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Sample records for abrikosov gluon vortices

  1. Abrikosov vortices in SF bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubov, A. A.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Khapaev, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the spatial distribution of supercurrent circulated around an Abrikosov vortex in an SF bilayer in perpendicular magnetic field. Within the dirty limit regime and circular cell approximation for the vortex lattice, we derive the conditions when the Usadel equations the F-layer can be solved analytically. Using the obtained solutions, we demonstrate the possibility of reversal of direction of proximity induced supercurrents around the vortex in the F-layer compared to that in the S-layer. The direction of currents can be controlled either by varying transparency of the SF interface or by changing an exchange field in a ferromagnet. We argue that the origin of this effect is due the phase shift between singlet and triplet order parameter components induced in the F-layer. Possible ways of experimental detection of the predicted effect are discussed.

  2. Single Abrikosov vortices as quantized information bits.

    PubMed

    Golod, T; Iovan, A; Krasnov, V M

    2015-10-12

    Superconducting digital devices can be advantageously used in future supercomputers because they can greatly reduce the dissipation power and increase the speed of operation. Non-volatile quantized states are ideal for the realization of classical Boolean logics. A quantized Abrikosov vortex represents the most compact magnetic object in superconductors, which can be utilized for creation of high-density digital cryoelectronics. In this work we provide a proof of concept for Abrikosov-vortex-based random access memory cell, in which a single vortex is used as an information bit. We demonstrate high-endurance write operation and two different ways of read-out using a spin valve or a Josephson junction. These memory cells are characterized by an infinite magnetoresistance between 0 and 1 states, a short access time, a scalability to nm sizes and an extremely low write energy. Non-volatility and perfect reproducibility are inherent for such a device due to the quantized nature of the vortex.

  3. Manipulating Abrikosov vortices with soft magnetic stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Buzdin, A. I.; Rosenmann, D.; Benseman, T.; Kwok, W.-K.

    2017-05-01

    Tuning the polarization of a periodic array of magnetic stripes on top of a superconducting film allows control of Abrikosov vortex motion. Using direct magneto-optical imaging of the vortex patterns, we demonstrate that the proximity of the magnetic stripe ends to the edges of the superconducting film can strongly alter the vortex dynamics. We observe qualitatively different vortex behavior when the stripes overlap with the film edges. From the resulting unique magnetic flux patterns, we calculate the magnetic pinning strength of our stripe array and study effects of the modified edge barrier on vortex guidance and gating that result from different polarizations of the stripes.

  4. Single Abrikosov vortices as quantized information bits

    PubMed Central

    Golod, T.; Iovan, A.; Krasnov, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting digital devices can be advantageously used in future supercomputers because they can greatly reduce the dissipation power and increase the speed of operation. Non-volatile quantized states are ideal for the realization of classical Boolean logics. A quantized Abrikosov vortex represents the most compact magnetic object in superconductors, which can be utilized for creation of high-density digital cryoelectronics. In this work we provide a proof of concept for Abrikosov-vortex-based random access memory cell, in which a single vortex is used as an information bit. We demonstrate high-endurance write operation and two different ways of read-out using a spin valve or a Josephson junction. These memory cells are characterized by an infinite magnetoresistance between 0 and 1 states, a short access time, a scalability to nm sizes and an extremely low write energy. Non-volatility and perfect reproducibility are inherent for such a device due to the quantized nature of the vortex. PMID:26456592

  5. Manipulating Abrikosov vortices with soft magnetic stripes

    DOE PAGES

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Buzdin, A. I.; ...

    2017-05-22

    Here, tuning the polarization of a periodic array of magnetic stripes on top of a superconducting film allows control of Abrikosov vortex motion. Using direct magneto-optical imaging of the vortex patterns, we demonstrate that the proximity of the magnetic stripe ends to the edges of the superconducting film can strongly alter the vortex dynamics. We observe qualitatively different vortex behavior when the stripes overlap with the film edges. From the resulting unique magnetic flux patterns, we calculate the magnetic pinning strength of our stripe array and study effects of the modified edge barrier on vortex guidance and gating that resultmore » from different polarizations of the stripes .« less

  6. Transition from slow Abrikosov to fast moving Josephson vortices in iron pnictide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Philip J. W.; Balicas, Luis; Geshkenbein, Vadim; Blatter, Gianni; Karpinski, Janusz; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Batlogg, Bertram

    2013-02-01

    Iron pnictides are layered high Tc superconductors with moderate material anisotropy and thus Abrikosov vortices are expected in the mixed state. Yet, we have discovered a distinct change in the nature of the vortices from Abrikosov-like to Josephson-like in the pnictide superconductor SmFeAs(O,F) with Tc~48-50 K on cooling below a temperature T*~41-42 K, despite its moderate electronic anisotropy γ~4-6. This transition is hallmarked by a sharp drop in the critical current and accordingly a jump in the flux-flow voltage in a magnetic field precisely aligned along the FeAs layers, indicative of highly mobile vortices. T* coincides well with the temperature where the coherence length ξc perpendicular to the layers matches half of the FeAs-layer spacing. For fields slightly out-of-plane (> 0.1°- 0.15°) the vortices are completely immobilized as well-pinned Abrikosov segments are introduced when the vortex crosses the FeAs layers. We interpret these findings as a transition from well-pinned, slow moving Abrikosov vortices at high temperatures to weakly pinned, fast flowing Josephson vortices at low temperatures. This vortex dynamics could become technologically relevant as superconducting applications will always operate deep in the Josephson regime.

  7. Decoherence and radiation-free relaxation in Meissner transmon qubit coupled to Abrikosov vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Jaseung; Yoscovits, Zack; Levchenko, Alex; Eckstein, James; Bezryadin, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    We present a type of transmon split-junction qubit which can be tuned by Meissner screening currents flowing in the adjacent superconducting film electrodes. The best detected relaxation time (T1) was of the order of 50 μ s and the dephasing time (T2) about 40 μ s . The achieved period of oscillation with magnetic field was much smaller than in the usual SQUID-based transmon qubits; thus a strong effective field amplification has been realized. This Meissner qubit allows a strong mixing of the current flowing in the qubit junctions and the currents generated by the Abrikosov vortices. We present a quantitative analysis of the radiation-free relaxation in qubits coupled to the Abrikosov vortices. The observation of coherent quantum oscillations provides strong evidence that the position of the vortex as well as its velocity do not have to accept exact values but can be smeared in the quantum mechanical sense. The eventual relaxation of such states contributes to an increased relaxation rate of the qubit coupled to vortices. Such relaxation is described using basic notions of the Caldeira-Leggett quantum dissipation theory.

  8. Gamma-ray superconducting detector based on Abrikosov vortices: Principle of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lisitskiy, M. P.

    2009-11-15

    The high atomic number of some superconducting elements such as niobium (Z=41) and tantalum (Z=73) and a high material thickness (e.g., t=300 mum) are emphasized as essential properties for development of a gamma-ray solid state detector with high intrinsic detection efficiency in the energy range up to 100 keV. To exploit these properties, a new detection principle based on the interaction of a single gamma-ray photon with Abrikosov vortex is proposed. The interaction of gamma-ray photon with a superconductor is discussed in terms of the photoelectric absorption and a hot-spot formation, the last acts as a short-time pinning center on an Abrikosov vortex and activates its motion, namely, a jump or damped vibration. Both types of vortex motion lead to variation (either static or dynamic) in the magnetic field on the absorber surface. The high sensitivity of the Josephson tunneling to weak magnetic field can be exploited for revealing the magnetic field variation and to make the readout of the detector. Main intrinsic properties of a gamma-ray detector based on Abrikosov vortices are evaluated, including the possibility to measure the energy deposited in the detector. A single Josephson tunnel junction configuration or a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) configuration is proposed and discussed as possible realization of working gamma-ray detector both in the counter operation mode and in the radiation spectroscopy operation mode.

  9. Gamma-ray superconducting detector based on Abrikosov vortices: Principle of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisitskiy, M. P.

    2009-11-01

    The high atomic number of some superconducting elements such as niobium (Z =41) and tantalum (Z =73) and a high material thickness (e.g., t =300 μm) are emphasized as essential properties for development of a gamma-ray solid state detector with high intrinsic detection efficiency in the energy range up to 100 keV. To exploit these properties, a new detection principle based on the interaction of a single gamma-ray photon with Abrikosov vortex is proposed. The interaction of gamma-ray photon with a superconductor is discussed in terms of the photoelectric absorption and a hot-spot formation, the last acts as a short-time pinning center on an Abrikosov vortex and activates its motion, namely, a jump or damped vibration. Both types of vortex motion lead to variation (either static or dynamic) in the magnetic field on the absorber surface. The high sensitivity of the Josephson tunneling to weak magnetic field can be exploited for revealing the magnetic field variation and to make the readout of the detector. Main intrinsic properties of a gamma-ray detector based on Abrikosov vortices are evaluated, including the possibility to measure the energy deposited in the detector. A single Josephson tunnel junction configuration or a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) configuration is proposed and discussed as possible realization of working gamma-ray detector both in the counter operation mode and in the radiation spectroscopy operation mode.

  10. Current induced decomposition of Abrikosov vortices in p-n layered superconductors and heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Rakhmanov, A L; Savel'ev, Sergey; Kusmartsev, F V

    2008-11-07

    We describe the decomposition of Abrikosov vortices into decoupled pancake vortices in superconductors having both electron and hole charge carriers. We estimate the critical current of such a decomposition, at which a superconducting-normal state transition occurs, and find that it is very sensitive to the magnetic field and temperature. The effect can be observed in recently synthesized self-doped high-Tc layered superconductors with electrons and holes coexisting in different Cu-O planes and in artificial p-n superconductor heterostructures. The sensitivity of the critical current to a magnetic field may be used for sensors and detectors of a magnetic field, which can be built up from the superconductor heterostructures.

  11. Current Induced Decomposition of Abrikosov Vortices in p-n Layered Superconductors and Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmanov, A. L.; Savel'Ev, Sergey; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2008-11-01

    We describe the decomposition of Abrikosov vortices into decoupled pancake vortices in superconductors having both electron and hole charge carriers. We estimate the critical current of such a decomposition, at which a superconducting-normal state transition occurs, and find that it is very sensitive to the magnetic field and temperature. The effect can be observed in recently synthesized self-doped high-Tc layered superconductors with electrons and holes coexisting in different Cu-O planes and in artificial p-n superconductor heterostructures. The sensitivity of the critical current to a magnetic field may be used for sensors and detectors of a magnetic field, which can be built up from the superconductor heterostructures.

  12. DC to AC converter on Abrikosov vortices in a washboard pinning potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklovskij, Valerij A.; Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.

    2014-05-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of Abrikosov vortices in a cosine dc-biased washboard pinning potential at nonzero temperature is theoretically investigated. The problem is treated relying upon the exact solution of the Langevin equation for non-interacting vortices by using the Fokker-Planck method combined with the scalar continued fractions technique. The time variation of the local mean vortex velocity v(t) is calculated. The time voltage E(t) ~ v(t) is predicted to oscillate with a dc current-dependent frequency and a tunable pulse shape. Formulas for v(t) are discussed as functions of dc transport current and temperature, in a wide range of the corresponding dimensionless parameters. The derived expressions can be adapted for a number of physical applications utilizing the overdamped motion of a Brownian particle in a tilted cosine potential, e.g., the resistively shunted Josephson junction model.

  13. Hybridized Abrikosov Flux-lines and Pancake Vortices in Two-band Superconductors with Mixed Dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Eschrig, M.

    2008-03-01

    We study electronic structure and thermodynamic properties of a two-band superconductor, in which one band is ballistic and quasi-two dimensional (2D), and the other is diffusive and three dimensional (3D). We assume that superconductivity in the 3D diffusive band is ``weak'', i.e., mostly induced, as is the case in MgB2. Hybridization with the ``weak'' 3D diffusive band has significant and intriguing influence on the electronic properties of the ``strong'' 2D ballistic band. In particular, the effects of Coulomb interactions in the diffusive band and unusual Kramer-Pesch effect are examined. Furthermore, based on a circular-cell approximation within the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity, we explore the effects of magnetic field on vortex structure in such a two-band superconductor. We discuss hybridization of Abrikosov flux lines in the 3D diffusive band with pancake vortices in the 2D ballistic band.

  14. Instability of the Abrikosov Lattice due to Nonanalytic Core Reconstruction of Vortices in Bosonic Superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Avraham; Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2017-02-01

    We study the impact of the nonanalytic reconstruction of vortex cores on static vortex structures in weakly coupled superfluids. We show that, in rotating two-dimensional systems, the Abrikosov vortex lattice is unstable to vortex core deformation: Each zero of the wave function becomes a cut of finite length. The directors characterizing the orientations of the cuts are themselves ordered in superstructures due either to surface effects or to interaction with shear deformations of the lattice (spiral structure). Similar instability may also be observable in clean superconducting films.

  15. Relation between the increased transmission in the EXAFS region of X-ray absorption and the increase in the number of Abrikosov Vortices as cuprate superconductors go through Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigvinadze, Jaba G.; Mamniashvilli, Gogi I.; Acrivos, Juana V.

    2004-03-01

    The increased flux expulsion as T->Tc (observed as the external magnetic field, Bz = +/- 0.75 oe. goes through zero [1]) is related to the increased transmission as T->Tc (observed in all cuprate superconductors in the EXFAS region of X-ray absorption [2]). The expulsion of Abrikosov vortices as T->Tc is a cooperative dynamic phenomenon that affects only the EXAFS region of the spectrum. When the flux expulsion diverges beyond a critical value, we propose the EXAFS transmission increases because photoelectrons are involved in the Abrikosov Vortex. The phenomenon is similar to the increased transmission observed in He 4 by the formation of supercritical vortices [3]. [1] J.V. Acrivos, Lei Chen, C.M. Burch, P. Metcalf, J.M.Honig, R.S.Liu and K.K.Singh, Phys. Rev. B 50, 13710 (1994), [2] J.V. Acrivos, L.Nguyen, T.Norman, C.T. Lin, W.Y.Liang, J.M Honig and P.Somasundaram, Microchemical Journal, 71, 117 (2002), [3] E.J.Yarmchuk, M.J.V.Gordon, R.E.Packard, Phys.Rev.Lett. 43, 214 (1979)

  16. Abrikosov fluxonics in washboard nanolandscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.

    2017-02-01

    Abrikosov fluxonics, a domain of science and engineering at the interface of superconductivity research and nanotechnology, is concerned with the study of the properties and dynamics of Abrikosov vortices in nanopatterned superconductors, with particular focus on their confinement, manipulation, and exploitation for emerging functionalities. Vortex pinning, guided vortex motion, and the ratchet effect are three main fluxonic ;tools; which allow for the dynamical (pinned or moving), the directional (angle-dependent), and the orientational (current polarity-sensitive) control of the fluxons, respectively. Thanks to the periodicity of the vortex lattice, several groups of effects emerge when the vortices move in a periodic pinning landscape: Spatial commensurability of the location of vortices with the underlying pinning nanolandscape leads to a reduction of the dc resistance and the microwave loss at the so-called matching fields. Temporal synchronization of the displacement of vortices with the number of pinning sites visited during one half ac cycle manifests itself as Shapiro steps in the current-voltage curves. Delocalization of vortices oscillating under the action of a high-frequency ac drive can be tuned by a superimposed dc bias. In this short review a set of experimental results on the vortex dynamics in the presence of periodic pinning potentials in Nb thin films is presented. The consideration is limited to one particular type of artificial pinning structures - directly written nanolandscapes of the washboard type, which are fabricated by focused ion beam milling and focused electron beam induced deposition. The reported results are relevant for the development of fluxonic devices and the reduction of microwave losses in superconducting planar transmission lines.

  17. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    DOE PAGES

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter Δ induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas Δ turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  18. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter Δ induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas Δ turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  19. Gluon attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, T.

    1981-10-01

    An overview is presented of the attributes of gluons, deducible from experimental data. Particular attention is given to the photon-gluon fusion model of charm leptoproduction. The agreement with QCD and theoretical prejudice is qualitatively good.

  20. Magnetic gates and guides for superconducting vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Buzdin, A. I.; Rosenmann, D.; Benseman, T.; Kwok, W.-K.

    2017-04-01

    We image the motion of superconducting vortices in niobium film covered with a regular array of thin permalloy strips. By altering the magnetization orientation in the strips using a small in-plane magnetic field, we can tune the strength of interactions between vortices and the strip edges, enabling acceleration or retardation of the superconducting vortices in the sample and consequently introducing strong tunable anisotropy into the vortex dynamics. We discuss our observations in terms of the attraction/repulsion between point magnetic charges carried by vortices and lines of magnetic charges at the strip edges and derive analytical formulas for the vortex-magnetic strips coupling. Our approach demonstrates the analogy between the vortex motion regulated by the magnetic strip array and electric carrier flow in gated semiconducting devices. Scaling down the geometrical features of the proposed design may enable controlled manipulation of single vortices, paving the way for Abrikosov vortex microcircuits and memories.

  1. Magnetic gates and guides for superconducting vortices

    DOE PAGES

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Buzdin, A. I.; ...

    2017-04-04

    Here, we image the motion of superconducting vortices in niobium film covered with a regular array of thin permalloy stripes. By altering the magnetization orientation in the stripes using a small in-plane magnetic field, we can tune the strength of interactions between vortices and the stripe edges, enabling acceleration or retardation of the superconducting vortices in the sample and consequently introducing strong tunable anisotropy into the vortex dynamics. We discuss our observations in terms of the attraction/repulsion between point magnetic charges carried by vortices and lines of magnetic charges at the stripe edges, and derive analytical formulas for the vortex-magneticmore » stripes coupling. Our approach demonstrates the analogy between the vortex motion regulated by the magnetic stripe array and electric carrier flow in gated semiconducting devices. Scaling down the geometrical features of the proposed design may enable controlled manipulation of single vortices, paving the way for Abrikosov vortex microcircuits and memories.« less

  2. Melting of the Abrikosov flux lattice in anisotropic superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R. G.; Farrell, D. E.; Rice, J. P.; Ginsberg, D. M.; Kogan, V. G.

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that the Abrikosov flux lattice in high-Tc superconductors is melted over a significant fraction of the phase diagram. A thermodynamic argument is provided which establishes that the angular dependence of the melting temperature is controlled by the superconducting mass anisotropy. Using a low-frequency torsional-oscillator technique, this relationship has been tested in untwinned single-crystal YBa2Cu3O(7-delta). The results offer decisive support for the melting proposal.

  3. More on the Abrikosov strings with non-Abelian moduli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifman, M.; Tallarita, Gianni; Yung, Alexei

    2014-04-01

    We continue explorations of deformed Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) strings, with non-Abelian moduli on the worldsheet. In a simple model with an extra field, we find classically stable ANO and non-Abelian strings. The tension of the latter is a few percent lower than the tension of the ANO string. Then, we calculate the interpolating field configuration. Once the kink mass Mk and the difference of tensions ΔT are found, we calculate the decay rate of the ANO string with a higher tension ("false vacuum") into the non-Abelian string with the lower tension ("genuine vacuum") through the "bubble" formation in the quasiclassical approximation.

  4. Pinning of a single Abrikosov vortex in superconducting Nb thin films using artificially induced pinning sites

    SciTech Connect

    Breitwisch, M.; Finnemore, D. K.

    2000-07-01

    Artificial structures were intentionally introduced into Nb films in order to study the interaction of a single Abrikosov vortex with pinning sites caused by these known defects. A vortex trapped on one of these structures or defects can be induced to move either by thermal depinning or by pushing on the vortex with a transport current in one of the films. The resulting motion, in turn, can be followed by observing the changes in the Fraunhofer-like interference pattern of a cross-strip Josephson junction having the thin film as one leg of the junction. Artificial pinning sites were successfully created by depositing Fe balls on the surface of a previously characterized thin film. Attempts to create artificial pinning sites by depressing the order parameter with a thin strip of Au on the surface of the Nb were not successful. There was no correlation between the location of trapped vortices and the location of the Au line. In a separate measurement, Lorentz-force-depinning studies for several intrinsic pinning sites in the thin film show that a transport current in the top film will depin a vortex in the top film with about one-tenth the current needed in the bottom film to depin the same vortex. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. Pinning of a single Abrikosov vortex in superconducting Nb thin films using artificially induced pinning sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitwisch, M.; Finnemore, D. K.

    2000-07-01

    Artificial structures were intentionally introduced into Nb films in order to study the interaction of a single Abrikosov vortex with pinning sites caused by these known defects. A vortex trapped on one of these structures or defects can be induced to move either by thermal depinning or by pushing on the vortex with a transport current in one of the films. The resulting motion, in turn, can be followed by observing the changes in the Fraunhofer-like interference pattern of a cross-strip Josephson junction having the thin film as one leg of the junction. Artificial pinning sites were successfully created by depositing Fe balls on the surface of a previously characterized thin film. Attempts to create artificial pinning sites by depressing the order parameter with a thin strip of Au on the surface of the Nb were not successful. There was no correlation between the location of trapped vortices and the location of the Au line. In a separate measurement, Lorentz-force-depinning studies for several intrinsic pinning sites in the thin film show that a transport current in the top film will depin a vortex in the top film with about one-tenth the current needed in the bottom film to depin the same vortex.

  6. Detection of the phase shift from a single Abrikosov vortex.

    PubMed

    Golod, T; Rydh, A; Krasnov, V M

    2010-06-04

    We probe a quantum mechanical phase rotation induced by a single Abrikosov vortex in a superconducting lead, using a Josephson junction, made at the edge of the lead, as a phase-sensitive detector. We observe that the vortex induces a Josephson phase shift equal to the polar angle of the vortex within the junction length. When the vortex is close to the junction it induces a π step in the Josephson phase difference, leading to a controllable and reversible switching of the junction into the 0-π state. This in turn results in an unusual Φ(0)/2 quantization of the flux in the junction. The vortex may hence act as a tunable "phase battery" for quantum electronics.

  7. Oscillations of a single Abrikosov vortex in hard type-II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusakov, V. F.; Chabanenko, V. V.; Nabiałek, A.; Chumak, O. M.

    2017-06-01

    During the last decade, detection and manipulation of single vortex lines in bulk superconductors have been achieved experimentally. Electrodynamic response of pinned vortices in the high-frequency range is instrumental in studying specific aspects of their behavior. The present paper reviews the state of the art in studies of the oscillations of a single Abrikosov vortex in type II superconductors. The equations for free and forced oscillations of a single elastic vortex line are analyzed taking into account different forces affecting its motion: pinning, elasticity, viscosity and the Lorenz force. The equations also account for the inertial properties of a vortex due to various mechanisms of massiveness. The nature and magnitude of the vortex effective mass caused by some of the mechanisms are discussed in the paper. The roles of each force and inertia in the free oscillation spectrum are thoroughly analyzed. For the De Gennes and Matricon mode (at about a megahertz) with parabolic dispersion and the pinning force taken into account, there is an activation threshold. Taking into account the effective vortex mass in the equation of motion leads to the occurrence of a high-frequency mode (at about a terahertz) in the oscillation spectrum which is also of the activation nature. Estimations of the characteristic frequencies for these modes are given for two common superconductors, NbTi and anisotropic YBaCuO. The paper also presents the features of the resonant behavior of an elastic massive vortex line arising under an external uniform harmonic driving force that decays into the bulk of the sample, taking into account all the above forces. The frequency and temperature dependences of the energy absorption by a vortex line are analyzed. Maximum absorption in the low-frequency mode corresponds to the threshold frequency, while that in the high-frequency mode corresponds to the vortex cyclotron frequency. Vortex manipulation experiments and vortex dynamics simulation

  8. Reply to Comment on Theory of impure superconductors: Anderson versus Abrikosov and Gor'kov' ''

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.; Overhauser, A.W. )

    1994-05-01

    That the Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory of an impure superconductor seriously violates Anderson's theorem is reaffirmed. The contrary assertion, together with other statements in the Comment, are shown to be incorrect physically, mathematically, and historically.

  9. Chaotic vortical flows and their manifestations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baznat, M.; Gudima, K.; Sorin, A.; Teryaev, O.

    2016-11-01

    We study vorticity and hydrodynamic helicity in semi-peripheral heavy-ion collisions using the kinetic model of Quark-Gluon Strings. The angular momentum, which is a source of P-odd observables, is preserved with a good accuracy. We observe formation of the specific toroidal structures of the vorticity field. Their existence, accompanied by the strange chemical potential, is mirrored in the polarization of hyperons of the percent order.

  10. Current driven transition from Abrikosov-Josephson to Josephson-like vortex in mesoscopic lateral S/S'/S superconducting weak links.

    PubMed

    Carapella, G; Sabatino, P; Barone, C; Pagano, S; Gombos, M

    2016-10-18

    Vortices are topological defects accounting for many important effects in superconductivity, superfluidity, and magnetism. Here we address the stability of a small number of such excitations driven by strong external forces. We focus on Abrikosov-Josephson vortex that appears in lateral superconducting S/S'/S weak links with suppressed superconductivity in S'. In such a system the vortex is nucleated and confined in the narrow S' region by means of a small magnetic field and moves under the effect of a force proportional to an applied electrical current with a velocity proportional to the measured voltage. Our numerical simulations show that when a slow moving Abrikosov-Josephson vortex is driven by a strong constant current it becomes unstable with respect to a faster moving excitation: the Josephon-like vortex. Such a current-driven transition explains the structured dissipative branches that we observe in the voltage-current curve of the weak link. When vortex matter is strongly confined phenomena as magnetoresistance oscillations and reentrance of superconductivity can possibly occur. We experimentally observe these phenomena in our weak links.

  11. Current driven transition from Abrikosov-Josephson to Josephson-like vortex in mesoscopic lateral S/S’/S superconducting weak links

    PubMed Central

    Carapella, G.; Sabatino, P.; Barone, C.; Pagano, S.; Gombos, M.

    2016-01-01

    Vortices are topological defects accounting for many important effects in superconductivity, superfluidity, and magnetism. Here we address the stability of a small number of such excitations driven by strong external forces. We focus on Abrikosov-Josephson vortex that appears in lateral superconducting S/S’/S weak links with suppressed superconductivity in S’. In such a system the vortex is nucleated and confined in the narrow S’ region by means of a small magnetic field and moves under the effect of a force proportional to an applied electrical current with a velocity proportional to the measured voltage. Our numerical simulations show that when a slow moving Abrikosov-Josephson vortex is driven by a strong constant current it becomes unstable with respect to a faster moving excitation: the Josephon-like vortex. Such a current-driven transition explains the structured dissipative branches that we observe in the voltage-current curve of the weak link. When vortex matter is strongly confined phenomena as magnetoresistance oscillations and reentrance of superconductivity can possibly occur. We experimentally observe these phenomena in our weak links. PMID:27752137

  12. Vortical Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirlin, Eugeny; Mironov, Yury

    2010-05-01

    It is shown that lithospheric plates in their movement on Earth's surface do not undergo typical rotations, as was previously believed, but rather movements of more complicated type, namely vortical (or "whirl"). The specific character of vortical movements is reflective in next various structural-tectonic phenomena at global, regional, and local levels: 1. Propagating of axis of spreading with simultaneous whirling in the appropriate direction, which accompanies the opening of the oceanic basin independently of its size and age. Due to the high instability of rift-genesis and spreading processes, along with main "steam" of rift and spreading there are side "branches" branching off and developing. These are also characterized by vortical type of evolution, and they die out in time; 2. Formation of various scale "embedding" structures - into the smooth and rounded contours of oceanic basins, there are formed by vortical flow, as though a broken, stepped geometry of passive margins is embedded. This is, like segmentation of oceanic bottom, in general, the result of invariable presence of shear component inside a vortex; 3. Formation of tectonic stratification of the oceanic lithosphere, which appears as a consequence of differential rotation of various-scaled volumes of substances in a vortical flow. This causes the vortical differential of the oceanic lithosphere into particular lithospheric layers, which are moving relative to each other along a near-horizontal interface of surfaces; 4. The appearance of tension-compression deformations, cyclically superseding each other in time and space, in a zone of lithospheric accretion at crests of mid-oceanic ridges. The change is caused by the independent rotation of the crust's blocks being moved by vortical flow; here, the gradient of transition from compression to tension increases as the vortical system whirls; 5. Formation of structures of the Earth's crust, caused by the compressive tensions in the region of maximal

  13. Imaging of super-fast dynamics and flow instabilities of superconducting vortices

    DOE PAGES

    Embon, L.; Anahory, Y.; Jelić, Ž. L.; ...

    2017-07-20

    Quantized magnetic vortices driven by electric current determine key electromagnetic properties of superconductors. And while the dynamic behavior of slow vortices has been thoroughly investigated, the physics of ultrafast vortices under strong currents remains largely unexplored. Here, we use a nanoscale scanning superconducting quantum interference device to image vortices penetrating into a superconducting Pb film at rates of tens of GHz and moving with velocities of up to tens of km/s, which are not only much larger than the speed of sound but also exceed the pair-breaking speed limit of superconducting condensate. These experiments reveal formation of mesoscopic vortex channelsmore » which undergo cascades of bifurcations as the current and magnetic field increase. Our numerical simulations predict metamorphosis of fast Abrikosov vortices into mixed Abrikosov-Josephson vortices at even higher velocities. Our work offers an insight into the fundamental physics of dynamic vortex states of superconductors at high current densities, crucial for many applications.« less

  14. Cloud vortices

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-02

    Cloud vortices off Heard Island, south Indian Ocean. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of sea ice off Heard Island on Nov 2, 2015 at 5:02 AM EST (09:20 UTC). Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  15. Imaging of vortices in superconductors by electron beam scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Huebener, R.P.; le Grand, J.B.; Mears, C.A.; Labov, S.E.; Barfknecht, A.T.

    1998-07-01

    Abrikosov vortices trapped in a superconducting tunnel junction and oriented perpendicular to the barrier plane were imaged by electron beam scanning at 1.6 K. We have used NbAlO{sub x}Nb junctions. As an important feature, the top Nb electrode was covered with a SiO{sub 2} film of 300 nm thickness, absorbing most of the 5 keV beam energy. The signal generating the image is explained by a model, assuming that the beam-induced electronic excitations in the SiO{sub 2} overlay film are trapped in the local magnetic field protruding from a vortex, resulting in an increased recombination rate. In addition to providing a novel approach to the imaging of the vortices in superconductors, our results are important for understanding quasiparticle losses in tunnel junction detectors. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Compact vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.; Zafalan, I.

    2017-02-01

    We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane.

  17. Topological interactions of non-Abelian vortices with quasiparticles in high density QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirono, Yuji; Kanazawa, Takuya; Nitta, Muneto

    2011-04-01

    Non-Abelian vortices are topologically stable objects in the color-flavor locked phase of dense QCD. We derive a dual Lagrangian starting with the Ginzburg-Landau effective Lagrangian for the color-flavor locked phase, and obtain topological interactions of non-Abelian vortices with quasiparticles such as U(1)B Nambu-Goldstone bosons (phonons) and massive gluons. We find that the phonons couple to the translational zero modes of the vortices while the gluons couple to their orientational zero modes in the internal space.

  18. The gluon masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that the fundamental Lagrangian of Quantum Chromodynamis should be modified by the adding gluon masses to produce the mass-gap in accordance with the Källen-Lehmann spectral representation. On mass-shell renormalizability and unitarity of the resulting theory is demonstrated.

  19. Gluon Vortices and Induced Magnetic Field in Compact Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Efrain J.

    2007-10-26

    The natural candidates for the realization of color superconductivity are the extremely dense cores of compact stars, many of which have very large magnetic fields, especially the so called magnetars. In this paper we discuss how a color superconducting core can serve to generate and enhance the stellar magnetic field without appealing to a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo mechanism.

  20. A single Abrikosov vortex trapped in a mesoscopic superconducting cylindrical surface.

    PubMed

    Carapella, G; Sabatino, P; Costabile, G

    2011-11-02

    We investigate the behaviour of a single Abrikosov vortex trapped in a mesoscopic superconducting cylindrical surface with a magnetic field applied transverse to its axis. In the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism we show that, provided the transport current and the magnetic field are not large, the vortex behaves as an overdamped quasi-particle in a tilted washboard potential. The cylindrical thin strip with the trapped vortex exhibits E(J) curves and time-dependent electric fields very similar to the ones exhibited by a resistively shunted Josephson weak link.

  1. Vorticity Field from Successive Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two-dimensional version of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) was used to numerically simulate the interaction of wake vortices from closely separated aircraft. The aircraft parameters and separations are taken from observed data at an actual airport. The wake vortices are generated near the runway threshold for four successive aircraft. The ambient conditions are characterized by light crosswinds and stable stratification. This movie shows the time sequence of the vorticity field from the successive wake vortices. Apparent are the interactions between each pair of successive wake vortices and the ground.

  2. The elusive gluon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chala, Mikael; Juknevich, José; Perez, Gilad; Santiago, José

    2015-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of vector resonances in the context of natural composite Higgs models. A mild hierarchy between the fermionic partners and the vector resonances can be expected in these models based on the following arguments. Both direct and indirect (electroweak and flavor precision) constraints on fermionic partners are milder than the ones on spin one resonances. Also the naturalness pressure coming from the top partners is stronger than that induced by the gauge partners. This observation implies that the search strategy for vector resonances at the LHC needs to be modified. In particular, we point out the importance of heavy gluon decays (or other vector resonances) to top partner pairs that were overlooked in previous experimental searches at the LHC. These searches focused on simplified benchmark models in which the only new particle beyond the Standard Model was the heavy gluon. It turns out that, when kinematically allowed, such heavy-heavy decays make the heavy gluon elusive, and the bounds on its mass can be up to 2TeV milder than in the simpler models considered so far for the LHC14. We discuss the origin of this difference and prospects for dedicated searches.

  3. Gluon density in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, A.L.; Ducati, M.B.G.; Levin, E.M.

    1996-10-01

    In this talk we present our detailed study (theory and numbers) on the shadowing corrections to the gluon structure functions for nuclei. Starting from rather controversial information on the nucleon structure function which is originated by the recent HERA data, we develop the Glauber approach for the gluon density in a nucleus based on Mueller formula and estimate the value of the shadowing corrections in this case. Then we calculate the first corrections to the Glauber approach and show that these corrections are big. Based on this practical observation we suggest the new evolution equation which takes into account the shadowing corrections and solve it. We hope to convince you that the new evolution equation gives a good theoretical tool to treat the shadowing corrections for the gluons density in a nucleus and, therefore, it is able to provide the theoretically reliable initial conditions for the time evolution of the nucleus-nucleus cascade. The initial conditions should be fixed both theoretically and phenomenologically before to attack such complicated problems as the mixture of hard and soft processes in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy or the theoretically reliable approach to hadron or/and parton cascades for high energy nucleus-nucleus interaction. 35 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Instability of a triangular Abrikosov lattice at values of the Ginzburg–Landau parameter κ close to unity

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Yu. N.; Sigal, I. M.

    2016-07-15

    The “soft” transverse mode of gapless excitations related to the deformation of a triangular Abrikosov lattice with a single flux quantum per unit cell at an arbitrary value of the Ginzburg–Landau parameter κ is investigated. An Abrikosov lattice with the angle φ = π/3 between the unit cell vectors is shown to be unstable in a narrow range of values, 1 < κ < 1.000634. The excitation spectrum of the mode under consideration at low values of the momentum k (in the k{sup 2} approximation) is isotropic at k lying in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field.

  5. Constraining the double gluon distribution by the single gluon distribution

    DOE PAGES

    Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof; Lewandowska, Emilia; Serino, Mirko; ...

    2015-10-03

    We show how to consistently construct initial conditions for the QCD evolution equations for double parton distribution functions in the pure gluon case. We use to momentum sum rule for this purpose and a specific form of the known single gluon distribution function in the MSTW parameterization. The resulting double gluon distribution satisfies exactly the momentum sum rule and is parameter free. Furthermore, we study numerically its evolution with a hard scale and show the approximate factorization into product of two single gluon distributions at small values of x, whereas at large values of x the factorization is always violatedmore » in agreement with the sum rule.« less

  6. Vortices and magnetic bags in Abelian models with extended scalar sectors and some of their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád

    2016-12-01

    A detailed study of vortices is presented in Ginzburg-Landau (or Abelian Higgs) models with two complex scalars (order parameters) assuming a general U (1 )×U (1 ) symmetric potential. Particular emphasis is given to the case in which only one of the scalars obtains a vacuum expectation value (VEV). It is found that for a significantly large domain in parameter space vortices with a scalar field condensate in their core [condensate core (CC)] coexist with Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) vortices. Importantly, CC vortices are stable and have lower energy than the ANO ones. Magnetic bags or giant vortices of the order of 1000 flux quanta are favored to form for the range of parameters ("strong couplings") appearing for the superconducting state of liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH). Furthermore, it is argued that finite energy/unit length 1VEV vortices are smoothly connected to fractional flux 2VEV ones. Stable, finite energy CC-type vortices are also exhibited in the case when one of the scalar fields is neutral.

  7. Quark Gluon Plasma

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter – a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.

  8. Quark Gluon Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-05-07

    Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter – a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.

  9. Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.

  10. Stellar and Jovian vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, T. E.; Spiegel, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of 'Jovian' vortices (the large vortices observed in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune) are summarized, and the existence of similar structures in the atmospheres of stars is considered theoretically. The problem of vortex maintenance is addressed, including potential vorticity, numerical simulations of Jovian vortices, and cyclones and anticyclones; the Great Red Spot of Jupiter is described on the basis of Voyager data; the evidence for convective generation of vertical vorticity in the sun is examined; the possibly vortical nature of the large spots of RS CVn stars is discussed; and models of spots on rapidly rotating hot stars are surveyed.

  11. Gluon dominance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokoulina, Elena; Kutov, Andrey

    2017-03-01

    Study of multi-particle production has longer than the semi-centennial history. As it is known, with the growth of energy of accelerators, the new channels of reaction are being opened, the average number of secondary particles is increasing. Physicists are able to accelerate stable particles, such as electrons, positrons, protons, antiprotons, ions (both light and heavy). Rarely, they accelerate kaons and pions. The obtained experimental material stimulates the development of the different theoretical approaches. Since appearance of the modern theory of strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), our understanding of multi-particle production is advanced significantly. The language of quarks and gluons is basic one at the explanation of observable phenomena. This review is devoted to the history of appearance and the following development of the gluon dominance model. This model is based on the pQCD and the phenomenological description of the hadronization stage. It permits to describe multiplicity distributions both for lepton and hadron interactions, especially in the high multiplicity region.

  12. Gluon masses without seagull divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papavassiliou, J.

    The study of dynamical gluon mass generation at the level of Schwinger-Dyson equation involves a delicate interplay between various field-theoretic mechanisms The underlying local gauge invariance remains intact by resorting to the well-known Schwinger mechanism, which is assumed to be realized by longitudinally coupled bound state poles, produced by the non-perturbative dynamics of the theory. These poles are subsequently included into the Schwinger-Dyson equation of the gluon propagator through the three-gluon vertex, generating a non-vanishing gluon mass, which, however, is expressed in terms of divergent seagull integrals. In this talk we explain how such divergences can be eliminated completely by virtue of a characteristic identity, valid in dimensional regularization. The ability to trigger this identity depends, in turn, on the details of the three-gluon vertex employed, and in particular, on the exact way the bound state poles are incorporated. A concrete example of a vertex that triggers the aforementioned identity is constructed, the ensuing cancellation of all seagull divergences is explicitly demonstrated, and a finite gluon mass is obtained. Due to the multitude of conditions that must be simultaneously satisfied, this construction appears to be exclusively realized within the PT-BFM framework. The resulting system of integral equations gives rise to a gluon mass that displays power-law running and an effective charge which, due to the presence of the gluon mass, freezes in the infrared at a finite (non-vanishing) value.

  13. Dynamics and heat diffusion of Abrikosov's vortex-antivortex pairs during an annihilation process.

    PubMed

    Duarte, E C S; Sardella, E; Ortiz, W A; Zadorosny, R

    2017-10-11

    The manipulation and control of vortex states in superconducting systems are of great interest in view of possible applications, for which mesoscopic materials are good candidates. In this work, we studied the annihilation dynamics and the dissipative aspects of an Abrikosov's vortex-antivortex pair in a mesoscopic superconducting system with a concentric hole. The generalized time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations were numerically solved. The main result is the appearance of a phase slip-like line due to the elongation of the vortex and antivortex cores. Under specific circumstances, thermal dissipation might be associated with a sizeable relaxation of the order parameter, so that the energy released in the annihilation of a vortex-antivortex pair might become detectable in measurements of the magnetization as a function of time.

  14. Crossover between Abrikosov vortex lattice and superconducting droplet state in superconductors with modulated disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopasov, A. A.; Savinov, D. A.; Mel'nikov, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    We suggest a simple model describing the temperature-driven crossover between Abrikosov vortex lattice and superconducting droplet state in dirty superconductors with fluctuations either in the impurity concentration or in the crystal axes orientation. Our analysis is based on the Usadel-type theory with a spatially modulated diffusion coefficient. This modulation appears to break a regular vortex lattice into a random set of weakly coupled superconducting droplets emerging below the fluctuating upper critical field Hc 2(T ) . These droplets cause the resistivity drop at the onset of superconducting transition, being responsible for the increasing broadening of the resistive transition in the increasing magnetic field. The above crossover reveals itself in a positive curvature of the Hc 2(T ) curves, allowing us, thus, to explain the phase diagrams observed in a wide class of disordered superconducting materials.

  15. Gluon TMDs in Quarkonium Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, Daniël

    2017-03-01

    Quarkonium production offers good possibilities to study gluon TMDs. In this proceedings contribution this topic is explored for the linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons and unpolarized gluons inside transversely polarized hadrons. It is argued that χ _{b0/2} and η _b production at LHC are best to study the effects of linearly polarized gluons in hadronic collisions, by means of angular independent ratios of ratios of cross sections. This can be directly compared to cos 2φ asymmetries in heavy quark pair and dijet production in DIS at a future high-energy Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), which probe the same TMDs. In the small- x limit this corresponds to the Weizsäcker-Williams (WW) gluon distributions, which should show a change in behavior for transverse momenta around the saturation scale. Together with investigations of the dipole (DP) gluon distributions, this can provide valuable information about the polarization of the Color Glass Condensate if sufficiently small x-values are reached. Quarkonia can also be useful in the study of single transverse spin asymmetries. For transversely polarized hadrons the gluon distribution can be asymmetric, which is referred to as the Sivers effect. It leads to single spin asymmetries in for instance J{/}ψ (pair) production at AFTER@LHC, which probe the WW or f-type gluon Sivers TMD. It allows for a test of a sign-change relation w.r.t. the gluon Sivers TMD probed at an EIC in open heavy quark pair production. Single spin asymmetries in backward inclusive C-odd quarkonium production, such as J{/}ψ production, may offer probes of the DP or d-type gluon Sivers TMD at small x-values in the polarized proton, which in that limit corresponds to a correlator of a single Wilson loop, describing the spin-dependent odderon.

  16. Vortices with scalar condensates in two-component Ginzburg-Landau systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád

    2016-11-01

    In a class of two-component Ginzburg-Landau models (TCGL) with a U(1) × U(1) symmetric potential, vortices with a condensate at their core may have significantly lower energies than the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) ones. On the example of liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH) above the critical temperature for protons we show that the ANO vortices become unstable against core-condensation, while condensate-core (CC) vortices are stable. For LMH the ratio of the masses of the two types of condensates, M =m2 /m1 is large, and then as a consequence the energy per flux quantum of the vortices, En / n becomes a non-monotonous function of the number of flux quanta, n. This leads to yet another manifestation of neither type 1 nor type 2, (type 1.5) superconductivity: superconducting and normal domains coexist while various "giant" vortices form. We note that LMH provides a particularly clean example of type 1.5 state as the interband coupling between electronic and protonic Cooper-pairs is forbidden.

  17. Equilibration in quark gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. K.; Alam, J.; Mohanty, P.

    2011-07-01

    The hydrodynamic expansion rate of quark gluon plasma (QGP) is evaluated and compared with the scattering rate of quarks and gluons within the system. Partonic scattering rates evaluated within the ambit of perturbative Quantum Choromodynamics (pQCD) are found to be smaller than the expansion rate evaluated with ideal equation of state (EoS) for the QGP. This indicate that during the space-time evolution the system remains out of equilibrium. Enhancement of pQCD cross sections and a more realistic EoS keep the partons closer to the equilibrium.

  18. Effect of fluctuations on the NMR relaxation beyond the Abrikosov vortex state

    DOE PAGES

    Glatz, A.; Galda, A.; Varlamov, A. A.

    2015-08-25

    Here, the effect of fluctuations on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate W = T–11 is studied in a complete phase diagram of a two-dimensional superconductor above the upper critical field line Hc2(T). In the region of relatively high temperatures and low magnetic fields, the relaxation rate W is determined by two competing effects. The first one is its decrease in the result of suppression of the quasiparticle density of states (DOS) due to formation of fluctuation Cooper pairs (FCPs). The second one is a specific, purely quantum relaxation process of the Maki-Thompson (MT) type, which for low fieldmore » leads to an increase of the relaxation rate. The latter describes particular fluctuation processes involving self-pairing of a single electron on self-intersecting trajectories of a size up to phase-breaking length ℓΦ which becomes possible due to an electron spin-flip scattering event at a nucleus. As a result, different scenarios with either growth or decrease of the NMR relaxation rate are possible upon approaching the normal-metal–type-II superconductor transition. The character of fluctuations changes along the line Hc2(T) from the thermal long-wavelength type in weak magnetic fields to the clusters of rotating FCPs in fields comparable to Hc2(0). We find that below the well-defined temperature T*0 ≈ 0.6Tc0, the MT process becomes ineffective even in the absence of intrinsic pair breaking. The small scale of the FCP rotations ξxy in such high fields impedes formation of long (≲ℓΦ) self-intersecting trajectories, causing the corresponding relaxation mechanism to lose its efficiency. This reduces the effect of superconducting fluctuations in the domain of high fields and low temperatures to just the suppression of quasiparticle DOS, analogous to the Abrikosov vortex phase below the Hc2(T) line.« less

  19. Phantom vortices: hidden angular momentum in ultracold dilute Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Storm E.; Tsatsos, Marios C.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Lode, Axel U. J.

    2017-01-01

    Vortices are essential to angular momentum in quantum systems such as ultracold atomic gases. The existence of quantized vorticity in bosonic systems stimulated the development of the Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field approximation. However, the true dynamics of angular momentum in finite, interacting many-body systems like trapped Bose-Einstein condensates is enriched by the emergence of quantum correlations whose description demands more elaborate methods. Herein we theoretically investigate the full many-body dynamics of the acquisition of angular momentum by a gas of ultracold bosons in two dimensions using a standard rotation procedure. We demonstrate the existence of a novel mode of quantized vorticity, which we term the phantom vortex. Contrary to the conventional mean-field vortex, can be detected as a topological defect of spatial coherence, but not of the density. We describe previously unknown many-body mechanisms of vortex nucleation and show that angular momentum is hidden in phantom vortices modes which so far seem to have evaded experimental detection. This phenomenon is likely important in the formation of the Abrikosov lattice and the onset of turbulence in superfluids.

  20. Phantom vortices: hidden angular momentum in ultracold dilute Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Storm E; Tsatsos, Marios C; Cederbaum, Lorenz S; Lode, Axel U J

    2017-01-16

    Vortices are essential to angular momentum in quantum systems such as ultracold atomic gases. The existence of quantized vorticity in bosonic systems stimulated the development of the Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field approximation. However, the true dynamics of angular momentum in finite, interacting many-body systems like trapped Bose-Einstein condensates is enriched by the emergence of quantum correlations whose description demands more elaborate methods. Herein we theoretically investigate the full many-body dynamics of the acquisition of angular momentum by a gas of ultracold bosons in two dimensions using a standard rotation procedure. We demonstrate the existence of a novel mode of quantized vorticity, which we term the phantom vortex. Contrary to the conventional mean-field vortex, can be detected as a topological defect of spatial coherence, but not of the density. We describe previously unknown many-body mechanisms of vortex nucleation and show that angular momentum is hidden in phantom vortices modes which so far seem to have evaded experimental detection. This phenomenon is likely important in the formation of the Abrikosov lattice and the onset of turbulence in superfluids.

  1. Phantom vortices: hidden angular momentum in ultracold dilute Bose-Einstein condensates

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Storm E.; Tsatsos, Marios C.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Lode, Axel U. J.

    2017-01-01

    Vortices are essential to angular momentum in quantum systems such as ultracold atomic gases. The existence of quantized vorticity in bosonic systems stimulated the development of the Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field approximation. However, the true dynamics of angular momentum in finite, interacting many-body systems like trapped Bose-Einstein condensates is enriched by the emergence of quantum correlations whose description demands more elaborate methods. Herein we theoretically investigate the full many-body dynamics of the acquisition of angular momentum by a gas of ultracold bosons in two dimensions using a standard rotation procedure. We demonstrate the existence of a novel mode of quantized vorticity, which we term the phantom vortex. Contrary to the conventional mean-field vortex, can be detected as a topological defect of spatial coherence, but not of the density. We describe previously unknown many-body mechanisms of vortex nucleation and show that angular momentum is hidden in phantom vortices modes which so far seem to have evaded experimental detection. This phenomenon is likely important in the formation of the Abrikosov lattice and the onset of turbulence in superfluids. PMID:28091520

  2. Confinement of quarks and valence gluons in SU( N) Yang-Mills-Higgs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxman, L. E.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we analyze a class of Yang-Mills models containing adjoint Higgs fields, with SU( N) symmetry spontaneously broken down to Z( N), showing they contain center vortices, Y-junctions formed by them, and junctions where different center vortices are smoothly interpolated by monopole-like configurations. In the context of dual superconductors, these objects represent different states of the gluon field. Center vortices confine quarks to form normal hadron states. The interpolating monopole, which in our model cannot exist as an isolated configuration, is identified with a confined valence gluon. A junction containing a monopole can bind quarks in a color nonsinglet state to form an overall neutral object, identified with a hybrid hadron. These states, formed by quarks bound to a valence gluon, are allowed by QCD, and current experimental collaborations are aimed at identifying them. Finally, considering the general version of the model, based on a compact simple gauge group G, the picture is completed with a heuristic discussion about why it would be natural using as G the dual of the chromoelectric gauge group G e, and external pointlike monopoles to represent the mesonic and baryonic Wilson loops.

  3. Gluon polarization in the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Steven D.; Casey, Andrew; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2011-03-15

    We combine heavy-quark renormalization group arguments with our understanding of the nucleon's wave function to deduce a bound on the gluon polarization {Delta}g in the proton. The bound is consistent with the values extracted from spin experiments at COMPASS and RHIC.

  4. Gluon mass generation without seagull divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Arlene C.; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2010-02-01

    Dynamical gluon mass generation has been traditionally plagued with seagull divergences, and all regularization procedures proposed over the years yield finite but scheme-dependent gluon masses. In this work we show how such divergences can be eliminated completely by virtue of a characteristic identity, valid in dimensional regularization. The ability to trigger the aforementioned identity hinges crucially on the particular Ansatz employed for the three-gluon vertex entering into the Schwinger-Dyson equation governing the gluon propagator. The use of the appropriate three-gluon vertex brings about an additional advantage: one obtains two separate (but coupled) integral equations, one for the effective charge and one for the gluon mass. This system of integral equations has a unique solution, which unambiguously determines these two quantities. Most notably, the effective charge freezes in the infrared, and the gluon mass displays power-law running in the ultraviolet, in agreement with earlier considerations.

  5. Effect of fluctuations on the NMR relaxation beyond the Abrikosov vortex state

    SciTech Connect

    Glatz, A.; Galda, A.; Varlamov, A. A.

    2015-08-25

    Here, the effect of fluctuations on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate W = T–11 is studied in a complete phase diagram of a two-dimensional superconductor above the upper critical field line Hc2(T). In the region of relatively high temperatures and low magnetic fields, the relaxation rate W is determined by two competing effects. The first one is its decrease in the result of suppression of the quasiparticle density of states (DOS) due to formation of fluctuation Cooper pairs (FCPs). The second one is a specific, purely quantum relaxation process of the Maki-Thompson (MT) type, which for low field leads to an increase of the relaxation rate. The latter describes particular fluctuation processes involving self-pairing of a single electron on self-intersecting trajectories of a size up to phase-breaking length ℓΦ which becomes possible due to an electron spin-flip scattering event at a nucleus. As a result, different scenarios with either growth or decrease of the NMR relaxation rate are possible upon approaching the normal-metal–type-II superconductor transition. The character of fluctuations changes along the line Hc2(T) from the thermal long-wavelength type in weak magnetic fields to the clusters of rotating FCPs in fields comparable to Hc2(0). We find that below the well-defined temperature T*0 ≈ 0.6Tc0, the MT process becomes ineffective even in the absence of intrinsic pair breaking. The small scale of the FCP rotations ξxy in such high fields impedes formation of long (≲ℓΦ) self-intersecting trajectories, causing the corresponding relaxation mechanism to lose its efficiency. This reduces the effect of superconducting fluctuations in the domain of high fields and low temperatures to just the suppression of quasiparticle DOS, analogous to the Abrikosov vortex phase below the Hc2(T) line.

  6. Gluon TMDs in Quarkonium Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    I report on our investigations into the impact of (un)polarized transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs or TMDs) for gluons at hadron colliders, especially at A Fixed Target Experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC). In the context of high energy proton-proton collisions, we look at final states with low mass (e.g. η _b) in order to investigate the nonperturbative part of TMD PDFs. We study the factorization theorem for the q_T spectrum of η _b produced in proton-proton collisions relying on the effective field theory approach, defining the tools to perform phenomenological investigations at next-to-next-to-leading log and next-to-leading order accuracy in the perturbation theory. We provide predictions for the unpolarized cross section and comment on the possibility of extracting nonperturbative information about the gluon content of the proton once data at low transverse momentum are available.

  7. Evidence for quantum tunneling of vortices in superconductors. [Temperature dependence in low magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Haviland, D.B.; Glazman, L.I.; Goldman, A.M. )

    1992-10-01

    Flux creep in disordered superconductors may be governed by quantum tunneling of Abrikosov vortices rather than by thermal activation processes. The expectation is that in the quantum tunneling regime the creep rate would be temperature independent. This assumes that the parameters describing the pinning potential and other aspects of the superconducting films are temperature independent. In the case of extremely thin superconducting films the coherence length retains its temperature dependence well into the quantum tunneling regime, leading to an unusual temperature dependence of the electrical resistance in this regime. This was observed in ultrathin superconducting films of Pb, Al, and Bi. In low magnetic fields, at low temperatures, sheet resistances vary with temperature as R [approx] R[sub 0] exp(T/T[sub 0]), where T[sub 0] and R[sub 0] are constants.

  8. Temperature dependence of clusters with attracting vortices in superconducting niobium studied by neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Pautrat, A; Brûlet, A

    2014-06-11

    We investigated the intermediate mixed state of a superconducting niobium sample using very small angle neutron scattering. We show that this state is stabilized through a sequence where a regular vortex lattice appears, which then coexists with vortex clusters before vanishing at low temperature. Vortices in clusters have a constant periodicity regardless of the applied field and exhibit a temperature dependence close to the one of the penetration depth. The clusters disappear in the high temperature limit. All the results agree with an explanation in terms of vortex attraction due to non-local effects and indicate a negligible role for pinning. Phase coexistence between the Abrikosov vortex lattice and vortex clusters is reported, showing the first-order nature of the boundary line.

  9. Vortices in Atomic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, Joseph H

    2012-01-01

    The time-dependent Schrodinger equation describes dynamical processes of one-electron species in terms of a complex wave function. The function is inherently complex, therefore zeros occur only when both the real and imaginary parts of the wave function vanish. If this happens at isolated points rather than on a nodal surface one can show the zero must correspond to a vortex. An imaging theorem is given which shows how such vortices can be seen experimentally. Since the theorem requires time propagation from microscopic to macroscopic scales, a method is developed that does just that. Examples of vortices that emerge in dynamical processes are given. The vortices that we nd are linked to the hydrodynamic interpretation of Schrodinger's time-dependent equation.

  10. Gluon Contribution To The Nucleon Spin

    SciTech Connect

    Arash, Firooz; Shahveh, Abolfazl; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh

    2011-07-15

    Gluon polarization in Nucleon is evaluated in the valon representation of hadrons. It is shown that although {delta}g/g is small at the currently measured kinematics, it does not imply that the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin is small. In fact the first moment of gluon polarization in the nucleon, {Delta}g(Q{sup 2}), is sizable. We also notice that the majority of {Delta}g is concentrated at around x = 0.08.

  11. Quark ACM with topologically generated gluon mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Ishita Dutta; Lahiri, Amitabha

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the effect of a small, gauge-invariant mass of the gluon on the anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) of quarks by perturbative calculations at one-loop level. The mass of the gluon is taken to have been generated via a topological mass generation mechanism, in which the gluon acquires a mass through its interaction with an antisymmetric tensor field Bμν. For a small gluon mass ( < 10 MeV), we calculate the ACM at momentum transfer q2 = -M Z2. We compare those with the ACM calculated for the gluon mass arising from a Proca mass term. We find that the ACM of up, down, strange and charm quarks vary significantly with the gluon mass, while the ACM of top and bottom quarks show negligible gluon mass dependence. The mechanism of gluon mass generation is most important for the strange quarks ACM, but not so much for the other quarks. We also show the results at q2 = -m t2. We find that the dependence on gluon mass at q2 = -m t2 is much less than at q2 = -M Z2 for all quarks.

  12. Relativistic Electron Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Stephen M.

    2017-03-01

    The desire to push recent experiments on electron vortices to higher energies leads to some theoretical difficulties. In particular the simple and very successful picture of phase vortices of vortex charge ℓ associated with ℓℏ units of orbital angular momentum per electron is challenged by the facts that (i) the spin and orbital angular momentum are not separately conserved for a Dirac electron, which suggests that the existence of a spin-orbit coupling will complicate matters, and (ii) that the velocity of a Dirac electron is not simply the gradient of a phase as it is in the Schrödinger theory suggesting that, perhaps, electron vortices might not exist at a fundamental level. We resolve these difficulties by showing that electron vortices do indeed exist in the relativistic theory and show that the charge of such a vortex is simply related to a conserved orbital part of the total angular momentum, closely related to the familiar situation for the orbital angular momentum of a photon.

  13. Gluon Evolution and Saturation Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.D.

    2010-05-26

    Almost 40 years ago, Gribov and colleagues at the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute developed the ideas that led to the Dokhsitzer-Gribov-Altarelli-Parisi the Baltisky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov equations. These equations describe the evolution of the distributions for quarks and gluon inside a hadron to increased resolution scale of a probe or to smaller values of the fractional momentum of a hadronic constituent. I motivate and discuss the generalization required of these equations needed for high energy processes when the density of constituents is large. This leads to a theory of saturation realized by the Color Glass Condensate

  14. Ordering Multiple Soft Gluon Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángeles Martínez, René; Forshaw, Jeffrey R.; Seymour, Michael H.

    2016-05-01

    We present an expression for the QCD amplitude for a general hard scattering process with any number of soft gluon emissions, to one-loop accuracy. The amplitude is written in two different but equivalent ways: as a product of operators ordered in dipole transverse momentum and as a product of loop-expanded currents. We hope that these results will help in the development of an all-orders algorithm for multiple emissions that includes the full color structure and both the real and imaginary contributions to the amplitude.

  15. Interaction of Abrikosov vortex with grain boundaries near Hc1. I. Potential barriers in polycrystalline high-Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belevtsov, L. V.

    2005-02-01

    The effects of the interaction of an Abrikosov vortex with grain boundaries is investigated in the framework of a model in which the vortex, grain, and grain boundaries are treated on a unified basis. An exact solution is found for the vortex-laminar model. New types of potential barriers for the entry of a vortex into a superconducting polycrystalline are predicted. Like the traditional Bean-Livingston barrier, the value of the "edge" barrier in these materials depends on the value of the external field, but it also depends on the normalized grain size, the intensity of the coupling between grains, the anisotropy, and the degree of "specularity" (smoothness) of the material in the case of ultrafine-grained superconducting materials.

  16. Influence of short-range artificial defects in a macroscopic flat disk on the Abrikosov state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jesús González; Joya, Miryam R.; Barba-Ortega, J.

    2014-09-01

    We study the vortex configuration in a superconducting macroscopic flat disk with central defects in the presence of a uniform applied magnetic field. Owing to the defects nature on the thin disk, vortices are able to form geometry induced, quasi-symmetric configurations of disk, triangle and concentric shells in the rest of the disk. The theoretical study made on this mesoscopic systems allows us to trace not only how the vortex pattern evolves with magnetic field, but also how the defect can be used to show the pinning and anti-pinning effect. The magnetic induction, vortex number, magnetization and Cooper pairs density as a function of the external magnetic field are calculated, we show that in our sample novels vortex configurations are possible due to the size of the disk and if the hole or barrier defect is considered.

  17. Uncharged compactlike and fractional Lorentz-violating BPS vortices in the CPT-even sector of the standard model extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C.; Casana, R.; Ferreira, M. M., Jr.; da Hora, E.

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated and verified the existence of stable uncharged Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld (BPS) vortices in the framework of an Abelian Maxwell-Higgs model supplemented with CPT-even and Lorentz-violating (LV) terms belonging to the gauge and Higgs sectors of the standard model extension. The analysis is performed in two situations: first, by considering the Lorentz violation only in the gauge sector, and then in both gauge and Higgs sectors. In the first case, it is observed that the model supports vortices somehow equivalent to the ones appearing in a dielectric medium. The Lorentz violation controls the radial extension (core of the solution) and the magnetic field amplitude of the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortices, yielding compactlike defects in an alternative and simpler way than that of k-field models. At the end, we consider the Lorentz-violating terms in the gauge and Higgs sectors. It is shown that the full model also supports compactlike uncharged BPS vortices in a modified vacuum, but this time there are two LV parameters controlling the defect structure. Moreover, an interesting novelty is introduced by the LV-Higgs sector: fractional vortex solutions.

  18. Toward modeling wingtip vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, O.

    1993-01-01

    Wingtip vortices are generated by lifting airfoils; their salient features are compactness and relatively slow rate of decay. The principal motivation for studying the far field evolution of wingtip vortices is the need to understand and predict the extent of the vortex influence during aircraft take-off or landing. On submarines a wingtip vortex ingested into a propeller can be a source of undesirable noise. The main objectives of this research are (1) to establish theoretical understanding of the principal mechanisms that govern the later (diffusive) stages of a turbulent vortex, (2) to develop a turbulence closure model representing the basic physical mechanisms that control the vortex diffusive stage, and further (3) to investigate coupling between the near and far field evolutions; in other words, to study the effect of initial conditions on the vortex lifetime and the ultimate state.

  19. Vortices in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, A. E.; Chong, M. S.; Lim, T. T.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results of studies to determine the flow parameters and structures of plane mixing layers are reported. Smoke visualization, combined with hot-wire anemometry, sheets of laser light, and photography were used to gather data from the wall flow. The behavior of vortex rods was examined, noting that the rods persisted only if new vortex energy was supplied from the sublayer. A power spectral density was defined for the velocity fluctuations, as was a hierarchy of velocity scales for geometrically similar vortices. The length scale grows linearly with downstream distance, where the flow structures are fed by longitudinal vortices. A model is developed for vortex pairing in sequential order from the bottom of the mixing layer outward in a repetitive process involving vortex stretching. The model is actually a migration strategy that satisfies the flow self-preservation constraints.

  20. Vortice-propeller interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemon, Alain; Huberson, Serge

    1989-08-01

    The interactions between a ship's propeller blades and the boundary layer created by the ship are investigated. A finite element calculation method based on Navier-Stokes equation is developed. The application of an k-epsilon turbulence model for improving the analysis is considered. The flow azimuthal homogenization hypothesis is applied and leads to an accurate evaluation of the propeller performances. The unsteady effects generated by the interaction between the propeller blades and the vortices are analyzed.

  1. Axisymmetric Vortices with Swirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elcrat, A.

    2007-11-01

    This talk is concerned with finding solutions of the Euler equations by solving elliptic boundary value problems for the Bragg-Hawthorne equation L u= -urr -(1/r)ur - = r^2f (u) + h(u). Theoretical results have been given for previously (Elcrat and Miller, Differential and Integral Equations 16(4) 2003, 949-968) for problems with swirl and general classes of profile functions f, h by iterating Lu(n+1)= rf(u)n)) + h(u(n)), and showing u(n) converges montonically to a solution. The solutions obtained depend on the initial guess, which can be thought of as prescribing level sets of the vortex. When a computational program was attempted these monotone iterations turned out to be numerically unstable, and a stable computation was acheived by fixing the moment of the cross section of a vortex in the merideanal plane. (This generalizes previous computational results in Elcrat, Fornberg and Miller, JFM 433 2001, (315-328) We obtain famillies of vortices related to vortex rings with swirl, Moffatt's generalization of Hill's vortex and tubes of vorticity with swirl wrapped around the symmetry axis. The vortices are embedded in either an irrotational flow or a flow with shear, and we deal with the transition form no swirl in the vortex to flow with only swirl, a Beltrami flow.

  2. HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.

    SciTech Connect

    LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.

    2005-04-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear matter at extremely high

  3. Quark-gluon plasma fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamieh, Salah; Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann

    2000-12-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics results provide an opportunity to model, and extrapolate to finite baryon density, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Upon fixing the scale of the thermal coupling constant and vacuum energy to the lattice data, the properties of resulting QGP equations of state (EoS) are developed. We show that the physical properties of the dense matter fireball formed in heavy ion collision experiments at CERN-SPS are well described by the QGP-EoS we presented. We also estimate the properties of the fireball formed in early stages of nuclear collision, and argue that QGP formation must be expected down to 40A GeV in central Pb-Pb interactions.

  4. Quark-gluon plasma fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Hamieh, Salah; Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann

    2000-12-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics results provide an opportunity to model, and extrapolate to finite baryon density, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Upon fixing the scale of the thermal coupling constant and vacuum energy to the lattice data, the properties of resulting QGP equations of state (EoS) are developed. We show that the physical properties of the dense matter fireball formed in heavy ion collision experiments at CERN-SPS are well described by the QGP-EoS we presented. We also estimate the properties of the fireball formed in early stages of nuclear collision, and argue that QGP formation must be expected down to 40A GeV in central Pb-Pb interactions.

  5. Interaction of Atmospheric Plasma Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhovkina, N. I.; Artekha, S. N.; Erokhin, N. S.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric electric fields, connected with the ionization of particles and plasma processes, occur in the fields of pressure gradients of mosaic mesh topology. Atmospheric aerosol particles play a significant role in the vortex generation. The Coriolis force and the motion of charged particles in the geomagnetic field lead to gyrotropy of the atmosphere and ionosphere. Occurrence of plasma vortices is stochastically determined for such an inhomogeneous gyrotropic medium. The geomagnetic field influences the change of structures of inhomogeneous media in the process of excitation of plasma vortices and their interaction. If colliding vortices are centered on the one geomagnetic line, the merge of vortices and the generation of a joint powerful vortex are possible. If a collision of vortices with centers at different geomagnetic field lines occurs, then the emergence of areas of heating and jet streams and the generation of new vortices are possible.

  6. Graviton and Gluon Scattering from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Boels, Rutger H; Medina, Ricardo

    2017-02-10

    Graviton and gluon scattering are studied from minimal physical assumptions such as Poincare and gauge symmetry as well as unitarity. The assumptions lead to an interesting and surprisingly restrictive set of linear equations. This shows gluon and graviton scattering to be related in many field and string theories, explaining and extending several known results. By systematic analysis exceptional graviton scattering amplitudes are derived, which in general dimensions cannot be related to gluon amplitudes. The simplicity of the formalism guarantees wide further applicability to gauge and gravity theories.

  7. Gluons and the NJL coupling constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braghin, Fábio L.; Barros, Ednaldo, Jr.; Paulo, Ademar, Jr.

    2014-11-01

    The QCD origin of the NJL model is re-analysed by considering the gluon condensate of order two . The key point is the treatment of the gluon interactions. To linearize the action the auxiliary variable method is employed to introduce a scalar variable φ(x) that yield such condensate by means of its value in the vacuum, and then another auxiliary variable that corresponds to an antisymmetric gluon configuration φ(x). For that, besides that, two different possible limits of the fourth order non local quark interaction that may contribute to the NJL coupling are compared.

  8. Gluon and Ghost Dynamics from Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, O.; Duarte, A. G.; Dudal, D.; Silva, P. J.

    2017-03-01

    The two point gluon and ghost correlation functions and the three gluon vertex are investigated, in the Landau gauge, using lattice simulations. For the two point functions, we discuss the approach to the continuum limit looking at the dependence on the lattice spacing and volume. The analytical structure of the propagators is also investigated by computing the corresponding spectral functions using an implementation of the Tikhonov regularisation to solve the integral equation. For the three point function we report results when the momentum of one of the gluon lines is set to zero and discuss its implications.

  9. Gluons and the NJL coupling constant

    SciTech Connect

    Braghin, Fábio L.; Barros Jr, Ednaldo; Paulo Jr, Ademar

    2014-11-11

    The QCD origin of the NJL model is re-analysed by considering the gluon condensate of order two . The key point is the treatment of the gluon interactions. To linearize the action the auxiliary variable method is employed to introduce a scalar variable φ(x) that yield such condensate by means of its value in the vacuum, and then another auxiliary variable that corresponds to an antisymmetric gluon configuration φ(x). For that, besides that, two different possible limits of the fourth order non local quark interaction that may contribute to the NJL coupling are compared.

  10. Global strings and superfluid vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.L. ); Shellard, E.P.S. )

    1989-11-06

    We explain the relationship between global strings of the Abelian Higgs model and vortices in a superfluid. We show that the nonrelativistic Magnus force law for vortices can be derived from global-string dynamics, but only when an external background field has a special Lorentz-noninvariant configuration {ital H}{sup {ital ijk}}{proportional to}{epsilon}{sup ijk}. We present a self-consistent classical theory for relativistic Higgs vortices in a superfluid, and show that superfluid vortices can be described as a system of spinning global strings.

  11. Vortices in condensate mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Josserand, Christophe; Pomeau, Yves

    2005-08-15

    In a condensate made of two different atomic molecular species, Onsager's quantization condition implies that around a vortex, the velocity field cannot be the same for the two species. We explore some simple consequences of this observation. Thus, if the two condensates are in slow relative translation one over the other, the composite vortices are carried at a velocity that is a fraction of the single-species velocity. This property is valid for attractive interaction and below a critical velocity which corresponds to a saddle-node bifurcation.

  12. Transport properties of quark and gluon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Heiselberg, H.

    1993-12-01

    The kinetic properties of relativistic quark-gluon and electron-photon plasmas are described in the weak coupling limit. The troublesome Rutherford divergence at small scattering angles is screened by Debye screening for the longitudinal or electric part of the interactions. The transverse or magnetic part of the interactions is effectively screened by Landau damping of the virtual photons and gluons transferred in the QED and QCD interactions respectively. Including screening a number of transport coefficients for QCD and QED plasmas can be calculated to leading order in the interaction strength, including rates of momentum and thermal relaxation, electrical conductivity, viscosities, flavor and spin diffusion of both high temperature and degenerate plasmas. Damping of quarks and gluons as well as color diffusion in quark-gluon plasmas is, however, shown not to be sufficiently screened and the rates depends on an infrared cut-off of order the ``magnetic mass,`` m{sub mag} {approximately} g{sup 2}T.

  13. Systematics of quark/gluon tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gras, Philippe; Höche, Stefan; Kar, Deepak; Larkoski, Andrew; Lönnblad, Leif; Plätzer, Simon; Siódmok, Andrzej; Skands, Peter; Soyez, Gregory; Thaler, Jesse

    2017-07-01

    By measuring the substructure of a jet, one can assign it a "quark" or "gluon" tag. In the eikonal (double-logarithmic) limit, quark/gluon discrimination is determined solely by the color factor of the initiating parton ( C F versus C A ). In this paper, we confront the challenges faced when going beyond this leading-order understanding, using both parton-shower generators and first-principles calculations to assess the impact of higher-order perturbative and nonperturbative physics. Working in the idealized context of electron-positron collisions, where one can define a proxy for quark and gluon jets based on the Lorentz structure of the production vertex, we find a fascinating interplay between perturbative shower effects and nonperturbative hadronization effects. Turning to proton-proton collisions, we highlight a core set of measurements that would constrain current uncertainties in quark/gluon tagging and improve the overall modeling of jets at the Large Hadron Collider.

  14. Gluon saturation in a saturated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-07-15

    A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the saturation scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q{sub sA}{sup 2}, in AA compared with pA collisions.

  15. Control of Flap Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David

    2005-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.

  16. Fractional Vorticity Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D.; Tchguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.; Tuck, A.

    2012-04-01

    As a result of a thorough discussion (Schertzer et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 327-336, 2012 ) of the limitations of the quasi-geostrophic approximation and turbulence, fractional vorticity equations were obtained. This was done with the help of an anisotropic scaling analysis, instead of the classical scale analysis, as done to derive the quasi-geostrophic approximation. This breaks the rotational symmetry of the classical 3D vorticity equations and a priori yields a (2 + Hz)-dimensional turbulence (0 ≤ Hz ≤ 1). This corresponds to a first step in the derivation of a dynamical alternative to the quasi-geostrophic approximation and turbulence. The corresponding precise definition of fractional dimensional turbulence already demonstrates that the classical 2-D and 3-D turbulence are not the main options to understand atmospheric and oceanic dynamics. Although (2 + Hz)-dimensional turbulence (with 0 < Hz < 1) has more common features with 3-D turbulence than with 2-D turbulence, it has nevertheless very distinctive features: its scaling anisotropy is in agreement with the layered pancake structure, which is typical of rotating and stratified turbulence, but not of the classical 3-D turbulence. In this presentation, we further discuss the properties of this set of deterministic-like equations, especially how they can generate a statistical scaling anisotropy, as well as the relevance of the theoretical value Hz = 5/9.

  17. Vortices revealed: Swimming faster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houwelingen, Josje; van de Water, Willem; Kunnen, Rudie; van Heijst, Gertjan; Clercx, Herman

    2016-11-01

    Understanding and optimizing the propulsion in human swimming requires insight into the hydrodynamics of the flow around the swimmer. Experiments and simulations addressing the hydrodynamics of swimming have been conducted in studies before, including the visualization of the flow using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The main objective in this study is to develop a system to visualize the flow around a swimmer in practice inspired by this technique. The setup is placed in a regular swimming pool. The use of tracer particles and lasers to illuminate the particles is not allowed. Therefore, we choose to work with air bubbles with a diameter of 4 mm, illuminated by ambient light. Homogeneous bubble curtains are produced by tubes implemented in the bottom of the pool. The bubble motion is captured by six cameras placed in underwater casings. A first test with the setup has been conducted by pulling a cylinder through the bubbles and performing a PIV analysis. The vorticity plots of the resulting data show the expected vortex street behind the cylinder. The shedding frequency of the vortices resembles the expected frequency. Thus, it is possible to identify and follow the coherent structures. We will discuss these results and the first flow measurements around swimmers.

  18. The gluon Sivers distribution: Status and future prospects

    DOE PAGES

    Boer, Daniël; Lorcé, Cédric; Pisano, Cristian; ...

    2015-06-28

    In this study, we review what is currently known about the gluon Sivers distribution and what are the opportunities to learn more about it. Because single transverse spin asymmetries in p↑p → πX provide only indirect information about the gluon Sivers function through the relation with the quark-gluon and tri-gluon Qiu-Sterman functions, current data from hadronic collisions at RHIC have not yet been translated into a solid constraint on the gluon Sivers function.

  19. Hadrons and Quark-Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann

    2002-06-01

    Before matter as we know it emerged, the universe was filled with the primordial state of hadronic matter called quark gluon plasma. This hot soup of quarks and gluon is effectively an inescapable consequence of our current knowledge about the fundamental hadronic interactions, quantum chromodynamics. This book covers the ongoing search to verify this prediction experimentally and discusses the physical properties of this novel form of matter.

  20. A study of vorticity formation in high energy nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becattini, F.; Inghirami, G.; Rolando, V.; Beraudo, A.; Del Zanna, L.; De Pace, A.; Nardi, M.; Pagliara, G.; Chandra, V.

    2015-09-01

    We present a quantitative study of vorticity formation in peripheral ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at GeV by using the ECHO-QGP numerical code, implementing relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics in the causal Israel-Stewart framework in dimensions with an initial Bjorken flow profile. We consider different definitions of vorticity which are relevant in relativistic hydrodynamics. After demonstrating the excellent capabilities of our code, which proves to be able to reproduce Gubser flow up to 8 fm/ c, we show that, with the initial conditions needed to reproduce the measured directed flow in peripheral collisions corresponding to an average impact parameter fm and with the Bjorken flow profile for a viscous Quark Gluon Plasma with fixed, a vorticity of the order of some /fm can develop at freeze-out. The ensuing polarization of baryons does not exceed 1.4 % at midrapidity. We show that the amount of developed directed flow is sensitive to both the initial angular momentum of the plasma and its viscosity.

  1. High gluon densities in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul

    2017-03-01

    The early stages of heavy ion collisions are dominated by high density systems of gluons that carry each a small fraction x of the momenta of the colliding nucleons. A distinguishing feature of such systems is the phenomenon of ‘saturation’ which tames the expected growth of the gluon density as the energy of the collision increases. The onset of saturation occurs at a particular transverse momentum scale, the ‘saturation momentum’, that emerges dynamically and that marks the onset of non-linear gluon interactions. At high energy, and for large nuclei, the saturation momentum is large compared to the typical hadronic scale, making high density gluons amenable to a description with weak coupling techniques. This paper reviews some of the challenges faced in the study of such dense systems of small x gluons, and of the progress made in addressing them. The focus is on conceptual issues, and the presentation is both pedagogical, and critical. Examples where high gluon density could play a visible role in heavy ion collisions are briefly discussed at the end, for illustration purpose.

  2. Quantised vortices in polariton lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berloff, Natalia

    2015-11-01

    The first comprehensive treatment of quantised vorticity in the light of research on vortices in modern fluid mechanics appeared in Russell Donnelly seminal research papers and summarized in his 1991 book ``Quantized Vortices in Helium II''. Recently quantized vortices have been studied in polariton condensates. Polaritons are the mixed light-matter quasi-particles that are formed in the strong exciton-photon coupling regime. Under non-resonant optical excitation rapid relaxation of carriers and bosonic stimulation result in the formation of a non-equilibrium polariton condensate characterized by a single many-body wave-function, therefore, naturally possessing quantized vortices. Polariton condensates can be imprinted into any two-dimensional lattice by spatial modulation of the pumping laser and form vortices via interacting outfows from the pumping sites. Optically pumped polariton condensates can be injected in lattice configurations with arbitrary density profiles offering the possibility to control the kinetics of the condensate and therefore the number and location of vortices. I will present some new developments in theoretical and experimental studies of quantized vortices in polariton condensates and discuss possible practical implementations of polariton lattices.

  3. Flame propagation through periodic vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Dold, J.W.; Kerr, O.S.; Nikolova, I.P.

    1995-02-01

    The discovery of a new class of Navier-Stokes solutions representing steady periodic stretched vortices offers a useful test-bed for examining interactions between flames and complex flow-fields. After briefly describing these vortex solutions and their wide-ranging parameterization in terms of wavelength and amplitude, this article examines their effect on flames of constant normal propagation speed as observed through numerical solutions of an eikonal equation. Over certain ranges of vortex amplitude and flame-speed, a corridor of enhanced flame passage is seen to be created as a leading flame-tip managers to leap-frog between successive vortices. However, for large enough amplitudes of vorticity or small enough flame-speeds, the flame fails to be able to benefit from the advection due to the vortices. It is shown that the leading tips of such flames are effectively trapped by the stretched vortices.

  4. von Karman Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Each of these swirling clouds is the result of a meteorological phenomenon known as a von Karman vortex. These vortices appeared over Alexander Selkirk Island in the southern Pacific Ocean. Rising precipitously from the surrounding waters, the island's highest point is nearly a mile (1.6 km) above sea level. As wind-driven clouds encounter this obstacle, they flow around it to form large, spinning eddies. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on September 15, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and near-infrared wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  5. Resonant magnetic vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Decanini, Yves; Folacci, Antoine

    2003-04-01

    By using the complex angular momentum method, we provide a semiclassical analysis of electron scattering by a magnetic vortex of Aharonov-Bohm type. Regge poles of the S matrix are associated with surface waves orbiting around the vortex and supported by a magnetic field discontinuity. Rapid variations of sharp characteristic shapes can be observed on scattering cross sections. They correspond to quasibound states which are Breit-Wigner-type resonances associated with surface waves and which can be considered as quantum analogues of acoustic whispering-gallery modes. Such a resonant magnetic vortex could provide a different kind of artificial atom while the semiclassical approach developed here could be profitably extended in various areas of the physics of vortices.

  6. Spatiotemporal Optical Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhajj, N.; Larkin, I.; Rosenthal, E. W.; Zahedpour, S.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    We present the first experimental evidence, supported by theory and simulation, of spatiotemporal optical vortices (STOVs). A STOV is an optical vortex with phase and energy circulation in a spatiotemporal plane. Depending on the sign of the material dispersion, the local electromagnetic energy flow is saddle or spiral about the STOV. STOVs are a fundamental element of the nonlinear collapse and subsequent propagation of short optical pulses in material media, and conserve topological charge, constraining their birth, evolution, and annihilation. We measure a self-generated STOV consisting of a ring-shaped null in the electromagnetic field about which the phase is spiral, forming a dynamic torus that is concentric with and tracks the propagating pulse. Our results, here obtained for optical pulse collapse and filamentation in air, are generalizable to a broad class of nonlinearly propagating waves.

  7. Potential vorticity index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

    1990-01-01

    Using standard data analysis techniques, researchers explore the links between disturbance growth and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradients; appearance and disappearance of cutoff lows and blocking highs and their relation to a zonal index (properly defined in terms of PV); and teleconnections between different flow patterns and their relation to the zonal index. It was found that the PV index and the eddy index correlate better than a zonal index (defined by zonal wind) and the eddy index. In the frequency domain there are three frequencies (.03, .07 and .17 cpd (cycle per day) corresponding to periods of 33, 14 and 6 days) at which PV index and the eddy index exhibit local maxima. The high correlation found at periods of 33 days is mainly due to eddy activity at high latitudes while the local correlation maxima found at the shorter periods are mainly due mid-latitude eddy activity. The correlation between the PV index and the geopotential height anomaly at 500 mb, at each grid point in the Northern Hemisphere, shows the existence of most of the teleconnection patterns summarized by Wallace and Gutzler (1981): the North Atlantic Oscillation, the North Pacific Oscillation, and the Pacific/North American patterns. Results show that the Isentropic Potential Vorticity (IPV) analysis can be a very useful and powerful tool when used to understand the dynamics of several large scale atmospheric systems. Although the data are limited to only one winter, and it is difficult to assess the statistical significance of the correlation coefficients presented here, the results are encouraging from physical viewpoint.

  8. Two-Loop Gluon to Gluon-Gluon Splitting Amplitudes in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.

    2004-04-30

    Splitting amplitudes are universal functions governing the collinear behavior of scattering amplitudes for massless particles. We compute the two-loop g {yields} gg splitting amplitudes in QCD, N = 1, and N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theories, which describe the limits of two-loop n-point amplitudes where two gluon momenta become parallel. They also represent an ingredient in a direct x-space computation of DGLAP evolution kernels at next-to-next-to-leading order. To obtain the splitting amplitudes, we use the unitarity sewing method. In contrast to the usual light-cone gauge treatment, our calculation does not rely on the principal-value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescriptions, even though the loop integrals contain some of the denominators typically encountered in light-cone gauge. We reduce the integrals to a set of 13 master integrals using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. The master integrals are computed with the aid of differential equations in the splitting momentum fraction z. The {epsilon}-poles of the splitting amplitudes are consistent with a formula due to Catani for the infrared singularities of two-loop scattering amplitudes. This consistency essentially provides an inductive proof of Catani's formula, as well as an ansatz for previously-unknown 1/{epsilon} pole terms having non-trivial color structure. Finite terms in the splitting amplitudes determine the collinear behavior of finite remainders in this formula.

  9. Quark gluon bags as reggeons

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, K. A.; Petrov, V. K.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2009-05-15

    The influence of the medium-dependent finite width of quark gluon plasma (QGP) bags on their equation of state is analyzed within an exactly solvable model. It is argued that the large width of the QGP bags not only explains the observed deficit in the number of hadronic resonances but also clarifies the reason why the heavy QGP bags cannot be directly observed as metastable states in a hadronic phase. The model allows us to estimate the minimal value of the width of QGP bags being heavier than 2 GeV from a variety of the lattice QCD data and get that the minimal resonance width at zero temperature is about 600 MeV, whereas the minimal resonance width at the Hagedorn temperature is about 2000 MeV. As shown, these estimates are almost insensitive to the number of the elementary degrees of freedom. The recent lattice QCD data are analyzed and it is found that in addition to the {sigma}T{sup 4} term the lattice QCD pressure contains T-linear and T{sup 4}lnT terms in the range of temperatures between 240 and 420 MeV. The presence of the last term in the pressure bears almost no effect on the width estimates. Our analysis shows that at high temperatures the average mass and width of the QGP bags behave in accordance with the upper bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the linear asymptotics), whereas at low temperatures they obey the lower bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the square root one). Since the model explicitly contains the Hagedorn mass spectrum, it allows us to remove an existing contradiction between the finite number of hadronic Regge families and the Hagedorn idea of the exponentially growing mass spectrum of hadronic bags.

  10. Gluon-gluon contributions to the production of continuum diphoton pairs at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadolsky, P. M.; Balázs, C.; Berger, E. L.; Yuan, C.-P.

    2007-07-01

    We compute the contributions to continuum photon pair production at hadron colliders from processes initiated by gluon-gluon and gluon-quark scattering into two photons through a four-leg virtual quark loop. Complete two-loop cross sections in perturbative quantum chromodynamics are combined with contributions from soft parton radiation resummed to all orders in the strong coupling strength. The structure of the resummed cross section is examined in detail, including a new type of unintegrated parton distribution function affecting azimuthal angle distributions of photons in the pair’s rest frame. As a result of this analysis, we predict diphoton transverse-momentum distributions in gluon-gluon scattering in wide ranges of kinematic parameters at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  11. Motion of multiple helical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Fuentes, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    In 1912 Joukowsky deduced that in an unbounded ideal fluid a set of helical vortices--when these are equal, coaxial and symmetrically arranged--would translate and rotate steadily while the vortices preserve their form and relative position. Each vortex is an infinite tube whose cross-section is circular (with radius a) and whose centerline is a helix of pitch L and radius R. The motion is thus determined by three non-dimensional parameters only: the number of vortices N, the vortex radius α = a / R and the vortex pitch τ = L / 2 πR . Here, we express the linear and angular velocities of the vortices as the sum of the mutually induced velocities found by Okulov (2004) and the self-induced velocities found by Velasco Fuentes (2015). We verified that our results are accurate over the whole range of values of the vortices' pitch and radius by numerically computing the vortex motion with two smoothed versions of the Biot-Savart law. It was found that the translation velocity U grows with the number of vortices (N) but decreases as the vortices' radius and pitch (a and τ, respectively) increase; in contrast, the rotation velocity Ω grows with N and a but has a local minimum around τ = 1 for fixed values of N and a.

  12. On Potential Vorticity Flux Vectors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, Peter R.; Schmidli, Jürg; Schär, Christoph

    2003-12-01

    Dynamical, rather than kinematical, considerations indicate that a generalized potential vorticity in terms of the gradient of an arbitrary scalar function requires that the potential vorticity flux vector contain a contribution due to gravity and the pressure gradient force. It is shown that such a potential vorticity flux vector has a simpler definition in terms of the gradient of the kinetic energy rather than that of a Bernoulli function. This result is valid for multicomponent fluids. Flux vectors for a salty ocean and a moist atmosphere with hydrometeors are presented.

  13. On Multiple-Layered Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.

  14. Abrikosov vortex motion and elementary pinning force in a SNS (Superconductor-Normal metal-Superconductor) Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, O.B.

    1987-08-01

    Procedures have been developed to determine the location of a single Abrikosov vortex in a Superconductor-Normal metal-Superconductor (SNS) Josephson junction and study its motion under the influence of a Lorentz force. A vortex in a SNS junction generates characteristic magnetic field inside the junction and this field, in turn, induces a specified phase across the junction. This phase caused by the vortex changes the critical current characteristics of the junction, that then can be used to locate the vortex inside the junction. A single vortex was successfully trapped in the junction by the field cooling process and the location was determined by the diffraction pattern. Motion of the vortex was induced by the transport current, I/sub p/, and the vortex was found to move in discrete jumps. By tracing the vortex after successive depinning events, many pinning centers could be identified. From the minimum depinning current, the elementary pinning force associated with an individual pinning site of the Pb-Bi (4 at. %) superconducting layer has been measured and found to be of order of 10/sup -8/ dyne (or 10/sup -4/ dyne/cm) at T/T/sub c/ = 0.95. The force is asymmetric and different from one pinning site to another. For the given SNS junction, the pinning force of a pinning center is dominant over all other forces associated with the vortex in the junction. In addition, from the experiment the temperature dependence of the pinning force is found to be f/sub p/ approx. (1 - T/T/sub c/)/sup 3/2/ near T/sub c/. There are two ingredients for the vortex depinning experiment. First, the N layer of the junction must be thick to reduce the field energy and dipole coupling force of the vortex. Secondly, vortex can be depinned at higher temperatures, at which depinning current is smaller than vortex nucleation current.

  15. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    SciTech Connect

    Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2016-04-01

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  16. Gluon orbital angular momentum at small x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka; Nakagawa, Yuya; Xiao, Bowen; Yuan, Feng; Zhao, Yong

    2017-06-01

    We present a general analysis of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) distribution of gluons Lg(x ) inside the nucleon with particular emphasis on the small-x region. We derive a novel operator representation of Lg(x ) in terms of Wilson lines and argue that it is approximately proportional to the gluon helicity distribution Lg(x )≈-2 Δ G (x ) at small x . We also compute longitudinal single-spin asymmetry in exclusive diffractive dijet production in lepton-nucleon scattering in the next-to-eikonal approximation and show that the asymmetry is a direct probe of the gluon helicity/OAM distribution as well as the QCD odderon exchange.

  17. Gluon Bremsstrahlung in Weakly-Coupled Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Peter

    2009-11-01

    I report on some theoretical progress concerning the calculation of gluon bremsstrahlung for very high energy particles crossing a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma. (i) I advertise that two of the several formalisms used to study this problem, the BDMPS-Zakharov formalism and the AMY formalism (the latter used only for infinite, uniform media), can be made equivalent when appropriately formulated. (ii) A standard technique to simplify calculations is to expand in inverse powers of logarithms ln(E/T). I give an example where such expansions are found to work well for ω/T≳10 where ω is the bremsstrahlung gluon energy. (iii) Finally, I report on perturbative calculations of q̂.

  18. Effects of gluon radiation in hadronic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Gösta

    1990-08-01

    In this talk I discuss effects of gluon emission in soft collisions, the so-called "soft radiation" in the Fritiof model. It is seen e.g. that the pT in the fragmentation regions, the seagull effect, increases with energy in fair agreement with experiments. I also discuss the content of strange and heavier quarks in high- pT gluon jets. Within the dipole scheme for QCD cascades one finds a larger production of heavier quarks than in previous approaches. Qualitative agreement with data is obtained for the K/ π ratio and D meson production.

  19. Shear Viscosity in a Gluon Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2008-05-02

    The relation of the shear viscosity coefficient to the recently introduced transport rate is derived within relativistic kinetic theory. We calculate the shear viscosity over entropy ratio {eta}/s for a gluon gas, which involves elastic gg{yields}gg perturbative QCD (PQCD) scatterings as well as inelastic gg{r_reversible}ggg PQCD bremsstrahlung. For {alpha}{sub s}=0.3 we find {eta}/s=0.13 and for {alpha}{sub s}=0.6, {eta}/s=0.076. The small {eta}/s values, which suggest strongly coupled systems, are due to the gluon bremsstrahlung incorporated.

  20. Quarks and gluons at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Bodek, A.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    Data from proton-antiproton collisions at high energy provide important information on constraining the quark and gluon distributions in the nucleon and place limits on quark substructure. The S asymmetry data constrains the slope of the d/u quark distributions and significantly reduces the systematic error on the extracted value of the W mass. Drell-Yan data at high invariant mass provides strong limits on quark substructure. Information on {alpha}{sub s} and the gluon distributions can be extracted from high P{sub T} jet data and direct photons.

  1. Amplitude for N-Gluon Superstring Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Stieberger, Stephan; Taylor, Tomasz R.

    2006-11-24

    We consider scattering processes involving N gluonic massless states of open superstrings with a certain Regge slope {alpha}{sup '}. At the semiclassical level, the string world-sheet sweeps a disk and N gluons are created or annihilated at the boundary. We present exact expressions for the corresponding amplitudes, valid to all orders in {alpha}{sup '}, for the so-called maximally helicity violating configurations, with N=4, 5 and N=6. We also obtain the leading O({alpha}{sup '2}) string corrections to the zero-slope N-gluon Yang-Mills amplitudes.

  2. Amplitude for N-gluon superstring scattering.

    PubMed

    Stieberger, Stephan; Taylor, Tomasz R

    2006-11-24

    We consider scattering processes involving N gluonic massless states of open superstrings with a certain Regge slope alpha'. At the semiclassical level, the string world-sheet sweeps a disk and N gluons are created or annihilated at the boundary. We present exact expressions for the corresponding amplitudes, valid to all orders in alpha', for the so-called maximally helicity violating configurations, with N = 4, 5 and N = 6. We also obtain the leading O(alpha '2) string corrections to the zero-slope N-gluon Yang-Mills amplitudes.

  3. Geometric creation of quantum vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Xiong, Chi; Chua, Alvin J. K.; Huang, Kerson

    2016-11-01

    We consider superfluidity and quantum vorticity in rotating spacetimes. The system is described by a complex scalar satisfying a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation. Rotation terms are identified and found to lead to the transfer of angular momentum of the spacetime to the scalar field. The scalar field responds by rotating, physically behaving as a superfluid, through the creation of quantized vortices. We demonstrate vortex nucleation through numerical simulation.

  4. Theory of free electron vortices

    PubMed Central

    Schattschneider, P.; Verbeeck, J.

    2011-01-01

    The recent creation of electron vortex beams and their first practical application motivates a better understanding of their properties. Here, we develop the theory of free electron vortices with quantized angular momentum, based on solutions of the Schrödinger equation for cylindrical boundary conditions. The principle of transformation of a plane wave into vortices with quantized angular momentum, their paraxial propagation through round magnetic lenses, and the effect of partial coherence are discussed. PMID:21930017

  5. Two-dimensional Brownian vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2008-12-01

    We introduce a stochastic model of 2D Brownian vortices associated with the canonical ensemble. The point vortices evolve through their usual mutual advection but they experience in addition a random velocity and a systematic drift generated by the system as a whole. The statistical equilibrium state of this stochastic model is the Gibbs canonical distribution. We consider a single species system and a system made of two types of vortices with positive and negative circulations. At positive temperatures, like-sign vortices repel each other (“plasma” case) and at negative temperatures, like-sign vortices attract each other (“gravity” case). We derive the stochastic equation satisfied by the exact vorticity field and the Fokker-Planck equation satisfied by the N-body distribution function. We present the BBGKY-like hierarchy of equations satisfied by the reduced distribution functions and close the hierarchy by considering an expansion of the solutions in powers of 1/N, where N is the number of vortices, in a proper thermodynamic limit. For spatially inhomogeneous systems, we derive the kinetic equations satisfied by the smooth vorticity field in a mean field approximation valid for N→+∞. For spatially homogeneous systems, we study the two-body correlation function, in a Debye-Hückel approximation valid at the order O(1/N). The results of this paper can also apply to other systems of random walkers with long-range interactions such as self-gravitating Brownian particles and bacterial populations experiencing chemotaxis. Furthermore, for positive temperatures, our study provides a kinetic derivation, from microscopic stochastic processes, of the Debye-Hückel model of electrolytes.

  6. Potential vorticity index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

    1991-01-01

    Based on the European Center For Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE) IIIb data set in the 1978 to 1979 winter, a potential vorticity (PV) index was defined as a measure of the zonally averaged, mid-latitude PV gradient on the 300 K isentropic surface in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of that index and its relation to teleconnection patterns of 500 mb geopotential height anomaly are studied. The results of the temporal and spatial variation of blocking and cyclogenesis in the 1978 to 1979 winter and its relation to global and local PV gradients were obtained. Complex empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses were performed, using the same FGGE data set for the 1978 to 1979 winter, for a representative high latitude band and mid latitude band geopotential height anomalies at 500 mb, phi sub h, phi sub m, and PV gradient at 300 K, delta(Q), at each longitude for the three month period. The focus of current research is the following: (1) to perform Fourier analyses for the first three EOF's of phi sub h, phi sub m, and delta(Q) at given latitude bands, and to find the dominant wavenumbers and frequencies which are responsible for these EOF's; (2) to compare the results from EOF and Fourier analyses which will be used to explore the relations of blocking and cyclogensis with local and global PV gradients; and (3) to study the time dependence of the local PV gradients and relate it to the PV index vacillation cycles observed in the PV index cycle.

  7. SU(3) Landau gauge gluon and ghost propagators using the logarithmic lattice gluon field definition

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael; Menz, Christoph; Mueller-Preussker, Michael; Schiller, Arwed; Sternbeck, Andre

    2011-03-01

    We study the Landau gauge gluon and ghost propagators of SU(3) gauge theory, employing the logarithmic definition for the lattice gluon fields and implementing the corresponding form of the Faddeev-Popov matrix. This is necessary in order to consistently compare lattice data for the bare propagators with that of higher-loop numerical stochastic perturbation theory. In this paper we provide such a comparison, and introduce what is needed for an efficient lattice study. When comparing our data for the logarithmic definition to that of the standard lattice Landau gauge we clearly see the propagators to be multiplicatively related. The data of the associated ghost-gluon coupling matches up almost completely. For the explored lattice spacings and sizes discretization artifacts, finite size, and Gribov-copy effects are small. At weak coupling and large momentum, the bare propagators and the ghost-gluon coupling are seen to be approached by those of higher-order numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  8. Exploring Quarks, Gluons and the Higgs Boson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. Erik

    2013-01-01

    With real particle collision data available on the web, the amazing dynamics of the fundamental particles of the standard model can be explored in classrooms. Complementing the events from the ATLAS experiment with animations of the fundamental processes on the quark and gluon level makes it possible to better understand the invisible world of…

  9. Squeezed colour states in gluon jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilin, S. YA.; Kuvshinov, V. I.; Firago, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of the formation of squeezed states of gluon fields in quantum chromodynamics due to nonlinear nonperturbative self interaction during jet evolution in the process of e(+)e(-) annihilation into hadrons, which are analogous to the quantum photon squeezed states in quantum electrodynamics, is demonstrated. Additionally, the squeezing parameters are calculated.

  10. Sambamurti Memorial Lecture: Spotlight on the Gluon

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Begelas

    2016-07-12

    Begel uses results from the Fermilab D0 and E706 experiments to explain how the production rate and energy spectrum of photons produced during proton collisions helped to clarify how the energy inside the proton is shared between quarks and gluons.

  11. Exploring Quarks, Gluons and the Higgs Boson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. Erik

    2013-01-01

    With real particle collision data available on the web, the amazing dynamics of the fundamental particles of the standard model can be explored in classrooms. Complementing the events from the ATLAS experiment with animations of the fundamental processes on the quark and gluon level makes it possible to better understand the invisible world of…

  12. Recent COMPASS results on the gluon polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Quintans, Catarina

    2009-03-23

    The spin structure of the nucleon is studied in the COMPASS experiment at CERN/SPS, from the collisions of 160 GeV polarized muon beam with a {sup 6}LiD target. The data collected from 2002 to 2006 provide an accurate measurement of longitudinal double spin cross-section asymmetries. The latest results on the gluon polarization, accessed from two independent analyses of photon-gluon fusion selected events, are presented. The study of the open-charm production allows to extract the gluon polarization (in LO QCD) from the measurement of the asymmetry, the value obtained being {delta}g/g -0.49{+-}0.27(stat){+-}0.11(syst), at an average x{sub g} 0.11{sub -0.05}{sup +0.11} and a scale <{mu}{sup 2}> = 13(GeV/c){sup 2}. An alternative and independent way to study the gluon polarization, by studying the high transverse momentum hadron pairs produced, leads to a value {delta}g/g 0.08{+-}0.10(stat){+-}0.05(syst), at x{sub g}{sup a{nu}} 0.082{sub -0.027}{sup +0.041} and <{mu}{sup 2}> = 3(GeV/c){sup 2}.

  13. A ghost story (II): Ghost, Gluons and the Gluon Condensate beyond the IR of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Quintero, J.; Pene, O.; Boucaud, P.; Micheli, J.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Leroy, J. P.; de Soto, F.

    Beyond the deep IR, the analysis of ghost and gluon propagators still keeps very interesting non-perturbative information. The Taylor-scheme coupling can be computed and applied to obtain the $\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}$ parameter from Landau gauge lattice simulations. Furthermore, a dimension-two gluon condensate, that can be understood in the instanton liquid model, plays an important role in the game.

  14. Nucleation of Vortices and Anti-Vortices in Mesoscopic Superconducting Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. M.; Sobnack, M. B.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the nucleation of vortices and anti-vortices in a small superconducting disc. We formulate the Gibbs free energy of the disc with an arbitrary number of vortices and anti-vortices as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field and minimize the energy to obtain the optimal position of vortices for different applied fields and temperatures. We also analyse the stability of anti-vortices inside the disc.

  15. Vortices and other topological solitons in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Minoru; Hirono, Yuji; Nitta, Muneto; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    with non-Abelian vortices are studied; colorful boojums at the CFL interface, the quantum color magnetic monopole confined by vortices, which supports the notion of quark-hadron duality, and Yang-Mills instantons inside a non-Abelian vortex as lumps are discussed. The interactions between a non-Abelian vortex and quasiparticles such as phonons, gluons, mesons, and photons are studied. As a consequence of the interaction with photons, a vortex lattice behaves as a cosmic polarizer. As a remarkable consequence of Majorana fermion zero modes, non-Abelian vortices are shown to behave as a novel kind of non-Abelian anyon. In the order parameters of chiral symmetry breaking, we discuss fractional and integer axial domain walls, Abelian and non-Abelian axial vortices, axial wall-vortex composites, and Skyrmions.

  16. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and other vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Philip S.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical explanation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) as the self-organization of vorticity in turbulence is presented. A number of properties of the GRS and other Jovian vortices that are unambiguous from the data are listed. The simplest possible model that explains these properties one at a time rather than in a difficult all-encompassing planetary global circulation model is presented. It is shown that Jovian vortices reflect the behavior of quasi-geostrophic (QG) vortices embedded in an east-west wind with bands of uniform potential vorticity. It is argued that most of the properties of the Jovian vortices can be easily explained and understood with QG theory. Many of the signatures of QG vortices are apparent on Voyager images. In numerical and laboratory experiments, QG vortices relax to approximately steady states like the Jovian vortices, rather than oscillating or rotating Kida ellipses.

  17. Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.

    PubMed

    Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A

    2014-10-20

    We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics.

  18. Active Control of Stationary Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nino, Giovanni; Breidenthal, Robert; Bhide, Aditi; Sridhar, Aditya

    2016-11-01

    A system for active stationary vortex control is presented. The system uses a combination of plasma actuators, pressure sensors and electrical circuits deposited on aerodynamic surfaces using printing electronics methods. Once the pressure sensors sense a change on the intensity or on the position of the stationary vortices, its associated controller activates a set of plasma actuator to return the vortices to their original or intended positions. The forces produced by the actuators act on the secondary flow in the transverse plane, where velocities are much less than in the streamwise direction. As a demonstration case, the active vortex control system is mounted on a flat plate under low speed wind tunnel testing. Here, a set of vortex generators are used to generate the stationary vortices and the plasma actuators are used to move them. Preliminary results from the experiments are presented and compared with theoretical values. Thanks to the USAF AFOSR STTR support under contract # FA9550-15-C-0007.

  19. Hairpin Vortices: Autogeneration and Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Daniel; Maharjan, Rijan; Sanders, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    The regeneration of hairpin vortices is examined in a free-surface water channel where vortices are artificially generated by means of injection in a laminar boundary layer. The process is visualized with dye and hydrogen bubble-wire techniques. The strength of an isolated hairpin required to begin the autogeneration process is established by means of PIV measurements on the symmetry plane. Because hairpins are in close proximity in a fully-turbulent boundary layer, two hairpins are generated at different streamwise locations and allowed to interact at different stages of development. The relative position, strength and maturity of the interacting hairpins that generate secondary vortices are examined. The morphology of the generation process and of the resulting secondary hairpin for both the isolated and interacting cases are discussed and compared to previous work. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1040236.

  20. Hyperbolic monopoles from hyperbolic vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    Yang-Mills-Higgs monopoles and vortices in hyperbolic space can be constructed from {{SO}}(2) and {{SO}}(3) invariant Yang-Mills instantons, respectively. We use this fact to describe a large class of hyperbolic monopoles directly in terms of hyperbolic vortices embedded into 3 dimensions, yielding a remarkably simple relation between their Higgs fields. The class of monopoles we obtain are fixed relative to a plane in hyperbolic space, in a way which will be made clear by a study of the monopole spectral curve. We will use the correspondence between vortices and monopoles to give new insight into the moduli space of hyperbolic monopoles. Finally, our technique allows an explicit construction of the fields of a hyperbolic monopole invariant under a {Z} action, which we compare to periodic monopoles in Euclidean space.

  1. Modification of Vehicle Wake Vortices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-09

    span wise over a fluid foil tip to form a " Coanda curtain" 8 which extends downwardly from the upper side of the foil and 9 prevents vortex generating...flow over the tip from its lower side. 10 Tip vortices are thus prevented rather than being dissipated by 11 counter vortices, and the Coanda effect...1 Patent 5,791,875 issued to Ngo on 11 August 1998 discloses 2 the use of the Coanda effect to suppress free-stream air flow 3 around the tip of a

  2. Graphene with geometrically induced vorticity.

    PubMed

    Pachos, Jiannis K; Stone, Michael; Temme, Kristan

    2008-04-18

    At half filling, the electronic structure of graphene can be modeled by a pair of free two-dimensional Dirac fermions. We explicitly demonstrate that in the presence of a geometrically induced gauge field an everywhere-real Kekulé modulation of the hopping matrix elements can correspond to a nonreal Higgs field with nontrivial vorticity. This provides a natural setting for fractionally charged vortices with localized zero modes. For fullerenelike molecules we employ the index theorem to demonstrate the existence of six low-lying states that do not depend strongly on the Kekulé-induced mass gap.

  3. Gluon-glueball duality and glueball searches

    SciTech Connect

    Nussinov, Shmuel; Shrock, Robert

    2009-09-01

    We discuss a notion of gluon-glueball duality analogous to quark-hadron duality. We apply this idea to the radiative decay of heavy orthoquarkonium, QQ{yields}{gamma}gg, which has been used to search for glueballs. The duality is first introduced in two simplified contexts: (i) a hypothetical version of QCD without any light quarks and (ii) QCD in the large-N{sub c} limit. We then discuss how an approximate form of this duality could hold in real QCD, based on a hierarchy of time scales in the temporal evolution of the gg subsystem in radiative orthoquarkonium decay. We apply this notion of gluon-glueball duality to suggest a method that could be useful in experimental searches for glueballs.

  4. Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Close, F.E. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )

    1989-12-01

    These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. This lecture discusses the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei, and how knowledge of these is necessary before some quark-gluon plasma searches can be analyzed. 56 refs., 2 figs.

  5. What Causes Mars' Annular Polar Vortices?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.; Guzewich, S. D.

    2016-09-01

    Martian polar vortices exhibit annuli of high potential vorticity, unlike the Earth, likely due to the effect of latent heating of carbon dioxide condensation in polar regions, which does not occur for Earth's most abundant atmospheric species.

  6. Systematics of quark/gluon tagging

    DOE PAGES

    Gras, Philippe; Höche, Stefan; Kar, Deepak; ...

    2017-07-18

    By measuring the substructure of a jet, one can assign it a “quark” or “gluon” tag. In the eikonal (double-logarithmic) limit, quark/gluon discrimination is determined solely by the color factor of the initiating parton (CF versus CA). In this paper, we confront the challenges faced when going beyond this leading-order understanding, using both parton-shower generators and first-principles calculations to assess the impact of higher-order perturbative and nonperturbative physics. Working in the idealized context of electron-positron collisions, where one can define a proxy for quark and gluon jets based on the Lorentz structure of the production vertex, we find a fascinatingmore » interplay between perturbative shower effects and nonperturbative hadronization effects. Turning to proton-proton collisions, we highlight a core set of measurements that would constrain current uncertainties in quark/gluon tagging and improve the overall modeling of jets at the Large Hadron Collider.« less

  7. Stochastic Vorticity and Associated Filtering Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Amirdjanova, A.; Kallianpur, G.

    2002-12-19

    The focus of this work is on a two-dimensional stochastic vorticity equation for an incompressible homogeneous viscous fluid. We consider a signed measure-valued stochastic partial differential equation for a vorticity process based on the Skorohod-Ito evolution of a system of N randomly moving point vortices. A nonlinear filtering problem associated with the evolution of the vorticity is considered and a corresponding Fujisaki-Kallianpur-Kunita stochastic differential equation for the optimal filter is derived.

  8. Combustor with multistage internal vortices

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Y.; Harrington, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard area to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard.

  9. Combustor with multistage internal vortices

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Yu; Harrington, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard areas to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard. 2 figs.

  10. Subwavelength vortical plasmonic lattice solitons.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fangwei; Mihalache, Dumitru; Hu, Bambi; Panoiu, Nicolae C

    2011-04-01

    We present a theoretical study of vortical plasmonic lattice solitons, which form in two-dimensional arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into nonlinear media with both focusing and defocusing Kerr nonlinearities. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are investigated in detail.

  11. Paraboloids and Vortices in Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, John M.

    1969-01-01

    Describes an apparatus designed to demonstrate vortical flow of a fluid. The apparatus consists of a transparent acrylic cylinder, with a drain hole, and mounted so that it can be rotated about its axis at speeds up to 1000 rpm. Experimental observations with water as the fluid under study are reported. (LC)

  12. Paraboloids and Vortices in Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, John M.

    1969-01-01

    Describes an apparatus designed to demonstrate vortical flow of a fluid. The apparatus consists of a transparent acrylic cylinder, with a drain hole, and mounted so that it can be rotated about its axis at speeds up to 1000 rpm. Experimental observations with water as the fluid under study are reported. (LC)

  13. Observation of vector solitons with hidden vorticity.

    PubMed

    Izdebskaya, Yana V; Rebling, Johannes; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-03-01

    This letter reports the first experimental observation, to our knowledge, of optical vector solitons composed of two incoherently coupled vortex components. We employ nematic liquid crystal to generate stable vector solitons with counterrotating vortices and hidden vorticity. In contrast, the solitons with explicit vorticity and corotating vortex components show azimuthal splitting.

  14. Review of vortices in wildland fire

    Treesearch

    Jason M. Forthofer; Scott L. Goodrick

    2011-01-01

    Vortices are almost always present in the wildland fire environment and can sometimes interact with the fire in unpredictable ways, causing extreme fire behavior and safety concerns. In this paper, the current state of knowledge of the interaction of wildland fire and vortices is examined and reviewed. A basic introduction to vorticity is given, and the two common...

  15. Nonperturbative gluon and ghost propagators in d = 3

    SciTech Connect

    Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2011-05-23

    We study the nonperturbative gluon and ghost propagators in d = 3 Yang-Mills, using the Schwinger-Dyson equations of the pinch technique. The use of the Schwinger mechanism leads to the dynamical generation of a gluon mass, which, in turn, gives rise to an infrared finite gluon propagator and ghost dressing function. The propagators obtained are in very good agreement with the results of SU(2) lattice simulations.

  16. Dynamics of non-Abelian vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke

    2011-12-01

    Scattering is studied using a moduli space metric for well-separated vortices of non-Abelian vortices in (2+1)-dimensional U(N) gauge theories with N Higgs fields in the fundamental representation. Unlike vortices in the Abelian-Higgs model, the dynamics of non-Abelian vortices has many new features: the kinetic energy in real space can be transferred to that of internal orientational moduli and vice versa, the energy and charge transfer between two vortices, the scattering angle of collisions with a fixed impact parameter depends on the internal orientations, and some resonances appear due to synchronization of the orientations. Scattering of dyonic non-Abelian vortices in a mass deformed theory is also studied. We find a bound state of two vortices moving along coils around a circle, like a loop of a phone cord.

  17. Generation of submesoscale vortices: A new mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Asaro, Eric A.

    1988-06-01

    Small-scale, intense vortices composed of water with anomalous values of quasi-conservative tracers have been observed in many oceans. They are particularly numerous in the Beaufort Gyre of the Arctic Ocean. Possible mechanisms responsible for the generation of these features are examined. Conservation of temperature, salinity, and nutrients requires that Beaufort Sea vortices be created from water that flows into the Arctic Ocean from the Pacific Ocean across the broad, shallow Chukchi Sea. Much of this water passes through Barrow Canyon, near Point Barrow, Alaska. Observations in the canyon show the generation of vortices of approximately the same size as those observed in the Beaufort Sea. Barrow Canyon is therefore a likely site for the generation of Beaufort Sea vortices. Most observed Beaufort Sea vortices have a central potential vorticity near zero because of a relative vorticity close to -ƒ. Their Chukchi Sea source water is typically stratified with little relative vorticity, so that its potential vorticity is nonzero. A key step in the generation of the vortices is therefore the reduction of the potential vorticity of Chukchi Sea water to nearly zero. It is proposed that this occurs through the action of frictional torques occurring as the Chukchi Sea water flows through Barrow Canyon, rather than througji the action of vertical mixing. Because this flow is driven by a downstream pressure gradient, it is concentrated on the right-hand wall of the canyon by the Coriolis force. The frictional torques thus preferentially reduce the potential vorticity of the fluid. Anticyclonic vortices are therefore preferentially generated. It is suggested that a similar scenario may play a role in the generation of submesoscale vortices containing water from the Mediterranean and Labrador seas.

  18. Chiral vortical effect for bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avkhadiev, Artur; Sadofyev, Andrey V.

    2017-08-01

    The thermal contribution to the chiral vortical effect is believed to be related to the axial anomaly in external gravitational fields. We use the universality of the spin-gravity interaction to extend this idea to a wider set of phenomena. We consider the Kubo formula at weak coupling for the spin current of a vector field and derive a novel anomalous effect caused by the medium rotation: the chiral vortical effect for bosons. The effect consists in a spin current of vector bosons along the angular velocity of the medium. We argue that it has the same anomalous nature as in the fermionic case and show that this effect provides a mechanism for helicity transfer, from flow helicity to magnetic helicity.

  19. Dissipative ring solitons with vorticity.

    PubMed

    Soto-Crespo, J M; Akhmediev, N; Mejia-Cortés, C; Devine, N

    2009-03-16

    We study dissipative ring solitons with vorticity in the frame of the (2+1)-dimensional cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. In dissipative media, radially symmetric ring structures with any vorticity m can be stable in a finite range of parameters. Beyond the region of stability, the solitons lose the radial symmetry but may remain stable, keeping the same value of the topological charge. We have found bifurcations into solitons with n-fold bending symmetry, with n independent on m. Solitons without circular symmetry can also display (m + 1)-fold modulation behaviour. A sequence of bifurcations can transform the ring soliton into a pulsating or chaotic state which keeps the same value of the topological charge as the original ring.

  20. Modeling oceanic and atmospheric vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Dritschel, D.G.; Legras, B. CNRS, Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris )

    1993-03-01

    Numerical modeling and prediction of coherent structures in geophysical fluid dynamics is reviewed. Numerical computation is widely used in geophysical fluid dynamics due to the nonlinear behaviour of the systems studied and the complexity of the mathematical models used. Idealized systems and the determination of potential vorticity in simplified atmospheric models are discussed. Atmospheric vortex structures, their interactions, and the effects on weather are described. A quasigeostrophic model is used to illustrate the effect of trophospherically generated disturbances on the polar vortex using the contour dynamics numerical method. A comparison of numerical techniques for simulating the evolution of neighboring vortices of unequal size is given. Future developments in the use of numerical models in geophysical fluid dynamics and weather prediction are discussed. 15 refs.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Protoplanetary Vortices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Center for Turbulence Research 81 Annual Research Briefs 2003 Numerical simulation of protoplanetary vortices By H. Lin, J.A. Barranco t AND P.S...planetesimals and planets. In earlier works ( Barranco & Marcus 2000; Barranco et al. 2000; Lin et al. 2000) we have briefly described the possible physical...transport. In particular, Barranco et al. (2000) provided a general mathe- matical framework that is suitable for the asymptotic regime of the disk

  2. Beach vortices near circular topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinds, A. K.; Johnson, E. R.; McDonald, N. R.

    2016-10-01

    Finite-area monopolar vortices which propagate around topography without change in shape are computed for circular seamounts and wells including the limiting cases of each: islands and infinitely deep wells. The time-dependent behaviour of vortex pairs propagating toward circular topography is also examined. Trajectories of point-vortex pairs exterior to the topography are found and compared to trajectories of vortex patches computed using contour dynamics.

  3. Strong correlations between incoherent vortices.

    PubMed

    Jesus-Silva, A J; Hickmann, J M; Fonseca, E J S

    2012-08-27

    We establish a correlation rule of which the value of the topological charge obtained in intensity correlation between two coherence vortices is such that this value is bounded by the topological charge of each coherence vortex. The original phase information is scrambled in each speckle pattern and unveiled using numerical intensity correlation. According to this rule, it is also possible to obtain a coherence vortex stable, an integer vortex, even when each incoherent vortex beam is instable, non-integer vortex.

  4. The fate of pancake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutyrin, G. G.; Radko, T.

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear evolution of pancake-like vortices in a uniformly rotating and stratified fluid is studied using a 3D Boussinesq numerical model at large Rossby numbers. After the initial stage of viscous decay, the simulations reveal exponential growth of toroidal circulation cells (aka Taylor vortices) at the peripheral annulus with a negative Rayleigh discriminant. At the nonlinear stage, these thin cells redistribute the angular momentum and density differently at the levels of radial outflow and inflow. Resulting layering, with a vertical stacking of sharp variations in velocity and density, enhances small-scale mixing and energy decay. Characteristic detectable stretching patterns are produced in the density field. The circulation patterns, induced by centrifugal instability, tend to homogenize the angular momentum in the vicinity of the unstable region. We demonstrate that the peak intensity of the cells and the vortex energy decay are dramatically reduced by the earth's rotation due to conservation of total absolute angular momentum. The results have important implications for better understanding the fate of pancake vortices and physical mechanisms of energy transfer in stratified fluids.

  5. Breathers on quantized superfluid vortices.

    PubMed

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-10-18

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.

  6. Breathers on Quantized Superfluid Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-10-01

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.

  7. Buoyancy-Induced, Columnar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Mark; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    Free buoyancy-induced, columnar vortices (dust devils) that are driven by thermal instabilities of ground-heated, stratified air in areas with sufficient insolation convert the potential energy of low-grade heat in the surface air layer into a vortex flow with significant kinetic energy. A variant of the naturally-occurring vortex is deliberately triggered and anchored within an azimuthal array of vertical, stator-like flow vanes that form an open-top enclosure and impart tangential momentum to the radially entrained air. This flow may be exploited for power generation by coupling the vortex to a vertical-axis turbine. The fundamental mechanisms associated with the formation, evolution, and dynamics of an anchored, buoyancy-driven columnar vortex within such a facility are investigated experimentally using a heated ground plane. Specific emphasis is placed on the manipulation of the vortex formation and structure and the dependence of the vorticity production and sustainment mechanisms on the thermal resources and characteristic scales of the anchoring flow vanes using stereo-PIV. It is shown that manipulation of the formation and advection of vorticity concentrations within the enclosure can be exploited for increasing the available kinetic energy. Supported by ARPA-E.

  8. Evolution to the quark-gluon plasma.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Theoretical studies on the early-time dynamics in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are reviewed, including pedagogical introductions on the initial condition with small-[Formula: see text] gluons treated as a color glass condensate, the bottom-up thermalization scenario, plasma/glasma instabilities, basics of some formulations such as the kinetic equations and the classical statistical simulation. More detailed discussions follow to make an overview of recent developments on the fast isotropization, the onset of hydrodynamics, and the transient behavior of momentum spectral cascades.

  9. Evolution to the quark–gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Theoretical studies on the early-time dynamics in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are reviewed, including pedagogical introductions on the initial condition with small-\\text{x} gluons treated as a color glass condensate, the bottom–up thermalization scenario, plasma/glasma instabilities, basics of some formulations such as the kinetic equations and the classical statistical simulation. More detailed discussions follow to make an overview of recent developments on the fast isotropization, the onset of hydrodynamics, and the transient behavior of momentum spectral cascades.

  10. Dynamics of driven superconducting vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Cynthia Olson

    1998-09-01

    Vortices in superconductors exhibit rich dynamical behaviors that are relevant to the physical properties of the material. In this thesis, we use simulations to study the dynamics of flux-gradient-driven vortices in different types of samples. We make connections between the microscopic behavior of the vortices and macroscopic experimentally observable measurements. First, we systematically quantify the effect of the pinning landscape on the macroscopic properties of vortex avalanches and vortex plastic flow. We relate the velocity field, cumulative patterns of vortex flow channels, and voltage noise measurements with statistical quantities, such as distributions of avalanche sizes. Samples with a high density of strong pinning sites produce very broad avalanche distributions. Easy-flow vortex channels appear in samples with a low pinning density, and typical avalanche sizes emerge in an otherwise broad distribution of sizes. We observe a crossover from interstitial motion in narrow channels to pin-to-pin motion in broad channels as the pin density is increased. Second, we also analyze the microscopic dynamics of vortex motion through channels that form river-like fractal networks in a variety of superconducting samples, and relate it to macroscopic measurable quantities such as the power spectrum. As a function of pinning strength, we calculate the fractal dimension, tortuosity, and the corresponding voltage noise spectrum. Above a certain pinning strength, a remarkable universal drop in both tortuosity and noise power occurs when the vortex motion changes from braiding channels to unbraided channels. Third, we also present a new dynamic phase diagram for driven vortices with varying lattice softness that indicates that, at high driving currents, at least two distinct dynamic phases of flux flow appear depending on the vortex-vortex interaction strength. When the flux lattice is soft, the vortices flow in independently moving channels with smectic structure. For

  11. Classical gluon fields of relativistic color charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadora, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to consider in more detail the exotic color-charge-glow effect discovered recently and to analyze its possible physical manifestations associated with the treatment of ensembles of color-charged particles at a classical level. The ways in which this effect may appear in arbitrary systems consisting of pointlike massive particles and admitting the partition into elementary configurations like color charges and color dipoles are studied. The possible influence of this effect on particle dynamics (in particular, on gluon distributions) is also examined. Particle collisions at a given impact parameters are considered for a natural regularization of emerging expressions. It is shown that, in the case of reasonable impact-parameter values, collisions may proceed in the electrodynamic mode, in which case the charge-glow contribution to field strengths is suppressed in relation to what we have in the electrodynamic picture. From an analysis of the color-echo situation, it follows that the above conclusion remains valid for more complicated particle configurations as well, since hard gluon fields may arise only owing to a direct collision rather than owing to any echo-like effects.

  12. Classical gluon fields of relativistic color charges

    SciTech Connect

    Zadora, A. S.

    2016-09-15

    The objective of the present study is to consider in more detail the exotic color-charge-glow effect discovered recently and to analyze its possible physical manifestations associated with the treatment of ensembles of color-charged particles at a classical level. The ways in which this effect may appear in arbitrary systems consisting of pointlike massive particles and admitting the partition into elementary configurations like color charges and color dipoles are studied. The possible influence of this effect on particle dynamics (in particular, on gluon distributions) is also examined. Particle collisions at a given impact parameters are considered for a natural regularization of emerging expressions. It is shown that, in the case of reasonable impact-parameter values, collisions may proceed in the electrodynamic mode, in which case the charge-glow contribution to field strengths is suppressed in relation to what we have in the electrodynamic picture. From an analysis of the color-echo situation, it follows that the above conclusion remains valid for more complicated particle configurations as well, since hard gluon fields may arise only owing to a direct collision rather than owing to any echo-like effects.

  13. Wakes in the quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Purnendu; Mustafa, Munshi G.; Thoma, Markus H.

    2006-11-01

    Using the high temperature approximation we study, within the linear response theory, the wake in the quark-gluon plasma by a fast parton owing to dynamical screening in the spacelike region. When the parton moves with a speed less than the average speed of the plasmon, we find that the wake structure corresponds to a screening charge cloud traveling with the parton with one sign flip in the induced charge density resulting in a Lennard-Jones type potential in the outward flow with a short range repulsive and a long range attractive part. On the other hand if the parton moves with a speed higher than that of plasmon, the wake structure in the induced charge density is found to have alternate sign flips and the wake potential in the outward flow oscillates analogous to Cerenkov-like wave generation with a Mach cone structure trailing the moving parton. The potential normal to the motion of the parton indicates a transverse flow in the system. We also calculate the potential due to a color dipole and discuss consequences of possible new bound states and J/{psi} suppression in the quark-gluon plasma.

  14. Linearization of the Baker-Ball-Zachariasen gluon propagator equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P. W.

    1984-07-01

    The linearized version of the axial-gauge gluon Dyson-Schwinger equation is shown to have a solution with the infrared behavior Ap-4 + B( p2) -0.8263, where p is the gluon momentum. This result supports the calculation by Baker, Ball and Zachariasen of the QCD dielectric constant in the IR limit.

  15. Linearly polarized gluons and the Higgs transverse momentum distribution.

    PubMed

    Boer, Daniël; den Dunnen, Wilco J; Pisano, Cristian; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner

    2012-01-20

    We study how gluons carrying linear polarization inside an unpolarized hadron contribute to the transverse momentum distribution of Higgs bosons produced in hadronic collisions. They modify the distribution produced by unpolarized gluons in a characteristic way that could be used to determine whether the Higgs boson is a scalar or a pseudoscalar particle.

  16. Gluon Fragmentation Functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong-Jing; Li, Hsiang-nan

    We derive gluon fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model by approximating a gluon as a fictitious color-octet quark-anti-quark (qbar{q}) pair. Gluon elementary fragmentation functions are derived from the quark and anti-quark elementary fragmentation functions for emitting specific mesons in the NJL model under the requirement that the qbar{q} pair maintains in the flavor-singlet state after meson emission. An iteration method and an inverse matrix method based on the gluon elementary fragmentation functions then yield the gluon fragmentation functions at the model scale. It is found that the resultant gluon fragmentation functions are stable with respect to variation of relevant model parameters, especially after QCD evolution to a higher scale is implemented. We show that the inclusion of the gluon fragmentation functions into the theoretical predictions from only the quark fragmentation functions greatly improve the agreement with the SLD data for the pion and kaon productions in e+e- annihilation. Our proposal provides a plausible construct for the gluon fragmentation functions, which are supposed to be null in the NJL model.

  17. Plane mixing layer vortical structure kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the current project was to experimentally investigate the structure and dynamics of the streamwise vorticity in a plane mixing layer. The first part of this research program was intended to clarify whether the observed decrease in mean streamwise vorticity in the far-field of mixing layers is due primarily to the 'smearing' caused by vortex meander or to diffusion. Two-point velocity correlation measurements have been used to show that there is little spanwise meander of the large-scale streamwise vortical structure. The correlation measurements also indicate a large degree of transverse meander of the streamwise vorticity which is not surprising since the streamwise vorticity exists in the inclined braid region between the spanwise vortex core regions. The streamwise convection of the braid region thereby introduces an apparent transverse meander into measurements using stationary probes. These results corroborated with estimated secondary velocity profiles in which the streamwise vorticity produces a signature which was tracked in time.

  18. Bacteria Aggregation in a Steady Vortical Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdi, Shahrzad; Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ardekani, Arezoo

    2011-11-01

    The interaction between microorganisms and flow field is an important, yet complicated topic that affects the design of biological reactors, marine ecological processes, and biofilm formation in porous media. Vortical structures and secondary flows are inherently present in porous media despite small Reynolds numbers. Our experimental results show that bacteria in a steady vortical flow aggregate and subsequently form biofilm streamers in a microfluidic system. The combined effects of shape, motility and the vortical background flow contribute to this fast bacteria aggregation.

  19. Two applications of potential vorticity thinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Walter A.

    1987-01-01

    The phenomena of dissipative destabilization of external Rossby waves and the acceleration of the zonal mean jet during baroclinic life cycles are described in terms of potential vorticity. The main principle of the potential temperature variations at rigid boundaries have the same effect on the interior flow as do sheets of potential vorticity located just within the boundaries. It is noted that the potential vorticity theory is useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of meterological phenomena.

  20. The Kaehler potential of Abelian Higgs vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.-Y.; Manton, N.S.

    2005-05-01

    We calculate the Kaehler potential for the Samols metric on the moduli space of Abelian Higgs vortices on R{sub 2}, in two different ways. The first uses a scaling argument. The second depends on a variant of the relationship between accessory parameters and the regularized action in Liouville field theory. The Kaehler potential on the moduli space of vortices on H{sub 2} is also derived, and we are led to a geometrical reinterpretation of these vortices.

  1. Two applications of potential vorticity thinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Walter A.

    1987-01-01

    The phenomena of dissipative destabilization of external Rossby waves and the acceleration of the zonal mean jet during baroclinic life cycles are described in terms of potential vorticity. The main principle of the potential temperature variations at rigid boundaries have the same effect on the interior flow as do sheets of potential vorticity located just within the boundaries. It is noted that the potential vorticity theory is useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of meterological phenomena.

  2. "Explosively growing" vortices of unstably stratified atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishchenko, O. G.; Horton, W.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Fedun, V.

    2016-10-01

    A new type of "explosively growing" vortex structure is investigated theoretically in the framework of ideal fluid hydrodynamics. It is shown that vortex structures may arise in convectively unstable atmospheric layers containing background vorticity. From an exact analytical vortex solution the vertical vorticity structure and toroidal speed are derived and analyzed. The assumption that vorticity is constant with height leads to a solution that grows explosively when the flow is inviscid. The results shown are in agreement with observations and laboratory experiments

  3. Numerical Simulation of Protoplanetary Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H.; Barranco, J. A.; Marcus, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    The fluid dynamics within a protoplanetary disk has been attracting the attention of many researchers for a few decades. Previous works include, to list only a few among many others, the well-known prescription of Shakura & Sunyaev, the convective and instability study of Stone & Balbus and Hawley et al., the Rossby wave approach of Lovelace et al., as well as a recent work by Klahr & Bodenheimer, which attempted to identify turbulent flow within the disk. The disk is commonly understood to be a thin gas disk rotating around a central star with differential rotation (the Keplerian velocity), and the central quest remains as how the flow behavior deviates (albeit by a small amount) from a strong balance established between gravitational and centrifugal forces, transfers mass and momentum inward, and eventually forms planetesimals and planets. In earlier works we have briefly described the possible physical processes involved in the disk; we have proposed the existence of long-lasting, coherent vortices as an efficient agent for mass and momentum transport. In particular, Barranco et al. provided a general mathematical framework that is suitable for the asymptotic regime of the disk; Barranco & Marcus (2000) addressed a proposed vortex-dust interaction mechanism which might lead to planetesimal formation; and Lin et al. (2002), as inspired by general geophysical vortex dynamics, proposed basic mechanisms by which vortices can transport mass and angular momentum. The current work follows up on our previous effort. We shall focus on the detailed numerical implementation of our problem. We have developed a parallel, pseudo-spectral code to simulate the full three-dimensional vortex dynamics in a stably-stratified, differentially rotating frame, which represents the environment of the disk. Our simulation is validated with full diagnostics and comparisons, and we present our results on a family of three-dimensional, coherent equilibrium vortices.

  4. Gluon-propagator functional form in the Landau gauge in SU(3) lattice QCD: Yukawa-type gluon propagator and anomalous gluon spectral function

    SciTech Connect

    Iritani, Takumi; Suganuma, Hideo; Iida, Hideaki

    2009-12-01

    We study the gluon propagator D{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{sup ab}(x) in the Landau gauge in SU(3) lattice QCD at {beta}=5.7, 5.8, and 6.0 at the quenched level. The effective gluon mass is estimated as 400-600 MeV for r{identical_to}(x{sub {alpha}}x{sub {alpha}}){sup 1/2}=0.5-1.0 fm. Through the functional-form analysis of D{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{sup ab}(x) obtained in lattice QCD, we find that the Landau-gauge gluon propagator D{sub {mu}}{sub {mu}}{sup aa}(r) is well described by the Yukawa-type function e{sup -mr}/r with m{approx_equal}600 MeV for r=0.1-1.0 fm in the four-dimensional Euclidean space-time. In the momentum space, the gluon propagator D-tilde{sub {mu}}{sub {mu}}{sup aa}(p{sup 2}) with (p{sup 2}){sup 1/2}=0.5-3 GeV is found to be well approximated with a new-type propagator of (p{sup 2}+m{sup 2}){sup -3/2}, which corresponds to the four-dimensional Yukawa-type propagator. Associated with the Yukawa-type gluon propagator, we derive analytical expressions for the zero-spatial-momentum propagator D{sub 0}(t), the effective mass M{sub eff}(t), and the spectral function {rho}({omega}) of the gluon field. The mass parameter m turns out to be the effective gluon mass in the infrared region of {approx}1 fm. As a remarkable fact, the obtained gluon spectral function {rho}({omega}) is almost negative definite for {omega}>m, except for a positive {delta}-functional peak at {omega}=m.

  5. Quantized vortices around wavefront nodes, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschfelder, J. O.; Goebel, C. J.; Bruch, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    Quantized vortices can occur around nodal points in wavefunctions. The derivation depends only on the wavefunction being single valued, continuous, and having continuous first derivatives. Since the derivation does not depend upon the dynamical equations, the quantized vortices are expected to occur for many types of waves such as electromagnetic and acoustic. Such vortices have appeared in the calculations of the H + H2 molecular collisions and play a role in the chemical kinetics. In a companion paper, it is shown that quantized vortices occur when optical waves are internally reflected from the face of a prism or particle beams are reflected from potential energy barriers.

  6. Elliptic vortices in composite Mathieu lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Fangwei; Mihalache, Dumitru; Hu Bambi

    2009-05-15

    We address the elliptically shaped vortex solitons in defocusing nonlinear media imprinted with a composite Mathieu lattice. Elliptic vortices feature anisotropic patterns both in intensity and phase, and can only exist when their energy flows exceed some certain threshold. Single-charged elliptic vortices are found to arise via bifurcation from dipole modes, which is an example in the context of optics studies of symmetry breaking bifurcations for the phase dislocations of different dimensionalities. Higher-order elliptic vortices with topological charge S could exhibit spatially separated S single-charged phase singularities, leading to their stabilization. The salient features of reported elliptic vortices qualitatively hold for other elliptic shaped confining potentials.

  7. Compact Chern-Simons vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.

    2017-09-01

    We introduce and investigate new models of the Chern-Simons type in the three-dimensional spacetime, focusing on the existence of compact vortices. The models are controlled by potentials driven by a single real parameter that can be used to change the profile of the vortex solutions as they approach their boundary values. One of the models unveils an interesting new behavior, the tendency to make the vortex compact, as the parameter increases to larger and larger values. We also investigate the behavior of the energy density and calculate the total energy numerically.

  8. On flows having constant vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Paul H.; Wu, Cheng-Chin

    2011-10-01

    Constant vorticity flows of a uniform fluid in a rigid ellipsoidal container rotating at a variable rate are considered. These include librationally driven and precessionally driven flows. The well-known Poincaré solution for precessionally driven flow in a spheroid is generalized to an ellipsoid with unequal principal axes. The dynamic stability of these flows is investigated, and of other flows in which the angular velocity of the container is constant in time. Solutions for the Chandler wobble are discussed. The role of an invariant, called here the Helmholtzian, is examined.

  9. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha; Jia, Han; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-08-15

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  10. From gluon topology to chiral anomaly: Emergent phenomena in quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jinfeng

    2017-01-01

    Heavy-ion collision experiments at RHIC and the LHC have found a new emergent phase of QCD, a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) that is distinctively different from either the low temperature hadron phase or the very high temperature weakly coupled plasma phase. Highly nontrivial emergent phenomena occur in such sQGP and two examples will be discussed in this contribution: the magnetic component of sQGP that stems from topologically nontrivial configurations in the gluon sector; and the anomalous chiral transport that arises as macroscopic manifestation of microscopic chiral anomaly in the quark sector. For both examples, their important roles in explaining pertinent heavy-ion data will be emphasized.

  11. Quarkonium decays: Testing the 3-gluon vertex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, K.; Streng, K. H.; Walsh, T. F.; Zerwas, P. M.

    1981-12-01

    We study the 3-jet decays of S- and P-wave quarkonia with C=+. If observed, some of these will offer a way of seeing the 3G vertex of QCD via 1S 0, 3P 0, 3P 2(Q overlineQ) → GGG + Gq overlineq → 3 jets. (As is well-known, cancellations reduce 3P1( Q overlineQ)→ GGG.) We elaborate in detail the S-wave decay, as it is expected to show all the characteristic features of orthoquarkonium decays into 4 jets, 3S 1(Q overlineQ) → GGGG + GGq overlineq → 4 jets, which we will comment upon. These quarkonium decays offer a very clear signal for QCD as a non-abelian local gauge field theory with color-charged gluons.

  12. The gluon contribution to nucleon spin

    SciTech Connect

    Antje Bruell

    2006-04-06

    EIC is the ideal machine to finally determine the contribution of the gluons to the nucleon spin. Measurements of G{sub 1} will allow: (1) a determination of {Delta}G/G from its scaling violation and (2) a statistically very precise determination of the Bjorken Sum (systematics due to uncertainty in proton beam polarization). Measurements of charm cross section asymmetries will provide a precise determination of {Delta}G/G for 0.003 < x < 0.5 at a fixed value of Q{sup 2} of {approx} GeV{sup 2} provided they can measure the scattered electron at extremely small angles; separate the primary and secondary vertex with sufficient precision; and control the contribution of resolved photons. More work is needed to define the necessary detector requirements.

  13. Anomalous gluon content of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    The proton matrix element of the flavor singlet axial current is evaluated using the large Nc chiral dynamics satisfying the anomalous Ward-Takahashi identities. We relate the quark and gluon contributions ( Δq and Δg) of the matrix element to the nucleon-meson ( η, η', π0) pseudo-scalar coupling constants. It is shown that the weak η'-nucleon coupling is preferred to reproduce the recent EMC data. The origin of the anomalous value of Δg pointed out by Cheng and Li is clarified in the context of the large isospin violation due to the anomaly. A subtlety related to the matrix element of the gauge-variant topological current Kμ is also discussed.

  14. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  15. Check of the gluon-reggeization condition in the next-to-leading order: Gluon part

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, M. G. Reznichenko, A. V. Fadin, V. S.

    2012-04-15

    The last bootstrap condition whose validity has not been verified to date is considered. This condition is an indispensable element in the unitarity-relation-based proof of themulti-Regge form of highenergy gluon-exchange QCD amplitudes in the next-to-leading-logarithm approximation. The approach used here relies on the s-channel unitarity and makes it possible to reproduce successively, in all orders of perturbation theory, themulti-Regge form of the amplitude, provided that specific nonlinear relations, called bootstrap conditions, hold. All of them were derived, and all, with the exception of one, were tested. An explicit verification of fulfillment of the last condition (the bootstrap condition for the inelastic amplitude of the production of one gluon inmulti-Regge kinematics) is performed. In our preceding study, we performed such a verification for purely fermion contributions, while, in the present study, we complete it for one-loop gluon corrections to the components of the condition being considered.

  16. Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Murchikova, Elena

    2017-06-01

    In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, liquid helium 3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.

  17. Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids

    DOE PAGES

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Murchikova, Elena

    2017-03-24

    In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium 3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. Here, we study first-order hy-drodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiralmore » magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We also demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.« less

  18. Gluon fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong-Jing; Li, Hsiang-nan

    2016-09-01

    We derive gluon fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model by treating a gluon as a pair of color lines formed by a fictitious quark and antiquark (q q ¯). Gluon elementary fragmentation functions are obtained from the quark and antiquark elementary fragmentation functions for emitting specific mesons in the NJL model under the requirement that the q q ¯ pair maintains in the flavor-singlet state after meson emissions. An integral equation, which iterates the gluon elementary fragmentation functions to all orders, is then solved to yield the gluon fragmentation functions at a model scale. It is observed that these solutions are stable with respect to variation of relevant model parameters, especially after QCD evolution to a higher scale is implemented. We show that the inclusion of the gluon fragmentation functions into the theoretical predictions from only the quark fragmentation functions greatly improves the agreement with the SLD data for the pion and kaon productions in e+e- annihilation. Our proposal provides a plausible construct for the gluon fragmentation functions, which are supposed to be null in the NJL model.

  19. Dissociation of heavy quarkonia in the quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2002-09-01

    Using a temperature-dependent potential obtained from lattice gauge calculations of Karsch et al, we study the stability of heavy quarkonia in the quark-gluon plasma. We find that only the Υ(1S) and ηb(1S) are bound in the quark-gluon plasma, and have a small binding energy. The quark-gluon plasma may be revealed by an Υ(1S) dilepton peak with an invariant mass close to twice the current b quark mass, which is lower than the Υ(1S) mass in free space. The quarkonia Υ(1S) and ηb(1S) can dissociate by collision with quarks and gluons in the quark-gluon plasma. The Υ(1S) and the ηb(1S) can also dissociate spontaneously at temperatures above the dissociation temperature 1.11 Tc, where Tc is the quark-gluon plasma phase transition temperature. At temperatures slightly above the dissociation temperature these states appear as resonances, which provides another signature for the quark-gluon plasma.

  20. Flute vortices in nonuniform magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.Y.; Shukla, P.K.; Varma, R.K.

    1985-09-01

    Localized double vortices associated with the flute modes are shown to exist. Special emphasis is given to the effect of the convective variation of the fluid magnetic moment. It is shown that the latter effect considerably modifies the existence regions of the vortices.

  1. Nonquasineutral electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Angus, J. R.; Richardson, A. S.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.; Ottinger, P. F.

    2014-11-15

    Electron vortices are observed in the numerical simulation of current carrying plasmas on fast time scales where the ion motion can be ignored. In plasmas with nonuniform density n, vortices drift in the B × ∇n direction with a speed that is on the order of the Hall speed. This provides a mechanism for magnetic field penetration into a plasma. Here, we consider strong vortices with rotation speeds V{sub ϕ} close to the speed of light c where the vortex size δ is on the order of the magnetic Debye length λ{sub B}=|B|/4πen and the vortex is thus nonquasineutral. Drifting vortices are typically studied using the electron magnetohydrodynamic model (EMHD), which ignores the displacement current and assumes quasineutrality. However, these assumptions are not strictly valid for drifting vortices when δ ≈ λ{sub B}. In this paper, 2D electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas are studied for the first time using a fully electromagnetic, collisionless fluid code. Relatively large amplitude oscillations with periods that correspond to high frequency extraordinary modes are observed in the average drift speed. The drift speed W is calculated by averaging the electron velocity field over the vorticity. Interestingly, the time-averaged W from these simulations matches very well with W from the much simpler EMHD simulations even for strong vortices with order unity charge density separation.

  2. Vertical vorticity at a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Paul W.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of surface vorticity is developed as a necessary consequence of the discontinuity of flow at the fluid surface. The construct provides the proper boundary conditions for a vortex-dynamical description of surface waves. It is shown that the perturbed free surface in general possesses vertical vorticity, even when the underlying flow is irrotational and the fluid is ideal. This resolves a paradox pointed out by Umeki, who discovered irrotational surface waves with surface rotation in the horizontal plane. A dynamical equation for vertical vorticity at the free surface is derived and interpreted physically. The traditional idea that vortex lines terminate at fluid boundaries is shown to be unphysical and is amended to include surface vorticity. The extension of vertical surface vorticity into the bulk is connected with particular topological structures, such as plughole vortices, breaking waves, and Klein's Kaffeelöffel. This analysis generalizes boundary-layer vorticity theory to the free surface in the ideal limit. The analogy between surface vorticity on an ideal liquid and sheet currents at the surface of a superconductor is described. Work done as a Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University.

  3. Dynamics of Vorticity Defects in Stratified Shear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-19

    conserved quantities - Casimirs . For 2D homogeneous fluid any functional of vorticity is a conserved quantity. Enstrophy - a representative of vortex...conserved. For stratified ‘defects’ one instead has the any functional of buoyancy and product of vorticity with any buoyancy functional as the Casimirs

  4. Nonquasineutral electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, J. R.; Richardson, A. S.; Ottinger, P. F.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.

    2014-11-01

    Electron vortices are observed in the numerical simulation of current carrying plasmas on fast time scales where the ion motion can be ignored. In plasmas with nonuniform density n, vortices drift in the B × ∇n direction with a speed that is on the order of the Hall speed. This provides a mechanism for magnetic field penetration into a plasma. Here, we consider strong vortices with rotation speeds Vϕ close to the speed of light c where the vortex size δ is on the order of the magnetic Debye length λB=|B |/4 πe n and the vortex is thus nonquasineutral. Drifting vortices are typically studied using the electron magnetohydrodynamic model (EMHD), which ignores the displacement current and assumes quasineutrality. However, these assumptions are not strictly valid for drifting vortices when δ ≈ λB. In this paper, 2D electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas are studied for the first time using a fully electromagnetic, collisionless fluid code. Relatively large amplitude oscillations with periods that correspond to high frequency extraordinary modes are observed in the average drift speed. The drift speed W is calculated by averaging the electron velocity field over the vorticity. Interestingly, the time-averaged W from these simulations matches very well with W from the much simpler EMHD simulations even for strong vortices with order unity charge density separation.

  5. One-loop amplitudes of gluons in supersymmetric QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Britto, Ruth; Buchbinder, Evgeny; Cachazo, Freddy; Feng Bo

    2005-09-15

    One-loop amplitudes of gluons in supersymmetric Yang-Mills are four-dimensional cut-constructible. This means that they can be determined from their unitarity cuts. We present a new systematic procedure to explicitly carry out any finite unitarity cut integral. The procedure naturally separates the contributions from bubble, triangle and box scalar integrals. This technique allows the systematic calculation of N=1 amplitudes of gluons. As an application we compute all next-to-MHV six-gluon amplitudes in N=1 super-Yang-Mills.

  6. Quark-gluon vertex model and lattice-QCD data

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, M.S.; Tandy, P.C.

    2004-11-01

    A model for the dressed-quark-gluon vertex, at zero gluon momentum, is formed from a nonperturbative extension of the two Feynman diagrams that contribute at one loop in perturbation theory. The required input is an existing ladder-rainbow model Bethe-Salpeter kernel from an approach based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations; no new parameters are introduced. The model includes an Ansatz for the triple-gluon vertex. Two of the three vertex amplitudes from the model provide a pointwise description of the recent quenched-lattice-QCD data. An estimate of the effects of quenching is made.

  7. Heavy Flavour Production as Probe of Gluon Sivers Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, Rohini M.; Kaushik, Abhiram; Misra, Anuradha; Rawoot, Vaibhav; Sonawane, Bipin

    2017-03-01

    Heavy flavour production like J/ψ and D-meson production in scattering of electrons/unpolarized protons off polarized proton target offer promising probes to investigate gluon Sivers function. In this talk, I will summarize our recent work on transverse single spin asymmetry in J/ψ -production and D-meson production in p p^\\uparrow scattering using a generalized parton model approach. We compare predictions obtained using different models of gluon Sivers function within this approach and then, taking into account the transverse momentum dependent evolution of the unpolarized parton distribution functions and gluon Sivers function, we study the effect of evolution on asymmetry.

  8. Cyclonic Vortices in Polar Airmasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Businger, Steven

    Cyclonic vortices in polar airmasses are investigated to determine their storm-scale and mesoscale structures and the nature of the environments conducive to their formation. Case studies of polar low outbreaks show that the environments conducive to the development of strong polar lows include deep outflow of arctic air over open water and a broad closed-low aloft. Once favorable environmental conditions for the formation of polar lows have developed, several storms may form in close proximity to each other during a relatively short time interval. Furthermore, these conditions may persist for several days. To develope a climatology of the synoptic environments conducive to the formation of polar lows, NMC gridded data were composited. The results reveal the presence of significant negative anomalies in the temperature and height fields at the 500 mb level on the days when mature polar lows were present, indicating the presence of strong positive vorticity and low static stability over the area. Aircraft observations made during the 1984 FOX field study indicate that convection in an incipient comma cloud was organized into distinct rainbands ((TURN)50 km wavelength), with tops extending to the tropopause. Equivalent -potential vorticity, computed from cross sections of the dropwindsonde data, showed that the region in which the convective activity was embedded was unstable to moist -symmetric overturnings. As the comma cloud approached a pre-existing polar front, a wave cyclone rapidly developed on the front. Surface data showed unexpectedly strong winds and heavy rain squalls when the comma cloud passed Juneau. Comprehensive data sets were collected in two comma cloud systems during CYCLES. Rainbands, with a wavelength of (TURN)50 km, were present in both comma-cloud systems. Precipitation cores, produced by embedded convection within the rainbands contained updraft speeds of (TURN)1-2 m s('-1) and relatively high liquid water counts; they retained their

  9. Manipulation of vortices by magnetic domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goa, P. E.; Hauglin, H.; Olsen, A.˚. A. F.; Shantsev, D.; Johansen, T. H.

    2003-01-01

    In a type-II superconductor, the magnetic field penetrates in the form of thin filaments called vortices. The controlled behavior of these vortices may provide the basis for a new generation of nanodevices. We present here a series of experiments showing simultaneous manipulation and imaging of individual vortices in a NbSe2 single crystal. The magnetic field from a Bloch wall in a ferrite garnet film (FGF) is used to manipulate the vortices. High-resolution magneto-optical imaging enables real-time observation of the vortex positions using the Faraday effect in the same FGF. Depending on the thickness of the sample, the vortices are either swept away or merely bent with the Bloch wall.

  10. Electrothermal blinking vortices for chaotic mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loire, Sophie; Kauffmann, Paul; Gimenez, Paul; Meinhart, Carl; Mezic, Igor

    2012-11-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of electrothermal chaotic mixing using blinking of asymmetric 2D electrothermal vortices. Electrothermal flows are modelled with 2D finite element method using COMSOL software based on an enhanced electrothermal model. Velocities in top-view and side-view devices are measured by micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV). The experimentally reconstructed velocity profile shows a dramatic asymmetry between the two vortices, in good agreement with the FEM model. The separation line between the two vortices is shifted and tilted making the blinking vortices overlap. We use the mix-variance coefficient (MVC) on experimental particle detection data and numerical trajectory simulations to evaluate mixing at different scales including the layering of fluid interfaces by the flow, a keypoint for efficient mixing. The blinking vortices method greatly improve mixing efficiency. Theoretical, experimental and simulation results of the mixing process will be presented.

  11. Relative equilibria of vortices in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Palmore, J I

    1982-01-01

    An old problem of the evolution of finitely many interacting point vortices in the plane is shown to be amenable to investigation by critical point theory in a way that is identical to the study of the planar n-body problem of celestial mechanics. For any choice of positive circulations of the vortices it is shown by critical point theory applied to Kirchhoff's function that there are many relative equilibria configurations. Each of these configurations gives rise to a stationary configuration of the vortices in a suitably chosen rotating coordinate system. A sharp lower bound on the number of stationary vortex configurations for the problem of point vortices interacting in the plane is given. The problem of point vortices in a circular disk is defined and it is shown that these estimates hold for stationary configurations of small size.

  12. What causes Mars' annular polar vortices?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.; Guzewich, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    A distinctive feature of the Martian atmosphere is that the winter polar vortices exhibit annuli of high potential vorticity (PV) with a local minimum near the pole. These annuli are seen in observations, reanalyses, and free-running general circulation model simulations of Mars, but are not generally a feature of Earth's polar vortices, where there is a monotonic increase in magnitude of PV with latitude. The creation and maintenance of the annular polar vortices on Mars are not well understood. Here we use simulations with a Martian general circulation model to the show that annular vortices are related to another distinctive, and possibly unique in the solar system, feature of the Martian atmosphere: the condensation of the predominant atmospheric gas species (CO2) in polar winter regions. The latent heat associated with CO2 condensation leads to destruction of PV in the polar lower atmosphere, inducing the formation of an annular PV structure.

  13. Vorticity generation by contoured wall injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waitz, I.A.; Marble, F.E.; Zukoski, E.E. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena )

    1992-07-01

    A class of contoured wall fuel injectors was designed to enable shock-enhancement of hypervelocity mixing for supersonic combustion ramjet applications. Previous studies of these geometries left unresolved questions concerning the relative importance of various axial vorticity sources in mixing the injectant with the freestream. The present study is a numerical simulation of two generic fuel injectors which is aimed at elucidating the relative roles of axial vorticity sources including: baroclinic torque through shock-impingement, cross-stream shear, turning of boundary layer vorticity, shock curvature, and diffusive flux. Both the magnitude of the circulation, and the location of vorticity with respect to the mixing interface were considered. Baroclinic torque and cross-stream shear were found to be most important in convectively mixing the injectant with the freestream, with the former providing for deposition of vorticity directly on the fuel/air interface. 19 refs.

  14. Vorticity generation by contoured wall injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.; Marble, Frank E.; Zukoski, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    A class of contoured wall fuel injectors was designed to enable shock-enhancement of hypervelocity mixing for supersonic combustion ramjet applications. Previous studies of these geometries left unresolved questions concerning the relative importance of various axial vorticity sources in mixing the injectant with the freestream. The present study is a numerical simulation of two generic fuel injectors which is aimed at elucidating the relative roles of axial vorticity sources including: baroclinic torque through shock-impingement, cross-stream shear, turning of boundary layer vorticity, shock curvature, and diffusive flux. Both the magnitude of the circulation, and the location of vorticity with respect to the mixing interface were considered. Baroclinic torque and cross-stream shear were found to be most important in convectively mixing the injectant with the freestream, with the former providing for deposition of vorticity directly on the fuel/air interface.

  15. Twist Helicity in Classical Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeler, Martin W.; Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Irvine, William T. M.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experimental work has demonstrated that a partial measure of fluid Helicity (the sum of linking and writhing of vortex tubes) is conserved even as those vortices undergo topology changing reconnections. Measuring the total Helicity, however, requires additional information about how the vortex lines are locally twisted inside the vortex core. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel technique for experimentally measuring twist Helicity. Using this method, we are able to measure the production and eventual decay of twist for a variety of vortex evolutions. Remarkably, we observe twist dynamics capable of conserving total Helicity even in the presence of rapidly changing writhe. This work was supported by the NSF MRSEC shared facilities at the University of Chicago (DMR-0820054) and an NSF CAREER award (DMR-1351506). W.T.M.I. further acknowledges support from the A.P. Sloan Foundation and the Packard Foundation.

  16. Exchange-biased magnetic vortices.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, A.; Sort, J.; Buchanan, K. S.; Nogues, J.; Inst. Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviews our work on the interplay between exchange bias due to the coupling of a ferromagnet to an antiferromagnet and the formation of magnetic vortices, which occur due to the patterning of a ferromagnet. Depending on the thermal and magnetic history, a variety of different effects can be observed. Thermal annealing in a saturating magnetic field establishes a spatially homogeneous exchange bias with a uniform unidirectional anisotropy. This results in an angular dependence of the magnetization reversal mode, which can be either via magnetization rotation or vortex nucleation and annihilation. In contrast, thermal annealing in a field smaller than the vortex annihilation field imprints the ferromagnetic vortex configuration in the antiferromagnet with high fidelity resulting in unusual asymmetric hysteresis loops. Furthermore, we discuss how the interfacial nature of the exchange bias can modify the vortex magnetization along the thickness of the ferromagnet.

  17. Dynamical vortices in superfluid films

    SciTech Connect

    Arovas, D.P.; Freire, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The coupling of superfluid film to a moving vortex is a gauge coupling entirely dictated by topology. From the definition of a linking number, one can define a gauge field scr(A){sup {mu}}, whose (2+1)-dimensional curl is the vortex three-current J{sup {mu}}, and to which the superfluid is minimally coupled. We compute the superfluid density and current response to a moving vortex. Exploiting the analogy to (2+1)-dimensional electrodynamics, we compute the effective vortex mass M({omega}) and find that it is logarithmically divergent in the {omega}{r_arrow}0 limit, with a constant imaginary part, yielding a super-Ohmic dissipation in the presence of an oscillating superflow. Numerical integration of the nonlinear Schr{umlt o}dinger equation supports these conclusions. The interaction of vortices with impurities coupling to the density also is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Generation and Growth of Single Hairpin Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Haidari, Ahmad

    The behavior of selectively generated single hairpin vortices are examined within a laminar boundary layer environment over a range of Reynolds numbers, the hairpin vortices are experimentally generated by means of controlled fluid injection from a streamwise slot. Flow visualization using both dye and hydrogen bubble wire is employed in conjunction with hot film anemometry to investigate the growth characteristics and evolution of these single hairpin vortices. Qualitatively, it is established that hairpin vortices form by local destabilization at the interface between the low-speed fluid introduced through the slot and the higher speed boundary layer flow. Kinematical considerations of the hairpin vortex are established. It is observed that a hairpin vortex generally displays visualization and velocity signatures characteristic of those observed for a turbulent boundary layer. Hydrogen-bubble wire visualization results specifically indicate that hairpin vortices generate two purely turbulent-like flow patterns. The first is a low-speed streak pattern developing immediately adjacent to the surface due to surface interaction by the counter -rotating legs of the hairpin vortex; the second pattern is a turbulent pocket-like pattern farther removed from the surface. It is determined from the visualization data that hairpin vortices manifest the necessary flow characteristics which give rise to the regenerative and sustained process required for maintenance of turbulence. The regeneration and the growth process takes place through the formation of similar hairpin-like vortices by one of two means. The first is an inviscid lateral propagation of the initial disturbance which gives rise to outboard (subsidiary), vortices which cause the lateral spreading of the structure. A more complicated and eruptive process occurs by means of viscous-inviscid interactions which give rise to trailing vortices (secondary), which cause the streamwise elongation of the disturbance. A

  19. Probing the Gluon Self-Interaction in Light Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Christian S.; Williams, Richard

    2009-09-18

    We investigate masses and decay constants of light mesons from a coupled system of Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. We explicitly take into account dominant non-Abelian contributions to the dressed quark-gluon vertex stemming from the gluon self-interaction. We construct the corresponding Bethe-Salpeter kernel that satisfies the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity. Our numerical treatment fully includes all momentum dependencies with all equations solved completely in the complex plane. This approach goes well beyond the rainbow-ladder approximation and permits us to investigate the influence of the gluon self-interaction on the properties of mesons. As a first result we find indications of a nonperturbative cancellation of the gluon self-interaction contributions and pion cloud effects in the mass of the rho meson.

  20. Gluon TMD in particle production from low to moderate x

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, I.; Tarasov, A.

    2016-06-28

    We study the rapidity evolution of gluon transverse momentum dependent distributions appearing in processes of particle production and show how this evolution changes from small to moderate Bjorken x.

  1. The gluon condensation at high energy hadron collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Lan, Jiangshan

    2017-03-01

    We report that the saturation/CGC model of gluon distribution is unstable under action of the chaotic solution in a nonlinear QCD evolution equation, and it evolves to the distribution with a sharp peak at the critical momentum. We find that this gluon condensation is caused by a new kind of shadowing-antishadowing effects, and it leads to a series of unexpected effects in high energy hadron collisions including astrophysical events. For example, the extremely intense fluctuations in the transverse-momentum and rapidity distributions of the gluon jets present the gluon-jet bursts; a sudden increase of the proton-proton cross sections may fill the GZK suppression; the blocking QCD evolution will restrict the maximum available energy of the hadron-hadron colliders.

  2. Rapidity evolution of gluon TMD from low to moderate x

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian; Tarasov, A.

    2015-10-05

    In this article, we study how the rapidity evolution of gluon transverse momentum dependent distribution changes from nonlinear evolution at small $x \\ll 1$ to linear evolution at moderate $x \\sim 1$.

  3. Probing the gluon self-interaction in light mesons.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christian S; Williams, Richard

    2009-09-18

    We investigate masses and decay constants of light mesons from a coupled system of Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. We explicitly take into account dominant non-Abelian contributions to the dressed quark-gluon vertex stemming from the gluon self-interaction. We construct the corresponding Bethe-Salpeter kernel that satisfies the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity. Our numerical treatment fully includes all momentum dependencies with all equations solved completely in the complex plane. This approach goes well beyond the rainbow-ladder approximation and permits us to investigate the influence of the gluon self-interaction on the properties of mesons. As a first result we find indications of a nonperturbative cancellation of the gluon self-interaction contributions and pion cloud effects in the mass of the rho meson.

  4. Time evolution of the quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, F. |

    1993-03-01

    We review progress in our understanding the production and time evolution of the quark gluon plasma starting with boost invariant initial conditions in a filed theory model based on the Schwinger mechanism of particle production via tunneling.

  5. Nonperturbative structure of the photon and gluon propagators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowdon, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The nonperturbative structure of the photon and gluon propagators plays an important role in governing the dynamics of quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD), respectively. Although it is often assumed that these interacting field propagators can be decomposed into longitudinal and transverse components, as for the free case, it turns out that in general this is not possible. Moreover, the non-Abelian gauge symmetry of QCD permits the momentum space gluon propagator to contain additional singular terms involving derivatives of δ (p ), the appearance of which is related to confinement. Despite the possibility of the failure of the transverse-longitudinal decomposition for the photon and gluon propagators, and the appearance of singular terms in the gluon propagator, the Slavnov-Taylor identity nevertheless remains preserved.

  6. Rapidity evolution of gluon TMD from low to moderate x

    DOE PAGES

    Balitsky, Ian; Tarasov, A.

    2015-10-05

    In this article, we study how the rapidity evolution of gluon transverse momentum dependent distribution changes from nonlinear evolution at smallmore » $$x \\ll 1$$ to linear evolution at moderate $$x \\sim 1$$.« less

  7. Resummation and the gluon damping rate in hot QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1990-08-01

    At high temperature a consistent perturbative expansion requires the resummation of an infinite subset of loop corrections into an effective expansion. This effective exansion is used to compute the gluon damping rate at leading order. 25 refs.

  8. Gluon condensate, Wilson loops and gauge/string duality

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Oleg; Zakharov, Valentin I.

    2007-08-15

    We test gauge/string duality by evaluating expectation values of small Wilson loops in pure Yang-Mills theories. On the gauge theory side, there exists a rich phenomenology. The dual formulation provides a universal language to evaluate the gluon condensate and quadratic correction in terms of the metric in the fifth coordinate. Quantitatively, the estimated value of the gluon condensate is approximately 0.010 GeV{sup 4}.

  9. Accessing the Distribution of Linearly Polarized Gluons in Unpolarized Hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Daniel; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian; /Cagliari U. /INFN, Cagliari

    2011-08-19

    Gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be linearly polarized provided they have a nonzero transverse momentum. The simplest and theoretically safest way to probe this distribution of linearly polarized gluons is through cos2{phi} asymmetries in heavy quark pair or dijet production in electron-hadron collisions. Future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) or Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) experiments are ideally suited for this purpose. Here we estimate the maximum asymmetries for EIC kinematics.

  10. Massive quark-gluon scattering amplitudes at tree level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Results for four-, five-, and six-parton tree amplitudes for massive quark-antiquark scattering with gluons are calculated using the recursion relations of Britto, Cachazo, Feng, and Witten. The required diagrams are generated using shifts of the momenta of a pair of massless legs to complex values. Checks verifying the calculations are described, and a simple formula for the shifted spinors of an internal gluon is presented.

  11. Soft gluons away from jets: distribution and correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsar, Emil; Hatta, Yoshitaka; Matsuo, Toshihiro

    2009-06-01

    Recently, an exact conformal mapping between soft gluons emitted from jets at large angle in e+e--annihilation and those in the BFKL evolution of a high energy hadron has been proposed. We elucidate some remarkable aspects of this correspondence and use them to analytically compute the distribution and correlation of gluons in the interjet region. We also establish the timelike counterpart of Mueller's dipole model and discuss the resulting linear and nonlinear evolution equations.

  12. Schwinger-Dyson Equations and Dynamical gluon mass generation

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A.C.; Natale, A.A.

    2004-12-02

    We obtain a solution for the gluon propagador in Landau gauge within two distinct approximations for the Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDE). The first, named Mandelstam's approximation, consist in neglecting all contributions that come from fermions and ghosts fields while in the second, the ghosts fields are taken into account leading to a coupled system of integral equations. In both cases we show that a dynamical mass for the gluon propagator can arise as a solution.

  13. Unquenching effects in the quark and gluon propagator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamleh, Waseem; Bowman, Patrick O.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; Zhang, Jianbo

    2007-11-01

    In this work we examine the fat-link irrelevant clover (FLIC) overlap quark propagator and the gluon propagator on both dynamical and quenched lattices. The tadpole-improved Luscher-Weisz gauge action is used in both cases. The dynamical gauge fields use the FLIC fermion action for the sea quark contribution. We observe that the presence of sea quarks causes a suppression of the mass function, quark renormalization function, and gluon dressing function in the infrared. The ultraviolet physics is unaffected.

  14. Study of leading hadrons in gluon and quark fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G. J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Johansson, P. D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.; Delphi Collaboration

    2006-12-01

    The study of quark jets in e+e- reactions at LEP has demonstrated that the hadronisation process is reproduced well by the Lund string model. However, our understanding of gluon fragmentation is less complete. In this study enriched quark and gluon jet samples of different purities are selected in three-jet events from hadronic decays of the Z collected by the DELPHI experiment in the LEP runs during 1994 and 1995. The leading systems of the two kinds of jets are defined by requiring a rapidity gap and their sum of charges is studied. An excess of leading systems with total charge zero is found for gluon jets in all cases, when compared to Monte Carlo simulations with JETSET (with and without Bose-Einstein correlations included) and ARIADNE. The corresponding leading systems of quark jets do not exhibit such an excess. The influence of the gap size and of the gluon purity on the effect is studied and a concentration of the excess of neutral leading systems at low invariant masses (≲ 2 GeV /c2) is observed, indicating that gluon jets might have an additional hitherto undetected fragmentation mode via a two-gluon system. This could be an indication of a possible production of gluonic states as predicted by QCD.

  15. Study of leading hadrons in gluon and quark fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DELPHI Collaboration; Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G. J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Johansson, P. D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2006-12-01

    The study of quark jets in ee reactions at LEP has demonstrated that the hadronisation process is reproduced well by the Lund string model. However, our understanding of gluon fragmentation is less complete. In this study enriched quark and gluon jet samples of different purities are selected in three-jet events from hadronic decays of the Z collected by the DELPHI experiment in the LEP runs during 1994 and 1995. The leading systems of the two kinds of jets are defined by requiring a rapidity gap and their sum of charges is studied. An excess of leading systems with total charge zero is found for gluon jets in all cases, when compared to Monte Carlo simulations with JETSET (with and without Bose Einstein correlations included) and ARIADNE. The corresponding leading systems of quark jets do not exhibit such an excess. The influence of the gap size and of the gluon purity on the effect is studied and a concentration of the excess of neutral leading systems at low invariant masses (≲2 GeV/c) is observed, indicating that gluon jets might have an additional hitherto undetected fragmentation mode via a two-gluon system. This could be an indication of a possible production of gluonic states as predicted by QCD.

  16. Modeling Quark Gluon Plasma Using CHIMERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, Betty

    2011-09-01

    We attempt to model Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) evolution from the initial Heavy Ion collision to the final hadronic gas state by combining the Glauber model initial state conditions with eccentricity fluctuations, pre-equilibrium flow, UVH2+1 viscous hydrodynamics with lattice QCD Equation of State (EoS), a modified Cooper-Frye freeze-out and the UrQMD hadronic cascade. We then evaluate the model parameters using a comprehensive analytical framework which together with the described model we call CHIMERA. Within our framework, the initial state parameters, such as the initial temperature (Tinit), presence or absence of initial flow, viscosity over entropy density (η/S) and different Equations of State (EoS), are varied and then compared simultaneously to several experimental data observables: HBT radii, particle spectra and particle flow. χ2/nds values from comparison to the experimental data for each set of initial parameters will then used to find the optimal description of the QGP with parameters that are difficult to obtain experimentally, but are crucial to understanding of the matter produced.

  17. Inflating metastable quark-gluon plasma universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkovszky, L.

    The cosmic evolution of our universe before and after the assumed confinement phase transition is studied within the homogeneous, isotropic and spatially flat model. The Friedmann equation, describing its evolution is appended by an equation of state (EOS) of the quark-gluon plasma. A specifically interesting feature of this EOS, derived both in the content of the quark model (and quantum chromodynamics) and the S-matrix formulation of statistical mechanics is the presence of a local minimum in the pressure vs. temperature dependence, that may be the origin of the exponential expansion of our universe, called inflation. The conditions necessary for the deep supercooling, accompanied by nucleation in a first-order phase transition, have been investigated. The nucleation rate (and consequently the probability of the deep supercooling indispensable for the inflation) are shown to depend essentially on the surface tension of the created bubbles. The possibility of a "nuclear inflation" - the analogue of the above scenario in heavy ion collisions - is also discussed.

  18. Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-06-01

    We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Au +Au collisions and CERN Large Hadron Collider Pb +Pb collisions by using the hijing model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.

  19. Vortices and turbulence in trapped atomic condensates

    PubMed Central

    White, Angela C.; Anderson, Brian P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-01-01

    After more than a decade of experiments generating and studying the physics of quantized vortices in atomic gas Bose–Einstein condensates, research is beginning to focus on the roles of vortices in quantum turbulence, as well as other measures of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. Such research directions have the potential to uncover new insights into quantum turbulence, vortices, and superfluidity and also explore the similarities and differences between quantum and classical turbulence in entirely new settings. Here we present a critical assessment of theoretical and experimental studies in this emerging field of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. PMID:24704880

  20. Generation of Vortices in Superconducting Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. M.; Sobnack, M. B.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    We study the nucleation of vortices in a thin mesoscopic superconducting disk and stable configurations of vortices as a function of the disk size, the applied magnetic field H and finite temperature T. We also investigate the stability of different vortex states inside the disk. Further, we compare the predictions from Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory and London theory - the GL equations take the superconducting density into account, but the London equations do not. Our simulations from both theories show similar vortex states. As more vortices are generated, more superconducting regions will be destoryed. The GL Equations consider this effect and provide a more accurate estimate.

  1. Generation of Vortices in Superconducting Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. M.; Sobnack, M. B.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2010-12-01

    We study the nucleation of vortices in a thin mesoscopic superconducting disk and stable configurations of vortices as a function of the disk size, the applied magnetic field H and finite temperature T. We also investigate the stability of different vortex states inside the disk. Further, we compare the predictions from Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory and London theory - the GL equations take the superconducting density into account, but the London equations do not. Our simulations from both theories show similar vortex states. As more vortices are generated, more superconducting regions will be destoryed. The GL Equations consider this effect and provide a more accurate estimate.

  2. Measurement of vorticity diffusion by NMR microscopy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer R; Callaghan, Paul T

    2010-05-01

    In a Newtonian fluid, vorticity diffuses at a rate determined by the kinematic viscosity. Here we use rapid NMR velocimetry, based on a RARE sequence, to image the time-dependent velocity field on startup of a fluid-filled cylinder and therefore measure the diffusion of vorticity. The results are consistent with the solution to the vorticity diffusion equation where the angular velocity on the outside surface of the fluid, at the cylinder's rotating wall, is fixed. This method is a means of measuring kinematic viscosity for low viscosity fluids without the need to measure stress.

  3. Vortices in magnetically coupled superconducting layered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, Roman G.; Kogan, Vladimir G.; Clem, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Pancake vortices in stacks of thin superconducting films or layers are considered. It is stressed that in the absence of Josephson coupling topological restrictions upon possible configurations of vortices are removed and various examples of structures forbidden in bulk superconductors are given. In particular, it is shown that vortices may skip surface layers in samples of less than a certain size R{sub c} which might be macroscopic. The Josephson coupling suppresses R{sub c} estimates. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  4. Velocity-vorticity patterns in turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect

    Pelz, R.B.; Yakhot, V.; Orszag, S.A.; Shtilman, L.; Levich, E.

    1985-06-10

    Direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations is used for the investigation of local helicity fluctuations in plane Poiseuille (channel) and Taylor-Green vortex flows. It is shown that in regions of high dissipation, the cosine of the angle between velocity and vorticity is evenly distributed; in regions of low dissipation, the velocity and vorticity vectors have a tendency to align. It is also shown that near the central part of the channel, velocity and vorticity vectors have a strong tendency to be aligned, while in the buffer region, all angles are nearly equally probable.

  5. Correlations between Abelian monopoles and center vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini Nejad, Seyed Mohsen; Deldar, Sedigheh

    2017-04-01

    We study the correlations between center vortices and Abelian monopoles for SU(3) gauge group. Combining fractional fluxes of monopoles, center vortex fluxes are constructed in the thick center vortex model. Calculating the potentials induced by fractional fluxes constructing the center vortex flux in a thick center vortex-like model and comparing with the potential induced by center vortices, we observe an attraction between fractional fluxes of monopoles constructing the center vortex flux. We conclude that the center vortex flux is stable, as expected. In addition, we show that adding a contribution of the monopole-antimonopole pairs in the potentials induced by center vortices ruins the Casimir scaling at intermediate regime.

  6. SU(4) potentials with two vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Deldar, Sedigheh; Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh

    2007-02-27

    There are three vortices for SU(4) gauge group where two of them are independent. Using both of these vortices in calculating the induced potentials between static sources, we show that the second vortex only affects the potentials at large distances and does not have a significant effect on the intermediate distance potentials and their slopes. The ratio of the probabilities of piercing a plaquette by the two type of vortices may be fixed by the ratio of diquark string tension to the string tension of the quarks in the fundamental representation.

  7. Atmospheric Vortices near Guadalupe Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR images from June 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 2569) demonstrate a turbulent atmospheric flow pattern known as the von Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is named after aerodynamicist Theodore von Karman, who theoretically derived the conditions under which it occurs. The alternating double row of vortices can form in the wake of an obstacle, in this instance the eastern Pacific island of Guadalupe. The rugged terrain of this volcanic Mexican island reaches a maximum elevation of 1.3 kilometers. The island is about 35 kilometers long and is located 260 kilometers west of Baja California.

    The vortex pattern is made visible by the marine stratocumulus clouds around Guadalupe Island. The upper image is a color view obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. North is toward the left. The orientation of the vortex street indicates that the wind direction is from lower left to upper right (northwest to southeast). The areas within the vortex centers tend to be clear because the rotating motions induce a vertical wind component that can break up the cloud deck.

    The lower view is a stereo picture generated from data acquired by MISR's fore- and aft-viewing 70-degree cameras. A 3-D effect is obtained by viewing the image with red/blue glasses and placing the red filter over your left eye. Note how the downwelling atmospheric motion (change in elevation from high to low) is accompanied by a clearing in the center of the first vortex. As the vortices propagate downstream, their rotational velocities weaken. As a consequence, the induced vertical motion and cloud-clearing effect weakens as well.

    Theodore von Karman was a Professor of Aeronautics at Caltech and Director of Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1930-1949. He was one of the principal founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  8. Regional eddy vorticity transport and the equilibrium vorticity budgets of a numerical model ocean circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. E.; Holland, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A mean vorticity budget analysis is presented of Holland's (1978) numerical ocean general circulation experiment. The stable budgets are compared with classical circulation theory to emphasize the ways in which the mesoscale motions of the model alter (or leave unaltered) classical vorticity balances. The basinwide meridional transports of vorticity by the mean flow and by the mesoscale flow in the mean are evaluated to establish the role(s) of the mesoscale in the larger scale equilibrium vorticity transports. The vorticity equation for this model fluid system is presented and the budget analysis method is described. Vorticity budgets over the selected regions and on a larger scale are given, and a summary of budget results is provided along with remarks about the utility of this type of analysis.

  9. Regional eddy vorticity transport and the equilibrium vorticity budgets of a numerical model ocean circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. E.; Holland, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A mean vorticity budget analysis is presented of Holland's (1978) numerical ocean general circulation experiment. The stable budgets are compared with classical circulation theory to emphasize the ways in which the mesoscale motions of the model alter (or leave unaltered) classical vorticity balances. The basinwide meridional transports of vorticity by the mean flow and by the mesoscale flow in the mean are evaluated to establish the role(s) of the mesoscale in the larger scale equilibrium vorticity transports. The vorticity equation for this model fluid system is presented and the budget analysis method is described. Vorticity budgets over the selected regions and on a larger scale are given, and a summary of budget results is provided along with remarks about the utility of this type of analysis.

  10. Gluon-gluon contributions to W+ W- production and Higgs interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John M.; Ellis, R.Keith; Williams, Ciaran

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we complete our re-assessment of the production of W boson pairs at the LHC, by calculating analytic results for the gg {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} {yields} {nu}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}} process including the effect of massive quarks circulating in the loop. Together with the one-loop amplitudes containing the first two generations of massless quarks propagating in the loop, these diagrams can give a significant contribution with a large flux of gluons. One of the component parts of this calculation is the production of a standard model Higgs boson, gg {yields} H and its subsequent decay, H {yields} W{sup +}({yields} {nu}{ell}{sup +})W{sup -}({yields} {ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}). We will quantify the importance of the interference between the Higgs boson production process and the gluon-induced continuum production in the context of searches for the Higgs boson at the Tevatron and the LHC. For instance, for m{sub H} < 140 GeV the effect of the interference typically results in around a 10% reduction in the expected number of Higgs signal events. The majority of this interference is due to non-resonant contributions. Therefore cuts on the transverse mass such as those currently used by the ATLAS collaboration reduce the destructive interference to about a 1% effect. We advocate that a cut on the maximum transverse mass be used in future Higgs searches in this channel.

  11. Knots and Coils in Superfluid Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Scheeler, Martin; Irvine, William T. M.

    2014-11-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that linked and knotted vortices will spontaneously unknot or untie in both classical fluids and superfluids. This effect would appear to jeopardize any notion of conservation of fluid topology (helicity), but this need not be the case: vortices can transfer their knottedness to helical coils, preserving some measure of the original topology. By simulating superfluid vortices in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we find a geometric mechanism for efficiently transferring helicity in exactly this manner. Remarkably, the same transfer of topology to geometry also appears in viscous fluid vortices, suggesting it is a generic feature of non-ideal fluids. This work was supported by the NSF MRSEC shared facilities at the University of Chicago (DMR-0820054) and an NSF CAREER Award (DMR-1351506). W.T.M.I. further acknowledges support from the A.P. Sloan Foundation and the Packard Foundation.

  12. Scattering on two Aharonov-Bohm vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolny, E.

    2016-12-01

    The problem of two Aharonov-Bohm (AB) vortices for the Helmholtz equation is examined in detail. It is demonstrated that the method proposed by Myers (1963 J. Math. Phys. 6 1839) for slit diffraction can be generalised to obtain an explicit solution for AB vortices. Due to the singular nature of AB interaction the Green function and scattering amplitude for two AB vortices obey a series of partial differential equations. Coefficients entering these equations, fulfil ordinary non-linear differential equations whose solutions can be obtained by solving the Painlevé III equation. The asymptotics of necessary functions for very large and very small vortex separations are calculated explicitly. Taken together, this means that the problem of two AB vortices is exactly solvable.

  13. Quantized Vortices in Superfluids and Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouless, D. J.; Ao, Ping; Niu, Qian; Geller, M. R.; Wexler, C.

    We give a general review of recent developments in the theory of vortices in superfluids and superconductors, discussing why the dynamics of vortices is important, and why some key results are still controversial. We discuss work that we have done on the dynamics of quantized vortices in a superfluid. Despite the fact that this problem has been recognized as important for forty years, there is still a lot of controversy about the forces on and masses of quantized vortices. We think that one can get unambiguous answers by considering a broken symmetry state that consists of one vortex in an infinite ideal system. We argue for a Magnus force that is proportional to the superfluid density, and we find that the effective mass density of a vortex in a neutral superfluid is divergent at low frequencies. We have generalized some of the results for a neutral superfluid to a charged system.

  14. Flow Visualization of Artificially Generated Hairpin Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Daniel; Palframan, Mark

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the potential mechanisms for hairpin packet formation in fully turbulent boundary layers, a flow visualization study of artificially generated hairpin vortices in an otherwise laminar boundary layer is performed. The experiments are conducted in a recently constructed free surface water channel at Lafayette College. A new method to artificially generate individual hairpin vortices is employed which utilizes a flexible membrane which is inflated to create transient hemispherical protrusions on a flat plate, zero pressure gradient laminar boundary layer. By controlling the duration of time the membrane protrudes above the wall, a single vortex can be reliably generated. This technique avoids the need for fluid injection in order to ensure uniform particle seeding for subsequent PIV measurements. Multiple generation sites are placed at different streamwise locations to allow hairpins of different maturity to interact. The characteristics of single hairpin vortices will be compared to those described in the literature along with a qualitative analysis of the interaction of two hairpin vortices.

  15. Interactions of coupled acoustic and vortical instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.; Sohn, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    In the past, the acoustic combustion instability was studied independently of the hydrodynamic instability induced by vortex motions. This paper is intended to combine the two different sources of energy everywhere within the spatial domain and determine the effect of one upon the other. This can be achieved by calculating the mean flow velocities and vorticities and their fluctuating parts of velocities and vortices, as well as the fluctuating pressure. The Orr-Sommerfeld equation is utilized to determine the wavenumbers and unsteady stream functions from which vortically coupled acoustic instability growth constants are calculated. This process demonstrates that there are two different frequencies, acoustic and hydrodynamic, various combinations of which contribute to either damping or amplification. It is found that stability boundaries for coupled acoustic and vortical oscillations are somewhat similar to the classical hydrodynamic stability boundaries, but they occur in the form of multiple islands.

  16. Tornadoes and other atmospheric vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The growth of random vortices in an atmosphere with buoyant instability and vertical wind shear is studied along with the velocities in a single gravity-driven vortex; a frictionless adiabatic model which is supported by laboratory experiments is first considered. The effects of axial drag, heat transfer, and precipitation-induced downdrafts are then calculated. Heat transfer and axial drag tend to have stabilizing effects; they reduce the downdrafts of updrafts due to buoyancy. It is found that downdrafts or tornadic magnitude might occur in negatively-buoyant columns. The radial-inflow velocity required to maintain a given maximum tangential velocity in a tornado is determined by using a turbulent vortex model. Conditions under which radial-inflow velocities become sufficiently large to produce tangential velocities of tornadic magnitude are determined. The radial velocities in the outer regions, as well as the tangential velocities in the inner regions may be large enough to cause damage. The surface boundary layer, which is a region where large radial inflows can occur, is studied, and the thickness of the radial-inflow friction layer is estimated. A tornado model which involves a rotating parent cloud, as well as buoyancy and precipitation effects, is discussed.

  17. Vorticity matching in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, David C.

    1991-12-01

    Recent experiments have rekindled interest in high Reynolds number flows using superfluid helium. In a continuing series of experiments, the flow of helium II through various devices (smooth pipes, corrugated pipes, valves, venturies, turbine flowmeters, and coanda flowmeters for example) was investigated. In all cases, the measured values (typically, mass flow rates and pressure drops) were found to be well described by classical relations for high Reynolds flows. This is unexpected since helium II consists of two interpenetrating fluids; one fluid with nonzero viscosity (the normal fluid) and one with zero viscosity (the superfluid). Only the normal fluid component should directly obey classical relations. Since the experiments listed above only measure the external behavior of the flow (i.e., pressure drops over devices), there is a great deal of room for interpretation of their results. One possible interpretation is that in turbulent flows the normal fluid and the superfluid velocity fields are somehow 'locked' together, presumably by the mutual friction force between the superfluid vortex filaments and the normal fluid. We refer to this locking together of the two fluids as 'vorticity matching.'

  18. The motion of helical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Fuentes, Oscar

    2014-11-01

    We study the motion of a helical vortex in an inviscid, incompressible fluid of infinite extent. The vortex is a thin tube, of circular cross section and uniform vorticity, whose centerline is a helix of uniform pitch. Ever since Joukowsky (1912) deduced that this vortex is a steady solution of the Euler equations, numerous attempts have been made to compute its self-induced velocity. Here we use Hardin's (1982) solution for the velocity field in order to compute, for any pitch value, the linear and angular velocities of the vortex. Our formulas were verified by direct numerical integration of both the Biot-Savart and Helmholtz equations, and were also found to compare favourably with previous theoretical results. In terms of the vortex capacity to transport fluid, we identified three regimes: a helix of large pitch moves slowly, carrying a large mass of fluid; a thin helix of small pitch moves fast, carrying a small mass of fluid; and a fat helix of small pitch is a moderate carrier itself but it pushes fluid forward along its axis.

  19. Compactlike kinks and vortices in generalized models

    SciTech Connect

    Bazeia, D.; Hora, E. da; Menezes, R.; Oliveira, H. P. de; Santos, C. dos

    2010-06-15

    This work deals with the presence of topological defects in k-field models, where the dynamics is generalized to include higher order power in the kinetic term. We investigate kinks in (1, 1) dimensions and vortices in (2, 1) dimensions, focusing on some specific features of the solutions. In particular, we show how the kinks and vortices change to compactlike solutions, controlled by the parameter used to introduce the generalized models.

  20. On the stability of multiple helical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okulov, V. L.

    2004-12-01

    The classical problem of linear stability of a regular N-gon of point vortices to infinitesimal space displacements from an equilibrium of the vortex configuration is generalized to the one for N helical vortices (couple, triplet, etc., N {>} 1) for the first time. As a consequence of this consideration, the analytical form for the stability boundaries has been obtained. This solution allows an efficient analysis to be made of the existence of stable helical vortex arrays, which were repeatedly observed in practice.

  1. Collective Flow signals the Quark Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Bleicher, M.; Greiner, C.; Muronga, A.; Paech, K.; Reiter, M.; Scherer, S.; Soff, S.; Xu, Z.; Zeeb, G.; Zschiesche, D.; Tavares, B.; Portugal, L.; Aguiar, C.; Kodama, T.; Grassi, F.; Hama, Y.; Osada, T.; Sokolowski, O.; Werner, K.; Gallmeister, K.; Cassing, W.; Stöcker, H.

    2004-12-01

    A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on charm dynamics and hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 AṡGeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the v1-flow and of the v2-flow at ˜ 10 AṡGeV; at 40 AṡGeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as potential evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density ρB. A detailed discussion of the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS) of hot dense matter at RHIC follows. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the away-side jet suppression can only partially (< 50%) be due to hadronic rescattering. We, finally, propose upgrades and second generation experiments at RHIC which inspect the first order phase transition in the fragmentation region, i.e. at μB ≈ 400 MeV (y ≈ 4 - 5), where the collapse of the proton flow should be seen in analogy to the 40 AṡGeV data. The study of Jet-Wake-riding potentials and Bow shocks — caused by jets in the QGP formed at RHIC — can give further information on the equation of state (EoS) and transport coefficients of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP).

  2. Collective Flow signals the Quark Gluon Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bratkovskaya, E.L.; Bleicher, M.; Greiner, C.; Muronga, A.; Paech, K.; Reiter, M.; Scherer, S.; Soff, S.; Xu, Z.; Zeeb, G.; Zschiesche, D.; Tavares, B.; Portugal, L.; Aguiar, C.; Kodama, T.; Grassi, F.; Hama, Y.; Osada, T.; Sokolowski, O.; Werner, K.

    2004-12-02

    A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on charm dynamics and hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 A{center_dot}GeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the v1-flow and of the v2-flow at {approx} 10 A{center_dot}GeV; at 40 A{center_dot}GeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as potential evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density {rho}B. A detailed discussion of the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS) of hot dense matter at RHIC follows. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the away-side jet suppression can only partially (< 50%) be due to hadronic rescattering. We, finally, propose upgrades and second generation experiments at RHIC which inspect the first order phase transition in the fragmentation region, i.e. at {mu}B {approx_equal} 400 MeV (y {approx_equal} 4 - 5), where the collapse of the proton flow should be seen in analogy to the 40 A{center_dot}GeV data. The study of Jet-Wake-riding potentials and Bow shocks - caused by jets in the QGP formed at RHIC - can give further information on the equation of state (EoS) and transport coefficients of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP)

  3. Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Martin, A M; Marchant, N G; O'Dell, D H J; Parker, N G

    2017-03-15

    The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas-Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition.

  4. Generation and propagation of optical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas, David

    Optical vortices are singularities in phase fronts of laser beams. They are characterized by a dark core whose size (relative to the size of the background beam) may dramatically affect their behavior upon propagation. Previously, only large-core vortices have been extensively studied. The object of the research presented in this dissertation was to explore ways of generating small-core optical vortices (also called optical vortex filaments ), and to examine their propagation using analytical, numerical and experimental methods. Computer-generated holography enabled us to create arbitrary distributions of optical vortex filaments for experimental exploration. Hydrodynamic analogies were used to develop an heuristic model which described the dependence of vortex motion on other vortices and the background beam, both qualitatively and quantitatively. We predicted that pair of optical vortex filaments will rotate with angular rates inversely proportional to their separation distance (just like vortices in a fluid). We also reported the first experimental observation of this novel fluid-like effect. It was found, however, that upon propagation in linear media, the fluid-like rotation was not sustained owing to the overlap of diffracting vortex cores. Further numerical studies and experiments showed that rotation angle may be enhanced in nonlinear self-defocusing media. The results presented in this thesis offer us a better understanding of dynamics of propagating vortices which may result in applications in optical switching, optical data storage, manipulation of micro-particles and optical limiting for eye protection.

  5. Simultaneous Velocity and Vorticity Measurement in Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huixuan; Xu, Haitao; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2013-11-01

    A new paradigm of simultaneous velocity and vorticity measurement is developed to study turbulence. Instead of deducing vorticity from velocities measured at neighboring points, this innovative approach detects the translations and rotations of micro-sized particles directly. These hydrogel particles are spherical, transparent, and encapsulate micro-mirrors. This method outstands conventional ones, e.g., hotwire arrays or PIV because its spatial resolution is much higher. It does not require a non-zero mean flow, and it can provide all three vorticity components, which is not available from planar PIV data. Its principle is to illuminate the mirror and utilize the variation of the reflection directions to deduce the local flow vorticity. Meanwhile, the particle position is recorded as in normal particle tracking. Therefore, the velocity and vorticity of a particle can be obtained simultaneously in Lagrangian framework. The authors have made benchmark experiments to evaluate this novel method in Taylor Couette flows. The results show that the instantaneous vorticity measurement is as accurate as 3%. We are now setting up a von Karman disk pair device to study the turbulent flow. This novel technique will provide unprecedented information of high Reynolds number turbulence. The first author thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  6. Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. M.; Marchant, N. G.; O’Dell, D. H. J.; Parker, N. G.

    2017-03-01

    The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross–Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas–Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition.

  7. Chiral magnetic and vortical effects in high-energy nuclear collisions—A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, D. E.; Liao, J.; Voloshin, S. A.; Wang, G.

    2016-05-01

    Here, the interplay of quantum anomalies with magnetic field and vorticity results in a variety of novel non-dissipative transport phenomena in systems with chiral fermions, including the quark–gluon plasma. Among them is the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME)—the generation of electric current along an external magnetic field induced by chirality imbalance. Because the chirality imbalance is related to the global topology of gauge fields, the CME current is topologically protected and hence non-dissipative even in the presence of strong interactions. As a result, the CME and related quantum phenomena affect the hydrodynamical and transport behavior of strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, and can be studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions where strong magnetic fields are created by the colliding ions. Evidence for the CME and related phenomena has been reported by the STAR Collaboration at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL, and by the ALICE Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The goal of the present review is to provide an elementary introduction into the physics of anomalous chiral effects, to describe the current status of experimental studies in heavy ion physics, and to outline the future work, both in experiment and theory, needed to eliminate the existing uncertainties in the interpretation of the data.

  8. Chiral magnetic and vortical effects in high-energy nuclear collisions—A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, D. E.; Liao, J.; Voloshin, S. A.; Wang, G.

    2016-05-01

    Here, the interplay of quantum anomalies with magnetic field and vorticity results in a variety of novel non-dissipative transport phenomena in systems with chiral fermions, including the quark–gluon plasma. Among them is the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME)—the generation of electric current along an external magnetic field induced by chirality imbalance. Because the chirality imbalance is related to the global topology of gauge fields, the CME current is topologically protected and hence non-dissipative even in the presence of strong interactions. As a result, the CME and related quantum phenomena affect the hydrodynamical and transport behavior of strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, and can be studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions where strong magnetic fields are created by the colliding ions. Evidence for the CME and related phenomena has been reported by the STAR Collaboration at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL, and by the ALICE Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The goal of the present review is to provide an elementary introduction into the physics of anomalous chiral effects, to describe the current status of experimental studies in heavy ion physics, and to outline the future work, both in experiment and theory, needed to eliminate the existing uncertainties in the interpretation of the data.

  9. Chiral magnetic and vortical effects in high-energy nuclear collisions—A status report

    DOE PAGES

    Kharzeev, D. E.; Liao, J.; Voloshin, S. A.; ...

    2016-05-01

    Here, the interplay of quantum anomalies with magnetic field and vorticity results in a variety of novel non-dissipative transport phenomena in systems with chiral fermions, including the quark–gluon plasma. Among them is the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME)—the generation of electric current along an external magnetic field induced by chirality imbalance. Because the chirality imbalance is related to the global topology of gauge fields, the CME current is topologically protected and hence non-dissipative even in the presence of strong interactions. As a result, the CME and related quantum phenomena affect the hydrodynamical and transport behavior of strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, andmore » can be studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions where strong magnetic fields are created by the colliding ions. Evidence for the CME and related phenomena has been reported by the STAR Collaboration at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL, and by the ALICE Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The goal of the present review is to provide an elementary introduction into the physics of anomalous chiral effects, to describe the current status of experimental studies in heavy ion physics, and to outline the future work, both in experiment and theory, needed to eliminate the existing uncertainties in the interpretation of the data.« less

  10. Chiral magnetic and vortical effects in high-energy nuclear collisions-A status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharzeev, D. E.; Liao, J.; Voloshin, S. A.; Wang, G.

    2016-05-01

    The interplay of quantum anomalies with magnetic field and vorticity results in a variety of novel non-dissipative transport phenomena in systems with chiral fermions, including the quark-gluon plasma. Among them is the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME)-the generation of electric current along an external magnetic field induced by chirality imbalance. Because the chirality imbalance is related to the global topology of gauge fields, the CME current is topologically protected and hence non-dissipative even in the presence of strong interactions. As a result, the CME and related quantum phenomena affect the hydrodynamical and transport behavior of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, and can be studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions where strong magnetic fields are created by the colliding ions. Evidence for the CME and related phenomena has been reported by the STAR Collaboration at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL, and by the ALICE Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The goal of the present review is to provide an elementary introduction into the physics of anomalous chiral effects, to describe the current status of experimental studies in heavy ion physics, and to outline the future work, both in experiment and theory, needed to eliminate the existing uncertainties in the interpretation of the data.

  11. Transverse-momentum-dependent gluon distributions from JIMWLK evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquet, C.; Petreska, E.; Roiesnel, C.

    2016-10-01

    Transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) gluon distributions have different operator definitions, depending on the process under consideration. We study that aspect of TMD factorization in the small- x limit, for the various unpolarized TMD gluon distributions encountered in the literature. To do this, we consider di-jet production in hadronic collisions, since this process allows to be exhaustive with respect to the possible operator definitions, and is suitable to be investigated at small x. Indeed, for forward and nearly back-to-back jets, one can apply both the TMD factorization and Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approaches to compute the di-jet cross-section, and compare the results. Doing so, we show that both descriptions coincide, and we show how to express the various TMD gluon distributions in terms of CGC correlators of Wilson lines, while keeping N c finite. We then proceed to evaluate them by solving the JIMWLK equation numerically. We obtain that at large transverse momentum, the process dependence essentially disappears, while at small transverse momentum, non-linear saturation effects impact the various TMD gluon distributions in very different ways. We notice the presence of a geometric scaling regime for all the TMD gluon distributions studied: the "dipole" one, the Weizsäcker-Williams one, and the six others involved in forward di-jet production.

  12. Numerical simulation of baroclinic Jovian vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achterberg, Richard K.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the evolution of baroclinic vortices in a time-dependent, nonlinear numerical model of a Jovian atmosphere. The model uses a normal-mode expansion in the vertical, using the barotropic and first two baroclinic modes. Results for the stability of baroclinic vortices on an f plane in the absence of a mean zonal flow are similar to results of Earth vortex models, although the presence of a fluid interior on the Jovian planets shifts the stability boundaries to smaller length scales. The presence of a barotropic mean zonal flow in the interior stabilizes vortices against instability and significantly modifies the finite amplitude form of baroclinic instabilities. The effect of a zonal flow on a form of barotropic instability produces periodic oscillations in the latitude and longitude of the vortex as observed at the level of the cloud tops. This instability may explain some, but not all, observations of longitudinal oscillations of vortices on the outer planets. Oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation of stable vortices in a zonal shear flow are observed in this baroclinic model, as in simpler two-dimensional models. Such oscillations are also observed in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Neptune. The meridional propagation and decay of vortices on a beta plane is inhibited by the presence of a mean zonal flow. The direction of propagation of a vortex relative to the mean zonal flow depends upon the sign of the meridional potential vorticity gradient; combined with observations of vortex drift rates, this may provide a constraint on model assumption for the flow in the deep interior of the Jovian planets.

  13. Low-momentum ghost dressing function and the gluon mass

    SciTech Connect

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Gomez, M. E.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2010-09-01

    We study the low-momentum ghost propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Landau gauge, assuming for the truncation a constant ghost-gluon vertex, as it is extensively done, and a simple model for a massive gluon propagator. Then, regular Dyson-Schwinger equation solutions (the zero-momentum ghost dressing function not diverging) appear to emerge, and we show the ghost propagator to be described by an asymptotic expression reliable up to the order O(q{sup 2}). That expression, depending on the gluon mass and the zero-momentum Taylor-scheme effective charge, is proven to fit pretty well some low-momentum ghost propagator data [I. L. Bogolubsky, E. M. Ilgenfritz, M. Muller-Preussker, and A. Sternbeck, Phys. Lett. B 676, 69 (2009); Proc. Sci., LAT2007 (2007) 290] from big-volume lattice simulations where the so-called ''simulated annealing algorithm'' is applied to fix the Landau gauge.

  14. On effects of multiple gluons in J/ψ hadroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, Leszek; Sadzikowski, Mariusz

    2015-04-10

    The three-gluon contribution to J/ψ hadroproduction is calculated within perturbative QCD in the k{sub T}-factorization framework. This mechanism involves double gluon density and enters at a non-leading twist, but it is enhanced at large energies due to large double gluon density at small x. We obtain results for differential p{sub T}-dependent cross-sections for all J/ψ polarisations. The rescattering contribution is found to provide a significant correction to the standard leading twist cross-section at the energies of the Tevatron or the LHC at moderate p{sub T}. We also discuss a possible contribution of the rescattering correction to the anti-shadowing effect for J/ψ production in proton - nucleus collisions.

  15. Gauge invariant gluon spin operator for spinless nonlinear wave solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Kim, Youngman; Pak, D. G.; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P. M.

    2017-04-01

    We consider nonlinear wave type solutions with intrinsic mass scale parameter and zero spin in a pure SU(2) quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A new stationary solution which can be treated as a system of static Wu-Yang monopole dressed in off-diagonal gluon field is proposed. A remarkable feature of such a solution is that it possesses a finite energy density everywhere. All considered nonlinear wave type solutions have common features: presence of the mass scale parameter, nonvanishing projection of the color fields along the propagation direction and zero spin. The last property requires revision of the gauge invariant definition of the spin density operator which is supposed to produce spin one states for the massless vector gluon field. We construct a gauge invariant definition of the classical gluon spin density operator which is unique and Lorentz frame independent.

  16. To What Extent is Gluon Confinement an Empirical Fact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, R. L.; Hidalgo-Duque, Carlos; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.

    2013-11-01

    Experimental verifications of confinement in hadron physics have established the absence of charges with a fraction of the electron's charge by studying the energy deposited in ionization tracks at high energies, and performing Millikan experiments with charged droplets at rest. These experiments test only the absence of particles with fractional charge in the asymptotic spectrum, and thus "Quark" Confinement. However what theory suggests is that Color is confined, that is, all asymptotic particles are color singlets. Since QCD is a non-Abelian theory, the gluon force carriers (indirectly revealed in hadron jets) are colored. We empirically examine what can be said about gluon confinement based on the lack of detection of appropriate events, aiming at an upper bound for high-energy free-gluon production.

  17. Worldline calculation of the three-gluon vertex

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadiniaz, N.; Schubert, C.

    2012-10-23

    The three-gluon vertex is a basic object of interest in nonabelian gauge theory. At the one-loop level, it has been calculated and analyzed by a number of authors. Here we use the worldline formalism to unify the calculations of the scalar, spinor and gluon loop contributions to the one-loop vertex, leading to an extremely compact representation in terms of field strength tensors. We verify its equivalence with previously obtained representations, and explain the relation of its structure to the low-energy effective action. The sum rule found by Binger and Brodsky for the scalar, spinor and gluon loop contributions in the present approach relates to worldline supersymmetry.

  18. Initial Circulation and Peak Vorticity Behavior of Vortices Shed from Airfoil Vortex Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendt, Bruce J.; Biesiadny, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An extensive parametric study of vortices shed from airfoil vortex generators has been conducted to determine the dependence of initial vortex circulation and peak vorticity on elements of the airfoil geometry and impinging flow conditions. These elements include the airfoil angle of attack, chord length, span, aspect ratio, local boundary layer thickness, and free stream Mach number. In addition, the influence of airfoil-to-airfoil spacing on the circulation and peak vorticity has been examined for pairs of co-rotating and counter-rotating vortices. The vortex generators were symmetric airfoils having a NACA-0012 cross-sectional profile. These airfoils were mounted either in isolation, or in pairs, on the surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio was about 17 percent. The circulation and peak vorticity data were derived from cross-plane velocity measurements acquired with a seven-hole probe at one chord-length downstream of the airfoil trailing edge location. The circulation is observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. With these parameters held constant, the circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio. The peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the airfoil angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. Unlike circulation, however, the peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at an aspect ratio of about 2.0 before falling off again at higher values of aspect ratio. Co-rotating vortices shed from closely spaced pairs of airfoils have values of circulation and peak vorticity under those values found for vortices shed from isolated airfoils of the same geometry. Conversely, counter-rotating vortices show enhanced values of circulation and peak vorticity when compared to values

  19. Gluon mass generation in the PT-BFM scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Arlene C.; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2006-12-01

    In this article we study the general structure and special properties of the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the gluon propagator constructed with the pinch technique, together with the question of how to obtain infrared finite solutions, associated with the generation of an effective gluon mass. Exploiting the known all-order correspondence between the pinch technique and the background field method, we demonstrate that, contrary to the standard formulation, the non-perturbative gluon self-energy is transverse order-by-order in the dressed loop expansion, and separately for gluonic and ghost contributions. We next present a comprehensive review of several subtle issues relevant to the search of infrared finite solutions, paying particular attention to the role of the seagull graph in enforcing transversality, the necessity of introducing massless poles in the three-gluon vertex, and the incorporation of the correct renormalization group properties. In addition, we present a method for regulating the seagull-type contributions based on dimensional regularization; its applicability depends crucially on the asymptotic behavior of the solutions in the deep ultraviolet, and in particular on the anomalous dimension of the dynamically generated gluon mass. A linearized version of the truncated Schwinger-Dyson equation is derived, using a vertex that satisfies the required Ward identity and contains massless poles belonging to different Lorentz structures. The resulting integral equation is then solved numerically, the infrared and ultraviolet properties of the obtained solutions are examined in detail, and the allowed range for the effective gluon mass is determined. Various open questions and possible connections with different approaches in the literature are discussed.

  20. Gluon mass generation in the massless bound-state formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibañez, D.; Papavassiliou, J.

    2013-02-01

    We present a detailed, all-order study of gluon mass generation within the massless bound-state formalism, which constitutes the general framework for the systematic implementation of the Schwinger mechanism in non-Abelian gauge theories. The main ingredient of this formalism is the dynamical formation of bound states with vanishing mass, which give rise to effective vertices containing massless poles; these latter vertices, in turn, trigger the Schwinger mechanism, and allow for the gauge-invariant generation of an effective gluon mass. This particular approach has the conceptual advantage of relating the gluon mass directly to quantities that are intrinsic to the bound-state formation itself, such as the “transition amplitude” and the corresponding “bound-state wave function.” As a result, the dynamical evolution of the gluon mass is largely determined by a Bethe-Salpeter equation that controls the dynamics of the relevant wave function, rather than the Schwinger-Dyson equation of the gluon propagator, as happens in the standard treatment. The precise structure and field-theoretic properties of the transition amplitude are scrutinized in a variety of independent ways. In particular, a parallel study within the linear-covariant (Landau) gauge and the background-field method reveals that a powerful identity, known to be valid at the level of conventional Green’s functions, also relates the background and quantum transition amplitudes. Despite the differences in the ingredients and terminology employed, the massless bound-state formalism is absolutely equivalent to the standard approach based on Schwinger-Dyson equations. In fact, a set of powerful relations allows one to demonstrate the exact coincidence of the integral equations governing the momentum evolution of the gluon mass in both frameworks.

  1. Elliptic flow in small systems due to elliptic gluon distributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yoshikazu; Hatta, Yoshitaka; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the contributions from the so-called elliptic gluon Wigner distributions to the rapidity and azimuthal correlations of particles produced in high energy pp and pA collisions by applying the double parton scattering mechanism. We compute the 'elliptic flow' parameter v2 as a function of the transverse momentum and rapidity, and find qualitative agreement with experimental observations. This shall encourage further developments with more rigorous studies of the elliptic gluon distributions and their applications in hard scattering processes in pp and pA collisions.

  2. Drell-Yan hadron tensor: Contour gauge and gluon propagator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikin, I. V.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Teryaev, O. V.

    2017-02-01

    We consider the gauge invariant Drell-Yan hadron tensor which includes the standard and nonstandard diagram contributions. The nonstandard diagram contribution appeared owing to the complexity of the twist three BV(x1,x2)-function where the gluon pole manifests. We use the contour gauge conception which allows us to fix easily the spurious uncertainties in the gluon propagator. The contour gauge condition is generated by the corresponding Wilson lines in both the standard and nonstandard diagrams. We demonstrate the substantial role of the nonstandard diagram for forming of the relevant contour in the Wilson path-ordered exponential that leads to the spurious singularity fixing.

  3. Quark-Gluon Plasma Model and Origin of Magic Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghahramany, N.; Ghanaatian, M.; Hooshmand, M.

    2008-04-21

    Using Boltzman distribution in a quark-gluon plasma sample it is possible to obtain all existing magic numbers and their extensions without applying the spin and spin-orbit couplings. In this model it is assumed that in a quark-gluon thermodynamic plasma, quarks have no interactions and they are trying to form nucleons. Considering a lattice for a central quark and the surrounding quarks, using a statistical approach to find the maximum number of microstates, the origin of magic numbers is explained and a new magic number is obtained.

  4. Quark-gluon vertex in arbitrary gauge and dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydychev, A. I.; Osland, P.; Saks, L.

    2001-01-01

    One-loop off-shell contributions to the quark-gluon vertex are calculated, in an arbitrary covariant gauge and in arbitrary space-time dimension, including quark-mass effects. It is shown how one can get results for all on-shell limits of interest directly from the off-shell expressions. In order to demonstrate that the Ward-Slavnov-Taylor identity for the quark-gluon vertex is satisfied, we have also calculated the corresponding one-loop contribution involving the quark-quark-ghost-ghost vertex.

  5. Further evidence for zero crossing on the three gluon vertex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Anthony G.; Oliveira, Orlando; Silva, Paulo J.

    2016-10-01

    The three gluon one particle irreducible function is investigated using lattice QCD simulations over a large region of momentum in the Landau gauge for four-dimensional pure Yang-Mills equations and the SU(3) gauge group. The results favor a zero crossing of the gluon form factor for momenta in the range 220-260 MeV. This zero crossing is required to happen in order to have a properly defined set of Dyson-Schwinger equations. It is also shown that in the high momentum region the lattice results are compatible with the predictions of renormalization group improved perturbation theory.

  6. The evolution of the small x gluon TMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian

    2016-06-01

    We study the evolution of the small x gluon transverse momentum dependent (TMD) distribution in the dilute limit. The calculation has been carried out in the Ji-Ma-Yuan scheme using a simple quark target model. As expected, we find that the resulting small x gluon TMD simultaneously satisfies both the Collins-Soper (CS) evolution equation and the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) evolution equation. We thus confirmed the earlier finding that the high energy factorization (HEF) and the TMD factorization should be jointly employed to resum the different type large logarithms in a process where three relevant scales are well separated.

  7. Multijet decays of quarkonia: Testing the three-gluon vertex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, K.; Streng, K. H.; Walsh, T. F.; Zerwas, P. M.

    1982-10-01

    We study the 4-jet and photon plus 3-jet decays of orthoquarkonia, 3S1( Q overlineQ)→ GGGG+ GGq overlineq→4 jets, 3S1( Q overlineQ→γ GGG+γ Gq overlineq→γ+3 jets. We show that the characteristic features of the jet distributions in the final state are determined by the 3-gluon vertex of quantum chromodynamics. These decays of a heavy quarkonium resonance (toponium) will offer clear signals for the gluons' self-coupling which can establish QCD as a local non-abelian gauge theory.

  8. Quarkonium in a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vairo, Antonio

    2010-12-22

    We report about a recent calculation of the heavy quarkonium mass and decay width in a quark-gluon plasma, whose temperature T and screening mass m{sub D} satisfy the hierarchy m{alpha}{sub s}>>T>>m{alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}>>m{sub D}, m being the heavy-quark mass, up to order m{alpha}{sub s}{sup 5}. The calculation may be relevant to understand the behavior of the {Upsilon}(1S) in a quark-gluon plasma at present-day colliders.

  9. QCD Factorization, Wilson Loop Space and Unintegrated Gluon Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherednikov, Igor O.

    2017-03-01

    Currently available operator definitions of gauge-invariant unintegrated (transverse momentum dependent) gluon density function available are briefly overviewed, with emphasis on the structure of the associated Wilson lines. A gauge-invariant generating function with maximal path-dependence is proposed, which, as distinct from the common methodology, is based on arbitrary Wilson loops with no reference to any factorization scheme. After the local area differentiation defined in the Wilson loop space, this object can be used to define fully unintegrated gluon distribution functions in a way potentially suitable for the lattice simulations.

  10. Bottomonia suppression in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2017-03-01

    A brief review of recent studies on suppression of bottomonia in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC is presented. A reasonable agreement between the model predictions for the inclusive RAA suppression factor and the preliminary CMS experimental data is found. The values of the shear viscosity to the entropy density ratio extracted from the comparison with the data lie between one and two times the gauge/gravity duality lower bound. These values agree very well with the fluid dynamical fits to the light hadron correlation data and confirm that the quark-gluon plasma is a nearly-perfect fluid.

  11. Evolution of average multiplicities of quark and gluon jets

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, A.; Dremin, I. M.; Gary, J. W.; Nechitailo, V. A.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    2000-04-01

    The energy evolution of the average multiplicities of quark and gluon jets is studied in perturbative QCD. Higher order (3NLO) terms in the perturbative expansion of equations for the generating functions are found. First and second derivatives of average multiplicities are calculated. The mean multiplicity of gluon jets is larger than that of quark jets and evolves more rapidly with energy. It is shown which quantities are most sensitive to higher order perturbative and nonperturbative corrections. We define the energy regions where the corrections to different quantities are important. The latest experimental data are discussed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  12. Viscous quark-gluon plasma model through fluid QCD approach

    SciTech Connect

    Djun, T. P.; Soegijono, B.; Mart, T.; Handoko, L. T. E-mail: Laksana.tri.handoko@lipi.go.id

    2014-09-25

    A Lagrangian density for viscous quark-gluon plasma has been constructed within the fluid-like QCD framework. Gauge symmetry is preserved for all terms inside the Lagrangian, except for the viscous term. The transition mechanism from point particle field to fluid field, and vice versa, are discussed. The energy momentum tensor that is relevant to the gluonic plasma having the nature of fluid bulk of gluon sea is derived within the model. By imposing conservation law in the energy momentum tensor, shear viscosity appears as extractable from the equation.

  13. Diphoton production in gluon fusion at small transverse momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadolsky, P. M.; Schmidt, C. R.

    2003-04-01

    We discuss the production of photon pairs in gluon-gluon scattering in the context of the position-space resummation formalism at small transverse momentum. We derive the remaining unknown coefficients that arise at O(αS), as well as the remaining O(αS2) coefficient that occurs in the Sudakov factor. We comment on the impact of these coefficients on the normalization and shape of the resummed transverse momentum distribution of photon pairs, which comprise an important background to Higgs boson production at the LHC.

  14. Dynamics of Tab-Wake Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Meng, H.

    1999-11-01

    The dynamics of vortex structures in the wake of surface-mounted trapezoidal tab at Re=600 based on tab height was studied in detail using time-series, 2D particle image velocimetry. From a total of over 20,000 PIV realizations acquired in x-y, x-z, and y-z planes, we successfully identified vortex structures using the methods proposed by Jeong and Hussain (JFM, vol 285, 1995) and proposed by Chong, Perry, and Cantwell (Phys. Fluids A2, 1990), and cross-checked them with conventional velocity subtraction. Similar to prior measurement at Re=2080, secondary vortices, reverse vortices, and tertiary vortices were observed frequently in the present study. Higher PIV spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution (relative to the flow periodicity) allow us to investigate these dynamical phenomena in much greater detail and confidence. Furthermore, y-z measurements demonstrate that hairpin vortex legs, taking the shape of streamwise vortices, pair with their neighbor counterparts while traveling downstream, and possibly merge with each other. Circulation distribution of the hairpin vortex heads along the x direction shows that it increases at the very near-tab region with the help of pressure induced counter-rotating vortex pairs, but gradually decreases very slowly with the increasing downstream distance, indicating that hairpin vortices are long-lived vortex structures.

  15. 3D Vortices in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Samy; Barranco, Joseph; Marcus, Philip

    2010-11-01

    Like the atmosphere of Jupiter, protoplanetary disks (thin disks of gas & dust in orbit around newly-formed stars) are characterized by rapid rotation and intense shear, inspiring proposals that disks may also be populated with long-lived, robust storms analogous to the Great Red Spot. Such vortices may play key roles in the formation of stars and planets by transporting angular momentum, as well as trapping and concentrating dust grains, seeding the formation of planetesimals, the "building blocks" of planets. In our previous work (Barranco & Marcus 2005), we showed via numerical simulation (with an anelastic spectral code) that vortices near the midplane of the disk suffer an antisymmetric instability and are destroyed. However, internal gravity waves propagate away from the midplane, amplify and break, creating bands of vorticity that roll-up into new long-lived, stable vortices above and below the midplane. We will present new results on 3D vortex dynamics in protoplanetary disks, exploring the role of factors unique to this context: the Coriolis parameter f, the shear rate σ, and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency N are all of the same order of magnitude. In the region around the midplane Nf. This leads to strong refraction of internal gravity waves, causing the waves to amplify and break, generating vorticity.

  16. Investigation of Channel Vortices in Francis Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, M.; ZHOU, L. J.; WANG, Z. W.; LIU, D. M.; ZHAO, Y. Z.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper the characteristics of one type of channel vortex and the effect of different parameters on this channel vortex have been investigated experimentally with the aid of high speed photography. The results show that locations of the channel vortices move from near the hub down to near the band with the increase n11 or the decrease Q11 Meanwhile, with the decrease of Q11 or σ channel vortices become thicker with increasing appearing frequency. When the channel vortices come out near the hub or in the middle of the blade at low or moderate n11, the main frequency of pressure pulsation in the draft tube is the swirling frequency of vortex rope. However when the channel vortices come out near the band at high n11, the pressure pulsation in the draft tube has a wide-band spectrum with the frequency within 0.7∼1fn (rotating frequency). Then detailed numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the observed phenomenon. The results reveal this channel vortex is caused by the reversed flow in the draft tube. The mechanism is that channel vortices are induced when the reversed fluid flows up along the suction side of the blade and meets the upstream main flow.

  17. Measurements of Supersonic Wing Tip Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Michael K.; Kalkhoran, Iraj M.; Benston, James

    1994-01-01

    An experimental survey of supersonic wing tip vortices has been conducted at Mach 2.5 using small performed 2.25 chords down-stream of a semi-span rectangular wing at angle of attack of 5 and 10 degrees. The main objective of the experiments was to determine the Mach number, flow angularity and total pressure distribution in the core region of supersonic wing tip vortices. A secondary aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of using cone probes calibrated with a numerical flow solver to measure flow characteristics at supersonic speeds. Results showed that the numerically generated calibration curves can be used for 4-hole cone probes, but were not sufficiently accurate for conventional 5-hole probes due to nose bluntness effects. Combination of 4-hole cone probe measurements with independent pitot pressure measurements indicated a significant Mach number and total pressure deficit in the core regions of supersonic wing tip vortices, combined with an asymmetric 'Burger like' swirl distribution.

  18. Identification of vortices in complex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, P.; Balachandar, S.; Adrian, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    Dating back to Leonardo da Vinci's famous sketches of vortices in turbulent flows, fluid dynamicists for over five centuries have continued to visualize and interpret complex flows in terms of motion of vortices. Nevertheless, much debate surrounds the question of how to unambiguously define vortices in complex flows. This debate has resulted in the availability of many vortex identification criteria---mathematical statements of what constitutes a vortex. Here we review the popularly used local or point- wise vortex identification criteria. Based on local flow kinematics, we describe a unified framework to interpret the similarities and differences in the usage of these criteria. We discuss the limitations on the applicability of these criteria when there is a significant component of vortex interactions. Finally, we provide guidelines for applying these criteria to geophysical flows.

  19. Vorticity, defects and correlations in active turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a numerical investigation of a continuum model of an active nematic, concentrating on the regime of active turbulence. Results are presented for the effect of three parameters, activity, elastic constant and rotational diffusion constant, on the order parameter and flow fields. Defects and distortions in the director field act as sources of vorticity, and thus vorticity is strongly correlated to the director field. In particular, the characteristic length of decay of vorticity and order parameter correlations is controlled by the defect density. By contrast, the decay of velocity correlations is determined by a balance between activity and dissipation. We highlight the role of microscopic flow generation mechanisms in determining the flow patterns and characteristic scales of active turbulence and contrast the behaviour of extensile and contractile active nematics. PMID:25332382

  20. A Note on Trapping Moving Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Hsiao C.

    2000-01-01

    The topic of stationary configurations of point vortices, also known as vortex equilibrium, has received considerable attention in recent years. By observing numerical results, it is found that a "counterpart" of this system also exists, in which moving vortices may be "trapped" by an inlet-like device to form a stationary pattern with no translational motion. After an intuitive explanation for the process, vortex trajectory maps based on numerical results are presented. These maps exhibit two stationary points under the present conditions, which are the focal points of vortex trajectories. A vortex upstream of these points, if within a certain offset range, will move towards these points spontaneously and be captured there. This proposed device is also capable of trapping spinning vortex pairs and triads. It is possible to impose a uniform stream at infinity, as long as the flow field is still dominated by the moving vortices.

  1. Vorticity, defects and correlations in active turbulence.

    PubMed

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M

    2014-11-28

    We describe a numerical investigation of a continuum model of an active nematic, concentrating on the regime of active turbulence. Results are presented for the effect of three parameters, activity, elastic constant and rotational diffusion constant, on the order parameter and flow fields. Defects and distortions in the director field act as sources of vorticity, and thus vorticity is strongly correlated to the director field. In particular, the characteristic length of decay of vorticity and order parameter correlations is controlled by the defect density. By contrast, the decay of velocity correlations is determined by a balance between activity and dissipation. We highlight the role of microscopic flow generation mechanisms in determining the flow patterns and characteristic scales of active turbulence and contrast the behaviour of extensile and contractile active nematics.

  2. Vorticity and divergence in the solar photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, YI; Noyes, Robert W.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied an outstanding sequence of continuum images of the solar granulation from Pic du Midi Observatory. We have calculated the horizontal vector flow field using a correlation tracking algorithm, and from this determined three scalar field: the vertical component of the curl; the horizontal divergence; and the horizontal flow speed. The divergence field has substantially longer coherence time and more power than does the curl field. Statistically, curl is better correlated with regions of negative divergence - that is, the vertical vorticity is higher in downflow regions, suggesting excess vorticity in intergranular lanes. The average value of the divergence is largest (i.e., outflow is largest) where the horizontal speed is large; we associate these regions with exploding granules. A numerical simulation of general convection also shows similar statistical differences between curl and divergence. Some individual small bright points in the granulation pattern show large local vorticities.

  3. Characterization of reconnecting vortices in superfluid helium

    PubMed Central

    Bewley, Gregory P.; Paoletti, Matthew S.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2008-01-01

    When two vortices cross, each of them breaks into two parts and exchanges part of itself for part of the other. This process, called vortex reconnection, occurs in classical and superfluids, and in magnetized plasmas and superconductors. We present the first experimental observations of reconnection between quantized vortices in superfluid helium. We do so by imaging micrometer-sized solid hydrogen particles trapped on quantized vortex cores and by inferring the occurrence of reconnection from the motions of groups of recoiling particles. We show that the distance separating particles on the just-reconnected vortex lines grows as a power law in time. The average value of the scaling exponent is approximately ½, consistent with the self-similar evolution of the vortices. PMID:18768790

  4. Aerodynamics and vortical structures in hovering fruitflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xue Guang; Sun, Mao

    2015-03-01

    We measure the wing kinematics and morphological parameters of seven freely hovering fruitflies and numerically compute the flows of the flapping wings. The computed mean lift approximately equals to the measured weight and the mean horizontal force is approximately zero, validating the computational model. Because of the very small relative velocity of the wing, the mean lift coefficient required to support the weight is rather large, around 1.8, and the Reynolds number of the wing is low, around 100. How such a large lift is produced at such a low Reynolds number is explained by combining the wing motion data, the computed vortical structures, and the theory of vorticity dynamics. It has been shown that two unsteady mechanisms are responsible for the high lift. One is referred as to "fast pitching-up rotation": at the start of an up- or downstroke when the wing has very small speed, it fast pitches down to a small angle of attack, and then, when its speed is higher, it fast pitches up to the angle it normally uses. When the wing pitches up while moving forward, large vorticity is produced and sheds at the trailing edge, and vorticity of opposite sign is produced near the leading edge and on the upper surface, resulting in a large time rate of change of the first moment of vorticity (or fluid impulse), hence a large aerodynamic force. The other is the well known "delayed stall" mechanism: in the mid-portion of the up- or downstroke the wing moves at large angle of attack (about 45 deg) and the leading-edge-vortex (LEV) moves with the wing; thus, the vortex ring, formed by the LEV, the tip vortices, and the starting vortex, expands in size continuously, producing a large time rate of change of fluid impulse or a large aerodynamic force.

  5. Martian Polar Vortices: Comparison of Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waugh, D. W.; Toigo, A. D.; Guzewich, S. D.; Greybush, S. J.; Wilson, R. J.; Montabone, L.

    2016-01-01

    The structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices is examined using two recently available reanalysis systems: version 1.0 of the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) and a preliminary version of the Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS). There is quantitative agreement between the reanalyses in the lower atmosphere, where Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data are assimilated, but there are differences at higher altitudes reflecting differences in the free-running general circulation model simulations used in the two reanalyses. The reanalyses show similar potential vorticity (PV) structure of the vortices: There is near-uniform small PV equatorward of the core of the westerly jet, steep meridional PV gradients on the polar side of the jet core, and a maximum of PV located off of the pole. In maps of 30 sol mean PV, there is a near-continuous elliptical ring of high PV with roughly constant shape and longitudinal orientation from fall to spring. However, the shape and orientation of the vortex varies on daily time scales, and there is not a continuous ring of PV but rather a series of smaller scale coherent regions of high PV. The PV structure of the Martian polar vortices is, as has been reported before, very different from that of Earth's stratospheric polar vortices, but there are similarities with Earth's tropospheric vortices which also occur at the edge of the Hadley Cell, and have near-uniform small PV equatorward of the jet, and a large increase of PV poleward of the jet due to increased stratification.

  6. Martian polar vortices: Comparison of reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waugh, D. W.; Toigo, A. D.; Guzewich, S. D.; Greybush, S. J.; Wilson, R. J.; Montabone, L.

    2016-09-01

    The structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices is examined using two recently available reanalysis systems: version 1.0 of the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) and a preliminary version of the Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS). There is quantitative agreement between the reanalyses in the lower atmosphere, where Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data are assimilated, but there are differences at higher altitudes reflecting differences in the free-running general circulation model simulations used in the two reanalyses. The reanalyses show similar potential vorticity (PV) structure of the vortices: There is near-uniform small PV equatorward of the core of the westerly jet, steep meridional PV gradients on the polar side of the jet core, and a maximum of PV located off of the pole. In maps of 30 sol mean PV, there is a near-continuous elliptical ring of high PV with roughly constant shape and longitudinal orientation from fall to spring. However, the shape and orientation of the vortex varies on daily time scales, and there is not a continuous ring of PV but rather a series of smaller scale coherent regions of high PV. The PV structure of the Martian polar vortices is, as has been reported before, very different from that of Earth's stratospheric polar vortices, but there are similarities with Earth's tropospheric vortices which also occur at the edge of the Hadley Cell, and have near-uniform small PV equatorward of the jet, and a large increase of PV poleward of the jet due to increased stratification.

  7. Martian Polar Vortices: Comparison of Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waugh, D. W.; Toigo, A. D.; Guzewich, S. D.; Greybush, S. J.; Wilson, R. J.; Montabone, L.

    2016-01-01

    The structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices is examined using two recently available reanalysis systems: version 1.0 of the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) and a preliminary version of the Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS). There is quantitative agreement between the reanalyses in the lower atmosphere, where Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data are assimilated, but there are differences at higher altitudes reflecting differences in the free-running general circulation model simulations used in the two reanalyses. The reanalyses show similar potential vorticity (PV) structure of the vortices: There is near-uniform small PV equatorward of the core of the westerly jet, steep meridional PV gradients on the polar side of the jet core, and a maximum of PV located off of the pole. In maps of 30 sol mean PV, there is a near-continuous elliptical ring of high PV with roughly constant shape and longitudinal orientation from fall to spring. However, the shape and orientation of the vortex varies on daily time scales, and there is not a continuous ring of PV but rather a series of smaller scale coherent regions of high PV. The PV structure of the Martian polar vortices is, as has been reported before, very different from that of Earth's stratospheric polar vortices, but there are similarities with Earth's tropospheric vortices which also occur at the edge of the Hadley Cell, and have near-uniform small PV equatorward of the jet, and a large increase of PV poleward of the jet due to increased stratification.

  8. Gluon condensate in a pion superfluid beyond the mean-field approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yin; Zhuang Pengfei

    2011-03-15

    We study gluon condensate in a pion superfluid by calculating the equation of state of the system in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. While in mean-field approximation the growing pion condensate leads to an increasing gluon condensate, meson fluctuations reduce the gluon condensate, and the broken scalar symmetry can be smoothly restored at finite isospin density.

  9. Up-sliding Slantwise Vorticity Development and the complete vorticity equation with mass forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaopeng; Gao, Shouting; Wu, Guoxiong

    2003-09-01

    The moist potential vorticity (MPV) equation is derived from complete atmospheric equations including the effect of mass forcing, with which the theory of Up-sliding Slantwise Vorticity Development (USVD) is proposed based on the theory of Slantwise Vorticity Development (SVD). When an air parcel slides up along a slantwise isentropic surface, its vertical component of relative vorticity will develop, and the steeper the isentropic surface is, the more violent the development will be. From the definition of MPV and the MPV equation produced here in, a complete vorticity equation is then put forward with mass forcing, which explicitly includes the effects of both internal forcings, such as variations of stability, baroclinicity, and vertical shear of horizontal wind, and external forcings, such as diabatic heating, friction, and mass forcing. When isentropic surfaces are flat, the complete vorticity equation matches its traditional counterpart. The physical interpretations of some of the items which are included in the complete vorticity equation but not in the traditional one are studied with a simplified model of the Changjiang-Huaihe Meiyu front. A 60-h simulation is then performed to reproduce a torrential rain event in the Changjiang-Huaihe region and the output of the model is studied qualitatively based on the theory of USVD. The result shows that the conditions of the theory of USVD are easily satisfied immediately in front of mesoscale rainstorms in the downwind direction, that is, the theory of USVD is important to the development and movement of these kinds of systems.

  10. Vorticity Confinement Applied to Turbulent Wing Tip Vortices for Wake-Integral Drag Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Kristopher; Povitsky, Alex

    2013-11-01

    In the current study the vorticity confinement (VC) approach was applied to tip vortices shed by edges of stationary wings in order to predict induced drag by far-field integration in Trefftz plane. The VC parameter was evaluated first by application to convection of vortices in 2-D uniform flow and then to tip vortices shed in 3-D simulation of finite-aspect ratio rectangular wing in subsonic flight. Dependence of VC parameter on the flight Mach number and the angle of attack was evaluated. The aerodynamic drag results with application of VC to prevent numerical diffusion are much closer to analytic lifting line theory compared to integration over surface of wing while the viscous profile drag is more accurately evaluated by surface integration. To apply VC to viscous and turbulent flows, it is shown that VC does not affect the physical rate of dissipation of vortices in viscous/turbulent flows at time scales corresponding to convection of vortices from the wing to Trefftz plane of integration. To account for turbulent effects on tip vortices, VC was applied in combination with Spalart-Allmaras, k- ɛ, and six Reynolds stresses models of turbulence. The results are compared to experiments to validate the physical dissipation of tip vortex. This research was supported by The Dayton Area Graduate Studies Institute (DAGSI) and US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) grants in 2009-2013, US Army Research Office (ARO) in 2012-2013 and ASEE/AFRL summer faculty grant.

  11. Inward propagating chemical waves in Taylor vortices.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Barnaby W; Novak, Jan; Wilson, Mark C T; Britton, Melanie M; Taylor, Annette F

    2010-04-01

    Advection-reaction-diffusion (ARD) waves in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in steady Taylor-Couette vortices have been visualized using magnetic-resonance imaging and simulated using an adapted Oregonator model. We show how propagating wave behavior depends on the ratio of advective, chemical and diffusive time scales. In simulations, inward propagating spiral flamelets are observed at high Damköhler number (Da). At low Da, the reaction distributes itself over several vortices and then propagates inwards as contracting ring pulses--also observed experimentally.

  12. Spatially-partitioned many-body vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiman, S.; Alon, O. E.

    2016-02-01

    A vortex in Bose-Einstein condensates is a localized object which looks much like a tiny tornado storm. It is well described by mean-field theory. In the present work we go beyond the current paradigm and introduce many-body vortices. These are made of spatially- partitioned clouds, carry definite total angular momentum, and are fragmented rather than condensed objects which can only be described beyond mean-field theory. A phase diagram based on a mean-field model assists in predicting the parameters where many-body vortices occur. Implications are briefly discussed.

  13. Linear phase distribution of acoustical vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Lu; Zheng, Haixiang; Ma, Qingyu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2014-07-14

    Linear phase distribution of phase-coded acoustical vortices was theoretically investigated based on the radiation theory of point source, and then confirmed by experimental measurements. With the proposed criterion of positive phase slope, the possibility of constructing linear circular phase distributions is demonstrated to be determined by source parameters. Improved phase linearity can be achieved at larger source number, lower frequency, smaller vortex radius, and/or longer axial distance. Good agreements are observed between numerical simulations and measurement results for circular phase distributions. The favorable results confirm the feasibility of precise phase control for acoustical vortices and suggest potential applications in particle manipulation.

  14. Noise from two-dimensional vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. D.; Stockman, N. O.

    1972-01-01

    The fluctuating flow in an idealized model of a turbulent shear layer composed of many discrete vortices is analyzed. Computer solutions reveal irregular motions which are similar in many respects to observed flows in turbulent three-dimensional layers. The model is further simplified to a pair of equal co-rotating vortices and the noise generation is analyzed in terms of equivalent quadrupole oscillations. Results of the analysis in a uniform medium are consistent with Lighthill's results. New results are obtained for the effects of mean velocity gradients, compressibility, temperature inhomogenities, and gradients of the mean Mach number.

  15. Vorticity cutoff in nonlinear photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel

    2005-07-22

    Using group-theory arguments, we demonstrate that, unlike in homogeneous media, no symmetric vortices of arbitrary order can be generated in two-dimensional (2D) nonlinear systems possessing a discrete-point symmetry. The only condition needed is that the nonlinearity term exclusively depends on the modulus of the field. In the particular case of 2D periodic systems, such as nonlinear photonic crystals or Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials, it is shown that the realization of discrete symmetry forbids the existence of symmetric vortex solutions with vorticity higher than two.

  16. Dust Devils and Convective Vortices on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2017-03-01

    Dust devils are low pressure convective vortices able to lift dust from the surface of a planet. They are a common feature on Mars and they can also be found on desertic locations on Earth. On Mars they are considered an important part of the atmospheric dust cycle. Dust in Mars is an essential ingredient of the atmosphere where it affects the radiative balance of the planet. Here we review observations of these dusty vortices from orbit, from in situ measurements on the surface of Mars and some of the models developed to simulate them.

  17. Horizontal Roll Vortices and Crown Fires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Donald A.

    1982-06-01

    Observational evidence from nine crown fires suggests that horizontal roll vortices are a major mechanism in crown-fire spread. Post-burn aerial photography indicates that unburned tree-crown streets are common with crown fire. Investigation of the understory of these crown streets after two fires showed uncharred tree trunks along a center line. This evidence supports a hypothesis of vortex action causing strong downward motion of air along the streets. Additionally, photographs of two ongoing crown fires show apparent horizontal roll vortices. Discussion also includes laboratory and numerical studies in fluid dynamics that may apply to crown fires.

  18. Vortices and the related principles of hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A

    1921-01-01

    Here, conceptions concerning vortices are illustrated by the simplest possible examples. Mathematical formulas and similar means of presentation, which, for the most part, do not help the understanding of persons not versed therein, have been avoided as much as possible. Instead, the author has endeavored to demonstrate the phenomena by means of simple geometrical and mechanical illustrations. For the sake of clarity, the author chiefly considers currents in one plane only, a situation that can be readily represented by diagrams. Some of the peculiarities of vortices in three dimensional flow are briefly discussed.

  19. Inward propagating chemical waves in Taylor vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Barnaby W.; Novak, Jan; Wilson, Mark C. T.; Britton, Melanie M.; Taylor, Annette F.

    2010-04-01

    Advection-reaction-diffusion (ARD) waves in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in steady Taylor-Couette vortices have been visualized using magnetic-resonance imaging and simulated using an adapted Oregonator model. We show how propagating wave behavior depends on the ratio of advective, chemical and diffusive time scales. In simulations, inward propagating spiral flamelets are observed at high Damköhler number (Da). At low Da, the reaction distributes itself over several vortices and then propagates inwards as contracting ring pulses—also observed experimentally.

  20. Electron Vortices in Femtosecond Multiphoton Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pengel, D.; Kerbstadt, S.; Johannmeyer, D.; Englert, L.; Bayer, T.; Wollenhaupt, M.

    2017-02-01

    Multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms with a sequence of two counter-rotating circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses produces vortex-shaped photoelectron momentum distributions in the polarization plane describing Archimedean spirals. The pulse sequences are produced by polarization shaping and the three-dimensional photoelectron distributions are tomographically reconstructed from velocity map imaging measurements. We show that perturbative ionization leads to electron vortices with c6 rotational symmetry. A change from c6 to c4 rotational symmetry of the vortices is demonstrated for nonperturbative interaction.

  1. Twinlike models for kinks, vortices, and monopoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.

    2017-07-01

    This work deals with twinlike models that support topological structures such as kinks, vortices, and monopoles. We investigate the equations of motion and develop the first order framework to show how to build distinct models with the same solution and energy density, as required to make them twinlike models. We also investigate how the stability under small fluctuations behaves and introduce the conditions to get the same stability on general grounds. In particular, we study models that support kinks, vortices, and monopoles in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, respectively.

  2. Water waves interacting with a current of constant vorticity: estimating the vorticity of the wave field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Bruno; Seez, William; Abid, Malek; Kharif, Christian; Touboul, Julien

    2017-04-01

    During the last ten years, the topic of water waves interacting with sheared current has drawn a lot of attention, since the interaction of water waves with vorticity was recently found to be significant when modeling the propagation of water waves. In this framework, the configuration involving constantly sheared current (indeed a constant vorticity) is of special interst, since the equations remain tractable. In this framework, it is demonstrated that the flow related to water waves can be described by means of potential theory, since the source term in the vorticity equation is proportionnal to the curvature of the current profile (Nwogu, 2009). In the mean time, the community often wonders if this argument is valid, since the existence of a perfectly linearly sheared current is purely theoretical, and the presence of the vorticity within the wave field can be external (through wave generation mechanisms, for instance). Thus, this work is dedicated to investigate the magnitude of the vorticity related to the wave field, in conditions similar to this analytical case of constant vorticity. This approach is based on the comparison of experimental data, and three models. The first model is linear, supposing a constantly seared current and water waves described by potential theory. The second is fully nonlinear, but still supposing that water waves are potential, and finally, the third model is fully nonlinear, but solves the Euler equations, allowing the existence of vorticity related to the waves. The confrontation of these three approaches with the experimental data will allow to quantify the wave-related vorticity within the total flow, and analyze its importance as a function of nonlinearity and vorticity magnitude. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement, France) is acknowledged for its financial support through the ANR grant N°ANR-13-ASTR-0007.

  3. Optical generation of crystalline, quasicrystalline, and arbitrary arrays of torons in confined cholesteric liquid crystals for patterning of optical vortices in laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, Paul J.; Qi, Zhiyuan; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2012-08-01

    Condensed matter systems with topological defects in the ground states range from the Abrikosov phases in superconductors, to various blue phases and twist grain boundary phases in liquid crystals, and to phases of skyrmion lattices in chiral ferromagnets and Bose-Einstein condensates. In nematic and chiral nematic liquid crystals, which are true fluids with long-range orientational ordering of constituent molecules, point and line defects spontaneously occur as a result of symmetry-breaking phase transitions or due to flow, but they are unstable, hard to control, and typically annihilate with time. Here we describe the optical generation of two-dimensional crystalline, quasicrystalline, and arbitrary ensembles of particlelike structures manifesting both skyrmionlike and Hopf fibration features—dubbed “torons”—composed of looped double twist cylinders and point defects embedded in a uniform director field. In these two-dimensional lattices, we then introduce various dislocations, defects in positional ordering of the torons. We show that the periodic defect lattices with and without dislocation are light- and voltage-tunable reconfigurable two-dimensional diffraction gratings and can be used to generate various controlled phase singularities in the diffracted laser beams. The results of computer simulations of optical images, diffraction patterns, and phase distributions with optical vortices are in a good agreement with the corresponding experimental findings.

  4. Holographic Wilson loops in anisotropic quark-gluon plasma.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, Dmitry

    2016-10-01

    The nonequilibrium properties of the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma are condidered from the holographic viewpoint. Lifshitz-like solution is considered as a holographic dual of anisotropic QGP. The black brane formation in such background is considered as a thermalization in dual theory. As a probe of thermalization we consider rectangular spatial Wilson loops with different orientation.

  5. Quark and Gluon Form Factors to Three Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Baikov, P. A.; Smirnov, V. A.; Chetyrkin, K. G.; Smirnov, A. V.; Steinhauser, M.

    2009-05-29

    We compute the form factors of the photon-quark-anti-quark vertex and the effective vertex of a Higgs-boson and two gluons to three-loop order within massless perturbative quantum chromodynamics. These results provide building blocks for many third-order cross sections. Furthermore, this is the first calculation of complete three-loop vertex corrections.

  6. The gluon mass generation mechanism: A concise primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.

    2016-04-01

    We present a pedagogical overview of the nonperturbative mechanism that endows gluons with a dynamical mass. This analysis is performed based on pure Yang-Mills theories in the Landau gauge, within the theoretical framework that emerges from the combination of the pinch technique with the background field method. In particular, we concentrate on the Schwinger-Dyson equation satisfied by the gluon propagator and examine the necessary conditions for obtaining finite solutions within the infrared region. The role of seagull diagrams receives particular attention, as do the identities that enforce the cancellation of all potential quadratic divergences.We stress the necessity of introducing nonperturbative massless poles in the fully dressed vertices of the theory in order to trigger the Schwinger mechanism, and explain in detail the instrumental role of these poles in maintaining the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetry at every step of the mass-generating procedure. The dynamical equation governing the evolution of the gluon mass is derived, and its solutions are determined numerically following implementation of a set of simplifying assumptions. The obtained mass function is positive definite, and exhibits a power law running that is consistent with general arguments based on the operator product expansion in the ultraviolet region. A possible connection between confinement and the presence of an inflection point in the gluon propagator is briefly discussed.

  7. Creating the Primordial Quark-Gluon Plasma at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, John W.

    2013-04-01

    Ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) create an extremely hot system at temperatures (T) expected only within the first microseconds after the Big Bang. At these temperatures (T ˜ 2 x 10^12 K), a few hundred thousand times hotter than the sun's core, the known ``elementary'' particles cannot exist and matter ``melts'' to form a ``soup'' of quarks and gluons, called the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This ``soup'' flows easily, with extremely low viscosity, suggesting a nearly perfect hot liquid of quarks and gluons. Furthermore, the liquid is dense, highly interacting and opaque to energetic probes (fast quarks or gluons). RHIC has been in operation for twelve years and has established an impressive set of findings. Recent results from heavy ion collisions at the LHC extend the study of the QGP to higher temperatures and harder probes, such as jets (energetic clusters of particles), particles with extremely large transverse momenta and those containing heavy quarks. I will present a motivation for physics in the field and an overview of the new LHC heavy ion results in relation to results from RHIC.

  8. Cold quark-gluon plasma and multiparticle production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hove, L.

    1989-05-01

    We propose a mechanism for several unexpected particle production phenomena observed recently in high energy collisions and characterized by very low transverse momenta or intermittency-type fluctuations in longitudinal rapidity. It is based on a QCD parton shower model extended to very soft partons, leading to the formation of globs of very cold, nonthermal quark-gluon plasma.

  9. Recent Results on Polarized Quark and Gluon Distributions at Compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, I.; Jinr; Dubna

    2005-04-01

    The latest results of deep inelastic scattering (DIS) studies of 160 GeV muons on the deuterated polarized target are reported. They include estimations of virtual photon-deuteron asymmetries, gluon contributions to the nucleon spin and Collins asymmetries in hadron production on the transversely polarized target.

  10. Search for b-->s.gluon in B meson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Gläser, R.; Harder, G.; Krüger, A.; Nippe, A.; Oest, T.; Reidenbach, M.; Schäfer, M.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Sefkow, F.; Wurth, R.; Appuhn, R. D.; Drescher, A.; Hast, C.; Herrera, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Scheck, H.; Schweda, G.; Spaan, B.; Walther, A.; Wegener, D.; Paulini, M.; Reim, K.; Volland, U.; Wegener, H.; Funk, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ball, S.; Gabriel, J. C.; Geyer, C.; Hölscher, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holzer, B.; Khan, S.; Spengler, J.; Charlesworth, C. E. K.; Edwards, K. W.; Frisken, W. R.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Kutschke, R.; Macfarlane, D. B.; McLean, K. W.; Orr, R. S.; Parsons, J. A.; Patel, P. M.; Prentice, J. D.; Seidel, S. C.; Swain, J. D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Davis, R.; Ruf, T.; Schael, S.; Schubert, K. R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Boštjančič, B.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Pleško, M.; Cronström, H. I.; Jönsson, L.; Nilsson, A. W.; Babaev, A.; Danilov, M.; Fominykh, B.; Golutvin, A.; Gorelov, I.; Lubimov, V.; Rostovtsev, A.; Semenov, A.; Semenov, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Soloshenko, V.; Tchistilin, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Childers, R.; Darden, C. W.; Argus Collaboration

    1991-01-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e +e - storage ring DORIS II at DESY, a search for penguin decays of B mesons involving b→s gluon has been performed. No evidence for the penguin mechanism was found and a number of upper limits are quoted.

  11. Controversy concerning the definition of quark and gluon angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, Elliot

    2011-05-01

    A major controversy has arisen in QCD as to how to split the total angular momentum into separate quark and gluon contributions, and as to whether the gluon angular momentum can itself be split, in a gauge-invariant way, into a spin and orbital part. Several authors have proposed various answers to these questions and offered a variety of different expressions for the relevant operators. I argue that none of these is acceptable and suggest that the canonical expression for the momentum and angular momentum operators is the correct and physically meaningful one. It is then an inescapable fact that the gluon angular momentum operator cannot, in general, be split in a gauge-invariant way into a spin and orbital part. However, the projection of the gluon spin onto its direction of motion, i.e. its helicity is gauge invariant and is measured in deep inelastic scattering on nucleons. The Ji sum rule, relating the quark angular momentum to generalized parton distributions, though not based on the canonical operators, is shown to be correct, if interpreted with due care. I also draw attention to several interesting aspects of QED and QCD, which, to the best of my knowledge, are not commented upon in the standard textbooks on field theory.

  12. Nonlinear Landau damping in quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaofei, Zhang; Jiarong, Li

    1995-08-01

    The semiclassical kinetic equations for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) are discussed by the multiple time-scale method. The mechanism of nonlinear Landau damping owing to non-Abelian and nonlinear wave-particle interactions in QGP is investigated, and the nonlinear Landau damping rate for the longitudinal color eigenwaves in the long-wavelength limit is calculated.

  13. Exploring dynamical gluon mass generation in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwall, John M.

    2016-01-01

    We reexamine the d =3 dynamical gluon mass problem in pure-glue non-Abelian S U (N ) gauge theories, paying particular attention to the observed (in Landau gauge) violation of positivity for the spectral function of the gluon propagator. This is expressed as a large bulge in the propagator at small momentum, due to the d =3 avatar of asymptotic freedom. Mass is defined through m-2=Δ (p =0 ) , where Δ (p ) is the scalar function for the gluon propagator in some chosen gauge; it is not a pole mass and is generally gauge dependent, except in the gauge-invariant pinch technique (PT). We truncate the PT equations with a recently proposed method called the vertex paradigm that automatically satisfies the QED-like Ward identity relating the three-gluon PT vertex function with the PT propagator. The mass is determined by a homogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation involving this vertex and propagator. This gap equation also encapsulates the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the massless scalar excitations, essentially Nambu-Goldstone fields, that necessarily accompany gauge-invariant gluon mass. The problem is to find a good approximate value for m and at the same time explain the bulge, which by itself leads, in the gap equation for the gluon mass, to excessively large values for the mass. Our point is not to give a high-accuracy determination of m but to clarify the way in which the propagator bulge and a fairly accurate estimate of m can coexist, and we use various approximations that illustrate the underlying mechanisms. The most critical point is to satisfy the Ward identity. In the PT we estimate a gauge-invariant dynamical gluon mass of m ≈N g2/(2.48 π ) . We translate these results to the Landau gauge using a background-quantum identity involving a dynamical quantity κ such that m =κ mL , where mL-2≡ΔL(p =0 ) . Given our estimates for m , κ , the relation is fortuitously well satisfied for S U (2 ) lattice data.

  14. Evolution of a barotropic shear layer into elliptical vortices.

    PubMed

    Guha, Anirban; Rahmani, Mona; Lawrence, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    When a barotropic shear layer becomes unstable, it produces the well-known Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The nonlinear manifestation of the KHI is usually in the form of spiral billows. However, a piecewise linear shear layer produces a different type of KHI characterized by elliptical vortices of constant vorticity connected via thin braids. Using direct numerical simulation and contour dynamics, we show that the interaction between two counterpropagating vorticity waves is solely responsible for this KHI formation. We investigate the oscillation of the vorticity wave amplitude, the rotation and nutation of the elliptical vortex, and straining of the braids. Our analysis also provides a possible explanation for the formation and evolution of elliptical vortices appearing in geophysical and astrophysical flows, e.g., meddies, stratospheric polar vortices, Jovian vortices, Neptune's Great Dark Spot, and coherent vortices in the wind belts of Uranus.

  15. On the Generation of Vorticity at a Free Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Thomas; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    1997-11-01

    An algorithm for the generation of vorticity at a viscous free surface is described. The scheme is a free surface analogue of Lighthill's strategy for determining the vorticity flux at solid boundaries. In this method the zero shear stress and pressure boundary conditions are transformed into a boundary integral formulation suitable for the velocity-vorticity description of the flow. Vorticity is generated at free surfaces when there is flow past regions of surface curvature. It is shown that vorticity is conserved in a vortex dynamics formulation of free surface viscous flows. Vorticity which flows from the fluid is gained by a vortex sheet along the surface; the integral of vorticity over the entire fluid region plus the integral of ``surface vorticity'' over the free surface remains constant. The implications of the present algorithm as a tool for numerical calculations are discussed.

  16. Vorticity Control in Fish-like Propulsion and Maneuvering.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, M S; Techet, A H; Zhu, Q; Beal, D N; Hover, F S; Yue, D K P

    2002-11-01

    Vorticity control is employed by marine animals to enhance performance in maneuvering and propulsion. Studies on fish-like robots and experimental apparatus modelling rigid and flexible fins provide some of the basic mechanisms employed for controlling vorticity.

  17. The structure of the vorticity field in homogeneous turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Michael M.; Moin, Parviz

    1987-01-01

    The structures of the vorticity fields in several homogeneous irrotational straining flows and a homogeneous turbulent shear flow were examined using a database generated by direct numerical simulation of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. In all cases, strong evidence was found for the presence of coherent vortical structures. The initially isotropic vorticity fields were rapidly affected by imposed mean strain and the rotational component of mean shear and developed accordingly. In the homogeneous turbulent shear-flow cases, the roll-up of mean vorticity into characteristic hairpin vortices was clearly observed, supporting the view that hairpin vortices are an important vortical structure in all turbulent shear flows; the absence of mean shear in the homogeneous irrotational straining flows precludes the presence of hairpin-like vortices.

  18. Cyclones and attractive streaming generated by acoustical vortices.

    PubMed

    Riaud, Antoine; Baudoin, Michael; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Bou Matar, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Acoustical and optical vortices have attracted great interest due to their ability to capture and manipulate particles with the use of radiation pressure. Here we show that acoustical vortices can also induce axial vortical flow reminiscent of cyclones, whose topology can be controlled by adjusting the properties of the acoustical beam. In confined geometry, the phase singularity enables generating "attractive streaming" with the flow directed toward the transducer. This opens perspectives for contactless vortical flow control.

  19. Experimental Study of Lift-Generated Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The flow fields of vortices, whether bouyancy-driven or lift-generated, are fascinating fluid-dynamic phenomena which often possess intense swirl velocities and complex time-dependent behavior. As part of the on-going study of vortex behavior, this paper presents a historical overview of the research conducted on the structure and modification of the vortices generated by the lifting surfaces of subsonic transport aircraft. It is pointed out that the characteristics of lift-generated vortices are related to the aerodynamic shapes that produce them and that various arrangements of surfaces can be used to produce different vortex structures. The primary purpose of the research to be described is to find a way to reduce the hazard potential of lift-generated vortices shed by subsonic transport aircraft in the vicinity of airports during landing and takeoff operations. It is stressed that lift-generated vortex wakes are so complex that progress towards a solution requires application of a combined theoretical and experimental research program because either alone often leads to incorrect conclusions. It is concluded that a satisfactory aerodynamic solution to the wake-vortex problem at airports has not yet been found but a reduction in the impact of the wake-vortex hazard on airport capacity may become available in the foreseeable future through wake-vortex avoidance concepts currently under study. The material to be presented in this overview is drawn from aerospace journals that are available publicly.

  20. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  1. Temporal stability of multiple-cell vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, M. R.; Grosch, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    The temporal stability of multiple cell vortices is studied with a staggered Chebyshev spectral collocation technique. It is shown that cell multiplicity in the vortex core has a drastic effect on the stability characteristics. While validating the spectral collocation algorithm, two new viscous modes of instability for Batchelor's (1964) vortex were found. These modes are discussed in detail.

  2. Numerical simulation of pump-intake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, Pavel; Klas, Roman

    2015-05-01

    Pump pre-swirl or uneven flow distribution in front of the pump can induce pump-intake vortices. These phenomena result in blockage of the impeller suction space, deterioration of efficiency, drop of head curve and earlier onset of cavitation. Real problematic case, where head curve drop was documented, is simulated using commercial CFD software. Computational simulation was carried out for three flow rates, which correspond to three operating regimes of the vertical pump. The domain consists of the pump sump, pump itself excluding the impeller and the delivery pipe. One-phase approach is applied, because the vortex cores were not filled with air during observation of the real pump operation. Numerical simulation identified two surface vortices and one bottom vortex. Their position and strength depend on the pump flow rate. Paper presents detail analysis of the flow field on the pump intake, discusses influence of the vortices on pump operation and suggests possible actions that should be taken to suppress the intake vortices.

  3. Dust and the Mars Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, S.; Waugh, D.; Toigo, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dust is a highly variable forcing mechanism altering martian atmospheric dynamics. The greatest variability in atmospheric dust opacity occurs during Mars' northern hemisphere fall and winter, the canonical "dust storm season". The northern polar vortex develops during this season and can be stretched, weakened, or strengthened by variations in atmospheric dust. Additionally, Mars' north polar vortex manifests as an annulus of high potential vorticity around the geographic pole, which is distinctly different than Earth's stratospheric polar vortices where potential vorticity peaks at the pole. We examine the role of dust in shaping and altering the martian polar vortices in a series of idealized MarsWRF general circulation model simulations. Increasing dust loading disrupts the northern polar vortex near the winter solstice leading to a "mid-winter warming", and this is also seen in observations from the Mars Climate Sounder and Thermal Emission Spectrometer during large dust events. These appear loosely analogous with terrestrial "sudden stratospheric warming" events, where the strong westerly jet around the pole weakens and air inside the vortex quickly warms. The southern hemisphere winter polar vortex is distinctly different from that of the northern hemisphere, and we show that the fundamental "handedness" of the current martian climactic regime makes the southern hemisphere vortex less sensitive to dust forcing.

  4. Potential vorticity formulation of compressible magnetohydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Arter, Wayne

    2013-01-04

    Compressible ideal magnetohydrodynamics is formulated in terms of the time evolution of potential vorticity and magnetic flux per unit mass using a compact Lie bracket notation. It is demonstrated that this simplifies analytic solution in at least one very important situation relevant to magnetic fusion experiments. Potentially important implications for analytic and numerical modelling of both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are also discussed.

  5. Vorticity dynamics in an intracranial aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Trung; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation is carried out to investigate the vortex dynamics of physiologic pulsatile flow in an intracranial aneurysm. The numerical solver is based on the CURVIB (curvilinear grid/immersed boundary method) approach developed by Ge and Sotiropoulos, J. Comp. Physics, 225 (2007) and is applied to simulate the blood flow in a grid with 8 million grid nodes. The aneurysm geometry is extracted from MRI images from common carotid artery (CCA) of a rabbit (courtesy Dr.Kallmes, Mayo Clinic). The simulation reveals the formation of a strong vortex ring at the proximal end during accelerated flow phase. The vortical structure advances toward the aneurysm dome forming a distinct inclined circular ring that connects with the proximal wall via two long streamwise vortical structures. During the reverse flow phase, the back flow results to the formation of another ring at the distal end that advances in the opposite direction toward the proximal end and interacts with the vortical structures that were created during the accelerated phase. The basic vortex formation mechanism is similar to that observed by Webster and Longmire (1998) for pulsed flow through inclined nozzles. The similarities between the two flows will be discussed and the vorticity dynamics of an aneurysm and inclined nozzle flows will be analyzed.This work was supported in part by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  6. Vorticity dynamics and thrust during VRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savas, Omer; Green, Richard; Caradonna, Francis

    2007-11-01

    Under certain conditions of rapid descent of a rotorcraft, the vortices that usually trail below a rotor disk to form the helical vortex wake collapse into a ring-like structure around the plane of the disk, which is known as the vortex ring state (VRS). The formation and subsequent breakdown of the ring-like vortex is accompanied by large thrust excursions. In axial descent the thrust excursions are aperiodic, while in non-axial descent a periodicity on the order of several tens of rotor revolutions is observed. We discuss here experimental observations of the phase relation between the thrust cycle and vorticity distribution. The experiments were performed in a towing tank using a three-blade rotor. Rotor thrust was measured by strain gages and the vorticity fields using PIV. The flow structure as marked by vorticity distribution highlight the changes in the flow topology during the VRS cycles contrast the flow behavior at the leading and the trailing edges. The flow over the trailing edge exhibits large variations, whereas that over the leading edge is more tamed. Maxima of the VRS thrust oscillations correlate well with the maxima of enstrophy observed at the trailing edge of the rotor disk.

  7. Inviscid modeling of aircraft trailing vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, V. J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is presented of inviscid theoretical methods that are useful in the study of lift-generated vortices. Concepts derived using these invisicid theories are cited which have helped to guide research directed at alleviating the velocities and rolling moments imposed on aircraft entering these wakes.

  8. On the stability of reverse flow vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshkin, O. V.

    2016-12-01

    The nonlinear stability of vortex zones of reverse flows in a plane-parallel ideal incompressible flow is proved. The zones originate at large values of a dimensionless parameter taken in the inflow part of the boundary, the so-called vorticity level. Positive or negative values of this parameter lead to a left- or right-hand oriented vortex, respectively.

  9. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  10. Phase vortices of the quenched Haldane model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinlong

    2017-08-01

    Using the recently developed Bloch-state tomography technique, the quasimomentum k -dependent Bloch states [sin("close=")θk/2 )">θk/2 ,-cosvortices. The first type of vortices is static, with the corresponding Bloch vectors pointing to the north pole (θk=0 ). The second type of vortices is dynamical, with the corresponding Bloch vectors pointing to the south pole (θk=π ). In the (kx,ky,t ) space, the linking number between the trajectories of these two types of vortices exactly equals the Chern number of the lower band of Hf, which provides an alternative method to directly map out the topological phase boundaries of the Haldane model.

  11. Temporal stability of multiple-cell vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, M. R.; Grosch, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    The temporal stability of multiple cell vortices is studied with a staggered Chebyshev spectral collocation technique. It is shown that cell multiplicity in the vortex core has a drastic effect on the stability characteristics. While validating the spectral collocation algorithm, two new viscous modes of instability for Batchelor's (1964) vortex were found. These modes are discussed in detail.

  12. A direct determination of the gluon density in the proton at low x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bähr, J.; Bán, J.; Ban, Y.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Barschke, R.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bispham, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Burton, M. J.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Clerbaux, B.; Colombo, M.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D. G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Droutskoi, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotox, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Glazov, A.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herynek, I.; Hess, M. F.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hiller, K. H.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Horisberger, R.; Hudgson, V. L.; Huet, Ph.; Hütte, M.; Hufnagel, H.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kazarian, S.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Köhne, J. H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krämerkämper, T.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Krüner-Marquis, U.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurča, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J.-F.; Lebedev, A.; Lehner, F.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Link, J.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; List, B.; Lobo, G.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lomas, J. W.; Lopez, G. C.; Lubimox, V.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Maraček, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, G.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, T.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Migliori, A.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Mroczko, E.; Müller, G.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Nicholls, T. C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg-Werther, M.; Oakden, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panaro, E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Pope, G.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rabbertz, K.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Rick, H.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, H. E.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Yoyon, C.; Rüter, K.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Rylko, R.; Sahlmann, N.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schacht, P.; Schiek, S.; Schleif, S.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, G.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schwab, B.; Sciacca, G.; Sefkow, F.; Seidel, M.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Spiekermann, J.; Spielman, S.; Spitzer, H.; Starosta, R.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stiewe, J.; Stößlein, U.; Stolze, K.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Uelkes, P.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Vandenplas, D.; Van Esch, P.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Verrecchia, P.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wagener, A.; Wagener, M.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wellisch, H. P.; West, L. R.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wittek, C.; Wright, A. E.; Wünsch, E.; Wulff, N.; Yiou, T. P.; Žáček, J.; Zarbock, D.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmer, M.; Zimmermann, W.; Zomer, F.; Zuber, K.; zur Nedden, M.; H1 Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    A leading order determination of the gluon density in the proton has been performed in the fractional momentum range 1.9 · 10 -3 < xg/ p < 0.18 by measuring multi-jet events from boson-gluon fusion in deep-inelastic scattering with the H1 detector at the electron-proton collider HERA. This direct determination of the gluon density was performed in a kinematic region previously not accessible. The data show a considerable increase of the gluon density with decreasing fractional momenta of the gluons.

  13. Multiferroic vortices: arrested Kosterlitz-Thouless order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2012-02-01

    The fascinating concept of topological defects permeates ubiquitously our understanding of the early-stage universe, hurricanes, quantum matters such as superfluids and superconductors, and also technological materials such as liquid crystals and magnets. Large-scale spatial configurations of these topological defects have been investigated only in a limited degree. Exceptions include the cases of supercurrent vortices or liquid crystals, but they tend to exhibit either trivial or rather-irregular configurations. Hexagonal REMnO3 (RE= rare earths) with RE=Ho-Lu, Y, and Sc, is an improper ferroelectric where the size mismatch between RE and Mn induces a trimerization-type structural phase transition, and this structural transition leads to three structural domains, each of which can support two directions of ferroelectric polarization. We reported that domains in h-REMnO3 meet in cloverleaf arrangements that cycle through all six domain configurations, Occurring in pairs, the cloverleafs can be viewed as vortices and antivortices, in which the cycle of domain configurations is reversed. Vortices and antivortices are topological defects: even in a strong electric field they won't annihilate. These ferroelectric vortices/antivortices are found to be associated with intriguing magnetism. The seemingly-irregular configurations of a zoo of multiferroic vortices and antivortices in h-REMnO3 can be neatly analyzed in terms of graph theory and this graph theoretical analysis reflects the nature of self-organized criticality in complexity phenomena as well as the condensation and eventual annihilation processes of topological vortex-antivortex pairs. Furthermore, these numerous multiferroic vortices/antivortices can be understood as an arrested Kosterlitz-Thouless phase. [4pt] [1] Insulating Interlocked Ferroelectric and Structural Antiphase Domain Walls in Multiferroic YMnO3, T. Choi, - - -, S-W. Cheong, Nature Materials 9, 253 (2010). [0pt] [2] Self

  14. Controlled Manipulation of Individual Vortices in a Superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Straver, E.W.J.

    2010-04-05

    We report controlled local manipulation of single vortices by low temperature magnetic force microscope (MFM) in a thin film of superconducting Nb. We are able to position the vortices in arbitrary configurations and to measure the distribution of local depinning forces. This technique opens up new possibilities for the characterization and use of vortices in superconductors.

  15. Notes and correspondence: An alternative form for potential vorticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lait, Leslie R.

    1994-01-01

    A form of potential vorticity is described that has conversation properties similar to those of Ertel's potential vorticity (EPV) but removes the exponential variation with height displayed by EPV. This form is thus more suitable for inspecting vertical cross sections of potential vorticity and for use (with potential temperature) as a quasi-conserved coordinate in the analysis of chemical constituent data.

  16. Global Vorticity Shedding on Rectangular and Streamlined Foil Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Stephanie; Dahl, Jason; Weymouth, Gabriel; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We explore several aspects of the fluid phenomenon we call global vorticity shedding. Global vorticity shedding occurs when an object in a fluid with circulation suddenly vanishes, shedding the entirety of the boundary layer vorticity into the wake at once. Global vorticity shedding is in distinct contrast with traditional massive separation shedding, in which vorticity is shed from a body from only a few separation points into the fluid. In our experiments, we approximate the disappearance of a towed foil by rapidly retracting the foil in the span-wise direction. We show that for a square-tipped vanishing foil at an angle of attack, the globally shed boundary layer vorticity forms into primary vortices, which evolve and eventually amalgamate with secondary vortices to leave two lasting vortices in the wake. The secondary vortices are a result of three-dimensionality in the flow. We further explore streamlined foil geometries to achieve a simpler and less three-dimensional wake. Vortex formation times are small, with vortices fully formed nearly instantaneously in the flow, making the application of global vorticity shedding promising for a force transducer to impart large and fast maneuvering forces on an underwater vehicle. This research was made with Government support under and awarded by DoD, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a.

  17. Bilinear relative equilibria of identical point vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref, Hassan; Beelen, Peter; Brøns, Morten

    2011-11-01

    A new class of bilinear relative equilibria of identical point vortices in which the vortices are constrained to be on two perpendicular lines, taken to be the x- and y-axes of a cartesian coordinate system, is introduced and studied. In general we have m vortices on the y-axis and n on the x- axis. We define generating polynomials q (z) and p (z) , respectively, for each set of vortices. A second order, linear ODE for p (z) given q (z) is derived. Several results relating the general solution of the ODE to relative equilibrium configurations are established. Our strongest result, obtained using Sturm's comparison theorem, is that if p (z) satisfies the ODE for a given q (z) with its imaginary zeros symmetric relative to the x-axis, then it must have at least n - m + 2 simple, real zeros. For m = 2 this provides a complete characterization of all zeros, and we study this case in some detail. In particular, we show that given q (z) =z2 +η2 , where η is real, there is a unique p (z) of degree n, and a unique value of η2 =An , such that the zeros of q (z) and p (z) form a relative equilibrium of n + 2 point vortices. We show that An ~2/3 n +1/2 , as n --> ∞ , where the coefficient of n is determined analytically, the next order term numerically. Supported in part by the Danish National Research Foundation through a Niels Bohr visiting professorship.

  18. Prometheus Induced Vorticity in Saturn's F Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.

    2016-11-01

    Saturn's rings are known to show remarkable real time variability in their structure. Many of which can be associated to interactions with nearby moons and moonlets. Possibly the most interesting and dynamic place in the rings, probably in the whole Solar System, is the F ring. A highly disrupted ring with large asymmetries both radially and azimuthally. Numerically non-zero components to the curl of the velocity vector field (vorticity) in the perturbed area of the F ring post encounter are witnessed, significantly above the background vorticity. Within the perturbed area rich distributions of local rotations is seen located in and around the channel edges. The gravitational scattering of ring particles during the encounter causes a significant elevated curl of the vector field above the background F ring vorticity for the first 1-3 orbital periods post encounter. After 3 orbital periods vorticity reverts quite quickly to near background levels. This new found dynamical vortex life of the ring will be of great interest to planet and planetesimals in proto-planetary disks where vortices and turbulence are suspected of having a significant role in their formation and migrations. Additionally, it is found that the immediate channel edges created by the close passage of Prometheus actually show high radial dispersions in the order 20-50 cm/s, up to a maximum of 1 m/s. This is much greater than the value required by Toomre for a disk to be unstable to the growth of axisymmetric oscillations. However, an area a few hundred km away from the edge shows a more promising location for the growth of coherent objects.

  19. An eddy closure for potential vorticity

    SciTech Connect

    Ringler, Todd D

    2009-01-01

    The Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization is extended to include a direct influence in the momentum equation. The extension is carried out in two stages; an analysis of the inviscid system is followed by an analysis of the viscous system. In the inviscid analysis the momentum equation is modified such that potential vorticity is conserved along particle trajectories following a transport velocity that includes the Bolus velocity in a manner exactly analogous to the continuity and tracer equations. In addition (and in contrast to traditional GM closures), the new formulation of the inviscid momentum equation results in a conservative exchange between potential and kinetic forms of energy. The inviscid form of the eddy closure conserves total energy to within an error proportional to the time derivative of the Bolus velocity. The hypothesis that the viscous term in the momentum equation should give rise to potential vorticity being diffused along isopycnals in a manner analogous to other tracers is examined in detail. While the form of the momentum closure that follows from a strict adherence to this hypothesis is not immediately interpretable within the constructs of traditional momentum closures, three approximations to this hypothesis results in a form of dissipation that is consistent with traditional Laplacian diffusion. The first two approximations are that relative vorticity, not potential vorticity, is diffused along isopyncals and that the flow is in approximate geostrophic balance. An additional approximation to the Jacobian term is required when the dissipation coefficient varies in space. More importantly, the critique of this hypothesis results in the conclusion that the viscosity parameter in the momentum equation should be identical to the tradition GM closure parameter {Kappa}. Overall, we deem the viscous form of the eddy closure for potential vorticity as a viable closure for use in ocean circulation models.

  20. COSMIC VORTICITY AND THE ORIGIN HALO SPINS

    SciTech Connect

    Libeskind, Noam I.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Gottloeber, Stefan; Hess, Steffen; Hoffman, Yehuda; Knebe, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In the standard model of cosmology, structure emerges out of a non-rotational flow and the angular momentum of collapsing halos is induced by tidal torques. The growth of angular momentum in the linear and quasi-linear phases is associated with a shear, curl-free, flow and it is well described within the linear framework of tidal torque theory (TTT). However, TTT ceases to be applicable as halos approach turnaround when their ambient flow field becomes rotational. Subsequently, halos become embedded in a vortical flow field and the growth of their angular momentum is affected by the vorticity of their ambient velocity field. Using a cosmological simulation, we have examined the importance of the curl of the velocity field in determining halo spin, finding a significant alignment between the two: the vorticity tends to be perpendicular to the axis of the fastest collapse of the velocity shear tensor (e{sub 1}). This is independent of halo masses and cosmic web environment. Our results agree with previous findings on the tendency of halo spin to be perpendicular to e{sub 1}, and of the spin of (simulated) halos and (observed) galaxies to be aligned with the large-scale structure. It follows that angular momentum growth proceeds in two distinct phases. First, the angular momentum emerges out of a shear, curl-free, potential flow, as described by TTT. In the second phase, in which halos approach virialization, the angular momentum emerges out of a vortical flow and halo spin becomes partially aligned with the vorticity of the ambient flow field.

  1. Measuring vortical flows in the solar interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfellner, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This thesis focuses on observations of the effects of rotation on solar convection at the length scales of supergranulation and larger (>30 Mm). Rotation drives vortical flows through the Coriolis force and causes anisotropic velocity correlations that are believed to influence the large-scale solar dynamics. We obtain horizontal flows using photospheric Doppler velocity and continuum intensity images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft via the techniques of time-distance helioseismology (TD) and local correlation tracking (LCT) of granules. In time-distance helioseismology, the local vertical vorticity can be measured by taking the difference between wave travel times measured in the anti-clockwise and clockwise directions along a closed contour. The agreement between the TD and LCT methods is excellent up to ±60° latitude, provided that a center-to-limb correction is applied. Averaging over longitude, one finds that there is a small but significant correlation between the horizontal divergence and the vertical vorticity component of supergranular flows away from the solar equator. By comparison to a noise model, we find that the TD technique can be used to probe the vertical vorticity of flows on spatial scales larger than about 15 Mm, thus including supergranules and also giant cells. We also find that the vertical vorticity signal is much easier to measure using SDO/HMI observations than previous observations. The impact of the Sun's rotation on supergranulation is studied in detail by making spatial maps of the vertical vorticity of the flows associated with the average supergranule. The average supergranule is constructed by co-aligning thousands of individual supergranules in a given latitude band. For the first time, we are able to spatially resolve vorticity associated with inflows and outflow regions. In the northern hemisphere, outflows are on average associated with a clockwise

  2. Recovering the vorticity of a light beam after scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salla, Gangi Reddy Perumangattu, Chithrabhanu; Anwar, Ali; Prabhakar, Shashi; Singh, Ravindra P.

    2015-07-13

    We generate optical vortices and scatter them through a rough surface. However, the scattered light passing through a lens shows the same vorticity when probed at the Fourier plane. The vorticity is measured using a nonseparable state of polarization and orbital angular momentum of light as it cannot be confirmed by the standard interferometric technique. The observed vorticity is found to be independent of the amount of scattered light collected. Therefore, vortices can be used as information carriers even in the presence of scattering media. The experimental results are well supported by the theoretical results.

  3. Methods of formation and nonlinear conversion of Bessel optical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyi, V. N.; King, Terence A.; Kazak, Nikolai S.; Khilo, Nikolay A.; Katranji, Evgeni G.; Ryzhevich, Anatol A.

    2001-05-01

    Linear and nonlinear processes of generation and transformation of optical vortices in crystals were investigated. New universal methods for production of Bessel light beams with optical vortices of the first, second and higher order by means of uniaxial and biaxial crystals were proposed. Light beams with optical vortices of topological charge +/- 1 and +/- 2 are experimentally obtained using KTP and HIO3 (iodic acid) biaxial crystals. We studied type II second harmonic generation by Bessel beams with optical vortices in nonlinear crystals. Results of investigation of the processes of Bessel light vortex order doubling, transfer of vortex to the second harmonic radiation, and annihilation of optical vortices with the opposite signa are presented.

  4. QCD gluon vertices from the string-inspired formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Schubert, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The Bern-Kosower formalism, developed around 1990 as a novel way of obtaining QCD amplitudes as the limit of infinite string tension of the corresponding string amplitudes, was originally designed as an on-shell formalism. Building on early work by Strassler, the authors have recently shown that this “string-inspired formalism” is extremely efficient also as a tool for the study of off-shell amplitudes in QCD, and in particular for achieving compact form factor decompositions of the N-gluon vertices. Among other things, this formalism allows one to achieve a manifestly gauge invariant decomposition of these vertices by way of integration-by-parts, rather than the usual tedious analysis of the non-abelian off-shell Ward identities, and to combine the spin zero, half and one cases. Here, we will provide a summary of the method, as well as its application to the three- and four-gluon vertices.

  5. Nonperturbative equation of state of quark gluon plasma: Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, E. V.; Simonov, Yu. A.

    2008-05-01

    The vacuum-driven nonperturbative factors Li for quark and gluon Green's functions are shown to define the nonperturbative dynamics of QGP in the leading approximation. EoS obtained recently in the framework of this approach is compared in detail with known lattice data for μ = 0 including P/ T4, ɛ/ T4, {ɛ-3P}/{T4}. The basic role in the dynamics at T ≲ 3 Tc is played by the factors Li which are approximately equal to the modulus of Polyakov line for quark Lfund and gluon Ladj. The properties of Li are derived from field correlators and compared to lattice data, in particular the Casimir scaling property Ladj=(Lfund) follows in the Gaussian approximation valid for small vacuum correlation lengths. Resulting curves for P/ T4, ɛ/ T4, {ɛ-3P}/{T4} are in a reasonable agreement with lattice data, the remaining difference points out to an effective attraction among QGP constituents.

  6. Strong-coupling effects in a plasma of confining gluons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Su, Nan; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2016-12-01

    The plasma consisting of confining gluons resulting from the Gribov quantization of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory is studied using non-equilibrium fluid dynamical framework. Exploiting the Bjorken symmetry and using linear response theory a general analytic expressions for the bulk, ζ, and shear, η, viscosity coefficients are derived. It is found that the considered system exhibits a number of properties similar to the strongly-coupled theories, where the conformality is explicitly broken. In particular, it is shown that, in the large temperature limit, ζ / η ratio, scales linearly with the difference 1 / 3 - cs2, where cs is the speed of sound. Results obtained from the analysis are in line with the interpretation of the quark-gluon plasma as an almost perfect fluid.

  7. Dynamical chiral symmetry with an infrared finite gluon propagator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, J. C.; Aguilar, A. C.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we study dynamical quark mass generation using an infrared finite gluon propagator obtained from quenched lattice simulations. The quark gap equation is solved using a purely non-Abelian Ansatz for the quark-gluon vertex, which displays a dependence on the ghost dressing function and the scalar component of quark-ghost scattering kernel. For the former quantity we use quenched lattice results, while for the latter we derive its own integral equation at the one-loop-dressed approximation. This latter quantity is then coupled to the system of equations governing the two Dirac structures of the quark propagator. It turns out that when a current quark mass of 5 MeV is introduced, the constituent quark mass generated from the gap equation is of the order of 310 MeV. In addition, the pion decay constant computed from the resulting quark propagator is in good agreement with the physical value.

  8. On the zero crossing of the three-gluon vertex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athenodorou, A.; Binosi, D.; Boucaud, Ph.; De Soto, F.; Papavassiliou, J.; Rodríguez-Quintero, J.; Zafeiropoulos, S.

    2016-10-01

    We report on new results on the infrared behavior of the three-gluon vertex in quenched Quantum Chromodynamics, obtained from large-volume lattice simulations. The main focus of our study is the appearance of the characteristic infrared feature known as 'zero crossing', the origin of which is intimately connected with the nonperturbative masslessness of the Faddeev-Popov ghost. The appearance of this effect is clearly visible in one of the two kinematic configurations analyzed, and its theoretical origin is discussed in the framework of Schwinger-Dyson equations. The effective coupling in the momentum subtraction scheme that corresponds to the three-gluon vertex is constructed, revealing the vanishing of the effective interaction at the exact location of the zero crossing.

  9. Extraction of the gluon density of the proton at x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R. L.; Thron, J.; Arzarello, F.; Ayad, R.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Ciralli, F.; Contin, A.; D'Auria, S.; Frasconi, F.; Gialas, I.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Crittenden, J.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Eckert, M.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Grothe, M.; Hartmann, H.; Haun, D.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Katz, U. F.; Mari, S. M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Paul, E.; Rembser, Ch.; Schattevoy, R.; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Llewellyn, T. J.; Morgado, C. J. S.; Norman, D. J. P.; O'Mara, J. A.; Tapper, R. J.; Wilson, S. S.; Yoshida, R.; Rau, R. R.; Arneodo, M.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Parsons, J. A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P. B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Eskreys, K.; Jelén, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zarȩbska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zajaç, J.; Kȩdzierski, T.; Kotański, A.; Przybycień, M.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Behrens, U.; Bienlein, J. K.; Böttcher, S.; Coldewey, C.; Drews, G.; Flasiński, M.; Gilkinson, D. J.; Göttlicher, P.; Gutjahr, B.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Heβling, H.; Hultschig, H.; Iga, Y.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Köpke, L.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kröger, W.; Krüger, J.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Löhr, B.; Löwe, M.; Lüke, D.; Mańczak, O.; Ng, J. S. T.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.; Roldán, J.; Schneekloth, U.; Schulz, W.; Selonke, F.; Stiliaris, E.; Voβ, T.; Westphal, D.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Grabosch, H. J.; Leich, A.; Meyer, A.; Rethfeldt, C.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Pelfer, P.; Anzivino, G.; Maccarrone, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Qian, S.; Votano, L.; Bamberger, A.; Freidhof, A.; Poser, T.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Schroeder, J.; Theisen, G.; Trefzger, T.; Brook, N. H.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Fleck, I.; Jamieson, V. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Utley, M. L.; Wilson, A. S.; Dannemann, A.; Holm, U.; Horstmann, D.; Kammerlocher, H.; Krebs, B.; Neumann, T.; Sinkus, R.; Wick, K.; Badura, E.; Burow, B. D.; Fürtjes, A.; Hagge, L.; Lohrmann, E.; Mainusch, J.; Milewski, J.; Nakahata, M.; Pavel, N.; Poelz, G.; Schott, W.; Terron, J.; Zetsche, F.; Bacon, T. C.; Beuselinck, R.; Butterworth, I.; Gallo, E.; Harris, V. L.; Hung, B. H.; Long, K. R.; Miller, D. B.; Morawitz, P. P. O.; Prinias, A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Whitfield, A. F.; Mallik, U.; McCliment, E.; Wang, M. Z.; Wang, S. M.; Wu, J. T.; Zhang, Y.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; An, S. H.; Hong, S. M.; Nam, S. W.; Park, S. K.; Suh, M. H.; Yon, S. H.; Imlay, R.; Kartik, S.; Kim, H.-J.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W.; Nadendla, V. K.; Barreiro, F.; Cases, G.; Graciani, R.; Hernández, J. M.; Hervás, L.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Puga, J.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Ikraiam, F.; Mayer, J. K.; Smith, G. R.; Corriveau, F.; Hanna, D. S.; Hartmann, J.; Hung, L. W.; Lim, J. N.; Matthews, C. G.; Patel, P. M.; Sinclair, L. E.; Stairs, D. G.; St. Laurent, M.; Ullmann, R.; Zacek, G.; Bashkirov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Stifutkin, A.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Kobrin, V. D.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Savin, A. A.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Solomin, A. N.; Zotov, N. P.; Bentvelsen, S.; Botje, M.; Chlebana, F.; Dake, A.; Engelen, J.; de Jong, P.; de Kamps, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kruse, A.; O'Dell, V.; Tenner, A.; Tiecke, H.; Verkerke, W.; Vreeswijk, M.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; van Woudenberg, R.; Acosta, D.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Honscheid, K.; Li, C.; Ling, T. Y.; McLean, K. W.; Murray, W. N.; Park, I. H.; Romanowski, T. A.; Seidlein, R.; Bailey, D. S.; Blair, G. A.; Byrne, A.; Cashmore, R. J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Daniels, D.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Harnew, N.; Lancaster, M.; Luffman, P. E.; Lindemann, L.; McFall, J.; Nath, C.; Quadt, A.; Uijterwaal, H.; Walczak, R.; Wilson, F. F.; Yip, T.; Abbiendi, G.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; De Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Limentani, S.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Bulmahn, J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Feild, R. G.; Oh, B. Y.; Whitmore, J. J.; D'Agostini, G.; Iori, M.; Marini, G.; Mattioli, M.; Nigro, A.; Tassi, E.; Hart, J. C.; McCubbin, N. A.; Prytz, K.; Shah, T. P.; Short, T. L.; Barberis, E.; Cartiglia, N.; Dubbs, T.; Heusch, C.; Van Hook, M.; Hubbard, B.; Lockman, W.; Rahn, J. T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Biltzinger, J.; Seifert, R. J.; Walenta, A. H.; Zech, G.; Abramowicz, H.; Briskin, G.; Dagan, S.; Levy, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishii, T.; Kuze, M.; Mine, S.; Nagasawa, Y.; Nagira, T.; Nakao, M.; Suzuki, I.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Chiba, M.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Homma, K.; Kitamura, S.; Nagayama, S.; Nakamitsu, Y.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Lamberti, L.; Maselli, S.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Dardo, M.; Bailey, D. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Benard, F.; Brkic, M.; Crombie, M. B.; Gingrich, D. M.; Hartner, G. F.; Joo, K. K.; Levman, G. M.; Martin, J. F.; Orr, R. S.; Sampson, C. R.; Teuscher, R. J.; Catterall, C. D.; Jones, T. W.; Kaziewicz, P. B.; Lane, J. B.; Saunders, R. L.; Shulman, J.; Blankenship, K.; Kochocki, J.; Lu, B.; Mo, L. W.; Bogusz, W.; Charchuł; a, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gajewski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kasprzak, M.; Krzyżanowski, M.; Muchorowski, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Wróblewski, A. K.; Zakrzewski, J. A.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Eisenberg, Y.; Glasman, C.; Karshon, U.; Revel, D.; Shapira, A.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Dasu, S.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Loveless, R. J.; Reeder, D. D.; Silverstein, S.; Smith, W. H.; Tsurugai, T.; Bhadra, S.; Frisken, W. R.; Furutani, K. M.; Zeus Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    The gluon momentum density xg( x, Q2) of the proton was extracted at Q2 = 20 GeV 2 for small values of x between 4 × 10 -4 and 10 -2 from the scaling violations of the proton structure function F2 measured recently by ZEUS in deep inelastic neutral current ep scattering at HERA. The extraction was performed in two ways. Firstly, using a global NLO fit to the ZEUS data on F2 at low x constrained by measurementsfrom NMC at larger x; and secondly using published approximate methods for the solution of the GLAP QCD evolution equations. Consistent results are obtained. A substantial increase of the gluon density is found at small x in comparison with the NMC result obtained at larger values of x.

  10. Transverse momentum dependent quark and gluon distributions of light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematollahi, H.; Yazdanpanah, M. M.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the unpolarized transverse momentum dependent (TMD) structure of light nuclei in the modified chiral quark exchange model (QEM), for the first time. To this end, we calculate the TMD quark and gluon distributions inside the bound state nucleons of the light nuclei based on the modified chiral quark model (χ {{QM}}) in which the TMD bare quark distributions of the bounded nucleons are needed. In order to compute these bare distributions, we first obtain the bare quark momentum densities using the QEM and then calculate the TMD bare distributions applying a theoretical method in which the light-cone variables are used. Finally, considering the nucleon structure of helium, tritium and deuteron nuclei, we obtain their TMD quark and gluon densities at low Q 2 scale. It is shown that our results have appropriate properties that are expected for the TMD distribution functions.

  11. The physics of hot and dense quark-gluon matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2012-05-10

    This technical report describes the work done under the DOE grant DE-FG-88ER41723 (final award number DE-SC0005645), "The physics of hot and dense quark-gluon matter", during the year of 12/01/2010 through 11/30/2011. As planned in the proposal, the performed research focused along two main thrusts: 1) topological effects in hot quark-gluon matter and 2) phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The results of research are presented in 12 papers published in reputable refereed journals (Physical Review Letters, Physical Review, Physics Letters and Nuclear Physics). All of the performed research is directly related to the experimental programs of DOE, especially at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Much of it also has broader interdisciplinary implications - for example, the work on the non-dissipative chiral magnetic current is directly relevant for quantum computing. The attached report describes the performed work in detail.

  12. Glauber gluons in pion-induced Drell-Yan processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-peng; Li, Hsiang-nan

    2013-10-01

    We point out that the existence of Glauber gluons in the kT factorization theorem can account for the violation of the Lam-Tung relation, namely, the anomalous lepton angular distribution observed in pion-induced Drell-Yan processes. The emission of a final-state parton, that balances the lepton-pair transverse momentum, causes the responsible spin-transverse-momentum correlation in the Glauber-gluon background. It is argued that the Glauber effect is significant in the pion due to its unique role of being a Nambu-Goldstone boson and a qqbar bound state simultaneously. This mechanism is compared to other resolutions in the literature by means of vacuum effects and Boer-Mulders functions. We propose to discriminate the above resolutions by measuring the ppbar Drell-Yan process at GSI and J-PARC.

  13. Quark-Gluon Soup -- The Perfectly Liquid Phase of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    At temperatures above about 150 MeV and energy densities exceeding 500 MeV/fm3, quarks and gluons exist in the form of a plasma of free color charges that is about 1000 times hotter and a billion times denser than any other plasma ever created in the laboratory. This quark-gluon plasma (QGP) turns out to be strongly coupled, flowing like a liquid. About 35 years ago, the nuclear physics community started a program of relativistic heavy-ion collisions with the goal of producing and studying QGP under controlled laboratory conditions. This article recounts the story of its successful creation in collider experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and CERN and the subsequent discovery of its almost perfectly liquid nature, and reports on the recent quantitatively precise determination of its thermodynamic and transport properties.

  14. The quark-gluon plasma and the stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of data from the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) has established that a quark-gluon plasma is formed in heavy-ion collisions, and that it is well described by an ideal classical fluid model with nearly zero viscosity. It is believed that a similar state of matter permeated the entire universe at about three microseconds after the big bang. The Reynolds number for this primordial fluid is estimated to be on the order 10 19 suggesting that the early universe was extremely turbulent. Could quantum behavior as we observe today possibly be a stochastic manifestation of this turbulent beginning? This paper explores this question by examining a particularly simple class of ideal fluids exhibiting turbulence and chaos in numerical simulations implemented utilizing a Fourier-Galerkin spectral truncation method. This proto-fluid model ignores pressure completely and is referred to in the cosmological literature as the Lambda-CDM model or cosmic dust model. It is compatible with a flat space-time provided a cosmological constant is included in the equations of general relativity, and it can be transformed into the inviscid Burgers equation. A new class of solitons is presented for this system. It is shown that these can be combined with the known chaotic solutions, and that they then move randomly with a mean velocity that does not decay with time, exhibiting a time-reversible stochastic motion without any friction, similar to quantum particles. The turbulent fluid is statistically a Markov process, and the soliton's position can be described by a hidden Markov model. It is also found that if the initial conditions for the fluid contain a single filament of vorticity, then a complex wave function which is single valued can be defined.

  15. Development and Interaction of Artificially Generated Hairpin Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Daniel; McKenna, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    The development and interaction of hairpin vortices are examined and categorized to better understand their role in fully turbulent boundary layers. Hairpin vortices are generated within an otherwise laminar boundary layer using a free surface water channel. Direct injection is the primary generation method and the behavior of the vortices is first examined using flow visualization. Hydrogen bubble wire is combined with dye injection to help clarify the role of the vorticity in the fluid immediately surrounding the hairpin vortex. PIV data is also used to classify the development and maturity of the vortices for a range of free stream and injection conditions. The interactions of two hairpin vortices of varying maturity are characterized to investigate the potential mechanisms for the formation of hairpin packets beyond autogeneration. Finally, the behavior of hairpin vortices generated with a new technique that uses a transient hemispherical protrusion is also examined. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1040236.

  16. Intensity of vortices: from soap bubbles to hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuel, T.; Xiong, Y. L.; Fischer, P.; Bruneau, C. H.; Bessafi, M.; Kellay, H.

    2013-12-01

    By using a half soap bubble heated from below, we obtain large isolated single vortices whose properties as well as their intensity are measured under different conditions. By studying the effects of rotation of the bubble on the vortex properties, we found that rotation favors vortices near the pole. Rotation also inhibits long life time vortices. The velocity and vorticity profiles of the vortices obtained are well described by a Gaussian vortex. Besides, the intensity of these vortices can be followed over long time spans revealing periods of intensification accompanied by trochoidal motion of the vortex center, features which are reminiscent of the behavior of tropical cyclones. An analysis of this intensification period suggests a simple relation valid for both the vortices observed here and for tropical cyclones.

  17. Intensity of vortices: from soap bubbles to hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Meuel, T; Xiong, Y L; Fischer, P; Bruneau, C H; Bessafi, M; Kellay, H

    2013-12-13

    By using a half soap bubble heated from below, we obtain large isolated single vortices whose properties as well as their intensity are measured under different conditions. By studying the effects of rotation of the bubble on the vortex properties, we found that rotation favors vortices near the pole. Rotation also inhibits long life time vortices. The velocity and vorticity profiles of the vortices obtained are well described by a Gaussian vortex. Besides, the intensity of these vortices can be followed over long time spans revealing periods of intensification accompanied by trochoidal motion of the vortex center, features which are reminiscent of the behavior of tropical cyclones. An analysis of this intensification period suggests a simple relation valid for both the vortices observed here and for tropical cyclones.

  18. Instability of isolated hollow vortices with zero circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiejima, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Inviscid linear stability analysis and numerical simulations are used to investigate how temporal disturbances evolve in double-annular hollow vortices with an opposite-signed vorticity (the total circulation is zero). Two extrema exist in the vorticity profile and constitute a factor of instability. The dispersion relation is expressed as a simple cubic equation. The results show that the instabilities of vortices are strongly enhanced by the hollow effect of the annular vorticity. In addition, the growth rate of the dominant modes significantly increases with decreasing negative-vorticity thickness. During the initial stage, the dominant unstable modes obtained from simulations are consistent with those obtained from the linear analysis. In nonlinear developments, the flow field stretches out in one direction depending on the motion of the plural vortex pair formed by rolling up the positive and negative vorticities. Once such structures in the vortex are generated, the vortex immediately breaks down and does not become metastable.

  19. Coulomb-Gauge Gluon Propagator and the Gribov Formula

    SciTech Connect

    Burgio, G.; Quandt, M.; Reinhardt, H.

    2009-01-23

    We analyze the lattice SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in the Coulomb gauge. We show that the static gluon propagator is multiplicative renormalizable and takes the simple form D(|p-vector|){sup -1}={radical}(|p-vector|{sup 2}+M{sup 4}/|p-vector|{sup 2}), proposed by Gribov through heuristic arguments many years ago. We find M=0.88(1) GeV{approx_equal}2{radical}({sigma})

  20. Quark-gluon plasma phase transition using cluster expansion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syam Kumar, A. M.; Prasanth, J. P.; Bannur, Vishnu M.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the phase transitions in QCD using Mayer's cluster expansion method. The inter quark potential is modified Cornell potential. The equation of state (EoS) is evaluated for a homogeneous system. The behaviour is studied by varying the temperature as well as the number of Charm Quarks. The results clearly show signs of phase transition from Hadrons to Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).

  1. RHIC AND THE PURSUIT OF THE QUARK-GLUON PLASMA.

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL,J.T.

    2001-07-25

    There is a fugitive on the loose. Its name is Quark-Gluon Plasma, alias the QGP. The QGP is a known informant with knowledge about the fundamental building blocks of nature that we wish to extract. This briefing will outline the status of the pursuit of the elusive QGP. We will cover what makes the QGP tick, its modus operandi, details on how we plan to hunt the fugitive down, and our level of success thus far.

  2. Squark cascade decays to charginos/neutralinos: Gluon radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Horsky, R.; Kraemer, M.; Mueck, A.; Zerwas, P. M.

    2008-08-01

    The momentum spectrum and the polarization of charginos and neutralinos in squark decays are affected by gluon radiation in the decay process q-tilde{yields}q{chi}-tilde(g). We determine these corrections and study their impact on the [ql] invariant mass distributions for leptonic {chi}-tilde decays. The higher-order corrections, though small in general, can be sizeable near pronounced edges of the final-state distribution000.

  3. Dual magnetic mass of a hot quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M. ); Ball, J.S. ); Zachariasen, F. )

    1993-03-01

    The dual magnetic mass of a hot quark-gluon plasma is computed in the lowest order of dual QCD, which predicts a well-defined (dual) gauge-invariant result for it. This is because, in dual QCD, electricity and magnetism are interchanged, so magnetic calculations in dual QCD are easy if the corresponding electric ones in ordinary QCD are easy, and vice versa. We obtain the (leading-order) numerical result [ital [tilde m

  4. Evolution of gluon TMDs from small to moderate x

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Andrey

    2016-05-01

    Recently we obtained an evolution equation of gluon TMDs, which addresses a problem of unification of different kinematic regimes. It describes evolution in the whole range of Bjorken $x_B$ and the whole range of transverse momentum $k_\\perp$. In this notes I study different limits of this evolution equation and show how it yields several well-known and some previously unknown results.

  5. Probing Quark-Gluon Interactions with Transverse Polarized Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Slifer, Kurt; Aghalaryan, A; Ahmidouch, A; Asaturyan, R; Bloch, F; Boeglin, W; Bosted, P; Carasco, C; Carlini, R; Cha, J; Chen, J P; Christy, M E; Cole, L; Coman, L; Crabb, D; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Dunne, J; Elaasar, M; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Frlez, E; Gaskell, D; Gan, L; Gomez, J; Hu, B; Jourdan, J; Jones, M K; Keith, C; Keppel, C E; Khandaker, M; Klein, A; Kramer, L; Liang, Y; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindgren, R; Mack, D; McKee, P; McNulty, D; Meekins, D; Mkrtchyan, H; Nasseripour, R; Niculescu, I; Normand, K; Norum, B; Pocanic, D; Prok, Y; Raue, B; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Kiselev, D; Savvinov, N; Sawatzky, B; Seely, M; Sick, I; Smith, C; Smith, G; Stepanyan, S; Tang, L; Tajima, S; Testa, G; Vulcan, W; Wang, K; Warren, G; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S; Yan, C; Yuan, L; Yun, J; Zeier, M

    2010-09-01

    We have extracted QCD matrix elements from our data on doubly polarized inelastic scattering of electrons on nuclei. We find the higher twist matrix element d2˜, which arises strictly from quark-gluon interactions, to be unambiguously nonzero. The data also reveal an isospin dependence of higher twist effects if we assume that the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule is valid. The fundamental Bjorken sum rule obtained from the a0 matrix element is satisfied at our low momentum transfer.

  6. Angular correlations in gluon production at high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2011-02-01

    We present a general, model independent argument demonstrating that gluons produced in high energy hadronic collision are necessarily correlated in rapidity and also in the emission angle. The strength of the correlation depends on the process and on the structure/model of the colliding particles. In particular we argue that it is strongly affected (and underestimated) by factorized approximations frequently used to quantify the effect.

  7. From quarks and gluons to baryon form factors.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Gernot

    2012-04-01

    I briefly summarize recent results for nucleon and [Formula: see text] electromagnetic, axial and transition form factors in the Dyson-Schwinger approach. The calculation of the current diagrams from the quark-gluon level enables a transparent discussion of common features such as: the implications of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark orbital angular momentum, the timelike structure of the form factors, and their interpretation in terms of missing pion-cloud effects.

  8. From quarks and gluons to baryon form factors

    PubMed Central

    Eichmann, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    I briefly summarize recent results for nucleon and Δ(1232) electromagnetic, axial and transition form factors in the Dyson–Schwinger approach. The calculation of the current diagrams from the quark–gluon level enables a transparent discussion of common features such as: the implications of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark orbital angular momentum, the timelike structure of the form factors, and their interpretation in terms of missing pion-cloud effects. PMID:26766879

  9. Quantum simulations of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filinov, V. S.; Ivanov, Yu. B.; Bonitz, M.; Levashov, P. R.; Fortov, V. E.

    2012-06-01

    A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP) of heavy constituent quasi-particles is studied by a path-integral Monte-Carlo method. This approach is a quantum generalization of the classical molecular dynamics by Gelman, Shuryak, and Zahed. It is shown that this method is able to reproduce the QCD lattice equation of state. The results indicate that the QGP reveals liquid-like rather than gaslike properties. Quantum effects turned out to be of prime importance in these simulations.

  10. Tests of QCD at HERA: determination of the gluon density

    SciTech Connect

    Repond, J.

    1996-12-31

    An overview is given of the various methods available to the colliding beam experiments at HERA to determine the gluon density of the proton. The article includes a description of fits to the structure function F{sub 2}, of studies of dijet and open charm production in deep inelastic scattering, of elastic and inelastic {psi} photoproduction, and of inclusive diffractive scattering. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Dimension-six triple gluon operator in Higgs +jet observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Diptimoy; Wiebusch, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Recently a lot of progress has been made towards a full classification of new physics effects in Higgs observables by means of effective dimension-six operators. Specifically, Higgs production in association with a high transverse momentum jet has been suggested as a way to discriminate between operators that modify the Higgs-top coupling (Ot) and operators that induce an effective Higgs-gluon coupling (Og)—a distinction that is hard to achieve with signal strength measurements alone. With this article we would like to draw attention to another source of new physics in Higgs +jet observables: the triple gluon operator O3 g (consisting of three factors of the gluon field strength tensor). We compute the distortions of kinematic distributions in Higgs +jet production at a 14 TeV LHC due to O3 g and compare them with the distortions due to Ot and Og. We find that the transverse momentum distributions alone cannot discriminate between O3 g and Og if the coefficient of the operator Ot treated as an unknown parameter. We further show that the jet rapidity and the difference between the Higgs and jet rapidity are well suited to remove this new degeneracy. Using rough estimates for the expected bounds we find that allowed distortions in kinematic distributions due to Og are of similar size as those due to O3 g. We conclude that a full analysis of new physics in Higgs +jet observables must take the contributions from O3 g into account.

  12. Abelian non-global logarithms from soft gluon clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Randall; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zuberi, Saba

    2012-09-01

    Most recombination-style jet algorithms cluster soft gluons in a complex way. This leads to previously identified correlations in the soft gluon phase space and introduces logarithmic corrections to jet cross sections, which are known as clustering logarithms. The leading Abelian clustering logarithms occur at least at next-to leading logarithm (NLL) in the exponent of the distribution. Using the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), we show that new clustering effects contributing at NLL arise at each order. While numerical resummation of clustering logs is possible, it is unlikely that they can be analytically resummed to NLL. Clustering logarithms make the anti-kT algorithm theoretically preferred, for which they are power suppressed. They can arise in Abelian and non-Abelian terms, and we calculate the Abelian clustering logarithms at O ( {α_s^2} ) for the jet mass distribution using the Cambridge/Aachen and kT algorithms, including jet radius dependence, which extends previous results. We find that clustering logarithms can be naturally thought of as a class of non-global logarithms, which have traditionally been tied to non-Abelian correlations in soft gluon emission.

  13. Quark Gluon Plasma: Surprises from strongly coupled QCD matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacak, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics has long predicted a transition from normal hadronic matter to a phase where the quarks and gluons are no longer bound together and can move freely. Quark gluon plasma is now produced regularly in collisions of heavy nuclei at very high energy at both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the U.S. and at the LHC in Europe. Quark gluon plasma exhibits remarkable properties. Its vanishingly small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio means that it flows essentially without internal friction, making it one of the most ``perfect'' liquids known. It is also very opaque to transiting particles including heavy charm quarks, though the exact mechanism for this is not yet understood. Recent data suggest that even very small colliding systems may produce a droplet of plasma. The similarities to strongly coupled or correlated systems in ultra-cold atoms and condensed matter are striking, and have inspired novel theoretical descriptions growing out of string theory. It remains a mystery how this plasma emerges from cold, dense gluonic matter deep inside nuclei. I will discuss how a future electron-ion collider can help address this question.

  14. Non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaev, B. I.; Troyan, S. I.

    2017-03-01

    Description of hadronic reactions at high energies is conventionally done in the framework of QCD factorization. All factorization convolutions comprise non-perturbative inputs mimicking non-perturbative contributions and perturbative evolution of those inputs. We construct inputs for the gluon-hadron scattering amplitudes in the forward kinematics and, using the optical theorem, convert them into inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons, embracing the cases of polarized and unpolarized hadrons. In the first place, we formulate mathematical criteria which any model for the inputs should obey and then suggest a model satisfying those criteria. This model is based on a simple reasoning: after emitting an active parton off the hadron, the remaining set of spectators becomes unstable and therefore it can be described through factors of the resonance type, so we call it the resonance model. We use it to obtain non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in unpolarized and polarized hadrons for all available types of QCD factorization: basic, K_T-and collinear factorizations.

  15. Two-gluon and trigluon glueballs from dynamical holography QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-dian; Huang, Mei

    2016-12-01

    We study the scalar, vector and tensor two-gluon and trigluon glueball spectra in the framework of the 5-dimension dynamical holographic QCD model, where the metric structure is deformed self-consistently by the dilaton field. For comparison, the glueball spectra are also calculated in the hard-wall and soft-wall holographic QCD models. In order to distinguish glueballs with even and odd parities, we introduce a positive and negative coupling between the dilaton field and glueballs, and for higher spin glueballs, we introduce a deformed 5-dimension mass. With this set-up, there is only one free parameter from the quadratic dilaton profile in the dynamical holographic QCD model, which is fixed by the scalar glueball spectra. It is found that the two-gluon glueball spectra produced in the dynamical holographic QCD model are in good agreement with lattice data. Among six trigluon glueballs, the produced masses for 1±- and 2-- are in good agreement with lattice data, and the produced masses for 0--, 0+- and 2+- are around 1.5 GeV lighter than lattice results. This result might indicate that the three trigluon glueballs of 0--, 0+- and 2+- are dominated by the three-gluon condensate contribution. Supported by the NSFC (11175251, 11621131001), DFG and NSFC (CRC 110), CAS Key Project KJCX2-EW-N01, K.C.Wong Education Foundation, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS

  16. Color instabilities in the quark–gluon plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Mrówczyński, Stanisław; Schenke, Björn; Strickland, Michael

    2017-04-09

    When the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) – a system of deconfined quarks and gluons – is in a nonequilibrium state, it is usually unstable with respect to color collective modes. The instabilities, which are expected to strongly influence dynamics of the QGP produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, are extensively discussed under the assumption that the plasma is weakly coupled. Here, we begin by presenting the theoretical approaches to study the QGP, which include: field theory methods based on the Keldysh–Schwinger formalism, classical and quantum kinetic theories, and fluid techniques. The dispersion equations, which give the spectrum of plasma collective excitations, aremore » analyzed in detail. We pay particular attention to a momentum distribution of plasma constituents which is obtained by deforming an isotropic momentum distribution. Mechanisms of chromoelectric and chromomagnetic instabilities are explained in terms of elementary physics. The Nyquist analysis, which allows one to determine the number of solutions of a dispersion equation without explicitly solving it, and stability criteria are also discussed. We then review various numerical approaches – purely classical or quantum – to simulate the temporal evolution of an unstable quark–gluon plasma. The dynamical role of instabilities in the processes of plasma equilibration is analyzed.« less

  17. Color quantum simulations of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filinov, Vladimir; Fortov, Vladimir; Bonitz, Mishael; Ivanov, Yurii; Levashov, Pavel

    2012-02-01

    We propose stochastic simulation of thermodynamics and kinetic properties for quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in semi-classical approximation in the wide region of temperature, density and quasi-particles masses. In grand canonical ensemble for finite and zero baryon chemical potential we use the direct quantum path integral Monte Carlo method (PIMC) developed for finite temperature within Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics to do calculations of internal energy, pressure and pair correlation functions. The QGP quasi-particles representing dressed quarks, antiquarks and gluons interact via color quantum Kelbg pseudopotential rigorously derived for Coulomb particles. This method has been successfully applied to strongly coupled electrodynamic plasmas (EMP). A strongly correlated behavior of the QGP is expected to show up in long-ranged spatial correlations of quarks and gluons which, in fact, may give rise to liquid-like and, possibly, solid-like structures. We have done already the first calculation of the QGP equation of state, spatial and color pair distribution functions, diffusion coefficients and shear viscosity.

  18. Solitonic vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylutki, M.; Donadello, S.; Serafini, S.; Pitaevskii, L. P.; Dalfovo, F.; Lamporesi, G.; Ferrari, G.

    2015-04-01

    We analyse, theoretically and experimentally, the nature of solitonic vortices (SV) in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. In the experiment, such defects are created via the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, when the temperature of a gas of sodium atoms is quenched across the BEC transition, and are imaged after a free expansion of the condensate. By using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we calculate the in-trap density and phase distributions characterizing a SV in the crossover from an elongated quasi-1D to a bulk 3D regime. The simulations show that the free expansion strongly amplifies the key features of a SV and produces a remarkable twist of the solitonic plane due to the quantized vorticity associated with the defect. Good agreement is found between simulations and experiments.

  19. Vortices in Low-Dimensional Magnetic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, B. V.

    2011-05-01

    Vortices are objects that are important to describe several physical phenomena. There are many examples of such objects in nature as in a large variety of physical situations like in fluid dynamics, superconductivity, magnetism, and biology. Historically, the interest in magnetic vortex-like excitations begun in the 1960s. That interest was mainly associated with an unusual phase-transition phenomenon in two-dimensional magnetic systems. More recently, direct experimental evidence for the existence of magnetic vortex states in nano-disks was found. The interest in such model was renewed due to the possibility of the use of magnetic nano-disks as bit elements in nano-scale memory devices. The goal of this study is to review some key points for the understanding of the vortex behavior and the progress that have been done in the study of vortices in low-dimensional magnetic systems.

  20. Mimicking graphene with polaritonic spin vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulevich, Dmitry R.; Yudin, Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    Exploring the properties of strongly correlated systems through quantum simulation with photons, cold atoms, or polaritons represents an active area of research. In fact, the latter sheds light on the behavior of complex systems that are difficult to address in the laboratory or to tackle numerically. In this study, we discuss an analog of graphene formed by exciton-polariton spin vortices arranged into a hexagonal lattice. We show how graphene-type dispersion at different energy scales arises for several types of exciton-polariton spin vortices. In contrast to previous studies of exciton polaritons in artificial lattices, the use of exciton-polariton spin vortex modes offers a richer playground for quantum simulations. In particular, we demonstrate that the sign of the nearest-neighbor coupling strength can be inverted.

  1. Longitudinal vortices in concave surface boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, R. I.,; Winoto, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    Local measurements of mean and fluctuating velocity by laser anemometer were made inside the developing concave surface boundary layer in a free surface water channel at Reynolds numbers up to 16000. Concave surface radius was 3.5 times channel width and the ratio of spanwise mean boundary layer thickness to surface radius ranged between 0.03 and 0.11. Systems of longtitudinal vortices developed without artificial triggering. Vortex wavelength varied across the span by as much as a factor of 2, but mean wavelength was typically 1.3 times the boundary layer thickness and did not vary significantly in the flow direction. Continuous vortex growth at Reynolds number = 9800 contrasted with apparent breakup of the vortices at Reynolds number = 16000.

  2. Vortical solutions of the conical Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Kenneth Grant

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations of supersonic flows on delta wings are reported, with a focus on leading-edge vortices. A numerical algorithm employing local mesh refinement is developed to solve the Euler equations for inviscid compressible flow, and a model based on a similarity solution of the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations is constructed to treat localized regions of total pressure loss near the vortices. Computational results are compared in extensive graphs with experimental data obtained in the low-Mach-number test section of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA Langley (Miller and Wood, 1985; Powell et al., 1986). Good general agreement is demonstrated, except in the cases with vortex flaps, where hinge-line viscous effects are found. A complete listing of the Euler solution algorithm LEVIS is provided in an appendix.

  3. Numerical prediction of flow in slender vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyna, Luis G.; Menne, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    The slender vortex approximation was investigated using the Navier-Stokes equations written in cylindrical coordinates. It is shown that, for free vortices without external pressure gradient, the breakdown length is proportional to the Reynolds number. For free vortices with adverse pressure gradients, the breakdown length is inversely proportional to the value of its gradient. For low Reynolds numbers, the predictions of the simplified system agreed well with the ones obtained from solutions of the full Navier-Stokes equations, whereas for high Reynolds numbers, the flow became quite sensitive to pressure fluctuations; it was found that the failure of the slender vortex equations corresponded to the critical condition as identified by Benjamin (1962) for inviscid flows. The predictions obtained from the approximating system were compared with available experimental results. For low swirl, a good agreement was obtained; for high swirl, on the other hand, upstream effects on the pressure gradient produced by the breakdown bubble caused poor agreement.

  4. Dynamics and nucleation of vorticity in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Jose Arruda De Oliveira

    1997-11-01

    This thesis contains numerical studies on vortex dynamics and on quantum nucleation of vorticity in superfluids at zero temperature. In both cases the superfluid was described by the Gross-Pitaevskii model. In the first part of the thesis, the vortex mass problem is analyzed by a numerical integration of the condensate equation of motion, the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. We were able to extract, from the observed vortex dynamics in a time-dependent superflow, the frequency dependence of the vortex effective mass. In the second part, the problem of quantum nucleation of vorticity in superflows past obstacles, in both one and two dimensions, is studied by the application of the bounce formalism of Coleman (12) to the coherent state action of the Gross-Pitaevskii model. We obtained bounce solutions and tunneling rates by directly solving the field equations for the condensate in imaginary time.

  5. Statistics of intense turbulent vorticity events.

    PubMed

    Moriconi, L

    2004-08-01

    We investigate statistical properties of vorticity fluctuations in fully developed turbulence, which are known to exhibit a strong intermittent behavior. Taking as the starting point the Navier-Stokes equations with a random force term correlated at large scales, we obtain in the high Reynolds number regime a closed analytical expression for the probability distribution function of an arbitrary component of the vorticity field. The central idea underlying the analysis consists in the restriction of the velocity configurational phase-space to a particular sector where the rate of strain and the rotation tensors can be locally regarded as slow and fast degrees of freedom, respectively. This prescription is implemented along the Martin-Siggia-Rose functional framework, whereby instantons and perturbations around them are taken into account within a steepest-descent approach.

  6. Helical vortices: viscous dynamics and instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Maurice; Selcuk, Can; Delbende, Ivan; Ijlra-Upmc Team; Limsi-Cnrs Team

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the dynamical properties of helical vortices is of great importance for numerous applications such as wind turbines, helicopter rotors, ship propellers. Locally these flows often display a helical symmetry: fields are invariant through combined axial translation of distance Δz and rotation of angle θ = Δz / L around the same z-axis, where 2 πL denotes the helix pitch. A DNS code with built-in helical symmetry has been developed in order to compute viscous quasi-steady basic states with one or multiple vortices. These states will be characterized (core structure, ellipticity, ...) as a function of the pitch, without or with an axial flow component. The instability modes growing in the above base flows and their growth rates are investigated by a linearized version of the DNS code coupled to an Arnoldi procedure. This analysis is complemented by a helical thin-cored vortex filaments model. ANR HELIX.

  7. Trailing vortices from low speed flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Rye; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The structure and strength of the vortex wake behind a airplane or animal flying with a fixed or flapping wing contains valuable information about the aerodynamic load history. However, the amount of vorticity measured in the trailing vortex is not always in agreement with the known lift generated, and the behavior of these vortices at relatively low Reynolds numbers is also not well-understood. We present the results from a series of wind tunnel PIV experiments conducted behind a low-aspect ratio rectangular wing at a chord-Reynolds numbers of 30,000. In addition to wake PIV measurements measured in the cross-stream (Trefftz) plane, we measure the lift and drag directly using a six-axis force-torque transducer. We discuss how vortex size, shape, strength and position vary in time and downstream location, as well as the challenges associated with the use of PIV wake measurements to accurate determine aerodynamic forces.

  8. Geostrophic Scatter Diagrams and Potential Vorticity Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, P. L.; Rhines, P. B.; White, A. A.

    1986-12-01

    where S is the potential vorticity forcing, K the lateral eddy (or viscous) v the horizontal velocity, and the integrals are taken over and around any region enclosed by a mean streamline. Hence dQ/dis often negative. corresponding to two common properties of quasi-geostrophic circulations: that the eddy motion (or viscosity) transport Q down its mean gradient (K > 0) and that the circulation integral have the same sign as the potential vorticity forcing. Two sets of examples, both involving (Q,) scatter diagrams constructed from numerically simulated data, are presented. One relates to steady baroclinic wave motion in a rotating annulus system, and the other to the time-averaged circulation in an ocean basin.

  9. Emergent vortices in populations of colloidal rollers

    PubMed Central

    Bricard, Antoine; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Das, Debasish; Savoie, Charles; Chikkadi, Vijayakumar; Shitara, Kyohei; Chepizhko, Oleksandr; Peruani, Fernando; Saintillan, David; Bartolo, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Coherent vortical motion has been reported in a wide variety of populations including living organisms (bacteria, fishes, human crowds) and synthetic active matter (shaken grains, mixtures of biopolymers), yet a unified description of the formation and structure of this pattern remains lacking. Here we report the self-organization of motile colloids into a macroscopic steadily rotating vortex. Combining physical experiments and numerical simulations, we elucidate this collective behaviour. We demonstrate that the emergent-vortex structure lives on the verge of a phase separation, and single out the very constituents responsible for this state of polar active matter. Building on this observation, we establish a continuum theory and lay out a strong foundation for the description of vortical collective motion in a broad class of motile populations constrained by geometrical boundaries. PMID:26088835

  10. Numerical prediction of flow in slender vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyna, Luis G.; Menne, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    The slender vortex approximation was investigated using the Navier-Stokes equations written in cylindrical coordinates. It is shown that, for free vortices without external pressure gradient, the breakdown length is proportional to the Reynolds number. For free vortices with adverse pressure gradients, the breakdown length is inversely proportional to the value of its gradient. For low Reynolds numbers, the predictions of the simplified system agreed well with the ones obtained from solutions of the full Navier-Stokes equations, whereas for high Reynolds numbers, the flow became quite sensitive to pressure fluctuations; it was found that the failure of the slender vortex equations corresponded to the critical condition as identified by Benjamin (1962) for inviscid flows. The predictions obtained from the approximating system were compared with available experimental results. For low swirl, a good agreement was obtained; for high swirl, on the other hand, upstream effects on the pressure gradient produced by the breakdown bubble caused poor agreement.

  11. Diamagnetic vortices in Chern-Simons theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Burnier, Yannis; Sabancilar, Eray; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    We find a new type of topological vortex solution in the U(1 ) Z×U(1 ) A Chern-Simons gauge theory in the presence of a U(1 ) A magnetic field background. In this theory U(1 ) Z is broken spontaneously by the U(1 ) A magnetic field. These vortices exhibit long-range interactions as they are charged under the unbroken U(1 ) A. They deplete the U(1 ) A magnetic field near their core and also break both charge conjugation and parity symmetries. Understanding the nature of these vortices sheds light on the ground state structure of the superconductivity studied in [1]. We also study the Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in this class of theories and point out that superconductivity can be achieved at high temperatures by increasing the U(1 ) A magnetic field.

  12. Surface Signature of Subsurface-Intensified Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciani, D.; Carton, X. J.; Chapron, B.; Bashmachnikov, I.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean at mesoscale (20-200 km) and submesoscale (0.5-20km) is highly populated by vortices. These recirculating structures are more energetic than the mean flow, they trap water masses from their origin areas and advect them across the ocean, with consequent impact on the 3D distribution of heat and tracers. Mesoscale and submesoscale structures characterize the ocean dynamics both at the sea surface and at intrathermocline depths (0-1500m), and are presently investigated by means of model outputs, in-situ and satellite (surface) data, the latest being the only way to get high resolution and synoptic observations at planetary scale (e.g., thermal-band observations, future altimetric observations given by the SWOT satellite mission). The scientific question arising from this context is related to the role of the ocean surface for inferring informations on mesoscale and submesoscale vortices at depth. This study has also been motivated by the recent detection of subsurface eddies east of the Arabian Peninsula (PHYSINDIEN experiment - 2011).Using analytical models in the frame of the QG theory, we could describe the theoretical altimetric signature of non-drifting and of drifting subsurface eddies. Numerical experiments, using both coupled QG-SQG and primitive equations models, allowed us to investigate the surface expression of intrathermocline eddies interacting with baroclinic currents or evolving under planetary beta-effect. The eddy characteristics (radius, depth, thickness, velocity) were varied, to represent various oceanic examples (Meddies, Swoddies, Reddies, Peddies, Leddies). Idealized simulations with the ROMS model, confirming theoretical estimates, showed that drifting subsurface-intensified vortices can induce dipolar sea level anomalies, up to 3 cm. This result, compatibly with future SWOT measurement accuracies (about 2 cm), is a first step towards systematic and synoptic detection of subsurface vortices.

  13. Vorticity, Stokes' Theorem and the Gauss's Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Vorticity is a property of the flow of any fluid and moving fluids acquire properties that allow an engineer to describe that particular flow in greater detail. It is important to recognize that mere motion alone does not guarantee that the air or any fluid has vorticity. Vorticity is one of four important quantities that define the kinematic properties of any fluid flow. The Navier-Stokes equations are the foundation of fluid mechanics, and Stokes' theorem is used in nearly every branch of mechanics as well as electromagnetics. Stokes' Theorem also plays a vital role in many secondary theorems such as those pertaining to vorticity and circulation. However, the divergence theorem is a mathematical statement of the physical fact that, in the absence of the creation or destruction of matter, the density within a region of space can change only by having it flow into, or away from the region through its boundary. This is also known as Gauss's Theorem. It should also be noted that there are many useful extensions of Gauss's Theorem, including the extension to include surfaces of discontinuity in V. Mathematically expressed, Stokes' theorem can be expressed by considering a surface S having a bounding curve C. Here, V is any sufficiently smooth vector field defined on the surface and its bounding curve C. Integral (Surface) [(DEL X V)] . dS = Integral (Contour) [V . dx] In this paper, the author outlines and stresses the importance of studying and teaching these mathematical techniques while developing a course in Hydrology and Fluid Mechanics. References Arfken, G. "Gauss's Theorem." 1.11 in Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 3rd ed. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, pp. 57-61, 1985. Morse, P. M. and Feshbach, H. "Gauss's Theorem." In Methods of Theoretical Physics, Part I. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 37-38, 1953. Eric W. Weisstein. "Divergence Theorem." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DivergenceTheorem.html

  14. Admissible upstream conditions for slender compressible vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.; Krause, E.; Menne, S.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of the compressibility on the flow in slender vortices is being studied. The dependence of the breakdown of the slender-vortex approximation on the upstream conditions is demonstrated for various Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers. Compatibility conditions, which have to be satisfied if the vortex is to remain slender, are discussed in detail. The general discussions are supplemented by several sample calculations.

  15. Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He

    PubMed Central

    Lounasmaa, Olli V.; Thuneberg, Erkki

    1999-01-01

    In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe. PMID:10393895

  16. Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He.

    PubMed

    Lounasmaa, O V; Thuneberg, E

    1999-07-06

    In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe.

  17. Extreme Vortical Waves Under External Pressure Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrashkin, Anatoly; Soloviev, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    A vortical model for deep-water freak wave formation is presented. The wind action is simulated by non-uniform pressure on the free surface. The motion of the fluid is described by exact solution of 2D hydrodynamics equations for ideal inviscid fluid in Lagrange variables. Two types of flows are studied: the breather and freak wave in the field of Gerstner wave. Fluid particles rotate in circles of different radius and drift current is absent. The pressure on free surface is non-uniform and opposite in phase with the wave profile. It is examined alternating-sign and sign-constant negative distributions of the pressure. Dynamics of free surface and pressure for extreme waves are calculated. Unlike other models the analyzed flows are vortical. The vorticity is located mostly in the neighborhood of their peaks. For enough large amplitudes it has been found the effect of the wave overturn. The influence of distribution of the pressure and vorticity on appearance and character of the overturn are studied. It has been found that increasing of horizontal velocity of fluid with the height causes the overturn as in the case of simple wave. It is shown that the height of freak wave depends on the steepness of Gerstner wave. If its value is near to 1, then the height tends to 0. The freak wave can not form on a steep Gerstner flow. For small steepness the ratio between the height of the peak and Gerstner wave amplitude can reach 10 and even more. The wave of maximal amplitude has length from the range 20-60 m.

  18. Nonlinear Generation of Vorticity by Surface Waves.

    PubMed

    Filatov, S V; Parfenyev, V M; Vergeles, S S; Brazhnikov, M Yu; Levchenko, A A; Lebedev, V V

    2016-02-05

    We demonstrate that waves excited on a fluid surface produce local surface rotation owing to hydrodynamic nonlinearity. We examine theoretically the effect and obtain an explicit formula for the vertical vorticity in terms of the surface elevation. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by measurements of surface motion in a cell with water where surface waves are excited by vertical and harmonic shaking the cell. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. We discuss physical consequences of the effect.

  19. Vortices in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haljan, Paul C.

    2004-05-01

    Since the advent of Bose-Einstein condensation in the dilute alkalis, there has been considerable interest in observing effects in atomic condensates akin to the hallmark effects associated with superfluidity and superconductivity. In particular, the study of quantized vortices and vortex lattices represents an important connection between the traditional ``super" systems such as liquid Helium and this new atomic system. This thesis explores some of the first vortex experiments in a condensate of magnetically trapped Rubidium-87. Single vortex lines and rings are created using a wavefunction engineering technique, which is an ideal starting point to study the dynamical behavior of vortices within the condensate. An entirely different approach of ``intrinsic nucleation" has been developed to create rapidly rotating condensates with large amounts of vorticity. A novel variation of forced evaporation is used to simultaneously cool and spin up an ultracold gas. In this way, condensates can be formed that are rotating in excess of 95% of the centrifugal limit and contain large, extraordinarily regular lattices of well over 100 vortices. Direct detection of the vortex cores makes it possible to study the microscopic structure of the vortex arrangements both at equilibrium and under dynamical conditions where severe applied stresses distort the lattice far from its equilibrium configuration. In conclusion, the techniques developed in this work have helped to open up a new area of rotating condensate physics and, in the future, may lead to regimes of extreme rotation and quantum Hall physics. This work was performed at the University of Colorado, Boulder, under the supervision of Prof. Eric A. Cornell.

  20. On the Lagrangian Description of Vorticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Iow% OF TWIS PA09GSIU Dow Bae...E Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 115 (1991) 1-14. ( Springer -Verlag 1991 On the Lagrangian Description of Vorticity J. CASEY...der Physik, Vol. VIII/1, Springer -Verlag, 1959. 8. TRUESDELL, C., & TouwiN, R. A., The classical field theories. S. FLOOGS’S Handbuch der Physik, Vol...VIII/1, Springer -Verlag, 1960. 9. BATCHELOR, G. K., An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, 1967. 10. BELTRAM!, E., Sui

  1. Analytic Modeling of Severe Vortical Storms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-08

    AD---AO86 919 TR DEFENSE AND SPACE SYSTEMS GROUP REDONDO BEACH CA -ETC F/6 4/2 ANALYTIC MODELING OF SEVERE VORTICAL, STDRMS.CW),7JUL G0 F FENDELL ...and Space Systems Group One Space 1ark ___Redondo Beach, California 90278 Francis E. Fendell , Principal Investigator for Artic and Earth Sciences... Fendell , principal investigator, and Phillip Feldman, numerical analyst, of TRW Defense and Space Systems Group, and George Carrier of Harvard University

  2. Chiral Self-Gravitating Cosmic Vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Rybakov, Yu.P.

    2005-06-01

    In the framework of general relativity, an exact axisymmetric (vortex) solution of the equations of motion is obtained for the SU(2) symmetric sigma model. This solution is characterized by the topological charge (winding number) and angular deficit. In the linearized approximation, the Lyapunov stability of vortices is proved and the deflection angle of a light ray in the gravitational field of the vortex (gravitational lens effect) is calculated.

  3. The dynamics of three vortices revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavantzis, John; Ting, LU

    1988-01-01

    The dynamics of three vortices was studied by Synge (1949) using the length of the sides of the triangle formed by the vortices as prime variables. The critical states at which the lengths of the sides remain fixed throughout the motion were found to be either equilateral triangles or collinear configurations. The equilateral configurations were either stable or unstable depending on whether the sum of the products of strengths K was greater or less than zero, respectively. In the case of K = 0, a one-parameter family of solutions of contracting and another of expanding similar triangles were found. It is shown here that, for this special case, the family of contracting similar solutions is always unstable while the family of expanding ones is stable. The critical states for collinear configurations in the general case are studied where K is greater than or less than zero. It is shown that there are either six or four critical states depending on the strengths of the vortices. The properties of these states are discussed.

  4. Vorticity banding in rodlike virus suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyongok; Lettinga, M P; Dogic, Z; Dhont, Jan K G

    2006-08-01

    Vorticity banding under steady shear flow is observed in a suspension of semiflexible colloidal rods (fd virus particles) within a part of the paranematic-nematic biphasic region. Banding occurs uniformly throughout the cell gap within a shear-rate interval (.gamma-, .gamma+) , which depends on the fd concentration. For shear rates below the lower-border shear rate .gamma- only shear elongation of inhomogeneities, which are formed due to paranematic-nematic phase separation, is observed. Within a small region just above the upper-border shear rate .gamma+ , banding occurs heterogeneously. An essential difference in the kinetics of vorticity banding is observed, depending on the morphology of inhomogeneities formed during the initial stages of the paranematic-nematic phase separation. Particle tracking and polarization experiments indicate that the vorticity bands are in a weak rolling flow, superimposed on the applied shear flow. We propose a mechanism for the origin of the banding instability and the transient stability of the banded states. This mechanism is related to the normal stresses generated by inhomogeneities formed due to the underlying paranematic-nematic phase transition.

  5. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  6. A method for BPS equations of vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nata Atmaja, A.

    2017-05-01

    We develop a new method for obtaining the BPS equations of static vortices motivated by the results of the On-Shell method on the standard Maxwell-Higgs model and its Born-Infeld-Higgs model [1]. Our method relies on the existence of what we shall call a BPS energy function Q as such the total energy of BPS vortices EBPS are simply given by an integral of total differential of the BPS energy function, EBPS = ∫ dQ. Imposing a condition that the effective fields are independent of each other, we may define a BPS Lagrangian LBPS by EBPS ≡ - ∫d2 x LBPS. Equating this BPS Lagrangian with the corresponding effective Lagrangian, the equation is expected to be a sum of positive-semidefinite functions Leff -LBPS = ∑iN Ai2 = 0, where N is the number of effective fields. Solving this equation by parts would yields the desired BPS equations. With our method, the various known BPS equations of vortices are derived in a relatively simple procedure. We show that in all models considered here, the BPS energy function is given by a general formula Q = 2 πaF (f), where a and f are the effective fields for the gauge field and scalar field, and F‧ (f) = ± 2 f w (f), with w is an overall coupling of the scalar field's kinetic term.

  7. The dynamics of three vortices revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavantzis, John; Ting, LU

    1988-01-01

    The dynamics of three vortices was studied by Synge (1949) using the length of the sides of the triangle formed by the vortices as prime variables. The critical states at which the lengths of the sides remain fixed throughout the motion were found to be either equilateral triangles or collinear configurations. The equilateral configurations were either stable or unstable depending on whether the sum of the products of strengths K was greater or less than zero, respectively. In the case of K = 0, a one-parameter family of solutions of contracting and another of expanding similar triangles were found. It is shown here that, for this special case, the family of contracting similar solutions is always unstable while the family of expanding ones is stable. The critical states for collinear configurations in the general case are studied where K is greater than or less than zero. It is shown that there are either six or four critical states depending on the strengths of the vortices. The properties of these states are discussed.

  8. Managing Flap Vortices via Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted on a flapped semi-span model to investigate the concept and viability of near-wake vortex management by means of boundary layer separation control. Passive control was achieved using a simple fairing and active control was achieved via zero mass-flux blowing slots. Vortex sheet strength, estimated by integrating surface pressures, was used to predict vortex characteristics based on inviscid rollup relations and vortices trailing the flaps were mapped using a seven-hole probe. Separation control was found to have a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size over a wide range of angles of attack and control conditions. In general, the vortex trends were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations. Manipulation of the separated flow near the flap edges exerted significant control over either outboard or inboard edge vortices while producing small lift and moment excursions. Unsteady surface pressures indicated that dynamic separation and attachment control can be exploited to perturb vortices at wavelengths shorter than a typical wingspan. In summary, separation control has the potential for application to time-independent or time-dependent wake alleviation schemes, where the latter can be deployed to minimize adverse effects on ride-quality and dynamic structural loading.

  9. Model flocks in a steady vortical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggaley, A. W.

    2015-05-01

    We modify the standard Vicsek model to clearly distinguish between intrinsic noise due to imperfect alignment between organisms and extrinsic noise due to fluid motion. We then consider the effect of a steady vortical flow, the Taylor-Green vortex, on the dynamics of the flock, for various flow speeds, with a fixed intrinsic particle speed. We pay particular attention to the morphology of the flow, and quantify its filamentarity. Strikingly, above a critical flow speed there is a pronounced increase in the filamentarity of the flock, when compared to the zero-flow case. This is due to the fact that particles appear confined to areas of low vorticity; a familiar phenomena, commonly seen in the clustering of inertial particles in vortical flows. Hence, the cooperative motion of the particles gives them an effective inertia, which is seen to have a profound effect on the morphology of the flock, in the presence of external fluid motion. Finally, we investigate the angle between the flow and the particles direction of movement and find it follows a power-law distribution.

  10. Evolution of isolated turbulent trailing vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraisamy, Karthik; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2008-03-01

    In this work, the temporal evolution of a low swirl-number turbulent Batchelor vortex is studied using pseudospectral direct numerical simulations. The solution of the governing equations in the vorticity-velocity form allows for accurate application of boundary conditions. The physics of the evolution is investigated with an emphasis on the mechanisms that influence the transport of axial and angular momentum. Excitation of normal mode instabilities gives rise to coherent large scale helical structures inside the vortical core. The radial growth of these helical structures and the action of axial shear and differential rotation results in the creation of a polarized vortex layer. This vortex layer evolves into a series of hairpin-shaped structures that subsequently breakdown into elongated fine scale vortices. Ultimately, the radially outward propagation of these structures results in the relaxation of the flow towards a stable high-swirl configuration. Two conserved quantities, based on the deviation from the laminar solution, are derived and these prove to be useful in characterizing the polarized vortex layer and enhancing the understanding of the transport process. The generation and evolution of the Reynolds stresses is also addressed.

  11. Three-dimensional instability of isolated vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaire, F.; Chomaz, J.-M.

    2003-08-01

    We study the three-dimensional stability of the family of vortices introduced by Carton and McWilliams [Mesoscale/Synoptic Coherent Structures in Geophysical Turbulence, edited by Nikhoul and Jamart (Elsevier, New York, 1989)] describing isolated vortices. For these vortices, the circulation vanishes outside their core over a distance depending on a single parameter, the steepness α. We proceed to the direct numerical simulation of the linear impulse response to obtain both temporal and spatio-temporal instability results. In the temporal instability framework, growth rates are calculated as a function of the axial wavenumber k and the azimuthal wavenumber m. The stability analysis is performed at a Reynolds number of Re=667. It is shown that the most unstable mode is the axisymmetric mode m=0, regardless of the steepness parameter in the investigated range. When the steepness α is increased the band of unstable azimuthal modes widens, i.e., larger m are destabilized. The study of the spatio-temporal spreading of the wave packet shows that the m=2 mode is always the fastest traveling mode, for all studied values of the steepness parameter.

  12. Self-Similar Compressible Free Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonEllenrieder, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Lie group methods are used to find both exact and numerical similarity solutions for compressible perturbations to all incompressible, two-dimensional, axisymmetric vortex reference flow. The reference flow vorticity satisfies an eigenvalue problem for which the solutions are a set of two-dimensional, self-similar, incompressible vortices. These solutions are augmented by deriving a conserved quantity for each eigenvalue, and identifying a Lie group which leaves the reference flow equations invariant. The partial differential equations governing the compressible perturbations to these reference flows are also invariant under the action of the same group. The similarity variables found with this group are used to determine the decay rates of the velocities and thermodynamic variables in the self-similar flows, and to reduce the governing partial differential equations to a set of ordinary differential equations. The ODE's are solved analytically and numerically for a Taylor vortex reference flow, and numerically for an Oseen vortex reference flow. The solutions are used to examine the dependencies of the temperature, density, entropy, dissipation and radial velocity on the Prandtl number. Also, experimental data on compressible free vortex flow are compared to the analytical results, the evolution of vortices from initial states which are not self-similar is discussed, and the energy transfer in a slightly-compressible vortex is considered.

  13. Two-particle vortices in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoi, Mikhail; Downing, Charles

    We show that a pair of two-dimensional massless Dirac-Weyl fermions can form a bound state independently on the sign of the inter-particle interaction potential, as long as this potential decays at large distances faster than Kepler's inverse distance law. The coupling occurs only at the Dirac point, when the charge carriers lose their chirality. These bipartite states must have a non-zero internal angular momentum, meaning that they only exist as stationary vortices. This leads to the emergence of a new type of energetically-favorable quasiparticles: double-charged zero-energy vortices. Their bosonic nature allows condensation and gives rise to Majorana physics without invoking a superconductor. The presence of dark-matter-like silent immobile vortices explains a range of poorly understood experiments in gated graphene structures at low doping. This work was supported by EU H2020 RISE project CoExAN, EU FP7 ITN NOTEDEV and FP7 IRSES project InterNoM.

  14. Vortices in high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatter, G.; Feigel'Man, M. V.; Geshkenbein, V. B.; Larkin, A. I.; Vinokur, V. M.

    1994-10-01

    With the high-temperature superconductors a qualitatively new regime in the phenomenology of type-II superconductivity can be accessed. The key elements governing the statistical mechanics and the dynamics of the vortex system are (dynamic) thermal and quantum fluctuations and (static) quenched disorder. The importance of these three sources of disorder can be quantified by the Ginzburg number Gi=(TcH2cɛξ3)22, the quantum resistance Qu=(e2ℏ)(ρnɛξ), and the critical current-density ratio jcjo, with jc and jo denoting the depinning and depairing current densities, respectively (ρn is the normal-state resistivity and ɛ2=mM<1 denotes the anisotropy parameter). The material parameters of the oxides conspire to produce a large Ginzburg number Gi~10-2 and a large quantum resistance Qu~10-1, values which are by orders of magnitude larger than in conventional superconductors, leading to interesting effects such as the melting of the vortex lattice, the creation of new vortex-liquid phases, and the appearance of macroscopic quantum phenomena. Introducing quenched disorder into the system turns the Abrikosov lattice into a vortex glass, whereas the vortex liquid remains a liquid. The terms "glass" and "liquid" are defined in a dynamic sense, with a sublinear response ρ=∂E∂j|j-->0 characterizing the truly superconducting vortex glass and a finite resistivity ρ(j-->0)>0 being the signature of the liquid phase. The smallness of jcjo allows one to discuss the influence of quenched disorder in terms of the weak collective pinning theory. Supplementing the traditional theory of weak collective pinning to take into account thermal and quantum fluctuations, as well as the new scaling concepts for elastic media subject to a random potential, this modern version of the weak collective pinning theory consistently accounts for a large number of novel phenomena, such as the broad resistive transition, thermally assisted flux flow, giant and quantum creep, and the glassiness

  15. Surfzone vorticity in the presence of extreme bathymetric variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D.; Elgar, S.; Raubenheimer, B.

    2014-12-01

    Surfzone vorticity was measured at Duck, NC using a novel 5-m diameter vorticity sensor deployed in 1.75 m water depth. During the 4-week deployment the initially alongshore uniform bathymetry developed 200-m long mega-cusps with alongshore vertical changes of 1.5 m or more. When waves were small and the vorticity sensor was seaward of the surfzone, vorticity variance and mean vorticity varied with the tidally modulated water depth, consistent with a net seaward flux of surfzone-generated vorticity. Vorticity variance increased with incident wave heights up to 2-m. However, vorticity variance remained relatively constant for incident wave heights above 2-m, and suggests that eddy energy may become saturated in the inner surfzone during large wave events. In the presence of mega-cusps the mean vorticity (shear) is often large and generated by bathymetrically controlled rip currents, while vorticity variance remains strongly correlated with the incident wave height. Funded by NSF, ASD(R&E), and WHOI Coastal Ocean Institute.

  16. Non-Abelian vortices on a cylinder: Duality between vortices and walls

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Isozumi, Youichi; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke; Ohta, Kazutoshi

    2006-04-15

    We investigate vortices on a cylinder in supersymmetric non-Abelian gauge theory with hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation. We identify moduli space of periodic vortices and find that a pair of wall-like objects appears as the vortex moduli is varied. Usual domain walls also can be obtained from the single vortex on the cylinder by introducing a twisted boundary condition. We can understand these phenomena as a T duality among D-brane configurations in type II superstring theories. Using this T-duality picture, we find a one-to-one correspondence between the moduli space of non-Abelian vortices and that of kinky D-brane configurations for domain walls.

  17. Double nonperturbative gluon exchange: An update on the soft-Pomeron contribution to p p scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfora, F. E.; Dudal, D.; Justo, I. F.; Pais, P.; Salgado-Rebolledo, P.; Rosa, L.; Vercauteren, D.

    2017-08-01

    We employ a set of recent, theoretically motivated fits to nonperturbative unquenched gluon propagators to check on how far double gluon exchange can be used to describe the soft sector of p p scattering data (total and differential cross section). In particular, we use the refined Gribov-Zwanziger gluon propagator (as arising from dealing with the Gribov gauge fixing ambiguity) and the massive Cornwall-type gluon propagator (as motivated from Dyson-Schwinger equations) in conjunction with a perturbative quark-gluon vertex, next to a model based on the nonperturbative quark-gluon Maris-Tandy vertex, popular from Bethe-Salpeter descriptions of hadronic bound states. We compare the cross sections arising from these models with older ISR and more recent TOTEM and ATLAS data. The lower the value of total energy √{s }, the better the results appear to be.

  18. General Exact Solutions for the Full Gluon Propagator in QCD with the Mass Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogokhia, V.; Barnaföldi, G. G.

    We have explicitly shown that Quantum Chromodynamics is a color gauge invariant theory with non-zero mass gap, which has been defined as the value of the regularized full gluon self-energy at a finite scale point. The mass gap itself is mainly generated by the nonlinear interaction of massless gluon modes. All this allows one to establish the structure of the full gluon propagator in the explicit presence of the mass gap. In this case, the two independent general types of formal solutions for the full gluon propagator as a function of the regularized mass gap have been found: (i) The nonlinear iteration solution at which the gluons remain massless is explicitly present. (ii) Existence of the solution with an effective gluon mass is also demonstrated.

  19. Evidence for the Absence of Gluon Orbital Angular Momentum in the Nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Gardner, S.

    2006-08-23

    The Sivers mechanism for the single-spin asymmetry in unpolarized lepton scattering from a transversely polarized nucleon is driven by the orbital angular momentum carried by its quark and gluon constituents, combined with QCD final-state interactions. Both quark and gluon mechanisms can generate such a single-spin asymmetry, though only the quark mechanism can explain the small single-spin asymmetry measured by the COMPASS collaboration on the deuteron, suggesting the gluon mechanism is small relative to the quark mechanism. We detail empirical studies through which the gluon and quark orbital angular momentum contributions, quark-flavor by quark-flavor, can be elucidated.

  20. Zombie Vortices: Angular Momentum Transport and Planetesimal Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, Joseph; Marcus, Philip; Pei, Suyang; Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Lecoanet, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Zombie vortices may fill the dead zones of protoplanetary disks, where they may play important roles in star and planet formation. We will investigate this new, purely hydrodynamic instability and explore the conditions necessary to resurrect the dead zone and fill it with large amplitude vortices that may transport angular momentum and allow mass to accrete onto the protostar. One unresolved issue is whether angular momentum transport is mediated via asymmetries in the vortices, vortex-vortex interactions, or acoustic waves launched by the vortices. Vortices may also play a crucial role in the formation of planetesimals, the building blocks of planets. It is still an open question how grains grow to kilometer-size. We will investigate the interactions of dust with vortices generated via our new hydrodynamic instability, and bridge the gap between micron-sized grains and kilometer-sized planetesimals. Supported by NSF AST-1010052.

  1. Numerical studies of the margin of vortices with decaying cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G. C.; Ting, L.

    1986-01-01

    The merging of vortices to a single one is a canonical incompressible viscous flow problem. The merging process begins when the core sizes or the vortices are comparable to their distances and ends when the contour lines of constant vorticity lines are circularized around one center. Approximate solutions to this problem are constructed by adapting the asymptotic solutions for distinct vortices. For the early stage of merging, the next-order terms in the asymptotic solutions are added to the leading term. For the later stage of merging, the vorticity distribution is reinitialized by vortices with overlapping core structures guided by the 'rule of merging' and the velocity of the 'vortex centers' are then defined by a minimum principle. To show the accuracy of the approximate solution, it is compared with the finite-difference solution.

  2. Baroclinic Vortices in Rotating Stratified Shearing Flows: Cyclones, Anticyclones, and Zombie Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram

    Large coherent vortices are abundant in geophysical and astrophysical flows. They play significant roles in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere, the atmosphere of gas giants, such as Jupiter, and the protoplanetary disks around forming stars. These vortices are essentially three-dimensional (3D) and baroclinic, and their dynamics are strongly influenced by the rotation and density stratification of their environments. This work focuses on improving our understanding of the physics of 3D baroclinic vortices in rotating and continuously stratified flows using 3D spectral simulations of the Boussinesq equations, as well as simplified mathematical models. The first chapter discusses the big picture and summarizes the results of this work. In Chapter 2, we derive a relationship for the aspect ratio (i.e., vertical half-thickness over horizontal length scale) of steady and slowly-evolving baroclinic vortices in rotating stratified fluids. We show that the aspect ratio is a function of the Brunt-Vaisala frequencies within the vortex and outside the vortex, the Coriolis parameter, and the Rossby number of the vortex. This equation is basically the gradient-wind equation integrated over the vortex, and is significantly different from the previously proposed scaling laws that find the aspect ratio to be only a function of the properties of the background flow, and independent of the dynamics of the vortex. Our relation is valid for cyclones and anticyclones in either the cyclostrophic or geostrophic regimes; it works with vortices in Boussinesq fluids or ideal gases, and non-uniform background density gradient. The relation for the aspect ratio has many consequences for quasi-equilibrium vortices in rotating stratified flows. For example, cyclones must have interiors more stratified than the background flow (i.e., super-stratified), and weak anticyclones must have interiors less stratified than the background (i.e., sub-stratified). In addition, this equation is useful to

  3. Applications of the concept of generalized vorticity to space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.; Edwards, W. F.; Rasmussen, C.; Thompson, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A reformulation of the momentum equation for electrons or ions in a collisionless plasma leads to an equation which describes the behavior of the plasma in terms of a generalized vorticity. This vorticity is both divergence-free and conserved along plasma flow streamlines. When the plasma has zero vorticity, a special relation is established which appears to have application to small scale magnetic features within both conventional space plasmas and superconductors.

  4. Scattering of Second Sound Waves by Quantum Vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Fernando; Steinberg, Victor

    1995-08-01

    A new method of detection and measurement of quantum vorticity by scattering second sound off quantized vortices in superfluid helium is suggested. Theoretical calculations of the relative amplitude of the scattered second sound waves from a single quantum vortex, a vortex lattice, and bulk vorticity are presented. The relevant estimates show that an experimental verification of the method is feasible. Moreover, it can even be used for the detection of a single quantum vortex.

  5. Vortical structures in the breakdown stage of transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. R.

    Data from an experimental investigation of boundary-layer transition has been processed to show the presence of vortical structures that have previously been undetected in the early breakdown stage. The structures, which were identified from organized patterns of vortex lines, consisted of hairpin and inverted vortices. Similarities between the breakdown process and the turbulent burst process suggest that the vorticity dynamics are similar between the two processes.

  6. Visualization of vortical flows in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, K. N.; Emel'yanov, V. N.; Teterina, I. V.; Yakovchuk, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    The concepts and methods of the visual representation of fluid dynamics computations of vortical flows are studied. Approaches to the visualization of vortical flows based on the use of various definitions of a vortex and various tests for its identification are discussed. Examples of the visual representation of solutions to some fluid dynamics problems related to the computation of vortical flows in jets, channels, and cavities and of the computation of separated flows occurring in flows around bodies of various shapes are discussed.

  7. Collision dynamics of two-dimensional non-Abelian vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawson, Thomas; Petersen, Timothy C.; Simula, Tapio

    2017-09-01

    We study computationally the collision dynamics of vortices in a two-dimensional spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. In contrast to Abelian vortex pairs, which annihilate or pass through each other, we observe non-Abelian vortex pairs to undergo rungihilation—an event that converts the colliding vortices into a rung vortex. The resulting rung defect subsequently decays to another pair of non-Abelian vortices of different type, accompanied by a magnetization reversal.

  8. How perfect can a gluon plasma be in perturbative QCD?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Deng Jian; Dong Hui; Wang Qun

    2011-02-01

    The shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, {eta}/s, characterizes how perfect a fluid is. We calculate the leading order {eta}/s of a gluon plasma in perturbation using the kinetic theory. The leading order contribution only involves the elastic gg{r_reversible}gg (22) process and the inelastic gg{r_reversible}ggg (23) process. The hard-thermal-loop (HTL) treatment is used for the 22 matrix element, while the exact matrix element in vacuum is supplemented by the gluon Debye mass insertion for the 23 process. Also, the asymptotic mass is used for the external gluons in the kinetic theory. The errors from not implementing HTL and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect in the 23 process, and from the uncalculated higher order corrections, are estimated. Our result smoothly connects the two different approximations used by Arnold, Moore, and Yaffe (AMY) and Xu and Greiner (XG). At small {alpha}{sub s} ({alpha}{sub s}<<1), our result is closer to AMY's collinear result while at larger {alpha}{sub s} the finite angle noncollinear configurations become more important and our result is closer to XG's soft bremsstrahlung result. In the region where perturbation is reliable ({alpha}{sub s} < or approx. 0.1), we find no indication that the proposed perfect fluid limit {eta}/s{approx_equal}1/(4{pi}) can be achieved by perturbative QCD alone. Whether this can be achieve for {alpha}{sub s} > or approx. 0.1 is still an open question.

  9. Enhancing critical current density of cuprate superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhari, Praveen

    2015-06-16

    The present invention concerns the enhancement of critical current densities in cuprate superconductors. Such enhancement of critical current densities include using wave function symmetry and restricting movement of Abrikosov (A) vortices, Josephson (J) vortices, or Abrikosov-Josephson (A-J) vortices by using the half integer vortices associated with d-wave symmetry present in the grain boundary.

  10. Characteristics of internal vortical structures in a merged turbulent spot†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makita, Hideharu; Nishizawa, Akira

    2001-07-01

    Interaction phenomena between two turbulent spots were investigated in a zero pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer. Two types of hotwire rakes, a 16-channel I- and a 30-channel X-probe gave clear instantaneous vortical motion inside the spots, showing that the single spot was an aggregation of many small-scale hairpin vortices accompanied by upwashes and downwashes around their legs. The legs, a pair of counter-rotating longitudinal vortices, were identified by the existence of streaky velocity-defect and -excess regions at the bottom of the spot. As the spot grew downstream, the number of longitudinal vortices increased, though its wingtips were always accompanied by upwashes. When two spots were produced in parallel and merged with each other, the upwash of the low-speed fluid was strongly enhanced in their merged part through the mutual interaction between the longitudinal vortices at their inside wingtips. Resultant unstable inflectional velocity profile gave birth to several spanwise vortices around the top of the merged part. These intensified spanwise vortices conformed the heads of horseshoe vortices and grew larger than those around the head of non-interacting isolated spots. Such strengthened horseshoe vortices possibly maintain their geometric identity to the turbulent boundary layer further downstream and initiate the turbulent bulges in it.

  11. Visualization tools for vorticity transport analysis in incompressible flow.

    PubMed

    Sadlo, Filip; Peikert, Ronald; Sick, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    Vortices are undesirable in many applications while indispensable in others. It is therefore of common interest to understand their mechanisms of creation. This paper aims at analyzing the transport of vorticity inside incompressible flow. The analysis is based on the vorticity equation and is performed along pathlines which are typically started in upstream direction from vortex regions. Different methods for the quantitative and explorative analysis of vorticity transport are presented and applied to CFD simulations of water turbines. Simulation quality is accounted for by including the errors of meshing and convergence into analysis and visualization. The obtained results are discussed and interpretations with respect to engineering questions are given.

  12. Coherent Vortical Structures in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Near Ground.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropley, Ford

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Vorticity has been fundamental to the description of turbulence. Despite this there have been few measurements of vorticity in the atmosphere. An array of twelve digital vane anemometers was used as a probe to measure atmospheric vorticity. Data was taken in neutrally stable conditions, in a range of wind speeds. The velocity vector was measured at four points at 5 or 10 Hz. The coded velocity signals were transmitted by cable for storage in a microcomputer. The assumption of linear velocity fields allowed the subsequent calculation of the local vorticity vector and the divergence. Particular care was taken with the interaction of the various length scales associated with the instrument. Characteristic spacing of the anemometers was 2m. Probability distributions and spectra of the vorticity components are calculated. A literature review examines developments in conditional sampling in controlled flows, and reviews the sparse measurements of ordered motions in the atmosphere. A conditional sampling scheme used the smoothed cross-wind vorticity component as a detector. Further partitioning of the traces using the vertical vorticity component revealed a recurring vortical structure. This appeared to be part of a system of horseshoe vortices. The work ends with a summary of findings, and recommendations for further study.

  13. Observations of Electron Vorticity in the Inner Plasma Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurgiolo, C.; Goldstein, M. L.; Vinas, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    From a limited number of observations it appears that vorticity is a common feature in the inner plasma sheet. With the four Cluster spacecraft and the four PEACE instruments positioned in a tetrahedral configuration, for the first time it is possible to directly estimate the electron fluid vorticity in a space plasma. We show examples of electron fluid vorticity from multiple plasma sheet crossings. These include three time periods when Cluster passed through a reconnection ion diffusion region. Enhancements in vorticity are seen in association with each crossing of the ion diffusion region.

  14. A splitting-free vorticity redistribution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhart, M.; Obi, S.

    2017-02-01

    We present a splitting-free variant of the vorticity redistribution method. Spatial consistency and stability when combined with a time-stepping scheme are proven. We propose a new strategy preventing excessive growth in the number of particles while retaining the order of consistency. The novel concept of small neighbourhoods significantly reduces the method's computational cost. In numerical experiments the method showed second order convergence, one order higher than predicted by the analysis. Compared to the fast multipole code used in the velocity computation, the method is about three times faster.

  15. Superfluid vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Alford, Mark; Windisch, Andreas; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2016-03-01

    Superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter are known to be energetically disfavored as compared to well-separated triplets of ``semi-superfluid'' color flux tubes. In this talk we will provide results which will identify regions in parameter space where the superfluid vortex spontaneously decays. We will also discuss the nature of the mode that is responsible for the decay of a superfluid vortex in dense quark matter. We will conclude by mentioning the implications of our results to neutron stars.

  16. Models for some aspects of atmospheric vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    A frictionless adiabatic model is used to study the growth of random vortices in an atmosphere with buoyant instability and vertical wind shear, taking account of the effects of axial drag, heat transfer and precipitation-induced downdrafts. It is found that downdrafts of tornadic magnitude may occur in negatively buoyant columns. The radial-inflow velocity required to maintain a given maximum tangential velocity in a tornado is determined by using a turbulent vortex model. A tornado model which involves a rotating parent cloud as well as buoyancy and precipitation effects is also discussed.

  17. Inviscid to turbulent transition of trailing vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iversen, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the plateau region in the vortex system which trails from a lifting wing are discussed. The decay of the vortex due to viscous or turbulent shear is very slow in the plateau so that the maximum tangential speed in the vortices remains nearly constant for some distance downstream of roll-up and then begins to decrease, becoming inversely proportional to the square root of the distance downstream. Mathematical models are developed to analyze the structure of the plateau area. Solutions are obtained for both constant and variable eddy viscosity models.

  18. Internal energy flows in composite optical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer-Garcia, Manuel F.; Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.

    2016-09-01

    We study the energy ow pattern in the superposition of two off-axis optical vortices with orthogonal polarization states. This system presents a rich structure of polarization singularities, which allows us to study the transverse spin and orbital angular momentum of different polarization morphologies, which includes C points (stars, lemons and monstars) and L lines. We perform numerical simulations of the optical forces acting on submicron particles and show interesting configurations. We provide the set of control parameters to unambiguously distinguish between the spin and orbital ow contributions.

  19. Search for the Quark Gluon Plasma: A Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagle, J. L.

    2006-07-01

    This document is the proceedings from an overview talk on the search for the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) given at the Particles and Nuclei International Conference (PANIC) in Santa Fe, New Mexico in October 2005. After five years of successful data taking at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, there is much to report in this field of physics. In this short review, we present a bulleted list of experimental discoveries and conclusions to date on the matter formed in these highest energy nuclear reactions.

  20. Heavy quarks, gluons and the confinement potential in Coulomb gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Popovici, Carina; Watson, Peter; Reinhardt, Hugo

    2011-05-23

    We consider the heavy quark limit of Coulomb gauge QCD, with the truncation of the Yang-Mills sector to include only (dressed) two-point functions. We find that the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is nonperturbatively exact and moreover, we provide a direct connection between the temporal gluon propagator and the quark confinement potential. Further, we show that only bound states of color singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (SU(2) baryon) pairs are physically allowed.

  1. Quarks and gluons in the nucleon: Proceedings. Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the quark and gluon structure of the nucleon as probed experimentally by hard processes with lepton and hadron beams and studied theoretically by perturbative QCD, lattice QCD and effective models on the one hand and to stimulate research activities in the fields related to RHIC and RHIC-SPIN projects on the other hand. There were 18 talks and 2 discussion sessions. About 50, including 5 from abroad participated in the symposium. An excellent summary in the form of 5 most important transparencies and a one-page explanation is included for each of the invited talks.

  2. Quasilinear transport approach to equilibration of quark-gluon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mrowczynski, Stanislaw; Mueller, Berndt

    2010-03-15

    We derive the transport equations of quark-gluon plasma in the quasilinear approximation. The equations are either of the Balescu-Lenard or Fokker-Planck form. The plasma's dynamics is assumed to be governed by longitudinal chromoelectric fields. The isotropic plasma, which is stable, and the two-stream system, which is unstable, are considered in detail. A process of equilibration is briefly discussed in both cases. The peaks of the two-stream distribution are shown to rapidly dissolve in time.

  3. Interactions of quarks and gluons with nuclei at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, A.H.

    1994-04-01

    Some processes involving the interaction of medium energy quarks and gluons with nuclear matter are described. Possible mechanisms for the A-dependence of the energy loss of leading protons produced in proton-nucleus collisions are given, and an experiment which may help to distinguish these mechanisms is described. A possible color transparency experiment at CEBAF is described. Experiments to measure energy loss of quarks in nuclear matter and the formation time of hadrons are discussed along with the possibilities of measuring {sigma}{sub J}/{psi} and {sigma}{sub {psi}{prime}} at CEBAF.

  4. Quark-gluon plasma and topological quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, M. J.

    2017-03-01

    Based on an analogy with topologically ordered new state of matter in condensed matter systems, we propose a low energy effective field theory for a parity conserving liquid-like quark-gluon plasma (QGP) around critical temperature in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) system. It shows that below a QCD gap which is expected several times of the critical temperature, the QGP behaves like topological fluid. Many exotic phenomena of QGP near the critical temperature discovered at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collision (RHIC) are more readily understood by the suggestion that QGP is a topologically ordered state.

  5. Quark gluon plasma: Overview and experimental results from E-735

    SciTech Connect

    Turkot, F.; Alexopoulos, T.; Allen, C.; Anderson, E.W.; Areti, H.; Banerjee, S.; Beery, P.D.; Biswas, N.N.; Bujak, A.; Carmony, D.D.

    1988-12-14

    A brief review of the phenomenology associated with the effort to produce and observe quark-gluon plasma in particle collisions is presented. E-735 has taken data during the 1987 Tevatron-Collider run at /square root/s = 1.8 TeV in pursuit of this goal. Results in the correlation of < p/sub t/ > with multiplicity for charged particles and p/sub t/ distributions for ..lambda../sup o/ and /bar Lambda//sup o/ are presented. 32 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.

    2005-12-15

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy.

  7. Soft-gluon resolution scale in QCD evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Lelek, A.; Radescu, V.; Žlebčík, R.

    2017-09-01

    QCD evolution equations can be recast in terms of parton branching processes. We present a new numerical solution of the equations. We show that this parton-branching solution can be applied to analyze infrared contributions to evolution, order-by-order in the strong coupling αs, as a function of the soft-gluon resolution scale parameter. We examine the cases of transverse-momentum ordering and angular ordering. We illustrate that this approach can be used to treat distributions which depend both on longitudinal and on transverse momenta.

  8. J/psi Production in Quark-Gluon Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Li; Zhuang, Pengfei; Xu, Nu

    2006-10-30

    We study J/{psi} production at RHIC and LHC energies with both initial production and regeneration. We solve the coupled set of transport equation for the J/{psi} distribution in phase space and the hydrodynamic equation for evolution of quark-gluon plasma. At RHIC, continuous regeneration is crucial for the J/{psi} momentum distribution while the elliptic flow is still dominated by initial production. At LHC energy, almost all the initially created J/{psi}s are dissociated in the medium and regeneration dominates the J/{psi} properties.

  9. Charmonium in strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Clint; Shuryak, Edward

    2009-03-15

    The growing consensus that a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) has been observed at the SPS and RHIC experiments suggests a different framework for examining heavy-quark dynamics. We present both a semianalytical treatment of Fokker-Planck (FP) evolution in pedagogical examples and numerical Langevin simulations of evolving cc pairs on top of a hydrodynamically expanding fireball. In this way, we may conclude that the survival probability of bound charmonia states is greater than previously estimated, as the spatial equilibration of pairs proceeds through a 'slowly dissolving lump' stage related to the pair interaction.

  10. Eikonal gluon bremsstrahlung at finite Nc beyond two loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delenda, Yazid; Khelifa-Kerfa, Kamel

    2016-03-01

    We present a general formalism for computing the matrix-element squared for the emission of soft energy-ordered gluons beyond two loops in QCD perturbation theory at finite Nc. Our formalism is valid in the eikonal approximation. A Mathematica program has been developed for the automated calculation of all real/virtual eikonal squared amplitudes needed at a given loop order. For the purpose of illustration, we show the explicit forms of the eikonal squared amplitudes up to the fifth-loop order. In the large-Nc limit, our results coincide with those previously reported in literature.

  11. Universal behavior of gluon and ghost propagators in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siringo, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    A universal behavior is predicted for ghost and gluon propagators in the infrared. The universal behavior is shown to be a signature of a one-loop approximation and emerges naturally by the massive expansion that predicts universal analytical functions for the inverse dressing functions that do not depend on any parameter or color number. By a scaling of units and by adding an integration constant, all lattice data, for different color numbers (and even quark content for the ghosts), collapse on the same universal curves predicted by the massive expansion.

  12. Threshold region for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion.

    PubMed

    Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2012-09-07

    We provide a quantitative determination of the effective partonic kinematics for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion in terms of the collider energy at the LHC. We use the result to assess, as a function of the Higgs boson mass, whether the large m(t) approximation is adequate and Sudakov resummation advantageous. We argue that our results hold to all perturbative orders. Based on our results, we conclude that the full inclusion of finite top mass corrections is likely to be important for accurate phenomenology for a light Higgs boson with m(H)~125 GeV at the LHC with √s=14 TeV.

  13. Probing Quark-Gluon Interactions with Transverse Polarized Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Slifer, K.; Rondon, O. A.; Crabb, D.; Day, D.; Frlez, E.; Lindgren, R.; McKee, P.; Norum, B.; Pocanic, D.; Prok, Y.; Sawatzky, B.; Smith, C.; Tajima, S.; Wang, K.; Zeier, M.; Zhu, H.; Aghalaryan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Ahmidouch, A.

    2010-09-03

    We have extracted QCD matrix elements from our data on doubly polarized inelastic scattering of electrons on nuclei. We find the higher twist matrix element d{sub 2}-tilde, which arises strictly from quark-gluon interactions, to be unambiguously nonzero. The data also reveal an isospin dependence of higher twist effects if we assume that the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule is valid. The fundamental Bjorken sum rule obtained from the a{sub 0} matrix element is satisfied at our low momentum transfer.

  14. Acoustical vortices on a Chip for 3D single particle manipulation and vorticity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Bou Matar, Olivier; Baudoin, Michael

    Surface acoustic waves offer most of the basic functions required for on-chip actuation of fluids at small scales: efficient flow mixing, integrated pumping, particles separation, droplet displacement, atomization, division and fusion. Nevertheless some more advanced functions such as 3D particles manipulation and vorticity control require the introduction of some specific kind of waves called acoustic vortices. These helical waves propagate spinning around a phase singularity called the dark core. On the one hand, the beam angular momentum can be transferred to the fluid and create point-wise vorticity for confined mixing, and on the other the dark core can trap individual particles in an acoustic well for single object manipulation. In this presentation, I will show how acoustical vortices on-a-chip can be synthesized with a programmable electronics and an array of transducers. I will then highlight how some of their specificities can be used for acoustical tweezing and twisting. This work is supported by ANR Project No. ANR-12-BS09-0021-01 and ANR-12- BS09-0021-02, and Rgion Nord Pas de Calais.

  15. Vorticity amplification near the stagnation point of landing gear wheels: effect of the orientation of the impinging vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Mingyao; Feltham, Graham; Ekmekci, Alis

    2014-11-01

    When oncoming streams of weak vorticity aligned with the axle axis of a two-wheel landing gear impinge near the forward stagnation point of the wheels, a mechanism for vorticity collection, growth, amplification into discrete large-scale vortices, and shedding was formerly shown to exist. In the current study, the impinging vorticity streams are perpendicular to the axle axis, i.e. in a vertical orientation as opposed to the horizontal orientation before. Experiments are conducted in a recirculating water channel using hydrogen bubble visualization and particle image velocimetry at a Reynolds number of 32,500 (based on the wheel diameter). As with the horizontal orientation, vorticity collection and amplification are observed, but the large-scale vortices thus formed are stretched around the wheel circumference in contrast to being stretched around the wheel sides, as observed for the horizontal orientation. This flow behavior varies with the impingement location of the vorticity streams across the wheel width. Maximum vorticity amplification occurs at a critical impingement location and drastically alters the flow separation along the wheel circumference. In addition, the instantaneous vortical structures are identified and tracked using a Galilean-invariant criterion.

  16. Numerical prediction of airplane trailing vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czech, M. J.; Crouch, J. D.; Miller, G. D.; Strelets, M.

    2004-11-01

    The accurate prediction of airplane trailing vortices is of great interest for both cruise conditions in conjunction with the formation of contrails as well as approach conditions for reasons of flight safety and active vortex control. A numerical approach is introduced based on a quasi-3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes formulation with a one-equation turbulence model. The numerical results show good agreement with wind-tunnel data out to ten spans for a range of wing and tail loadings typical of commercial airplanes in a landing configuration. The results show a one-, two- and three-pair system in the near-field with only minor changes to the initial lift distribution. The CFD correctly predicts the strength, demise and position of the individual vortex pairs over a range of test cases. The approach is further extended by considering thrust effects. For cruise conditions, far field predictions show the entrainment of the jet plume into the wake and provide the potential for coupling with a micro-physics model to predict the formation and early evolution of contrails. Potential influences of configuration details on the plume entrainment are considered. This numerical method also offers an attractive approach for assessing active schemes designed to accelerate the break-up of airplane trailing vortices.

  17. Dynamics of Quantized Vortices Before Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andryushchenko, V. A.; Kondaurova, L. P.; Nemirovskii, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    The main goal of this paper is to investigate numerically the dynamics of quantized vortex loops, just before the reconnection at finite temperature, when mutual friction essentially changes the evolution of lines. Modeling is performed on the base of vortex filament method using the full Biot-Savart equation. It was discovered that the initial position of vortices and the temperature strongly affect the dependence on time of the minimum distance δ (t) between tips of two vortex loops. In particular, in some cases, the shrinking and collapse of vortex loops due to mutual friction occur earlier than the reconnection, thereby canceling the latter. However, this relationship takes a universal square-root form δ ( t) =√{( κ /2π ) ( t_{*}-t) } at distances smaller than the distances, satisfying the Schwarz reconnection criterion, when the nonlocal contribution to the Biot-Savart equation becomes about equal to the local contribution. In the "universal" stage, the nearest parts of vortices form a pyramid-like structure with angles which neither depend on the initial configuration nor on temperature.

  18. Close relative equilibria of identical point vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirksen, Tobias; Aref, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    Via numerical solution of the classical problem of relative equilibria for identical point vortices on the unbounded plane we have found configurations that are very close to the analytically known, centered, symmetrically arranged, nested equilateral triangles. Numerical solutions of this kind were found for 3 n + 1 vortices, where n = 2 , 3 , ... , 30 . A sufficient, although apparently not necessary, condition for this phenomenon of close solutions is that the ``core'' of the configuration is marginally stable, as occurs for a central vortex surrounded by an equilateral triangle. The open, regular heptagon also has this property, and new relative equilibria close to the nested, symmetrically arranged, regular heptagons have been found. The centered regular nonagon is also marginally stable. Again, a new family of close relative equilibria has been found. The closest relative equilibrium pairs occur, however, for symmetrically nested equilateral triangles. The numerical evidence is surveyed and related recent work mentioned. A Letter in Physics of Fluids 23 (2011) 051706 is available. Supported in part by the Danish National Research Foundation through a Niels Bohr visiting professorship.

  19. Dynamo theory, vorticity generation, and exponential stretching.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Susan; Vishik, Misha M.

    1991-08-01

    A discussion is given of the analogy between the dynamo equation for the generation of a magnetic field by the motion of an electrically conducting fluid and the equation for the evolution of vorticity of a viscous fluid. In both cases exponential stretching is an important feature of the underlying instability problem. For the "fast" dynamo problem, the existence of exponential stretching (i.e., the positivity of the Lyapunov exponent) somewhere in the flow is a necessary condition when the flow is smooth. An example is presented of a flow with exponential stretching (an Anosov flow) that supports fast dynamo action. A parallel treatment is described for the linearized Navier-Stokes equations for the motion of a viscous fluid. In this problem the analogous necessary condition for "fast vorticity generation" is the existence of some instability in the corresponding Euler (i.e., inviscid) equation. Dynamo theory methods give a second related result, namely a universal geometric estimate from below on the growth rate of a small perturbation in an inviscid fluid. This bound gives an effective sufficient condition for local instability for Eulers equations. In particular, it is proved that a steady flow with a hyperbolic stagnation point is unstable. The growth rate of an infinitesimal perturbation in a metric with derivatives depends on this metric. This dependence is completely described.

  20. Tomographic PIV Study of Hairpin Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Daniel; Rossmann, Tobias

    2014-11-01

    Tomographic PIV is used in a free surface water channel to quantify the flow behavior of hairpin vortices that are artificially generated in a laminar boundary layer. Direct injection from a 32:1 aspect ratio slot at low blowing ratios (0 . 1 < BR < 0 . 2) is used to generate an isolated hairpin vortex in a thick laminar boundary layer (485 < Reδ* < 600). Due to the large dynamic range of length and velocity scales (the resulting vortices have advection velocities 5X greater than their tangential velocities), a tailored optical arrangement and specialized post processing techniques are required to fully capture the small-scale behavior and long-time development of the flow field. Hairpin generation and evolution are presented using the λ2 criterion derived from the instantaneous, three-dimensional velocity field. The insight provided by the tomographic data is also compared to the conclusions drawn from 2D PIV and passive scalar visualizations. Finally, the three-dimensional behavior of the measured velocity field is correlated with that of a simultaneously imaged, passive scalar dye that marks the boundary of the injected fluid, allowing the examination of the entrainment behavior of the hairpin. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1040236.

  1. Toroidal vortices in resistive magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David; Bates, Jason W.; Li, Shuojun

    1997-04-01

    When a time-independent electric current flows toroidally in a uniform ring of electrically conducting fluid, a Lorentz force results, j×B, where j is the local electric current density, and B is the magnetic field it generates. Because of purely geometric effects, the curl of j×B is nonvanishing, and so j×B cannot be balanced by the gradient of any scalar pressure. Taking the curl of the fluid's equation of motion shows that the net effect of the j×B force is to generate toroidal vorticity. Allowed steady states necessarily contain toroidal vortices, with flows in the poloidal directions. The flow pattern is a characteristic "double smoke ring" configuration. The effect seems quite general, although it is analytically simple only in special limits. One limit described here is that of high viscosity (low Reynolds number), with stress-free wall boundary conditions on the velocity field, although it is apparent that similar mechanical motions will result for no-slip boundaries and higher Reynolds numbers. A rather ubiquitous connection between current-carrying toroids and vortex rings seems to be implied, one that disappears in the "straight cylinder" limit.

  2. Vorticity generation in compressible multiphase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballil, A.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Jolgam, S.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.

    2014-08-01

    The simulations of flows in inhomogeneous media of various physical regimes leading to shock-bubble interactions were performed using a developed numerical code based on a multi-component flow model. The numerical method which considers interfaces represented by contact discontinuities as numerically diffused zones, has been applied to simulate compressible two-phase flows. The approach takes advantage of the inherent numerical diffusion present in solutions. The mathematical formulation of the presented method is obtained after an averaging process of the single phase Navier-Stokes equations and contains the non-conservative equations and non-conservative terms that exist in the model to fulfill the interface condition. The finite volume Godunov-type computational technique, equipped with an approximate Riemann solver for calculating fluxes, is applied to simulate flows in two space dimensions. The approach accounts for pressure non-equilibrium. It resolves interfaces separating compressible fluids and captures the baroclinic source of vorticity generation. A numerically challenging shock bubble interaction problem is investigated to evaluate the effect of the Atwood number and shock wave intensity (various Mach numbers) on the interface evolution and vorticity generation.

  3. Reconnection of vorticity lines and magnetic lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic field and fluid vorticity share many features. First, as divergence-free vector fields they are conveniently visualized in terms of their field lines, curves that are everywhere tangent to the field. The lines indicate direction and their density indicates field strength. The question arises of the extent to which the evolution of the fields can be treated in terms of the evolution of their field lines. Newcomb (1958) derived the general conditions on the evolution of vector fields that permit the identification of field lines from one instant to the next. The equations of evolution of the vorticity field and the magnetic field fall within Newcomb's analysis. The dynamics of the flows differ between these two systems, so that geometrically similar phenomena happen in different ways in the two systems. In this paper the geometrical similarities are emphasized. Reconnection will be defined here as evolution in which it is not possible to preserve the global identification of some field lines. There is a close relation between reconnection and the topology of the vector field lines. Nontrivial topology occurs where the field has null points or there are field lines that are closed loops.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Aircraft Trailing Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Switzer, George F.

    2000-01-01

    The increase in air traffic is currently outpacing the development of new airport runways. This is leading to greater air traffic congestion, resulting in costly delays and cancellations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under its Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program is investigating new technologies that will allow increased airport capacity while maintaining the present standards for safety. As an element of this program, the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) is being demonstrated in July 2000, at Dallas Ft-Worth Airport. This system allows reduced aircraft separations, thus increasing the arrival and departure rates, while insuring that wake vortices from a leading aircraft do not endanger trailing aircraft. The system uses predictions or wake vortex position and strength based on input from the current weather state. This prediction is accomplished by a semi-empirical model developed from theory, field observations, and relationships derived from numerical wake vortex simulations. Numerical experiments with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are being conducted in order to provide guidance for the enhancement of these prediction algorithms. The LES Simulations of wake vortices are carried out with NASA's Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS). Previous wake vortex investigations with TASS are described. The primary objective of these numerical studies has been to quantify vortex transport and decay in relation to atmospheric variables. This paper summarizes many of the previous investigations with the TASS model and presents some new results regarding the onset of wake vortex decay.

  5. Interaction of a polydisperse spray with vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacour, C.; Durox, D.; Ducruix, S.; Massot, M.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present work is to provide, through the association of optical diagnostics on a well-chosen experimental configuration, new insights into the coupling of a vortical gaseous flow with a polydisperse evaporating spray representative of practical injections. A cloud of droplets is injected in an inert laminar round jet, axisymmetric and pulsated, enabling the study of the interaction of strong-vorticity structures with a polydisperse spray. The experiment is a laboratory-scale representation of realistic injection configurations such as in engine combustion chambers or industrial burners. The chosen set-up leads to a well-controlled configuration and allows the coupling of two optical diagnostics, particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and interferometric particle imaging (IPI), which leads to the study of both the flow dynamic and the droplet size distribution. The behaviour of droplets is analysed regarding their relaxing and evaporating properties. Size-conditioned preferential concentration of both weakly evaporating and strongly evaporating sprays is investigated. Droplet trajectories are also analysed by means of high-rate tomographic visualizations. The time history between their ejection from the nozzle and their interaction with the vortex is strongly related to the droplet preferential concentration and the observed heterogeneous repartition in the gas flow.

  6. Apparent mass in viscous, vortical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio

    2001-11-01

    The concept of added, virtual, apparent, or additional mass is well known in potential flow theory. It is added mass (or more exactly, the time derivative of virtual momentum) that wholly contributes to fluid dynamic forces in unsteady, potential flow configurations. While the force contribution from added mass can be easily evaluated in potential flows, it has always been thought that in real (vortical and viscous) flows, the contribution of added mass to the fluid dynamic force is intertwined in a complex way with the force resulting from wake and boundary layer vorticity. Recently, Shiels, Leonard, and Roshko (Journal of Fluids and Structures, vol 15, pp 3-21, 2001) [henceforth SLR] showed that the fluid dynamic lift force on a circular cylinder performing transverse oscillations in a steady stream can actually be decomposed into a lift force due to apparent mass (as evaluated from potential theory) and a ``wake'' force resulting from frictional as well as altered pressure forces caused by the boundary layer and wake growth in viscous flow. Through a rigorous formalism analogous to SLR’s, we will confirm that the SLR decomposition is correct and valid for any body shape in arbitrary motion. The SLR decomposition is a seminal discovery in the science of unsteady aero/hydrodynamics, as it allows to clearly distinguish the force contributions from added mass and from the ``wake''. The result is particularly important for understanding the flight and swimming mechanics of animals.

  7. Quark mean field model with pion and gluon corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xueyong; Hu, Jinniu; Shen, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei are studied within the quark mean field (QMF) model by taking the effects of pions and gluons into account at the quark level. The nucleon is described as the combination of three constituent quarks confined by a harmonic oscillator potential. To satisfy the spirit of QCD theory, the contributions of pions and gluons on the nucleon structure are treated in second-order perturbation theory. In a nuclear many-body system, nucleons interact with each other by exchanging mesons between quarks. With different constituent quark mass, mq, we determine three parameter sets for the coupling constants between mesons and quarks, named QMF-NK1, QMF-NK2, and QMF-NK3, by fitting the ground-state properties of several closed-shell nuclei. It is found that all of the three parameter sets can give a satisfactory description of properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei, moreover they also predict a larger neutron star mass around 2.3 M⊙ without hyperon degrees of freedom.

  8. Strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuryak, Edward

    2017-07-01

    A decade ago, a brief summary of the field of the relativistic heavy ion physics could be formulated as the discovery of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, sQGP for short, a near-perfect fluid with surprisingly large entropy-density-to-viscosity ratio. Since 2010, the LHC heavy ion program added excellent new data and discoveries. Significant theoretical efforts have been made to understand these phenomena. Now there is a need to consolidate what we have learned and formulate a list of issues to be studied next. Studies of angular correlations of two and more secondaries reveal higher harmonics of flow, identified as the sound waves induced by the initial state perturbations. As in cosmology, detailed measurements and calculations of these correlations helped to make our knowledge of the explosion much more quantitative. In particular, their damping had quantified the viscosity. Other kinetic coefficients—the heavy-quark diffusion constants and the jet quenching parameters—also show enhancements near the critical point T ≈Tc. Since densities of QGP quarks and gluons strongly decrease at this point, these facts indicate large role of nonperturbative mechanisms, e.g., scattering on monopoles. New studies of the p p and p A collisions at high multiplicities reveal collective explosions similar to those in heavy ion A A collisions. These "smallest drops of the sQGP" revived debates about the initial out-of-equilibrium stage of the collisions and mechanisms of subsequent equilibration.

  9. Gluon saturation and Feynman scaling in leading neutron production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, F.; Gonçalves, V. P.; Spiering, D.; Navarra, F. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we extend the color dipole formalism for the study of leading neutron production in e + p → e + n + X collisions at high energies and estimate the related observables which were measured at HERA and could be analyzed in future electron-proton (ep) colliders. In particular, we calculate the Feynman xF distribution of leading neutrons, which is expressed in terms of the pion flux and the photon-pion total cross section. In the color dipole formalism, the photon-pion cross section is described in terms of the dipole-pion scattering amplitude, which contains information about the QCD dynamics at high energies and gluon saturation effects. We consider different models for the scattering amplitude, which have been used to describe the inclusive and diffractive ep HERA data. Moreover, the model dependence of our predictions with the description of the pion flux is analyzed in detail. We demonstrate the recently released H1 leading neutron spectra can be described using the color dipole formalism and that these spectra could help us to observe more clearly gluon saturation effects in future ep colliders.

  10. Quark-gluon vertex: A perturbation theory primer and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez, R.; Albino, L.; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.; Bashir, A.

    2017-02-01

    There has been growing evidence that the infrared enhancement of the form factors defining the full quark-gluon vertex plays an important role in realizing a dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry in quantum chromodynamics, leading to the observed spectrum and properties of hadrons. Both the lattice and the Schwinger-Dyson communities have begun to calculate these form factors in various kinematical regimes of momenta involved. A natural consistency check for these studies is that they should match onto the perturbative predictions in the ultraviolet, where nonperturbative effects mellow down. In this article, we carry out a numerical analysis of the one-loop result for all the form factors of the quark-gluon vertex. Interestingly, even the one-loop results qualitatively encode most of the infrared enhancement features expected of their nonperturbative counter parts. We analyze various kinematical configurations of momenta: symmetric, on shell, and asymptotic. The on-shell limit enables us to compute anomalous chromomagnetic moment of quarks. The asymptotic results have implications for the multiplicative renormalizability of the quark propagator and its connection with the Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations, allowing us to analyze and compare various Ansätze proposed so far.

  11. Gluon momentum fraction of the nucleon from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Constantinou, Martha; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Jansen, Karl; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Wiese, Christian

    2017-09-01

    We perform a direct calculation of the gluon momentum fraction of the nucleon, taking into account the mixing with the corresponding quark contribution. We use maximally twisted mass fermion ensembles with Nf=2 +1 +1 flavors at a pion mass of about 370 MeV and a lattice spacing of a ≈0.082 fm and with Nf=2 flavors at the physical pion mass and a lattice spacing of a ≈0.093 fm . We employ stout smearing to obtain a statistically significant result for the bare matrix elements. In addition, we perform a lattice perturbative calculation including two levels of stout smearing to carry out the mixing and the renormalization of the quark and gluon operators. We find, after conversion to the MS ¯ scheme at a scale of 2 GeV, ⟨x ⟩gR=0.284 (27 )(17 )(24 ) for pion mass of about 370 MeV and ⟨x ⟩gR=0.267 (22 )(19 )(24 ) for the physical pion mass. In the reported numbers, the first parenthesis indicates statistical uncertainties. The numbers in the second and third parentheses correspond to systematic uncertainties due to excited states contamination and renormalization, respectively.

  12. Small shear viscosity in the semiquark gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Pisarski, Robert D.

    2010-04-01

    At nonzero temperature in QCD, about the deconfining phase transition there is a semiquark gluon plasma (semi-QGP), where the expectation value of the (renormalized) Polyakov loop is less than one. This can be modeled by a semiclassical expansion about a constant field for the vector potential, A{sub 0}, which is diagonal in color. We compute the shear viscosity in the semi-QGP by using the Boltzmann equation in the presence of this background field. To leading, logarithmic order in weak coupling, the dominant diagrams are given by the usual scattering processes of 2{yields}2 particles. For simplicity we also assume that both the number of colors and flavors are large. Near the critical temperature T{sub c}, where the expectation value of the Polyakov loop is small, the overall density of colored fields decreases according to their color representation, with the density of quarks vanishes linearly with the loop, and that of gluons, quadratically. This decrease in the overall density dominates changes in the transport cross section. As a result, relative to that in the perturbative QGP, near T{sub c} the shear viscosity in the semi-QGP is suppressed by two powers of the Polyakov loop. In a semiclassical expansion, the suppression of colored fields depends only upon which color representation they lie in, and not upon their mass. That light and heavy quarks are suppressed in a common manner may help to explain the behavior of charm quarks at RHIC.

  13. Two-gluon correlations in heavy-light ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertepny, Douglas E.

    2014-11-01

    We derive the cross-section for two-gluon production in heavy-light ion collisions in the saturation/Color Glass Condensate framework. This calculation includes saturation effects to all orders in one of the nuclei (heavy ion) along with a single saturation correction in the projectile (light ion). The calculation of the correlation function predicts (qualitatively) two identical ridge-like correlations, near- and away-side. This prediction was later supported by experimental findings in p + A collisions at the LHC. Concentrating on the energy and geometry dependence of the correlation functions we find that the correlation function is nearly center-of-mass energy independent. The geometry dependence of the correlation function leads to an enhancement of near- and away-side correlations for the tip-on-tip U + U collisions when compared with side-on-side U + U collisions, an exactly opposite behavior from the correlations generated by the elliptic flow of the quark-gluon plasma.

  14. New signals of quark-gluon-hadron mixed phase formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaev, K. A.; Sagun, V. V.; Ivanytskyi, A. I.; Oliinychenko, D. R.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Nikonov, E. G.; Taranenko, A. V.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2016-08-01

    Here we present several remarkable irregularities at chemical freeze-out which are found using an advanced version of the hadron resonance gas model. The most prominent of them are the sharp peak of the trace anomaly existing at chemical freeze-out at the center-of-mass energy 4.9 GeV and two sets of highly correlated quasi-plateaus in the collision energy dependence of the entropy per baryon, total pion number per baryon, and thermal pion number per baryon which we found at the center-of-mass energies 3.8-4.9 GeV and 7.6-10 GeV. The low-energy set of quasi-plateaus was predicted a long time ago. On the basis of the generalized shock-adiabat model we demonstrate that the low-energy correlated quasi-plateaus give evidence for the anomalous thermodynamic properties inside the quark-gluon-hadron mixed phase. It is also shown that the trace anomaly sharp peak at chemical freeze-out corresponds to the trace anomaly peak at the boundary between the mixed phase and quark gluon plasma. We argue that the high-energy correlated quasi-plateaus may correspond to a second phase transition and discuss its possible origin and location. Besides we suggest two new observables which may serve as clear signals of these phase transformations.

  15. Understanding the Quark-gluon Plasma via String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    2007-10-01

    Collisions of high-energy gold nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in Brookhaven National Laboratory create exploding droplets of quark-gluon plasma, the stuff which filled the universe microseconds after the Big Bang. The quark- gluon plasma at RHIC exhibits many surprising properties: it is close to an ideal liquid and it strongly attenuates the high energy quarks trying to plow through it. So far calculations in QCD have not been able to explain these properties satisfactorily, but interesting insight has been gained by using techniques from string theory. In the last ten years string theory has revealed a surprising and deep connection between quantum gravity and non-Abelian gauge theories similar to QCD. Such a connection enables one to answer difficult questions in some strongly coupled gauge theories by simple calculations of classical gravity. I will discuss some examples where these string theory techniques have been used to shed light on existing data from RHIC and to make one prediction that can be tested by experiments in the near future.

  16. Resummation improved rapidity spectrum for gluon fusion Higgs production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Michel, Johannes K. L.; Tackmann, Frank J.

    2017-05-01

    Gluon-induced processes such as Higgs production typically exhibit large perturbative corrections. These partially arise from large virtual corrections to the gluon form factor, which at timelike momentum transfer contains Sudakov logarithms evaluated at negative arguments ln2(-1) = - π 2. It has been observed that resumming these terms in the timelike form factor leads to a much improved perturbative convergence for the total cross section. We discuss how to consistently incorporate the resummed form factor into the perturbative predictions for generic cross sections differential in the Born kinematics, including in particular the Higgs rapidity spectrum. We verify that this indeed improves the perturbative convergence, leading to smaller and more reliable perturbative uncertainties, and that this is not affected by cancellations between resummed and unresummed contributions. Combining both fixed-order and resummation uncertainties, the perturbative uncertainty for the total cross section at N3LO + N3LL φ ' is about a factor of two smaller than at N3LO. The perturbative uncertainty of the rapidity spectrum at NNLO + NNLL φ ' is similarly reduced compared to NNLO. We also study the analogous resummation for quark-induced processes, namely Higgs production through bottom quark annihilation and the Drell-Yan rapidity spectrum. For the former the resummation leads to a small improvement, while for the latter it confirms the already small uncertainties of the fixed-order predictions.

  17. Non-transversality of the gluon self-energy and the DDT analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konetschny, W.

    1982-12-01

    It is found that the one-loop corrections to the propagator induced by the non-transversality of the gluon self energy in the planar gauge are not kinematically suppressed in the leading logarithm approximation. As a consequence the multiplicative renormalization of the bare gluon propagator assumed by Dokshitzer, Dyakonov and Troyan is lost.

  18. Introduction to quantum chromo transport theory for quark-gluon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.; Elze, H.Th.; Iwazaki, A.; Vasak, D.

    1986-08-01

    Upcoming heavy ion experiments at the AGS and SPS are aimed at producing and diagnosing a primordial form of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. In these lectures some recent developments on formulating a quantum transport theory for quark-gluon plasmas are introduced. 46 refs.

  19. Quark and gluon form factors to four-loop order in QCD: The Nf3 contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Manteuffel, Andreas; Schabinger, Robert M.

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the four-loop massless QCD corrections with three closed quark lines to quark and gluon form factors. We apply a novel integration by parts algorithm based on modular arithmetic and compute all relevant master integrals for arbitrary values of the space-time dimension. This is the first calculation of a gluon form factor at this perturbative order in QCD.

  20. Separating Internal Waves and Vortical Structure in the Open Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauffenburger, N. E.; Sanford, T. B.; Lien, R.

    2012-12-01

    Deviating from past oceanographic surveys, a new, powerful array of profiling floats has been deployed for three weeks in the Sargasso Sea to monitor the evolving sub-mesoscale field. Using 18-20 EM-APEX floats, profiling to 100 m depth simultaneously, velocity (U and V), temperature, salinity and microstructure measurements (χ) were made on horizontal scales between 100 m and 10 km. This strategy provided a 3-D snapshot of the physical properties every half hour, which significantly reduces temporal aliasing. Area-averaged relative vorticity, vortex stretching, non-linear twisting, horizontal divergence and Ertel's potential vorticity have been computed and projected onto isopycnal surfaces. Since vortical modes carry Ertel's potential vorticity (and internal waves do not), this is a useful step in understanding the energetic contribution of vortical motions to the background internal wave field on small scales. In addition, the temporal material conservation law of Ertel's potential vorticity will be tested for the first time by determining the advection of the floats' measurements relative to the motion of the water parcels and by computing the horizontal gradients of the potential vorticity signal. The three deployments provide data to analyze the interaction of inertial waves, vortical processes and barotropic tides in and out of active frontogenesis.