issue of infrared sensitivity of quark-gluon discrimination. When this approach is applied to dark matter searches in monojet final states, limitations from small signal-to-background ratios can be overcome. We also show that quark-gluon tagging is an alternative way of separating weak boson from gluon-fusion production in the process p +p →H +jet+jet+X .
The balance of dynamic vorticity for the Presidents' Day storm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zapotocny, Tom Harmon
1990-06-01
The maintenance of isentropic dynamic vorticity, defined as the vertical component of the curl of momentum, is examined for the life cycle of the Presidents'Day storm. Dynamic vorticity and its tendency are also compared to the more commonly used kinematic vorticity and its tendency. Diagnostics are first performed on an inviscid numerical simulation of an amplifying baroclinic disturbance by a hybrid isentropic-sigma coordinate channel model. The main purpose for studying a simulation with the channel model is to examine the first-order balance of dynamic vorticity during development under simplified conditions. A more in-depth evaluation of dynamic vorticity is presented for an excellent numerical simulation of the Presidents' Day storm of 18 to 20 February 1979. Dynamic vorticity diagnostics for the Presidents' Day storm reveal the importance of mass asymmetries within an isentropic layer and also document the effect of weak static stability. Prior to cyclogenesis, a strong cyclonic circulation tendency exists from both the vertical advection of vorticity and tilting terms. Another important feature is the merging of two synoptic scale short waves; one propagating southeast from the Great Lakes states, the other moving northeast from the Gulf of Mexico. Cyclogenesis is initiated by the latter of these two short waves, while rapid development occurs when the Great Lakes short waves reaches the Middle Atlantic states. During rapid development, an assessment of the ageostrophic component on spin-up is obtained from a balance of the divergence term and pressure stresses. Spin-up from the ageostrophic component is largest ahead of the lower tropospheric warm front. The impact of an 80 m/s subtropical jet streak, which enhances upper tropospheric processes during development, is also examined.
Characteristics and controllability of vortices in ferromagnetics, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Yue; Chen, W. J.
2017-08-01
Topological defects in condensed matter are attracting e significant attention due to their important role in phase transition and their fascinating characteristics. Among the various types of matter, ferroics which possess a switchable physical characteristic and form domain structure are ideal systems to form topological defects. In particular, a special class of topological defects—vortices—have been found to commonly exist in ferroics. They often manifest themselves as singular regions where domains merge in large systems, or stabilize as novel order states instead of forming domain structures in small enough systems. Understanding the characteristics and controllability of vortices in ferroics can provide us with deeper insight into the phase transition of condensed matter and also exciting opportunities in designing novel functional devices such as nano-memories, sensors, and transducers based on topological defects. In this review, we summarize the recent experimental and theoretical progress in ferroic vortices, with emphasis on those spin/dipole vortices formed in nanoscale ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics, and those structural domain vortices formed in multiferroic hexagonal manganites. We begin with an overview of this field. The fundamental concepts of ferroic vortices, followed by the theoretical simulation and experimental methods to explore ferroic vortices, are then introduced. The various characteristics of vortices (e.g. formation mechanisms, static/dynamic features, and electronic properties) and their controllability (e.g. by size, geometry, external thermal, electrical, magnetic, or mechanical fields) in ferromagnetics, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics are discussed in detail in individual sections. Finally, we conclude this review with an outlook on this rapidly developing field.
Slowly-growing gap-opening planets trigger weaker vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammer, Michael; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Lin, Min-Kai
2017-04-01
The presence of a giant planet in a low-viscosity disc can create a gap edge in the disc's radial density profile sharp enough to excite the Rossby wave instability. This instability may evolve into dust-trapping vortices that might explain the 'banana-shaped' features in recently observed asymmetric transition discs with inner cavities. Previous hydrodynamical simulations of planet-induced vortices have neglected the time-scale of hundreds to thousands of orbits to grow a massive planet to Jupiter size. In this work, we study the effect of a giant planet's runaway growth time-scale on the lifetime and characteristics of the resulting vortex. For two different planet masses (1 and 5 Jupiter masses) and two different disc viscosities (α = 3 × 10-4 and 3 × 10-5), we compare the vortices induced by planets with several different growth time-scales between 10 and 4000 planet orbits. In general, we find that slowly-growing planets create significantly weaker vortices with lifetimes and surface densities reduced by more than 50 per cent. For the higher disc viscosity, the longest growth time-scales in our study inhibit vortex formation altogether. Additionally, slowly-growing planets produce vortices that are up to twice as elongated, with azimuthal extents well above 180° in some cases. These unique, elongated vortices likely create a distinct signature in the dust observations that differentiates them from the more concentrated vortices that correspond to planets with faster growth time-scales. Lastly, we find that the low viscosities necessary for vortex formation likely prevent planets from growing quickly enough to trigger the instability in self-consistent models.
Magnetic field in expanding quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Evan; Tuchin, Kirill
2018-04-01
Intense electromagnetic fields are created in the quark-gluon plasma by the external ultrarelativistic valence charges. The time evolution and the strength of this field are strongly affected by the electrical conductivity of the plasma. Yet, it has recently been observed that the effect of the magnetic field on the plasma flow is small. We compute the effect of plasma flow on magnetic field and demonstrate that it is less than 10%. These observations indicate that the plasma hydrodynamics and the dynamics of electromagnetic field decouple. Thus, it is a very good approximation, on the one hand, to study QGP in the background electromagnetic field generated by external sources and, on the other hand, to investigate the dynamics of magnetic field in the background plasma. We also argue that the wake induced by the magnetic field in plasma is negligible.
Internal Charmonium Evolution in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Baoyi; Du, Xiaojian; Rapp, Ralf
2017-08-01
We employ a time-dependent Schrödinger equation to study the evolution of a c c ‾ dipole in a quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Medium effects on the heavy-quark potential in the QGP are found to significantly affect the timescales of the internal evolution of the dipole. Color-screening can enhance the overlap of the expanding wavepackage with excited states at high temperature, while it is reduced at lower temperatures where the dipole favors the formation of the charmonium ground state. We investigate the consequences of this mechanism on the double ratio of charmonium nuclear modification factors, RAAψ (2 S) /RAAJ/ψ, in heavy-ion collisions. The impact of the transition mechanisms on this ratio turns out to be rather sensitive to the attractive strength of the potential, and to its temperature dependence.
Nonperturbative quark-gluon thermodynamics at finite density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreichikov, M. A.; Lukashov, M. S.; Simonov, Yu. A.
2018-03-01
Thermodynamics of the quark-gluon plasma at finite density is studied in the framework of the Field Correlator Method, where thermodynamical effects of Polyakov loops and color magnetic confinement are taken into account. Having found good agreement with numerical lattice data for zero density, we calculate pressure P(T,μ), for 0 < μ < 400 MeV and 150 < T < 1000 MeV. For the first time, the explicit integral form is found in this region, demonstrating analytic structure in the complex μ plane. The resulting multiple complex branch points are found at the Roberge-Weiss values of Imμ, with Reμ defined by the values of Polyakov lines and color magnetic confinement.
Gluon fragmentation into quarkonium at next-to-leading order
Artoisenet, Pierre; Braaten, Eric
2015-04-22
Here, we present the first calculation at next-to-leading order (NLO) in α s of a fragmentation function into quarkonium whose form at leading order is a nontrivial function of z, namely the fragmentation function for a gluon into a spin-singlet S-wave state at leading order in the relative velocity. To calculate the real NLO corrections, we introduce a new subtraction scheme that allows the phase-space integrals to be evaluated in 4 dimensions. We extract all ultraviolet and infrared divergences in the real NLO corrections analytically by calculating the phase-space integrals of the subtraction terms in 4 – 2ϵ dimensions. Wemore » also extract the divergences in the virtual NLO corrections analytically, and detail the cancellation of all divergences after renormalization. The NLO corrections have a dramatic effect on the shape of the fragmentation function, and they significantly increase the fragmentation probability.« less
A Family of Vortices to Study Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Larry A.
2007-01-01
A new analytic model describing a family of vortices has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. The family of vortices incorporates a wide range of prescribed initial vorticity distributions -- including single or dual-core vorticity distributions. The result is analytical solutions for the vorticity and velocities for each member of the family of vortices. This model is of sufficient generality to further illustrate the dependence of vortex reconnection and breakdown on initial vorticity distribution as was suggested by earlier analytical work. This family of vortices, though laminar in nature, is anticipated to provide valuable insight into the vortical evolution of large-scale rotor and propeller wakes.
Efficient collective swimming by harnessing vortices through deep reinforcement learning.
Verma, Siddhartha; Novati, Guido; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2018-06-05
Fish in schooling formations navigate complex flow fields replete with mechanical energy in the vortex wakes of their companions. Their schooling behavior has been associated with evolutionary advantages including energy savings, yet the underlying physical mechanisms remain unknown. We show that fish can improve their sustained propulsive efficiency by placing themselves in appropriate locations in the wake of other swimmers and intercepting judiciously their shed vortices. This swimming strategy leads to collective energy savings and is revealed through a combination of high-fidelity flow simulations with a deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm. The RL algorithm relies on a policy defined by deep, recurrent neural nets, with long-short-term memory cells, that are essential for capturing the unsteadiness of the two-way interactions between the fish and the vortical flow field. Surprisingly, we find that swimming in-line with a leader is not associated with energetic benefits for the follower. Instead, "smart swimmer(s)" place themselves at off-center positions, with respect to the axis of the leader(s) and deform their body to synchronize with the momentum of the oncoming vortices, thus enhancing their swimming efficiency at no cost to the leader(s). The results confirm that fish may harvest energy deposited in vortices and support the conjecture that swimming in formation is energetically advantageous. Moreover, this study demonstrates that deep RL can produce navigation algorithms for complex unsteady and vortical flow fields, with promising implications for energy savings in autonomous robotic swarms.
Bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation in a vortical flow
Yazdi, Shahrzad; Ardekani, Arezoo M.
2012-01-01
Bacterial aggregation and patchiness play an important role in a variety of ecological processes such as competition, adaptation, epidemics, and succession. Here, we demonstrate that hydrodynamics of their environment can lead to their aggregation. This is specially important since microbial habitats are rarely at rest (e.g., ocean, blood stream, flow in porous media, and flow through membrane filtration processes). In order to study the dynamics of bacterial collection in a vortical flow, we utilize a microfluidic system to mimic some of the important microbial conditions at ecologically relevant spatiotemporal scales. We experimentally demonstrate the formation of “ring”-shaped bacterial collection patterns and subsequently the formation of biofilm streamers in a microfluidic system. Acoustic streaming of a microbubble is used to generate a vortical flow in a microchannel. Due to bacteria's finite-size, the microorganisms are directed to closed streamlines and trapped in the vortical flow. The collection of bacteria in the vortices occurs in a matter of seconds, and unexpectedly, triggers the formation of biofilm streamers within minutes. Swimming bacteria have a competitive advantage to respond to their environmental conditions. In order to investigate the role of bacterial motility on the rate of collection, two strains of Escherichia coli bacteria with different motilities are used. We show that the bacterial collection in a vortical flow is strongly pronounced for high motile bacteria. PMID:24339847
Vorticity Transport on a Flexible Wing in Stall Flutter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akkala, James; Buchholz, James; Farnsworth, John; McLaughlin, Thomas
2014-11-01
The circulation budget within dynamic stall vortices was investigated on a flexible NACA 0018 wing model of aspect ratio 6 undergoing stall flutter. The wing had an initial angle of attack of 6 degrees, Reynolds number of 1 . 5 ×105 and large-amplitude, primarily torsional, limit cycle oscillations were observed at a reduced frequency of k = πfc / U = 0 . 1 . Phase-locked stereo PIV measurements were obtained at multiple chordwise planes around the 62.5% and 75% spanwise locations to characterize the flow field within thin volumetric regions over the suction surface. Transient surface pressure measurements were used to estimate boundary vorticity flux. Recent analyses on plunging and rotating wings indicates that the magnitude of the pressure-gradient-driven boundary flux of secondary vorticity is a significant fraction of the magnitude of the convective flux from the separated leading-edge shear layer, suggesting that the secondary vorticity plays a significant role in regulating the strength of the primary vortex. This phenomenon is examined in the present case, and the physical mechanisms governing the growth and evolution of the dynamic stall vortices are explored. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through the Flow Interactions and Control Program monitored by Dr. Douglas Smith, and through the 2014 AFOSR/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (JA and JB).
The influence of convective activity on the vorticity budget
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Townsend, T. L.; Scoggins, J. R.
1983-01-01
The influence of convective activity on the vorticity budget was determined during the AVE VII and AVE-SESAME I periods. This was accomplished by evaluating each term in the expanded vorticity equation with twisting and tilting and friction representing the residual of all other terms. Convective areas were delineated by use of radar summary charts. The influence of convective activity was established by analyzing contoured fields of each term as well as numerical values and profiles of the various terms in convective and nonconvective areas. Vertical motion was computed by the kinematic method, and all computations were performed over the central United States using a grid spacing of 158 km. The results show that, in convective areas in particular, the residual is of comparable magnitude to the horizontal advection and divergence terms, and therefore, cannot be neglected. In convective areas, the residual term represents a sink of vorticity below 500 mb and a strong source near 300 mb. In nonconvective areas, the residual was small in magnitude at all levels, but tended to be negative (vorticity sink) at 300 mb. The local change term, over convective areas, tended to be balanced by the residual term, and appeared to be a good indicator of development (vorticity becoming more cyclonic). Finally, the shape of the vertical profiles of the term in the budget equation agreed with those found by other investigators for easterly waves, but the terms were one order of magnitude larger than those for easterly waves.
Numerical simulation of vortical ideal fluid flow through curved channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moshkin, N. P.; Mounnamprang, P.
2003-04-01
A numerical algorithm to study the boundary-value problem in which the governing equations are the steady Euler equations and the vorticity is given on the inflow parts of the domain boundary is developed. The Euler equations are implemented in terms of the stream function and vorticity. An irregular physical domain is transformed into a rectangle in the computational domain and the Euler equations are rewritten with respect to a curvilinear co-ordinate system. The convergence of the finite-difference equations to the exact solution is shown experimentally for the test problems by comparing the computational results with the exact solutions on the sequence of grids. To find the pressure from the known vorticity and stream function, the Euler equations are utilized in the Gromeka-Lamb form. The numerical algorithm is illustrated with several examples of steady flow through a two-dimensional channel with curved walls. The analysis of calculations shows strong dependence of the pressure field on the vorticity given at the inflow parts of the boundary. Plots of the flow structure and isobars, for different geometries of channel and for different values of vorticity on entrance, are also presented.
Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence
Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.
2012-09-15
The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C=-{partial_derivative} ln B/{partial_derivative}x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result ismore » of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.« less
Feedback control of flow vorticity at low Reynolds numbers.
Zeitz, Maria; Gurevich, Pavel; Stark, Holger
2015-03-01
Our aim is to explore strategies of feedback control to design and stabilize novel dynamic flow patterns in model systems of complex fluids. To introduce the control strategies, we investigate the simple Newtonian fluid at low Reynolds number in a circular geometry. Then, the fluid vorticity satisfies a diffusion equation. We determine the mean vorticity in the sensing area and use two control strategies to feed it back into the system by controlling the angular velocity of the circular boundary. Hysteretic feedback control generates self-regulated stable oscillations in time, the frequency of which can be adjusted over several orders of magnitude by tuning the relevant feedback parameters. Time-delayed feedback control initiates unstable vorticity modes for sufficiently large feedback strength. For increasing delay time, we first observe oscillations with beats and then regular trains of narrow pulses. Close to the transition line between the resting fluid and the unstable modes, these patterns are relatively stable over long times.
Rapid expulsion of microswimmers by a vortical flow
Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.
2016-03-23
Interactions of microswimmers with their fluid environment are exceptionally complex. Macroscopic shear flow alters swimming trajectories in a highly nontrivial way and results in dramatic reduction of viscosity and heterogeneous bacterial distributions. Here we report on experimental and theoretical studies of rapid expulsion of microswimmers, such as motile bacteria, by a vortical flow created by a rotating microparticle. We observe a formation of a macroscopic depletion area in a high-shear region, in the vicinity of a microparticle. The rapid migration of bacteria from the shear-rich area is caused by a vortical structure of the flow rather than intrinsic random fluctuationsmore » of bacteria orientations, in stark contrast to planar shear flow. Our mathematical model reveals that expulsion is a combined effect of motility and alignment by a vortical flow. Our findings offer a novel approach for manipulation of motile microorganisms and shed light on bacteria-flow interactions.« less
Decay of Far-Flowfield in Trailing Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baldwin, B. S.; Chigier, N. A.; Sheaffer, Y. S.
1973-01-01
Methods for reduction of velocities in trailing vortices of large aircraft are of current interest for the purpose of shortening the waiting time between landings at central airports. We have made finite-difference calculations of the flow in turbulent wake vortices as an aid to interpretation of wind-tunnel and flight experiments directed toward that end. Finite-difference solutions are capable of adding flexibility to such investigations if they are based on an adequate model of turbulence. Interesting developments have been taking place in the knowledge of turbulence that may lead to a complete theory in the future. In the meantime, approximate methods that yield reasonable agreement with experiment are appropriate. The simplified turbulence model we have selected contains features that account for the major effects disclosed by more sophisticated models in which the parameters are not yet established. Several puzzles are thereby resolved that arose in previous theoretical investigations of wake vortices.
Numerical Modeling Studies of Wake Vortices: Real Case Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, Shao-Hua; Ding, Feng; Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.
1999-01-01
A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model, TASS, is used to simulate the behavior of aircraft wake vortices in a real atmosphere. The purpose for this study is to validate the use of TASS for simulating the decay and transport of wake vortices. Three simulations are performed and the results are compared with the observed data from the 1994-1995 Memphis field experiments. The selected cases have an atmospheric environment of weak turbulence and stable stratification. The model simulations are initialized with appropriate meteorological conditions and a post roll-up vortex system. The behavior of wake vortices as they descend within the atmospheric boundary layer and interact with the ground is discussed.
Approach and separation of quantum vortices with balanced cores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerr, Robert M.; Rorai, C.; Skipper, J.; Sreenivasan, K. R.
2014-11-01
Using two innovations, smooth but different, scaling laws for the reconnection of pairs of initially orthogonal and anti-parallel quantum vortices are obtained using the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equations. For the anti-parallel case, the scaling laws just before and after reconnection obey the dimensional δ ~ | t - tr| 1 / 2 prediction with temporal symmetry about the reconnection time tr and physical space symmetry about xr, the mid-point between the vortices, with extensions forming the edges of an equilateral pyramid. For all of the orthogonal cases, before reconnection δin ~(t -tr) 1 / 3 and after reconnection δout ~(tr - t) 2 / 3 , which are respectively slower and faster than the dimensional prediction. In these cases, the reconnection takes place in a plane defined by the directions of the curvature and vorticity. Robert.Kerr@warwick.ac.uk.
A Thermodynamically General Theory for Convective Circulations and Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renno, N. O.
2007-12-01
Convective circulations and vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb low-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject high-entropy-energy to space. These circulations range from small to planetary-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective phenomena is important to our understanding of many basic features of planetary atmospheres. A thermodynamically general theory for convective circulations and vortices is proposed. The theory includes irreversible processes and quantifies the pressure drop between the environment and any point in a convective updraft. The article's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines or streamtubes that is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. We speculate that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also shed light on other basic features of convective circulations and vortices.
Kinematics of velocity and vorticity correlations in turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernard, P. S.
1983-01-01
The kinematic problem of calculating second-order velocity moments from given values of the vorticity covariance is examined. Integral representation formulas for second-order velocity moments in terms of the two-point vorticity correlation tensor are derived. The special relationships existing between velocity moments in isotropic turbulence are expressed in terms of the integral formulas yielding several kinematic constraints on the two-point vorticity correlation tensor in isotropic turbulence. Numerical evaluation of these constraints suggests that a Gaussian curve may be the only form of the longitudinal velocity correlation coefficient which is consistent with the requirement of isotropy. It is shown that if this is the case, then a family of exact solutions to the decay of isotropic turbulence may be obtained which contains Batchelor's final period solution as a special case. In addition, the computed results suggest a method of approximating the integral representation formulas in general turbulent shear flows.
Pair interactions of heavy vortices in quantum fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pshenichnyuk, Ivan A.
2018-02-01
The dynamics of quantum vortex pairs carrying heavy doping matter trapped inside their cores is studied. The nonlinear classical matter field formalism is used to build a universal mathematical model of a heavy vortex applicable to different types of quantum mixtures. It is shown how the usual vortex dynamics typical for undoped pairs qualitatively changes when heavy dopants are used: heavy vortices with opposite topological charges (chiralities) attract each other, while vortices with the same charge are repelled. The force responsible for such behavior appears as a result of superposition of vortices velocity fields in the presence of doping substance and can be considered as a special realization of the Magnus effect. The force is evaluated quantitatively and its inverse proportionality to the distance is demonstrated. The mechanism described in this paper gives an example of how a light nonlinear classical field may realize repulsive and attractive interactions between embedded heavy impurities.
Vorticity equation for MHD fast waves in geospace environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Lui, A. T. Y.
1993-01-01
The MHD vorticity equation is modified in order to apply it to nonlinear MHD fast waves or shocks when their extent along the magnetic field is limited. Field-aligned current (FAC) generation is also discussed on the basis of this modified vorticity equation. When the wave normal is not aligned to the finite velocity convection and the source region is spatially limited, a longitudinal polarization causes a pair of plus and minus charges inside the compressional plane waves or shocks, generating a pair of FACs. This polarization is not related to the separation between the electrons and ions caused by their difference in mass, a separation which is inherent to compressional waves. The resultant double field-aligned current structure exists both with and without the contributions from curvature drift, which is questionable in terms of its contribution to vorticity change from the viewpoint of single-particle motion.
Local and global Λ polarization in a vortical fluid
Li, Hui; Petersen, Hannah; Pang, Long -Gang; ...
2017-09-25
We compute the fermion spin distribution in the vortical fluid created in off-central high energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the event-by-event (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamic model. The spin polarization density is proportional to the local fluid vorticity in quantum kinetic theory. As a result of strong collectivity, the spatial distribution of the local vorticity on the freeze-out hyper-surface strongly correlates to the rapidity and azimuthal angle distribution of fermion spins. We investigate the sensitivity of the local polarization to the initial fluid velocity in the hydrodynamic model and compute the global polarization of Λ hyperons by the AMPT model. The energymore » dependence of the global polarization agrees with the STAR data.« less
Local and global Λ polarization in a vortical fluid
Li, Hui; Petersen, Hannah; Pang, Long -Gang
We compute the fermion spin distribution in the vortical fluid created in off-central high energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the event-by-event (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamic model. The spin polarization density is proportional to the local fluid vorticity in quantum kinetic theory. As a result of strong collectivity, the spatial distribution of the local vorticity on the freeze-out hyper-surface strongly correlates to the rapidity and azimuthal angle distribution of fermion spins. We investigate the sensitivity of the local polarization to the initial fluid velocity in the hydrodynamic model and compute the global polarization of Λ hyperons by the AMPT model. The energymore » dependence of the global polarization agrees with the STAR data.« less
Gluon structure function of a color dipole in the light-cone limit of lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grünewald, D.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Pirner, H. J.
2009-10-01
We calculate the gluon structure function of a color dipole in near-light-cone SU(2) lattice QCD as a function of xB. The quark and antiquark are external nondynamical degrees of freedom which act as sources of the gluon string configuration defining the dipole. We compute the color dipole matrix element of transversal chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic field operators separated along a direction close to the light cone, the Fourier transform of which is the gluon structure function. As vacuum state in the pure glue sector, we use a variational ground state of the near-light-cone Hamiltonian. We derive a recursion relation for the gluon structure function on the lattice similar to the perturbative Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation. It depends on the number of transversal links assembling the Schwinger string of the dipole. Fixing the mean momentum fraction of the gluons to the “experimental value” in a proton, we compare our gluon structure function for a dipole state with four links with the next-to-leading-order MRST 2002 and the CTEQ AB-0 parametrizations at Q2=1.5GeV2. Within the systematic uncertainty we find rather good agreement. We also discuss the low xB behavior of the gluon structure function in our model calculation.
Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and tests of QCD analytic predictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
OPAL Collaboration; Ackerstaff, K.; et al.
Gluon jets are identified in e+e^- hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The charged particle multiplicity distribution of the gluon jets is presented, and is analyzed for its mean, dispersion, skew, and curtosis values, and for its factorial and cumulant moments. The results are compared to the analogous results found for a sample of light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. We observe differences between the mean, skew and curtosis values of gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant moment results are compared to the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the data compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets.
Experiments on tip vortices interacting with downstream wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.
2018-05-01
The interaction of meandering tip vortices shed from a leading wing with a downstream wing was investigated experimentally in a water tunnel using flow visualization, particle image velocimetry measurements, and volumetric velocity measurements. Counter-rotating upstream vortices may exhibit sudden variations of the vortex core location when the wing-tip separation is within approximately twice the vortex core radius. This is caused by the formation of vortex dipoles near the wing tip. In contrast, co-rotating upstream vortices do not exhibit such sensitivity. Large spanwise displacement of the trajectory due to the image vortex is possible when the incident vortex is further inboard. For both co-rotating and counter-rotating vortices, as long as there is no direct impingement upon the wing, there is a little change in the structure of the time-averaged vortex past the wing, even though the tip vortex shed from the downstream wing may be substantially weakened or strengthened. In the absence of the downstream wing, as well as for weak interactions, the most energetic unsteady modes represent the first helical mode | m| = 1, which is estimated from the three-dimensional Proper Orthogonal Decomposition modes and has a very large wavelength, on the order of 102 times the vortex core radius, λ/ a = O(102). Instantaneous vorticity measurements as well as flow visualization suggest the existence of a smaller wavelength, λ/ a = 5-6, which is not among the most energetic modes. These two-orders of magnitude different wavelengths are in agreement with the previous measurements of tip vortices and also exhibit qualitative agreement with the transient energy growth analysis. The very long wavelength mode in the upstream vortex may persist during the interaction, and reveal coupling with the trailing vortex as well as increased meandering.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Vortices in Different Types of Grain Boundaries
Sheikhzada, Ahmad
As a major component of linear particle accelerators, superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) resonator cavities are required to operate with lowest energy dissipation and highest accelerating gradient. SRF cavities are made of polycrystalline materials in which grain boundaries can limit maximum RF currents and produce additional power dissipation sources due to local penetration of Josephson vortices. The essential physics of vortex penetration and mechanisms of dissipation of vortices driven by strong RF currents along networks of grain boundaries and their contribution to the residual surface resistance have not been well understood. To evaluate how GBs can limit the performance of SRF materials,more » particularly Nb and Nb3Sn, we performed extensive numerical simulations of nonlinear dynamics of Josephson vortices in grain boundaries under strong dc and RF fields. The RF power due to penetration of vortices both in weakly-coupled and strongly-coupled grain boundaries was calculated as functions of the RF field and frequency. The result of this calculation manifested a quadratic dependence of power to field amplitude at strong RF currents, an illustration of resistive behavior of grain boundaries. Our calculations also showed that the surface resistance is a complicated function of field controlled by penetration and annihilation of vortices and antivortices in strong RF fields which ultimately saturates to normal resistivity of grain boundary. We found that Cherenkov radiation of rapidly moving vortices in grain boundaries can produce a new instability causing generation of expanding vortex-antivortex pair which ultimately drives the entire GB in a resistive state. This effect is more pronounced in polycrystalline thin film and multilayer coating structures in which it can cause significant increase in power dissipation and results in hysteresis effects in I-V characteristics, particularly at low temperatures.« less
Effect of vorticity on polycrystalline ice deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llorens, Maria-Gema; Griera, Albert; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Jansen, Daniela; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Weikusat, Ilka
2017-04-01
Understanding ice sheet dynamics requires a good knowledge of how dynamic recrystallisation controls ice microstructures and rheology at different boundary conditions. In polar ice sheets, pure shear flattening typically occurs at the top of the sheets, while simple shearing dominates near their base. We present a series of two-dimensional microdynamic numerical simulations that couple ice deformation with dynamic recrystallisation of various intensities, paying special attention to the effect of boundary conditions. The viscoplastic full-field numerical modelling approach (VPFFT) (Lebensohn, 2001) is used to calculate the response of a polycrystalline aggregate that deforms purely by dislocation glide. This code is coupled with the ELLE microstructural modelling platform that includes recrystallisation in the aggregate by intracrystalline recovery, nucleation by polygonisation, as well as grain boundary migration driven by the reduction of surface and strain energies (Llorens et al., 2016a, 2016b, 2017). The results reveal that regardless the amount of DRX and ice flow a single c-axes maximum develops all simulations. This maximum is oriented approximately parallel to the maximum finite shortening direction and rotates in simple shear towards the normal to the shear plane. This leads to a distinctly different behaviour in pure and simple shear. In pure shear, the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) and shape-preferred orientation (SPO) are increasingly unfavourable for deformation, leading to hardening and an increased activity of non-basal slip. The opposite happens in simple shear, where the imposed vorticity causes rotation of the LPO and SPO to a favourable orientation, leading to strain softening. An increase of recrystallisation enhances the activity of the non-basal slip, due to the reduction of deformation localisation. In pure shear conditions, the pyramidal slip activity is thus even more enhanced and can become higher than the basal-slip activity. Our
Unfolding of Vortices into Topological Stripes in a Multiferroic Material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, X.; Mostovoy, M.; Han, M. G.; Horibe, Y.; Aoki, T.; Zhu, Y.; Cheong, S.-W.
2014-06-01
Multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 (R =rare earths) crystals exhibit dense networks of vortex lines at which six domain walls merge. While the domain walls can be readily moved with an applied electric field, the vortex cores so far have been impossible to control. Our experiments demonstrate that shear strain induces a Magnus-type force pulling vortices and antivortices in opposite directions and unfolding them into a topological stripe domain state. We discuss the analogy between this effect and the current-driven dynamics of vortices in superconductors and superfluids.
Vortical susceptibility of finite-density QCD matter
Aristova, A.; Frenklakh, D.; Gorsky, A.; ...
2016-10-07
Here, the susceptibility of finite-density QCD matter to vorticity is introduced, as an analog of magnetic susceptibility. It describes the spin polarization of quarks and antiquarks in finite-density QCD matter induced by rotation. We estimate this quantity in the chirally broken phase using the mixed gauge-gravity anomaly at finite baryon density. It is proposed that the vortical susceptibility of QCD matter is responsible for the polarization of Λ and Λ¯ hyperons observed recently in heavy ion collisions at RHIC by the STAR collaboration.
Gluon transport equation with effective mass and dynamical onset of Bose–Einstein condensation
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng
2016-05-01
In this paper we study the transport equation describing a dense system of gluons, in the small scattering angle approximation, taking into account medium-generated effective masses of the gluons. We focus on the case of overpopulated systems that are driven to Bose–Einstein condensation on their way to thermalization. Lastly, the presence of a mass modifies the dispersion relation of the gluon, as compared to the massless case, but it is shown that this does not change qualitatively the scaling behavior in the vicinity of the onset.
Gluon transport equation with effective mass and dynamical onset of Bose–Einstein condensation
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng
In this paper we study the transport equation describing a dense system of gluons, in the small scattering angle approximation, taking into account medium-generated effective masses of the gluons. We focus on the case of overpopulated systems that are driven to Bose–Einstein condensation on their way to thermalization. Lastly, the presence of a mass modifies the dispersion relation of the gluon, as compared to the massless case, but it is shown that this does not change qualitatively the scaling behavior in the vicinity of the onset.
Theoretical estimation of Photons flow rate Production in quark gluon interaction at high energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Agealy, Hadi J. M.; Hamza Hussein, Hyder; Mustafa Hussein, Saba
2018-05-01
photons emitted from higher energetic collisions in quark-gluon system have been theoretical studied depending on color quantum theory. A simple model for photons emission at quark-gluon system have been investigated. In this model, we use a quantum consideration which enhances to describing the quark system. The photons current rate are estimation for two system at different fugacity coefficient. We discussion the behavior of photons rate and quark gluon system properties in different photons energies with Boltzmann model. The photons rate depending on anisotropic coefficient : strong constant, photons energy, color number, fugacity parameter, thermal energy and critical energy of system are also discussed.
Production of b and overlineb quarks by photon-gluon fusion in heavy-ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Ch.; Soff, G.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.
1991-06-01
Electromagnetic Higgs production in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions has been proposed as an alternative for detecting Higgs particles in the mass range mZ< mH<2 mW. We consider the fussion of a photon and a gluon into b and overlineb quarks as background to the b overlineb decay of the Higgs boson. This completely hides the Higgs signal. We also discuss the possibility of utilizing photon-gluon fusion into b overlineb and c overlinec as a sensitive tool to determine the gluon distribution of the nucleon inside the nucleus, e.g., at RHIC.
Crystallized and amorphous vortices in rotating atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates
Liu, Chao-Fei; Fan, Heng; Gou, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Wu-Ming
2014-01-01
Vortex is a topological defect with a quantized winding number of the phase in superfluids and superconductors. Here, we investigate the crystallized (triangular, square, honeycomb) and amorphous vortices in rotating atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) by using the damped projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The amorphous vortices are the result of the considerable deviation induced by the interaction of atomic-molecular vortices. By changing the atom-molecule interaction from attractive to repulsive, the configuration of vortices can change from an overlapped atomic-molecular vortices to carbon-dioxide-type ones, then to atomic vortices with interstitial molecular vortices, and finally into independent separated ones. The Raman detuning can tune the ratio of the atomic vortex to the molecular vortex. We provide a phase diagram of vortices in rotating atomic-molecular BECs as a function of Raman detuning and the strength of atom-molecule interaction. PMID:24573303
Quantitative flow analysis of swimming dynamics with coherent Lagrangian vortices.
Huhn, F; van Rees, W M; Gazzola, M; Rossinelli, D; Haller, G; Koumoutsakos, P
2015-08-01
Undulatory swimmers flex their bodies to displace water, and in turn, the flow feeds back into the dynamics of the swimmer. At moderate Reynolds number, the resulting flow structures are characterized by unsteady separation and alternating vortices in the wake. We use the flow field from simulations of a two-dimensional, incompressible viscous flow of an undulatory, self-propelled swimmer and detect the coherent Lagrangian vortices in the wake to dissect the driving momentum transfer mechanisms. The detected material vortex boundary encloses a Lagrangian control volume that serves to track back the vortex fluid and record its circulation and momentum history. We consider two swimming modes: the C-start escape and steady anguilliform swimming. The backward advection of the coherent Lagrangian vortices elucidates the geometry of the vorticity field and allows for monitoring the gain and decay of circulation and momentum transfer in the flow field. For steady swimming, momentum oscillations of the fish can largely be attributed to the momentum exchange with the vortex fluid. For the C-start, an additionally defined jet fluid region turns out to balance the high momentum change of the fish during the rapid start.
Lattice Boltzmann model capable of mesoscopic vorticity computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Cheng; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping
2017-11-01
It is well known that standard lattice Boltzmann (LB) models allow the strain-rate components to be computed mesoscopically (i.e., through the local particle distributions) and as such possess a second-order accuracy in strain rate. This is one of the appealing features of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) which is of only second-order accuracy in hydrodynamic velocity itself. However, no known LB model can provide the same quality for vorticity and pressure gradients. In this paper, we design a multiple-relaxation time LB model on a three-dimensional 27-discrete-velocity (D3Q27) lattice. A detailed Chapman-Enskog analysis is presented to illustrate all the necessary constraints in reproducing the isothermal Navier-Stokes equations. The remaining degrees of freedom are carefully analyzed to derive a model that accommodates mesoscopic computation of all the velocity and pressure gradients from the nonequilibrium moments. This way of vorticity calculation naturally ensures a second-order accuracy, which is also proven through an asymptotic analysis. We thus show, with enough degrees of freedom and appropriate modifications, the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be achieved in LBM. The resulting model is then validated in simulations of a three-dimensional decaying Taylor-Green flow, a lid-driven cavity flow, and a uniform flow passing a fixed sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be realized even with single relaxation parameter.
Vortical Flow Prediction Using an Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.
2001-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been employed to compute vortical flows around slender wing/body configurations. The emphasis of the paper is on the effectiveness of an adaptive grid procedure in "capturing" concentrated vortices generated at sharp edges or flow separation lines of lifting surfaces flying at high angles of attack. The method is based on a tetrahedral unstructured grid technology developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two steady-state, subsonic, inviscid and Navier-Stokes flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving practical vortical flow problems. The first test case concerns vortex flow over a simple 65deg delta wing with different values of leading-edge bluntness, and the second case is that of a more complex fighter configuration. The superiority of the adapted solutions in capturing the vortex flow structure over the conventional unadapted results is demonstrated by comparisons with the windtunnel experimental data. The study shows that numerical prediction of vortical flows is highly sensitive to the local grid resolution and that the implementation of grid adaptation is essential when applying CFD methods to such complicated flow problems.
Wind effects on the lateral motion of wake vortices
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1999-11-01
This report examines the influence of crosswind and other factors on the behavior of wake vortices between parallel runways. The measurements used in the analysis came from landing (1976-77) and takeoff (1980) operations at O'Hare International Airpo...
Measurements of wake vortices interacting with the ground
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2005-09-01
Although wake vortices are known to decay more rapidly near the ground than away from the ground, the details of the ground interaction are not well understood. Propeller anemometer arrays located under the approach path have been used to study vorte...
Boson Hamiltonians and stochasticity for the vorticity equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, Hubert H.
1990-01-01
The evolution of the vorticity in time for two-dimensional inviscid flow and in Lagrangian time for three-dimensional viscous flow is written in Hamiltonian form by introducing Bose operators. The addition of the viscous and convective terms, respectively, leads to an interpretation of the Hamiltonian contribution to the evolution as Langevin noise.
A complex analysis approach to the motion of uniform vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riccardi, Giorgio
2018-02-01
A new mathematical approach to kinematics and dynamics of planar uniform vortices in an incompressible inviscid fluid is presented. It is based on an integral relation between Schwarz function of the vortex boundary and induced velocity. This relation is firstly used for investigating the kinematics of a vortex having its Schwarz function with two simple poles in a transformed plane. The vortex boundary is the image of the unit circle through the conformal map obtained by conjugating its Schwarz function. The resulting analysis is based on geometric and algebraic properties of that map. Moreover, it is shown that the steady configurations of a uniform vortex, possibly in presence of point vortices, can be also investigated by means of the integral relation. The vortex equilibria are divided in two classes, depending on the behavior of the velocity on the boundary, measured in a reference system rotating with this curve. If it vanishes, the analysis is rather simple. However, vortices having nonvanishing relative velocity are also investigated, in presence of a polygonal symmetry. In order to study the vortex dynamics, the definition of Schwarz function is then extended to a Lagrangian framework. This Lagrangian Schwarz function solves a nonlinear integrodifferential Cauchy problem, that is transformed in a singular integral equation. Its analytical solution is here approached in terms of successive approximations. The self-induced dynamics, as well as the interactions with a point vortex, or between two uniform vortices are analyzed.
3D visualization of unsteady 2D airplane wake vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ma, Kwan-Liu; Zheng, Z. C.
1994-01-01
Air flowing around the wing tips of an airplane forms horizontal tornado-like vortices that can be dangerous to following aircraft. The dynamics of such vortices, including ground and atmospheric effects, can be predicted by numerical simulation, allowing the safety and capacity of airports to be improved. In this paper, we introduce three-dimensional techniques for visualizing time-dependent, two-dimensional wake vortex computations, and the hazard strength of such vortices near the ground. We describe a vortex core tracing algorithm and a local tiling method to visualize the vortex evolution. The tiling method converts time-dependent, two-dimensional vortex cores into three-dimensional vortex tubes. Finally, a novel approach calculates the induced rolling moment on the following airplane at each grid point within a region near the vortex tubes and thus allows three-dimensional visualization of the hazard strength of the vortices. We also suggest ways of combining multiple visualization methods to present more information simultaneously.
Effect of ground wind shear on aircraft trailing vortices
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1972-08-01
The motion of the pair of trailing vortices generated by an aircraft is not well described by simple line vortex theory in the presence of a cross wind near the ground. Experimental observations indicate that the up-wind vortex usually drops to a low...
On hairpin vortex generation from near-wall streamwise vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yinshan; Huang, Weixi; Xu, Chunxiao
2015-04-01
The generation of a hairpin vortex from near-wall streamwise vortices is studied via the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the streak transient growth in the minimal channel flow at . The streak profile is obtained by conditionally averaging the DNS data of the fully developed turbulent channel flow at the same Reynolds number. The near-wall streamwise vortices are produced by the transient growth of the streak which is initially subjected to the sinuous perturbation of the spanwise velocity. It is shown that the arch head of the hairpin vortex first grows from the downstream end of the stronger streamwise vortex and then connects with the weaker, opposite-signed streamwise vortex in their overlap region, forming a complete individual hairpin structure. The vorticity transport along the vortex lines indicates that the strength increase and the spatial expansion of the arch head are due to the stretching and the turning of the vorticity vector, respectively. The hairpin packets could be further produced from the generated individual hairpin vortex following the parent-offspring process.
Vortices Bump into a Hot Spot in Jupiter Atmosphere
2013-03-14
In this series of images from NASA Cassini spacecraft, a dark, rectangular hot spot interacts with a line of vortices that approaches from on the upper-right side. The interaction distorts the shape of the hot spot, leaving it diminished.
Numerical investigation of Dean vortices in a curved pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernad, S. I.; Totorean, A.; Bosioc, A.; Stanciu, R.; Bernad, E. S.
2013-10-01
This study is devoted to the three-dimensional numerical simulation of developing secondary flows of Newtonian fluid through a curved circular duct. The numerical simulations produced for different Dean numbers show clearly the presence of two steady Dean vortices. Therefore, results confirm that helical flow constitutes an important flow signature in vessels, and its strength as a fluid dynamic index.
Generation of Vorticity by Slow Conductive Cooling Flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meerson, Baruch; Glasner, Ami; Livne, Eli
1996-11-01
Rapid energy release in a gas produces a ``hot channel" or ``fireball", depending on the energy release geometry. During its relaxation, the ``hot channel" develops significant vorticity and turbulence(J.M. Picone, J.P. Boris, J.R. Greig, M. Raleigh, and R.F. Fernsler, J. Atmos. Sci. 38), 2056 (1981). that strongly enhance its cooling. Picone and Boris(J.M. Picone and J.P. Boris, Phys. Fluids 26), 365 (1983). attributed the effect to an earlier, plasma-expansion-related stage of the process. We show that vorticity can also be produced on a longer time scale. After a few acoustic times, the plasma pressure becomes very close to the ambient pressure. As the temperature is still high, slow (subacoustic) conductive cooling flow (CCF) develops that cools the cavity and fills it with gas from the periphery(B. Meerson, Phys. Fluids A 1), 887 (1989); D. Kaganovich, B. Meerson, A. Zigler, C. Cohen, and J. Levin, Phys. Plasmas 3, 631 (1996).. Due to asymmetries, this flow develops significant vorticity on the heat-conduction time scale. We present a simplified theory for this effect that employs, as a zero-order solution, a novel two-dimensional (2d) similarity solution for an irrotational isobaric CCF. We also report on gas-dynamic simulations in 2d (with the heat transfer taken into account) which show vorticity generation by the slow CCF.
Non-Abelian vortices of higher winding numbers
Eto, Minoru; Konishi, Kenichi; Vinci, Walter
2006-09-15
We make a detailed study of the moduli space of winding number two (k=2) axially symmetric vortices (or equivalently, of coaxial composite of two fundamental vortices), occurring in U(2) gauge theory with two flavors in the Higgs phase, recently discussed by Hashimoto and Tong and by Auzzi, Shifman, and Yung. We find that it is a weighted projective space WCP{sub (2,1,1)}{sup 2}{approx_equal}CP{sup 2}/Z{sub 2}. This manifold contains an A{sub 1}-type (Z{sub 2}) orbifold singularity even though the full moduli space including the relative position moduli is smooth. The SU(2) transformation properties of such vortices are studied. Our results are thenmore » generalized to U(N) gauge theory with N flavors, where the internal moduli space of k=2 axially symmetric vortices is found to be a weighted Grassmannian manifold. It contains singularities along a submanifold.« less
One-loop light-cone QCD, effective action for reggeized gluons and QCD RFT calculus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondarenko, S.; Lipatov, L.; Pozdnyakov, S.; Prygarin, A.
2017-09-01
The effective action for reggeized gluons is based on the gluodynamic Yang-Mills Lagrangian with external current for longitudinal gluons added, see Lipatov (Nucl Phys B 452:369, 1995; Phys Rep 286:131, 1997; Subnucl Ser 49:131, 2013; Int J Mod Phys Conf Ser 39:1560082, 2015; Int J Mod Phys A 31(28/29):1645011, 2016; EPJ Web Conf 125:01010, 2016). On the base of classical solutions, obtained in Bondarenko et al. (Eur Phys J C 77(8):527, 2017), the one-loop corrections to this effective action in light-cone gauge are calculated. The RFT calculus for reggeized gluons similarly to the RFT introduced in Gribov (Sov Phys JETP 26:414, 1968) is proposed and discussed. The correctness of the results is verified by calculation of the propagators of A+ and A- reggeized gluons fields and application of the obtained results is discussed as well.
The gluon density of the proton at low x from a QCD analysis of F2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Bán, J.; Ban, Y.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Barschke, R.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bispham, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Burton, M.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Clerbaux, B.; Colombo, M.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D. G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Droutskoi, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herynek, I.; Hess, M. F.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hiller, K. H.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Horisberger, R.; Hudgson, V. L.; Huet, Ph.; Hütte, M.; Hufnagel, H.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kazarian, S.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Köhne, J. H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krämerkämper, T.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Krüner-Marquis, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurča, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J.-F.; Lebedev, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Link, J.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; List, B.; Lobo, G.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lomas, J.; Lopez, G. C.; Lubimov, V.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Maraček, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, T.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Migliori, A.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Mroczko, E.; Müller, G.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Nicholls, T. C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg-Werther, M.; Oakden, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panaro, E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Pope, G.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rabbertz, K.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Rick, H.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, H. E.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rüter, K.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Rylko, R.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schacht, P.; Schiek, S.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, G.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Sefkow, F.; Seidel, M.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Spiekermann, J.; Spielman, S.; Spitzer, H.; Starosta, R.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stiewe, J.; Stösslein, U.; Stolze, K.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Uelkes, P.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Verrecchia, P.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wagener, A.; Wagener, M.; Walker, I. W.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wellisch, H. P.; West, L. R.; Willard, S.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wittek, C.; Wright, A. E.; Wünsch, E.; Wulff, N.; Yiou, T. P.; Žáček, J.; Zarbock, D.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmer, M.; Zimmermann, W.; Zomer, F.; Zuber, K.; H1 Collaboration
1995-02-01
We present a QCD analysis of the proton structure function F2 measured by the H1 experiment at HERA, combined with data from previous fixed target experiments. The gluon density is extracted from the scaling violations of F2 in the range 2 · 10 -4 < x < 3 · 10 -2 and compared with an approximate solution of the QCD evolution equations. The gluon density is found to rise steeply with decreasing x.
Off-shell gluon production in interaction of a projectile with 2 or 3 targets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, M. A.; Salykin, M. Yu.
2017-07-01
Within the effective QCD action for the Regge kinematics, the amplitudes for virtual gluon emission are studied in collision of a projectile with two and three targets. It is demonstrated that all non-Feynman singularities cancel between induced vertices and rescattering contributions. Formulas simplify considerably in a special gauge, which is a straightforward generalization of the light-cone gauge for emission of real gluons.
The singular behavior of one-loop massive QCD amplitudes with one external soft gluon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bierenbaum, Isabella; Czakon, Michał; Mitov, Alexander
2012-03-01
We calculate the one-loop correction to the soft-gluon current with massive fermions. This current is process independent and controls the singular behavior of one-loop massive QCD amplitudes in the limit when one external gluon becomes soft. The result derived in this work is the last missing process-independent ingredient needed for numerical evaluation of observables with massive fermions at hadron colliders at the next-to-next-to-leading order.
Semi-inclusive polarised lepton-nucleon scattering and the anomalous gluon contribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Güllenstern, St.; Veltri, M.; Górnicki, P.; Mankiewicz, L.; Schäfer, A.
1993-08-01
We discuss a new observable for semi-inclusive pion production in polarised lepton-nucleon collisions. This observable is sensitive to the polarised and unpolarised strange quark distribution and the anomalous gluon contribution, provided that their fragmentation functions into pions differ substantially from that of light quarks. From Monte Carlo data generated with our PEPSI code we conclude that HERMES might be able to decide whether the polarized strange quark and gluon distributions are large.
Baryon inhomogeneity generation in the quark-gluon plasma phase
Layek, Biswanath; Mishra, Ananta P.; Srivastava, Ajit M.
2006-05-15
We discuss the possibility of generation of baryon inhomogeneities in a quark-gluon plasma phase due to moving Z(3) interfaces. By modeling the dependence of effective mass of the quarks on the Polyakov loop order parameter, we study the reflection of quarks from collapsing Z(3) interfaces and estimate resulting baryon inhomogeneities in the context of the early universe. We argue that in the context of certain low energy scale inflationary models, it is possible that large Z(3) walls arise at the end of the reheating stage. Collapse of such walls could lead to baryon inhomogeneities which may be separated by largemore » distances near the QCD scale. Importantly, the generation of these inhomogeneities is insensitive to the order, or even the existence, of the quark-hadron phase transition. We also briefly discuss the possibility of formation of quark nuggets in this model, as well as baryon inhomogeneity generation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.« less
Momentum broadening in unstable quark-gluon plasma
Carrington, M. E.; Mrówczyński, St.; Schenke, B.
2017-02-01
We present that quark-gluon plasma produced at the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is unstable, if weakly coupled, due to the anisotropy of its momentum distribution. Chromomagnetic fields are spontaneously generated and can reach magnitudes much exceeding typical values of the fields in equilibrated plasma. We consider a high-energy test parton traversing an unstable plasma that is populated with strong fields. We study the momentum broadening parametermore » $$ˆ\\atop{q}$$ which determines the radiative energy loss of the test parton. We develop a formalism which gives $$ˆ\\atop{q}$$ as the solution of an initial value problem, and we focus on extremely oblate plasmas which are physically relevant for relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The parameter $$ˆ\\atop{q}$$ is found to be strongly dependent on time. For short times it is of the order of the equilibrium value, but at later times $$ˆ\\atop{q}$$ grows exponentially due to the interaction of the test parton with unstable modes and becomes much bigger than the value in equilibrium. The momentum broadening is also strongly directionally dependent and is largest when the test parton velocity is transverse to the beam axis. Lastly, consequences of our findings for the phenomenology of jet quenching in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are briefly discussed.« less
T -matrix approach to quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shuai Y. F.; Rapp, Ralf
2018-03-01
A self-consistent thermodynamic T -matrix approach is deployed to study the microscopic properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), encompassing both light- and heavy-parton degrees of freedom in a unified framework. The starting point is a relativistic effective Hamiltonian with a universal color force. The input in-medium potential is quantitatively constrained by computing the heavy-quark (HQ) free energy from the static T -matrix and fitting it to pertinent lattice-QCD (lQCD) data. The corresponding T -matrix is then applied to compute the equation of state (EoS) of the QGP in a two-particle irreducible formalism, including the full off-shell properties of the selfconsistent single-parton spectral functions and their two-body interaction. In particular, the skeleton diagram functional is fully resummed to account for emerging bound and scattering states as the critical temperature is approached from above. We find that the solution satisfying three sets of lQCD data (EoS, HQ free energy, and quarkonium correlator ratios) is not unique. As limiting cases we discuss a weakly coupled solution, which features color potentials close to the free energy, relatively sharp quasiparticle spectral functions and weak hadronic resonances near Tc, and a strongly coupled solution with a strong color potential (much larger than the free energy), resulting in broad nonquasiparticle parton spectral functions and strong hadronic resonance states which dominate the EoS when approaching Tc.
Gluons and gravitons at one loop from ambitwistor strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geyer, Yvonne; Monteiro, Ricardo
2018-03-01
We present new and explicit formulae for the one-loop integrands of scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric gauge theory and gravity, valid for any number of particles. The results exhibit the colour-kinematics duality in gauge theory and the double-copy relation to gravity, in a form that was recently observed in supersymmetric theories. The new formulae are expressed in a particular representation of the loop integrand, with only one quadratic propagator, which arises naturally from the framework of the loop-level scattering equations. The starting point in our work are the expressions based on the scattering equations that were recently derived from ambitwistor string theory. We turn these expressions into explicit formulae depending only on the loop momentum, the external momenta and the external polarisations. These formulae are valid in any number of spacetime dimensions for pure Yang-Mills theory (gluon) and its natural double copy, NS-NS gravity (graviton, dilaton, B-field), and we also present formulae in four spacetime dimensions for pure gravity (graviton). We perform several tests of our results, such as checking gauge invariance and directly matching our four-particle formulae to previously known expressions. While these tests would be elaborate in a Feynman-type representation of the loop integrand, they become straightforward in the representation we use.
Soft gluon evolution and non-global logarithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez, René Ángeles; De Angelis, Matthew; Forshaw, Jeffrey R.; Plätzer, Simon; Seymour, Michael H.
2018-05-01
We consider soft-gluon evolution at the amplitude level. Our evolution algorithm applies to generic hard-scattering processes involving any number of coloured partons and we present a reformulation of the algorithm in such a way as to make the cancellation of infrared divergences explicit. We also emphasise the special role played by a Lorentz-invariant evolution variable, which coincides with the transverse momentum of the latest emission in a suitably defined dipole zero-momentum frame. Handling large colour matrices presents the most significant challenge to numerical implementations and we present a means to expand systematically about the leading colour approximation. Specifically, we present a systematic procedure to calculate the resulting colour traces, which is based on the colour flow basis. Identifying the leading contribution leads us to re-derive the Banfi-Marchesini-Smye equation. However, our formalism is more general and can systematically perform resummation of contributions enhanced by the t'Hooft coupling α s N ˜ 1, along with successive perturbations that are parametrically suppressed by powers of 1 /N . We also discuss how our approach relates to earlier work.
Nuclear modification factor in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Mahatsab; Bhattacharya, Lusaka; Roy, Pradip
2011-10-01
We calculate the nuclear modification factor (RAA) of light hadrons by taking into account the initial state momentum anisotropy of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) expected to be formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Such an anisotropy can result from the initial rapid longitudinal expansion of the matter. A phenomenological model for the space-time evolution of the anisotropic QGP is used to obtain the time dependence of the anisotropy parameter ξ and the hard momentum scale, phard. The result is then compared with the PHENIX experimental data to constrain the isotropization time scale, τiso for fixed initial conditions (FIC). It is shown that the extracted value of τiso lies in the range 0.5⩽τiso⩽1.5. However, using a fixed final multiplicity (FFM) condition does not lead to any firm conclusion about the extraction of the isotropization time. The present calculation is also extended to contrast with the recent measurement of nuclear modification factor by the ALICE collaboration at s=2.76 TeV. It is argued that in the present approach, the extraction of τiso at this energy is uncertain and, therefore, refinement of the model is necessary. The sensitivity of the results on the initial conditions has been discussed. We also present the nuclear modification factor at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies with s=5.5 TeV.
Linear polarization of gluons and photons in unpolarized collider experiments
Pisano, Cristian; Boer, Daniël; Brodsky, Stanley J.
2013-10-01
We study azimuthal asymmetries in heavy quark pair production in unpolarized electron-proton and proton-proton collisions, where the asymmetries originate from the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized hadrons. We provide cross section expressions and study the maximal asymmetries allowed by positivity, for both charm and bottom quark pair production. The upper bounds on the asymmetries are shown to be very large depending on the transverse momentum of the heavy quarks, which is promising especially for their measurements at a possible future Electron-Ion Collider or a Large Hadron electron Collider. We also study the analogous processes and asymmetries in muon pairmore » production as a means to probe linearly polarized photons inside unpolarized protons. For increasing invariant mass of the muon pair the asymmetries become very similar to the heavy quark pair ones. Finally, we discuss the process dependence of the results that arises due to differences in color flow and address the problem with factorization in case of proton-proton collisions.« less
Chiral electric separation effect in the quark-gluon plasma
Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng; Huang, Xu-Guang
2015-02-02
In this paper we introduce and compute a new transport coefficient for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at very high temperature. This new coefficient σ χe, the CESE (Chiral Electric Separation Effect) conductivity, quantifies the amount of axial current J A that is generated in response to an externally applied electric field eE: J A=σ χe(eE). Starting with a rather general argument in the kinetic theory framework, we show how a characteristic structure σ χe∝μμ5 emerges, which also indicates the CESE as an anomalous transport effect occurring only in a parity-odd environment with nonzero axial charge density μ5 ≠ 0. Usingmore » the Hard-Thermal-Loop framework, the CESE conductivity for the QGP is found to be σ χe = (#)TT rfQ eQ A/g⁴ln(1/g) μμ5/T² to the leading-log accuracy with the numerical constant (#) depending on favor content, e.g., (#)=14.5163 for u, d light flavors.« less
Internal and vorticity waves in decaying stratified flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matulka, A.; Cano, D.
2009-04-01
Most predictive models fail when forcing at the Rossby deformation Radius is important and a large range of scales have to be taken into account. When mixing of reactants or pollutants has to be accounted, the range of scales spans from hundreds of Kilometers to the Bachelor or Kolmogorov sub milimiter scales. We present some theoretical arguments to describe the flow in terms of the three dimensional vorticity equations, using a lengthscale related to the vorticity (or enstrophy ) transport. Effect of intermittent eddies and non-homogeneity of diffusion are also key issues in the environment because both stratification and rotation body forces are important and cause anisotropy/non-homogeneity. These problems need further theoretical, numerical and observational work and one approach is to try to maximize the relevant geometrical information in order to understand and therefore predict these complex environmental dispersive flows. The importance of the study of turbulence structure and its relevance in diffusion of contaminants in environmental flows is clear when we see the effect of environmental disasters such as the Prestige oil spill or the Chernobil radioactive cloud spread in the atmosphere. A series of Experiments have been performed on a strongly stratified two layer fluid consisting of Brine in the bottom and freshwater above in a 1 square meter tank. The evolution of the vortices after the passage of a grid is video recorded and Particle tracking is applied on small pliolite particles floating at the interface. The combination of internal waves and vertical vorticity produces two separate time scales that may produce resonances. The vorticity is seen to oscilate in a complex way, where the frecuency decreases with time.
On the evolution of vortices in massive protoplanetary discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierens, Arnaud; Lin, Min-Kai
2018-05-01
It is expected that a pressure bump can be formed at the inner edge of a dead-zone, and where vortices can develop through the Rossby Wave Instability (RWI). It has been suggested that self-gravity can significantly affect the evolution of such vortices. We present the results of 2D hydrodynamical simulations of the evolution of vortices forming at a pressure bump in self-gravitating discs with Toomre parameter in the range 4 - 30. We consider isothermal plus non-isothermal disc models that employ either the classical β prescription or a more realistic treatment for cooling. The main aim is to investigate whether the condensating effect of self-gravity can stabilize vortices in sufficiently massive discs. We confirm that in isothermal disc models with Q ≳ 15, vortex decay occurs due to the vortex self-gravitational torque. For discs with 3≲ Q ≲ 7, the vortex develops gravitational instabilities within its core and undergoes gravitational collapse, whereas more massive discs give rise to the formation of global eccentric modes. In non-isothermal discs with β cooling, the vortex maintains a turbulent core prior to undergoing gravitational collapse for β ≲ 0.1, whereas it decays if β ≥ 1. In models that incorpore both self-gravity and a better treatment for cooling, however, a stable vortex is formed with aspect ratio χ ˜ 3 - 4. Our results indicate that self-gravity significantly impacts the evolution of vortices forming in protoplanetary discs, although the thermodynamical structure of the vortex is equally important for determining its long-term dynamics.
The life-cycle of Riemann-Silberstein electromagnetic vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nye, J. F.
2017-11-01
To study the singularities of a monochromatic electromagnetic wave field in free space, it is desirable to use a quantity that combines both the electric field E and the magnetic field B in equal measure. The Riemann-Silberstein (R-S) field is a way of doing this. It is based on the real physical E and B and one constructs from them the complex vector field {F}={E}+{{i}} {B}. Then, one constructs {F}\\cdot {F} and studies the optical vortices of this R-S complex scalar field. Unlike the better-known and much studied optical vortices of a monochromatic complex scalar field, which are stationary, these vortices are normally in continual motion; they oscillate at the optical frequency. We study their life cycle in the simplest model that is sufficiently generic, namely, fields generated by the interference of four randomly chosen plane elliptically polarised waves. The topological events in the life cycle do not repeat on a 3D space lattice in a stationary laboratory frame. In space-time, however, the R-S vortices are invariant under any Lorentz transformation, and because of this and the inherent time repetition there is a particular moving frame in space-time, reached by a Lorentz transformation, where there exists a repeating pattern of events in space. Its 4D unit cell constitutes, in effect, a description of the whole infinite pattern. Just because they are in constant motion, it is not surprising that the R-S vortex lines in the model make reconnections and appear as rings that either shrink to nothing or appear from nothing. However, these processes occur in groups of four, reflecting the fact that the unit cell is face-centred. What distinguishes the R-S field from the other complex scalar fields containing vortices is the existence of this face-centred repeating cell.
Fluctuations of the gluon distribution from the small- x effective action
Dumitru, Adrian; Skokov, Vladimir
The computation of observables in high-energy QCD involves an average over stochastic semiclassical small-x gluon fields. The weight of various configurations is determined by the effective action. We introduce a method to study fluctuations of observables, functionals of the small-x fields, which does not explicitly involve dipoles. We integrate out those fluctuations of the semiclassical gluon field under which a given observable is invariant. Thereby we obtain the effective potential for that observable describing its fluctuations about the average. Here, we determine explicitly the effective potential for the covariant gauge gluon distribution both for the McLerran-Venugopalan (MV) model and formore » a (nonlocal) Gaussian approximation for the small-x effective action. This provides insight into the correlation of fluctuations of the number of hard gluons versus their typical transverse momentum. We find that the spectral shape of the fluctuations of the gluon distribution is fundamentally different in the MV model, where there is a pileup of gluons near the saturation scale, versus the solution of the small-x JIMWLK renormalization group, which generates essentially scale-invariant fluctuations above the absorptive boundary set by the saturation scale.« less
Fluctuations of the gluon distribution from the small- x effective action
Dumitru, Adrian; Skokov, Vladimir
2017-09-29
The computation of observables in high-energy QCD involves an average over stochastic semiclassical small-x gluon fields. The weight of various configurations is determined by the effective action. We introduce a method to study fluctuations of observables, functionals of the small-x fields, which does not explicitly involve dipoles. We integrate out those fluctuations of the semiclassical gluon field under which a given observable is invariant. Thereby we obtain the effective potential for that observable describing its fluctuations about the average. Here, we determine explicitly the effective potential for the covariant gauge gluon distribution both for the McLerran-Venugopalan (MV) model and formore » a (nonlocal) Gaussian approximation for the small-x effective action. This provides insight into the correlation of fluctuations of the number of hard gluons versus their typical transverse momentum. We find that the spectral shape of the fluctuations of the gluon distribution is fundamentally different in the MV model, where there is a pileup of gluons near the saturation scale, versus the solution of the small-x JIMWLK renormalization group, which generates essentially scale-invariant fluctuations above the absorptive boundary set by the saturation scale.« less
Hoffmann, Ch; Lücke, M; Pinter, A
2004-05-01
We present numerical simulations of vortices that appear via primary bifurcations out of the unstructured circular Couette flow in the Taylor-Couette system with counter rotating as well as with corotating cylinders. The full, time dependent Navier Stokes equations are solved with a combination of a finite difference and a Galerkin method for a fixed axial periodicity length of the vortex patterns and for a finite system of aspect ratio 12 with rigid nonrotating ends in a setup with radius ratio eta=0.5. Differences in structure, dynamics, symmetry properties, bifurcation, and stability behavior between spiral vortices with azimuthal wave numbers M=+/-1 and M=0 Taylor vortices are elucidated and compared in quantitative detail. Simulations in axially periodic systems and in finite systems with stationary rigid ends are compared with experimental spiral data. In a second part of the paper we determine how the above listed properties of the M=-1, 0, and 1 vortex structures are changed by an externally imposed axial through flow with Reynolds numbers in the range -40< or =Re< or =40. Among other things we investigate when left handed or right handed spirals or toroidally closed vortices are preferred.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marensi, Elena; Ricco, Pierre
2017-11-01
The generation, nonlinear evolution, and wall-transpiration control of unsteady Görtler vortices in an incompressible boundary layer over a concave plate is studied theoretically and numerically. Görtler rolls are initiated and driven by free-stream vortical perturbations of which only the low-frequency components are considered because they penetrate the most into the boundary layer. The formation and development of the disturbances are governed by the nonlinear unsteady boundary-region equations with the centrifugal force included. These equations are subject to appropriate initial and outer boundary conditions, which account for the influence of the upstream and free-stream forcing in a rigorous and mutually consistent manner. Numerical solutions show that the stabilizing effect on nonlinearity, which also occurs in flat-plate boundary layers, is significantly enhanced in the presence of centrifugal forces. Sufficiently downstream, the nonlinear vortices excited at different free-stream turbulence intensities Tu saturate at the same level, proving that the initial amplitude of the forcing becomes unimportant. At low Tu, the disturbance exhibits a quasi-exponential growth with the growth rate being intensified for more curved plates and for lower frequencies. At higher Tu, in the typical range of turbomachinery applications, the Görtler vortices do not undergo a modal stage as nonlinearity saturates rapidly, and the wall curvature does not affect the boundary-layer response. Good quantitative agreement with data from direct numerical simulations and experiments is obtained. Steady spanwise-uniform and spanwise-modulated zero-mass-flow-rate wall transpiration is shown to attenuate the growth of the Görtler vortices significantly. A novel modified version of the Fukagata-Iwamoto-Kasagi identity, used for the first time to study a transitional flow, reveals which terms in the streamwise momentum balance are mostly affected by the wall transpiration, thus
Weak solutions of the three-dimensional vorticity equation with vortex singularities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winckelmans, G.; Leonard, A.
1988-01-01
The extension of the concept of vortex singularities, developed by Saffman and Meiron (1986) for the case of two-dimensional point vortices in an incompressible vortical flow, to the three-dimensional case of vortex sticks (vortons) is investigated analytically. The derivation of the governing equations is explained, and it is demonstrated that the formulation obtained conserves total vorticity and is a weak solution of the vorticity equation, making it an appropriate means for representing three-dimensional vortical flows with limited numbers of vortex singularities.
Virtual photon emission from a quark-gluon plasma
Suryanarayana, S. V.
We present phenomenological formulas for virtual photon emission rates from a thermalized quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that include bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering (AWS) mechanisms along with the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effects. For this purpose we follow the approach of generalized emission functions (GEF) for virtual photon emission, we showed earlier for a fixed temperature and strong coupling constant. In the present work, we extend the LPM calculations for several temperatures and strong coupling strengths, photon energies (q{sub 0}), photon mass (Q{sup 2}), and quark energies (p{sub 0}). We generalize the dynamical scaling variables, x{sub T},x{sub L}, for bremsstrahlung and AWS processesmore » that are now functions of variables p{sub 0},q{sub 0},Q{sup 2},T,{alpha}{sub s}. The GEF introduced earlier, g{sub T}{sup b},g{sub T}{sup a},g{sub L}{sup b},g{sub L}{sup a}, are also generalized for any temperatures and coupling strengths. From this, the imaginary part of the photon polarization tensor as a function of photon mass and energy has been calculated as a one-dimensional integral over these GEF and parton distribution functions in the plasma. By fitting these polarization tensors obtained from GEF method, we obtained a phenomenological formula for virtual photon emission rates as a function of (q{sub 0},Q{sup 2},T,{alpha}{sub s}) that includes bremsstrahlung and AWS mechanisms with LPM effects.« less
Spanwise Spacing Effects on the Initial Structure and Decay of Axial Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wendt, B. J.; Reichert, B. A.
1996-01-01
The initial structure and axial decay of an array of streamwise vortices embedded in a turbulent pipe boundary layer is experimentally investigated. The vortices are shed in counter-rotating fashion from an array of equally-spaced symmetric airfoil vortex generators. Vortex structure is quantified in terms of crossplane circulation and peak streamwise vorticity. Flow conditions are subsonic and incompressible. The focus of this study is on the effect of the initial spacing between the parent vortex generators. Arrays with vortex generators spaced at 15 and 30 degrees apart are considered. When the spacing between vortex generators is decreased the circulation and peak vorticity of the shed vortices increases. Analysis indicates this strengthening results from regions of fluid acceleration in the vicinity of the vortex generator array. Decreased spacing between the constituent vortices also produces increased rates of circulation and peak vorticity decay.
Helical vortices: Quasiequilibrium states and their time evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selçuk, Can; Delbende, Ivan; Rossi, Maurice
2017-08-01
The time evolution of a viscous helical vortex is investigated by direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations where helical symmetry is enforced. Using conservation laws in the framework of helical symmetry, we elaborate an initial condition consisting in a finite core vortex, the time evolution of which leads to a generic quasiequilibrium state independent of the initial core size. Numerical results at different helical pitch values provide an accurate characterization in time for such helical states, for which specific techniques have been introduced: helix radius, angular velocity, stream function-velocity-vorticity relationships, and core properties (size, self-similarity, and ellipticity). Viscosity is shown to be at the origin of a small helical velocity component, which we relate to the helical vorticity component. Finally, changes in time of the flow topology are studied using the helical stream function and three-dimensional Lagrangian orbits.
Long-wave instabilities of two interlaced helical vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quaranta, H. U.; Brynjell-Rahkola, M.; Leweke, T.; Henningson, D. S.
2016-09-01
We present a comparison between experimental observations and theoretical predictions concerning long-wave displacement instabilities of the helical vortices in the wake of a two-bladed rotor. Experiments are performed with a small-scale rotor in a water channel, using a set-up that allows the individual triggering of various instability modes at different azimuthal wave numbers, leading to local or global pairing of successive vortex loops. The initial development of the instability and the measured growth rates are in good agreement with the predictions from linear stability theory, based on an approach where the helical vortex system is represented by filaments. At later times, local pairing develops into large-scale distortions of the vortices, whereas for global pairing the non-linear evolution returns the system almost to its initial geometry.
Porous medium acoustics of wave-induced vorticity diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, T. M.; Sahay, P. N.
2011-02-01
A theory for attenuation and dispersion of elastic waves due to wave-induced generation of vorticity at pore-scale heterogeneities in a macroscopically homogeneous porous medium is developed. The diffusive part of the vorticity field associated with a viscous wave in the pore space—the so-called slow shear wave—is linked to the porous medium acoustics through incorporation of the fluid strain rate tensor of a Newtonian fluid in the poroelastic constitutive relations. The method of statistical smoothing is then used to derive dynamic-equivalent elastic wave velocities accounting for the conversion scattering process into the diffusive slow shear wave in the presence of randomly distributed pore-scale heterogeneities. The result is a simple model for wave attenuation and dispersion associated with the transition from viscosity- to inertia-dominated flow regime.
Knotted optical vortices in exact solutions to Maxwell's equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Klerk, Albertus J. J. M.; van der Veen, Roland I.; Dalhuisen, Jan Willem; Bouwmeester, Dirk
2017-05-01
We construct a family of exact solutions to Maxwell's equations in which the points of zero intensity form knotted lines topologically equivalent to a given but arbitrary algebraic link. These lines of zero intensity, more commonly referred to as optical vortices, and their topology are preserved as time evolves and the fields have finite energy. To derive explicit expressions for these new electromagnetic fields that satisfy the nullness property, we make use of the Bateman variables for the Hopf field as well as complex polynomials in two variables whose zero sets give rise to algebraic links. The class of algebraic links includes not only all torus knots and links thereof, but also more intricate cable knots. While the unknot has been considered before, the solutions presented here show that more general knotted structures can also arise as optical vortices in exact solutions to Maxwell's equations.
Sidelobe-modulated optical vortices for free-space communication.
Jia, P; Yang, Y; Min, C J; Fang, H; Yuan, X-C
2013-02-15
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new method for free-space optical (FSO) communication, where the transmitter encodes data into a composite computer-generated hologram and the receiver decodes through a retrieved array of sidelobe-modulated optical vortices (SMOVs). By employing the SMOV generation and detection technique, the usual stringent alignment and phase-matching requirement of the detection of optical vortices is released. In transmitting a gray-scale picture with 180×180 pixels, a bit error rate as low as 3.01×10(-3) has been achieved. Due to the orbital angular momentum multiplexing and spatial paralleling, this FSO communication method possesses the ability to greatly increase the capacity of data transmission.
Experimental results on chiral magnetic and vortical effects
Wang, Gang; Wen, Liwen
2017-01-12
Various novel transport phenomena in chiral systems result from the interplay of quantum anomalies with magnetic field and vorticity in high-energy heavy-ion collisions and could survive the expansion of the fireball and be detected in experiments. Among them are the chiral magnetic effect, the chiral vortical effect, and the chiral magnetic wave, the experimental searches for which have aroused extensive interest. As a result, the goal of this review is to describe the current status of experimental studies at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at BNL and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and to outline the future work in experiment neededmore » to eliminate the existing uncertainties in the interpretation of the data.« less
Dust devil vortices seen by the Mars Pathfinder camera
Metzger, S.M.; Carr, J.R.; Johnson, J. R.; Parker, T.J.; Lemmon, M.T.
1999-01-01
Discovery of dust devil vortices in Mars Pathfinder (MPF) images reveals a dust entrainment mechanism at work on Mars. Scattering of visible light by dust in the Martian atmosphere creates a pronounced haze, preventing conventional image processing from displaying dust plumes. Spectral differencing techniques have enhanced five localized dust plumes from the general haze in images acquired near midday, which we determine to be dust devils. Processing of 440 nm images highlights dust devils as distinct occultation features against the horizon. The dust devils are interpreted to be 14-79 m wide, 46-350 m tall, travel at 0.5-4.6 m/s, with dust loading of 7E-5 kg m-3, relative to the general haze of 9E-8 kg m-3, and total particulate transport of 2.2 - 700 kg. The vortices match predictions from terrestrial analog studies. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.
Helical vortices generated by flapping wings of bumblebees
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engels, Thomas; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie; Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Sesterhenn, Jörn
2018-02-01
High resolution direct numerical simulations of rotating and flapping bumblebee wings are presented and their aerodynamics is studied focusing on the role of leading edge vortices and the associated helicity production. We first study the flow generated by only one rotating bumblebee wing in circular motion with 45◦ angle of attack. We then consider a model bumblebee flying in a numerical wind tunnel, which is tethered and has rigid wings flapping with a prescribed generic motion. The inflow condition of the wind varies from laminar to strongly turbulent regimes. Massively parallel simulations show that inflow turbulence does not significantly alter the wings’ leading edge vortex, which enhances lift production. Finally, we focus on studying the helicity of the generated vortices and analyze their contribution at different scales using orthogonal wavelets.
Laser Doppler velocimeter system simulation for sensing aircraft wake vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomson, J. A. L.; Meng, J. C. S.
1974-01-01
A hydrodynamic model of aircraft vortex wakes in an irregular wind shear field near the ground is developed and used as a basis for modeling the characteristics of a laser Doppler detection and vortex location system. The trailing vortex sheet and the wind shear are represented by discrete free vortices distributed over a two-dimensional grid. The time dependent hydrodynamic equations are solved by direct numerical integration in the Boussinesq approximation. The ground boundary is simulated by images, and fast Fourier Transform techniques are used to evaluate the vorticity stream function. The atmospheric turbulence was simulated by constructing specific realizations at time equal to zero, assuming that Kolmogoroff's law applies, and that the dissipation rate is constant throughout the flow field. The response of a simulated laser Doppler velocimeter is analyzed by simulating the signal return from the flow field as sensed by a simulation of the optical/electronic system.
The turblent mixing layer - Geometry of large vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Browand, F. K.; Troutt, T. R.
1985-09-01
Large spanwide vortices in a mixing layer have been studied in numerous investigations. The present study represents an attempt to define the geometry of the large vortices. In the conducted experiments, the flow develops from a laminar boundary layer, or from an intentionally tripped turbulent boundary layer. However, no other forcing is provided. It is pointed out that in both cases the downstream structure becomes indistinguishable. The experimental apparatus and the employed techniques are discussed, taking into account details regarding the wind tunnel, the detection of the structure, and aspects of digitization. Attention is given to the mean growth of the mixing layer, the mean vortex spacing, the spanwise correlation of vortex structure, velocity-field visualizations, the transition criterion, and the permanence of structure.
Evolution of hairpin vortices in a shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hon, T.-L.; Walker, J. D. A.
1988-01-01
Recent experimental studies suggest that the hairpin vortex plays an important (and perhaps dominant) role in the dynamics of turbulent flows near walls. In this study a numerical procedure is developed to allow the accurate computation of the trajectory of a 3-D vortex having a small core radius. For hairpin vortices which are convected in a shear flow above a wall, the calculated results show that a 2-D vortex containing a small 3-D disturbance distorts into a complex shape with subsidiary hairpin vortices forming outboard of the original hairpin vortex. As the vortex moves above the wall, it induces unsteady motion in the viscous flow near the wall: numerical solutions suggest that the boundary-layer flow near the wall will ultimately erupt in response to the motion of the hairpin vortex and in the process a secondary hairpin vortex will be created. The computer results agree with recent experimental investigations.
Influence of deep vortices on the ocean surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciani, Daniele; Carton, Xavier; Bashmachnikov, Igor; Chapron, Bertrand
2015-04-01
The oceanic motion at mesoscale (20-200 km) and submesoscale (0.5-20 km) is highly populated by vortices. These recirculating structures are more energetic than the mean flow, they trap water masses from their origination areas and advect them across the ocean, with consequent impact on the 3D distribution of heat and tracers. Mesoscale and submesoscale structures characterize the ocean dynamics both at the sea-surface and at intrathermocline depths (0-1500 m), and are presently investigated by means of model outputs and satellite (surface) data, the latest being the only way to get high resolution and synoptic observations at planetary scale (e.g., thermal-band observations, future altimetric observations given by the SWOT mission). The scientific question arising from this context is related to the role of the ocean surface for inferring informations on mesoscale and submesoscale vortices at depth. This study has also been motivated by the recent detection of subsurface eddies east of the Arabian Peninsula (PHYSINDIEN experiment - 2011). Using analytical models in the frame of the quasi-geostrophic (QG) theory, we could describe the theoretical altimetric signature of non-drifting and of drifting subsurface eddies. Numerical experiments, using both QG and primitive equations models, allowed us to investigate the surface expression of intrathermocline eddies interacting with baroclinic currents or evolving under planetary beta-effect. The eddies' characteristics (radius, depth, thickness, velocity) were varied in order to represent various oceanic examples (Meddies, Swoddies, Reddies, Peddies, Leddies). Idealized simulations with the ROMS model, confirming theoretical estimates, showed that drifting subsurface-intensified vortices can induce dipolar sea level anomalies, up to 3 cm. This result, compatibly with future SWOT measurement accuracies (about 2 cm), represents a contribution for systematic and synoptic detection of subsurface vortices.
Tip Vortices of Isolated Wings and Helicopter Rotor Blades.
1987-12-01
root to tip, as expected due to the induced downwash of the tip vor- tex and wake vortex sheet. Although the three different tip-caps produce very...the inherent limitation of not being able to model the vortex wake with these equations, although the Euler formulation has in it the necessary...physics to model vorticity transport correctly. These equations basically lack the physical mecha- nism needed to generate the vortex wake . However, in
Initialization and Simulation of Three-Dimensional Aircraft Wake Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ash, Robert L.; Zheng, Z. C.
1997-01-01
This paper studies the effects of axial velocity profiles on vortex decay, in order to properly initialize and simulate three-dimensional wake vortex flow. Analytical relationships are obtained based on a single vortex model and computational simulations are performed for a rather practical vortex wake, which show that the single vortex analytical relations can still be applicable at certain streamwise sections of three-dimensional wake vortices.
Criterion for Identifying Vortices in High-Pressure Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bellan, Josette; Okong'o, Nora
2007-01-01
A study of four previously published computational criteria for identifying vortices in high-pressure flows has led to the selection of one of them as the best. This development can be expected to contribute to understanding of high-pressure flows, which occur in diverse settings, including diesel, gas turbine, and rocket engines and the atmospheres of Jupiter and other large gaseous planets. Information on the atmospheres of gaseous planets consists mainly of visual and thermal images of the flows over the planets. Also, validation of recently proposed computational models of high-pressure flows entails comparison with measurements, which are mainly of visual nature. Heretofore, the interpretation of images of high-pressure flows to identify vortices has been based on experience with low-pressure flows. However, high-pressure flows have features distinct from those of low-pressure flows, particularly in regions of high pressure gradient magnitude caused by dynamic turbulent effects and by thermodynamic mixing of chemical species. Therefore, interpretations based on low-pressure behavior may lead to misidentification of vortices and other flow structures in high-pressure flows. The study reported here was performed in recognition of the need for one or more quantitative criteria for identifying coherent flow structures - especially vortices - from previously generated flow-field data, to complement or supersede the determination of flow structures by visual inspection of instantaneous fields or flow animations. The focus in the study was on correlating visible images of flow features with various quantities computed from flow-field data.
Streaks and vortices in near-wall turbulence.
Chernyshenko, S I; Baig, M F
2005-05-15
This paper presents evidence that organization of wall-normal motions plays almost no role in the creation of streaks. This evidence consists of the theory of streak generation not requiring the existence of organized vortices, extensive quantitative comparisons between the theory and direct numerical simulations, including examples of large variation in average spacing of the streaks of different scalars simultaneously present in the flow, and an example of the scalar streaks in an artificially created purely random flow.
Direct Optical Measurement of Vorticity in Fluid Flow
2015-12-11
was later employed to measure the angular velocity of a microparticle trapped and spinning in an optical trap [7]. II. Objectives We believe it...known theoretically. Two sets of experiments are presented. In the first, the signal from a group of 6 μm microparticles is integrated to obtain the...vorticity is known precisely. In one experiment measurements with a group of 6 μm microparticles is used to obtain the average fluid rotation rate about the
Nonlinear magnetic electron tripolar vortices in streaming plasmas.
Vranjes, J; Marić, G; Shukla, P K
2000-06-01
Magnetic electron modes in nonuniform magnetized and unmagnetized streaming plasmas, with characteristic frequencies between the ion and electron plasma frequencies and at spatial scales of the order of the collisionless skin depth, are studied. Two coupled equations, for the perturbed (in the case of magnetized plasma) or self-generated (for the unmagnetized plasma case) magnetic field, and the temperature, are solved in the strongly nonlinear regime and stationary traveling solutions in the form of tripolar vortices are found.
Volcanic Plume from Mt. Unzen, Dust Cloud, cloud Vortices
1991-12-01
Stable, south flowing air over the western Pacific Ocean (26.0N, 131.0E) is disturbed by islands south of Korea, resulting in sinuous clouds known as von Karman vortices. The smoke plume from Japan's Mount Unzen Volcano on Kyushu, is visible just west of the large cloud mass and extending southward. A very large, purple tinged dust pall, originating in Mongolia, can be seen on the Earth's Limb, covering eastern China and extending into the East China Sea.
Machine learning vortices at the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beach, Matthew J. S.; Golubeva, Anna; Melko, Roger G.
2018-01-01
Efficient and automated classification of phases from minimally processed data is one goal of machine learning in condensed-matter and statistical physics. Supervised algorithms trained on raw samples of microstates can successfully detect conventional phase transitions via learning a bulk feature such as an order parameter. In this paper, we investigate whether neural networks can learn to classify phases based on topological defects. We address this question on the two-dimensional classical XY model which exhibits a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. We find significant feature engineering of the raw spin states is required to convincingly claim that features of the vortex configurations are responsible for learning the transition temperature. We further show a single-layer network does not correctly classify the phases of the XY model, while a convolutional network easily performs classification by learning the global magnetization. Finally, we design a deep network capable of learning vortices without feature engineering. We demonstrate the detection of vortices does not necessarily result in the best classification accuracy, especially for lattices of less than approximately 1000 spins. For larger systems, it remains a difficult task to learn vortices.
Generation of optical vortices in an integrated optical circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tudor, Rebeca; Kusko, Mihai; Kusko, Cristian
2017-09-01
In this work, the generation of optical vortices in an optical integrated circuit is numerically demonstrated. The optical vortices with topological charge m = ±1 are obtained by the coherent superposition of the first order modes present in a waveguide with a rectangular cross section, where the phase delay between these two propagating modes is Δφ = ±π/2. The optical integrated circuit consists of an input waveguide continued with a y-splitter. The left and the right arms of the splitter form two coupling regions K1 and K2 with a multimode output waveguide. In each coupling region, the fundamental modes present in the arms of the splitter are selectively coupled into the output waveguide horizontal and vertical first order modes, respectively. We showed by employing the beam propagation method simulations that the fine tuning of the geometrical parameters of the optical circuit makes possible the generation of optical vortices in both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. Also, we demonstrated that by placing a thermo-optical element on one of the y-splitter arms, it is possible to switch the topological charge of the generated vortex from m = 1 to m = -1.
Jovian Vortices and Barges: HST observations 1994-1998
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Miyazaki, I.
2000-10-01
We have used the HST-WFPC2 archived images of Jupiter in the period 1994-1998 to study the zonal and meridional distributions, long-term motions, lifetimes, interactions and other properties of the vortices larger than 2 degrees. The latitude range covered spans from +75 to -75 degrees. High-resolution images obtained with the 890nm, 410nm and 953nm wavelength filters allowed us to make a morphological classification based on their appearance in each filter. The vortices are anticyclones, and their long-term motions have been completed with ground-based images and are compared to the mean Jovian zonal wind profile. Significant differences are found between the vortex velocities and the mean zonal winds. Some vortices exhibited important drift changes in short period times. We analyze a possible correlation between their size and zonal wind velocity. On the other hand, the "barges" lie in the cyclone domains of the wind-profile and have been identified in several latitudes. Their latitudinal size is similar in all of them (typically 1.6 degrees) but their longitudinal size ranges from 1 to 32 degrees. We discuss the temporal evolution of some of these cyclonic regions. The Spanish team was supported by Gobierno Vasco PI 034/97. The French team was supported by the "Programme National de Planetologie." RM acknowledges a fellowship from Universidad Pais Vasco.
Mechanics of Individual, Isolated Vortices in a Cuprate Superconductor
Auslaender, M.
2010-05-25
Superconductors often contain quantized microscopic whirlpools of electrons, called vortices, that can be modeled as one-dimensional elastic objects. Vortices are a diverse playground for condensed matter because of the interplay between thermal fluctuations, vortex-vortex interactions, and the interaction of the vortex core with the three-dimensional disorder landscape. While vortex matter has been studied extensively, the static and dynamic properties of an individual vortex have not. Here we employ magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to image and manipulate individual vortices in detwinned, single crystal YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.991} (YBCO), directly measuring the interaction of a moving vortex with the local disorder potential.more » We find an unexpected and dramatic enhancement of the response of a vortex to pulling when we wiggle it transversely. In addition, we find enhanced vortex pinning anisotropy that suggests clustering of oxygen vacancies in our sample and demonstrates the power of MFM to probe vortex structure and microscopic defects that cause pinning.« less
Application of Spectroscopic Doppler Velocimetry for Measurement of Streamwise Vorticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fagan, Amy; Zaman, Khairul B.; Elam, Kristie A.; Clem, Michelle M.
2013-01-01
A spectroscopic Doppler velocimetry technique has been developed for measuring two transverse components of velocity and hence streamwise vorticity in free jet flows. The nonintrusive optical measurement system uses Mie scattering from a 200 mW green continuous-wave laser interacting with dust and other tracer particulates naturally present in the air flow to measure the velocities. Scattered light is collected in two opposing directions to provide measurements of two orthogonal velocity components. An air-spaced Fabry-Perot interferometer is used for spectral analysis to determine the optical frequency shift between the incident laser light and the Mie scattered light. This frequency shift is directly proportional to the velocity component in the direction of the bisector of the incident and scattered light wave propagation vectors. Data were acquired for jet Mach numbers of 1.73 and 0.99 using a convergent 1.27-cm diameter round nozzle fitted with a single triangular "delta-tab". The velocity components and the streamwise vorticity calculated from the measurements are presented. The results demonstrate the ability of this novel optical system to obtain velocity and vorticity data without any artificial seeding and using a low power laser system.
Motion in Jupiter's Atmospheric Vortices (Near-infrared filters)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Two frame 'movie' of a pair of vortices in Jupiter's southern hemisphere. The two frames are separated by ten hours. The right oval is rotating counterclockwise, like other anticyclonic bright vortices in Jupiter's atmosphere. The left vortex is a cyclonic (clockwise) vortex. The differences between them (their brightness, their symmetry, and their behavior) are clues to how Jupiter's atmosphere works. The frames span about fifteen degrees in latitude and longitude and are centered at 141 degrees west longitude and 36 degrees south planetocentric latitude. Both vortices are about 3500 kilometers in diameter in the north-south direction.
The images were taken in near infrared light at 756 nanometers and show clouds that are at a pressure level of about 1 bar in Jupiter's atmosphere. North is at the top. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on May 7, 1997, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo
Motion in Jupiter's Atmospheric Vortices (Near-infrared filters)
1998-03-26
Two frame "movie" of a pair of vortices in Jupiter's southern hemisphere. The two frames are separated by ten hours. The right oval is rotating counterclockwise, like other anticyclonic bright vortices in Jupiter's atmosphere. The left vortex is a cyclonic (clockwise) vortex. The differences between them (their brightness, their symmetry, and their behavior) are clues to how Jupiter's atmosphere works. The frames span about fifteen degrees in latitude and longitude and are centered at 141 degrees west longitude and 36 degrees south planetocentric latitude. Both vortices are about 3500 kilometers in diameter in the north-south direction. The images were taken in near infrared light at 756 nanometers and show clouds that are at a pressure level of about 1 bar in Jupiter's atmosphere. North is at the top. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on May 7, 1997, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. An animation is available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01230
MMS Observations of Vorticity Near Sites of Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paterson, W. R.; Giles, B. L.; Avanov, L. A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Mackler, D. A.; Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.; Schiff, C.; Shuster, J. R.; Viñas, A. F.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.
2017-12-01
With highly capable plasma instruments on four spacecraft flown in tetrahedral formation, it is possible for MMS investigators to approximate spatial derivatives of the plasma parameters observed. Here, we examine vorticity of the electron and ion components of the plasma computed from the curl of velocity as measured by the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI). Vorticity of magnetospheric plasma has not previously been studied on scales of tens-of-km to less than 10 km, which are the typical inter-spacecraft separations for MMS. Nor has it been explored on time scales of 30 ms for electrons and 150 ms for ions, which are the burst data rates for the FPI spectrometers. Review of observations from the magnetopause and magnetotail phases of the mission finds increases in vorticity associated with near encounters with the electron diffusion region, with nearby regions of measurable current, and with elevated electron and ion temperatures. These are suggestive of a possible role for turbulence in magnetic reconnection. In this presentation we provide an assessment of the quality of these measurements and discuss their potential significance.
Reversible ratchet effects for vortices in conformal pinning arrays
Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan; Reichhardt, Cynthia Jane Olson
2015-05-04
A conformal transformation of a uniform triangular pinning array produces a structure called a conformal crystal which preserves the sixfold ordering of the original lattice but contains a gradient in the pinning density. Here we use numerical simulations to show that vortices in type-II superconductors driven with an ac drive over gradient pinning arrays produce the most pronounced ratchet effect over a wide range of parameters for a conformal array, while square gradient or random gradient arrays with equivalent pinning densities give reduced ratchet effects. In the conformal array, the larger spacing of the pinning sites in the direction transversemore » to the ac drive permits easy funneling of interstitial vortices for one driving direction, producing the enhanced ratchet effect. In the square array, the transverse spacing between pinning sites is uniform, giving no asymmetry in the funneling of the vortices as the driving direction switches, while in the random array, there are numerous easy-flow channels present for either direction of drive. We find multiple ratchet reversals in the conformal arrays as a function of vortex density and ac amplitude, and correlate the features with a reversal in the vortex ordering, which is greater for motion in the ratchet direction. In conclusion, the enhanced conformal pinning ratchet effect can also be realized for colloidal particles moving over a conformal array, indicating the general usefulness of conformal structures for controlling the motion of particles.« less
The effect of crossflow on Taylor vortices: A model problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Otto, S. R.; Bassom, Andrew P.
1993-01-01
A number of practically relevant problems involving the impulsive motion or the rapid rotation of bodies immersed in fluid are susceptible to vortex-like instability modes. Depending upon the configuration of any particular problem the stability properties of any high-wavenumber vortices can take on one of two distinct forms. One of these is akin to the structure of Gortler vortices in boundary layer flows while the other is similar to the situation for classical Taylor vortices. Both the Gortler and Taylor problems have been extensively studied when crossflow effects are excluded from the underlying base flows. Recently, studies were made concerning the influence of crossflow on Gortler modes and a linearized stability analysis is used to examine crossflow properties for the Taylor mode. This work allows us to identify the most unstable vortex as the crossflow component increases and it is shown how, like the Gortler case, only a very small crossflow component is required in order to completely stabilize the flow. Our investigation forms the basis for an extension to the nonlinear problem and is of potential applicability to a range of pertinent flows.
Helicity and potential vorticity in the surface boundary layer turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chkhetiani, Otto; Kurgansky, Michael; Koprov, Boris; Koprov, Victor
2016-04-01
An experimental measurement of all three components of the velocity and vorticity vectors, as well as the temperature and its gradient, and potential vorticity, has been developed using four acoustic anemometers. Anemometers were placed at vertices of a tetrahedron, the horizontal base of which was a rectangular triangle with equal legs, and the upper point was exactly above the top of the right angle. The distance from the surface to the tetrahedron its base was 5.5 m, and the lengths of legs and a vertical edge were 5 m. The measurements were carried out of total duration near 100 hours both in stable and unstable stratification conditions (at the Tsimlyansk Scientific Station in a uniform area of virgin steppe 700 x 650 m, August 2012). A covariance-correlation matrix for turbulent variations in all measured values has been calculated. In the daytime horizontal and vertical components of the helicity are of the order of -0.03 and +0.01 m s-2, respectively. The nighttime signs remain unchanged, but the absolute values are several times smaller. It is confirmed also by statistics of a relative helicity. The cospectra and spectral correlation coefficients have been calculated for all helicity components. The time variations in the components of "instantaneous" relative helicity and potential vorticity are considered. Connections of helicity with Monin-Obukhov length and the wind vertical profile structure are discussed. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Project No 14-27-00134).
Reconstruction of Propagating Kelvin-Helmholtz Vortices at Mercury's Magnetopause
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sundberg, Torbjoern; Boardsen, Scott A.; Slavin, James A.; Blomberg, Lars G.; Cumnock, Judy A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje
2011-01-01
A series of quasi-periodic magnetopause crossings were recorded by the MESSENGER spacecraft during its third flyby of Mercury on 29 September 2009, likely caused by a train of propagating Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) vortices. We here revisit the observations to study the internal structure of the waves. Exploiting MESSENGER s rapid traversal of the magnetopause, we show that the observations permit a reconstruction of the structure of a rolled-up KH vortex directly from the spacecraft s magnetic field measurements. The derived geometry is consistent with all large-scale fluctuations in the magnetic field data, establishes the non-linear nature of the waves, and shows their vortex-like structure. In several of the wave passages, a reduction in magnetic field strength is observed in the middle of the wave, which is characteristic of rolled-up vortices and is related to the increase in magnetic pressure required to balance the centrifugal force on the plasma in the outer regions of a vortex, previously reported in computer simulations. As the KH wave starts to roll up, the reconstructed geometry suggests that the vortices develop two gradual transition regions in the magnetic field, possibly related to the mixing of magnetosheath and magnetospheric plasma, situated at the leading edges from the perspectives of both the magnetosphere and the magnetosheath.
Numerical evaluation of gas core length in free surface vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cristofano, L.; Nobili, M.; Caruso, G.
2014-11-01
The formation and evolution of free surface vortices represent an important topic in many hydraulic intakes, since strong whirlpools introduce swirl flow at the intake, and could cause entrainment of floating matters and gas. In particular, gas entrainment phenomena are an important safety issue for Sodium cooled Fast Reactors, because the introduction of gas bubbles within the core causes dangerous reactivity fluctuation. In this paper, a numerical evaluation of the gas core length in free surface vortices is presented, according to two different approaches. In the first one, a prediction method, developed by the Japanese researcher Sakai and his team, has been applied. This method is based on the Burgers vortex model, and it is able to estimate the gas core length of a free surface vortex starting from two parameters calculated with single-phase CFD simulations. The two parameters are the circulation and the downward velocity gradient. The other approach consists in performing a two-phase CFD simulation of a free surface vortex, in order to numerically reproduce the gas- liquid interface deformation. Mapped convergent mesh is used to reduce numerical error and a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method was selected to track the gas-liquid interface. Two different turbulence models have been tested and analyzed. Experimental measurements of free surface vortices gas core length have been executed, using optical methods, and numerical results have been compared with experimental measurements. The computational domain and the boundary conditions of the CFD simulations were set consistently with the experimental test conditions.
Vortical ciliary flows actively enhance mass transport in reef corals.
Shapiro, Orr H; Fernandez, Vicente I; Garren, Melissa; Guasto, Jeffrey S; Debaillon-Vesque, François P; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Vardi, Assaf; Stocker, Roman
2014-09-16
The exchange of nutrients and dissolved gasses between corals and their environment is a critical determinant of the growth of coral colonies and the productivity of coral reefs. To date, this exchange has been assumed to be limited by molecular diffusion through an unstirred boundary layer extending 1-2 mm from the coral surface, with corals relying solely on external flow to overcome this limitation. Here, we present direct microscopic evidence that, instead, corals can actively enhance mass transport through strong vortical flows driven by motile epidermal cilia covering their entire surface. Ciliary beating produces quasi-steady arrays of counterrotating vortices that vigorously stir a layer of water extending up to 2 mm from the coral surface. We show that, under low ambient flow velocities, these vortices, rather than molecular diffusion, control the exchange of nutrients and oxygen between the coral and its environment, enhancing mass transfer rates by up to 400%. This ability of corals to stir their boundary layer changes the way that we perceive the microenvironment of coral surfaces, revealing an active mechanism complementing the passive enhancement of transport by ambient flow. These findings extend our understanding of mass transport processes in reef corals and may shed new light on the evolutionary success of corals and coral reefs.
Streamwise Vorticity Generation in Laminar and Turbulent Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, Aodeji O.; Wilson, Robert V.
1999-01-01
Complex streamwise vorticity fields are observed in the evolution of non-circular jets. Generation mechanisms are investigated via Reynolds-averaged (RANS), large-eddy (LES) and direct numerical (DNS) simulations of laminar and turbulent rectangular jets. Complex vortex interactions are found in DNS of laminar jets, but axis-switching is observed only when a single instability mode is present in the incoming mixing layer. With several modes present, the structures are not coherent and no axis-switching occurs, RANS computations also produce no axis-switching. On the other hand, LES of high Reynolds number turbulent jets produce axis-switching even for cases with several instability modes in the mixing layer. Analysis of the source terms of the mean streamwise vorticity equation through post-processing of the instantaneous results shows that, complex interactions of gradients of the normal and shear Reynolds stresses are responsible for the generation of streamwise vorticity which leads to axis-switching. RANS computations confirm these results. k - epsilon turbulence model computations fail to reproduce the phenomenon, whereas algebraic Reynolds stress model (ASM) computations, in which the secondary normal and shear stresses are computed explicitly, succeeded in reproducing the phenomenon accurately.
Magnetorheological effect in the magnetic field oriented along the vorticity
Kuzhir, P., E-mail: pavel.kuzhir@unice.fr; Magnet, C.; Fezai, H.
2014-11-01
In this work, we have studied the magnetorheological (MR) fluid rheology in the magnetic field parallel to the fluid vorticity. Experimentally, the MR fluid flow was realized in the Couette coaxial cylinder geometry with the magnetic field parallel to the symmetry axis. The rheological measurements were compared to those obtained in the cone-plate geometry with the magnetic field perpendicular to the lower rheometer plate. Experiments revealed a quasi-Bingham behavior in both geometries with the stress level being just a few dozens of percent smaller in the Couette cylindrical geometry at the same internal magnetic field. The unexpectedly high MR responsemore » in the magnetic field parallel to the fluid vorticity is explained by stochastic fluctuations of positions and orientations of the particle aggregates. These fluctuations are induced by magnetic interactions between them. Once misaligned from the vorticity direction, the aggregates generate a high stress independent of the shear rate, and thus assimilated to the suspension apparent (dynamic) yield stress. Quantitatively, the fluctuations of the aggregate orientation are modeled as a rotary diffusion process with a diffusion constant proportional to the mean square interaction torque. The model gives a satisfactory agreement with the experimental field dependency of the apparent yield stress and confirms the nearly quadratic concentration dependency σ{sub Y}∝Φ{sup 2.2}, revealed in experiments. The practical interest of this study lies in the development of MR smart devices with the magnetic field nonperpendicular to the channel walls.« less
Modeling Postconvective Submesoscale Coherent Vortices in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damien, P.; Bosse, A.; Testor, P.; Marsaleix, P.; Estournel, C.
2017-12-01
For the first time, the formation of submesoscale coherent vortices (SCVs) during intermediate and deep convection events is documented in a realistic high-resolution (1 km) numerical simulation of the oceanic circulation in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Winter intermediate and deep convection leads to the formation of anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies with lifetimes exceeding 1 year. By focusing on three typical eddies, the main characteristics of such vortices are discussed. The anticyclonic eddies are typical of SCVs observed in deep convection areas so far. They are characterized by a small radius (˜6.5 km) and orbital peak velocities of about 7 cm/s located at great depth (˜1500 m) or intermediate depth (˜500 m). The cyclonic vortices show very similar characteristics, such as a high Rossby number (˜0.4), but with surface-intensified structures. The long lifetimes of both anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies reflect very slow diffusive processes between their core and their surroundings and a strong resistance to external perturbations. These long-lived eddies are found to participate in the spreading of a significant portion (from 15 to 35%) of the convected waters in the Gulf of Lions and contribute to the ventilation of the deep basin.
The impact of intraglottal vortices on vocal fold dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erath, Byron; Pirnia, Alireza; Peterson, Sean
2016-11-01
During voiced speech a critical pressure is produced in the lungs that separates the vocal folds and creates a passage (the glottis) for airflow. As air passes through the vocal folds the resulting aerodynamic loading, coupled with the tissue properties of the vocal folds, produces self-sustained oscillations. Throughout each cycle a complex flow field develops, characterized by a plethora of viscous flow phenomena. Air passing through the glottis creates a jet, with periodically-shed vortices developing due to flow separation and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer. These vortices have been hypothesized to be a crucial mechanism for producing vocal fold vibrations. In this study the effect of vortices on the vocal fold dynamics is investigated experimentally by passing a vortex ring over a flexible beam with the same non-dimensional mechanical properties as the vocal folds. Synchronized particle image velocimetry data are acquired in tandem with the beam dynamics. The resulting impact of the vortex ring loading on vocal fold dynamics is discussed in detail. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant CBET #1511761.
Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers to Acoustic and Vortical Disturbances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakamar, P.; Kegerise, Michael A.
2011-01-01
Boundary layer receptivity to two-dimensional acoustic disturbances at different incidence angles and to vortical disturbances is investigated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 6 flow over a 7deg half-angle sharp-tipped wedge and a cone. Higher order spatial and temporal schemes are employed to obtain the solution. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves as compared to the fast waves. It is found that the receptivity of the boundary layer on the windward side (with respect to the acoustic forcing) decreases when the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 30 degrees. However, the receptivity coefficient for the leeward side is found to vary relatively weakly with the incidence angle. The maximum receptivity is obtained when the wave incident angle is about 20 degrees. Vortical disturbances also generate unstable second modes, however the receptivity coefficients are smaller than that for the acoustic waves. Vortical disturbances first generate the fast acoustic modes and they switch to the slow mode near the continuous spectrum.
First measurement of the Sivers asymmetry for gluons using SIDIS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adolph, C.; Aghasyan, M.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N. V.; Anosov, V.; Antoshkin, A.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giarra, J.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; D'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuß, E.; Kerbizi, A.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O. M.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G. V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Roskot, M.; Rogacheva, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Thiel, A.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Vauth, A.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wallner, S.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.; Compass Collaboration
2017-09-01
The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. For quarks, it was studied in previous measurements of the azimuthal asymmetry of hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of leptons off transversely polarised nucleon targets, and it was found to be non-zero. In this letter the evaluation of the Sivers asymmetry for gluons is presented. The contribution of the photon-gluon fusion subprocess is enhanced by requiring two high transverse-momentum hadrons. The analysis method is based on a Monte Carlo simulation that includes three hard processes: photon-gluon fusion, QCD Compton scattering and the leading-order virtual-photon absorption process. The Sivers asymmetries of the three processes are simultaneously extracted using the LEPTO event generator and a neural network approach. The method is applied to samples of events containing at least two hadrons with large transverse momentum from the COMPASS data taken with a 160 GeV/c muon beam scattered off transversely polarised deuterons and protons. With a significance of about two standard deviations, a negative value is obtained for the gluon Sivers asymmetry. The result of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons is consistent with zero.
Regularization of the light-cone gauge gluon propagator singularities using sub-gauge conditions
Chirilli, Giovanni A.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Wertepny, Douglas E.
2015-12-21
Perturbative QCD calculations in the light-cone gauge have long suffered from the ambiguity associated with the regularization of the poles in the gluon propagator. In this work we study sub-gauge conditions within the light-cone gauge corresponding to several known ways of regulating the gluon propagator. By using the functional integral calculation of the gluon propagator, we rederive the known sub-gauge conditions for the θ-function gauges and identify the sub-gauge condition for the principal value (PV) regularization of the gluon propagator’s light-cone poles. The obtained sub-gauge condition for the PV case is further verified by a sample calculation of the classicalmore » Yang-Mills field of two collinear ultrarelativistic point color charges. Our method does not allow one to construct a sub-gauge condition corresponding to the well-known Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription for regulating the gluon propagator poles.« less
Thermalization of mini-jets in a quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iancu, Edmond; Wu, Bin
2015-10-01
We complete the physical picture for the evolution of a high-energy jet propagating through a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma by investigating the thermalization of the soft components of the jet. We argue that the following scenario should hold: the leading particle emits a significant number of mini-jets which promptly evolve via quasi-democratic branchings and thus degrade into a myriad of soft gluons, with energies of the order of the medium temperature T. Via elastic collisions with the medium constituents, these soft gluons relax to local thermal equilibrium with the plasma over a time scale which is considerably shorter than the typical lifetime of the mini-jet. The thermalized gluons form a tail which lags behind the hard components of the jet. We support this scenario, first, via parametric arguments and, next, by studying a simplified kinetic equation, which describes the jet dynamics in longitudinal phase-space. We solve the kinetic equation using both (semi-)analytical and numerical methods. In particular, we obtain the first exact, analytic, solutions to the ultrarelativistic Fokker-Planck equation in one-dimensional phase-space. Our results confirm the physical picture aforementioned and demonstrate the quenching of the jet via multiple branching followed by the thermalization of the soft gluons in the cascades.
Gluon and Wilson loop TMDs for hadrons of spin ≤ 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boer, Daniël; Cotogno, Sabrina; van Daal, Tom; Mulders, Piet J.; Signori, Andrea; Zhou, Ya-Jin
2016-10-01
In this paper we consider the parametrizations of gluon transverse momentum dependent (TMD) correlators in terms of TMD parton distribution functions (PDFs). These functions, referred to as TMDs, are defined as the Fourier transforms of hadronic matrix elements of nonlocal combinations of gluon fields. The nonlocality is bridged by gauge links, which have characteristic paths (future or past pointing), giving rise to a process dependence that breaks universality. For gluons, the specific correlator with one future and one past pointing gauge link is, in the limit of small x, related to a correlator of a single Wilson loop. We present the parametrization of Wilson loop correlators in terms of Wilson loop TMDs and discuss the relation between these functions and the small- x `dipole' gluon TMDs. This analysis shows which gluon TMDs are leading or suppressed in the small- x limit. We discuss hadronic targets that are unpolarized, vector polarized (relevant for spin-1 /2 and spin-1 hadrons), and tensor polarized (relevant for spin-1 hadrons). The latter are of interest for studies with a future Electron-Ion Collider with polarized deuterons.
Dust-trapping Rossby vortices in protoplanetary disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meheut, H.; Meliani, Z.; Varniere, P.; Benz, W.
2012-09-01
Context. One of the most challenging steps in planet formation theory is the one leading to the formation of planetesimals of kilometre size. A promising scenario involves the existence of vortices able to concentrate a large amount of dust and grains in their centres. Up to now this scenario has mostly been studied in 2D razor thin disks. A 3D study including, simultaneously, the formation and resulting dust concentration of the vortices with vertical settling, is still missing. Aims: The Rossby wave instability self-consistently forms 3D vortices, which have the unique quality of presenting a large-scale vertical velocity in their centre. Here we aim to study how this newly discovered effect can alter the dynamic evolution of the dust. Methods: We performed global 3D simulations of the RWI in a radially and vertically stratified disk using the code MPI-AMRVAC. After the growth phase of the instability, the gas and solid phases are modelled by a bi-fluid approach, where the dust is considered as a fluid without pressure. Both the drag force of the gas on the dust and the back reaction of the dust on the gas are included. Multiple grain sizes from 1 mm to 5 cm are used with a constant density distribution. Results: We obtain in a short timescale a high concentration of the largest grains in the vortices. Indeed, in 3 rotations the dust-to-gas density ratio grows from 10-2 to unity leading to a concentration of mass up to that of Mars in one vortex. The presence of the radial drift is also at the origin of a dust pile-up at the radius of the vortices. Lastly, the vertical velocity of the gas in the vortex causes the sedimentation process to be reversed, the mm size dust is lifted and higher concentrations are obtained in the upper layer than in the midplane. Conclusions: The Rossby wave instability is a promising mechanism for planetesimal formation, and the results presented here can be of particular interest in the context of future observations of protoplanetary
Dynamics of vortices in complex wakes: Modeling, analysis, and experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Saikat
The thesis develops singly-periodic mathematical models for complex laminar wakes which are formed behind vortex-shedding bluff bodies. These wake structures exhibit a variety of patterns as the bodies oscillate or are in close proximity of one another. The most well-known formation comprises two counter-rotating vortices in each shedding cycle and is popularly known as the von Karman vortex street. Of the more complex configurations, as a specific example, this thesis investigates one of the most commonly occurring wake arrangements, which consists of two pairs of vortices in each shedding period. The paired vortices are, in general, counter-rotating and belong to a more general definition of the 2P mode, which involves periodic release of four vortices into the flow. The 2P arrangement can, primarily, be sub-classed into two types: one with a symmetric orientation of the two vortex pairs about the streamwise direction in a periodic domain and the other in which the two vortex pairs per period are placed in a staggered geometry about the wake centerline. The thesis explores the governing dynamics of such wakes and characterizes the corresponding relative vortex motion. In general, for both the symmetric as well as the staggered four vortex periodic arrangements, the thesis develops two-dimensional potential flow models (consisting of an integrable Hamiltonian system of point vortices) that consider spatially periodic arrays of four vortices with their strengths being +/-Gamma1 and +/-Gamma2. Vortex formations observed in the experiments inspire the assumed spatial symmetry. The models demonstrate a number of dynamic modes that are classified using a bifurcation analysis of the phase space topology, consisting of level curves of the Hamiltonian. Despite the vortex strengths in each pair being unequal in magnitude, some initial conditions lead to relative equilibrium when the vortex configuration moves with invariant size and shape. The scaled comparisons of the
Three-dimensional flow visualization and vorticity dynamics in revolving wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Bo; Sane, Sanjay P.; Barbera, Giovanni; Troolin, Daniel R.; Strand, Tyson; Deng, Xinyan
2013-01-01
We investigated the three-dimensional vorticity dynamics of the flows generated by revolving wings using a volumetric 3-component velocimetry system. The three-dimensional velocity and vorticity fields were represented with respect to the base axes of rotating Cartesian reference frames, and the second invariant of the velocity gradient was evaluated and used as a criterion to identify two core vortex structures. The first structure was a composite of leading, trailing, and tip-edge vortices attached to the wing edges, whereas the second structure was a strong tip vortex tilted from leading-edge vortices and shed into the wake together with the vorticity generated at the tip edge. Using the fundamental vorticity equation, we evaluated the convection, stretching, and tilting of vorticity in the rotating wing frame to understand the generation and evolution of vorticity. Based on these data, we propose that the vorticity generated at the leading edge is carried away by strong tangential flow into the wake and travels downwards with the induced downwash. The convection by spanwise flow is comparatively negligible. The three-dimensional flow in the wake also exhibits considerable vortex tilting and stretching. Together these data underscore the complex and interconnected vortical structures and dynamics generated by revolving wings.
Hunting the Gluon Orbital Angular Momentum at the Electron-Ion Collider.
Ji, Xiangdong; Yuan, Feng; Zhao, Yong
2017-05-12
Applying the connection between the parton Wigner distribution and orbital angular momentum (OAM), we investigate the probe of the gluon OAM in hard scattering processes at the planned electron-ion collider. We show that the single longitudinal target-spin asymmetry in the hard diffractive dijet production is very sensitive to the gluon OAM distribution. The associated spin asymmetry leads to a characteristic azimuthal angular correlation of sin(ϕ_{q}-ϕ_{Δ}), where ϕ_{Δ} and ϕ_{q} are the azimuthal angles of the proton momentum transfer and the relative transverse momentum between the quark-antiquark pair. This study may motivate a first measurement of the gluon OAM in the proton spin sum rule.
Precision Determination of the Small-x Gluon from Charm Production at LHCb.
Gauld, Rhorry; Rojo, Juan
2017-02-17
The small-x gluon in global fits of parton distributions is affected by large uncertainties from the lack of direct experimental constraints. In this Letter, we provide a precision determination of the small-x gluon from the exploitation of forward charm production data provided by LHCb for three different center-of-mass (c.m.) energies: 5 TeV, 7 TeV, and 13 TeV. The LHCb measurements are included in the parton distribution function (PDF) fit by means of normalized distributions and cross-section ratios between data taken at different c.m. values, R_{13/7} and R_{13/5}. We demonstrate that forward charm production leads to a reduction of the PDF uncertainties of the gluon down to x≃10^{-6} by up to an order of magnitude, with implications for high-energy colliders, cosmic ray physics, and neutrino astronomy.
Event-by-Event Simulations of Early Gluon Fields in High Energy Nuclear Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nickel, Matthew; Rose, Steven; Fries, Rainer
2017-09-01
Collisions of heavy ions are carried out at ultra relativistic speeds at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider to create Quark Gluon Plasma. The earliest stages of such collisions are dominated by the dynamics of classical gluon fields. The McLerran-Venugopalan (MV) model of color glass condensate provides a model for this process. Previous research has provided an analytic solution for event averaged observables in the MV model. Using the High Performance Research Computing Center (HPRC) at Texas A&M, we have developed a C++ code to explicitly calculate the initial gluon fields and energy momentum tensor event by event using the analytic recursive solution. The code has been tested against previously known analytic results up to fourth order. We have also have been able to test the convergence of the recursive solution at high orders in time and studied the time evolution of color glass condensate.
Flow structure and vorticity transport on a plunging wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eslam Panah, Azar
The structure and dynamics of the flow field created by a plunging flat plate airfoil are investigated at a chord Reynolds number of 10,000 while varying plunge amplitude and Strouhal number. Digital particle image velocimetry measurements are used to characterize the shedding patterns and the interactions between the leading and trailing edge vortex structures (LEV and TEV), resulting in the development of a wake classification system based on the nature and timing of interactions between the leading- and trailing-edge vortices. The convection speed of the LEV and its resulting interaction with the TEV is primarily dependent on reduced frequency; however, at Strouhal numbers above approximately 0.4, a significant influence of Strouhal number (or plunge amplitude) is observed in which LEV convection is retarded, and the contribution of the LEV to the wake is diminished. It is shown that this effect is caused by an enhanced interaction between the LEV and the airfoil surface, due to a significant increase in the strength of the vortices in this Strouhal number range, for all plunge amplitudes investigated. Comparison with low-Reynolds-number studies of plunging airfoil aerodynamics reveals a high degree of consistency and suggests applicability of the classification system beyond the range examined in the present work. Some important differences are also observed. The three-dimensional flow field was characterized for a plunging two-dimensional flat-plate airfoil using three-dimensional reconstructions of planar PIV data. Whereas the phase-averaged description of the flow field shows the secondary vortex penetrating the leading-edge shear layer to terminate LEV formation on the airfoil, time-resolved, instantaneous PIV measurements show a continuous and growing entrainment of secondary vorticity into the shear layer and LEV. A planar control volume analysis on the airfoil indicated that the generation of secondary vorticity produced approximately one half the
Low-Virtuality Leptoproduction of Open-Charm as a Probe of the Gluon Sivers Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godbole, Rohini M.; Kaushik, Abhiram; Misra, Anuradha
2018-05-01
We propose low-virtuality leptoproduction of open-charm, p^\\uparrow l→ D^0+X, as a probe of the gluon Sivers function (GSF). At leading-order, this process directly probes the gluon content of the proton, making detection of a trasverse single-spin asymmetry in the process a clear indication of a non-zero GSF. Considering the kinematics of the proposed future Electron-Ion Collider, we present predictions for asymmetry using fits of the GSF available in literature. We also study the asymmetry at the level of muons produced in D-meson decays and find that the asymmetry is preserved therein as well.
Gluon and ghost correlation functions of 2-color QCD at finite density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajizadeh, Ouraman; Boz, Tamer; Maas, Axel; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar
2018-03-01
2-color QCD, i. e. QCD with the gauge group SU(2), is the simplest non-Abelian gauge theory without sign problem at finite quark density. Therefore its study on the lattice is a benchmark for other non-perturbative approaches at finite density. To provide such benchmarks we determine the minimal-Landau-gauge 2-point and 3-gluon correlation functions of the gauge sector and the running gauge coupling at finite density. We observe no significant effects, except for some low-momentum screening of the gluons at and above the supposed high-density phase transition.
Stopping distance for high energy jets in weakly coupled quark-gluon plasmas
Arnold, Peter; Cantrell, Sean; Xiao Wei
2010-02-15
We derive a simple formula for the stopping distance for a high-energy quark traveling through a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma. The result is given to next-to-leading order in an expansion in inverse logarithms ln(E/T), where T is the temperature of the plasma. We also define a stopping distance for gluons and give a leading-log result. Discussion of stopping distance has a theoretical advantage over discussion of energy loss rates in that stopping distances can be generalized to the case of strong coupling, where one may not speak of individual partons.
Production of a pseudoscalar Higgs boson with a Z boson from gluon fusion
Kao, C.
1992-12-01
The minimal supersymmetric model is adopted to study the production of a pseudoscalar Higgs boson ({ital A}) in association with a {ital Z} gauge boson from gluon fusion ({ital gg}{r arrow}{ital ZA}) at future hadron supercolliders. Its production rate is determined and compared to that of the associated production of the standard model Higgs boson ({ital H}{sub SM}) with a {ital Z} boson from quark-antiquark annihilation ({ital q{bar q}}{r arrow}{ital ZH}{sub SM}) and gluon fusion ({ital gg}{r arrow}{ital ZH}{sub SM}). Some promising decay modes are suggested for detection.
Influence of the least-squares phase on optical vortices in strongly scintillated beams
Chen Mingzhou; Roux, Filippus S.; National Laser Centre, CSIR, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001
2009-07-15
The optical vortices that exist in strongly scintillated beams make it difficult for conventional adaptive optics systems to remove the phase distortions. When the least-squares reconstructed phase is removed, the vortices still remain. However, we found that the removal of the least-squares phase induces a portion of the vortices to be annihilated during subsequent propagation, causing a reduction in the total number of vortices. This can be understood in terms of the restoration of equilibrium between explicit vortices, which are visible in the phase function, and vortex bound states, which are somehow encoded in the continuous phase fluctuations. Numerical simulationsmore » are provided to show that the total number of optical vortices in a strongly scintillated beam can be reduced significantly after a few steps of least-squares phase corrections.« less
Quantized vortices in arbitrary dimensions and the normal-to-superfluid phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bora, Florin
The structure and energetics of superflow around quantized vortices, and the motion inherited by these vortices from this superflow, are explored in the general setting of a superfluid in arbitrary dimensions. The vortices may be idealized as objects of co-dimension two, such as one-dimensional loops and two-dimensional closed surfaces, respectively, in the cases of three- and four-dimensional superfluidity. By using the analogy between vortical superflow and Ampere-Maxwell magnetostatics, the equilibrium superflow containing any specified collection of vortices is constructed. The energy of the superflow is found to take on a simple form for vortices that are smooth and asymptotically large, compared with the vortex core size. The motion of vortices is analyzed in general, as well as for the special cases of hyper-spherical and weakly distorted hyper-planar vortices. In all dimensions, vortex motion reflects vortex geometry. In dimension four and higher, this includes not only extrinsic but also intrinsic aspects of the vortex shape, which enter via the first and second fundamental forms of classical geometry. For hyper-spherical vortices, which generalize the vortex rings of three dimensional superfluidity, the energy-momentum relation is determined. Simple scaling arguments recover the essential features of these results, up to numerical and logarithmic factors. Extending these results to systems containing multiple vortices is elementary due to the linearity of the theory. The energy for multiple vortices is thus a sum of self-energies and power-law interaction terms. The statistical mechanics of a system containing vortices is addressed via the grand canonical partition function. A renormalization-group analysis in which the low energy excitations are integrated approximately, is used to compute certain critical coefficients. The exponents obtained via this approximate procedure are compared with values obtained previously by other means. For dimensions higher
Visible-Frequency Metasurface for Structuring and Spatially Multiplexing Optical Vortices.
Mehmood, M Q; Mei, Shengtao; Hussain, Sajid; Huang, Kun; Siew, S Y; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Tianhang; Ling, Xiaohui; Liu, Hong; Teng, Jinghua; Danner, Aaron; Zhang, Shuang; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2016-04-06
A multifocus optical vortex metalens, with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, is presented, which focuses three longitudinal vortices with distinct topological charges at different focal planes. The design largely extends the flexibility of tuning the number of vortices and their focal positions for circularly polarized light in a compact device, which provides the convenience for the nanomanipulation of optical vortices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Vorticity and symplecticity in multi-symplectic, Lagrangian gas dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webb, G. M.; Anco, S. C.
2016-02-01
The Lagrangian, multi-dimensional, ideal, compressible gas dynamic equations are written in a multi-symplectic form, in which the Lagrangian fluid labels, m i (the Lagrangian mass coordinates) and time t are the independent variables, and in which the Eulerian position of the fluid element {x}={x}({m},t) and the entropy S=S({m},t) are the dependent variables. Constraints in the variational principle are incorporated by means of Lagrange multipliers. The constraints are: the entropy advection equation S t = 0, the Lagrangian map equation {{x}}t={u} where {u} is the fluid velocity, and the mass continuity equation which has the form J=τ where J={det}({x}{ij}) is the Jacobian of the Lagrangian map in which {x}{ij}=\\partial {x}i/\\partial {m}j and τ =1/ρ is the specific volume of the gas. The internal energy per unit volume of the gas \\varepsilon =\\varepsilon (ρ ,S) corresponds to a non-barotropic gas. The Lagrangian is used to define multi-momenta, and to develop de Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian equations. The de Donder-Weyl equations are cast in a multi-symplectic form. The pullback conservation laws and the symplecticity conservation laws are obtained. One class of symplecticity conservation laws give rise to vorticity and potential vorticity type conservation laws, and another class of symplecticity laws are related to derivatives of the Lagrangian energy conservation law with respect to the Lagrangian mass coordinates m i . We show that the vorticity-symplecticity laws can be derived by a Lie dragging method, and also by using Noether’s second theorem and a fluid relabelling symmetry which is a divergence symmetry of the action. We obtain the Cartan-Poincaré form describing the equations and we discuss a set of differential forms representing the equation system.
Active Management of Flap-Edge Trailing Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenblatt, David; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Vey, Stefan; Paschereit, Oliver C.; Meyer, Robert
2008-01-01
The vortex hazard produced by large airliners and increasingly larger airliners entering service, combined with projected rapid increases in the demand for air transportation, is expected to act as a major impediment to increased air traffic capacity. Significant reduction in the vortex hazard is possible, however, by employing active vortex alleviation techniques that reduce the wake severity by dynamically modifying its vortex characteristics, providing that the techniques do not degrade performance or compromise safety and ride quality. With this as background, a series of experiments were performed, initially at NASA Langley Research Center and subsequently at the Berlin University of Technology in collaboration with the German Aerospace Center. The investigations demonstrated the basic mechanism for managing trailing vortices using retrofitted devices that are decoupled from conventional control surfaces. The basic premise for managing vortices advanced here is rooted in the erstwhile forgotten hypothesis of Albert Betz, as extended and verified ingeniously by Coleman duPont Donaldson and his collaborators. Using these devices, vortices may be perturbed at arbitrarily long wavelengths down to wavelengths less than a typical airliner wingspan and the oscillatory loads on the wings, and hence the vehicle, are small. Significant flexibility in the specific device has been demonstrated using local passive and active separation control as well as local circulation control via Gurney flaps. The method is now in a position to be tested in a wind tunnel with a longer test section on a scaled airliner configuration. Alternatively, the method can be tested directly in a towing tank, on a model aircraft, a light aircraft or a full-scale airliner. The authors believed that this method will have significant appeal from an industry perspective due to its retrofit potential with little to no impact on cruise (devices tucked away in the cove or retracted); low operating power
Vortex identification from local properties of the vorticity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elsas, J. H.; Moriconi, L.
2017-01-01
A number of systematic procedures for the identification of vortices/coherent structures have been developed as a way to address their possible kinematical and dynamical roles in structural formulations of turbulence. It has been broadly acknowledged, however, that vortex detection algorithms, usually based on linear-algebraic properties of the velocity gradient tensor, can be plagued with severe shortcomings and may become, in practical terms, dependent on the choice of subjective threshold parameters in their implementations. In two-dimensions, a large class of standard vortex identification prescriptions turn out to be equivalent to the "swirling strength criterion" (λc i-criterion), which is critically revisited in this work. We classify the instances where the accuracy of the λc i-criterion is affected by nonlinear superposition effects and propose an alternative vortex detection scheme based on the local curvature properties of the vorticity graph (x ,y ,ω ) —the "vorticity curvature criterion" (λω-criterion)—which improves over the results obtained with the λc i-criterion in controlled Monte Carlo tests. A particularly problematic issue, given its importance in wall-bounded flows, is the eventual inadequacy of the λc i-criterion for many-vortex configurations in the presence of strong background shear. We show that the λω-criterion is able to cope with these cases as well, if a subtraction of the mean velocity field background is performed, in the spirit of the Reynolds decomposition procedure. A realistic comparative study for vortex identification is then carried out for a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent channel flow, including a three-dimensional extension of the λω-criterion. In contrast to the λc i-criterion, the λω-criterion indicates in a consistent way the existence of small scale isotropic turbulent fluctuations in the logarithmic layer, in consonance with long-standing assumptions commonly taken in turbulent boundary
Layering of sustained vortices in rotating stratified fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubert, O.; Le Bars, M.; Le Gal, P.
2013-05-01
The ocean is a natural stratified fluid layer where large structures are influenced by the rotation of the planet through the Coriolis force. In particular, the ocean Meddies are long-lived anticyclonic pancake vortices of Mediterranean origin evolving in the Atlantic Ocean: they have a saltier and warmer core than the sourrounding oceanic water, their diameters go up to 100 km and they can survive for 2 to 3 years in the ocean. Their extensive study using seismic images revealed finestructures surrounding their core (Biescas et al., 2008; Ruddick et al., 2009) corresponding to layers of constant density which thickness is about 40 m and horizontal extent is more than 10 km. These layers can have different origins: salt fingers from a double-diffusive instabilities of salt and heat (Ruddick & Gargett, 2003), viscous overturning motions from a double-diffusive instabilities of salt and momentum (McIntyre, 1970) or global modes of the quasi-geostrophic instability (Nguyen et al., 2011)? As observed by Griffiths & Linden (1981), sustained laboratory anticyclonic vortices created via a continuous injection of isodense fluid in a rotating and linearly stratified layer of salty water are quickly surrounded by layers of constant density. In the continuity of their experiments, we systematically investigated the double-diffusive instability of McIntyre by varying the Coriolis parameter f and the buoyancy frequency N of the background both in experiments and in numerical simulations, and studied the influence of the Schmidt number in numerical simulations. Following McIntyre's approach, typical length and time scales of the instability are well described by a linear stability analysis based on a gaussian model that fits both laboratory and oceanic vortices. The instability appears to be favoured by high Rossby numbers and ratios f/N. We then apply these results to ocean Meddies and conclude about their stability.
Self-focusing of ultraintense femtosecond optical vortices in air.
Polynkin, P; Ament, C; Moloney, J V
2013-07-12
Our experiments show that the critical power for self-focusing collapse of femtosecond vortex beams in air is significantly higher than that of a flattop beam and grows approximately linearly with the vortex order. With less than 10% of initial transverse intensity modulation of the beam profiles, the dominant mode of self-focusing collapse is the azimuthal breakup of the vortex rings into individual filaments, the number of which grows with the input beam power. The generated bottlelike distributions of plasma filaments rotate on propagation in the direction determined by the sense of vorticity.
Nucleation of Quantized Vortices from Rotating Superfluid Drops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donnelly, Russell J.
2001-01-01
The long-term goal of this project is to study the nucleation of quantized vortices in helium II by investigating the behavior of rotating droplets of helium II in a reduced gravity environment. The objective of this ground-based research grant was to develop new experimental techniques to aid in accomplishing that goal. The development of an electrostatic levitator for superfluid helium, described below, and the successful suspension of charged superfluid drops in modest electric fields was the primary focus of this work. Other key technologies of general low temperature use were developed and are also discussed.
Direct simulation of high-vorticity gas flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bird, G. A.
1987-01-01
The computational limitations associated with the molecular dynamics (MD) method and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method are reviewed in the context of the computation of dilute gas flows with high vorticity. It is concluded that the MD method is generally limited to the dense gas case in which the molecular diameter is one-tenth or more of the mean free path. It is shown that the cell size in DSMC calculations should be small in comparison with the mean free path, and that this may be facilitated by a new subcell procedure for the selection of collision partners.
On hairpin vortices as model of wall turbulence structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, N.-S.; Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1985-01-01
A model of the hairpin vortex has been constructed and used in two distinct but related approaches. The first approach is kinematic in nature in which a synthesis procedure using hairpin vortices to provide a quantitative link between mean flow quantities and the statistical quantities of near wall turbulence has become developed. The second approach is dynamic in nature, and the evolution of an incipient 'representative' hairpin vortex as well as the distortion of a background laminar boundary layer flow, in which the hairpin vortex is immersed, has been simulated by numerical solution of the unsteady, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations.
Effects of boundary layer forcing on wing-tip vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw-Ward, Samantha
The nature of turbulence within wing-tip vortices has been a topic of research for decades, yet accurate measurements of Reynolds stresses within the core are inherently difficult due to the bulk motion wandering caused by initial and boundary conditions in wind tunnels. As a result, characterization of a vortex as laminar or turbulent is inconclusive and highly contradicting. This research uses several experimental techniques to study the effects of broadband turbulence, introduced within the wing boundary layer, on the development of wing-tip vortices. Two rectangular wings with a NACA 0012 profile were fabricated for the use of this research. One wing had a smooth finish and the other rough, introduced by P80 grade sandpaper. Force balance measurements showed a small reduction in wing performance due to surface roughness for both 2D and 3D configurations, although stall characteristics remained relatively unchanged. Seven-hole probes were purpose-built and used to assess the mean velocity profiles of the vortices five chord lengths downstream of the wing at multiple angles of attack. Above an incidence of 4 degrees, the vortices were nearly axisymmetric, and the wing roughness reduced both velocity gradients and peak velocity magnitudes within the vortex. Laser Doppler velocimetry was used to further assess the time-resolved vortex at an incidence of 5 degrees. Evidence of wake shedding frequencies and wing shear layer instabilities at higher frequencies were seen in power spectra within the vortex. Unlike the introduction of freestream turbulence, wing surface roughness did not appear to increase wandering amplitude. A new method for removing the effects of vortex wandering is proposed with the use of carefully selected high-pass filters. The filtered data revealed that the Reynolds stress profiles of the vortex produced by the smooth and rough wing were similar in shape, with a peak occurring away from the vortex centre but inside of the core. Single hot
A simple hydrodynamic model of tornado-like vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurgansky, M. V.
2015-05-01
Based on similarity arguments, a simple fluid dynamic model of tornado-like vortices is offered that, with account for "vortex breakdown" at a certain height above the ground, relates the maximal azimuthal velocity in the vortex, reachable near the ground surface, to the convective available potential energy (CAPE) stored in the environmental atmosphere under pre-tornado conditions. The relative proportion of the helicity (kinetic energy) destruction (dissipation) in the "vortex breakdown" zone and, accordingly, within the surface boundary layer beneath the vortex is evaluated. These considerations form the basis of the dynamic-statistical analysis of the relationship between the tornado intensity and the CAPE budget in the surrounding atmosphere.
How hairpin vortices emerge from exact invariant solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, Tobias M.; Farano, Mirko; de Palma, Pietro; Robinet, Jean-Christoph; Cherubini, Stefania
2017-11-01
Hairpin vortices are among the most commonly observed flow structures in wall-bounded shear flows. However, within the dynamical system approach to turbulence, those structures have not yet been described. They are not captured by known exact invariant solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations nor have other state-space structures supporting hairpins been identified. We show that hairpin structures are observed along an optimally growing trajectory leaving a well known exact traveling wave solution of plane Poiseuille flow. The perturbation triggering hairpins does not correspond to an unstable mode of the exact traveling wave but lies in the stable manifold where non-normality causes strong transient amplification.
Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions.
Zhdanova, Alexandra A; Shutova, Mariia; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V
2015-12-28
We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams' topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, D. R.
1984-01-01
The effects of the vorticity distribution are applied to study planetary boundary layer mass convergence beneath free tropospheric wind maximum. For given forcing by viscous and pressure gradient forces beneath a wind maximum, boundary layer cross stream mass transport is increased by anticyclonic vorticity on the right flank and decreased by cyclonic vorticity on the left flank. Such frictionally forced mass transport induces boundary layer mass convergence beneath the relative wind maximum. This result is related to the empirical rule that the most intense convection and severe weather frequently develop beneath the 500 mb zero relative vorticity isopleth.
Quantized vortices and superflow in arbitrary dimensions: structure, energetics and dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldbart, Paul M.; Bora, Florin
2009-05-01
The structure and energetics of superflow around quantized vortices, and the motion inherited by these vortices from this superflow, are explored in the general setting of a superfluid in arbitrary dimensions. The vortices may be idealized as objects of codimension 2, such as one-dimensional loops and two-dimensional closed surfaces, respectively, in the cases of three- and four-dimensional superfluidity. By using the analogy between the vortical superflow and Ampère-Maxwell magnetostatics, the equilibrium superflow containing any specified collection of vortices is constructed. The energy of the superflow is found to take on a simple form for vortices that are smooth and asymptotically large, compared with the vortex core size. The motion of vortices is analyzed in general, as well as for the special cases of hyper-spherical and weakly distorted hyper-planar vortices. In all dimensions, vortex motion reflects vortex geometry. In dimension 4 and higher, this includes not only extrinsic but also intrinsic aspects of the vortex shape, which enter via the first and second fundamental forms of classical geometry. For hyper-spherical vortices, which generalize the vortex rings of three-dimensional superfluidity, the energy-momentum relation is determined. Simple scaling arguments recover the essential features of these results, up to numerical and logarithmic factors.
Numerical analysis of propeller induced ground vortices by actuator disk model.
Yang, Y; Veldhuis, L L M; Eitelberg, G
2018-01-01
During the ground operation of aircraft, the interaction between the propulsor-induced flow field and the ground may lead to the generation of ground vortices. Utilizing numerical approaches, the source of vorticity entering ground vortices is investigated. The results show that the production of wall-parallel components of vorticity has a strong contribution from the wall-parallel components of the pressure gradient on the wall, which is generated by the action of the propulsor. This mechanism is a supplementation for the vorticity transported from the far-field boundary layer, which has been assumed the main vorticity source in a number of previous publications. Furthermore, the quantitative prediction of the occurrence of ground vortices is performed from the numerical results. As the distance of the propeller form the ground decreases, and as the thrust of the propeller increases, ground vortices are generated from the ground and enter the propeller. In addition, the vortices which exist near the ground but does not enter the propeller plane are observed and visualized by three-dimensional data.
Mars' Annular Polar Vortices and their Response to Atmospheric Dust Opacity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guzewich, S.; Waugh, D.; Toigo, A. D.
2016-12-01
The potential vorticity structure of the martian polar vortices is distinct from Earth's stratospheric or tropospheric vortices. Rather than exhibiting monotonically increasing potential vorticity toward the geographic pole, as on Earth, the martian fall and winter polar vortices are annular with the potential vorticity maximum situated off the pole and a local minimum in potential vorticity at the pole. Using the MarsWRF general circulation model (GCM), we perform a series of simulations to examine the source of this annular structure. We find that latent heat exchange from the formation of CO2 ice aerosols within the vortex, in a region very near the geographic pole, destroys potential vorticity and creates the annular structure. Furthermore, we describe Mars Climate Sounder and Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations of "transient vortex warming" events, where the air inside the northern hemisphere winter polar vortex is briefly warmed. During the Mars Year 28 (2007) global dust storm, the temperature inside the vortex increased by 70 K and dust directly entered the vortex. Using additional GCM simulations, we diagnose the dynamical changes associated with these transient vortex warming events and find that poleward expansion of the descending branch of the meridional overturning circulation during periods of increased dust opacity disrupts the northern hemisphere winter polar vortex. These increased temperatures also suppress CO2 condensation at the pole, creating a more Earth-like polar vortex where potential vorticity is maximized near the geographic pole.
Non-Abelian statistics of vortices with non-Abelian Dirac fermions.
Yasui, Shigehiro; Hirono, Yuji; Itakura, Kazunori; Nitta, Muneto
2013-05-01
We extend our previous analysis on the exchange statistics of vortices having a single Dirac fermion trapped in each core to the case where vortices trap two Dirac fermions with U(2) symmetry. Such a system of vortices with non-Abelian Dirac fermions appears in color superconductors at extremely high densities and in supersymmetric QCD. We show that the exchange of two vortices having doublet Dirac fermions in each core is expressed by non-Abelian representations of a braid group, which is explicitly verified in the matrix representation of the exchange operators when the number of vortices is up to four. We find that the result contains the matrices previously obtained for the vortices with a single Dirac fermion in each core as a special case. The whole braid group does not immediately imply non-Abelian statistics of identical particles because it also contains exchanges between vortices with different numbers of Dirac fermions. However, we find that it does contain, as its subgroup, genuine non-Abelian statistics for the exchange of the identical particles, that is, vortices with the same number of Dirac fermions. This result is surprising compared with conventional understanding because all Dirac fermions are defined locally at each vortex, unlike the case of Majorana fermions for which Dirac fermions are defined nonlocally by Majorana fermions located at two spatially separated vortices.
Prescribed Velocity Gradients for Highly Viscous SPH Fluids with Vorticity Diffusion.
Peer, Andreas; Teschner, Matthias
2017-12-01
Working with prescribed velocity gradients is a promising approach to efficiently and robustly simulate highly viscous SPH fluids. Such approaches allow to explicitly and independently process shear rate, spin, and expansion rate. This can be used to, e.g., avoid interferences between pressure and viscosity solvers. Another interesting aspect is the possibility to explicitly process the vorticity, e.g., to preserve the vorticity. In this context, this paper proposes a novel variant of the prescribed-gradient idea that handles vorticity in a physically motivated way. In contrast to a less appropriate vorticity preservation that has been used in a previous approach, vorticity is diffused. The paper illustrates the utility of the vorticity diffusion. Therefore, comparisons of the proposed vorticity diffusion with vorticity preservation and additionally with vorticity damping are presented. The paper further discusses the relation between prescribed velocity gradients and prescribed velocity Laplacians which improves the intuition behind the prescribed-gradient method for highly viscous SPH fluids. Finally, the paper discusses the relation of the proposed method to a physically correct implicit viscosity formulation.
Pennington, M. R.; Wilson, D. J.
2011-11-01
The gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge QCD are investigated using the Schwinger-Dyson equation approach. Working in Euclidean spacetime, we solve for these propagators using a selection of vertex inputs, initially for the ghost equation alone and then for both propagators simultaneously. The results are shown to be highly sensitive to the choices of vertices. We favor the infrared finite ghost solution from studying the ghost equation alone where we argue for a specific unique solution. In order to solve this simultaneously with the gluon using a dressed-one-loop truncation, we find that a nontrivial full ghost-gluon vertex is requiredmore » in the vanishing gluon momentum limit. The self-consistent solutions we obtain correspond to having a masslike term in the gluon propagator dressing, in agreement with similar studies supporting the long-held proposal of Cornwall.« less
Pinning down the large- x gluon with NNLO top-quark pair differential distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czakon, Michał; Hartland, Nathan P.; Mitov, Alexander; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Rojo, Juan
2017-04-01
Top-quark pair production at the LHC is directly sensitive to the gluon PDF at large x. While total cross-section data is already included in several PDF determinations, differential distributions are not, because the corresponding NNLO calculations have become available only recently. In this work we study the impact on the large- x gluon of top-quark pair differential distributions measured by ATLAS and CMS at √{s}=8 TeV. Our analysis, performed in the NNPDF3.0 framework at NNLO accuracy, allows us to identify the optimal combination of LHC top-quark pair measurements that maximize the constraints on the gluon, as well as to assess the compatibility between ATLAS and CMS data. We find that differential distributions from top-quark pair production provide significant constraints on the large- x gluon, comparable to those obtained from inclusive jet production data, and thus should become an important ingredient for the next generation of global PDF fits.
The small-x gluon distribution in centrality biased pA and pp collisions
Dumitru, Adrian; Kapilevich, Gary; Skokov, Vladimir
2018-04-04
Here, the nuclear modification factor R pA(p T) provides information on the small- x gluon distribution of a nucleus at hadron colliders. Several experiments have recently measured the nuclear modification factor not only in minimum bias but also for central pA collisions. In this paper we analyze the bias on the configurations of soft gluon fields introduced by a centrality selection via the number of hard particles. Such bias can be viewed as reweighting of configurations of small- x gluons. We find that the biased nuclear modification factor Q pA(p T) for central collisions is above R pA(p T) formore » minimum bias events, and that it may redevelop a “Cronin peak” even at small x . The magnitude of the peak is predicted to increase approximately like 1/A ⊥ ν, ν~0.6±0.1 , if one is able to select more compact configurations of the projectile proton where its gluons occupy a smaller transverse area A ⊥. We predict an enhanced Q pp(p T)–1~1/(p T 2) ν and a Cronin peak even for central pp collisions.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adolph, C.; Aghasyan, M.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N. V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Chang, W.-C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; , M. Finger, Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuß, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O. M.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G. V.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Roskot, M.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.
2017-04-01
Using a novel analysis technique, the gluon polarisation in the nucleon is re-evaluated using the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry measured in the cross section of semi-inclusive single-hadron muoproduction with photon virtuality Q^2>1 (GeV/c)^2. The data were obtained by the COMPASS experiment at CERN using a 160 GeV/ c polarised muon beam impinging on a polarised ^6LiD target. By analysing the full range in hadron transverse momentum p_T, the different p_T-dependences of the underlying processes are separated using a neural-network approach. In the absence of pQCD calculations at next-to-leading order in the selected kinematic domain, the gluon polarisation Δ g/g is evaluated at leading order in pQCD at a hard scale of μ ^2= < Q^2 \\rangle = 3 (GeV/c)^2. It is determined in three intervals of the nucleon momentum fraction carried by gluons, x_g, covering the range 0.04 < x_{g} < 0.28 and does not exhibit a significant dependence on x_g. The average over the three intervals, < Δ g/g \\rangle = 0.113 ± 0.038_(stat.)± 0.036_(syst.) at < x_g \\rangle ≈ 0.10, suggests that the gluon polarisation is positive in the measured x_g range.
Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement with an infrared-vanishing gluon propagator
Hawes, F.T.; Roberts, C.D.; Williams, A.G.
1994-05-01
We study a model Dyson-Schwinger equation for the quark propagator closed using an [ital Ansatz] for the gluon propagator of the form [ital D]([ital q])[similar to][ital q][sup 2]/[([ital q][sup 2])[sup 2]+[ital b][sup 4
The small-x gluon distribution in centrality biased pA and pp collisions
Dumitru, Adrian; Kapilevich, Gary; Skokov, Vladimir
Here, the nuclear modification factor R pA(p T) provides information on the small- x gluon distribution of a nucleus at hadron colliders. Several experiments have recently measured the nuclear modification factor not only in minimum bias but also for central pA collisions. In this paper we analyze the bias on the configurations of soft gluon fields introduced by a centrality selection via the number of hard particles. Such bias can be viewed as reweighting of configurations of small- x gluons. We find that the biased nuclear modification factor Q pA(p T) for central collisions is above R pA(p T) formore » minimum bias events, and that it may redevelop a “Cronin peak” even at small x . The magnitude of the peak is predicted to increase approximately like 1/A ⊥ ν, ν~0.6±0.1 , if one is able to select more compact configurations of the projectile proton where its gluons occupy a smaller transverse area A ⊥. We predict an enhanced Q pp(p T)–1~1/(p T 2) ν and a Cronin peak even for central pp collisions.« less
The small-x gluon distribution in centrality biased pA and pp collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumitru, Adrian; Kapilevich, Gary; Skokov, Vladimir
2018-06-01
The nuclear modification factor RpA (pT) provides information on the small-x gluon distribution of a nucleus at hadron colliders. Several experiments have recently measured the nuclear modification factor not only in minimum bias but also for central pA collisions. In this paper we analyze the bias on the configurations of soft gluon fields introduced by a centrality selection via the number of hard particles. Such bias can be viewed as reweighting of configurations of small-x gluons. We find that the biased nuclear modification factor QpA (pT) for central collisions is above RpA (pT) for minimum bias events, and that it may redevelop a "Cronin peak" even at small x. The magnitude of the peak is predicted to increase approximately like 1 /A⊥ ν, ν ∼ 0.6 ± 0.1, if one is able to select more compact configurations of the projectile proton where its gluons occupy a smaller transverse area A⊥. We predict an enhanced Qpp (pT) - 1 ∼ 1 /(pT2) ν and a Cronin peak even for central pp collisions.
How large is the gluon polarization in the statistical parton distributions approach?
Soffer, Jacques; Bourrely, Claude; Buccella, Franco
2015-04-10
We review the theoretical foundations of the quantum statistical approach to parton distributions and we show that by using some recent experimental results from Deep Inelastic Scattering, we are able to improve the description of the data by means of a new determination of the parton distributions. We will see that a large gluon polarization emerges, giving a significant contribution to the proton spin.
A solution to coupled Dyson{endash}Schwinger equations for gluons and ghosts in Landau gauge
von Smekal, L.; Hauck, A.; Alkofer, R.
1998-07-01
A truncation scheme for the Dyson{endash}Schwinger equations of QCD in Landau gauge is presented which implements the Slavnov{endash}Taylor identities for the 3-point vertex functions. Neglecting contributions from 4-point correlations such as the 4-gluon vertex function and irreducible scattering kernels, a closed system of equations for the propagators is obtained. For the pure gauge theory without quarks this system of equations for the propagators of gluons and ghosts is solved in an approximation which allows for an analytic discussion of its solutions in the infrared: The gluon propagator is shown to vanish for small spacelike momenta whereas the ghost propagator ismore » found to be infrared enhanced. The running coupling of the non-perturbative subtraction scheme approaches an infrared stable fixed point at a critical value of the coupling, {alpha}{sub c}{approx_equal}9.5. The gluon propagator is shown to have no Lehmann representation. The results for the propagators obtained here compare favorably with recent lattice calculations. {copyright} 1998 Academic Press, Inc.« less
A solution to coupled Dyson-Schwinger equations for gluons and ghosts in Landau gauge.
von Smekal, L.; Alkofer, R.; Hauck, A.
1998-07-20
A truncation scheme for the Dyson-Schwinger equations of QCD in Landau gauge is presented which implements the Slavnov-Taylor identities for the 3-point vertex functions. Neglecting contributions from 4-point correlations such as the 4-gluon vertex function and irreducible scattering kernels, a closed system of equations for the propagators is obtained. For the pure gauge theory without quarks this system of equations for the propagators of gluons and ghosts is solved in an approximation which allows for an analytic discussion of its solutions in the infrared: The gluon propagator is shown to vanish for small spacelike momenta whereas the ghost propagator ismore » found to be infrared enhanced. The running coupling of the non-perturbative subtraction scheme approaches an infrared stable fixed point at a critical value of the coupling alpha c of approx. 9.5. The gluon propagator is shown to have no Lehmann representation. The results for the propagators obtained here compare favorably with recent lattice calculations.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael
2015-07-01
We compute dilepton production from the deconfined phase of the quark-gluon plasma using leading-order (3 +1 )-dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics. The anisotropic hydrodynamics equations employed describe the full spatiotemporal evolution of the transverse temperature, spheroidal momentum-space anisotropy parameter, and the associated three-dimensional collective flow of the matter. The momentum-space anisotropy is also taken into account in the computation of the dilepton production rate, allowing for a self-consistent description of dilepton production from the quark-gluon plasma. For our final results, we present predictions for high-energy dilepton yields as a function of invariant mass, transverse momentum, and pair rapidity. We demonstrate that high-energy dilepton production is extremely sensitive to the assumed level of initial momentum-space anisotropy of the quark-gluon plasma. As a result, it may be possible to experimentally constrain the early-time momentum-space anisotropy of the quark-gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using high-energy dilepton yields.
NonBoussinesq effects on vorticity and kinetic energy production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravichandran, S.; Dixit, Harish; Govindarajan, Rama
2015-11-01
The Boussinesq approximation, commonly employed in weakly compressible or incompressible flows, neglects changes in inertia due to changes in the density. However, the nonBoussinesq terms can lead to a kind of centrifugal instability for small but sharp density variations, and therefore cannot be neglected under such circumstances (see, e.g.,
Shallow water modeling of Jovian polar cyclone and vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Cheng; Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin; Ingersoll, Andrew P.
2017-10-01
Jupiter’s polar atmosphere was observed for the first time by the Juno visible spectrum camera (JunoCAM) and Juno Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM). Both the visible and infrared images show active vortices and weather systems that are unlike any polar regions previously seen or modeled on any of the planets in our solar system. We developed a global shallow water model on a sphere with poles rotated to the equator to investigate the formation, maintenance and dynamic regimes controlling the morphology of polar cyclones and vortices. Passive Lagrangian particles with finite life time are included to represent the clouds. We verified that a westward barotropically unstable jet can spontaneously break the axial symmetry into a polygon-shaped figure rotating rigidly around the rotation axis as reported by previous laboratory experiments. The number of sides of the polygon depends on the deformation radius and is insensitive to the initial condition. Why Jupiter’s pole is different from Saturn’s is still under investigation.
Twist effects in quantum vortices and phase defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuccher, Simone; Ricca, Renzo L.
2018-02-01
In this paper we show that twist, defined in terms of rotation of the phase associated with quantum vortices and other physical defects effectively deprived of internal structure, is a property that has observable effects in terms of induced axial flow. For this we consider quantum vortices governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) and perform a number of test cases to investigate and compare the effects of twist in two different contexts: (i) when this is artificially superimposed on an initially untwisted vortex ring; (ii) when it is naturally produced on the ring by the simultaneous presence of a central straight vortex. In the first case large amplitude perturbations quickly develop, generated by the unnatural setting of the initial condition that is not an analytical solution of the GPE. In the second case much milder perturbations emerge, signature of a genuine physical process. This scenario is confirmed by other test cases performed at higher twist values. Since the second setting corresponds to essential linking, these results provide new evidence of the influence of topology on physics.
Vorticity dynamics after the shock–turbulence interaction
Livescu, Daniel; Ryu, Jaiyoung
2015-07-23
In this article, the interaction of a shock wave with quasi-vortical isotropic turbulence (IT) represents a basic problem for studying some of the phenomena associated with high speed flows, such as hypersonic flight, supersonic combustion and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In general, in practical applications, the shock width is much smaller than the turbulence scales and the upstream turbulent Mach number is modest. In this case, recent high resolution shock-resolved Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) (Ryu and Livescu, J Fluid Mech 756, R1, 2014) show that the interaction can be described by the Linear Interaction Approximation (LIA). Using LIA to alleviatemore » the need to resolve the shock, DNS post-shock data can be generated at much higher Reynolds numbers than previously possible. Here, such results with Taylor Reynolds number approximately 180 are used to investigate the changes in the vortical structure as a function of the shock Mach number, M s, up to M s = 10. It is shown that, as M s increases, the shock interaction induces a tendency towards a local axisymmetric state perpendicular to the shock front, which has a profound influence on the vortex-stretching mechanism and divergence of the Lamb vector and, ultimately, on the flow evolution away from the shock.« less
Helical vortices generated by flapping wings of bumblebees
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farge, Marie; Engels, Thomas; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai; Lehmann, Fritz; Sesterhenn, Jörn
2016-11-01
We analyze high resolution numerical simulation data of a bumblebee with fixed body and prescribed wing motion, flying in a numerical wind tunnel, presented in. The inflow condition of the tunnel varies from unperturbed laminar to strongly turbulent. The flow generated by the flapping wings indicates the important role of the leading edge vortex (LEV), responsible for elevated lift production and which is not significantly altered by the inflow turbulence. The LEV has a conical structure due to the three-dimensional motion of the wings. This flow configuration produces strong vorticity on the sharp leading edge and the outwards velocity (from the root to the tip of the wing) in the spanwise direction. Flow visualizations show that the generated vortical structures are characterized by a strong helicity. We study the evolution of the mean helicity for each wing and analyze the impact of turbulent inflow. We thankfully acknowledge financial support from the French-German AIFIT project funded by DFG and ANR (Grant 15-CE40-0019). DK gratefully acknowledges financial support from the JSPS postdoctoral fellowship.
The role of intraventricular vortices in the left ventricular filling?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez-Legazpi, Pablo; Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Perez Del Villar, Candelas; Gonzalez-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos
2013-11-01
The generation of vortices during early filling is a salient feature of left ventricular hemodynamics. Existing clinical data suggest that these intraventricular vortices may facilitate pulling flow from the left atrium. To test this hypothesis, we have quantitatively dissected the contribution of the vortex to intraventricular pressure gradients by isolating its induced flow in ultrasound-derived data in 20 patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM), 20 age-matched healthy controls and 20 patients with hypertrophied cardiomyopathy. We have observed that, in patients with NIDCM, the hemodynamic forces were shown to be partially supported by the flow inertia whereas that effect was minimized in healthy hearts. In patients with hypertrophied cardiomiopathy such effect was not observed. Supported by grants, PIS09/02603, RD06/0010 (RECAVA), CM12/00273 (to CPV) and BA11/00067 (to JB) from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain. PML and JCA were partially supported by NIH grant 1R21 HL108268-01.
Borneo Vortices: A case study and its relation to climatology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braesicke, P.; Ooi, S. H.; Samah, A. A.
2012-04-01
Borneo vortices (BVs) develop over the South China Sea and are main drivers for the formation of deep convection and heavy rainfall in East Malaysia. We present a case study of a cold-surge-induced BV during January 2010 in which the export of potential energy lead to a strengthening of the subtropical jet. Potential vorticity (PV) and water vapour analyses confirm a significant impact of the BV on upper tropospheric composition. Dry, high PV air is found far below 100 hPa in the vicinty of the vortex. Using a PV threshold analysis of ERA-Interim data we construct a climatological composite of similar events and characterise the thermal, dynamical and composition structure of a 'typical' BV. We note the preferential formation of BVs during ENSO cold conditions and show that two effects contribute to the formation of the dry upper layer above a BV: Air is vertically transported upwards in the BV whilst precipitating and the large scale flow in which the BV is embedded advect dry, ozone rich air from the equatorial TTL over the BV. Thus the occurence frequency of BVs is important for the regional variability of upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric composition.
Numerical solution of periodic vortical flows about a thin airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.
1989-01-01
A numerical method is developed for computing periodic, three-dimensional, vortical flows around isolated airfoils. The unsteady velocity is split into a vortical component which is a known function of the upstream flow conditions and the Lagrangian coordinates of the mean flow, and an irrotational field whose potential satisfies a nonconstant-coefficient, inhomogeneous, convective wave equation. Solutions for thin airfoils at zero degrees incidence to the mean flow are presented in this paper. Using an elliptic coordinate transformation, the computational domain is transformed into a rectangle. The Sommerfeld radiation condition is applied to the unsteady pressure on the grid line corresponding to the far field boundary. The results are compared with a Possio solver, and it is shown that for maximum accuracy the grid should depend on both the Mach number and reduced frequency. Finally, in order to assess the range of validity of the classical thin airfoil approximation, results for airfoils with zero thickness are compared with results for airfoils with small thickness.
Optical vortices as potential indicators of biophysical dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumdar, Anindya; Kirkpatrick, Sean J.
2017-03-01
Laser speckle patterns are granular patterns produced as a result of random interference of light waves. Optical vortices (OVs) are phase singularities in such speckle fields, characterized by zero intensity and an undefined phase. Decorrelation of the speckle fields causes these OVs to move in both time and space. In this work, a variety of parameters of these OVs have been studied. The speckle fields were simulated to undergo three distinct decorrelation behaviors- Gaussian, Lorentzian and constant decorrelations. Different decorrelation behaviors represent different dynamics. For example, Lorentzian and Gaussian decorrelations represent Brownian and ordered motions, respectively. Typical dynamical systems in biophysics are generally argued to be a combination of these. For each of the decorrelation behaviors under study, the vortex trails were tracked while varying the rate of decorrelation. Parameters such as the decorrelation length, average trail length and the deviation of the vortices as they traversed in the speckle field, were studied. Empirical studies were also performed to define the distinction between trails arising from different speckle decorrelation behaviors. The initial studies under stationary speckle fields were followed up by similar studies on shifting fields. A new idea to employ Poincaŕe plots in speckle analysis has also been introduced. Our studies indicate that tracking OVs can be a potential method to study cell and tissue dynamics.
Spontaneous Vortices in Imbalance Populated Fermion Gas, Finite Size System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Jung-Jung; Shim, Yun-Pil; Duine, Rembert; MacDonald, Allan H.
2006-05-01
Atomic Fermion gases with mismatched densities have attracted much interest recently both experimentally and theoretically. These gases are related to superconductors in a magnetic field, to color superconductivity in high density QCD and to other systems. The main focus of recent research is on the possibility of unusual pairing states, the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrel(LOFF)[1] phase, the Deformed Fermi surface(DFS)[2] and other states have been suggested in the past few years. We work specifically on two-dimensional systems with circular hard walls which contain atoms with two different hyperfine states and different populations. In addition to phase separation, a phenomenon that has already been observed[3], we consider the possibility of the spontaneous formation of vortices and giant vortices in some regions of parameter space. [1] Qinghong Cui, C.-R. Hu, J.Y.T. Wei, and Kun Yang, cond-mat/0510717 [2] Armen Sedrakian, Jordi Mur-Petit, Artur Polls, Herbert M"uther , cond-mat/0404577 [3] Guthrie B. Partridge, Wenhui Li, Ramsey I. Kamar, Yean-an Liao, Randall G. Hulet, cond-mat/0511752
Swirl ratio effects on tornado-like vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashemi-Tari, Pooyan; Gurka, Roi; Hangen, Horia
2007-11-01
The effect of swirl ratio on the flow field for a tornado-like vortex simulator (TVS) is investigated. Different swirl ratios are obtained by changing the geometry and tangential velocity which determine the vortex evolution. Flow visualizations, surface pressure and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are performed in a small TVS for swirl ratios S between 0 and 1. The PIV data was acquired for two orthogonal planes: normal and parallel to the solid boundary at several height locations. The ratio between the angular momentum and the radial momentum which characterize the swirl ratio is investigated. Statistical analysis to the turbulent field is performed by mean and rms profiles of the velocity, stresses and vorticity are presented. A Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is performed on the vorticity field. The results are used to: (i) provide a relation between these 3 sets of qualitative and quantitative measurements and the swirl ratio in an attempt to relate the fluid dynamics parameters to the forensic, Fujita scale, and (ii) understand the spatio-temporal distribution of the most energetic POD modes in a tornado-like vortex.
Management of Vortices Trailing Flapped Wings via Separation Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenblatt, David
2005-01-01
A pilot study was conducted on a flapped semi-span model to investigate the concept and viability of near-wake vortex management via separation control. Passive control was achieved by means of a simple fairing and active control was achieved via zero mass-flux blowing slots. Vortex sheet strength, estimated by integrating surface pressure ports, was used to predict vortex characteristics by means of inviscid rollup relations. Furthermore, vortices trailing the flaps were mapped using a seven-hole probe. Separation control was found to have a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size over a wide range of angles of attack and control conditions. In general, the vortex trends were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations. Manipulation of the separated flow near the flap edges exerted significant control over both outboard and inboard edge vortices while producing negligible lift excursions. Dynamic separation and attachment control was found to be an effective means for dynamically perturbing the vortex from arbitrarily long wavelengths down to wavelengths less than a typical wingspan. In summary, separation control has the potential for application to time-independent or time-dependent wake alleviation schemes, where the latter can be deployed to minimize adverse effects on ride-quality and dynamic structural loading.
QCD evolution of (un)polarized gluon TMDPDFs and the Higgs q T -distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Echevarria, Miguel G.; Kasemets, Tomas; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian
2015-07-01
We provide the proper definition of all the leading-twist (un)polarized gluon transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDPDFs), by considering the Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution in hadron-hadron collisions and deriving the factorization theorem in terms of them. We show that the evolution of all the (un)polarized gluon TMDPDFs is driven by a universal evolution kernel, which can be resummed up to next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy. Considering the proper definition of gluon TMDPDFs, we perform an explicit next-to-leading-order calculation of the unpolarized ( f {1/ g }), linearly polarized ( h {1/⊥ g }) and helicity ( g {1/L g }) gluon TMDPDFs, and show that, as expected, they are free from rapidity divergences. As a byproduct, we obtain the Wilson coefficients of the refactorization of these TMDPDFs at large transverse momentum. In particular, the coefficient of g {1/L g }, which has never been calculated before, constitutes a new and necessary ingredient for a reliable phenomenological extraction of this quantity, for instance at RHIC or the future AFTER@LHC or Electron-Ion Collider. The coefficients of f {1/ g } and h {1/⊥ g } have never been calculated in the present formalism, although they could be obtained by carefully collecting and recasting previous results in the new TMD formalism. We apply these results to analyze the contribution of linearly polarized gluons at different scales, relevant, for instance, for the inclusive production of the Higgs boson and the C-even pseudoscalar bottomonium state η b . Applying our resummation scheme we finally provide predictions for the Higgs boson q T -distribution at the LHC.
The analytic structure of non-global logarithms: Convergence of the dressed gluon expansion
Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff Austin
Non-global logarithms (NGLs) are the leading manifestation of correlations between distinct phase space regions in QCD and gauge theories and have proven a challenge to understand using traditional resummation techniques. Recently, the dressed gluon ex-pansion was introduced that enables an expansion of the NGL series in terms of a “dressed gluon” building block, defined by an all-orders factorization theorem. Here, we clarify the nature of the dressed gluon expansion, and prove that it has an infinite radius of convergence as a solution to the leading logarithmic and large-N c master equation for NGLs, the Banfi-Marchesini-Smye (BMS) equation. The dressed gluonmore » expansion therefore provides an expansion of the NGL series that can be truncated at any order, with reliable uncertainty estimates. In contrast, manifest in the results of the fixed-order expansion of the BMS equation up to 12-loops is a breakdown of convergence at a finite value of α slog. We explain this finite radius of convergence using the dressed gluon expansion, showing how the dynamics of the buffer region, a region of phase space near the boundary of the jet that was identified in early studies of NGLs, leads to large contributions to the fixed order expansion. We also use the dressed gluon expansion to discuss the convergence of the next-to-leading NGL series, and the role of collinear logarithms that appear at this order. Finally, we show how an understanding of the analytic behavior obtained from the dressed gluon expansion allows us to improve the fixed order NGL series using conformal transformations to extend the domain of analyticity. Furthermore, this allows us to calculate the NGL distribution for all values of α slog from the coefficients of the fixed order expansion.« less
The analytic structure of non-global logarithms: Convergence of the dressed gluon expansion
Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff Austin
2016-11-15
Non-global logarithms (NGLs) are the leading manifestation of correlations between distinct phase space regions in QCD and gauge theories and have proven a challenge to understand using traditional resummation techniques. Recently, the dressed gluon ex-pansion was introduced that enables an expansion of the NGL series in terms of a “dressed gluon” building block, defined by an all-orders factorization theorem. Here, we clarify the nature of the dressed gluon expansion, and prove that it has an infinite radius of convergence as a solution to the leading logarithmic and large-N c master equation for NGLs, the Banfi-Marchesini-Smye (BMS) equation. The dressed gluonmore » expansion therefore provides an expansion of the NGL series that can be truncated at any order, with reliable uncertainty estimates. In contrast, manifest in the results of the fixed-order expansion of the BMS equation up to 12-loops is a breakdown of convergence at a finite value of α slog. We explain this finite radius of convergence using the dressed gluon expansion, showing how the dynamics of the buffer region, a region of phase space near the boundary of the jet that was identified in early studies of NGLs, leads to large contributions to the fixed order expansion. We also use the dressed gluon expansion to discuss the convergence of the next-to-leading NGL series, and the role of collinear logarithms that appear at this order. Finally, we show how an understanding of the analytic behavior obtained from the dressed gluon expansion allows us to improve the fixed order NGL series using conformal transformations to extend the domain of analyticity. Furthermore, this allows us to calculate the NGL distribution for all values of α slog from the coefficients of the fixed order expansion.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efremov, A. V.; Ivanov, N. Ya.; Teryaev, O. V.
2018-02-01
We study the azimuthal cos φ and cos 2 φ asymmetries in heavy-quark pair leptoproduction, lN →l‧ Q Q bar X, as probes of linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized proton, where the azimuth φ is the angle between the lepton scattering plane (l ,l‧) and the heavy quark production plane (N , Q). First, we determine the maximal values for the cos φ and cos 2 φ asymmetries allowed by the photon-gluon fusion with unpolarized gluons; these predictions are large, (√{ 3 } - 1) / 2 and 1/3, respectively. Then we calculate the contribution of the transverse-momentum dependent gluonic counterpart of the Boer-Mulders function, h1⊥g, describing the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized proton. Our analysis shows that the maximum values of the azimuthal distributions depend strongly on the gluon polarization; they vary from 0 to 1 depending on h1⊥g. We conclude that the azimuthal cos φ and cos 2 φ asymmetries in heavy-quark pair leptoproduction are predicted to be large and very sensitive to the contribution of linearly polarized gluons. For this reason, future measurements of the azimuthal distributions in charm and bottom production at the proposed EIC and LHeC colliders seem to be very promising for determination of the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized proton.
Phillips, Carolyn L.; Peterka, Tom; Karpeyev, Dmitry; ...
2015-02-20
In type II superconductors, the dynamics of superconducting vortices determine their transport properties. In the Ginzburg-Landau theory, vortices correspond to topological defects in the complex order parameter. Extracting their precise positions and motion from discretized numerical simulation data is an important, but challenging, task. In the past, vortices have mostly been detected by analyzing the magnitude of the complex scalar field representing the order parameter and visualized by corresponding contour plots and isosurfaces. However, these methods, primarily used for small-scale simulations, blur the fine details of the vortices, scale poorly to large-scale simulations, and do not easily enable isolating andmore » tracking individual vortices. In this paper, we present a method for exactly finding the vortex core lines from a complex order parameter field. With this method, vortices can be easily described at a resolution even finer than the mesh itself. The precise determination of the vortex cores allows the interplay of the vortices inside a model superconductor to be visualized in higher resolution than has previously been possible. Finally, by representing the field as the set of vortices, this method also massively reduces the data footprint of the simulations and provides the data structures for further analysis and feature tracking.« less
Effects of Taylor-Görtler vortices on turbulent flows in a spanwise-rotating channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Yijun; Huang, Weixi; Xu, Chunxiao
2016-11-01
Fully developed turbulent channel flow with spanwise rotation has been studied by direct numerical simulation at Rem = 2800, 7000 and 20000 with rotation number 0 <= Rom <= 0.5. The width of the computational box is adjusted for each case to contain two pairs of Taylor-Görtler (TG) vortices. Under a low rotation rate, the turbulent vortical structures are strongly affected by the TG vortices. A conditional average method is employed to investigate the effects. In the upwash region where the fluid is pumped away from the pressure wall by the TG vortices, turbulence is enhanced, while the reverse is the case in the downwash region. Through budget analysis of the transport equation of vorticity fluctuation, it is revealed that the stretching along the wall-normal direction caused by the TG vortices plays an important role in initiating the difference of turbulence intensity between the two regions, which is further augmented by the Coriolis force in the streamwise direction. The effects of TG vortices is weakened at higher Reynolds number. Meanwhile, the shear stress on the suction wall is observed to fluctuate in a quasi-periodic manner at Rem = 7000 and Rom = 0.3, which is induced by the TG vortices. The work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No. 11490551, 11472154, 11322221, 11132005).
Effect of potential vorticity flux on the circulation in the South China Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yaohua; Sun, Junchuan; Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zexun; Yang, Dezhou; Qu, Tangdong
2017-08-01
This study analyzes temperature and salinity products from the U.S. Navy Generalized Digital Environment Model. To avoid the fictitious assumption of no-motion reference level, a P-vector inverse method is employed to derive geostrophic velocity. Line integral of geostrophic velocity shows evidence for the existence of a sandwiched circulation in the South China Sea (SCS), i.e., cyclonic circulation in the subsurface and deep layers and anticyclonic in the intermediate layer. To reveal the factors responsible for the sandwiched circulation, we derive the potential vorticity equation based on a four-and-a-half-layer quasi-geostrophic model and apply theoretical potential vorticity constraint to density layers. The result shows that the sandwiched circulation is largely induced by planetary potential vorticity flux through lateral boundaries, mainly the Luzon Strait. This dynamical mechanism lies in the fact that the net potential vorticity inflow in the subsurface and deep layers leads to a positive layer-average vorticity in the SCS basin, yielding vortex stretching and a cyclonic basin-wide circulation. On the contrary, the net potential vorticity outflow in the intermediate layer induces a negative layer-average vorticity, generating an anticyclonic basin-wide circulation in the SCS. Furthermore, by illustrating different consequence from depth/density layers, we clarify that density layers are essential for applying theoretical potential vorticity constraint to the isolated deep SCS basin.
Imparting small vorticity to a Bianchi type-VIh empty spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batakis, Nikos A.
1981-04-01
We present and briefly discuss a Bianchi type-VIh empty spacetime. The field equations have been solved after being linearized with respect to a parameter which imparts vorticity to the model. The limit of zero vorticity is an already known solution.
Controlled vortical flow on delta wings through unsteady leading edge blowing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, K. T.; Roberts, Leonard
1990-01-01
The vortical flow over a delta wing contributes an important part of the lift - the so called nonlinear lift. Controlling this vortical flow with its favorable influence would enhance aircraft maneuverability at high angle of attack. Several previous studies have shown that control of the vortical flow field is possible through the use of blowing jets. The present experimental research studies vortical flow control by applying a new blowing scheme to the rounded leading edge of a delta wing; this blowing scheme is called Tangential Leading Edge Blowing (TLEB). Vortical flow response both to steady blowing and to unsteady blowing is investigated. It is found that TLEB can redevelop stable, strong vortices even in the post-stall angle of attack regime. Analysis of the steady data shows that the effect of leading edge blowing can be interpreted as an effective change in angle of attack. The examination of the fundamental time scales for vortical flow re-organization after the application of blowing for different initial states of the flow field is studied. Different time scales for flow re-organization are shown to depend upon the effective angle of attack. A faster response time can be achieved at angles of attack beyond stall by a suitable choice of the initial blowing momentum strength. Consequently, TLEB shows the potential of controlling the vortical flow over a wide range of angles of attack; i.e., in both for pre-stall and post-stall conditions.
Numerical simulation using vorticity-vector potential formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tokunaga, Hiroshi
1993-01-01
An accurate and efficient computational method is needed for three-dimensional incompressible viscous flows in engineering applications. On solving the turbulent shear flows directly or using the subgrid scale model, it is indispensable to resolve the small scale fluid motions as well as the large scale motions. From this point of view, the pseudo-spectral method is used so far as the computational method. However, the finite difference or the finite element methods are widely applied for computing the flow with practical importance since these methods are easily applied to the flows with complex geometric configurations. However, there exist several problems in applying the finite difference method to direct and large eddy simulations. Accuracy is one of most important problems. This point was already addressed by the present author on the direct simulations on the instability of the plane Poiseuille flow and also on the transition to turbulence. In order to obtain high efficiency, the multi-grid Poisson solver is combined with the higher-order, accurate finite difference method. The formulation method is also one of the most important problems in applying the finite difference method to the incompressible turbulent flows. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations have been solved so far in the primitive variables formulation. One of the major difficulties of this method is the rigorous satisfaction of the equation of continuity. In general, the staggered grid is used for the satisfaction of the solenoidal condition for the velocity field at the wall boundary. However, the velocity field satisfies the equation of continuity automatically in the vorticity-vector potential formulation. From this point of view, the vorticity-vector potential method was extended to the generalized coordinate system. In the present article, we adopt the vorticity-vector potential formulation, the generalized coordinate system, and the 4th-order accurate difference method as the
Velocity-Vorticity Correlation Structure in Turbulent Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, J.; Pei, J.; She, Z. S.; Hussain, F.
2011-09-01
We present a new definition of statistical structure — velocity-vorticity correlation structure (VVCS) — based on amplitude distributions of the tensor field of normalized velocity-vorticity correlation (uiωj), and show that it displays the geometry of the statistical structure relevant to a given reference point, and it effectively captures coherent motions in inhomogeneous shear flows. The variation of the extracted objects moving with the reference point yr+ then presents a full picture of statistical structures for the flow, which goes beyond the traditional view of searching for reference-independent structures. Application to turbulent channel flow simulation data at Reτ = 180 demonstrates that the VVCS successfully captures, qualitatively and quantitatively, the near-wall streaks, the streamwise vortices [1,2], and their extensions up to yr+ = 110 with variations of their length and inclination angle. More interestingly, the VVCS associated with the streamwise velocity component (particularly (uωx ( and (uωz) displays topological change at four distances from the wall (with transitions at yr+≈20,40,60,110), giving rise to a geometrical interpretation of the multi-layer structure of wall-bounded turbulence. Specifically, we find that the VVCS of (uωz( bifurcates at yr+ = 40 with one attached to the wall and the other near the reference location. The VVCS of (uωx) is blob-like in the center region, quite different from a pair of elongated and inclined objects near the wall. The propagation speeds of the velocity components in the near-wall region, y+ ≤ 10, is found to be characterized by the same stream-wise correlation structures of (uωx) and (uωz), whose core is located at y+≈20. As a result, the convection of the velocity fluctuations always reveal the constant propagation speeds in the near-wall region. The coherent motions parallel to the wall plays an important role in determining the propagation of the velocity fluctuations. This study
Neutral surfaces and potential vorticity in the world's oceans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Yuzhu; McDougall, Trevor J.
1990-08-01
Several neutral surfaces are mapped in this paper and their properties are contrasted with those of potential density surfaces. It is shown that the Pacific is relatively forgiving to the use of potential density, while more care must be taken in the Atlantic and Indian oceans because of the larger compensating lateral gradients of potential temperature and salinity along neutral surfaces in these oceans. The dynamically important tracer, neutral-surface potential vorticity (NSPV), defined to be proportional to f/h (where f is the Coriolis frequency and h is the height between two neutral surfaces), is mapped on several neutral surfaces in each of the world's oceans. At a depth of 1000m in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, the epineutral gradient of NSPV is different to the isopycnal variations of fN2 by as much as a factor of two (here N is the buoyancy frequency). Maps of isopycnal potential vorticity (IPV) resemble those of fN2, but the values of IPV are less by the simple factor μ, defined by μ = c[Rρ-1]/[Rρ-c], where Rρ is the stability ratio of the water column and c is the ratio of the values of α/β at the in situ pressure to that at the reference pressure (α and β being the thermal expansion and saline contraction coefficients, respectively). Layered models of the ocean circulation often take the vertical shear between layers (the thermal wind) to be given by the product of the interface slope and the contrast of potential density across the interface. The true thermal wind equation involves the interfaeial difference of in situ density, which is larger than the corresponding difference of potential density by the factor μ that is mapped in this paper, taking values up to 1.25 at a depth of 1000 m. This implies that the thermal wind is currently underestimated by up to 25% in layered ocean models. The differences between the slopes of neutral surfaces and potential density surfaces can be quantified Using the factory μ. The magnitudes of these
Matter in the form of toroidal electromagnetic vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagen, Wilhelm F.
2015-09-01
The creation of charged elementary particles from neutral photons is explained as a conversion process of electromagnetic (EM) energy from linear to circular motion at the speed of light into two localized, toroidal shaped vortices of trapped EM energy that resist change of motion, perceptible as particles with inertia and hence mass. The photon can be represented as a superposition of left and right circular polarized transverse electric fields of opposite polarity originating from a common zero potential axis, the optical axis of the photon. If these components are separated by interaction with a strong field (nucleon) they would curl up into two electromagnetic vortices (EMV) due to longitudinal magnetic field components forming toroids. These vortices are perceptible as opposite charged elementary particles e+/- . These spinning toroids generate extended oscillating fields that interact with stationary field oscillations. The velocity-dependent frequency differences cause beat signals equivalent to matter waves, leading to interference. The extended fields entangled with every particle explain wave particle duality issues. Spin and magnetic moment are the natural outcome of these gyrating particles. As the energy and hence mass of the electron increases with acceleration so does its size shrink proportional to its reduced wavelength. The artificial weak and strong nuclear forces can be easily explained as different manifestations of the intermediate EM forces. The unstable neutron consists of a proton surrounded by a contracted and captured electron. The associated radial EM forces represent the weak nuclear force. The deuteron consists of two axially separated protons held together by a centrally captured electron. The axial EM forces represent the strong nuclear force, providing stability for "neutrons" only within nucleons. The same principles were applied to determine the geometries of force-balanced nuclei. The alpha-particle emerges as a very compact
The flow separation delay in the boundary layer by induced vortices.
Chaudhry, Ishtiaq A; Sultan, Tipu; Siddiqui, Farrukh A; Farhan, M; Asim, M
2017-01-01
A series of experiments involving the particle image velocimetry technique are carried out to analyse the quantitative effectiveness of the synthesized vortical structures towards actual flow separation control. The streamwise vortices are synthesized from the synthetic jet actuator and introduced into the attached and separating boundary layer developed on the flat plate surface. Two types of actuators with different geometrical set-ups are used to analyse the evolution of vortical structures in the near wall region and their impact towards achieving separation delay in the boundary layer. First, a single circular jet is synthesized by varying actuator operating parameters and issued into the boundary layer to evaluate the dynamics of the interaction between the vortical structures and the near wall low momentum fluid in the separated region. Second, an array of jets has been issued into the artificially separated region to assess the effectiveness of various vortical structures towards achieving the reattachment of the separated flow in the streamwise direction.
Laser-velocimeter surveys of merging vortices in a wind tunnel: Complete data and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Corsiglia, V. R.; Iversen, J. D.; Orloff, K. L.
1978-01-01
The merger of two corotating vortices was studied with a laser velocimeter designed to measure the two cross-stream components of velocity. Measurements were made at several downstream distances in the vortex wake shed by two semispan wings mounted on the wind-tunnel walls. The velocity data provided wall-defined contours of crossflow velocity, stream function, and vorticity for a variety of test conditions. Downstream of the merger point, the vorticity was found to be independent of the downstream distance for radii smaller than r/b = 0.05. For larger radii, the vorticity depended on the distance from the wing. Upstream of the merger, a multicell vorticity pattern was found.
Voltage noise of current-driven vortices in disordered Josephson junction arrays.
He, G L; Zhao, Z G; Liu, S; Yang, Y H; Liu, M; Xing, D Y
2006-08-16
Dynamical phenomena of moving vortices and voltage noise spectra are studied in disordered Josephson junction arrays (JJAs). The plastic motion of vortices, smectic flow, and moving Bragg glass phases are separated by two dynamic melting transitions driven by current. From the voltage noise spectra of moving vortices, it is found that the driving current plays an important role in the melting of pinning vortices glass and ordering of moving vortices. The features of noise spectra obtained in the disordered JJA model have been observed recently in the high-temperature superconductor Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(y) near the first-order melting transition, indicating that both of them are related to each other.
Influence of Initial Vorticity Distribution on Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Larry A.
2007-01-01
An analytical treatment has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. In particular, the presence of negative vorticity in the inner core of a vortex filament (one example of which is examined in this paper) subsequent to "cutting" by a solid body has a profound influence on the vortex reconnection, leading to analog flow behavior similar to vortex breakdown phenomena described in the literature. Initial vorticity distributions (three specific examples which are examined) without an inner core of negative vorticity do not exhibit vortex breakdown and instead manifest diffusion-like properties while undergoing vortex reconnection. Though this work focuses on laminar vortical flow, this work is anticipated to provide valuable insight into rotary-wing aerodynamics as well as other types of vortical flow phenomena.
Vorticity interaction effects on blunt bodies. [hypersonic viscous shock layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, E. C.; Wilcox, D. C.
1977-01-01
Numerical solutions of the viscous shock layer equations governing laminar and turbulent flows of a perfect gas and radiating and nonradiating mixtures of perfect gases in chemical equilibrium are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically blunted cones and hyperboloids. Turbulent properties are described in terms of the classical mixing length. Results are compared with boundary layer and inviscid flowfield solutions; agreement with inviscid flowfield data is satisfactory. Agreement with boundary layer solutions is good except in regions of strong vorticity interaction; in these flow regions, the viscous shock layer solutions appear to be more satisfactory than the boundary layer solutions. Boundary conditions suitable for hypersonic viscous shock layers are devised for an advanced turbulence theory.
Driven phase space vortices in plasmas with nonextensive velocity distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trivedi, Pallavi; Ganesh, Rajaraman
2017-03-01
The evolution of chirp-driven electrostatic waves in unmagnetized plasmas is numerically investigated by using a one-dimensional (1D) Vlasov-poisson solver with periodic boundary conditions. The initial velocity distribution of the 1D plasma is assumed to be governed by nonextensive q distribution [C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988)]. For an infinitesimal amplitude of an external drive, we investigate the effects of chirp driven dynamics that leads to the formation of giant phase space vortices (PSV) for both Maxwellian (q = 1) and non-Maxwellian ( q ≠ 1 ) plasmas. For non-Maxwellian plasmas, the formation of giant PSV with multiple extrema and phase velocities is shown to be dependent on the strength of "q". Novel features such as "shark"-like and transient "honeycomb"-like structures in phase space are discussed. Wherever relevant, we compare our results with previous work.
Hydromagnetic vortices. I - The 11 December 1977 event
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saunders, M. A.; Southwood, D. J.; Fritz, T. A.; Hones, E. W., Jr.
1983-01-01
Through a synthesis of magnetometer, plasma, energetic particle and electric field data from the ISEE satellite pair, the characteristics of the initial (11 December 1977) magnetotail plasma vortex event reported by Hones et al. (1978), are described. The event is associated with a hot (beta is approximately unity) compressional hydromagnetic wave and apparent vortical motion is seen because at two points in the flow cycle the flow is field-aligned. The behavior of the energetic ions receives special study: when combined with the thermal flow measurements energy dispersion is evident in the field-aligned flow, while the large pitch angle energetic ions reveal the presence of gradients. It is argued that these gradients are wave-induced, and the data are used to determine the perpendicular wave wavelength together with the speed and direction of transverse wave propagation.
Right Heart Vorticity and Right Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Browning, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Fenster, Brett; Schroeder, Joyce
2015-11-01
Recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) have allowed for the 3-dimensional characterization of blood flow in the right ventricle (RV) and right atrium (RA). In this study, we investigate and quantify differences in the characteristics of coherent rotating flow structures (vortices) in the RA and RV between subjects with right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (RVDD) and normal controls. Fifteen RVDD subjects and 10 age-matched controls underwent same day 3D time resolved CMR and echocardiography. Echocardiography was used to determine RVDD stage as well as pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). CMR data was used for RA and RV vortex quantification and visualization during early ventricular diastole and the results are compared between healthy subjects and those with RVDD. The resulting trends are discussed and hypotheses are presented regarding differences in vortex characteristics between healthy and RVDD subjects cohorts.
Electrokinetic mixing vortices due to electrolyte depletion at microchannel junctions.
Takhistov, Paul; Duginova, Ksenia; Chang, Hsueh-Chia
2003-07-01
Due to electric field leakage across sharp corners, the irrotational character of Ohmic electroosmotic flow is violated. Instead, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically evidence of electrolyte depletion and vortex separation in electroosmotic flow around a junction between wide and narrow channels. When the penetration length of the electric field exceeds the width of the narrow channel and if the electric field is directed from the narrow to the wide channel, the electromigration of ions diminishes significantly at the junction end of the narrow channel due to this leakage. Concentration depletion then develops at that location to maintain current balance but it also increases the corner zeta potential and the local electroosmotic slip velocity. A back pressure gradient hence appears to maintain flow balance and, at a sufficient magnitude, generates a pair of vortices.
Vorticity Dynamics in Single and Multiple Swirling Reacting Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Travis; Aguilar, Michael; Emerson, Benjamin; Noble, David; Lieuwen, Tim
2015-11-01
This presentation describes an analysis of the unsteady flow structures in two multinozzle swirling jet configurations. This work is motivated by the problem of combustion instabilities in premixed flames, a major concern in the development of modern low NOx combustors. The objective is to compare the unsteady flow structures in these two configurations for two separate geometries and determine how certain parameters, primarily distance between jets, influence the flow dynamics. The analysis aims to differentiate between the flow dynamics of single nozzle and triple nozzle configurations. This study looks at how the vorticity in the shear layers of one reacting swirling jet can affect the dynamics of a nearby similar jet. The distance between the swirling jets is found to have an effect on the flow field in determining where swirling jets merge and on the dynamics upstream of the merging location. Graduate Student, School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.
Climate science in the tropics: waves, vortices and PDEs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khouider, Boualem; Majda, Andrew J.; Stechmann, Samuel N.
2013-01-01
Clouds in the tropics can organize the circulation on planetary scales and profoundly impact long range seasonal forecasting and climate on the entire globe, yet contemporary operational computer models are often deficient in representing these phenomena. On the other hand, contemporary observations reveal remarkably complex coherent waves and vortices in the tropics interacting across a bewildering range of scales from kilometers to ten thousand kilometers. This paper reviews the interdisciplinary contributions over the last decade through the modus operandi of applied mathematics to these important scientific problems. Novel physical phenomena, new multiscale equations, novel PDEs, and numerical algorithms are presented here with the goal of attracting mathematicians and physicists to this exciting research area.
Jet oscillations caused by vorticity interactions with shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parthasarathy, S. P.; Harstad, K.; Massier, P. F.
1981-01-01
A linear theory is developed for the amplification of disturbances along a jet containing shock waves. The theory indicates that near grazing angles (i.e., wave angles near 90 deg) horizontal vorticity is greatly amplified after passing through the two shock waves that exist in a shock cell. The cumulative amplification and the mode that is amplified most can be obtained if the changes in shock parameters from cell to cell are known. Rapid rates of growth of disturbances are exhibited by shadowgraphs and rates of angular displacement of about 10 are observed. The linear two-dimensional theory also indicates that such rates of amplification occur, and that the behavior of a two-dimensional jet is qualitatively similar to that of a round jet.
Non-linear interaction of a detonation/vorticity wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lasseigne, D. G.; Jackson, T. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1991-01-01
The interaction of an oblique, overdriven detonation wave with a vorticity disturbance is investigated by a direct two-dimensional numerical simulation using a multi-domain, finite-difference solution of the compressible Euler equations. The results are compared to those of linear theory, which predict that the effect of exothermicity on the interaction is relatively small except possibly near a critical angle where linear theory no longer holds. It is found that the steady-state computational results agree with the results of linear theory. However, for cases with incident angle near the critical angle, moderate disturbance amplitudes, and/or sudden transient encounter with a disturbance, the effects of exothermicity are more pronounced than predicted by linear theory. Finally, it is found that linear theory correctly determines the critical angle.
Vortical flow management for improved configuration aerodynamics: Recent experiences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, D. M.
1983-01-01
Recent progress in vortex-control applications for alleviating the adverse consequences of three dimensional separation and vortical interactions on slender body/swept wing configurations is reported. Examples include helical separation trip to alleviate the side force due to forebody vortex asymmetry; hinged strakes to avoid vortex breakdown effects; compartmentation of swept leading edge separation to delay the pitch-up instability; under wing vortex trip and vortex trip and vortex flaps for drag reduction at high lift; and an apex-flap trimmer to fully utilize the lift capability of trailing-edge flaps for take off and landing of delta wings. Experimental results on generic wind-tunnel models are presented to illustrate the vortex-management concepts involved and to indicate their potential for enhancing the subsonic aerodynamics of supersonic-cruise type vehicles.
Formation of complex bacterial colonies via self-generated vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czirók, András; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Cohen, Inon; Vicsek, Tamás
1996-08-01
Depending on the environmental conditions bacterial colonies growing on agar surfaces can exhibit complex colony formation and various types of collective motion. Experimental results are presented concerning the hydrodynamics (vortices, migration of bacteria in clusters) and colony formation of a morphotype of Bacillus subtilis. Some of these features are not specific to this morphotype but also have been observed in several other bacterial strains, suggesting the presence of universal effects. A simple model of self-propelled particles is proposed, which is capable of describing the hydrodynamics on the intermediate level, including the experimentally observed rotating disks of bacteria. The colony formation is captured by a complex generic model taking into account nutrient diffusion, reproduction, and sporulation of bacteria, extracellular slime deposition, chemoregulation, and inhomogeneous population. Our model also sheds light on some possible biological benefits of this ``multicellular behavior.''
Role of electric discharges in the generation of atmospheric vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinkevich, O. A.; Maslov, S. A.; Gusein-zade, N. G.
2017-02-01
The existing thermohydrodynamic and hydroelectromagnetic models of tornado are considered. The potentialities of the humid atmosphere as a heat engine generating air vortices are analyzed in detail. The ability of long-term atmospheric electric discharges to form a tornado funnel and create an initial twist of up to 10-3-10-2 s-1 in it are estimated. The possible effect of a lightning discharge on the initiation and evolution of the tornado is discussed. It is shown that the electric current flowing along the lightning channel can lead to helical instability and generation of a weak primary vortex. The channel formed in the atmosphere by a lightning discharge and the vortex motion of the parent thundercloud can enhance the primary vortex and promote its transformation into a tornado. Possible mechanisms of enhancement of the primary vortex created by a lightning discharge and the possibility of its transformation into a tornado in the postdischarge stage are discussed.
The Effect of Dust on the Martian Polar Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guzewich, Scott D.; Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.
2016-01-01
The influence of atmospheric dust on the dynamics and stability of the martian polar vortices is examined, through analysis of Mars Climate Sounder observations and MarsWRF general circulation model simulations. We show that regional and global dust storms produce transient vortex warming events that partially or fully disrupt the northern winter polar vortex for brief periods. Increased atmospheric dust heating alters the Hadley circulation and shifts the downwelling branch of the circulation poleward, leading to a disruption of the polar vortex for a period of days to weeks. Through our simulations, we find this effect is dependent on the atmospheric heating rate, which can be changed by increasing the amount of dust in the atmosphere or by altering the dust optical properties (e.g., single scattering albedo). Despite this, our simulations show that some level of atmospheric dust is necessary to produce a distinct northern hemisphere winter polar vortex.
The effect of dust on the martian polar vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guzewich, Scott D.; Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.
2016-11-01
The influence of atmospheric dust on the dynamics and stability of the martian polar vortices is examined, through analysis of Mars Climate Sounder observations and MarsWRF general circulation model simulations. We show that regional and global dust storms produce ;transient vortex warming; events that partially or fully disrupt the northern winter polar vortex for brief periods. Increased atmospheric dust heating alters the Hadley circulation and shifts the downwelling branch of the circulation poleward, leading to a disruption of the polar vortex for a period of days to weeks. Through our simulations, we find this effect is dependent on the atmospheric heating rate, which can be changed by increasing the amount of dust in the atmosphere or by altering the dust optical properties (e.g., single scattering albedo). Despite this, our simulations show that some level of atmospheric dust is necessary to produce a distinct northern hemisphere winter polar vortex.
Laser velocimetry in highly three-dimensional and vortical flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Novak, C. J.; Huie, C. R.; Cornelius, K. C.
1986-01-01
The need for experimentally determined 3-D velocity information is crucial to the understanding of highly 3-dimensional and vortical flow fields. In addition to gaining an understanding of the physics of flow fields, a correlation of velocity data is needed for advanced computational modelling. A double pass method for acquiring 3-D flow field information using a 2-D laser velocimeter (LV) is described. The design and implementation of a 3-D LV with expanded capabilities to acquire real-time 3-D flow field information are also described. Finally, the use of such an instrument in a wind tunnel study of a generic fighter configuration is described. The results of the wind tunnel study highlight the complexities of 3-D flow fields, particularly when the vortex behavior is examined over a range of angles of attack.
Streamwise vorticity in a turbine rotor with conical endwalls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kost, Friedrich
1993-04-01
To investigate the spatial flow structure caused by sweep and dihedral effects in turbomachinery blade rows, detailed measurements were conducted in a windtunnel for rotating annular cascades. The special configuration consisted of a turbine rotor equipped with straight blades, a conical hub, and a conical casing with a cone half angle of 30 deg. Numerous flow data were obtained from surface pressure distributions at seven radial blade sections and from laser velocimetry upstream, downstream, and inside the rotor. It is shown that large deviations from an axisymmetric surface exist in conical flow. The conical flow gives rise to the production of streamwise vorticity which results in increased flow losses. It is furthermore shown that the secondary flow structure is mainly determined by the rotation of the turbine.
Wing Wake Vortices and Temporal Vortex Pair Instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williamson, C. H. K.; Leweke, T.; Miller, G. D.
In this presentation we include selected results which have originated from vortex dynamics studies conducted at Cornell, in collaboration with IRPHE, Marseille. These studies concern, in particular, the spatial development of delta wing trailing vortices, and the temporal development of counter-rotating vortex pairs. There are, as might be expected, similarities in the instabilities of both of these basic flows, as shown in our laboratory-scale studies. In the case of the spatial development of vortex pairs in the wake of a delta wing, either in free flight or towed from an XY carriage system in a towing tank, we have found three distinct instability length scales as the trailing vortex pair travels downstream. The first (smallest-scale) instability is found immediately behind the delta wing, and this scales on the thickness of the two shear layers separating from the wing trailing edge. The second (short-wave) instability, at an intermediate distance downstream, scales on the primary vortex core dimensions. The third (long-wave) instability far downstream represents the classical "Crow" instability (Crow, 1970), scaling on the distance between the two primary vortices. By imposing disturbances on the delta wing incident velocity, we find that the long-wave instability is receptive to a range of wavelengths. Our experimental measurements of instability growth rates are compared with theoretical predictions, which are based on the theory of Widnall et al. (1971), and which require, as input, DPIV measurements of axial and circumferential velocity profiles. This represents the first time that theoretical and experimental growth rates have been compared, without the imposition of ad-hoc assumptions regarding the vorticity distribution. The agreement with theory appears to be good. The ease with which a Delta wing may be flown in free flight was demonstrated at the Symposium, using a giant polystyrene triangular wing, launched from the back of the auditorium, and ably
Microalga propels along vorticity direction in a shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chengala, Anwar; Hondzo, Miki; Sheng, Jian
2013-05-01
Using high-speed digital holographic microscopy and microfluidics, we discover that, when encountering fluid flow shear above a threshold, unicellular green alga Dunaliella primolecta migrates unambiguously in the cross-stream direction that is normal to the plane of shear and coincides with the local fluid flow vorticity. The flow shear drives motile microalgae to collectively migrate in a thin two-dimensional horizontal plane and consequently alters the spatial distribution of microalgal cells within a given suspension. This shear-induced algal migration differs substantially from periodic rotational motion of passive ellipsoids, known as Jeffery orbits, as well as gyrotaxis by bottom-heavy swimming microalgae in a shear flow due to the subtle interplay between torques generated by gravity and viscous shear. Our findings could facilitate mechanistic solutions for modeling planktonic thin layers and sustainable cultivation of microalgae for human nutrition and bioenergy feedstock.
Hidden vorticity in binary Bose-Einstein condensates
Brtka, Marijana; Gammal, Arnaldo; Malomed, Boris A.
We consider a binary Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) described by a system of two-dimensional (2D) Gross-Pitaevskii equations with the harmonic-oscillator trapping potential. The intraspecies interactions are attractive, while the interaction between the species may have either sign. The same model applies to the copropagation of bimodal beams in photonic-crystal fibers. We consider a family of trapped hidden-vorticity (HV) modes in the form of bound states of two components with opposite vorticities S{sub 1,2}={+-}1, the total angular momentum being zero. A challenging problem is the stability of the HV modes. By means of a linear-stability analysis and direct simulations, stability domains aremore » identified in a relevant parameter plane. In direct simulations, stable HV modes feature robustness against large perturbations, while unstable ones split into fragments whose number is identical to the azimuthal index of the fastest growing perturbation eigenmode. Conditions allowing for the creation of the HV modes in the experiment are discussed too. For comparison, a similar but simpler problem is studied in an analytical form, viz., the modulational instability of an HV state in a one-dimensional (1D) system with periodic boundary conditions (this system models a counterflow in a binary BEC mixture loaded into a toroidal trap or a bimodal optical beam coupled into a cylindrical shell). We demonstrate that the stabilization of the 1D HV modes is impossible, which stresses the significance of the stabilization of the HV modes in the 2D setting.« less
Deep Coherent Vortices and Their Sea Surface Expressions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ienna, Federico; Bashmachnikov, Igor; Dias, Joaquim; Peliz, Alvaro
2017-04-01
Mediterranean Water eddies, known as Meddies, are an important dynamic process occurring at depths of 1000-meters in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Meddies occur as a direct result of the Mediterranean Outflow exiting through the Gibraltar Strait, and represent a prevalent mechanism that can be found extensively throughout the ocean. Moreover, Meddy cores are known to produce measurable expressions at the sea surface in the form of rotating coherent vortices, not only affecting the sea surface from beneath, but also allowing for the possibility to remotely study these deep phenomena through data gathered at the sea surface. While many past studies have focused on the properties of Meddy cores, only a handful of studies focus on the physical characteristics and behavior of the surface expressions produced. Are Meddy surface expressions different from other like vortices that dominate the physical ocean surface? What are the relationships between deep and surface mechanisms, and do any feedbacks exist? To shed light on these questions, we investigate the relationship between Meddies and their sea-surface expressions through observations using in-situ float and drifter profiles and satellite altimetry. A total of 782 Meddy cores were examined in the Northeast Atlantic using temperature and salinity data obtained by CTD and Argo during the Mecanismos de transporte e de dispersão da Água Mediterrânica no Atlântico Nordeste (MEDTRANS) project, and their corresponding sea-level expressions were geo-temporally matched in satellite altimetry data. We report several statistical properties of the sea-surface expressions of Meddies, including their mean diameter and vertical magnitude, and compare the properties of their surface features to the underlying Meddy cores. We investigate how the deep core affects the surface, and whether surface expressions may in return yield information about the underlying cores. Additionally, we examine the variability of the surface
Influence of vorticity distribution on singularities in linearized supersonic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopal, Vijay; Maddalena, Luca
2018-05-01
The linearized steady three-dimensional supersonic flow can be analyzed using a vector potential approach which transforms the governing equation to a standard form of two-dimensional wave equation. Of particular interest are the canonical horseshoe line-vortex distribution and the resulting induced velocity field in supersonic flow. In this case, the singularities are present at the vortex line itself and also at the surface of the cone of influence originating from the vertices of the horseshoe structure. This is a characteristic of the hyperbolic nature of the flow which renders the study of supersonic vortex dynamics a challenging task. It is conjectured in this work that the presence of the singularity at the cone of influence is associated with the step-function nature of the vorticity distribution specified in the canonical case. At the phenomenological level, if one considers the three-dimensional steady supersonic flow, then a sudden appearance of a line-vortex will generate a ripple of singularities in the induced velocity field which convect downstream and laterally spread, at the most, to the surface of the cone of influence. Based on these findings, this work includes an exploration of potential candidates for vorticity distributions that eliminate the singularities at the cone of influence. The analysis of the resulting induced velocity field is then compared with the canonical case, and it is observed that the singularities were successfully eliminated. The manuscript includes an application of the proposed method to study the induced velocity field in a confined supersonic flow.
On the zero-crossing of the three-gluon Green's function from lattice simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Athenodorou, Andreas; Boucaud, Philippe; de Soto, Feliciano; Rodríguez-Quintero, José; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas
2018-03-01
We report on some efforts recently made in order to gain a better understanding of some IR properties of the 3-point gluon Green's function by exploiting results from large-volume quenched lattice simulations. These lattice results have been obtained by using both tree-level Symanzik and the standard Wilson action, in the aim of assessing the possible impact of effects presumably resulting from a particular choice for the discretization of the action. The main resulting feature is the existence of a negative log-aritmic divergence at zero-momentum, which pulls the 3-gluon form factors down at low momenta and, consequently, yields a zero-crossing at a given deep IR momentum. The results can be correctly explained by analyzing the relevant Dyson-Schwinger equations and appropriate truncation schemes.
Deep learning in color: towards automated quark/gluon jet discrimination
Komiske, Patrick T.; Metodiev, Eric M.; Schwartz, Matthew D.
Artificial intelligence offers the potential to automate challenging data-processing tasks in collider physics. Here, to establish its prospects, we explore to what extent deep learning with convolutional neural networks can discriminate quark and gluon jets better than observables designed by physicists. Our approach builds upon the paradigm that a jet can be treated as an image, with intensity given by the local calorimeter deposits. We supplement this construction by adding color to the images, with red, green and blue intensities given by the transverse momentum in charged particles, transverse momentum in neutral particles, and pixel-level charged particle counts. Overall, themore » deep networks match or outperform traditional jet variables. We also find that, while various simulations produce different quark and gluon jets, the neural networks are surprisingly insensitive to these differences, similar to traditional observables. This suggests that the networks can extract robust physical information from imperfect simulations.« less
A glimpse of gluons through deeply virtual compton scattering on the proton.
Defurne, M; Jiménez-Argüello, A Martí; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Bellini, V; Benali, M; Boeglin, W; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chandavar, S; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; de Jager, C W; de Leo, R; Desnault, C; Deur, A; El Fassi, L; Ent, R; Flay, D; Friend, M; Fuchey, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Horn, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Hyde, C E; Iqbal, S; Itard, F; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Koirala, S; Korover, I; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Magne, M; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Mazouz, M; Meddi, F; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Camacho, C Muñoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nuruzzaman, N; Paremuzyan, R; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Rashad, M N H; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Russo, G; Sabatié, F; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Solvignon, P; Sperduto, M L; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, D; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yao, H; Ye, Z; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P
2017-11-10
The internal structure of nucleons (protons and neutrons) remains one of the greatest outstanding problems in modern nuclear physics. By scattering high-energy electrons off a proton we are able to resolve its fundamental constituents and probe their momenta and positions. Here we investigate the dynamics of quarks and gluons inside nucleons using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS)-a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton, which subsequently radiates a photon. DVCS interferes with the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process, where the photon is emitted by the electron rather than the proton. We report herein the full determination of the BH-DVCS interference by exploiting the distinct energy dependences of the DVCS and BH amplitudes. In the regime where the scattering is expected to occur off a single quark, measurements show an intriguing sensitivity to gluons, the carriers of the strong interaction.
Deep learning in color: towards automated quark/gluon jet discrimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komiske, Patrick T.; Metodiev, Eric M.; Schwartz, Matthew D.
2017-01-01
Artificial intelligence offers the potential to automate challenging data-processing tasks in collider physics. To establish its prospects, we explore to what extent deep learning with convolutional neural networks can discriminate quark and gluon jets better than observables designed by physicists. Our approach builds upon the paradigm that a jet can be treated as an image, with intensity given by the local calorimeter deposits. We supplement this construction by adding color to the images, with red, green and blue intensities given by the transverse momentum in charged particles, transverse momentum in neutral particles, and pixel-level charged particle counts. Overall, the deep networks match or outperform traditional jet variables. We also find that, while various simulations produce different quark and gluon jets, the neural networks are surprisingly insensitive to these differences, similar to traditional observables. This suggests that the networks can extract robust physical information from imperfect simulations.
Transport coefficients of Quark-Gluon plasma with full QCD potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
J. P., Prasanth; Bannur, Vishnu M.
2018-05-01
The shear viscosity η, bulk viscosity ζ and their ratio with the entropy density, η / s, ζ / s have been studied in a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) within the cluster expansion method. The cluster expansion method allows us to include the interaction between the partons in the deconfined phase and to calculate the equation of state of quark-gluon plasma. It has been argued that the interactions present in the equation of state, the modified Cornell potential significantly contributes to the viscosity. The results obtained within our approaches agree with lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) equation of state. We obtained η / s ≈ 0 . 128 within the temperature range T /Tc ∈ [ 0 . 9 , 1 . 5 ] which is very close to the theoretical lower bound η / s ≥ 1 /(4 π) in Yang-Mills theory. We also demonstrate that the effects of ζ / s at freezeout are possibly large.
Quark-gluon soup — The perfectly liquid phase of QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinz, Ulrich
2015-01-01
At temperatures above about 150 MeV and energy densities exceeding 500 MeV/fm3, quarks and gluons exist in the form of a plasma of free color charges that is about 1000 times hotter and a billion times denser than any other plasma ever created in the laboratory. This quark-gluon plasma (QGP) turns out to be strongly coupled, flowing like a liquid. About 35 years ago, the nuclear physics community started a program of relativistic heavy-ion collisions with the goal of producing and studying QGP under controlled laboratory conditions. This article recounts the story of its successful creation in collider experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and CERN and the subsequent discovery of its almost perfectly liquid nature, and reports on the recent quantitatively precise determination of its thermodynamic and transport properties.
Deep learning in color: towards automated quark/gluon jet discrimination
Komiske, Patrick T.; Metodiev, Eric M.; Schwartz, Matthew D.
2017-01-25
Artificial intelligence offers the potential to automate challenging data-processing tasks in collider physics. Here, to establish its prospects, we explore to what extent deep learning with convolutional neural networks can discriminate quark and gluon jets better than observables designed by physicists. Our approach builds upon the paradigm that a jet can be treated as an image, with intensity given by the local calorimeter deposits. We supplement this construction by adding color to the images, with red, green and blue intensities given by the transverse momentum in charged particles, transverse momentum in neutral particles, and pixel-level charged particle counts. Overall, themore » deep networks match or outperform traditional jet variables. We also find that, while various simulations produce different quark and gluon jets, the neural networks are surprisingly insensitive to these differences, similar to traditional observables. This suggests that the networks can extract robust physical information from imperfect simulations.« less
On the zero-crossing of the three-gluon Green's function from lattice simulations
Athenodorou, Andreas; Boucaud, Philippe; de Soto, Feliciano
We report on some efforts recently made in order to gain a better understanding of some IR properties of the 3-point gluon Green’s function by exploiting results from large-volume quenched lattice simulations. These lattice results have been obtained by using both tree-level Symanzik and the standard Wilson action, in the aim of assessing the possible impact of effects presumably resulting from a particular choice for the discretization of the action. The main resulting feature is the existence of a negative log-aritmic divergence at zero-momentum, which pulls the 3-gluon form factors down at low momenta and, consequently, yields a zero-crossing atmore » a given deep IR momentum. The results can be correctly explained by analyzing the relevant Dyson-Schwinger equations and appropriate truncation schemes.« less
Spatially modulated phase in the holographic description of quark-gluon plasma.
Ooguri, Hirosi; Park, Chang-Soon
2011-02-11
We present a string theory construction of a gravity dual of a spatially modulated phase. Our earlier work shows that the Chern-Simons term in the five-dimensional Maxwell theory destabilizes the Reissner-Nordström black holes in anti-de Sitter space if the Chern-Simons coupling is sufficiently high. In this Letter, we show that a similar instability is realized on the world volume of 8-branes in the Sakai-Sugimoto model in the quark-gluon plasma phase. Our result suggests a new spatially modulated phase in quark-gluon plasma when the baryon density is above 0.8Nf fm(-3) at temperature 150 MeV.
Quark-gluon discrimination in the search for gluino pair production at the LHC
Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Mukhopadhyay, Satyanarayan; Nojiri, Mihoko M.; ...
2017-01-11
Here, we study the impact of including quark- and gluon-initiated jet discrimination in the search for strongly interacting supersymmetric particles at the LHC. Taking the example of gluino pair production, considerable improvement is observed in the LHC search reach on including the jet substructure observables to the standard kinematic variables within a multivariate analysis. In particular, quark and gluon jet separation has higher impact in the region of intermediate mass-gap between the gluino and the lightest neutralino, as the difference between the signal and the standard model background kinematic distributions is reduced in this region. We also compare the predictionsmore » from different Monte Carlo event generators to estimate the uncertainty originating from the modelling of the parton shower and hadronization processes.« less
Propagation of cosmic rays through the atmosphere in the quark-gluon strings model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlykin, A. D.; Krutikova, N. P.; Shabelski, Y. M.
1985-01-01
The quark-gluon strings model succeeds in the description of multiple hadron production in the central rapidity region of nucleon-nucleon interctions. This model was developed for hadron-nucleus interactions and used for calculation of the cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. It is shown that at energies 10 to the 11th power to the 12th power eV, this model gives a satisfactory description of experimental data. But with the increase of the energy up to approximately 10 to the 14th power eV, results of calculations and of experiments begin to differ and this difference rises with the energy. It may indicate that the scaling violation in the fragmentation region of inclusive spectra for hadron-nucleus interactions is stronger than in the quark-gluon strings model.
Heavy quarkonium production at low P⊥ in nonrelativistic QCD with soft gluon resummation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Peng; Yuan, C.-P.; Yuan, Feng
2013-09-01
We extend the nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) prediction for the production of heavy quarkonium with low transverse momentum in hadronic collisions by taking into account effects from all-order soft gluon resummation. Following the Collins-Soper-Sterman formalism, we resum the most singular terms in the partonic subprocesses. The theoretical predictions of J/ψ and Υ productions are compared to the experimental data from the fixed target experiments (E866) and the collider experiments (RHIC, Tevatron, LHC). The associated nonperturbative Sudakov form factor for the gluon distributions is found to be different from the previous assumption of rescaling the quark form factor by the ratio of color factors. This conclusion should be further checked by future experiments on Higgs boson and/or diphoton production in pp collisions. We also comment on the implication of our results on determining the color-octet matrix elements associated with the J/ψ and Υ productions in the NRQCD factorization formalism.
Quark self-energy in an ellipsoidally anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasmaei, Babak S.; Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael
2016-12-01
We calculate the quark self-energy in a quark-gluon plasma that possesses an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy in the local rest frame. By introducing additional transverse-momentum anisotropy parameters into the parton distribution functions, we generalize previous results which were obtained for the case of a spheroidal anisotropy. Our results demonstrate that the presence of anisotropies in the transverse directions affects the real and imaginary parts of quark self-energy and, consequently, the self-energy depends on both the polar and azimuthal angles in the local rest frame of the matter. Our results for the quark self-energy set the stage for the calculation of the effects of ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy on quark-gluon plasma photon spectra and collective flow.
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Liao, Jinfeng; Mehtar-Tani, Yacine
2016-12-01
We analyze the interplay of elastic and inelastic collisions in the thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma, using kinetic theory. Our main focus is the dynamics and equilibration of long wavelength modes.
Describing the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma through the Friedberg-Lee model
Shu Song; Li Jiarong; Institute of Particle Physics, Hua-Zhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079
2010-10-15
The Friedberg-Lee (FL) model is studied at finite temperature and density. The soliton solutions of the FL model in the deconfinement phase transition are solved and thoroughly discussed for certain boundary conditions. We indicate that the solitons before and after the deconfinement have different physical meanings: the soliton before deconfinement represents hadrons, while the soliton after the deconfinement represents the bound state of quarks which leads to a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma phase. The corresponding phase diagram is given.
Fractal based observables to probe jet substructure of quarks and gluons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davighi, Joe; Harris, Philip
2018-04-01
New jet observables are defined which characterize both fractal and scale-dependent contributions to the distribution of hadrons in a jet. These infrared safe observables, named Extended Fractal Observables (EFOs), have been applied to quark-gluon discrimination to demonstrate their potential utility. The EFOs are found to be individually discriminating and only weakly correlated to variables used in existing discriminators. Consequently, their inclusion improves discriminator performance, as here demonstrated with particle level simulation from the parton shower.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kieokaew, Rungployphan; Foullon, Claire; Lavraud, Benoit
2018-01-01
Four-spacecraft missions are probing the Earth's magnetospheric environment with high potential for revealing spatial and temporal scales of a variety of in situ phenomena. The techniques allowed by these four spacecraft include the calculation of vorticity and the magnetic curvature analysis (MCA), both of which have been used in the study of various plasma structures. Motivated by curved magnetic field and vortical structures induced by Kelvin- Helmholtz (KH) waves, we investigate the robustness of the MCA and vorticity techniques when increasing (regular) tetrahedron sizes, to interpret real data. Here for the first time, we test both techniques on a 2.5-D MHD simulation of KH waves at the magnetopause. We investigate, in particular, the curvature and flow vorticity across KH vortices and produce time series for static spacecraft in the boundary layers. The combined results of magnetic curvature and vorticity further help us to understand the development of KH waves. In particular, first, in the trailing edge, the magnetic curvature across the magnetopause points in opposite directions, in the wave propagation direction on the magnetosheath side and against it on the magnetospheric side. Second, the existence of a "turnover layer" in the magnetospheric side, defined by negative vorticity for the duskside magnetopause, which persists in the saturation phase, is reminiscent of roll-up history. We found significant variations in the MCA measures depending on the size of the tetrahedron. This study lends support for cross-scale observations to better understand the nature of curvature and its role in plasma phenomena.
Towards laboratory detection of topological vortices in superfluid phases of QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Arpan; Dave, Shreyansh S.; de, Somnath; Srivastava, Ajit M.
2017-10-01
Topological defects arise in a variety of systems, e.g. vortices in superfluid helium to cosmic strings in the early universe. There is an indirect evidence of neutron superfluid vortices from the glitches in pulsars. One also expects that the topological defects may arise in various high baryon density phases of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), e.g. superfluid topological vortices in the color flavor locked (CFL) phase. Though vastly different in energy/length scales, there are universal features in the formation of all these defects. Utilizing this universality, we investigate the possibility of detecting these topological superfluid vortices in laboratory experiments, namely heavy-ion collisions (HICs). Using hydrodynamic simulations, we show that vortices can qualitatively affect the power spectrum of flow fluctuations. This can give an unambiguous signal for superfluid transition resulting in vortices, allowing for the check of defect formation theories in a relativistic quantum field theory system, and the detection of superfluid phases of QCD. Detection of nucleonic superfluid vortices in low energy HICs will give opportunity for laboratory controlled study of their properties, providing crucial inputs for the physics of pulsars.
The generation of two-dimensional vortices by transverse oscillation of a soap film
Afenchenko, V.O.; Ezersky, A.B.; Kiyashko, S.V.
1998-02-01
An experimental investigation of the dynamics of horizontal soap films stretched over circular or square boundaries undergoing periodic transverse oscillations at frequencies in the range 20{endash}200 Hz is reported. Concomitant with modes of transverse flexural oscillations, it was observed that two-dimensional vortices in the plane of the film are excited. The vortices may be either (i) large, scaling with the size of the cavity or (ii) small, localized at a wavelength or half-wavelength of the membrane modes. In the experiments a stable generation of one, two, {hor_ellipsis}, ten pairs of counter-rotating vortices were observed in finite regions of amplitude-frequency parametermore » space. The circulation strength of vortices in a given vortex pattern increases with increasing external forcing and with decreasing soap film thickness. A theoretical model based on the wave-boundary interaction of excited Marangoni waves reveals a vorticity generation mechanism active in vibrating soap films. This model shows that vorticity is generated throughout the entire liquid volume by viscous diffusion, and qualitatively reproduces many steady vortex patterns observed in the experiment. However, the model cannot explain the existence of the sometimes intense vortices observed far from the film boundary that do not appear to be generated by diffusive processes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}« less
Phillips, Carolyn L.; Guo, Hanqi; Peterka, Tom; ...
2016-02-19
In type-II superconductors, the dynamics of magnetic flux vortices determine their transport properties. In the Ginzburg-Landau theory, vortices correspond to topological defects in the complex order parameter field. Earlier, we introduced a method for extracting vortices from the discretized complex order parameter field generated by a large-scale simulation of vortex matter. With this method, at a fixed time step, each vortex [simplistically, a one-dimensional (1D) curve in 3D space] can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field. Here we extend this method as a function of time as well. A vortex now corresponds to a 2Dmore » space-time sheet embedded in 4D space time that can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field over both space and time. Vortices that interact by merging or splitting correspond to disappearance and appearance of holes in the connected graph in the time direction. This method of tracking vortices, which makes no assumptions about the scale or behavior of the vortices, can track the vortices with a resolution as good as the discretization of the temporally evolving complex scalar field. In addition, even details of the trajectory between time steps can be reconstructed from the connected graph. With this form of vortex tracking, the details of vortex dynamics in a model of a superconducting materials can be understood in greater detail than previously possible.« less
Vortices in Saturn’s Northern Hemisphere (2008–2015) Observed by Cassini ISS
Trammell, Harold Justin; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Pan, Yefeng; Smith, Mark A.; Bering, Edgar A.; Hörst, Sarah M.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Janssen, Michael A.; West, Robert A.; Porco, Carolyn C.; Li, Cheng; Simon, Amy A.; Baines, Kevin H.
2018-01-01
We use observations from the Imaging Science Subsystem on Cassini to create maps of Saturn’s Northern Hemisphere (NH) from 2008 to 2015, a time period including a seasonal transition (i.e., Spring Equinox in 2009) and the 2010 giant storm. The processed maps are used to investigate vortices in the NH during the period of 2008–2015. All recorded vortices have diameters (east-west) smaller than 6000 km except for the largest vortex that developed from the 2010 giant storm. The largest vortex decreased its diameter from ~11000 km in 2011 to ~5000 km in 2015, and its average diameter is ~6500 km during the period of 2011–2015. The largest vortex lasts at least 4 years, which is much longer than the lifetimes of most vortices (less than 1 year). The largest vortex drifts to north, which can be explained by the beta drift effect. The number of vortices displays varying behaviors in the meridional direction, in which the 2010 giant storm significantly affects the generation and development of vortices in the middle latitudes (25–45°N). In the higher latitudes (45–90°N), the number of vortices also displays strong temporal variations. The solar flux and the internal heat do not directly contribute to the vortex activities, leaving the temporal variations of vortices in the higher latitudes (45–90°N) unexplained. PMID:29629249
A method for modeling finite-core vortices in wake-flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stremel, P. M.
1984-01-01
A numerical method for computing nonplanar vortex wakes represented by finite-core vortices is presented. The approach solves for the velocity on an Eulerian grid, using standard finite-difference techniques; the vortex wake is tracked by Lagrangian methods. In this method, the distribution of continuous vorticity in the wake is replaced by a group of discrete vortices. An axially symmetric distribution of vorticity about the center of each discrete vortex is used to represent the finite-core model. Two distributions of vorticity, or core models, are investigated: a finite distribution of vorticity represented by a third-order polynomial, and a continuous distribution of vorticity throughout the wake. The method provides for a vortex-core model that is insensitive to the mesh spacing. Results for a simplified case are presented. Computed results for the roll-up of a vortex wake generated by wings with different spanwise load distributions are presented; contour plots of the flow-field velocities are included; and comparisons are made of the computed flow-field velocities with experimentally measured velocities.
Fully alternating, triaxial electric or magnetic fields offer new routes to fluid vorticity
Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle J.
2014-10-31
Noncontact methods of generating strong fluid vorticity are important to problems involving heat and mass transfer, fluid mixing, active wetting, and droplet transport. Furthermore, because zero or even negative shear viscosities can be induced, vorticity can greatly extend the control range of the smart fluids used in magnetorheological devices. In recent work we have shown that a particular class of ac/ac/dc triaxial fields (so-called symmetry-breaking rational fields) can create strong vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions and have presented a theory of the vorticity that is based on the symmetry of the 2-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse.more » In this paper we demonstrate that there are three countably infinite sets of fully alternating ac/ac/ac triaxial fields whose frequencies form rational triads that have the symmetry required to drive fluid vorticity. The symmetry of the 3-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse can be derived and from this the direction of the vorticity axis can be predicted, as can the dependence of the sign of the vorticity on the phase relations between the three field components. Experimental results are presented that validate the symmetry theory. These discoveries significantly broaden the class of triaxial fields that can be exploited to produce strong noncontact flow.« less
A glimpse of gluons through deeply virtual compton scattering on the proton
Defurne, Maxime; Jimenez-Arguello, A. Marti; Ahmed, Z.; ...
2017-11-10
The proton is composed of quarks and gluons, bound by the most elusive mechanism of strong interaction called confinement. In this work, the dynamics of quarks and gluons are investigated using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS): produced by a multi-GeV electron, a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton which subsequently radiates a high energy photon. Similarly to holography, measuring not only the magnitude but also the phase of the DVCS amplitude allows to perform 3D images of the internal structure of the proton. The phase is made accessible through the quantum-mechanical interference of DVCS with the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process,more » in which the final photon is emitted by the electron rather than the proton. Here, we report herein the first full determination of the BH-DVCS interference by exploiting the distinct energy dependences of the DVCS and BH amplitudes. In the high energy regime where the scattering process is expected to occur off a single quark in the proton, these accurate measurements show an intriguing sensitivity to gluons, the carriers of the strong interaction.« less