NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez, Daniel; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Bishop, A. R.
1995-12-01
We study a three-dimensional network of Josephson junctions in a magnetic field, which undergoes a first-order melting transition of the triangular vortex lattice. We perform a Langevin dynamics calculation of the resistance and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. We find hysteresis in the resistance as a function of temperature as measured in untwinned YBa2Cu3O7. Close to the melting temperature the I-V curves are S shaped with hysteresis and show a melting transition when increasing the current, driven by the blowing out of current nucleated vortex loops.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Avraham; Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.
2017-02-01
We study the impact of the nonanalytic reconstruction of vortex cores on static vortex structures in weakly coupled superfluids. We show that, in rotating two-dimensional systems, the Abrikosov vortex lattice is unstable to vortex core deformation: Each zero of the wave function becomes a cut of finite length. The directors characterizing the orientations of the cuts are themselves ordered in superstructures due either to surface effects or to interaction with shear deformations of the lattice (spiral structure). Similar instability may also be observable in clean superconducting films.
Detection of the phase shift from a single Abrikosov vortex.
Golod, T; Rydh, A; Krasnov, V M
2010-06-04
We probe a quantum mechanical phase rotation induced by a single Abrikosov vortex in a superconducting lead, using a Josephson junction, made at the edge of the lead, as a phase-sensitive detector. We observe that the vortex induces a Josephson phase shift equal to the polar angle of the vortex within the junction length. When the vortex is close to the junction it induces a π step in the Josephson phase difference, leading to a controllable and reversible switching of the junction into the 0-π state. This in turn results in an unusual Φ(0)/2 quantization of the flux in the junction. The vortex may hence act as a tunable "phase battery" for quantum electronics.
Melting of the Abrikosov flux lattice in anisotropic superconductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beck, R. G.; Farrell, D. E.; Rice, J. P.; Ginsberg, D. M.; Kogan, V. G.
1992-01-01
It has been proposed that the Abrikosov flux lattice in high-Tc superconductors is melted over a significant fraction of the phase diagram. A thermodynamic argument is provided which establishes that the angular dependence of the melting temperature is controlled by the superconducting mass anisotropy. Using a low-frequency torsional-oscillator technique, this relationship has been tested in untwinned single-crystal YBa2Cu3O(7-delta). The results offer decisive support for the melting proposal.
A single Abrikosov vortex trapped in a mesoscopic superconducting cylindrical surface.
Carapella, G; Sabatino, P; Costabile, G
2011-11-02
We investigate the behaviour of a single Abrikosov vortex trapped in a mesoscopic superconducting cylindrical surface with a magnetic field applied transverse to its axis. In the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism we show that, provided the transport current and the magnetic field are not large, the vortex behaves as an overdamped quasi-particle in a tilted washboard potential. The cylindrical thin strip with the trapped vortex exhibits E(J) curves and time-dependent electric fields very similar to the ones exhibited by a resistively shunted Josephson weak link.
Breitwisch, M.; Finnemore, D. K.
2000-07-01
Artificial structures were intentionally introduced into Nb films in order to study the interaction of a single Abrikosov vortex with pinning sites caused by these known defects. A vortex trapped on one of these structures or defects can be induced to move either by thermal depinning or by pushing on the vortex with a transport current in one of the films. The resulting motion, in turn, can be followed by observing the changes in the Fraunhofer-like interference pattern of a cross-strip Josephson junction having the thin film as one leg of the junction. Artificial pinning sites were successfully created by depositing Fe balls on the surface of a previously characterized thin film. Attempts to create artificial pinning sites by depressing the order parameter with a thin strip of Au on the surface of the Nb were not successful. There was no correlation between the location of trapped vortices and the location of the Au line. In a separate measurement, Lorentz-force-depinning studies for several intrinsic pinning sites in the thin film show that a transport current in the top film will depin a vortex in the top film with about one-tenth the current needed in the bottom film to depin the same vortex. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breitwisch, M.; Finnemore, D. K.
2000-07-01
Artificial structures were intentionally introduced into Nb films in order to study the interaction of a single Abrikosov vortex with pinning sites caused by these known defects. A vortex trapped on one of these structures or defects can be induced to move either by thermal depinning or by pushing on the vortex with a transport current in one of the films. The resulting motion, in turn, can be followed by observing the changes in the Fraunhofer-like interference pattern of a cross-strip Josephson junction having the thin film as one leg of the junction. Artificial pinning sites were successfully created by depositing Fe balls on the surface of a previously characterized thin film. Attempts to create artificial pinning sites by depressing the order parameter with a thin strip of Au on the surface of the Nb were not successful. There was no correlation between the location of trapped vortices and the location of the Au line. In a separate measurement, Lorentz-force-depinning studies for several intrinsic pinning sites in the thin film show that a transport current in the top film will depin a vortex in the top film with about one-tenth the current needed in the bottom film to depin the same vortex.
Impurity and Dislocation Mediated Vortex Lattice Melting in Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Bishwajyoti
2015-05-01
We present a numerical study of a Bose condensed gas in a harmonic trap potential in presence of impurities and dislocations in two-dimensions at zero temperature. The impurity is modeled by a Gaussian function and the line dislocation is modeled by a 'Dirac comb' potential. Such potentials can be created experimentally by laser light. We solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in two-dimensions using split-step Crank-Nicolson method. To characterize the melting of the vortex lattice we calculate the structure factor and from this the angular distortion of the vortex lattice. We also calculate the histogram of distances between each pair of vortices. The angular distortion of the vortex lattice shows large variations with changes in the impurity or dislocation positions. Also, the angular distortion of the vortex lattice increases with increase in the strength of the impurity and dislocation potentials and shows a jumps to a higher value at a particular strength indicating vortex lattice melting. Large distortion of the vortex lattice is also seen with variations of the number of dislocations and their positions with respect to the Abrikosov lattice. The histogram shows absence of separated peaks indicating the melting of the vortex lattice. The author would like to thank SERB, DST (India) for financial support through a research project.
Abrikosov fluxonics in washboard nanolandscapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.
2017-02-01
Abrikosov fluxonics, a domain of science and engineering at the interface of superconductivity research and nanotechnology, is concerned with the study of the properties and dynamics of Abrikosov vortices in nanopatterned superconductors, with particular focus on their confinement, manipulation, and exploitation for emerging functionalities. Vortex pinning, guided vortex motion, and the ratchet effect are three main fluxonic ;tools; which allow for the dynamical (pinned or moving), the directional (angle-dependent), and the orientational (current polarity-sensitive) control of the fluxons, respectively. Thanks to the periodicity of the vortex lattice, several groups of effects emerge when the vortices move in a periodic pinning landscape: Spatial commensurability of the location of vortices with the underlying pinning nanolandscape leads to a reduction of the dc resistance and the microwave loss at the so-called matching fields. Temporal synchronization of the displacement of vortices with the number of pinning sites visited during one half ac cycle manifests itself as Shapiro steps in the current-voltage curves. Delocalization of vortices oscillating under the action of a high-frequency ac drive can be tuned by a superimposed dc bias. In this short review a set of experimental results on the vortex dynamics in the presence of periodic pinning potentials in Nb thin films is presented. The consideration is limited to one particular type of artificial pinning structures - directly written nanolandscapes of the washboard type, which are fabricated by focused ion beam milling and focused electron beam induced deposition. The reported results are relevant for the development of fluxonic devices and the reduction of microwave losses in superconducting planar transmission lines.
Carapella, G.; Sabatino, P.; Barone, C.; Pagano, S.; Gombos, M.
2016-01-01
Vortices are topological defects accounting for many important effects in superconductivity, superfluidity, and magnetism. Here we address the stability of a small number of such excitations driven by strong external forces. We focus on Abrikosov-Josephson vortex that appears in lateral superconducting S/S’/S weak links with suppressed superconductivity in S’. In such a system the vortex is nucleated and confined in the narrow S’ region by means of a small magnetic field and moves under the effect of a force proportional to an applied electrical current with a velocity proportional to the measured voltage. Our numerical simulations show that when a slow moving Abrikosov-Josephson vortex is driven by a strong constant current it becomes unstable with respect to a faster moving excitation: the Josephon-like vortex. Such a current-driven transition explains the structured dissipative branches that we observe in the voltage-current curve of the weak link. When vortex matter is strongly confined phenomena as magnetoresistance oscillations and reentrance of superconductivity can possibly occur. We experimentally observe these phenomena in our weak links. PMID:27752137
Extended applications of the vortex lattice method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miranda, L. R.
1976-01-01
The application of the vortex lattice method to problems not usually dealt with by this technique is considered. It is shown that if the discrete vortex lattice is considered as an approximation to surface-distributed vorticity, then the concept of the generalized principal part of an integral yields a residual term to the vortex-induced velocity that renders the vortex lattice method valid for supersonic flow. Special schemes for simulating non-zero thickness lifting surfaces and fusiform bodies with vortex lattice elements are presented. Thickness effects of wing-like components are simulated by a double vortex lattice layer, and fusiform bodies are represented by a vortex grid arranged on a series of concentric cylindrical surfaces. Numerical considerations peculiar to the application of these techniques are briefly discussed.
Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, A. M.; Marchant, N. G.; O’Dell, D. H. J.; Parker, N. G.
2017-03-01
The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross–Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas–Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition.
Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids.
Martin, A M; Marchant, N G; O'Dell, D H J; Parker, N G
2017-03-15
The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas-Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition.
Historical evolution of vortex-lattice methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deyoung, J.
1976-01-01
A review of the beginning and some orientation of the vortex-lattice method were given. The historical course of this method was followed in conjunction with its field of computational fluid dynamics, spanning the period from L.F. Richardson's paper in 1910 to 1975. The following landmarks were pointed out: numerical analysis of partial differential equations, lifting-line theory, finite-difference method, 1/4-3/4 rule, block relaxation technique, application of electronic computers, and advanced panel methods.
Onset of motion and dynamic reordering of a vortex lattice.
Li, Guohong; Andrei, Eva Y; Xiao, Z L; Shuk, P; Greenblatt, M
2006-01-13
Time resolved transport measurements on a driven vortex lattice in an undoped 2H-NbSe2 crystal show that the response to a current pulse is governed by healing of defects as the lattice evolves from a stationary to a moving steady state and that the response time reflects the degree of order in the initial vortex state. We find that stationary field cooled vortex lattices become more ordered with decreasing temperature and identify a temperature below which a qualitative change in the response signals the disappearance of topological defects.
Effect of impurities on the vortex lattice in Bose-Einstein condensates on optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mithun, T.; Porsezian, K.; Dey, Bishwajyoti
2015-06-01
We numerically solve the Gross-Pitaeveskii equation to study the Bose-Einstein condensate in the rotating harmonical tarp and co-rotating optical lattice. The effect of a pinning site or impurity shows that it is able to move the vortex lattice center to either left or right depending on the position of the impurity. Also, it is observed that the impurity at the random positions can destroy the vortex lattice and the resulting disordered lattice has more energy.
A quasi-vortex-lattice method in thin wing theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. E.
1974-01-01
A quasi-continuous method is developed for solving thin-wing problems. For the purpose of satisfying the wing boundary conditions, the spanwise vortex distribution is assumed to be stepwise-constant, while the chordwise vortex integral is reduced to a finite sum through a modified trapezoidal rule and the theory of Chebyshev polynomials. Wing-edge and Cauchy singularities are acounted for. The total aerodynamic characteristics are obtained by an appropriate quadrature integration. The two-dimensional results for airfoils without flap deflection reproduce the exact solutions in lift and pitching moment coefficients, the leading edge suction, and the pressure difference at a finite number of points. For a flapped airfoil, the present results are more accurate than those given by the vortex-lattice method. The three-dimensional results also show an improvement over the results of the vortex-lattice method. Extension to nonplanar applications is discussed.
Single Abrikosov vortices as quantized information bits
Golod, T.; Iovan, A.; Krasnov, V. M.
2015-01-01
Superconducting digital devices can be advantageously used in future supercomputers because they can greatly reduce the dissipation power and increase the speed of operation. Non-volatile quantized states are ideal for the realization of classical Boolean logics. A quantized Abrikosov vortex represents the most compact magnetic object in superconductors, which can be utilized for creation of high-density digital cryoelectronics. In this work we provide a proof of concept for Abrikosov-vortex-based random access memory cell, in which a single vortex is used as an information bit. We demonstrate high-endurance write operation and two different ways of read-out using a spin valve or a Josephson junction. These memory cells are characterized by an infinite magnetoresistance between 0 and 1 states, a short access time, a scalability to nm sizes and an extremely low write energy. Non-volatility and perfect reproducibility are inherent for such a device due to the quantized nature of the vortex. PMID:26456592
Fluctuating pancake vortices revealed by dissipation of Josephson vortex lattice.
Koshelev, A. E.; Buzdin, A. I.; Kakeya, I.; Yamamoto, T.; Kadowaki, K.
2011-06-01
In strongly anisotropic layered superconductors in tilted magnetic fields, the Josephson vortex lattice coexists with the lattice of pancake vortices. Due to the interaction between them, the dissipation of the Josephson vortex lattice is very sensitive to the presence of the pancake vortices. If the c-axis magnetic field is smaller than the corresponding lower critical field, the pancake stacks are not formed but the individual pancakes may exist in the fluctuational regime either near the surface in large-size samples or in the central region for small-size mesas. We calculate the contribution of such fluctuating pancake vortices to the c-axis conductivity of the Josephson vortex lattice and compare the theoretical results with measurements on small mesas fabricated out of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} crystals. A fingerprint of fluctuating pancakes is a characteristic exponential dependence of the c-axis conductivity observed experimentally. Our results provide strong evidence of the existence of the fluctuating pancakes and their influence on the Josephson vortex lattice dissipation.
Persistence of metastable vortex lattice domains in MgB2 in the presence of vortex motion.
Rastovski, C; Schlesinger, K J; Gannon, W J; Dewhurst, C D; DeBeer-Schmitt, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J; Eskildsen, M R
2013-09-06
Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.
Persistence of Metastable Vortex Lattice Domains in MgB2 in the Presence of Vortex Motion
Rastovski, Catherine; Schlesinger, Kimberly; Gannon, William J; Dewhurst, Charles; Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M; Zhigadlo, Nikolai; Karpinski, Janusz; Eskildsen, Morten
2013-01-01
Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.
Creation of vortex lattices by a wavefront division.
Masajada, J; Popiolek-Masajada, A; Leniec, M
2007-04-16
The Young's double-slit experiment is one of the most popular stories in the history of physics. This paper, like many others, has emerged from the Young's idea. It investigates the diffraction of the plane or spherical wave produced by three or four small holes in an opaque screen. It was noticed that the interference field contained a lattice of optical vortices which were equivalent to those produced in optical vortex interferometer. The vortex lattice generated by the three holes possessed some unique properties from which the analytical formulae for vortex points position were derived. We also pointed out the differences between our case and the double-slit experiment. Finally, some remarks on possible applications of our arrangement are discussed briefly. These theoretical considerations are illustrated with the use of experimental results.
Vortex-Lattice Utilization. [in aeronautical engineering and aircraft design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
The many novel, innovative, and unique implementations and applications of the vortex-lattice method to aerodynamic design and analysis which have been performed by Industry, Government, and Universities were presented. Although this analytical tool is not new, it continues to be utilized and refined in the aeronautical community.
Non-Abelian Vortex Lattice in Dense QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, E.
2015-11-01
We show a possible spontaneous color ferromagnetismin the lattice system of non-Abelian vortices in rotating quark matter. The non-Abelian vortex has Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes and CP(N-1) modes for SU(N) color and SU(N) flavor, which are localized along the vortex core. The CP(N-1) mode on each vortex site represents an orientation of color flux, and interaction among these modes causes the color ferromagnetism. The low energy effective theory in this system is described bya 3+1 dimensional CP(N-1) non-linear sigma model, from which we obtain magnon-like NG modes with an anisotropic dispersion relationω_p^2=apx,y^2+bp_z^2, when the vortex lines extend along z axis.
Nonequilibrium dynamic phases in driven vortex lattices with periodic pinning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichhardt, Charles Michael
1998-12-01
We present the results of an extensive series of simulations of flux-gradient and current driven vortices interacting with either random or periodically arranged pinning sites. First, we consider flux-gradient-driven simulations of superconducting vortices interacting with strong randomly-distributed columnar pinning defects, as an external field H(t) is quasi-statically swept from zero through a matching field Bsb{phi}. Here, we find significant changes in the behavior of the local flux density B(x, y, H(t)), magnetization M(H(t)), critical current Jsb{c}(B(t)), and the individual vortex flow paths, as the local flux density crosses Bsb{phi}. Further, we find that for a given pin density, Jsb{c}(B) can be enhanced by maximizing the distance between the pins for B < Bsb{phi}. For the case of periodic pinning sites as a function of applied field, we find a rich variety of ordered and partially-ordered vortex lattice configurations. We present formulas that predict the matching fields at which commensurate vortex configurations occur and the vortex lattice orientation with respect to the pinning lattice. Our results are in excellent agreement with recent imaging experiments on square pinning arrays (K. Harada et al., Science 274, 1167 (1996)). For current driven simulations with periodic pinning we find a remarkable number of dynamical plastic flow phases. Signatures of the transitions between these different dynamical phases include sudden jumps in the current-voltage curves, hysteresis, as well as marked changes in the vortex trajectories and vortex lattice order. These phases are outlined in a series of dynamic phase diagrams. We show that several of these phases and their phase-boundaries can be understood in terms of analytical arguments. Finally, when the vortex lattice is driven at varying angles with respect to the underlying periodic pinning array, the transverse voltage-current V(I) curves show a series of mode-locked plateaus with the overall V(I) forming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ting-Wei; Jheng, Shih-Da; Jiang, T. F.; Cheng, Szu-Cheng
2017-03-01
The dynamics of an exciton-polariton condensate (EPC) subject to harmonic confinement can cause spontaneously formed vortices to arrange into a triangular vortex lattice. The stability of such a spontaneously formed vortex lattice is still unknown. We investigate the quantum fluctuations of vortex lattices in a rapidly rotating EPC with a rotation frequency close to the harmonic trap. In such a large condensate, we find that a vortex lattice with a triangular structure is stable, whereas one with a square structure becomes unstable. This result indicates that a driven-dissipative vortex array with strong quantum fluctuations can occur in an EPC.
Chen, Ting-Wei; Jheng, Shih-Da; Jiang, T F; Cheng, Szu-Cheng
2017-03-01
The dynamics of an exciton-polariton condensate (EPC) subject to harmonic confinement can cause spontaneously formed vortices to arrange into a triangular vortex lattice. The stability of such a spontaneously formed vortex lattice is still unknown. We investigate the quantum fluctuations of vortex lattices in a rapidly rotating EPC with a rotation frequency close to the harmonic trap. In such a large condensate, we find that a vortex lattice with a triangular structure is stable, whereas one with a square structure becomes unstable. This result indicates that a driven-dissipative vortex array with strong quantum fluctuations can occur in an EPC.
A vortex-lattice method for general, unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konstadinopoulos, P.; Thrasher, D. F.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L.
1985-01-01
A general method of calculating unsteady, incompressible, inviscid, three-dimensional flows around arbitrary planforms has been developed. The method is an extension of the vortex-lattice technique. It is not limited by aspect ratio, camber, or angle of attack, as long as vortex breakdown does not occur above the surface of the wing and separation occurs only along sharp edges. As the wing performs arbitrary maneuvers, the position of the wake and the distribution of circulation on the wing and in the wake are obtained as functions of time. One desirable feature of the present method is its ability to treat steady lifting flows very efficiently. Several examples of steady and unsteady flows are presented. These include rectangular wings, with and without flaps, delta, and cropped delta wings.
Dynamic Matching of Vortex Lattice in Superconducting Multilayers
Gurevich, A.; Kadyrov, E.; Larbalestier, D.C.
1996-11-01
We observed oscillations of a nonlinear flux flow resistivity {ital R}({ital j},{ital H}) as a function of a parallel magnetic field 6{lt}{ital H}{lt}9 T in Nb-Ti/Cu multilayers. We show that the oscillations in {ital R}({ital H}), which have the field period {Delta}{ital H}{approx_equal}0.1 T independent of temperature and current, indicate a long-range order in the rapidly moving vortex structure. The critical current {ital I}{sub {ital c}}({ital H}) exhibits no oscillations characteristic of {ital R}({ital H}). We propose an explanation of the effect in terms of dynamic matching of the moving vortex lattice with periodic microstructure and show that both {Delta}{ital H} and the amplitude of the oscillations of {ital R}({ital H}) are inversely proportional to the sample thickness. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Spontaneous Symmetry-Breaking Vortex Lattice Transitions in Pure Niobium
Laver, M.; Forgan, E.M.; Brown, S.P.; Bowell, C.; Ramos, S.; Lycett, R.J.; Charalambous, D.; Fort, D.; Christen, D.K.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Dewhurst, C.D.; Cubitt, R.
2006-04-28
We report an extensive investigation of magnetic vortex lattice (VL) structures in single crystals of pure niobium with the magnetic field applied parallel to a fourfold symmetry axis, so as to induce frustration between the cubic crystal symmetry and hexagonal VL coordination expected in an isotropic situation. We observe new VL structures and phase transitions; all the VL phases observed (including those with an exactly square unit cell) spontaneously break some crystal symmetry. One phase even has the lowest possible symmetry of a two-dimensional Bravais lattice. This is quite unlike the situation in high-T{sub c} or borocarbide superconductors, where VL structures orient along particular directions of high crystal symmetry. The causes of this behavior are discussed.
Melting of Vortex Lattice in Bose-Einstein Condensate in Presence of Disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Bishwajyoti
We study the vortex lattice dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in presence of single impurity as well as random impurities or disorder. The single impurity is modeled by a Gaussian function while disorder is introduced in the system by a uniform random potential. Such potentials can be created experimentally by lasers. We solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in two-dimensions using split-step Crank-Nicolson method. We first show that a single vortex can be pinned by an impurity. We then show that even a single impurity can distort the vortex lattice. For sufficiently strong impurity potential, the vortex lattice gets pinned to the impurity. We also show that a new type of giant hole with hidden vortices inside it can be created in the vortex lattice by a cluster of impurities. In presence of random impurity potential or disorder, the vortices get pinned at random positions leading to melting of the vortex lattice. We further show that the vortex lattice melting can also be induced by the pseudorandom potential generated by the superposition of two optical lattices. The absence of long-range order in the melted vortex lattice is demonstrated from the structure factor profile and the histogram of the distance between each pair of vortices. I would like to thank DST, India and BCUD SPPU, for financial assisance through research grants.
Transverse forces on a vortex in lattice models of superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonin, E. B.
2013-12-01
The paper derives the transverse forces (the Magnus and the Lorentz forces) in the lattice models of superfluids in the continuous approximation. The continuous approximation restores translational invariance absent in the original lattice model, but the theory is not Galilean invariant. As a result, calculation of the two transverse forces on the vortex, Magnus force and Lorentz force, requires the analysis of two balances, for the true momentum of particles in the lattice (Magnus force) and for the quasimomentum (Lorentz force) known from the Bloch theory of particles in the periodic potential. While the developed theory yields the same Lorentz force, which was well known before, a new general expression for the Magnus force was obtained. The theory demonstrates how a small Magnus force emerges in the Josephson-junction array if the particle-hole symmetry is broken. The continuous approximation for the Bose-Hubbard model close to the superfluid-insulator transition was developed, which was used for calculation of the Magnus force. The theory shows that there is an area in the phase diagram for the Bose-Hubbard model, where the Magnus force has an inverse sign with respect to that which is expected from the sign of velocity circulation.
Vortex lattice phases in bosonic ladders in the presence of gauge field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piraud, Marie; Greschner, Sebastian; Kolley, Fabian; McCulloch, Ian P.; Schollwoeck, Ulrich; Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Vekua, Temo
2016-05-01
We study vortex lattices in the interacting Bose-Hubbard model defined on two- and three-leg ladder geometries in the presence of a homogeneous flux. Our work is motivated by recent experiments using laser assisted-tunneling in optical lattices and lattices in synthetic dimensions, which studied the regime of weak interactions. We focus on the effects arising from stronger interactions, in both the real space optical lattice and the synthetic dimension schemes. Based on extensive density matrix renormalization group simulations and a bosonization analysis, we show that vortex lattices form at certain commensurate vortex densities. We identify the parameter space in which they emerge, and study their properties. Very interestingly, an enlarged unit cell forms in the vortex lattice phases, which can lead to the reversal of the current circulation-direction in both geometries. We demonstrate this effect in weak coupling and at sufficiently low temperature, and show that it is significant for intermediate interactions.
Tailored complex 3D vortex lattice structures by perturbed multiples of three-plane waves.
Xavier, Jolly; Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam; Joseph, Joby
2012-04-20
As three-plane waves are the minimum number required for the formation of vortex-embedded lattice structures by plane wave interference, we present our experimental investigation on the formation of complex 3D photonic vortex lattice structures by a designed superposition of multiples of phase-engineered three-plane waves. The unfolding of the generated complex photonic lattice structures with higher order helical phase is realized by perturbing the superposition of a relatively phase-encoded, axially equidistant multiple of three noncoplanar plane waves. Through a programmable spatial light modulator assisted single step fabrication approach, the unfolded 3D vortex lattice structures are experimentally realized, well matched to our computer simulations. The formation of higher order intertwined helices embedded in these 3D spiraling vortex lattice structures by the superposition of the multiples of phase-engineered three-plane waves interference is also studied.
Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in bacterial vortex lattices
Wioland, Hugo; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2016-01-01
Despite their inherent non-equilibrium nature1, living systems can self-organize in highly ordered collective states2,3 that share striking similarities with the thermodynamic equilibrium phases4,5 of conventional condensed matter and fluid systems. Examples range from the liquid-crystal-like arrangements of bacterial colonies6,7, microbial suspensions8,9 and tissues10 to the coherent macro-scale dynamics in schools of fish11 and flocks of birds12. Yet, the generic mathematical principles that govern the emergence of structure in such artificial13 and biological6–9,14 systems are elusive. It is not clear when, or even whether, well-established theoretical concepts describing universal thermostatistics of equilibrium systems can capture and classify ordered states of living matter. Here, we connect these two previously disparate regimes: Through microfluidic experiments and mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that lattices of hydrodynamically coupled bacterial vortices can spontaneously organize into distinct phases of ferro- and antiferromagnetic order. The preferred phase can be controlled by tuning the vortex coupling through changes of the inter-cavity gap widths. The emergence of opposing order regimes is tightly linked to the existence of geometry-induced edge currents15,16, reminiscent of those in quantum systems17–19. Our experimental observations can be rationalized in terms of a generic lattice field theory, suggesting that bacterial spin networks belong to the same universality class as a wide range of equilibrium systems. PMID:27213004
Observation of the vortex lattice melting by NMR spin-lattice relaxation in the mixed state
Bulaevskii, L.N.; Hammel, P.C.; Vinokur, V.M.
1994-01-01
For anisotropic layered superconductors the effect of moving vortices on the nuclear spin magnetization is calculated. Current is supposed to flow along layers, and applied magnetic field is tilted with respect to c-axis. In the solid phase the motion of the vortex lattice produces an alternating magnetic field perpendicular to the applied field which causes the decay of the spin-echo amplitude. This decay rate will display an array of peaks as a function of frequency. In the liquid phase this alternating field contribute to the longitudinal relaxation rate W{sub 1} which has a single peak.
Crossover from crossing to tilted vortex phase in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals near ab-plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirkovic, Jovan; Buzdin, Alexandre; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kadowaki, Kazuo
2013-01-01
In extremely anisotropic layered superconductors of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ the stacks of vortex pancakes (PV) and the Josephson vortex (JV) interpenetrate, and due to PV-JV mutual pinning energy, weakly interact and form various tilted and crossing lattice structures including vortex chains, stripes, mixed chain + lattice phases, etc. In order to study these phenomena, it is decisive to have excellent quality of samples and the ideal experimental techniques. The vortex phases in high-quality Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals were studied by in-plane resistivity measurement and local ac magnetic permeability. The sharp crossover was shown by both techniques, deep in the vortex solid state separating the Abrikosov dominant ‘strong pinning’ phase from the Josephson dominant ‘weak pinning’ phase. Those two vortex states were recognized as the mixed chain + lattice vortex phase and chains (tilted) vortex phase, respectively.
Vortex lattices generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation
Ohta, A.; Kashiwa, R.; Sakaguchi, H.
2010-11-15
Vortex streets are formed from sheared initial conditions in classical fluids even without viscosity, which is called the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We demonstrate that similar vortex streets are generated from sheared initial conditions by the direct numerical simulation of the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation which describes the dynamics of the Bose-Einstein condensates. Furthermore, we show the vortex-lattice formation from sheared initial conditions analogous to the rigid-body rotation in the GP equation under a rotating harmonic potential. The vortex-lattice formation by the dynamical instability in the system without energy dissipation differs from the vortex-lattice formation process by the imaginary time evolution of the GP equation where the lowest energy state is obtained.
Extension of a vortex-lattice method to include the effects of leading-edge separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mook, D. T.; Maddox, S. A.
1974-01-01
Vortex-lattice methods have been used successfully to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of lifting surfaces without leading-edge separation. It is shown how an existing vortex-lattice method can be modified to include the effects of leading-edge separation. The modified version is then used to calculate the aerodynamic loads on a highly swept delta wing. The results are compared with Peckham's (1958) experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Umeda, Kanji
2016-06-01
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation for two-component rotating Bose-Einstein condensates with the Rashba-type spin-orbit (SO) coupling is studied with numerical simulations and variational analyses. A multiquantum vortex state becomes a ground state in a harmonic potential when mutual interaction is absent. When the attractive interaction is strong, the multiquantum vortex state exhibits modulational instability in the azimuthal direction, and a soliton-like state appears. When the repulsive interaction is strong, a vortex lattice state with a multiquantum vortex at the center is created. We find that the vortex lattice state is approximated at a linear combination of multiquantum vortex states.
A generalized vortex lattice method for subsonic and supersonic flow applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miranda, L. R.; Elliot, R. D.; Baker, W. M.
1977-01-01
If the discrete vortex lattice is considered as an approximation to the surface-distributed vorticity, then the concept of the generalized principal part of an integral yields a residual term to the vorticity-induced velocity field. The proper incorporation of this term to the velocity field generated by the discrete vortex lines renders the present vortex lattice method valid for supersonic flow. Special techniques for simulating nonzero thickness lifting surfaces and fusiform bodies with vortex lattice elements are included. Thickness effects of wing-like components are simulated by a double (biplanar) vortex lattice layer, and fusiform bodies are represented by a vortex grid arranged on a series of concentrical cylindrical surfaces. The analysis of sideslip effects by the subject method is described. Numerical considerations peculiar to the application of these techniques are also discussed. The method has been implemented in a digital computer code. A users manual is included along with a complete FORTRAN compilation, an executed case, and conversion programs for transforming input for the NASA wave drag program.
Dissipative vortex solitons in two-dimensional lattices
Mejia-Cortes, C.; Soto-Crespo, J. M.; Molina, Mario I.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.
2010-12-15
We report the existence of stable symmetric vortex-type solutions for two-dimensional nonlinear discrete dissipative systems governed by a cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. We construct a whole family of vortex solitons with a topological charge S=1. Surprisingly, the dynamical evolution of unstable solutions of this family does not significantly alter their profile, but instead their phase distribution completely changes; they transform into two-charge swirl-vortex solitons. We dynamically excite this structure showing its experimental feasibility.
Hall Effect in the Vortex Lattice of d-Wave Superconductors with Anisotropic Fermi Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohno, Wataru; Ueki, Hikaru; Kita, Takafumi
2017-02-01
On the basis of the augmented quasiclassical theory of superconductivity with the Lorentz force, we study the magnetic field dependence of the charge distribution due to the Lorentz force in a d-wave vortex lattice with anisotropic Fermi surfaces. Owing to the competition between the energy-gap and Fermi surface anisotropies, the charge profile in the vortex lattice changes dramatically with increasing magnetic field because of the overlaps of each nearest vortex-core charge. In addition, the accumulated charge in the core region may reverse its sign as a function of magnetic field. This strong field dependence of the vortex-core charge cannot be observed in the model with an isotropic Fermi surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Dong-Soo; Jeong, Han-Byeol; Kim, Sang-Koog
2013-09-01
We performed micromagnetic numerical and analytical calculations in studying the effects of change in the primitive unit cells of one-dimensional (1D) vortex arrays on collective vortex-gyration dispersion. As the primitive basis, we consider alternating constituent materials (NiMnSb vs. Permalloy) and alternating dimensions including constituent disk diameter and thickness. In the simplest case, that of one vortex-state disk of given dimensions and single material in the primitive cell, only a single branch of collective vortex-gyration dispersion appears. By contrast, two constituent disks' different alternating materials, thicknesses, and diameters yield characteristic two-branch dispersions, the band widths and gaps of which differ in each case. This work offers not only an efficient means of manipulating collective vortex-gyration band structures but also a foundation for the development of a rich variety of 1D or 2D magnonic crystals and their band structures based on dipolar-coupled-vortex arrays.
System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.
2001-01-01
The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.
Formation of Vortex Lattices in Superfluid Bose Gases at Finite Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arahata, E.; Nikuni, T.
2016-05-01
We study the dynamics of a rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at finite temperatures. Using the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin formalism, based on a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate coupled to a semiclassical kinetic equation for a thermal cloud, we numerically simulate vortex lattice formation in the presence of a time-dependent rotating trap potential. At low rotation frequency, the thermal cloud undergoes rigid body rotation, while the condensate exhibits irrotational flow. Above a certain threshold rotation frequency, vortices penetrate into the condensate and form a vortex lattice. Our simulation result clearly indicates a crucial role for the thermal cloud, which triggers vortex lattice formation in the rotating BEC.
Model for nodal quasiparticle scattering in a disordered vortex lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maltseva, Marianna; Coleman, P.
2009-10-01
Recent scanning-tunneling experiments on Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2 by Hanaguri [Science 323, 923 (2009)] observe field-dependent quasiparticle interference effects which are sensitive to the sign of the d -wave order parameter. Their analysis of spatial fluctuations in the local density of states shows that there is a selective enhancement of quasiparticle scattering events that preserve the gap sign and a selective depression of the quasiparticle scattering events that reverse the gap sign. We introduce a model which accounts for this phenomenon as a consequence of vortex pinning to impurities. Each pinned vortex embeds several impurities in its core. The observations of recent experiments can be accounted for by assuming that the scattering potentials of the impurities inside the vortex cores acquire an additional resonant or Andreev scattering component, both of which induce gap sign preserving scattering events.
Validation of Vortex-Lattice Method for loads on wings in lift-generated wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, J.
1994-01-01
A study is described that evaluates the accuracy of vortex-lattice methods when they are used to compute the loads induced on aircraft as they encounter lift-generated wakes. The evaluation is accomplished by use of measurements made in the 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel of the lift, rolling-moment, and downwash in the wake of three configurations of a model of a subsonic transport aircraft. The downwash measurements are used as input for a vortex-lattice code in order to compute the lift and rolling moment induced on wings that have a span of 0.186, 0.510, or 1.022 times the span of the wake-generating model. Comparison of the computed results with the measured lift and rolling moment distributions are used to determine the accuracy of the vortex-lattice code. It was found that the vortex-lattice method is very reliable as long as the span of the encountering of following wing is less than about 0.2 of the generator span. As the span of the following wing increases above 0.2, the vortex-lattice method continues to correctly predict the trends and nature of the induced loads, but it overpredicts the magnitude of the loads by increasing amounts. The increase in deviation of the computed from the measured loads with size of the following wing is attributed to the increase in distortion of the structure of the vortex wake as it approaches and passes the larger following wings.
Transition from slow Abrikosov to fast moving Josephson vortices in iron pnictide superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moll, Philip J. W.; Balicas, Luis; Geshkenbein, Vadim; Blatter, Gianni; Karpinski, Janusz; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Batlogg, Bertram
2013-02-01
Iron pnictides are layered high Tc superconductors with moderate material anisotropy and thus Abrikosov vortices are expected in the mixed state. Yet, we have discovered a distinct change in the nature of the vortices from Abrikosov-like to Josephson-like in the pnictide superconductor SmFeAs(O,F) with Tc~48-50 K on cooling below a temperature T*~41-42 K, despite its moderate electronic anisotropy γ~4-6. This transition is hallmarked by a sharp drop in the critical current and accordingly a jump in the flux-flow voltage in a magnetic field precisely aligned along the FeAs layers, indicative of highly mobile vortices. T* coincides well with the temperature where the coherence length ξc perpendicular to the layers matches half of the FeAs-layer spacing. For fields slightly out-of-plane (> 0.1°- 0.15°) the vortices are completely immobilized as well-pinned Abrikosov segments are introduced when the vortex crosses the FeAs layers. We interpret these findings as a transition from well-pinned, slow moving Abrikosov vortices at high temperatures to weakly pinned, fast flowing Josephson vortices at low temperatures. This vortex dynamics could become technologically relevant as superconducting applications will always operate deep in the Josephson regime.
Vortex-Antivortex-Pair Lattices in Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ben; Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu
2014-04-01
We investigate theoretically the ground states of Bose-Einstein condensates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in optical lattices within mean-field framework. We obtain numerically the Bloch states and energy spectrum for the single particle Hamiltonian, meanwhile the analytical solution of Bloch states is also presented. For a spin-orbit coupling Bose-Einstein condensates with a weak interaction, we show the existence of the vortex-antivortex-pair lattices state by simulating the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
Vortex lattices in a rotating Fermi superfluid in the BCS-BEC crossover with many Landau levels
Song, Tie-ling; Ma, C.R.; Ma, Yong-li
2012-08-15
We present an explicit analytical analysis of the ground state of vortex lattice structure, based on a minimization of the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional in a trapped rotating Fermi superfluid gas. By a Bogoliubov-like transformation we find that the coarse-grained average of the atomic density varies as inverted parabola in three dimensional cases; the Fermi superfluid in the BEC regime enters into the lowest Landau level at fast rotation, in which the vortices form an almost regular triangular lattice over a central region and the vortex lattice is expanded along the radial direction in the outer region; the fluid in the unitarity and BCS regimes occupies many low-lying Landau levels, in which a trapped gas with a triangular vortex lattice has a superfluid core surrounded by a normal gas. The calculation is qualitatively consistent with recent numerical and experimental data both in the vortex lattice structure and vortex numbers and in the density profiles versus the stirring frequency in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present an analysis of vortex lattice in an interacting trapped rotating Fermi superfluid gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposing the vortex from the condensate, we can explain the vortex lattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculation is consistent with numerical and experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It can characterize experimentally properties in different regimes of the BCS-BEC crossover.
Visualizing the morphology of vortex lattice domains in a bulk type-II superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimann, T.; Mühlbauer, S.; Schulz, M.; Betz, B.; Kaestner, A.; Pipich, V.; Böni, P.; Grünzweig, C.
2015-11-01
Alike materials in the solid state, the phase diagram of type-II superconductors exhibit crystalline, amorphous, liquid and spatially inhomogeneous phases. The multitude of different phases of vortex matter has thence proven to act as almost ideal model system for the study of both the underlying properties of superconductivity but also of general phenomena such as domain nucleation and morphology. Here we show how neutron grating interferometry yields detailed information on the vortex lattice and its domain structure in the intermediate mixed state of a type-II niobium superconductor. In particular, we identify the nucleation regions, how the intermediate mixed state expands, and where it finally evolves into the Shubnikov phase. Moreover, we complement the results obtained from neutron grating interferometry by small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the spatially resolved morphology found in the intermediate mixed state, and very small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the domain structure of the vortex lattice.
Visualizing the morphology of vortex lattice domains in a bulk type-II superconductor
Reimann, T.; Mühlbauer, S.; Schulz, M.; Betz, B.; Kaestner, A.; Pipich, V.; Böni, P.; Grünzweig, C.
2015-01-01
Alike materials in the solid state, the phase diagram of type-II superconductors exhibit crystalline, amorphous, liquid and spatially inhomogeneous phases. The multitude of different phases of vortex matter has thence proven to act as almost ideal model system for the study of both the underlying properties of superconductivity but also of general phenomena such as domain nucleation and morphology. Here we show how neutron grating interferometry yields detailed information on the vortex lattice and its domain structure in the intermediate mixed state of a type-II niobium superconductor. In particular, we identify the nucleation regions, how the intermediate mixed state expands, and where it finally evolves into the Shubnikov phase. Moreover, we complement the results obtained from neutron grating interferometry by small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the spatially resolved morphology found in the intermediate mixed state, and very small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the domain structure of the vortex lattice. PMID:26522610
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichhardt, C.; Olson, C. J.; Nori, F.
1998-03-01
We present results from extensive simulations of driven vortex lattices interacting with periodic pinning arrays. Changing an applied driving force produces an exceptionally rich variety of distinct dynamic phases which include over a dozen well defined plastic flow phases. Transitions between different dynamical phases are marked by sharp jumps in the V(I) curves that coincide with distinct changes in the vortex trajectories and vortex lattice order. A series of dynamical phase diagrams are presented which outline the onset of the different dynamical phases (C. Reichhardt, C.J. Olson, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), 2648 (1997); and to be published. Videos are avaliable at http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/ñori/. Using force balance arguments, several of the phase boundaries can be derived analyticaly.
Validation of Vortex-Lattice Method for Loads on Wings in Lift-Generated Wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.
1995-01-01
A study is described that evaluates the accuracy of vortex-lattice methods when they are used to compute the loads induced on aircraft as they encounter lift-generated wakes. The evaluation is accomplished by the use of measurements made in the 80 by 120 ft Wind Tunnel of the lift, rolling moment, and downwash in the wake of three configurations of a model of a subsonic transport aircraft. The downwash measurements are used as input for a vortex-lattice code in order to compute the lift and rolling moment induced on wings that have a span of 0.186, 0.510, or 1.022 times the span of the wake-generating model. Comparison of the computed results with the measured lift and rolling-moment distributions the vortex-lattice method is very reliable as long as the span of the encountering or following wing is less than about 0.2 of the generator span. As the span of the following wing increases above 0.2, the vortex-lattice method continues to correctly predict the trends and nature of the induced loads, but it overpredicts the magnitude of the loads by increasing amounts.
Some applications of the quasi vortex-lattice method in steady and unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. E.
1976-01-01
The quasi vortex-lattice method is reviewed and applied to the evaluation of backwash, with applications to ground effect analysis. It is also extended to unsteady aerodynamics, with particular interest in the calculation of unsteady leading-edge suction. Some applications in ornithopter aerodynamics are given.
Yao, Xiaoyan; Dong, Shuai
2016-01-01
The expanded classical Kitaev-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice is investigated with the next-nearest-neighboring Heisenberg interaction considered. The simulation shows a rich phase diagram with periodic behavior in a wide parameter range. Beside the double 120° ordered phase, an inhomogeneous phase is uncovered to exhibit a topological triple-vortex lattice, corresponding to the hexagonal domain structure of vector chirality, which is stabilized by the mixed frustration of two sources: the geometrical frustration arising from the lattice structure as well as the frustration from the Kitaev couplings. PMID:27229486
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qiang
2016-02-01
Motivated by recent experiments carried out by Spielman's group at NIST, we study the vortex formation in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in synthetic magnetic field confined in a harmonic potential combined with an optical lattice. We obtain numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and compare the vortex formation by synthetic magnetic field method with those by rotating frame method. We conclude that a large angular momentum indeed can be created in the presence of the optical lattice. However, it is still more difficult to rotate the condensate by the synthetic magnetic field than by the rotating frame even if the optical lattice is added, and the chemical potential and energy remain almost unchanged by increasing rotational frequency.
Han, Qiang
2010-01-27
In this paper, we present a method to construct the eigenspace of the tight-binding electrons moving on a 2D square lattice with nearest-neighbor hopping in the presence of a perpendicular uniform magnetic field which imposes (quasi-)periodic boundary conditions for the wavefunctions in the magnetic unit cell. Exact unitary transformations are put forward to correlate the discrete eigenvectors of the 2D electrons with those of the Harper equation. The cyclic tridiagonal matrix associated with the Harper equation is then tridiagonalized by another unitary transformation. The obtained truncated eigenbasis is utilized to expand the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for the superconducting vortex lattice state, which shows the merit of our method in studying large-sized systems. To test our method, we have applied our results to study the vortex lattice state of an s-wave superconductor.
Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da
2016-01-01
This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions. PMID:27545446
Tilted vortex lattice in irradiate Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirkovic, J.; Kakeya, I.; Savel'ev, S.; Kashiwagi, T.; Markovic, B.; Kadowaki, K.
2016-01-01
In order to enlighten the structure of vortex matter in irradiated layered Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals, the interaction of Josephson vortices and pancake vortices in was investigated by means of the local ac-magnetic permeability measurements by using the miniature local coils, while vortex matter in pristine crystals was studied by in-plane resistivity measurements. The transition anomaly, separating the strong pinning phase and the weak pinning vortex phase was found by both techniques deep in the vortex solid phase solid near ab-plane, indicating crossover from the vortex chains + lattice phase to tilted vortex chains phase. While the columnar defects affect strongly the first-order vortex-lattice melting transition, the magnetic permeability anomaly, associated with the crossover from vortex chains + lattice phase to tilted lattice, is surprisingly still clear, deep in the vortex solid phase. However, the stronger columnar defects eventually affect the crossover anomaly that it disappears too.
Model for nodal quasiparticle scattering in a disordered vortex lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maltseva, Marianna; Coleman, Piers
2008-03-01
Recent experiments by T. Hanaguri et al. on underdoped Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2 [1] have observed quasiparticle interference effects [2], which are sensitive to the sign of the d-wave order parameter. In a magnetic field, they observe a sizable transfer of scattering spectral weight from scattering events between anti-nodes of opposite sign to scattering events between anti-nodes of the same sign. We interpret high momentum phase-coherent scattering in terms of the quasiparticle scattering off the vortex walls. The reduction of scattering at even-odd scattering points indicates that the vortices ``screen'' some of the underlying impurity scattering, as the impurities get trapped inside the vortex cores. [1] T. Hanaguri, Y. Kohsaka, J. C. Davis, C. Lupien, I. Yamada, M. Azuma, M. Takano, K. Ohishi, M. Ono, H. Takagi, cond-mat/07083728. [2] Y. Kohsaka, C. Taylor, K. Fujita, A. Schmidt, C. Lupien, T. Hanaguri, M. Azuma, M. Takano, H. Eisaki, H. Takagi, S. Uchida, J. C. Davis, Science 315, 1380-1385 (2007).
Gamma-ray superconducting detector based on Abrikosov vortices: Principle of operation
Lisitskiy, M. P.
2009-11-15
The high atomic number of some superconducting elements such as niobium (Z=41) and tantalum (Z=73) and a high material thickness (e.g., t=300 mum) are emphasized as essential properties for development of a gamma-ray solid state detector with high intrinsic detection efficiency in the energy range up to 100 keV. To exploit these properties, a new detection principle based on the interaction of a single gamma-ray photon with Abrikosov vortex is proposed. The interaction of gamma-ray photon with a superconductor is discussed in terms of the photoelectric absorption and a hot-spot formation, the last acts as a short-time pinning center on an Abrikosov vortex and activates its motion, namely, a jump or damped vibration. Both types of vortex motion lead to variation (either static or dynamic) in the magnetic field on the absorber surface. The high sensitivity of the Josephson tunneling to weak magnetic field can be exploited for revealing the magnetic field variation and to make the readout of the detector. Main intrinsic properties of a gamma-ray detector based on Abrikosov vortices are evaluated, including the possibility to measure the energy deposited in the detector. A single Josephson tunnel junction configuration or a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) configuration is proposed and discussed as possible realization of working gamma-ray detector both in the counter operation mode and in the radiation spectroscopy operation mode.
Applications of the unsteady vortex-lattice method in aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murua, Joseba; Palacios, Rafael; Graham, J. Michael R.
2012-11-01
The unsteady vortex-lattice method provides a medium-fidelity tool for the prediction of non-stationary aerodynamic loads in low-speed, but high-Reynolds-number, attached flow conditions. Despite a proven track record in applications where free-wake modelling is critical, other less-computationally expensive potential-flow models, such as the doublet-lattice method and strip theory, have long been favoured in fixed-wing aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics. This paper presents how the unsteady vortex-lattice method can be implemented as an enhanced alternative to those techniques for diverse situations that arise in flexible-aircraft dynamics. A historical review of the methodology is included, with latest developments and practical applications. Different formulations of the aerodynamic equations are outlined, and they are integrated with a nonlinear beam model for the full description of the dynamics of a free-flying flexible vehicle. Nonlinear time-marching solutions capture large wing excursions and wake roll-up, and the linearisation of the equations lends itself to a seamless, monolithic state-space assembly, particularly convenient for stability analysis and flight control system design. The numerical studies emphasise scenarios where the unsteady vortex-lattice method can provide an advantage over other state-of-the-art approaches. Examples of this include unsteady aerodynamics in vehicles with coupled aeroelasticity and flight dynamics, and in lifting surfaces undergoing complex kinematics, large deformations, or in-plane motions. Geometric nonlinearities are shown to play an instrumental, and often counter-intuitive, role in the aircraft dynamics. The unsteady vortex-lattice method is unveiled as a remarkable tool that can successfully incorporate all those effects in the unsteady aerodynamics modelling.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, J. E.
1994-01-01
This program represents a subsonic aerodynamic method for determining the mean camber surface of trimmed noncoplaner planforms with minimum vortex drag. With this program, multiple surfaces can be designed together to yield a trimmed configuration with minimum induced drag at some specified lift coefficient. The method uses a vortex-lattice and overcomes previous difficulties with chord loading specification. A Trefftz plane analysis is used to determine the optimum span loading for minimum drag. The program then solves for the mean camber surface of the wing associated with this loading. Pitching-moment or root-bending-moment constraints can be employed at the design lift coefficient. Sensitivity studies of vortex-lattice arrangements have been made with this program and comparisons with other theories show generally good agreement. The program is very versatile and has been applied to isolated wings, wing-canard configurations, a tandem wing, and a wing-winglet configuration. The design problem solved with this code is essentially an optimization one. A subsonic vortex-lattice is used to determine the span load distribution(s) on bent lifting line(s) in the Trefftz plane. A Lagrange multiplier technique determines the required loading which is used to calculate the mean camber slopes, which are then integrated to yield the local elevation surface. The problem of determining the necessary circulation matrix is simplified by having the chordwise shape of the bound circulation remain unchanged across each span, though the chordwise shape may vary from one planform to another. The circulation matrix is obtained by calculating the spanwise scaling of the chordwise shapes. A chordwise summation of the lift and pitching-moment is utilized in the Trefftz plane solution on the assumption that the trailing wake does not roll up and that the general configuration has specifiable chord loading shapes. VLMD is written in FORTRAN for IBM PC series and compatible computers
Stabilization of active matter by flow-vortex lattices and defect ordering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doostmohammadi, Amin; Adamer, Michael F.; Thampi, Sumesh P.; Yeomans, Julia M.
2016-02-01
Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like and chaotic patterns. Here we demonstrate both theoretically and through numerical simulations, that the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter. Moreover, we discover unexpected vortex ordering at this wet-dry crossover. We show that the self organization of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices, which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects, suggests potential applications in the design and control of active materials.
Observation of Coupled Vortex Lattices in a Mass-Imbalance Bose and Fermi Superfluid Mixture.
Yao, Xing-Can; Chen, Hao-Ze; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xiang-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Qiong; Jiang, Xiao; Deng, Youjin; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-09-30
Quantized vortices play an essential role in diverse superfluid phenomena. In a Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture, especially of two mass-imbalance species, such macroscopic quantum phenomena are particularly rich due to the interplay between the Bose and Fermi superfluidity. However, generating a Bose-Fermi two-species superfluid, producing coupled vortex lattices within, and further probing interspecies interaction effects remain challenging. Here, we experimentally realize a two-species superfluid with dilute gases of lithium-6 and potassium-41, having a mass ratio of about seven. By rotating the superfluid mixture, we simultaneously produce coupled vortex lattices of the two species and thus present a definitive visual evidence for the double superfluidity. Moreover, we report several unconventional behaviors, due to the Bose-Fermi interaction, on the formation and decay of two-species vortices.
Stabilization of active matter by flow-vortex lattices and defect ordering
Doostmohammadi, Amin; Adamer, Michael F.; Thampi, Sumesh P.; Yeomans, Julia M.
2016-01-01
Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like and chaotic patterns. Here we demonstrate both theoretically and through numerical simulations, that the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter. Moreover, we discover unexpected vortex ordering at this wet–dry crossover. We show that the self organization of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices, which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects, suggests potential applications in the design and control of active materials. PMID:26837846
Rotating superfluids in anharmonic traps: From vortex lattices to giant vortices
Correggi, Michele; Pinsker, Florian; Rougerie, Nicolas; Yngvason, Jakob
2011-11-15
We study a superfluid in a rotating anharmonic trap and explicate a rigorous proof of a transition from a vortex lattice to a giant vortex state as the rotation is increased beyond a limiting speed determined by the interaction strength. The transition is characterized by the disappearance of the vortices from the annulus where the bulk of the superfluid is concentrated due to centrifugal forces while a macroscopic phase circulation remains. The analysis is carried out within two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii theory at large coupling constant and reveals significant differences between ''soft'' anharmonic traps (like a quartic plus quadratic trapping potential) and traps with a fixed boundary: in the latter case the transition takes place in a parameter regime where the size of vortices is very small relative to the width of the annulus, whereas in soft traps the vortex lattice persists until the width of the annulus becomes comparable to the vortex cores. Moreover, the density profile in the annulus where the bulk is concentrated is, in the soft case, approximately Gaussian with long tails and not of the Thomas-Fermi type like in a trap with a fixed boundary.
Carretero-González, R; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, B A; Frantzeskakis, D J
2005-05-27
We construct a variety of novel localized topological structures in the 3D discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The states can be created in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in strong optical lattices and crystals built of microresonators. These new structures, most of which have no counterparts in lower dimensions, range from multipole patterns and diagonal vortices to vortex "cubes" (stack of two quasiplanar vortices) and "diamonds" (formed by two orthogonal vortices).
Application of the Vortex-Lattice Method to Propeller Performance Analysis
1982-07-01
TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT-EN’ Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...unlimited Preface This report is my attempt to expand-the knowledge avail- able in the area of propeller performance. My principal con- cern has been in...Performance Using the Vortex Lattice Method and the Blade Element-Method . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Vii List of Symbols A panel area AR aspect ratio
Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in bacterial vortex lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wioland, Hugo; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2016-04-01
Despite their inherently non-equilibrium nature, living systems can self-organize in highly ordered collective states that share striking similarities with the thermodynamic equilibrium phases of conventional condensed-matter and fluid systems. Examples range from the liquid-crystal-like arrangements of bacterial colonies, microbial suspensions and tissues to the coherent macro-scale dynamics in schools of fish and flocks of birds. Yet, the generic mathematical principles that govern the emergence of structure in such artificial and biological systems are elusive. It is not clear when, or even whether, well-established theoretical concepts describing universal thermostatistics of equilibrium systems can capture and classify ordered states of living matter. Here, we connect these two previously disparate regimes: through microfluidic experiments and mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that lattices of hydrodynamically coupled bacterial vortices can spontaneously organize into distinct patterns characterized by ferro- and antiferromagnetic order. The coupling between adjacent vortices can be controlled by tuning the inter-cavity gap widths. The emergence of opposing order regimes is tightly linked to the existence of geometry-induced edge currents, reminiscent of those in quantum systems. Our experimental observations can be rationalized in terms of a generic lattice field theory, suggesting that bacterial spin networks belong to the same universality class as a wide range of equilibrium systems.
Skyrmionic vortex lattices in coherently coupled three-component Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlova, Natalia V.; Kuopanportti, Pekko; Milošević, Milorad V.
2016-08-01
We show numerically that a harmonically trapped and coherently Rabi-coupled three-component Bose-Einstein condensate can host unconventional vortex lattices in its rotating ground state. The discovered lattices incorporate square and zig-zag patterns, vortex dimers and chains, and doubly quantized vortices, and they can be quantitatively classified in terms of a skyrmionic topological index, which takes into account the multicomponent nature of the system. The exotic ground-state lattices arise due to the intricate interplay of the repulsive density-density interactions and the Rabi couplings as well as the ubiquitous phase frustration between the components. In the frustrated state, domain walls in the relative phases can persist between some components even at strong Rabi coupling, while vanishing between others. Consequently, in this limit the three-component condensate effectively approaches a two-component condensate with only density-density interactions. At intermediate Rabi coupling strengths, however, we face unique vortex physics that occurs neither in the two-component counterpart nor in the purely density-density-coupled three-component system.
Vortex Lattice Metastability and Power Law Dynamics in MgB2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rastovski, Catherine; Kuhn, S. J.; Smith, K.; Eskildsen, M. R.; Debeer-Schmitt, L.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Gannon, W. J.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.
2014-03-01
Previous small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of the vortex lattice (VL) of MgB2 with H ∥ c found a triangular VL which undergoes a field-driven 30° reorientation transition, forming three distinct ground state phases. A high degree of metastability exists between the VL phases of MgB2 that cannot be attributed to vortex pinning and may be a result of the jamming of VL domains [C. Rastovski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 107002 (2013)]. To further investigate the effect of vortex motion on the metastable to ground state VL transition, we applied a small AC magnetic field parallel or perpendicular to the vortices to ``shake'' the lattice. The metastable VL volume fraction decreased with a two-step power law dependence on the number of applied AC cycles. The slow and then fast power law decay of the metastable state may indicate first nucleation and then growth of ground state VL domains. This work was supported by the Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-FG02-10ER46783.
Geometrical vortex lattice pinning and melting in YBaCuO submicron bridges.
Papari, G P; Glatz, A; Carillo, F; Stornaiuolo, D; Massarotti, D; Rouco, V; Longobardi, L; Beltram, F; Vinokur, V M; Tafuri, F
2016-12-23
Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), most efforts of researchers have been focused on the fabrication of superconducting devices capable of immobilizing vortices, hence of operating at enhanced temperatures and magnetic fields. Recent findings that geometric restrictions may induce self-arresting hypervortices recovering the dissipation-free state at high fields and temperatures made superconducting strips a mainstream of superconductivity studies. Here we report on the geometrical melting of the vortex lattice in a wide YBCO submicron bridge preceded by magnetoresistance (MR) oscillations fingerprinting the underlying regular vortex structure. Combined magnetoresistance measurements and numerical simulations unambiguously relate the resistance oscillations to the penetration of vortex rows with intermediate geometrical pinning and uncover the details of geometrical melting. Our findings offer a reliable and reproducible pathway for controlling vortices in geometrically restricted nanodevices and introduce a novel technique of geometrical spectroscopy, inferring detailed information of the structure of the vortex system through a combined use of MR curves and large-scale simulations.
Geometrical vortex lattice pinning and melting in YBaCuO submicron bridges
Papari, G. P.; Glatz, A.; Carillo, F.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Massarotti, D.; Rouco, V.; Longobardi, L.; Beltram, F.; Vinokur, V. M.; Tafuri, F.
2016-01-01
Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), most efforts of researchers have been focused on the fabrication of superconducting devices capable of immobilizing vortices, hence of operating at enhanced temperatures and magnetic fields. Recent findings that geometric restrictions may induce self-arresting hypervortices recovering the dissipation-free state at high fields and temperatures made superconducting strips a mainstream of superconductivity studies. Here we report on the geometrical melting of the vortex lattice in a wide YBCO submicron bridge preceded by magnetoresistance (MR) oscillations fingerprinting the underlying regular vortex structure. Combined magnetoresistance measurements and numerical simulations unambiguously relate the resistance oscillations to the penetration of vortex rows with intermediate geometrical pinning and uncover the details of geometrical melting. Our findings offer a reliable and reproducible pathway for controlling vortices in geometrically restricted nanodevices and introduce a novel technique of geometrical spectroscopy, inferring detailed information of the structure of the vortex system through a combined use of MR curves and large-scale simulations. PMID:28008911
Geometrical vortex lattice pinning and melting in YBaCuO submicron bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papari, G. P.; Glatz, A.; Carillo, F.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Massarotti, D.; Rouco, V.; Longobardi, L.; Beltram, F.; Vinokur, V. M.; Tafuri, F.
2016-12-01
Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), most efforts of researchers have been focused on the fabrication of superconducting devices capable of immobilizing vortices, hence of operating at enhanced temperatures and magnetic fields. Recent findings that geometric restrictions may induce self-arresting hypervortices recovering the dissipation-free state at high fields and temperatures made superconducting strips a mainstream of superconductivity studies. Here we report on the geometrical melting of the vortex lattice in a wide YBCO submicron bridge preceded by magnetoresistance (MR) oscillations fingerprinting the underlying regular vortex structure. Combined magnetoresistance measurements and numerical simulations unambiguously relate the resistance oscillations to the penetration of vortex rows with intermediate geometrical pinning and uncover the details of geometrical melting. Our findings offer a reliable and reproducible pathway for controlling vortices in geometrically restricted nanodevices and introduce a novel technique of geometrical spectroscopy, inferring detailed information of the structure of the vortex system through a combined use of MR curves and large-scale simulations.
Vortex lattices and defect-mediated viscosity reduction in active liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slomka, Jonasz; Dunkel, Jorn
2016-11-01
Generic pattern-formation and viscosity-reduction mechanisms in active fluids are investigated using a generalized Navier-Stokes model that captures the experimentally observed bulk vortex dynamics in microbial suspensions. We present exact analytical solutions including stress-free vortex lattices and introduce a computational framework that allows the efficient treatment of previously intractable higher-order shear boundary conditions. Large-scale parameter scans identify the conditions for spontaneous flow symmetry breaking, defect-mediated low-viscosity phases and negative-viscosity states amenable to energy harvesting in confined suspensions. The theory uses only generic assumptions about the symmetries and long-wavelength structure of active stress tensors, suggesting that inviscid phases may be achievable in a broad class of non-equilibrium fluids by tuning confinement geometry and pattern scale selection.
New convergence criteria for the vortex-lattice models of the leading-edge separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1976-01-01
The convergence criterion for the vortex-lattice technique which deals with delta wings exhibiting significant leading-edge separation was studied. It was shown that one can predict pressure distributions without irregularities which agree fairly well with experimental data (which show some irregularities of their own) by replacing the system of discrete vortex lines with a single concentrated core. This core has a circulation equal to the algebraic sum of the circulations around the discrete lines and is located at the centroid of these lines. Moreover, there is a requirement that the position and strength of the core must converge as the number of elements increases. Because the calculation of the position and strength of the core is much less involved than the calculation of the loads, this approach has the additional desirable feature of requiring less computational time.
Cooperative ring exchange and quantum melting of vortex lattices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
Ghosh, Tarun Kanti; Baskaran, G.
2004-02-01
Cooperative ring exchange is suggested as a mechanism of quantum melting of vortex lattices in a rapidly rotating quasi-two-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using an approach pioneered by Kivelson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 873 (1986)] for the fractional quantized Hall effect, we calculate the condition for quantum melting instability by considering large-correlated ring exchanges in a two-dimensional Wigner crystal of vortices in a strong 'pseudomagnetic field' generated by the background superfluid Bose particles. BEC may be profitably used to address issues of quantum melting of a pristine Wigner solid devoid of complications of real solids.
Effect of Rolling Massage on the Vortex Flow in Blood Vessels with Lattice Boltzmann Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Hou Hui
The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese Medical Massage, which is a nature therapy in eliminating many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on the cavity flows in blood vessel under the rolling manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that the vortex flows are fully disturbed by the rolling massage. The flow behavior depends on the rolling velocity and the rolling depth. Rolling massage has a better effect on the flows in the cavity than that of the flows in a planar blood vessel. The result is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the rolling techniques.
Interaction of vortex lattice with ultrasound and the acoustic Faraday effect
Dominguez, D.; Bulaevskii, L.; Ivlev, B.; Maley, M.; Bishop, A.R. |
1995-03-27
The interaction of sound with the vortex lattice is considered for high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors, taking into account pinning and electrodynamic forces between vortices and crystal displacements. At low temperatures the Magnus force results in the acoustic Faraday effect; the velocity of sound propagating along the magnetic field depends on the polarization. This effect is linear in the Magnus force and magnetic field in crystals with equivalent {ital a} and {ital b} axes for a field parallel to the {ital c} axis. In the thermally activated flux flow regime, the Faraday effect is caused by electric and magnetic fields induced by vortices and acting on ions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levin, D.
1981-01-01
A nonsteady vortex-lattice method is introduced for predicting the dynamic stability derivatives of a delta wing undergoing an oscillatory motion. The analysis is applied to several types of small oscillations in pitch. The angle of attack varied between + or - 1 deg, with the mean held at 0 deg when the flow was assumed to be attached and between + or - 1 deg and the mean held at 15 deg when both leading-edge separation and wake roll-up were included. The computed results for damping in pitch are compared with several other methods and with experiments, and are found to be consistent and in good agreement.
Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids
Di Giorgio, C.; Bobba, F.; Cucolo, A. M.; Scarfato, A.; Moore, S. A.; Karapetrov, G.; D’Agostino, D.; Novosad, V.; Yefremenko, V.; Iavarone, M.
2016-01-01
While Abrikosov vortices repel each other and form a uniform vortex lattice in bulk type-II superconductors, strong confinement potential profoundly affects their spatial distribution eventually leading to vortex cluster formation. The confinement could be induced by the geometric boundaries in mesoscopic-size superconductors or by the spatial modulation of the magnetic field in superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids. Here we study the vortex confinement in S/F thin film heterostructures and we observe that vortex clusters appear near magnetization inhomogeneities in the ferromagnet, called bifurcations. We use magnetic force microscopy to image magnetic bifurcations and superconducting vortices, while high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy is used to obtain detailed information of the local electronic density of states outside and inside the vortex cluster. We find an intervortex spacing at the bifurcation shorter than the one predicted for the same superconductor in a uniform magnetic field equal to the thermodynamical upper critical field Hc2. This result is due to a local enhanced stray field and a competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and Lorentz force. Our findings suggest that special magnetic topologies could result in S/F hybrids that support superconductivity even when locally the vortex density exceeds the thermodynamic critical threshold value beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed. PMID:27934898
Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Giorgio, C.; Bobba, F.; Cucolo, A. M.; Scarfato, A.; Moore, S. A.; Karapetrov, G.; D’Agostino, D.; Novosad, V.; Yefremenko, V.; Iavarone, M.
2016-12-01
While Abrikosov vortices repel each other and form a uniform vortex lattice in bulk type-II superconductors, strong confinement potential profoundly affects their spatial distribution eventually leading to vortex cluster formation. The confinement could be induced by the geometric boundaries in mesoscopic-size superconductors or by the spatial modulation of the magnetic field in superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids. Here we study the vortex confinement in S/F thin film heterostructures and we observe that vortex clusters appear near magnetization inhomogeneities in the ferromagnet, called bifurcations. We use magnetic force microscopy to image magnetic bifurcations and superconducting vortices, while high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy is used to obtain detailed information of the local electronic density of states outside and inside the vortex cluster. We find an intervortex spacing at the bifurcation shorter than the one predicted for the same superconductor in a uniform magnetic field equal to the thermodynamical upper critical field Hc2. This result is due to a local enhanced stray field and a competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and Lorentz force. Our findings suggest that special magnetic topologies could result in S/F hybrids that support superconductivity even when locally the vortex density exceeds the thermodynamic critical threshold value beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed.
Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids
Di Giorgio, C.; Bobba, F.; Cucolo, A. M.; ...
2016-12-09
While Abrikosov vortices repel each other and form a uniform vortex lattice in bulk type-II superconductors, strong confinement potential profoundly affects their spatial distribution eventually leading to vortex cluster formation. The confinement could be induced by the geometric boundaries in mesoscopic-size superconductors or by the spatial modulation of the magnetic field in superconductor/ ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids. Here we study the vortex confinement in S/F thin film heterostructures and we observe that vortex clusters appear near magnetization inhomogeneities in the ferromagnet, called bifurcations. We use magnetic force microscopy to image magnetic bifurcations and superconducting vortices, while high resolution scanning tunneling microscopymore » is used to obtain detailed information of the local electronic density of states outside and inside the vortex cluster. We find an intervortex spacing at the bifurcation shorter than the one predicted for the same superconductor in a uniform magnetic field equal to the thermodynamical upper critical field Hc2. This result is due to a local enhanced stray field and a competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and Lorentz force. Here, our findings suggest that special magnetic topologies could result in S/F hybrids that support superconductivity even when locally the vortex density exceeds the thermodynamic critical threshold value beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed.« less
Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids
Di Giorgio, C.; Bobba, F.; Cucolo, A. M.; Scarfato, A.; Moore, S. A.; Karapetrov, G.; D’Agostino, D.; Novosad, V.; Yefremenko, V.; Iavarone, M.
2016-12-09
While Abrikosov vortices repel each other and form a uniform vortex lattice in bulk type-II superconductors, strong confinement potential profoundly affects their spatial distribution eventually leading to vortex cluster formation. The confinement could be induced by the geometric boundaries in mesoscopic-size superconductors or by the spatial modulation of the magnetic field in superconductor/ ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids. Here we study the vortex confinement in S/F thin film heterostructures and we observe that vortex clusters appear near magnetization inhomogeneities in the ferromagnet, called bifurcations. We use magnetic force microscopy to image magnetic bifurcations and superconducting vortices, while high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy is used to obtain detailed information of the local electronic density of states outside and inside the vortex cluster. We find an intervortex spacing at the bifurcation shorter than the one predicted for the same superconductor in a uniform magnetic field equal to the thermodynamical upper critical field H_{c2}. This result is due to a local enhanced stray field and a competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and Lorentz force. Here, our findings suggest that special magnetic topologies could result in S/F hybrids that support superconductivity even when locally the vortex density exceeds the thermodynamic critical threshold value beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, J. E.; Herbert, H. E.
1982-01-01
The latest production version, MARK IV, of the NASA-Langley vortex lattice computer program is summarized. All viable subcritical aerodynamic features of previous versions were retained. This version extends the previously documented program capabilities to four planforms, 400 panels, and enables the user to obtain vortex-flow aerodynamics on cambered planforms, flowfield properties off the configuration in attached flow, and planform longitudinal load distributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillamon, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Cordoba, R.; Sese, J.; de Teresa, J. M.; Ibarra, R.
In two dimensional (2D) systems, theory has proposed that random disorder destroys long range correlations driving a transition to a glassy state. Here, I will discuss new insights into this issue obtained through the direct visualization of the critical behaviour of a 2D superconducting vortex lattice formed in a thin film with a smooth 1D thickness modulation. Using scanning tunneling microscopy at 0.1K, we have tracked the modification in the 2D vortex arrangements induced by the 1D thickness modulation while increasing the vortex density by three orders of magnitude. Upon increasing the field, we observed a two-step order-disorder transition in the 2D vortex lattice mediated by the appearance of dislocations and disclinations and accompanied by an increase in the local vortex density fluctuations. Through a detailed analysis of correlation functions, we find that the transition is driven by the incommensurate 1D thickness modulation. We calculate the critical points and exponents and find that they are well above theoretical expectation for random disorder. Our results show that long range 1D correlations in random potentials enhance the stability range of the ordered phase in a 2D vortex lattice. Work supported by Spanish MINECO, CIG Marie Curie Grant, Axa Research Fund and FBBVA.
Dynamic and Structural Studies of Metastable Vortex Lattice Domains in MgB2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Waard, E. R.; Kuhn, S. J.; Rastovski, C.; Eskildsen, M. R.; Leishman, A.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Debeer-Schmitt, L.; Littrell, K.; Karpinski, J.; Zhigadlo, N. D.
Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of the vortex lattice (VL) in the type-II superconductor MgB2 have revealed an unprecedented degree of metastability that is demonstrably not due to vortex pinning, [C. Rastovski et al . , Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 107002 (2013)]. The VL can be driven to the GS through successive application of an AC magnetic field. Here we report on detailed studies of the transition kinetics and structure of the VL domains. Stroboscopic studies of the transition revealed a stretched exponential decrease of the metastable volume fraction as a function of the number of applied AC cycles, with subtle differences depending on whether the AC field is oriented parallel or perpendicular to the DC field used to create the VL. We speculate the slower transition kinetics for the transverse AC field may be due to vortex cutting. Spatial studies include scanning SANS measurements showing the VL domain distribution within the MgB2 single crystal as well as measurements of VL correlation lengths. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award DE-FG02-10ER46783.
Reentrant softening as precursor to reentrant melting of the vortex-lattice in YBCO single crystal
Hucho, C.; Carter, J. M.; Muller, V.; Petrean, A.; Kwok, W. K.
1999-10-12
A vibrating sample technique was used to study the elastic behavior of the magnetic vortex system in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} single crystal. The setup consists of a system of two weakly coupled mechanical oscillators (transducer, sample), the frequency and Q of which depends sensitively on the frequencies of the two subsystems as well as the coupling between both. By sweeping a magnetic field at temperatures below the superconducting transition temperature {Tc} the authors observe pronounced attenuation peaks of temperature-dependent characteristic field strengths H{sub 1} and H{sub 2}. These fields mark temperature-dependent points of constant elasticity of the vortex-ensemble. Since softening precedes the melting of the vortex-lattice by approaching H{sub o1} as well as H{sub o2}, the observed angular dependence of H{sub 1} and H{sub 2} is interpreted as due to reentrant softening as precursor to reentrant melting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klironomos, Alexios
I present a derivation of the nondispersive elastic moduli for the vortex lattice within the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau model. I derive an extension of the virial theorem for superconductivity for anisotropic superconductors, with the anisotropy arising from s-d mixing or an anisotropic Fermi surface. The structural transition from rhombic to square vortex lattice is studied within this model along with the effects of thermal fluctuations on the structural transition. The reentrant transition from square to rhombic vortex lattice for high fields and the instability with respect to rigid rotations of the vortex lattice, predicted by calculations within the nonlocal London model, are also present in the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau model. I also study the fingering of an electron droplet in a special Quantum Hall regime, where electrostatic forces are weak. Performing Monte Carlo simulations I study the growth and fingering of the electron droplet in an inhomogeneous magnetic field as the number of electrons is increased. I expand on recent theoretical results and find excellent agreement between my simulations and the theoretical predictions.
A vortex-lattice method in the linear theory on a two-dimensional supercavitating flat plate foil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kida, T.; Take, T.
1983-02-01
The vortex-lattice method has been found very satisfactory in the case of steady subsonic wing theory, however, the discrete numerical methods, such as the vortex-lattice method, have not been studied in detail for supercavitating flows. One of the discrete numerical method, a vortex-lattice method, is developed in the present paper for cavitating flows around a two dimensional flat plate foil. The governing equations in the linear theory are represented as a set of coupled integral equations with Cauchy kernel, and there are unknown functions which are not under integral signs. For solving them, they are exchanged to an alternative set of coupled integral equations by a new variable, and the present vortex-lattice method is schemed for equal spacing of the vortices and sources in this new variable. The position of the collocation points is determined, and it is sufficient to treat unknown functions which are not integral signs as step functions. Moreover, the proof of the convergence of this method is shown and the accuracy is estimated.
Quantum melting of a two-dimensional vortex lattice at zero temperature
Rozhkov, A.; Stroud, D.
1996-11-01
We consider the quantum melting of a two-dimensional flux lattice at temperature {ital T} = 0 in the {open_quote}{open_quote}superclean limit.{close_quote}{close_quote} In this regime, we find that vortex motion is dominated by the Magnus force. A Lindemann criterion predicts melting when {ital n}{sub {ital v}}/{ital n}{sub {ital p}}{ge}{beta}, where {ital n}{sub {ital v}} and {ital n}{sub {ital p}} are the areal number densities of vortex pancakes and Cooper pairs, and {beta}{approx_equal}0.1. A second criterion is derived by using Wigner-crystal and Laughlin wave functions for the solid and liquid phases respectively, and setting the two energies equal. This gives a melting value similar to the Lindemann result. We discuss the numerical value of the {ital T}=0 melting field for thin layers of a low-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductor, such as {ital a}-MoGe, and single layers of high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} materials. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
A self-learning coupled map lattice for vortex shedding in cable and cylinder wakes.
Balasubramanian, G; Olinger, D J; Demetriou, M A
2004-06-01
A coupled map lattice (CML) with self-learning features is developed to model flow over freely vibrating cables and stationary cylinders at low Reynolds numbers. Coupled map lattices that combine a series of low-dimensional circle maps with a diffusion model have been used previously to predict qualitative features of these flows. However, the simple nature of these CML models implies that there will be unmodeled wake features if a detailed, quantitative comparison is made with laboratory or simulated wake flows. Motivated by a desire to develop an improved CML model, we incorporate self-learning features into a new CML that is first trained to precisely estimate wake patterns from a target numerical simulation. A new convective-diffusive map that includes additional wake dynamics is developed. The new self-learning CML uses an adaptive estimation scheme (multivariable least-squares algorithm). Studies of this approach are conducted using wake patterns from a Navier-Stokes solution (spectral element-based NEKTAR simulation) of freely vibrating cable wakes at Reynolds numbers Re=100. It is shown that the self-learning model accurately and efficiently estimates the simulated wake patterns. The self-learning scheme is then successfully applied to vortex shedding patterns obtained from experiments on stationary cylinders. This constitutes a first step toward the use of the self-learning CML as a wake model in flow control studies of laboratory wake flows.
Magnetic-field-induced vortex-lattice transition in HgBa2CuO4 +δ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jeongseop A.; Xin, Yizhou; Stolt, I.; Halperin, W. P.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Chan, M. K.
2017-01-01
Measurements of the 17O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quadrupolar spectrum of apical oxygen in HgBa2CuO4 +δ were performed over a range of magnetic fields from 6.4-30 T in the superconducting state. Oxygen-isotope-exchanged single crystals were investigated with doping corresponding to superconducting transition temperatures from 74 K underdoped, to 78 K overdoped. The apical oxygen site was chosen since its NMR spectrum has narrow quadrupolar satellites that are well separated from any other resonance. Nonvortex contributions to the spectra can be deconvolved in the time domain to determine the local magnetic field distribution from the vortices. Numerical analysis using Brandt's Ginzburg-Landau theory was used to find structural parameters of the vortex lattice, penetration depth, and coherence length as a function of magnetic field in the vortex solid phase. From this analysis we report a vortex structural transition near 15 T from an oblique lattice with an opening angle of 73∘ at low magnetic fields to a triangular lattice with 60∘ stabilized at high field. The temperature for onset of vortex dynamics has been identified from spin-spin relaxation. This is independent of the magnetic field at sufficiently high magnetic field similar to that reported for YBa2Cu3O7 and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ and is correlated with mass anisotropy of the material. This behavior is accounted for theoretically only in the limit of very high anisotropy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. E.
1981-01-01
The nonplanar quasi-vortex-lattice method is applied to the calculation of lateral-directional stability derivatives of wings with and without vortex-lift effect. Results for conventional configurations and those with winglets, V-tail, etc. are compared with available data. All rolling moment derivatives are found to be accurately predicted. The prediction of side force and yawing moment derivatives for some configurations is not as accurate. Causes of the discrepancy are discussed. A user's manual for the program and the program listing are also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dinardo, Brad A.; Anderson, Dana Z.
2016-12-01
We describe a system for loading a single atom from a reservoir into a blue-detuned crossed vortex bottle beam trap using a dynamic 1D optical lattice. The lattice beams are frequency chirped using acousto-optic modulators, which causes the lattice to move along its axial direction and behave like an optical conveyor belt. A stationary lattice is initially loaded with approximately 6000 atoms from a reservoir, and the conveyor belt transports them 1.1 mm from the reservoir to a bottle beam trap, where a single atom is loaded via light-assisted collisions. Photon counting data confirm that an atom can be delivered and loaded into the bottle beam trap 13.1% of the time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubois, C.; Santi, G.; Cuttat, I.; Berthod, C.; Jenkins, N.; Petrović, A. P.; Manuel, A. A.; Fischer, Ø.; Kazakov, S. M.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, J.
2008-08-01
We performed the first scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements on the pyrochlore superconductor KOs2O6 (Tc=9.6K) in both zero magnetic field and the vortex state at several temperatures above 1.95 K. This material presents atomically flat surfaces, yielding spatially homogeneous spectra which reveal fully gapped superconductivity with a gap anisotropy of 30%. Measurements performed at fields of 2 and 6 T display a hexagonal Abrikosov flux line lattice. From the shape of the vortex cores, we extract a coherence length of 31 40 Å, in agreement with the value derived from the upper critical field Hc2. We observe a reduction in size of the vortex cores (and hence the coherence length) with increasing field which is consistent with the unexpectedly high and unsaturated upper critical field reported.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, G. F.
1975-01-01
The application is considered of vortex lattice techniques to the problem of describing the aerodynamics and performance of statically thrusting propellers. A numerical lifting surface theory to predict the aerodynamic forces and power is performed. The chordwise and spanwise loading is modelled by bound vortices fixed to a twisted flat plate surface. In order to eliminate any apriori assumptions regarding the wake shape, it is assumed the propeller starts from rest. The wake is generated in time and allowed to deform under its own self-induced velocity field as the motion of the propeller progresses. The bound circulation distribution is then determined with time by applying the flow tangency boundary condition at certain selected control points on the blades. The aerodynamics of the infinite wing and finite wing are also considered. The details of wake formation and roll-up are investigated, particularly the localized induction effect. It is concluded that proper wake roll-up and roll-up rates can be established by considering the details of motion at the instant of start.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaparro, Daniel; Fujiwara, Gustavo E. C.; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan
2016-01-01
The need to rapidly scan large design spaces during conceptual design calls for computationally inexpensive tools such as the vortex lattice method (VLM). Although some VLM tools, such as Vorview have been extended to model fully-supersonic flow, VLM solutions are typically limited to inviscid, subcritical flow regimes. Many transport aircraft operate at transonic speeds, which limits the applicability of VLM for such applications. This paper presents a novel approach to correct three-dimensional VLM through coupling of two-dimensional transonic small disturbance (TSD) solutions along the span of an aircraft wing in order to accurately predict transonic aerodynamic loading and wave drag for transport aircraft. The approach is extended to predict flow separation and capture the attenuation of aerodynamic forces due to boundary layer viscosity by coupling the TSD solver with an integral boundary layer (IBL) model. The modeling framework is applied to the NASA General Transport Model (GTM) integrated with a novel control surface known as the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF).
Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.
2014-01-01
The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+.
Fractional Matching Effect due to Pinning of the Vortex Lattice by an Array of Magnetic Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoll, O. M.; Montero, M. I.; Jönsson-Åkerman, B. J.; Schuller, Ivan K.
2001-03-01
We have investigated the pinning of magnetic flux quanta by rectangular arrays of nanoscaled magnetic dots. We measured the resistivity vs. magnetic field characteristics using a high magnetic field resolution of up to 0.1 G over the full field range ( 2 kG to 2 kG). By this we the appearance of minima at half and third integer values of the matching field. It is well known that a reconfiguration of the vortex lattice from a rectangular to a square type geometry occurs in rectangular arrays of magnetic dots when the magnetic field is increased over a threshold value H_r. If we lower the magnetic field after crossing H_r, we find that some of the minima at the full integer matching field are missing. This hysteretic behavior occurs only when Hr is exceeded before the subsequent decrease of the magnetic field. We present the experimental results and discuss preliminary models for the explanation of these observations. This work was supported by the grants NSF and DOE. Two of us acknowledge postdoctoral fellowships by the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst) (O.M.S.) and the Secretaria De Estado De Educacion Y Universidades (M.I.M.) respectively.
Dynamic Phases in Driven Vortex Lattices in Superconductors with Periodic Pinning Arrays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichhardt, C.; Olson, C. J.; Nori, F.
1997-03-01
In an extensive series of simulations of driven vortices interacting with periodic pinning arrays, an extremely rich variety of novel plastic flow phases, very distinct from those observed in random arrays, are found as a function of applied driving force. We show that signatures of the transitions between these different dynamical phases appear as pronounced jumps and dips in the I-V curves, coinciding with marked changes in the microscopic structure and flow behavior of the vortex lattice. When the number of vortices is greater than the number of pinning sites, we observe up to six distinct dynamical phases, including a pinned phase, a flow of interstitial vortices between pinned vortices, a disordered flow, a 1D flow along the pinning rows, and a homogeneous flow. By varying a wide range of microscopic pinning parameters, including pinning strength, size, density, and degree of ordering, as well as varying temperature and commensurability, we obtain a series of dynamic phase diagrams. A short video will also be presented to highlight these different dynamic phases.
Description, Usage, and Validation of the MVL-15 Modified Vortex Lattice Analysis Capability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ozoroski, Thomas A.
2015-01-01
MVL-15 is the most recent version of the Modified Vortex-Lattice (MVL) code developed within the Aerodynamics Systems Analysis Branch (ASAB) at NASA LaRC. The term "modified" refers to the primary modification of the core vortex-lattice methodology: inclusion of viscous aerodynamics tables that are linked to the linear solution via iterative processes. The inclusion of the viscous aerodynamics inherently converts the MVL-15 from a purely analytic linearized method to a semi-empirical blend which retains the rapid execution speed of the linearized method while empirically characterizing the section aerodynamics at all spanwise lattice points. The modification provides a means to assess non-linear effects on lift that occur at angles of attack near stall, and provides a means to determine the drag associated with the application of design strategies for lift augmentation such as the use of flaps or blowing. The MVL-15 code is applicable to the analyses of aircraft aerodynamics during cruise, but it is most advantageously applied to the analysis of aircraft operating in various high-lift configurations. The MVL methodology has been previously conceived and implemented; the initial concept version was delivered to the ASAB in 2001 (van Dam, C.), subsequently revised (Gelhausen, P. and Ozoroski, T. 2002 / AVID Inc., Gelhausen, P., and Roberts, M. 2004), and then overhauled (Ozoroski, T., Hahn, A. 2008). The latest version, MVL-15 has been refined to provide analysis transparency and enhanced to meet the analysis requirements of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Each revision has been implemented with reasonable success. Separate applications of the methodology are in use, including a similar in-house capability, developed by Olson, E. that is tailored for structural and acoustics analyses. A central premise of the methodology is that viscous aerodynamic data can be associated with analytic inviscid aerodynamic results at each spanwise wing section
Decoherence and radiation-free relaxation in Meissner transmon qubit coupled to Abrikosov vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ku, Jaseung; Yoscovits, Zack; Levchenko, Alex; Eckstein, James; Bezryadin, Alexey
2016-10-01
We present a type of transmon split-junction qubit which can be tuned by Meissner screening currents flowing in the adjacent superconducting film electrodes. The best detected relaxation time (T1) was of the order of 50 μ s and the dephasing time (T2) about 40 μ s . The achieved period of oscillation with magnetic field was much smaller than in the usual SQUID-based transmon qubits; thus a strong effective field amplification has been realized. This Meissner qubit allows a strong mixing of the current flowing in the qubit junctions and the currents generated by the Abrikosov vortices. We present a quantitative analysis of the radiation-free relaxation in qubits coupled to the Abrikosov vortices. The observation of coherent quantum oscillations provides strong evidence that the position of the vortex as well as its velocity do not have to accept exact values but can be smeared in the quantum mechanical sense. The eventual relaxation of such states contributes to an increased relaxation rate of the qubit coupled to vortices. Such relaxation is described using basic notions of the Caldeira-Leggett quantum dissipation theory.
DC to AC converter on Abrikosov vortices in a washboard pinning potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shklovskij, Valerij A.; Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.
2014-05-01
The nonlinear dynamics of Abrikosov vortices in a cosine dc-biased washboard pinning potential at nonzero temperature is theoretically investigated. The problem is treated relying upon the exact solution of the Langevin equation for non-interacting vortices by using the Fokker-Planck method combined with the scalar continued fractions technique. The time variation of the local mean vortex velocity v(t) is calculated. The time voltage E(t) ~ v(t) is predicted to oscillate with a dc current-dependent frequency and a tunable pulse shape. Formulas for v(t) are discussed as functions of dc transport current and temperature, in a wide range of the corresponding dimensionless parameters. The derived expressions can be adapted for a number of physical applications utilizing the overdamped motion of a Brownian particle in a tilted cosine potential, e.g., the resistively shunted Josephson junction model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, K.; Eschrig, M.
2008-03-01
We study electronic structure and thermodynamic properties of a two-band superconductor, in which one band is ballistic and quasi-two dimensional (2D), and the other is diffusive and three dimensional (3D). We assume that superconductivity in the 3D diffusive band is ``weak'', i.e., mostly induced, as is the case in MgB2. Hybridization with the ``weak'' 3D diffusive band has significant and intriguing influence on the electronic properties of the ``strong'' 2D ballistic band. In particular, the effects of Coulomb interactions in the diffusive band and unusual Kramer-Pesch effect are examined. Furthermore, based on a circular-cell approximation within the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity, we explore the effects of magnetic field on vortex structure in such a two-band superconductor. We discuss hybridization of Abrikosov flux lines in the 3D diffusive band with pancake vortices in the 2D ballistic band.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, T. H.; Yuan, Y.; Bao, W.; Clark, S. R.; Foot, C.; Jaksch, D.
2016-06-01
We investigate cold bosonic impurity atoms trapped in a vortex lattice formed by condensed bosons of another species. We describe the dynamics of the impurities by a bosonic Hubbard model containing occupation-dependent parameters to capture the effects of strong impurity-impurity interactions. These include both a repulsive direct interaction and an attractive effective interaction mediated by the Bose-Einstein condensate. The occupation dependence of these two competing interactions drastically affects the Hubbard model phase diagram, including causing the disappearance of some Mott lobes.
Johnson, T H; Yuan, Y; Bao, W; Clark, S R; Foot, C; Jaksch, D
2016-06-17
We investigate cold bosonic impurity atoms trapped in a vortex lattice formed by condensed bosons of another species. We describe the dynamics of the impurities by a bosonic Hubbard model containing occupation-dependent parameters to capture the effects of strong impurity-impurity interactions. These include both a repulsive direct interaction and an attractive effective interaction mediated by the Bose-Einstein condensate. The occupation dependence of these two competing interactions drastically affects the Hubbard model phase diagram, including causing the disappearance of some Mott lobes.
Dislocations in a vortex lattice and complexity of chlamydomonas ciliary beating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amnuanpol, Sitichoke
For the first topic the moving dislocations interrupt an orchestrating transport of vortices, leading to the different velocities of vortices at the different parts of a vortex lattice. Since the correlation of displacement grows algebraically in two dimensions rather than logarithmically in three dimensions, we emphasize the movement of edge dislocations on a single copper oxide plane. Effect of moving dislocations is particularly examined in connection to the velocity-force characteristics of vortices. Under the neutrality condition, the density of Burgers vectors of dislocations emerges in the equations of motion of vortices as a source term. Time evolution of the density of Burgers vectors is governed by a Fokker-Planck equation in which the drift and diffusion coefficients describe the interaction of dislocations and the thermal fluctuation, respectively. To find the Green's function of Fokker-Planck equation a perturbation series in the orders of drift coefficient which generally possesses the spatiotemporal dependence is constructed, analogous to the Born series of the time-dependent Schr¨odinger equation. In contrast, the drift coefficient shows up only with the even orders and the sign in a series alternates. Dislocations slow the velocity of vortices below their linear flux flow velocity, like the pinning. Free dislocations are more efficient to slow the velocity of vortices than interacting dislocations. For the second topic the adaptation of Chlamydomonas ciliary beating to light stimulation during its phototaxis is studied by adopting a notion of memory believed to account for the slower responses. The influence of the past ciliary beating on the present one is expressed in terms of memory time estimated by a saturating point of Lipschitz number. Mutant cells seem to possess a memory time longer than wild type cells. Under a dark environment the ciliary beating shows strong time variability suitable for a temporal self-similarity study. The scaling
Koshelev, A.E.
1997-11-01
The phase diagram of layered superconductors in the vortex state is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of the three-dimensional uniformly frustrated XY model with different anisotropy parameters. In the London regime the phase diagram of layered superconductors is shown to be universal if plotted in scaled temperature and field with the field scale being the two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) crossover field B{sub cr}. We find a very broad crossover region between quasi-two-dimensional and line-like melting regimes ranging from {approximately}B{sub cr} to {approximately}10B{sub cr}. The region is characterized by several distinct features: (i) the melting of the lattice occurs when the Josephson energy is suppressed to 64{percent} of its bare value; (ii) the latent heat at the transition does not change much with the anisotropy parameter; (iii) the jump of the Josephson energy at the transition is equal to the jump of the in-plane energy. The entropy jump reaches a maximum value of 0.45k{sub B}/vortex/layer at a field {approximately}10B{sub cr} and decreases with decreasing field due to an increase in the transition temperature. This behavior is found to be in a good agreement with experimental observations after the renormalization due to the temperature dependence of superconducting parameters is taken into account. The pancake alignment above the transition increases with increasing of the Josephson coupling. At high fields the melting is accompanied by a significant drop in the coupling energy and the destruction of vortex lines, while at small fields the vortex lines preserve at the transition. In the studied region of parameters we find that the line liquid does not have superconductivity along the direction of magnetic field in the thermodynamic limit. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Application of the nonlinear vortex-lattice concept to aircraft-interference problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1976-01-01
A discrete-vortex model was developed to account for the hazardous effects of the vortex trail issued from the edges of separation of a large leading wing on a small trailing wing. The model is divided into three main parts: the leading wing and its near wake, the near and far wakes of the leading wing, and the trailing wing and the portion of the far wake in its vicinity. The normal force, pitching moment, and rolling moment coefficients for the trailing wing are calculated. The circulation distribution in the vortex trail is calculated in the first part of the model where the leading wing is far upstream and hence is considered isolated. A numerical example is solved to demonstrate the feasibility of using this method to study interference between aircraft. The numerical results show the correct trends: The following wing experiences a loss in lift between the wing-tip vortex systems of the leading wing, a gain outside this region, and strong rolling moments which can change sign as the lateral relative position changes. All the results are strongly dependent on the vertical relative position.
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-01
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases. PMID:26778736
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate.
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-18
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seabra, Luis; Sindzingre, Philippe; Momoi, Tsutomu; Shannon, Nic
2016-02-01
A large part of the interest in magnets with frustrated antiferromagnetic interactions comes from the many new phases found in applied magnetic field. In this article, we explore some of the new phases which arise in a model with frustrated ferromagnetic interactions, the J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model on a square lattice. Using a combination of classical Monte Carlo simulation and spin-wave theory, we uncover behavior reminiscent of some widely studied frustrated antiferromagnets, but with a number of new twists. We first demonstrate that, for a suitable choice of parameters, the phase diagram as a function of magnetic field and temperature is nearly identical to that of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice, including the celebrated 1 /3 -magnetization plateau. We then examine how this phase diagram changes when the model is tuned to a point where the classical ground state is highly degenerate. In this case, two new phases emerge: a classical, finite-temperature spin liquid, characterized by a "ring" in the spin structure factor S (q ) ; and a vortex crystal, a multiple-Q state with finite magnetization, which can be viewed as an ordered lattice of magnetic vortices. All of these new phases persist for a wide range of magnetic fields. We discuss the relationship between these results and published studies of frustrated antiferromagnets, together with some of the materials where these new phases might be observed in experiment.
Chandra Ganguli, Somesh; Singh, Harkirat; Saraswat, Garima; Ganguly, Rini; Bagwe, Vivas; Shirage, Parasharam; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Raychaudhuri, Pratap
2015-01-01
The vortex lattice in a Type II superconductor provides a versatile model system to investigate the order-disorder transition in a periodic medium in the presence of random pinning. Here, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy in a weakly pinned Co0.0075NbSe2 single crystal, we show that the vortex lattice in a 3-dimensional superconductor disorders through successive destruction of positional and orientational order, as the magnetic field is increased across the peak effect. At the onset of the peak effect, the equilibrium quasi-long range ordered state transforms into an orientational glass through the proliferation of dislocations. At a higher field, the dislocations dissociate into isolated disclination giving rise to an amorphous vortex glass. We also show the existence of a variety of additional non-equilibrium metastable states, which can be accessed through different thermomagnetic cycling. PMID:26039699
Das, Pinaki; Rastovski, Catherine; O'Brien, Timothy; Schlesinger, Kimberly; Dewhurst, Charles; Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M; Zhigadlo, Nikolai; Karpinski, Janusz; Eskildsen, Morten
2012-01-01
The vortex lattice (VL) symmetry and orientation in clean type-II superconductors depends sensitively on the host material anisotropy, vortex density and temperature, frequently leading to rich phase diagrams. Typically, a well-ordered VL is taken to imply a ground-state configuration for the vortex-vortex interaction. Using neutron scattering we studied the VL in MgB2 for a number of field-temperature histories, discovering an unprecedented degree of metastability in connection with a known, second-order rotation transition. This allows, for the first time, structural studies of a well-ordered, nonequilibrium VL. While the mechanism responsible for the longevity of the metastable states is not resolved, we speculate it is due to a jamming of VL domains, preventing a rotation to the ground-state orientation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strganac, T. W.; Mook, D. T.
1986-01-01
A means of numerically simulating flutter is established by implementing a predictor-corrector algorithm to solve the equations of motion. Aerodynamic loads are provided by the unsteady vortex lattice method (UVLM). This method is illustrated via the obtainment of stable and unstable responses to initial disturbances in the case of two-degree-of-freedom motion. It was found that for some angles of attack and dynamic pressure, the initial disturbance decays, for others it grows (flutter). When flutter occurs, the solution yields the amplitude and period of the resulting limit cycle. The preliminaray results attest to the feasibility of this method for studying flutter in cases that would be difficult to treat using a classical approach.
Laver, M.; Bowell, C.; Forgan, E. M.; Abrahamsen, A. B.; Fort, D.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Muhlbauer, S.; Christen, David K; Kohlbrecher, J.; Cubitt, R.; Ramos, S.
2009-01-01
High-purity niobium exhibits a surprisingly rich assortment of vortex lattice (VL) structures for fields applied parallel to a fourfold symmetry axis, with all observed VL phases made up of degenerate domains that spontaneously break some crystal symmetry. Yet a single regular hexagonal VL domain is observed at all temperatures and fields parallel to a threefold symmetry axis. We report a detailed investigation of the transition between these lush and barren VL landscapes, discovering new VL structures and phase transitions at high fields. We show that the number and relative population of VL domains is intrinsically tied to the underlying crystal symmetry. We discuss how subtle anisotropies of the crystal may generate the remarkable VLs observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janssen, Lukas; Andrade, Eric C.; Vojta, Matthias
2016-12-01
The Heisenberg-Kitaev model is a paradigmatic model to describe the magnetism in honeycomb-lattice Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling, such as A2IrO3 (A =Na , Li ) and α -RuCl3 . Here, we study in detail the physics of the Heisenberg-Kitaev model in an external magnetic field. Using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and spin-wave theory, we map out the classical phase diagram for different directions of the magnetic field. Broken SU(2) spin symmetry renders the magnetization process rather complex, with sequences of phases and metamagnetic transitions. In particular, we find various large-unit-cell and multi-Q phases including a vortex-crystal phase for a field in the [111 ] direction. We also discuss quantum corrections in the high-field phase.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vicroy, Dan D.
1988-01-01
The objective was to investigate and characterize the aerodynamic effect of shear flow through a series of sensitivity studies of the wind velocity gradients and wing planform geometry parameters. The wind shear effect was computed using a modified vortex-lattice computer program and characterized through the formulation of wind shear aerodynamic coefficients. The magnitude of the aerodynamic effect was demonstrated by computing the resultant change in the aerodynamics of a conventional wing and tail combination on a fixed flight path through a simulated microburst. The results of the study indicate that a significant amount of the control authority of an airplane may be required to counteract the wind shear induced forces and moments in the microburst environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneghello, Gianluca; Beyhaghi, Pooriya; Bewley, Thomas
2016-11-01
The identification of an optimized hydrofoil shape depends on an accurate characterization of both its geometry and the incoming, turbulent, free-stream flow. We analyze this dependence using the computationally inexpensive vortex lattice model implemented in AVL, coupled with the recently developed global, derivative-free optimization algorithm implemented in Δ - DOGS . Particular attention will be given to the effect of the free-stream turbulence level - as modeled by a change in the viscous drag coefficients - on the optimized values of the parameters describing the three dimensional shape of the foil. Because the simplicity of AVL, when contrasted with more complex and computationally expensive LES or RANS models, may cast doubts on its usefulness, its validity and limitations will be discussed by comparison with water tank measurement, and again taking into account the effect of the uncertainty in the free-stream characterization.
Janssen, Lukas; Andrade, Eric C; Vojta, Matthias
2016-12-30
The Heisenberg-Kitaev model is a paradigmatic model to describe the magnetism in honeycomb-lattice Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling, such as A_{2}IrO_{3} (A=Na, Li) and α-RuCl_{3}. Here, we study in detail the physics of the Heisenberg-Kitaev model in an external magnetic field. Using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and spin-wave theory, we map out the classical phase diagram for different directions of the magnetic field. Broken SU(2) spin symmetry renders the magnetization process rather complex, with sequences of phases and metamagnetic transitions. In particular, we find various large-unit-cell and multi-Q phases including a vortex-crystal phase for a field in the [111] direction. We also discuss quantum corrections in the high-field phase.
Field induced suppression of the vortex lattice melting transition in twinned YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langan, R. M.; Gordeev, S. N.; Oussena, M.; Pinfold, S.; de Groot, P. A. J.; Jansen, L.; Gagnon, R.; Taillefer, L.
1997-08-01
We present magneto-resistance data for a high quality, twinned YBa2Cu3O7-δ crystal, taken with the current applied along the ab plane. The crystal was examined at a number of angles to an applied magnetic field, of up to 20T, in order to observe the influence of correlated and point-like disorder on the vortex dynamics. When the applied field was orientated at 15° to the crystalline c-axis (θ=15°), for fields below H*=12T, we observed the kink in ϱ(T) associated with vortex lattice melting. We found that when the field exceeded this value, there was a complete suppression of this kink and the ϱ(T) curves resembled those of crystals with extensive point disorder. This suppression in melting occurs abruptly between 11T and 12T. The melting transition is recovered when the angle between the c-axis and the field is increased. An analysis of features around 12T in ϱ(T) and ϱ(θ) has been performed for a number of fields and angles.
Vortex states in a non-Abelian magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolić, Predrag
2016-08-01
A type-II superconductor survives in an external magnetic field by admitting an Abrikosov lattice of quantized vortices. This is an imprint of the Aharonov-Bohm effect created by the Abelian U(1) gauge field. The simplest non-Abelian analog of such a gauge field, which belongs to the SU(2) symmetry group, can be found in topological insulators. Here we discover a superconducting ground state with a lattice of SU(2) vortices in a simple two-dimensional model that presents an SU(2) "magnetic" field (invariant under time reversal) to attractively interacting fermions. The model directly captures the correlated topological insulator quantum well, and approximates one channel for instabilities on the Kondo topological insulator surface. Due to its simplicity, the model might become amenable to cold atom simulations in the foreseeable future. The vitality of low-energy vortex states born out of SU(2) magnetic fields is promising for the creation of incompressible vortex liquids with non-Abelian fractional excitations.
More on the Abrikosov strings with non-Abelian moduli
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shifman, M.; Tallarita, Gianni; Yung, Alexei
2014-04-01
We continue explorations of deformed Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) strings, with non-Abelian moduli on the worldsheet. In a simple model with an extra field, we find classically stable ANO and non-Abelian strings. The tension of the latter is a few percent lower than the tension of the ANO string. Then, we calculate the interpolating field configuration. Once the kink mass Mk and the difference of tensions ΔT are found, we calculate the decay rate of the ANO string with a higher tension ("false vacuum") into the non-Abelian string with the lower tension ("genuine vacuum") through the "bubble" formation in the quasiclassical approximation.
Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galvis, J. A.; Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.
2017-02-01
Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh
2013-01-01
This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.
A latticed-wave superconductor and the physics of cuprates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melikyan, Ashot
In this thesis I present the lattice theory of extreme type-II planar d-wave superconductors. I calculate the spectrum of quasiparticles in the mixed state of cuprate superconductors, which is shown to exhibit oscillatory behavior as a function of applied magnetic field. Then, the transverse transport properties in the mixed state are derived. In particular, I show that Hall thermal and spin Hall conductivities are related by an analog of Wiedemann-Franz law, and that spin Hall conductivity is quantized. Then I analyze the relation between the lattice and the low-energy, small momentum effective continuum theory. The quasiparticles in the mixed state can be effectively described as two-component Dirac fermions moving in the field of singular scalar and vector potentials due to vortex lattice. Although the Hamiltonian operator formally does not depend on the structure of vortex cores, singular nature of the perturbation requires choosing a self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian by imposing additional boundary condition at vortex locations, which reflect the symmetry of intra-vortex physics. In the last part of the thesis I propose a theory describing recent experimental observations of periodic modulations in the local density of states in cuprates. The theory demonstrates that strongly quantum fluctuating phase of the d-wave order parameter results in the charge-density-wave of Cooper pairs and causes a periodic modulation of the local density of states. The formation of a Cooper pair charge density wave can be understood within a framework of Abrikosov-Hofstadter problem in a type-II dual superconductor, where the dual magnetic field depends on doping. A 4 x 4 checkerboard modulation pattern appears naturally as an energetically favored ground state near doping x = 1/8 and produces the local density of states in good agreement with the experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh
2014-01-01
This paper presents a static aeroelastic model and longitudinal trim model for the analysis of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The static aeroelastic model is built using a structural model based on finite-element modeling and coupled to an aerodynamic model that uses vortex-lattice solution. An automatic geometry generation tool is used to close the loop between the structural and aerodynamic models. The aeroelastic model is extended for the development of a three degree-of-freedom longitudinal trim model for an aircraft with flexible wings. The resulting flexible aircraft longitudinal trim model is used to simultaneously compute the static aeroelastic shape for the aircraft model and the longitudinal state inputs to maintain an aircraft trim state. The framework is applied to an aircraft model based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with wing structures allowed to flexibly deformed referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The ESAC wing mass and stiffness properties are based on a baseline "stiff" values representative of current generation transport aircraft.
SANS study of vortex lattice structural transition in optimally doped (Ba1-x K x )Fe2As2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demirdiş, S.; van der Beek, C. J.; Mühlbauer, S.; Su, Y.; Wolf, Th
2016-10-01
Small-angle neutron scattering on high quality single crystalline Ba1-x K x Fe2As2 reveals the transition from a low-field vortex solid phase with orientational order to a vortex polycrystal at high magnetic field. The vortex order-disorder transition is correlated with the second-peak feature in isothermal hysteresis loops, and is interpreted in terms of the generation of supplementary vortex solid dislocations. The sharp drop of the structure factor above the second peak field is explained by the dynamics of freezing of the vortex ensemble in the high field phase.
SANS study of vortex lattice structural transition in optimally doped (Ba1-x K x )Fe2As2.
Demirdiş, S; van der Beek, C J; Mühlbauer, S; Su, Y; Wolf, Th
2016-10-26
Small-angle neutron scattering on high quality single crystalline Ba1-x K x Fe2As2 reveals the transition from a low-field vortex solid phase with orientational order to a vortex polycrystal at high magnetic field. The vortex order-disorder transition is correlated with the second-peak feature in isothermal hysteresis loops, and is interpreted in terms of the generation of supplementary vortex solid dislocations. The sharp drop of the structure factor above the second peak field is explained by the dynamics of freezing of the vortex ensemble in the high field phase.
Kitaev anisotropy induces mesoscopic Z2 vortex crystals in frustrated hexagonal antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Rössler, Ulrich K.; van den Brink, Jeroen; Daghofer, Maria
2016-03-01
The triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet (HAF) is known to carry topological Z2 vortex excitations which form a gas at finite temperatures. Here we show that the spin-orbit interaction, introduced via a Kitaev term in the exchange Hamiltonian, condenses these vortices into a triangular Z2 vortex crystal at zero temperature. The cores of the Z2 vortices show abrupt, soliton-like magnetization modulations and arise by a special intertwining of three honeycomb superstructures of ferromagnetic domains, one for each of the three sublattices of the 120∘ state of the pure HAF. This is an example of a nucleation transition, analogous to the spontaneous formation of magnetic domains, Abrikosov vortices in type-II superconductors, blue phases in cholesteric liquid crystals, and skyrmions in chiral helimagnets. As the mechanism relies on the interplay of geometric frustration and spin-orbital anisotropies, such vortex mesophases can materialize as a ground state property in spin-orbit coupled correlated systems with nearly hexagonal topology, as in triangular or strongly frustrated honeycomb iridates.
Paramagnetic excited vortex states in superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, Rodolpho Ribeiro; Doria, Mauro M.; Romaguera, Antonio R. de C.
2016-06-01
We consider excited vortex states, which are vortex states left inside a superconductor once the external applied magnetic field is switched off and whose energy is lower than of the normal state. We show that this state is paramagnetic and develop here a general method to obtain its Gibbs free energy through conformal mapping. The solution for any number of vortices in any cross-section geometry can be read off from the Schwarz-Christoffel mapping. The method is based on the first-order equations used by Abrikosov to discover vortices.
Dynamic signatures of driven vortex motion.
Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Lopez, D.; Olsson, R. J.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A. M.; Safar, H.
1999-09-16
We probe the dynamic nature of driven vortex motion in superconductors with a new type of transport experiment. An inhomogeneous Lorentz driving force is applied to the sample, inducing vortex velocity gradients that distinguish the hydrodynamic motion of the vortex liquid from the elastic and-plastic motion of the vortex solid. We observe elastic depinning of the vortex lattice at the critical current, and shear induced plastic slip of the lattice at high Lorentz force gradients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuravlev, Vladimir; Duan, Wenye; Maniv, Tsofar
2017-01-01
A self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory of the vortex lattice state in a 2D strong type-II superconductor at high magnetic fields reveals a novel quantum mixed state around the semiclassical Hc 2, characterized by a well-defined Landau-Bloch band structure in the quasiparticle spectrum and suppressed order-parameter amplitude, which sharply crossover into the well-known semiclassical (Helfand-Werthamer) results upon decreasing magnetic field. Application to the 2D superconducting state observed recently on the surface of the topological insulator Sb2Te3 accounts well for the experimental data, revealing a strong type-II superconductor, with unusually low carrier density and very small cyclotron mass, which can be realized only in the strong coupling superconductor limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohlin, Kjell; Berggren, Karl Fredrik
2016-07-01
Faraday first characterised the behaviour of a fluid in a container subjected to vertical periodic oscillations. His study pertaining to hydrodynamic instability, the ‘Faraday instability’, has catalysed a myriad of experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for the transition of a system at rest to a new state of well-ordered vibrational patterns at fixed frequencies. Here we study dual strata in a shallow vessel containing distilled water and high-viscosity lubrication oil on top of it. At elevated driving power, beyond the Faraday instability, the top stratum is found to ‘freeze’ into a rigid pattern with maxima and minima. At the same time there is a dynamic crossover into a new state in the form of a lattice of recirculating vortices in the lower layer containing the water. Instrumentation and the physics behind are analysed in a phenomenological way together with a basic heuristic modelling of the wave field. The study, which is based on relatively low-budget equipment, stems from related art projects that have evolved over the years. The study is of value within basic research as well as in education, especially as more advanced collective project work in e.g. engineering physics, where it invites further studies of pattern formation, the emergence of vortex lattices and complexity.
Neutron Scattering Studies of Vortex Matter in Type-II Superconductors
Xinsheng Ling
2012-02-02
The proposed program is an experimental study of the fundamental properties of Abrikosov vortex matter in type-II superconductors. Most superconducting materials used in applications such as MRI are type II and their transport properties are determined by the interplay between random pinning, interaction and thermal fluctuation effects in the vortex state. Given the technological importance of these materials, a fundamental understanding of the vortex matter is necessary. The vortex lines in type-II superconductors also form a useful model system for fundamental studies of a number of important issues in condensed matter physics, such as the presence of a symmetry-breaking phase transition in the presence of random pinning. Recent advances in neutron scattering facilities such as the major upgrade of the NIST cold source and the Spallation Neutron Source are providing unprecedented opportunities in addressing some of the longstanding issues in vortex physics. The core component of the proposed program is to use small angle neutron scattering and Bitter decoration experiments to provide the most stringent test of the Bragg glass theory by measuring the structure factor in both the real and reciprocal spaces. The proposed experiments include a neutron reflectometry experiment to measure the precise Q-dependence of the structure factor of the vortex lattice in the Bragg glass state. A second set of SANS experiments will be on a shear-strained Nb single crystal for testing a recently proposed theory of the stability of Bragg glass. The objective is to artificially create a set of parallel grain boundaries into a Nb single crystal and use SANS to measure the vortex matter diffraction pattern as a function of the changing angle between the applied magnetic field to the grain boundaries. The intrinsic merits of the proposed work are a new fundamental understanding of type-II superconductors on which superconducting technology is based, and a firm understanding of phases
Vortex dynamics in anisotropic traps
McEndoo, S.; Busch, Th.
2010-07-15
We investigate the dynamics of linear vortex lattices in anisotropic traps in two dimensions and show that the interplay between the rotation and the anisotropy leads to a rich but highly regular dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chigvinadze, Jaba G.; Mamniashvilli, Gogi I.; Acrivos, Juana V.
2004-03-01
The increased flux expulsion as T->Tc (observed as the external magnetic field, Bz = +/- 0.75 oe. goes through zero [1]) is related to the increased transmission as T->Tc (observed in all cuprate superconductors in the EXFAS region of X-ray absorption [2]). The expulsion of Abrikosov vortices as T->Tc is a cooperative dynamic phenomenon that affects only the EXAFS region of the spectrum. When the flux expulsion diverges beyond a critical value, we propose the EXAFS transmission increases because photoelectrons are involved in the Abrikosov Vortex. The phenomenon is similar to the increased transmission observed in He 4 by the formation of supercritical vortices [3]. [1] J.V. Acrivos, Lei Chen, C.M. Burch, P. Metcalf, J.M.Honig, R.S.Liu and K.K.Singh, Phys. Rev. B 50, 13710 (1994), [2] J.V. Acrivos, L.Nguyen, T.Norman, C.T. Lin, W.Y.Liang, J.M Honig and P.Somasundaram, Microchemical Journal, 71, 117 (2002), [3] E.J.Yarmchuk, M.J.V.Gordon, R.E.Packard, Phys.Rev.Lett. 43, 214 (1979)
User's manual for interfacing a leading edge, vortex rollup program with two linear panel methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desilva, B. M. E.; Medan, R. T.
1979-01-01
Sufficient instructions are provided for interfacing the Mangler-Smith, leading edge vortex rollup program with a vortex lattice (POTFAN) method and an advanced higher order, singularity linear analysis for computing the vortex effects for simple canard wing combinations.
Van de Vondel, J; Gladilin, V N; Silhanek, A V; Gillijns, W; Tempere, J; Devreese, J T; Moshchalkov, V V
2011-04-01
We investigated experimentally the frequency dependence of a superconducting vortex ratchet effect by means of electrical transport measurements and modeled it theoretically using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism. We demonstrate that the high frequency vortex behavior can be described as a discrete motion of a particle in a periodic potential, i.e., the so-called stepper-motor behavior. Strikingly, in the more conventional low frequency response a transition takes place from an Abrikosov vortex rectifier to a phase slip line rectifier. This transition is characterized by a strong increase in the rectified voltage and the appearance of a pronounced hysteretic behavior.
Rakhmanov, A L; Savel'ev, Sergey; Kusmartsev, F V
2008-11-07
We describe the decomposition of Abrikosov vortices into decoupled pancake vortices in superconductors having both electron and hole charge carriers. We estimate the critical current of such a decomposition, at which a superconducting-normal state transition occurs, and find that it is very sensitive to the magnetic field and temperature. The effect can be observed in recently synthesized self-doped high-Tc layered superconductors with electrons and holes coexisting in different Cu-O planes and in artificial p-n superconductor heterostructures. The sensitivity of the critical current to a magnetic field may be used for sensors and detectors of a magnetic field, which can be built up from the superconductor heterostructures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rakhmanov, A. L.; Savel'Ev, Sergey; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2008-11-01
We describe the decomposition of Abrikosov vortices into decoupled pancake vortices in superconductors having both electron and hole charge carriers. We estimate the critical current of such a decomposition, at which a superconducting-normal state transition occurs, and find that it is very sensitive to the magnetic field and temperature. The effect can be observed in recently synthesized self-doped high-Tc layered superconductors with electrons and holes coexisting in different Cu-O planes and in artificial p-n superconductor heterostructures. The sensitivity of the critical current to a magnetic field may be used for sensors and detectors of a magnetic field, which can be built up from the superconductor heterostructures.
Experimental evidence for flux-lattice melting. [in high-Tc superconductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farrell, D. E.; Rice, J. P.; Ginsberg, D. M.
1991-01-01
A low-frequency torsional oscillator has been used to search for flux-lattice melting in an untwinned single crystal of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta). The damping of the oscillator was measured as a function of temperature, for applied magnetic fields in the range H = 0.1-2.3 T. A remarkably sharp damping peak has been located. It is suggested that the temperature of the peak corresponds to the melting point of the Abrikosov flux lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mills, Shaun
The confinement offered by superconducting nanostructures enables the study of the motion of individual Abrikosov vortices in reduced dimensions. At the present time, most superconducting nanostructures are fabricated from deposited films of metals, which are often polycrystalline or amorphous. The realization of a single-crystal nanostructure would provide the opportunity to explore the effects of the electronic band structure. Consider crystalline superconducting nanostructures of NbSe2. Questions such as the how the charge density wave order influences vortex pinning and the logarithmic vortex-vortex interaction, as well as how the crystal thickness dependence of the electronic band structure affects intrinsic vortex properties motivated our efforts to develop techniques to fabricate and measure superconducting nanostructures of 2D crystal NbSe2. Additionally, nanoscale transport devices are relevant to potential future superconducting electronics. In this dissertation, we begin by presenting a novel technique for the preparation of single-crystal nanostructures prepared from mechanically exfoliated few-layer crystals of NbSe2 using a process combining electron beam lithography and reactive plasma etching. Our technique allows for the preparation of ultra-thin, single-crystal superconducting nanostructures with a desired geometry for the study of vortex dynamics in extremely confined systems. A primary advantage of transport devices is the ability to directly manipulate individual vortices through the use of an applied current and other parameters. We first present magnetoresistance measurements on NbSe2 nanowires and show features related to vortex crossing, trapping, and pinning. The vortex crossing rate is found to vary non-monotonically with the applied field, which results in nonmonotonic magnetoresistance variations in agreement with theoretical calculations in the London approximation. Above the lower critical field, Hc1, the crossing rate is also
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shariff, Karim; Leonard, Anthony
1992-01-01
The vortex-ring problem in fluid mechanics is examined generally in terms of formation, the steady state, the duration of the rings, and vortex interactions. The formation is studied by examining the generation of laminar and turbulent vortex rings and their resulting structures with attention given to the three stages of laminar ring development. Inviscid dynamics is addressed to show how core dynamics affects overall ring motion, and laminar vortex structures are described in two dimensions. Viscous and inviscid structures are related in terms of 'leapfrogging', head-on collisions, and collisions with a no-slip wall. Linear instability theory is shown to successfully describe observational data, although late stages in the breakdown are not completely understood. This study of vortex rings has important implications for key aerodynamic issues including sound generation, transport and mixing, and vortex interactions.
Cho, Inyong; Lee, Youngone
2009-01-15
We investigate vortex configurations with the 'vulcanization' term inspired by the renormalization of {phi}{sub *}{sup 4} theory in the canonical {theta}-deformed noncommutativity. We focus on the classical limit of the theory described by a single parameter which is the ratio of the vulcanization and the noncommutativity parameters. We perform numerical calculations and find that nontopological vortex solutions exist as well as Q-ball type solutions, but topological vortex solutions are not admitted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostroukh, V. P.; Baxevanis, B.; Akhmerov, A. R.; Beenakker, C. W. J.
2016-09-01
The critical current of a Josephson junction is an oscillatory function of the enclosed magnetic flux Φ , because of quantum interference modulated with periodicity h /2 e . We calculate these Fraunhofer oscillations in a two-dimensional (2D) ballistic superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor (SNS) junction. For a Fermi circle the amplitude of the oscillations decays as 1 /Φ or faster. If the Fermi circle is strongly warped, as it is on a square lattice near the band center, we find that the amplitude decays slower, ∝1 /√{Φ } , when the magnetic length lm=√{ℏ /e B } drops below the separation L of the NS interfaces. The crossover to the slow decay of the critical current is accompanied by the appearance of a 2D array of current vortices and antivortices in the normal region, which form a bipartite rectangular lattice with lattice constant ≃lm2/L . The 2D lattice vanishes for a circular Fermi surface, when only the usual single row of Josephson vortices remains.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Qingyou; Varney, Christopher N.; Fangohr, Hans; Babaev, Egor
2017-01-01
It was recently proposed to use the stray magnetic fields of superconducting vortex lattices to trap ultracold atoms for building quantum emulators. This calls for new methods for engineering and manipulating of the vortex states. One of the possible routes utilizes type-1.5 superconducting layered systems with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions. In order to explore the possible vortex states that can be engineered, we present two phase diagrams of phenomenological vortex matter models with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions featuring several attractive and repulsive length scales. The phase diagrams exhibit a plethora of phases, including conventional 2D lattice phases, five stripe phases, dimer, trimer, and tetramer phases, void phases, and stable low-temperature disordered phases. The transitions between these states can be controlled by the value of an applied external field.
Meng, Qingyou; Varney, Christopher N; Fangohr, Hans; Babaev, Egor
2017-01-25
It was recently proposed to use the stray magnetic fields of superconducting vortex lattices to trap ultracold atoms for building quantum emulators. This calls for new methods for engineering and manipulating of the vortex states. One of the possible routes utilizes type-1.5 superconducting layered systems with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions. In order to explore the possible vortex states that can be engineered, we present two phase diagrams of phenomenological vortex matter models with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions featuring several attractive and repulsive length scales. The phase diagrams exhibit a plethora of phases, including conventional 2D lattice phases, five stripe phases, dimer, trimer, and tetramer phases, void phases, and stable low-temperature disordered phases. The transitions between these states can be controlled by the value of an applied external field.
Atmospheric Science Data Center
2013-06-26
article title: A Vortex Street in the Arctic View Larger Image ... 650 kilometers northeast of Iceland in the north Atlantic Ocean. Jan Mayen's Beerenberg volcano rises about 2.2 kilometers above the ...
Vortex liquid crystals in anisotropic type II superconductors.
Carlson, E W; Castro Neto, A H; Campbell, D K
2003-02-28
In an isotropic type II superconductor in a moderate magnetic field, the transition to the normal state occurs by vortex lattice melting. In certain anisotropic cases, the vortices acquire elongated cross sections and interactions. Systems of anisotropic, interacting constituents generally exhibit liquid crystalline phases. We examine the possibility of a two step melting in homogeneous type II superconductors with anisotropic superfluid stiffness from a vortex lattice into first a vortex smectic and then a vortex nematic at high temperature and magnetic field. We find that fluctuations of the ordered phase favor an instability to an intermediate smectic-A in the absence of intrinsic pinning.
Spectroscopy of magnetic excitations in magnetic superconductors using vortex motion.
Bulaevskii, L N; Hruska, M; Maley, M P
2005-11-11
In magnetic superconductors a moving vortex lattice is accompanied by an ac magnetic field which leads to the generation of spin waves. At resonance conditions the dynamics of vortices in magnetic superconductors changes drastically, resulting in strong peaks in the dc I-V characteristics at voltages at which the washboard frequency of the vortex lattice matches the spin wave frequency omegaS(g), where g are the reciprocal vortex lattice vectors. We show that if the washboard frequency lies above the magnetic gap, measurement of the I-V characteristics provides a new method to obtain information on the spectrum of magnetic excitations in borocarbides and cuprate layered magnetic superconductors.
Electromagnetic Radiation from Vortex Flow in Type-II Superconductors
Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.
2006-11-10
We show that a moving vortex lattice, as it comes to a crystal edge, radiates into a free space the harmonics of the washboard frequency, {omega}{sub 0}=2{pi}v/a, up to a superconducting gap, {delta}/({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). Here v is the velocity of the vortex lattice and a is the intervortex spacing. We compute radiation power and show that this effect can be used for the generation of terahertz radiation and for characterization of moving vortex lattices.
Chorin, A.J. |
1993-06-01
Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.
Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.
2015-03-01
A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, "The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem," Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., "The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid," Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior.
Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings
Cheng, M. Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.
2015-03-15
A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem,” Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior.
Vortex patterns in a fast rotating Bose-Einstein condensate
Aftalion, Amandine; Blanc, Xavier; Dalibard, Jean
2005-02-01
For a fast rotating condensate in a harmonic trap, we investigate the structure of the vortex lattice using wave functions minimizing the Gross-Pitaevskii energy in the lowest Landau level. We find that the minimizer of the energy in the rotating frame has a distorted vortex lattice for which we plot the typical distribution. We compute analytically the energy of an infinite regular lattice and of a class of distorted lattices. We find the optimal distortion and relate it to the decay of the wave function. Finally, we generalize our method to other trapping potentials.
Transverse instabilities of multiple vortex chains in superconductor-ferromagnet bilayers.
Karapetrov, G.; Milosevic, M. V.; Iavarone, M.; Fedor, J.; Belkin, A.; Novosad, V.; Peeters, F. M.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Antwerpen; Slovak Acad. Sci.; Illinois Inst. Tech.
2009-01-01
Using scanning tunneling microscopy and Ginzburg-Landau simulations, we explore vortex configurations in magnetically coupled NbSe{sub 2}/permalloy superconductor/ferromagnet bilayer. The permalloy film with stripe domain structure induces periodic local magnetic induction in the superconductor, creating a series of pinning-antipinning channels for externally added magnetic flux quanta. Such laterally confined Abrikosov vortices form quasi-one-dimensional arrays (chains). The transitions between multichain states occur through propagation of kinks at the intermediate fields. At high fields we show that the system becomes nonlinear due to a change in both the number of vortices and the confining potential. The longitudinal instabilities of the resulting vortex structures lead to vortices 'levitating' in the antipinning channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Bo; Lin, Jiayi; Darby, Ellis; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.
2009-07-01
Mechanical equilibrium at zero temperature does not necessarily imply thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperature for a particle confined by a static but nonconservative force field. Instead, the diffusing particle can enter into a steady state characterized by toroidal circulation in the probability flux, which we call a Brownian vortex. The circulatory bias in the particle’s thermally driven trajectory is not simply a deterministic response to the solenoidal component of the force but rather reflects interplay between advection and diffusion in which thermal fluctuations extract work from the nonconservative force field. As an example of this previously unrecognized class of stochastic heat engines, we consider a colloidal sphere diffusing in a conventional optical tweezer. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that nonconservative optical forces bias the particle’s fluctuations into toroidal vortexes whose circulation can reverse direction with temperature or laser power.
Revisiting the vortex-core tunnelling spectroscopy in YBa2Cu3O7−δ
Bruér, Jens; Maggio-Aprile, Ivan; Jenkins, Nathan; Ristić, Zoran; Erb, Andreas; Berthod, Christophe; Fischer, Øystein; Renner, Christoph
2016-01-01
The observation by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Abrikosov vortex cores in the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7−δ (Y123) has revealed a robust pair of electron-hole symmetric states at finite subgap energy. Their interpretation remains an open question because theory predicts a different signature in the vortex cores, characterized by a strong zero-bias conductance peak. Here, we present scanning tunnelling spectroscopy data on very homogeneous Y123 at 0.4 K revealing that the subgap features do not belong to vortices: they are actually observed everywhere along the surface with high spatial and energy reproducibility, even in the absence of magnetic field. Detailed analysis and modelling show that these states remain unpaired in the superconducting phase and belong to an incoherent channel, which contributes to the tunnelling signal in parallel with the superconducting density of states. PMID:27030516
Magnetic field induced lattice ground states from holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bu, Yan-Yan; Erdmenger, Johanna; Shock, Jonathan P.; Strydom, Migael
2013-03-01
We study the holographic field theory dual of a probe SU(2) Yang-Mills field in a background (4 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically Anti-de Sitter space. We find a new ground state when a magnetic component of the gauge field is larger than a critical value. The ground state forms a triangular Abrikosov lattice in the spatial directions perpendicular to the magnetic field. The lattice is composed of superconducting vortices induced by the condensation of a charged vector operator. We perform this calculation both at finite temperature and at zero temperature with a hard wall cutoff dual to a confining gauge theory. The study of this state may be of relevance to both holographic condensed matter models as well as to heavy ion physics. The results shown here provide support for the proposal that such a ground state may be found in the QCD vacuum when a large magnetic field is present.
Mesoscopic lateral S/N/S weak links: Josephson effects and Josephson-like vortex flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carapella, G.; Sabatino, P.; Gombos, M.
2017-02-01
We report an experimental and numerical study of magneto-transport properties of mesoscopic lateral S/N/S superconducting weak links where the N region is made of the same material as the S banks, though with strongly reduced critical temperature. Magnetoresistance oscillations and clear dc and ac Josephson effects are observed. Experimental results are analyzed in the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model for mesoscopic type II superconductors with an inhomogeneous critical temperature. The analysis suggests that dissipative branches of the current-voltage curve of the weak link in the presence of a magnetic field are accounted for by moving ‘Josephson-like’ vortices. These relatively fast excitations are anisotropic as per the ordinary Josephson vortex in tunnel junctions, but have a normal core like the ordinary Abrikosov vortex in plain superconducting strips. Moreover, unlike the vortex in tunneling junctions, in the lateral S/N/S weak link, the extension of the moving vortex is larger than the extension of the static one. Further, we report in some detail on the lateral proximity effect, and the deviations from the ideality of the current-phase relation of this kind of lateral weak link in the Josephson regime.
Parametric amplification of vortex-antivortex pair generation in a Josephson junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berdiyorov, G. R.; Milošević, M. V.; Savel'ev, S.; Kusmartsev, F.; Peeters, F. M.
2014-10-01
Using advanced three-dimensional simulations, we show that an Abrikosov vortex, trapped inside a cavity perpendicular to an artificial Josephson junction, can serve as a very efficient source for generation of Josephson vortex-antivortex pairs in the presence of the applied electric current. In such a case, the nucleation rate of the pairs can be tuned in a broad range by an out-of-plane ac magnetic field in a broad range of frequencies. This parametrically amplified vortex-antivortex nucleation can be considered as a macroscopic analog of the dynamic Casimir effect, where fluxon pairs mimic the photons and the ac magnetic field plays the role of the oscillating mirrors. The emerging vortex pairs in our system can be detected by the pronounced features in the measured voltage characteristics, or through the emitted electromagnetic radiation, and exhibit resonant dynamics with respect to the frequency of the applied magnetic field. Reported tunability of the Josephson oscillations can be useful for developing high-frequency emission devices.
Vortex Flow Aerodynamics, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, J. F. (Editor); Osborn, R. F. (Editor); Foughner, J. T., Jr. (Editor)
1986-01-01
Vortex modeling techniques and experimental studies of research configurations utilizing vortex flows are discussed. Also discussed are vortex flap investigations using generic and airplane research models and vortex flap theoretical analysis and design studies.
Vortex Molecules in Thin Films of Layered Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buzdin, Alexander I.
2014-01-01
In bulk layered superconductors the vortices tilted with respect to the anisotropy axes attract each other at long distance, which leads to the vortex chains structures. In thin film the intervortex interaction is modified by an extremely slow decay of the supercurrent induced by a single vortex line (Pearl's effect). The interplay between these interactions in thin films is responsible for a formation of a minimum of the interaction potential vs. the intervortex distance. This minimum exists only for relatively strong tilting. Depending on the strength and the tilt of the magnetic field we may expect the formation of the vortex molecules rearranging in multiquanta flux lattices. The increase in the field tilting should be accompanied by the series of the phase transitions between the vortex lattices with different number of vortices per unit cell. The Lorentz microscopy technique seems to be an ideal tool to observe such effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan
2014-11-01
A Sadovskii vortex is a patch of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. Using a boundary element type method, we investigate the steady states of this flow in an incompressible, inviscid straining flow. Outside the vortex, the fluid is irrotational. In the limiting case where the entire circulation is due to the vortex patch, this is a patch vortex (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971). In the other limiting case, where all the circulation is due to the vortex sheet, this is a hollow vortex (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691, 2012). This flow has two governing nondimensional parameters, relating the strengths of the straining field, vortex sheet, and patch vorticity. We study the relationship between these two parameters, and examine the shape of the resulting vortices. We also work towards a bifurcation diagram of the steady states of the Sadovskii vortex in an attempt to understand the connection between vortex sheet and vortex patch desingularizations of the point vortex. Support from NSF-CMMI-0970113.
Quantum vortex dynamics in two-dimensional neutral superfluids
Wang, C.-C. Joseph; Duine, R. A.; MacDonald, A. H.
2010-01-15
We derive an effective action for the vortex-position degree of freedom in a superfluid by integrating out condensate phase- and density-fluctuation environmental modes. When the quantum dynamics of environmental fluctuations is neglected, we confirm the occurrence of the vortex Magnus force and obtain an expression for the vortex mass. We find that this adiabatic approximation is valid only when the superfluid droplet radius R, or the typical distance between vortices, is very much larger than the coherence length xi. We go beyond the adiabatic approximation numerically, accounting for the quantum dynamics of environmental modes and capturing their dissipative coupling to condensate dynamics. For the case of an optical-lattice superfluid, we demonstrate that vortex motion damping can be adjusted by tuning the ratio between the tunneling energy J and the on-site interaction energy U. We comment on the possibility of realizing vortex-Landau-level physics.
Superconducting vortex pinning with artificial magnetic nanostructures.
Velez, M.; Martin, J. I.; Villegas, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Vicent, J. L.; Schuller, I. K.; Univ. de Oviedo-CINN; Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS Univ. Paris-Sud; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Univ. California at San Diego
2008-11-01
This review is dedicated to summarizing the recent research on vortex dynamics and pinning effects in superconducting films with artificial magnetic structures. The fabrication of hybrid superconducting/magnetic systems is presented together with the wide variety of properties that arise from the interaction between the superconducting vortex lattice and the artificial magnetic nanostructures. Specifically, we review the role that the most important parameters in the vortex dynamics of films with regular array of dots play. In particular, we discuss the phenomena that appear when the symmetry of a regular dot array is distorted from regularity towards complete disorder including rectangular, asymmetric, and aperiodic arrays. The interesting phenomena that appear include vortex-lattice reconfigurations, anisotropic dynamics, channeling, and guided motion as well as ratchet effects. The different regimes are summarized in a phase diagram indicating the transitions that take place as the characteristic distances of the array are modified respect to the superconducting coherence length. Future directions are sketched out indicating the vast open area of research in this field.
Wave modes of collective vortex gyration in dipolar-coupled-dot-array magnonic crystals
Han, Dong-Soo; Vogel, Andreas; Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Ki-Suk; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog
2013-01-01
Lattice vibration modes are collective excitations in periodic arrays of atoms or molecules. These modes determine novel transport properties in solid crystals. Analogously, in periodical arrangements of magnetic vortex-state disks, collective vortex motions have been predicted. Here, we experimentally observe wave modes of collective vortex gyration in one-dimensional (1D) periodic arrays of magnetic disks using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The observed modes are interpreted based on micromagnetic simulation and numerical calculation of coupled Thiele equations. Dispersion of the modes is found to be strongly affected by both vortex polarization and chirality ordering, as revealed by the explicit analytical form of 1D infinite arrays. A thorough understanding thereof is fundamental both for lattice vibrations and vortex dynamics, which we demonstrate for 1D magnonic crystals. Such magnetic disk arrays with vortex-state ordering, referred to as magnetic metastructure, offer potential implementation into information processing devices. PMID:23877284
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan
2015-11-01
Sadovskii vortices are patches of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. They were first constructed as models for wakes behind bluff objects. We investigate the Sadovskii vortex in a straining field and examine limiting cases to validate our computational method. One limit is the patch vortex in strain (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971), where there is no vortex sheet. We solve this as a free-boundary problem, and show that a simple method using the Biot-Savart law quickly gives solutions for stable shapes. When used for the more elongated (stronger straining field) situations, the method also leads to new vortex shapes. In the hollow vortex case, where there is no vortex patch and the circulation is entirely due to the vortex sheet (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691 2012), we use the Birkhoff-Rott equation to calculate the velocity of the fluid on the vortex boundary. The combination of these two methods can then be used to calculate the shape and velocity field of the Sadovksii vortex in strain.
Vortex-Surface Interactions: Vortex Dynamics and Instabilities
2015-10-16
from the surface, in a 3D version of the "vortex rebound" in 2D vortex dynamics. Many of the discoveries of phenomena in this work are seen for the... 3D vortex-wall interactions. The key to the significant reorganization of vortex structure, is the rapid circulation decay at regions along the vortex...development of vortex configurations interacting with a surface. In further studies, the dynamics of secondary vorticity and the development of 3D
Vortex cutting in superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.
2015-03-01
Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.
Vortex dynamics and Hall conductivity of hard-core bosons
Lindner, Netanel; Auerbach, Assa; Arovas, Daniel P.
2010-10-01
Magnetotransport of hard-core bosons is studied using an XXZ quantum spin model representation, appropriately gauged on the torus to allow for an external magnetic field. We find strong lattice effects near half filling. An effective quantum mechanical description of the vortex degrees of freedom is derived. Using semiclassical and numerical analysis we compute the vortex-hopping energy t{sub V}, which at half filling is close to magnitude of the boson hopping energy. The critical quantum melting density of the vortex lattice is estimated at 6.5x10{sup -3} vortices per unit cell. The Hall conductance is computed from the Chern numbers of the low-energy eigenstates. At zero temperature, it reverses sign abruptly at half filling. At precisely half filling, all eigenstates are doubly degenerate for any odd number of flux quanta. We prove the exact degeneracies on the torus by constructing an SU(2) algebra of point-group symmetries, associated with the center of vorticity. This result is interpreted as if each vortex carries an internal spin-half degree of freedom, which can manifest itself as a charge density modulation in its core. Our findings suggest interesting experimental implications for vortex motion of cold atoms in optical lattices and magnet transport of short coherence length superconductors.
Vortex distribution in the lowest Landau level
Aftalion, Amandine; Blanc, Xavier; Nier, Francis
2006-01-15
We study the vortex distribution of the wave functions minimizing the Gross-Pitaevskii energy for a fast rotating condensate in the lowest Landau level (LLL): we prove that the minimizer cannot have a finite number of zeroes, thus the lattice is infinite, but not uniform. This uses the explicit expression of the projector onto the LLL. We also show that any slow varying envelope function can be approximated in the LLL by distorting the lattice. This is used in particular to approximate the inverted parabola and understand the role of 'invisible' vortices: the distortion of the lattice is very small in the Thomas-Fermi region but quite large outside, where the 'invisible' vortices lie.
Disordered vortex phases in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}
Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Olsson, R. J.; Karapetrov, G.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A.; Tobos, V.; Moulton, W. G.
2000-05-22
The disordered vortex phases induced by line and point pinning in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are explored. At high defect densities there is a single disordered solid separated from the liquid phase by a melting line. At low defect densities the topology of the phase diagram changes dramatically, with a vortex lattice phase adjoining disordered phases at high or low field. Critical points at the termination of first order melting separate the lattice and disordered phases. The line defect disordered phases follow the expected Bose glass behavior, while the point defect disordered phases do not exhibit the expected vortex glass behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Hsiao-Lung
Discrete vortex methods are used to provide computationally efficient simulations of vortex dynamics in fluid flows. An adaptive LQG controller is applied to reduce the oscillations in the wake caused by the vortex dynamics. The controller design is based on a discrete-time input/output model rather than the nonlinear differential equations of the discrete vortex model. The control philosophy is to identify time-varying parameters in the input/output model adaptively and use the identified parameters to update the control law. For numerically stable identification, an adaptive algorithm based on inverse QR decomposition is introduced. The derivation shows that this algorithm is a square-root implementation of recursive least squares estimation. For a preliminary test of the control strategy, the adaptive LQG controller is applied to a vortex street model simulated by discrete vortices. The identification shows that the stability of the identified zeros depends on whether the sensor is upstream or downstream of the actuator. Flow past a flat plate is another important application of the discrete vortex method. A control problem is studied and simulated in which suction at the back face of the plate is used to trap vortices behind the plate. Qualitatively, the results obtained with the discrete-vortex method used here agree with earlier results for a substantially different vortex method involving a small number of differential equations.
Houck, Edward D.
1994-01-01
A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.
Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.
Improved vortex reactor system
Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.
1995-01-01
An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.
Normal Shock Vortex Interaction
2003-03-01
Figure 9: Breakdown map for normal-shock vortex-interaction. References [1] O. Thomer, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Numerical Simulation of Normal...and Oblique-Shock Vortex Interaction, ZAMM Band 80, Sub. 1, pp. 181-184, 2000. [2] O. Thomer, E. Krause, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Computational
Vortex cutting in superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.
2016-08-01
Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.
Aerodynamics of vortex generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breidenthal, Robert E., Jr.; Russell, David A.
1988-01-01
An experimental and theoretical study was undertaken of the separation delay and dramatic boundary-layer thinning that can occur in vortex-generator installations. Wind tunnel measurements of the dynamic-pressure profile downstream of a vortex generator were found to compare under certain conditions with that downstream of a suction slit, while water-tunnel visualization studies of vortex-generator height and geometry suggested optimum configurations, and only a minor effect of base porosity. A series of progressively more complex inviscid flow models was developed to be applied to a 3-D integral boundary-layer code. This code predicted layer thinning downstream of the suction site of the vortex models, and other observed features. Thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are now being used with the ultimate goal of clarifying the physical processes involved in vortex generator performance and developing calculational procedures capable of predicting it.
Method and apparatus for enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays
Janko, Boldizsar; Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan
2015-07-14
Disclosed is a method and apparatus for strongly enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays. The conformal crystal array is constructed by a conformal transformation of a hexagonal lattice, producing a non-uniform structure with a gradient where the local six-fold coordination of the pinning sites is preserved, and with an arching effect. The conformal pinning arrays produce significantly enhanced vortex pinning over a much wider range of field than that found for other vortex pinning geometries with an equivalent number of vortex pinning sites, such as random, square, and triangular.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward
1985-01-01
A computer program based on the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice Method of Lan is presented for calculating longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of nonplanar wing-body combination. The method is based on the assumption of inviscid subsonic flow. Both attached and vortex-separated flows are treated. For the vortex-separated flow, the calculation is based on the method of suction analogy. The effect of vortex breakdown is accounted for by an empirical method. A summary of the theoretical method, program capabilities, input format, output variables and program job control set-up are described. Three test cases are presented as guides for potential users of the code.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.
2000-01-01
A review of the research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data reviewed is for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft. These data are presented and discussed relative to the design of future vehicles. Also presented is a brief historical review of the extensive body of high-speed vortex flow research from the 1940s to the present in order to provide perspective of the NASA LaRC's high-speed research results. Data are presented which show the types of vortex structures which occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures to vehicle performance and control is discussed. The data presented shows the presence of both small- and large scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices and the downstream fins. It was shown that these vortex flow interference effects could be both positive and negative. Data are shown which highlights the effect that leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber has on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. The observed flow fields for delta wings (i.e. separation bubble, classical vortex, vortex with shock, etc.) are discussed in the context of' aircraft design. And data have been shown that indicate that aerodynamic performance improvements are available by considering vortex flows as a primary design feature. Finally a discussing of a design approach for wings which utilize vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speed is presented.
Skyrmion Flux Lattices and their μSR signature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qi; Toner, John; Belitz, Dietrich
2008-03-01
Recently, topological excitations known as skyrmions were predicted to exist in p-wave superconductors [1]. The elastic theory of an induced skyrmion lattice was developed in [2], and its melting curve was found to be qualitatively different from that for vortex lattices. Here we show that the muon spin resonance (μSR) signatures of the two types of lattices are also very different. μSR has been applied extensively to study the magnetic properties of vortex flux lattices [3]. The observable in this technique is the μSR line shape n(B), which is the probability density that a muon experiences a local magnetic induction B. In a vortex lattice, for small B, n(B) (1/B)/B. By contrast, for a skyrmion lattice we predict n(B) B^ (-3/2). This difference provides another way to easily distinguish between vortex and skyrmion flux lattices, and can thus help to identify p-wave superconductors. [1] A. Knigavko, B. Rosenstein, and Y.F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 60, 550 (1999). [2] Qi Li, John Toner, and D. Belitz, Phys.Rev. Lett. 98, 187002 (2007). [3] J. E. Sonier, J.H. Brewer, and R. F. Kiefl, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 769 (2000).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, Y.; Leonard, A.; Spalart, P. R.
1985-01-01
A vortex breakdown was simulated by the vortex filament method, and detailed figures are presented based on the results. Deformations of the vortex filaments showed clear and large swelling at a particular axial station which implied the presence of a recirculation bubble at that station. The tendency for two breakdowns to occur experimentally was confirmed by the simulation, and the jet flow inside the bubble was well simulated. The particle paths spiralled with expansion, and the streamlines took spiral forms at the breakdown with expansion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
A 10% scale B-737-100 model was tested in the vicinity of a vortex wake generated by a wing mounted on a support in the forward section of the NASA-Langley 30 x 60 ft. Wind Tunnel. The wing span, angle of attack, and generating wing location were varied to provide vortex strengths consistent with a large variety of combinations of leader-follower aircraft pairs during vortex encounters. The test, conducted as part of the AST Terminal Area Productivity Program, will provide data for validation of aerodynamic models which will be used for developing safe separate standards to apply to aircraft in terminal areas while increasing airport capacity.
Vortex Lift Augmentation by Suction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.
1983-01-01
Lift performance is improved on a 60 degrees swept Gothic wing. Vortex lift at moderate to high angles of attack on highly swept wings used to improve takeoff performance and maneuverability. New design proposed in which suction of propulsion system augments vortex. Turbofan placed at down stream end of leading-edge vortex system induces vortex to flow into inlet which delays onset of vortex breakdown.
Universal statistics of vortex lines.
Nahum, Adam; Chalker, J T
2012-03-01
We study the vortex lines that are a feature of many random or disordered three-dimensional systems. These show universal statistical properties on long length scales, and geometrical phase transitions analogous to percolation transitions but in distinct universality classes. The field theories for these problems have not previously been identified, so that while many numerical studies have been performed, a framework for interpreting the results has been lacking. We provide such a framework with mappings to simple supersymmetric models. Our main focus is on vortices in short-range-correlated complex fields, which show a geometrical phase transition that we argue is described by the CP(k|k) model (essentially the CP(n-1) model in the replica limit n→1). This can be seen by mapping a lattice version of the problem to a lattice gauge theory. A related field theory with a noncompact gauge field, the 'NCCP(k|k) model', is a supersymmetric extension of the standard dual theory for the XY transition, and we show that XY duality gives another way to understand the appearance of field theories of this type. The supersymmetric descriptions yield results relevant, for example, to vortices in the XY model and in superfluids, to optical vortices, and to certain models of cosmic strings. A distinct but related field theory, the RP(2l|2l) model (or the RP(n-1) model in the limit n→1) describes the unoriented vortices that occur, for instance, in nematic liquid crystals. Finally, we show that in two dimensions, a lattice gauge theory analogous to that discussed in three dimensions gives a simple way to see the known relation between two-dimensional percolation and the CP(k|k) σ model with a θ term.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrkac, Gino; Keatley, Paul S.; Bryan, Matthew T.; Butler, Keith
2015-11-01
The magnetic vortex has sparked the interest of the academic and industrial communities over the last few decades. From their discovery in the 1970s for bubble memory devices to their modern application as radio frequency oscillators, magnetic vortices have been adopted to modern telecommunication and sensor applications. Basic properties of vortex structures in the static and dynamic regime, from a theoretical and experimental point of view, are presented as well as their application in spin torque driven nano-pillar and magnetic tunnel junction devices. Single vortex excitations and phase locking phenomena of coupled oscillators are discussed with an outlook of vortex oscillators in magnetic hybrid structures with imprinted domain confinement and dynamic encryption devices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, A. M., Jr.
1986-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to quantify the hysteresis associated with various vortex flow transition points and to determine the effect of planform geometry. The transition points observed consisted of the appearance (or disappearance) of trailing edge vortex burst and the transition to (or from) flat plate or totally separated flows. Flow visualization with smoke injected into the vortices was used to identify the transitions on a series of semi-span models tested in a low speed tunnel. The planforms tested included simple deltas (55 deg to 80 deg sweep), cranked wings with varying tip panel sweep and dihedral, and a straked wing. High speed movies at 1000 frames per second were made of the vortex flow visualization in order to better understand the dynamics of vortex flow, burst and transition.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stough, H. P., III; Greene, George C.; Stewart, Eric C.; Stuever, Robert A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Rivers, Robert A.; Vicroy, Dan D.
1993-01-01
NASA is conducting research that will enable safe improvements in the capacity of the nation's air transportation system. The wake-vortex hazard is a factor in establishing the minimum safe spacing between aircraft during landing and takeoff operations and, thus, impacts airport capacity. The ability to accurately model the wake hazard and determine safe separation distances for a wide range of aircraft and operational scenarios may provide the basis for significant increases in airport capacity. Current and planned NASA research is described which is focused on increasing airport capacity by safely reducing wake-hazard-imposed aircraft separations through advances in a number of technologies including vortex motion and decay prediction, vortex encounter modeling, wake-vortex hazard characterization, and in situ flow sensing.
Arndt, R; Pennings, P; Bosschers, J; van Terwisga, T
2015-10-06
Marine propellers display several forms of cavitation. Of these, propeller-tip vortex cavitation is one of the important factors in propeller design. The dynamic behaviour of the tip vortex is responsible for hull vibration and noise. Thus, cavitation in the vortices trailing from tips of propeller blades has been studied extensively. Under certain circumstances cavitating vortices have been observed to have wave-like disturbances on the surfaces of vapour cores. Intense sound at discrete frequencies can result from a coupling between tip vortex disturbances and oscillating sheet cavitation on the surfaces of the propeller blades. This research article focuses on the dynamics of vortex cavitation and more in particular on the energy and frequency content of the radiated pressures.
Arndt, R.; Pennings, P.; Bosschers, J.; van Terwisga, T.
2015-01-01
Marine propellers display several forms of cavitation. Of these, propeller-tip vortex cavitation is one of the important factors in propeller design. The dynamic behaviour of the tip vortex is responsible for hull vibration and noise. Thus, cavitation in the vortices trailing from tips of propeller blades has been studied extensively. Under certain circumstances cavitating vortices have been observed to have wave-like disturbances on the surfaces of vapour cores. Intense sound at discrete frequencies can result from a coupling between tip vortex disturbances and oscillating sheet cavitation on the surfaces of the propeller blades. This research article focuses on the dynamics of vortex cavitation and more in particular on the energy and frequency content of the radiated pressures. PMID:26442147
Defect pair in the elastic lattice of pancake vortices
Slutzky, M.; Mints, R.G.; Brandt, E.H.
1997-07-01
An additional pancake-antipancake vortex pair is considered in the vortex lattice of layered superconductors. Within linear elastic continuum theory, the relaxation of the background lattice screens the long-range logarithmic interaction of the defect pair, reducing the factor ln(r{sub 0}/{xi}) to ln(a/{xi}) where r{sub 0} is the pair spacing, {xi} the in-plane coherence length, and a the vortex spacing. The finite tilt modulus does not destroy this ideal two-dimensional screening, yielding a small correction {approximately}(a{sup 2}/8{pi}{lambda}{sup 2})ln(r{sub 0}/a), which in principle is of long range, but has a very small prefactor when the vortex spacing a is smaller than the in-plane penetration depth {lambda}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Glory, Vortex Street off Baja California
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
On June 19, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured both a vortex street and a glory visible amid the lattice of clouds over the Pacific Ocean off Baja California. In this image, the swirling clouds known as vortex streets appear along the left edge of the image, stretching southward from Isla Guadalupe. Another NASA satellite captured an earlier example of vortex streets in June 2000. These atmospheric vortices, known as Von Karman vortex streets, often occur in the wake of an obstacle to air flow, such as an island. Stratocumulus clouds--low-lying, sheets of puffy clouds-- over the ocean show the impact of the island on air flow visible though their alternating pattern of clockwise and counter-clockwise swirls. Southeast of the vortex street, a glory, which resembles a rainbow, hovers above the cloud cover. The glory is faint but large, 200 to 300 kilometers long, along a north-south orientation. This phenomenon can occur when the satellite passes directly between the Sun and a bank of clouds below. (People also observe them while looking down on clouds from airplanes.) Not just any kind of cloud can produce a glory; only clouds composed entirely of water droplets (as opposed to ice crystals) can make them. The droplets that form glories generally have diameters of less than 50 micrometers (a micrometers is a millionth of a meter). The water droplets bend the light, showing its different wavelengths, or colors. In this glory, reds and oranges are most visible. NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center.
Improved vortex reactor system
Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.
1995-05-09
An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryul Park, Sang
2002-03-01
The existence and the nature of the phase transition in the Abrikosov vortex state in weak-pinning type-II superconductors have been a prominant problem in condensed matter physics in recent years. I'll first discuss our recent discovery [1] of the hysteresis effect in the structure function of vortex matter using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), providing the first structural evidence for an order-disorder (melting) transition at the peak effect. I'll also describe our recent rocking curve measurements [2] in which a giant hysteresis effect is observed for the longitudinal correlation length. It is found that the melting of the Bragg glass is a single first-order transition, accompanied by a disentanglement-entanglement transition. We also found preliminary evidence [2] from neutron spin echo (NSE) that the vortex phase above the peak of the peak effect is a viscous liquid matter. This work was supported by NSF-DMR and was done in collaboration with X.S. Ling, B.A. McClain, J.W. Lynn, S.M. Choi. D.C. Dender, F. Mezei, G. Kali, and M. Russina. [1] X.S. Ling et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 712 (2001). [2] S.R. Park et al., to be published.)
Buoyant Norbury's vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blyth, Mark; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Salman, Hayder
2014-11-01
Norbury's vortices are a one-parameter family of axisymmetric vortex rings that are exact solutions to the Euler equations. Due to their relative simplicity, they are extensively used to model the behavior of real vortex rings found in experiments and in Nature. In this work, we extend the original formulation of the problem to include buoyancy effects for the case where the fluid that lies within the vortex has a different density to that of the ambient. In this modified formulation, buoyancy effects enter the problem through the baroclinic term of the vorticity equation. This permits an efficient numerical solution of the governing equation of motion in terms of a vortex contour method that tracks the evolution of the boundary of the vortex. Finally, we compare our numerical results with the theoretical analysis of the short-time evolution of a buoyant vortex. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through grant DPI2011-28356-C03-02 and by the London Mathematical Society.
Discrete vortices on anisotropic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gui-Hua; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Chen, Zi-Fa
2015-08-01
We consider the effects of anisotropy on two types of localized states with topological charges equal to 1 in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices, using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation as a paradigm model. We find that on-site-centered vortices with different propagation constants are not globally stable, and that upper and lower boundaries of the propagation constant exist. The region between these two boundaries is the domain outside of which the on-site-centered vortices are unstable. This region decreases in size as the anisotropy parameter is gradually increased. We also consider off-site-centered vortices on anisotropic lattices, which are unstable on this lattice type and either transform into stable quadrupoles or collapse. We find that the transformation of off-sitecentered vortices into quadrupoles, which occurs on anisotropic lattices, cannot occur on isotropic lattices. In the quadrupole case, a propagation-constant region also exists, outside of which the localized states cannot stably exist. The influence of anisotropy on this region is almost identical to its effects on the on-site-centered vortex case.
Atmospheric-wake vortex interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bilanin, A. J.; Hirsh, J. E.; Teske, M. E.; Hecht, A. M.
1978-01-01
The interactions of a vortex wake with a turbulent stratified atmosphere are investigated with the computer code WAKE. It is shown that atmospheric shear, turbulence, and stratification can provide the dominant mechanisms by which vortex wakes decay. Computations included the interaction of a vortex wake with a viscous ground plane. The observed phenomenon of vortex bounce is explained in terms of secondary vorticity produced on the ground. This vorticity is swept off the ground and advected about the vortex pair, thereby altering the classic hyperbolic trajectory. The phenomenon of the solitary vortex is explained as an interaction of a vortex with crosswind shear. Here, the vortex having the sign opposite that of the sign of the vorticity in the shear is dispersed by a convective instability. This instability results in the rapid production of turbulence which in turn disperses the smoke marking the vortex.
Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey
2006-05-01
We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.
Magnetic Vortex Induced by Nonmagnetic Impurity in Frustrated Magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shi-Zeng; Hayami, Satoru; Batista, Cristian D.
2016-05-01
We study the effect of a nonmagnetic impurity inserted in a two-dimensional frustrated ferromagnet above its saturation magnetic field Hsat for arbitrary spin S . We demonstrate that the ground state includes a magnetic vortex that is nucleated around the impurity over a finite range of magnetic field Hsat≤H ≤HsatI. Upon approaching the quantum critical point at H =Hsat, the radius of the magnetic vortex diverges as the magnetic correlation length: ξ ∝1 /√{H -Hsat }. These results are derived both for the lattice and in the continuum limit.
Vortex patterns in moderately rotating Bose-condensed gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imran, Mohd; Ahsan, M. A. H.
2017-02-01
Using exact diagonalization, we investigate the many-body ground state for regular vortex patterns in a rotating Bose-condensed gas of N spinless particles, confined in a quasi-two-dimensional harmonic trap and interacting repulsively via finite-range Gaussian potential. The N-body Hamiltonian matrix is diagonalized in given subspaces of quantized total angular momentum L z , to obtain the lowest-energy eigenstate. Further, the internal structure of these eigenstates is analyzed by calculating the corresponding conditional probability distribution. Specifically, the quantum mechanically stable as well as unstable states in a co-rotating frame are examined in the moderately rotating regime corresponding to angular momenta 4N≤slant {L}z< 5N for N = 16 bosons. In response to externally impressed rotation, the patterns of singly quantized vortices are formed, shaping into canonical polygons with a central vortex at the trap center. The internal structure of unstable states reveals the mechanism of entry, nucleation and pattern formation of vortices with structural phase transition, as the condensate goes from one stable vortical state to the other. The stable polygonal vortex patterns having discrete p-fold rotational symmetry with p = 5 and p = 6 are observed. The hexagonal vortex pattern with p = 6 symmetry is a precursor to the triangular vortex lattice of singly quantized vortices in the thermodynamic limit. For unstable states, quantum melting of vortex patterns due to uncertainty in positions of individual vortices, is also briefly discussed.
Computer simulation of vortex pinning in type II superconductors. II. Random point pins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, E. H.
1983-10-01
Pinning of vortices in a type II superconductor by randomly positioned identical point pins is simulated using the two-dimensional method described in a previous paper (Part I). The system is characterized by the vortex and pin numbers ( N v , N p ), the vortex and pin interaction ranges ( R v , R p ), and the amplitude of the pin potential A p . The computation is performed for many cases: dilute or dense, sharp or soft, attractive or repulsive, weak or strong pins, and ideal or amorphous vortex lattice. The total pinning force F as a function of the mean vortex displacement X increases first linearly (over a distance usually much smaller than the vortex spacing and than R p ) and then saturates, fluctuating about its averagebar F. We interpretbar F as the maximum pinning force j c B of a large specimen. For weak pins the prediction of Larkin and Ovchinnikov for two-dimensional collective pinning is confirmed:bar F=const·bar W/ R p c 66, wherebar W is the mean square pinning force and c 66 is the shear modulus of the vortex lattice. If the initial vortex lattice is chosen highly defective (“amorphous”) the constant is 1.3 3 times larger than for the ideal triangular lattice. This finding may explain the often observed “history effect”. The functionbar F( A p ) exhibits a jump, which for dilute, sharp, attractive pins occurs close to the “threshold value” predicted for isolated pins by Labusch. This jump reflects the onset of plastic deformation of the vortex lattice, and in some cases of vortex trapping, but is not a genuine threshold. For strong pinsbar F˜( N p bar W)1/2 approaches the direct summation limit. For both weak and strong pinning j c B is related to the mean square actual (not maximum) force of each pin. This mean square in general is not proportional to A {/p 2} but, due to relaxation of the vortex lattice, may be smaller or larger than its rigid-lattice limit. Therefore, simple power laws j c ˜ n p A {/p 2} or j c ˜ n p A p in
STM/STS studies on vortex and electronic state in YBa 2Cu 3O y
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishizaki, Terukazu; Shibata, Kenji; Maki, Makoto; Kobayashi, Norio
2006-05-01
Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) studies have been performed on the LT-cleaved and the chemically etched surface of YBa2Cu3Oy single crystals. We find that the vortex structure can be observed on the chemically etched surface of YBa2Cu3Oy as a function of temperature and magnetic field. At low magnetic fields, we observed a slightly distorted triangular lattice, which is attributed to the Bragg-glass phase. The triangular lattice transforms into a disordered structure in high magnetic fields above the order-disorder transition H∗(T). We observed that the disordered vortices form small clusters comprising 5- and 7-fold coordination pairs. These microscopically determined vortex structures are in good agreement with the vortex matter phase diagram derived from the macroscopic measurements, thus providing the evidence of the field-driven transition in the vortex solid phase of YBa2Cu3Oy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maskew, B.
1975-01-01
The close-approach problem associated with flow calculation methods based on vortex-lattice theory was examined numerically using two-dimensional discretized vortex sheets. The analysis first yields a near-field radius of approximately the distance apart of the vortices in the lattice; only within this distance from the sheet are the errors arising from the discretization significant. Various modifications to the discrete vortices are then considered with the objective of reducing the errors. This leads to a near-field model in which a vortex splits into an increasing number of subvortices as it is approached. The subvortices, whose strengths vary linearly from the vortex position, are evenly distributed along an interpolated curve passing through the basic vortices. This subvortex technique can be extended to the three-dimensional case and is efficient because the number of vortices is effectively increased, but only where and when needed.
Nanostructure of vortex during explosion welding.
Rybin, V V; Greenberg, B A; Ivanov, M A; Patselov, A M; Antonova, O V; Elkina, O A; Inozemtsev, A V; Salishchev, G A
2011-10-01
The microstructure of a bimetallic joint made by explosion welding of orthorhombic titanium aluminide (Ti-30Al-16Nb-1Zr-1Mo) with commercially pure titanium is studied. It is found that the welded joint has a multilayered structure including a severely deformed zone observed in both materials, a recrystallized zone of titanium, and a transition zone near the interface. Typical elements of the transition zone-a wavy interface, macrorotations of the lattice, vortices and tracks of fragments of the initial materials-are determined. It is shown that the observed vortices are formed most probably due to local melting of the material near the contact surface. Evidence for this assumption is deduced from the presence of dipoles, which consist of two vortices of different helicity and an ultrafine duplex structure of the vortex. Also, high mixing of the material near the vortex is only possible by the turbulent transport whose coefficient is several orders of magnitude larger than the coefficient of atomic diffusion in liquids. The role played by fragmentation in both the formation of lattice macrorotations and the passage of coarse particles of one material through the bulk of the other is determined.
Magnetic vortex racetrack memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.
2017-02-01
We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.
Aircraft vortex marking program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pompa, M. F.
1979-01-01
A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.
Garcia, M.
1995-05-01
An electric vortex is the circulation of electron space charge about a magnetic field line that is transported by ion momentum. In cold, or low {beta} flow the vortex diameter is the minimum length scale of charge neutrality. The distinctive feature of the vortex is its radial electric field which manifests the interplay of electrostatics, magnetism, and motion.
Koiller, Jair
2009-05-06
A pair of infinitesimally close opposite vortices moving on a curved surface moves along a geodesic, according to a conjecture by Kimura. We outline a proof. Numerical simulations are presented for a pair of opposite vortices at a close but nonzero distance on a surface of revolution, the catenoid. We conjecture that the vortex pair system on a triaxial ellipsoid is a KAM perturbation of Jacobi's geodesic problem. We outline some preliminary calculations required for this study. Finding the surfaces for which the vortex pair system is integrable is in order.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A status report is presented on research directed at reducing the vortex disturbances of aircraft wakes. The objective of such a reduction is to minimize the hazard to smaller aircraft that might encounter these wakes. Inviscid modeling was used to study trailing vortices and viscous effects were investigated. Laser velocimeters were utilized in the measurement of aircraft wakes. Flight and wind tunnel tests were performed on scale and full model scale aircraft of various design. Parameters investigated included the effect of wing span, wing flaps, spoilers, splines and engine thrust on vortex attenuation. Results indicate that vortives may be alleviated through aerodynamic means.
Low Temperature Limit of the Vortex Core Radius and the Kramer-Pesch Effect in NbSe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, R. I.; Kiefl, R. F.; Brewer, J. H.; Chakhalian, J.; Dunsiger, S.; Morris, G. D.; Sonier, J. E.; Macfarlane, W. A.
2000-08-01
Muon spin rotation ( μSR) has been used to measure the magnetic field distribution in the vortex state of the type-II superconductor NbSe2 ( Tc = 7.0 K) below T = 2 K. The distribution is consistent with a highly ordered hexagonal vortex lattice with a well resolved high-field cutoff associated with the finite size of the vortex cores. The temperature dependence of the core radius is much weaker than the temperature dependence predicted from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. Furthermore, the vortex radius measured by μSR near the low temperature quantum limit is about an order of magnitude larger than predicted.
The Classical Lattice-Gas Method
1999-02-01
also be fixed obstacles with which the particles have perfectly elastic collisions. For example, one can simulate vortex shedding in a fluid flowing ...cause an attractive force between particles giving rise to an athermal liquid-gas phase transition.4 To simulate the correct macroscopic dynamics , the...rheology of mul- tiphase dynamics is driven by low Reynolds number flows . The rheology of droplets (for example 3 The first lattice Boltzmann simulations
Calculation of wing response to gusts and blast waves with vortex lift effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, D. C.; Lan, C. E.
1983-01-01
A numerical study of the response of aircraft wings to atmospheric gusts and to nuclear explosions when flying at subsonic speeds is presented. The method is based upon unsteady quasi-vortex-lattice method, unsteady suction analogy, and Pade approximate. The calculated results, showing vortex lag effect, yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for incremental lift on wings in gust penetration and due to nuclear blast waves.
Calculation of wing response to gusts and blast waves with vortex lift effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, D. C.; Lan, C. E.
1983-01-01
A numerical study of the response of aircraft wings to atmospheric gusts and to nuclear explosions when flying at subsonic speeds is presented. The method is based upon unsteady quasi-vortex lattice method, unsteady suction analogy and Pade approximant. The calculated results, showing vortex lag effect, yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for incremental lift on wings in gust penetration and due to nuclear blast waves.
Creutz, M.
1984-01-01
After reviewing some recent developments in supercomputer access, the author discusses a few areas where perturbation theory and lattice gauge simulations make contact. The author concludes with a brief discussion of a deterministic dynamics for the Ising model. This may be useful for numerical studies of nonequilibrium phenomena. 13 references.
Double-branched vortex generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cantwell, E. R.; Westphal, R. V.; Mehta, R. D.
1985-01-01
In order to assess the suitability of using a double branched vortex generator in parametric studies involving vortex interactions, an experimental study of the main vortex and secondary flows produced by a double branched vortex generator was conducted in a 20-by-40 cm indraft wind tunnel. Measurements of the cross flow velocities were made with a five hole pressure probe from which vorticity contours and vortex parameters were derived. The results showed that the optimum configuration consisted of chord extensions with the absence of a centerbody.
Experimental study of vortex diffusers
Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.
1995-11-01
This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.
Vortex Crystals with Chiral Stripes in Itinerant Magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozawa, Ryo; Hayami, Satoru; Barros, Kipton; Chern, Gia-Wei; Motome, Yukitoshi; Batista, Cristian D.
2016-10-01
We study noncoplanar magnetic ordering in frustrated itinerant magnets. For a family of Kondo square lattice models with classical local moments, we find that a double-Q noncoplanar vortex crystal has lower energy than the single-Q helical order expected from the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction when the lattice symmetry dictates four global maxima in the bare magnetic susceptibility. By expanding in the small Kondo exchange and the degree of noncoplanarity, we demonstrate that this noncoplanar state arises from a Fermi surface instability occurring in independent sections connected by two ordering wave vectors.
Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shakerin, Said
2010-01-01
Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
An in house video made to show how NASA Langley scientists have found ways to improve airplane performance. Micro Vortex Generators placed on airplane wings can reduce drag, increase lift, and reduce fuel consumption. Nice animation and real footage of planes with this technology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.
2008-01-01
Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not
Ortega, J M
2001-10-18
The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging.'' This active concept
Control of submersible vortex flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Donaldson, C. D.
1990-01-01
Vortex flows produced by submersibles typically unfavorably influence key figures of merit such as acoustic and nonacoustic stealth, control effectiveness/maneuverability, and propulsor efficiency/body drag. Sources of such organized, primarily longitudinal, vorticity include the basic body (nose and sides) and appendages (both base/intersection and tip regions) such as the fairwater, dive planes, rear control surfaces, and propulsor stators/tips. Two fundamentally different vortex control approaches are available: (1) deintensification of the amplitude and/or organization of the vortex during its initiation process; and (2) downstream vortex disablement. Vortex control techniques applicable to the initiation region (deintensification approach) include transverse pressure gradient minimization via altered body cross section, appendage dillets, fillets, and sweep, and various appendage tip and spanload treatment along with the use of active controls to minimize control surface size and motions. Vortex disablement can be accomplished either via use of control vortices (which can also be used to steer the vortices off-board), direct unwinding, inducement of vortex bursting, or segmentation/tailoring for enhanced dissipation. Submersible-applicable vortex control technology is also included derived from various aeronautical applications such as mitigation of the wing wake vortex hazard and flight aircraft maneuverability at high angle of attack as well as the status of vortex effects upon, and mitigation of, nonlinear control forces on submersibles. Specific suggestions for submersible-applicable vortex control techniques are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, G.; Grissonnanche, G.; Conner, B. S.; Wolff-Fabris, F.; Putzke, C.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Katrych, S.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, J.; Balicas, L.
2013-03-01
We report an angle-dependent study of the magnetic torque τ(θ) within the vortex state of single-crystalline LaO0.9F0.1FeAs and SmO0.9F0.1FeAs as a function of both temperature T and magnetic field H. Sharp peaks are observed at a critical angle θc at either side of θ=90∘, where θ is the angle between H and the interplanar c axis. θc is interpreted as the critical depinning angle where the vortex lattice, pinned and locked by the intrinsic planar structure, unlocks and acquires a component perpendicular to the planes. We observe a series of smaller replica peaks as a function of θ and as θ is swept away from the planar direction. These suggest commensurability effects between the period of the vortex lattice and the interplanar distance leading to additional kinked vortex configurations.
Skyrmion Flux Lattices in p,-wave Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qi; Toner, John; Belitz, Dietrich
2007-03-01
In p,-wave superconductors, topological excitations known as skyrmions are allowed, in addition to the usual vortices. In strongly type-II materials in an external magnetic field, a skyrmion flux lattice is expected to be energetically favored compared to a vortex flux lattice [1]. We analytically calculate the energy, magnetization curves (B(H)), and elasticity of skyrmion flux lattices in p,-wave superconductors near the lower critical field Hc1, and use these results with the Lindemann criterion to predict their melting curve [2]. In striking contrast to vortex flux lattices, which always melt at an external field H > Hc1, skyrmion flux lattices never melt near Hc1. This provides a simple and unambiguous test for the presence of skyrmions. In addition, the internal magnetic field distributions (which are measurable by muon spin rotation techniques [3]) of skyrmion and vortex lattices are very different. [1] A. Knigavko, B. Rosenstein, and Y.F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 60, 550 (1999). [2] Qi Li, John Toner, and D. Belitz, cond-mat/0607391 [3] J.E. Sonier, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, S4499 (2004)
The shock-vortex interaction patterns affected by vortex flow regime and vortex models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Keun-Shik; Barik, Hrushikesh; Chang, Se-Myong
2009-08-01
We have used a third-order essentially non-oscillatory method to obtain numerical shadowgraphs for investigation of shock-vortex interaction patterns. To search different interaction patterns, we have tested two vortex models (the composite vortex model and the Taylor vortex model) and as many as 47 parametric data sets. By shock-vortex interaction, the impinging shock is deformed to a S-shape with leading and lagging parts of the shock. The vortex flow is locally accelerated by the leading shock and locally decelerated by the lagging shock, having a severely elongated vortex core with two vertices. When the leading shock escapes the vortex, implosion effect creates a high pressure in the vertex area where the flow had been most expanded. This compressed region spreads in time with two frontal waves, an induced expansion wave and an induced compression wave. They are subsonic waves when the shock-vortex interaction is weak but become supersonic waves for strong interactions. Under a intermediate interaction, however, an induced shock wave is first developed where flow speed is supersonic but is dissipated where the incoming flow is subsonic. We have identified three different interaction patterns that depend on the vortex flow regime characterized by the shock-vortex interaction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilczek, Frank
1987-01-01
A simple heuristic proof of the Nielsen-Ninomaya theorem is given. A method is proposed whereby the multiplication of fermion species on a lattice is reduced to the minimal doubling, in any dimension, with retention of appropriate chiral symmetries. Also, it is suggested that use of spatially thinned fermion fields is likely to be a useful and appropriate approximation in QCD - in any case, it is a self-checking one.
Olson, C.J.; Reichhardt, C.; Nori, F.
1997-09-01
Using large-scale simulations on parallel processors, we analyze in detail the dynamical behavior of superconducting vortices undergoing avalanches. In particular, we quantify the effect of the pinning landscape on the macroscopic properties of vortex avalanches and vortex plastic flow. These dynamical instabilities are triggered when the external magnetic field is increased slightly, and are thus driven by a flux gradient rather than by thermal effects. The flux profiles, composed of rigid flux lines that interact with 100 or more vortices, are maintained in the Bean critical state and do not decay away from it. By directly determining vortex positions during avalanches in the plastically moving lattice, we find that experimentally observable voltage bursts correspond to the pulsing movement of vortices along branched channels or winding chains in a manner reminiscent of lightning strikes. This kind of motion cannot be described by elastic theories. We relate the velocity field and cumulative patterns of vortex flow channels with statistical quantities, such as distributions of avalanche sizes. Samples with a high density of strong pinning sites produce very broad avalanche distributions. Easy-flow vortex channels appear in samples with a low pinning density, and typical avalanche sizes emerge in an otherwise broad distribution of sizes. We observe a crossover from interstitial motion in narrow channels to pin-to-pin motion in broad channels as pin density is increased. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Vortex unwinding in a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcginley, Catherine B.; Beeler, George B.
1987-01-01
The vortex unwinding method is used as a tool in performing vortex cancellation in a turbulent boundary layer. Sufficient reduction in the isotach variation was achieved to verify the usefulness of this technique, for the cases of both wall turbulence control and horseshoe vortex alleviation. More detailed measurements of vortex strength and position improve the optimization process and increase the amount of vortex unwinding.
Realignment of the flux-line lattice by a change in the symmetry of superconductivity in UPt3
Huxley; Rodiere; Paul; van Dijk N; Cubitt; Flouquet
2000-07-13
In 1957, Abrikosov described how quanta of magnetic flux enter the interior of a bulk type II superconductor. It was subsequently predicted that, in an isotropic superconductor, the repulsive forces between the flux lines would cause them to order in two dimensions, forming a hexagonal lattice. Flux-line lattices with different geometry can also be found in conventional (type II) superconductors; however, the ideal hexagonal lattice structure should always occur when the magnetic field is applied along a hexagonal crystal direction. Here we report measurements of the orientation of the flux-line lattice in the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt3, for this special case. As the temperature is increased, the hexagonal lattice, which is initially aligned along the crystal symmetry directions, realigns itself with the anisotropic superconducting gap. The superconductivity in UPt3 is unusual (even compared to unconventional oxide superconductors) because the superconducting gap has a lower rotational symmetry than the crystal structure. This special feature enables our data to demonstrate clearly the link between the microscopic symmetry of the superconductivity and the mesoscopic physics of the flux-line lattice. Moreover, our observations provide a stringent test of the theoretical description of the unconventional superconductivity in UPt3.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Criminale, W. O.; Lasseigne, D. G.; Jackson, T. L.
1995-01-01
An initial value approach is used to examine the dynamics of perturbations introduced into a vortex under strain. Both the basic vortex considered and the perturbations are taken as fully three-dimensional. An explicit solution for the time evolution of the vorticity perturbations is given for arbitrary initial vorticity. Analytical solutions for the resulting velocity components are found when the initial vorticity is assumed to be localized. For more general initial vorticity distributions, the velocity components are determined numerically. It is found that the variation in the radial direction of the initial vorticity disturbance is the most important factor influencing the qualitative behavior of the solutions. Transient growth in the magnitude of the velocity components is found to be directly attributable to the compactness of the initial vorticity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donnelly, Russell; Bolster, Diogo; Hershberger, Robert
2008-11-01
We have investigated the slowing of vortex rings in water which are created with very thin cores. We find that these rings propagate with no measurable change in diameter or core size. The drag appears to be the result of viscous forces on the core. A simple model for this drag describes experimental data in terms of a drag coefficient, which depends only on Reynolds number. Barenghi's group at Newcastle found that the translational velocity of a ring in an inviscid fluid perturbed by Kelvin waves decreases with increasing amplitude of Kelvin waves. This suggests that the velocity of vortex rings in a viscous fluid may well depend on the amplitude of Kelvin waves at the time of formation. Rings with substantial amplitude of Kelvin waves will be expected to move more slowly than rings with little or no Kelvin wave amplitude. We present experimental data confirming this suggestion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (Editor)
1992-01-01
The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcintyre, Michael
1988-01-01
Recent work with high resolution, one-layer numerical models of fluid flows resembling those in the real stratosphere has suggested that: (1) the interiors of strong cyclonic vortices like the Antarctic polar vortex may be almost completely isolated laterally from their surroundings - perhaps even completely isolated, under some circumstances; (2) by contrast, material near the edge of such and isolated region can easily be eroded (or mixed one-sidedly) into the surrounding region; and (3) the erosion characteristically produces extremely steep gradients in isentropic distributions of potential vorticity (PV) and of other tracers, possibly down to horizontal length scales of a few kilometers only. Such length scales may occur both at the edge of the main polar vortex and in smaller features outside it, such as thin filamentary structures, produced by the erosion process.
1988-10-01
been made in the study of the two-dimensional incompressible vorticity fields. Not only have new and powerful techniques been developed, but a whole new...it deserves a thorough investigation by itself. More fundamentally, however, the techniques that we intend to use are not well suited to handle such...been exposed to a great wealth of techniques and results for the vortex dynamics of the Euler equations in two dimensions, we are now confronted with
Simulations of vortex generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koumoutsakos, P.
1995-01-01
We are interested in the study, via direct numerical simulations, of active vortex generators. Vortex generators may be used to modify the inner part of the boundary layer or to control separation thus enhancing the performance and maneuverability of aerodynamic configurations. We consider generators that consist of a surface cavity elongated in the stream direction and partially covered with a moving lid that at rest lies flush with the boundary. Streamwise vorticity is generated and ejected due to the oscillatory motion of the lid. The present simulations complement relevant experimental investigations of active vortex generators at NASA Ames and Stanford University (Saddoughi, 1994, and Jacobson and Reynolds, 1993). Jacobson and Reynolds (1993) used a piezoelectric device in water, allowing for small amplitude high frequency oscillations. They placed the lid asymmetrically on the cavity and observed a strong outward velocity at the small gap of the cavity. Saddoughi used a larger mechanically driven device in air to investigate this flow and he observed a jet emerging from the wide gap of the configuration, contrary to the findings of Jacobson and Reynolds. Our task is to simulate the flows generated by these devices and to conduct a parametric study that would help us elucidate the physical mechanisms present in the flow. Conventional computational schemes encounter difficulties when simulating flows around complex configurations undergoing arbitrary motions. Here we present a formulation that achieves this task on a purely Lagrangian frame by extending the formulation presented by Koumoutsakos, Leonard and Pepin (1994). The viscous effects are taken into account by modifying the strength of the particles, whereas fast multipole schemes employing hundreds of thousands of particles allow for high resolution simulations. The results of the present simulations would help us assess some of the effects of three-dimensionality in experiments and investigate the role
Vortex degeneracy lifting and Aharonov-Bohm-like interference in deformed photonic graphene.
Zhang, Peng; Gallardo, Daniel; Liu, Sheng; Gao, Yuanmei; Li, Tongcang; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiang
2017-03-01
Photonic graphene, a honeycomb lattice of evanescently coupled waveguides, has provided a superior platform for investigating a host of fundamental phenomena such as unconventional edge states, synthetic magnetic fields, photonic Landau levels, Floquet topological insulators, and pseudospin effects. Here, we demonstrate both experimentally and numerically, topological vortex degeneracy lifting and Aharonov-Bohm-like interference from local deformation in a photonic honeycomb lattice. When a single valley is excited, lattice deformation leads to the generation of a vortex pair due to the lifting of degeneracy associated with pseudospin states. In the case of double-valley excitation, we observe the Aharonov-Bohm-like interference merely due to the deformation of the graphene lattice, which gives rise to an artificial gauge field. Our results may provide insight into the understanding of similar phenomena in other graphene-like materials and structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Xuebing; Zhou, Kezhao; Zhang, Zhidong
2016-11-01
We use the path-integral formalism to investigate the vortex properties of a quasi-two dimensional (2D) Fermi superfluid system trapped in an optical lattice potential. Within the framework of mean-field theory, the cooper pair density, the atom number density, and the vortex core size are calculated from weakly interacting BCS regime to strongly coupled while weakly interacting BEC regime. Numerical results show that the atoms gradually penetrate into the vortex core as the system evolves from BEC to BCS regime. Meanwhile, the presence of the optical lattice allows us to analyze the vortex properties in the crossover from three-dimensional (3D) to 2D case. Furthermore, using a simple re-normalization procedure, we find that the two-body bound state exists only when the interaction is stronger than a critical one denoted by G c which is obtained as a function of the lattice potential’s parameter. Finally, we investigate the vortex core size and find that it grows with increasing interaction strength. In particular, by analyzing the behavior of the vortex core size in both BCS and BEC regimes, we find that the vortex core size behaves quite differently for positive and negative chemical potentials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51331006, 51590883, and 11204321) and the Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KJZD-EW-M05-3).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husain, H.; Shtern, F.; Hussain, V.
1996-11-01
The paper develops means of vortex breakdown (VB) control with the help of Controlling Vortex Generators (CVGs). Vortex breakdown plays the crucial role in many practical swirling flows, e.g. (a) leading-edge vortices above delta wings create a strong lift and (b) trailing vortices behind large aircraft disturbances are potentially dangerous to subsequent aircraft. It is useful to prevent VB in case (a) and to stimulate VB in case (b). We have recently obtained significant theoretical and experimental results related to swirling flow prediction and control. Firstly, a theory has been developed which models jump transitions in swirling flow (e.g. jumps in VB locations) and predicts ranges of control parameters where multiple stable states occur. Secondly, our experiments have revealed that effective control (enhancement and suppression) of VB can be achieved using CVGs. In our experiments we have used a thin rotaing rod as a CVG, placed along the axis of the basic swirling flow in a sealed cylinder driven by the rotating bottom disc. The effect of the rod depends on the direction of the rotation. With increasing rod co-rotational speed, the VB 'bubble' (VBB) becomes smaller and then disappear, and a cone-shaped wake forms. Counter-rotation of the rod causes increases VBBs' diameter and makes the flow unsteady. The VBBs begin to advect downstream, undergo tearing and pairing, and, hence, enhance mixing.
How good is the Lattice Boltzmann method?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocheemoolayil, Joseph; Barad, Michael; Kiris, Cetin
2016-11-01
Conflicting opinions exist in literature regarding how efficient the lattice Boltzmann method is relative to high-order finite difference approximations of the Navier-Stokes equations on Cartesian meshes, especially at high Mach numbers. We address the question from the pragmatic viewpoint of a practitioner. Dispersion, dissipation and aliasing errors of various lattice Boltzmann models are systematically quantified. The number of floating point operations and memory required for a desired accuracy level are carefully compared for the two numerical methods. Turbulent kinetic energy budgets for several standard test cases such as the decaying Taylor-Green vortex problem are used to evaluate how effective the stabilization mechanisms necessary for lattice Boltzmann method at high Reynolds numbers are. Detailed comments regarding the cyclomatic complexity of the underlying software, scalability of the underlying algorithm on state-of-the-art high-performance computing platforms and wall clock times and relative accuracy for selected simulations conducted using the two approaches are also made.
Discrete breathers in hexagonal dusty plasma lattices
Koukouloyannis, V.; Kourakis, I.
2009-08-15
The occurrence of single-site or multisite localized vibrational modes, also called discrete breathers, in two-dimensional hexagonal dusty plasma lattices is investigated. The system is described by a Klein-Gordon hexagonal lattice characterized by a negative coupling parameter epsilon in account of its inverse dispersive behavior. A theoretical analysis is performed in order to establish the possibility of existence of single as well as three-site discrete breathers in such systems. The study is complemented by a numerical investigation based on experimentally provided potential forms. This investigation shows that a dusty plasma lattice can support single-site discrete breathers, while three-site in phase breathers could exist if specific conditions, about the intergrain interaction strength, would hold. On the other hand, out of phase and vortex three-site breathers cannot be supported since they are highly unstable.
Interferometric optical vortex array generator
Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, P
2007-05-20
Two new interferometric configurations for optical vortex array generation are presented.These interferometers are different from the conventional interferometers in that they are capable of producing a large number of isolated zeros of intensity, and all of them contain optical vortices. Simulation and theory for optical vortex array generation using three-plane-wave interference is presented. The vortex dipole array produced this way is noninteracting, as there are no attraction or repulsion forces between them, leading to annihilation or creation of vortex pairs.
Control of diffusion of nanoparticles in an optical vortex lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zapata, Ivar; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Sáenz, Juan José
2016-06-01
A two-dimensional periodic optical force field, which combines conservative dipolar forces with vortices from radiation pressure, is proposed in order to influence the diffusion properties of optically susceptible nanoparticles. The different deterministic flow patterns are identified. In the low-noise limit, the diffusion coefficient is computed from a mean first passage time and the most probable escape paths are identified for those flow patterns which possess a stable stationary point. Numerical simulations of the associated Langevin equations show remarkable agreement with the analytically deduced expressions. Modifications of the force field are proposed so that a wider range of phenomena could be tested.
Periodic vortex pinning by regular structures in Nb thin films: magnetic vs. structural effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montero, Maria Isabel; Jonsson-Akerman, B. Johan; Schuller, Ivan K.
2001-03-01
The defects present in a superconducting material can lead to a great variety of static and dynamic vortex phases. In particular, the interaction of the vortex lattice with regular arrays of pinning centers such as holes or magnetic dots gives rise to commensurability effects. These commensurability effects can be observed in the magnetoresistance and in the critical current dependence with the applied field. In recent years, experimental results have shown that there is a dependence of the periodic pinning effect on the properties of the vortex lattice (i.e. vortex-vortex interactions, elastic energy and vortex velocity) and also on the dots characteristics (i.e. dot size, distance between dots, magnetic character of the dot material, etc). However, there is not still a good understanding of the nature of the main pinning mechanisms by the magnetic dots. To clarify this important issue, we have studied and compared the periodic pinning effects in Nb films with rectangular arrays of Ni, Co and Fe dots, as well as the pinning effects in a Nb film deposited on a hole patterned substrate without any magnetic material. We will discuss the differences on pinning energies arising from magnetic effects as compared to structural effects of the superconducting film. This work was supported by NSF and DOE. M.I. Montero acknowledges postdoctoral fellowship by the Secretaria de Estado de Educacion y Universidades (Spain).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Werle, H.
1984-01-01
Vortex bursting is studied by means of visualization. The physical behavior of the phenomenon is emphasized, and its similarity with boundary layer separation or wake bursting becomes apparent. The essential influence of an increasing pressure gradient on the initiation, the position and the type of bursting is clearly confirmed. The evolution of the phenomena as a function of several parameters is analyzed in the case of delta wings, alone or installed on aircraft models, and compared with the results of similar wind tunnel or flight tests.
1981-01-01
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Transition to the giant vortex state in a harmonic-plus-quartic trap
Fu, H.; Zaremba, E.
2006-01-15
We consider a rapidly rotating Bose-condensed gas in a harmonic-plus-quartic trap. At sufficiently high rotation rates, the condensate acquires an annular geometry with the superposition of a vortex lattice. With increasing rotation rate, the lattice evolves into a single ring of vortices. Of interest is the transition from this state to the giant vortex state in which the circulation is carried by only a central vortex. By analyzing the Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional variationally, we have been able to map out the phase boundary between these two states as a function of the rotation rate and the various trapped gas parameters. For strong interactions, the transition is first order. Our variational results are in good qualitative agreement with those obtained by means of a direct numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.
2014-01-01
Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon" and…
Variable residence time vortex combustor
Melconian, Jerry O.
1987-01-01
A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.
A preliminary study of the effects of vortex diffusers (winglets) on wing flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Farmer, M. G.
1975-01-01
Some experimental flutter results are presented for a simple, flat-plate wing model and for the same wing model equipped with two different upper surface vortex diffusers over the Mach number range from about 0.70 to 0.95. Both vortex diffusers had the same planform, but one weighed about 0.3 percent of the basic wing weight, whereas the other weighed about 1.8 percent of the wing weight. The addition of the lighter vortex diffuser reduced the flutter dynamic pressure by about 3 percent; the heavier vortex diffuser reduced the flutter dynamic pressure by about 12 percent. The experimental flutter results are compared at a Mach number of 0.80 with analytical flutter results obtained by using doublet lattice and lifting surface (Kernel function) unsteady aerodynamic theories.
Lift enhancement by trapped vortex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.
1992-01-01
The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.
Static and dynamic vortex transitions in clean YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}
Crabtree, G.W.; Kwok, W.K.; Welp, U.; Fendrich, J.A.; Veal, B.W.
1996-12-31
The evidence establishing first order melting of the vortex lattice in clean YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} is reviewed. Dynamic transitions in the moving vortex system are demonstrated experimentally through resistivity and magnetization measurements. In general there is a strong interplay between dynamic transitions and equilibrium phase transitions, because the character of the motion is determined in part by the same thermal fluctuation and interaction energies among vortices and pin sites which control the equilibrium phases.
Pseudospin Vortex Ring with a Nodal Line in Three Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Lih-King; Moessner, Roderich
2017-01-01
We present a model of a topological semimetal in three dimensions whose energy spectrum exhibits a nodal line acting as a vortex ring; this in turn is linked by a pseudospin structure akin to that of a smoke ring. Contrary to a Weyl point node spectrum, the vortex ring gives rise to Skyrmionic pseudospin patterns in cuts on both sides of the nodal ring plane; this pattern covers the full Brillouin zone, thus leading to a fully extended chiral Fermi arc and a new, "maximal," anomalous Hall effect in a 3D semimetal. Tuning a model parameter shrinks the vortex ring until it vanishes, giving way to a pair of Weyl nodes of opposite chirality. This establishes a connection between two distinct momentum-space topologies—that of a vortex ring (a circle of singularity) and a monopole-antimonopole pair (two point singularities). We present the model both as a low-energy continuum and a two-band tight-binding lattice model. Its simplicity permits an analytical computation of its Landau level spectrum.
The VOrtex Ring Transit EXperiment (VORTEX) GAS project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bilen, Sven G.; Langenderfer, Lynn S.; Jardon, Rebecca D.; Cutlip, Hansford H.; Kazerooni, Alexander C.; Thweatt, Amber L.; Lester, Joseph L.; Bernal, Luis P.
1995-01-01
Get Away Special (GAS) payload G-093, also called VORTEX (VOrtex Ring Transit EXperiment), is an investigation of the propagation of a vortex ring through a liquid-gas interface in microgravity. This process results in the formation of one or more liquid droplets similar to earth based liquid atomization systems. In the absence of gravity, surface tension effects dominate the drop formation process. The Shuttle's microgravity environment allows the study of the same fluid atomization processes as using a larger drop size than is possible on Earth. This enables detailed experimental studies of the complex flow processes encountered in liquid atomization systems. With VORTEX, deformations in both the vortex ring and the fluid surface will be measured closely for the first time in a parameters range that accurately resembles liquid atomization. The experimental apparatus will record images of the interactions for analysis after the payload has been returned to earth. The current design of the VORTEX payload consists of a fluid test cell with a vortex ring generator, digital imaging system, laser illumination system, computer based controller, batteries for payload power, and an array of housekeeping and payload monitoring sensors. It is a self-contained experiment and will be flown on board the Space Shuttle in a 5 cubic feet GAS canister. The VORTEX Project is entirely run by students at the University of Michigan but is overseen by a faculty advisor acting as the payload customer and the contact person with NASA. This paper summarizes both the technical and programmatic aspects of the VORTEX Project.
Comparison between an experimental turbulent vortex and the Lundgren vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuypers, Yannis; Maurel, Agnès; Petitjeans, Philippe
2004-08-01
In a recent letter (Cuypers Y et al 2003 Phys. ReV. Lett. 91 194502), the authors presented experimental results on a structure resulting from a vortex burst. The temporal evolution of this structure results in the k-5/3 Kolmogorov spectrum and some common features with the Lundgren theoretical vortex have been shown. The purpose of the present paper is to go further in the comparison with the Lundgren model by a parallel analysis of the experimental structure and of a Lundgren single spiral vortex, whose evolution is numerically obtained based on the calculations of Pullin et al (1993 Phys. Fluids A 5 126; 1994 Phys. Fluids 6 3010).
Large scale arrays of four-state vortex domains in BiFeO3 thin film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, W. Y.; Zhu, Y. L.; Tang, Y. L.; Xu, Y. B.; Liu, Y.; Li, S.; Zhang, S. R.; Wang, Y. J.; Ma, X. L.
2016-11-01
Exotic domain states, like vortex, offer the promise of superior properties and the potential disclination strain is a key factor for their formation in ferroelectrics. Here we show that large scale arrays of four-state vortex domains can be obtained in rhombohedral BiFeO3 thin films grown on PrScO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that each vortex domain is comprised of four ferroelectric variants with two 180° domain walls and two 109° domain walls. Atomic mappings of the lattice distortions unit cell by unit cell reveal that the cores of the vortex might be charged. The strains are mainly concentrated on domain walls. The formation mechanism of such large scale vortex-like states was discussed.
Vortex Matter in Highly Strained Nb_{75}Zr_{25}: Analogy with Viscous Flow of Disordered Solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandra, Jagdish; Manekar, Meghmalhar; Sharma, V. K.; Mondal, Puspen; Tiwari, Pragya; Roy, S. B.
2017-01-01
We present the results of magnetization and magneto-transport measurements in the superconducting state of an as-cast Nb_{75}Zr_{25} alloy. We also report the microstructure of our sample at various length scales by using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies. The information of microstructure is used to understand the flux pinning properties in the superconducting state within the framework of collective pinning. The magneto-transport measurements show a non-Arrhenius behaviour of the temperature- and field-dependent resistivity across the resistive transition and is understood in terms of a model for viscous flow of disordered solids which is popularly known as the `shoving model'. The activation energy for flux flow is assumed to be mainly the elastic energy stored in the flux-line lattice. The scaling of pinning force density indicates the presence of two pinning mechanisms of different origins. The elastic constants of the flux-line lattice are used to estimate the length scale of vortex lattice movement, or the volume displaced by the flux-line lattice. It appears that the vortex lattice displacement estimated from elastic energy considerations is of the same order of magnitude as that of the flux bundle hopping length during flux flow. Our results could provide possible directions for establishing a framework where vortex matter and glass-forming liquids or amorphous solids can be treated in a similar manner for understanding the phenomenon of viscous flow in disordered solids or more generally the pinning and depinning properties of elastic manifolds in random media. It is likely that the vortex molasses scenario is more suited to explain the vortex dynamics in conventional low-T_C superconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Richard; Gillies, E.; Giuni, M.; Hislop, J.; Savas, Omer
2014-11-01
The investigation considers the vortex ring state, a phenomenon normally associated with the collapse of a trailing, helical vortex wake into a unstable vortex ring, and is a problem encountered when a helicopter rotor descends into its own wake. A series of wind tunnel and towing tank experiments on rotor systems have been performed, and a comparison is then made with the behaviour of a specially designed open core, annular jet system that generates a mean flow velocity profile similar to that observed below a rotor. In experimentally simulated descents the jet system forms flow patterns that are topologically similar to the vortex ring state of a rotor system. Furthermore the dynamic behaviour of the flow shares many of the important characteristics of the rotor flow. This result suggests that the phenomenon of the vortex ring state of a rotor wake is decoupled from the detailed vortex dynamics of the helical vortex filaments themselves. The presentation will describe the principle behind the investigation, the details of the annular jet system and the results gained using PIV and flow visualisation of the wake and jet systems.
Research into vortex breakdown control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, Anthony M.; Délery, Jean
2001-05-01
Vortex breakdown remains a significant and intriguing phenomenon that can have detrimental or beneficial effects, depending on the application. Thus there is a strong need to both better understand the phenomenon and to control it, either to prevent breakdown or to promote it. For the past 50 years, multiple flow control techniques have demonstrated the ability to manipulate the vortex breakdown location over slender delta wings at high angles of attack. An extensive historical review of these diverse control methods, mechanical and pneumatic, steady or periodic, is presented and discussed; however, none of these techniques has clearly demonstrated a superior efficiency or effectiveness in controlling either the vortical flow structure or the vortex breakdown location. Each technique, does, on the other hand, provide a unique approach to the control of the vortex breakdown depending on the desired outcome. There are still major obstacles to overcome before the control of vortex breakdown is implemented in flight. For example, oscillations of the vortex breakdown locations are difficult to quantify and to identify. The often poor effectiveness of control techniques can be in great part attributed to insufficient knowledge of breakdown and in an inability to accurately predict breakdown. When considering the large quantity of studies aimed at vortex breakdown control and their relative success, it is clear that decisive progress in this domain will require further basic investigations to clearly elucidate the physics of the phenomenon and to improve the predictive capability.
Weber, H.; Jensen, H.J.
1997-03-01
We have studied the linear resistance of a three dimensional lattice superconductor model in the London limit by Monte Carlo simulation of the vortex loop dynamics. We find excellent finite size scaling at the phase transition. We determine the dynamical exponent z=1.51 for the isotropic London lattice model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Josephson-vortex Cherenkov radiation
Mints, R.G.; Snapiro, I.B.
1995-10-01
We predict the Josephson-vortex Cherenkov radiation of an electromagnetic wave. We treat a long one-dimensional Josephson junction. We consider the wavelength of the radiated electromagnetic wave to be much less than the Josephson penetration depth. We use for calculations the nonlocal Josephson electrodynamics. We find the expression for the radiated power and for the radiation friction force acting on a Josephson vortex and arising due to the Cherenkov radiation. We calculate the relation between the density of the bias current and the Josephson vortex velocity.
Holographic Vortex Coronagraph
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palacios, David
2010-01-01
A holographic vortex coronagraph (HVC) has been proposed as an improvement over conventional coronagraphs for use in high-contrast astronomical imaging for detecting planets, dust disks, and other broadband light scatterers in the vicinities of stars other than the Sun. Because such light scatterers are so faint relative to their parent stars, in order to be able to detect them, it is necessary to effect ultra-high-contrast (typically by a factor of the order of 1010) suppression of broadband light from the stars. Unfortunately, the performances of conventional coronagraphs are limited by low throughput, dispersion, and difficulty of satisfying challenging manufacturing requirements. The HVC concept offers the potential to overcome these limitations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Carvacho, Gonzalo; Graffitti, Francesco; Vitelli, Chiara; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio
2016-09-01
Light beams having a vectorial field structure, or polarization, that varies over the transverse profile and a central optical singularity are called vector vortex (VV) beams and may exhibit specific properties such as focusing into "light needles" or rotation invariance. VV beams have already found applications in areas ranging from microscopy to metrology, optical trapping, nano-optics, and quantum communication. Individual photons in such beams exhibit a form of single-particle quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the quantum states of two photons can be also entangled with each other. Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate the generation of quantum entanglement between two photons that are both in VV states: a form of entanglement between two complex vectorial fields. This result may lead to quantum-enhanced applications of VV beams as well as to quantum information protocols fully exploiting the vectorial features of light.
Chesi, Stefano; Jaffe, Arthur; Loss, Daniel; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.
2013-11-15
We investigate the role that vortex loops play in characterizing eigenstates of interacting Majoranas. We give some general results and then focus on ladder Hamiltonian examples as a test of further ideas. Two methods yield exact results: (i) A mapping of certain spin Hamiltonians to quartic interactions of Majoranas shows that the spectra of these two examples coincide. (ii) In cases with reflection-symmetric Hamiltonians, we use reflection positivity for Majoranas to characterize vortices in the ground states. Two additional methods suggest wider applicability of these results: (iii) Numerical evidence suggests similar behavior for certain systems without reflection symmetry. (iv) A perturbative analysis also suggests similar behavior without the assumption of reflection symmetry.
Structure of leading-edge vortex flows including vortex breakdown
Payne, F.M.
1987-01-01
An experimental investigation of the structure of leading-edge vortex flows on thin sharp-edged delta wings was carried out at low Reynolds numbers. Flow-visualization techniques were used to study the topology of the vortex and the phenomenon of vortex breakdown. Seven-hole probe-wake surveys and laser-doppler-anemometer measurements were obtained and compared. Delta wings with sweep angles of 70, 75, 80, and 85/sup 0/ were tested at angles of attack of 10, 20, 30, and 40/sup 0/. The test were conducted in a Reynolds number range of 8.5 x 10/sup 4/ to 6.4 x 10/sup 5/. Smoke-flow visualization revealed the presence of small Kelvin-Helmholtz type vortical structures in the shear layer of a leading-edge vortex. These shear-layer vortices follow a helical path and grow in the streamwise direction as they wind into the vortex core where the individual shear layers merge. The phenomenon of vortex breakdown was studied using high-speed cinema photography. The bubble and spiral types of breakdown were observed and appear to represent the extremes in a continuum of breakdown forms.
Wake Vortex Sensors Requirements Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinton, David A.
1997-01-01
The presentation includes discussions of primary wake vortex system requirements, evolution models, sensor evolution, site specific sensor tradeoffs, wake sensor functions, deployment considerations, the operational test bed system and additional sensor requirements.
Intrinsic and extrinsic pinning in NdFeAs(O,F): vortex trapping and lock-in by the layered structure
Tarantini, C.; Iida, K.; Hänisch, J.; Kurth, F.; Jaroszynski, J.; Sumiya, N.; Chihara, M.; Hatano, T.; Ikuta, H.; Schmidt, S.; Seidel, P.; Holzapfel, B.; Larbalestier, D. C.
2016-01-01
Fe-based superconductors (FBS) present a large variety of compounds whose properties are affected to different extents by their crystal structures. Amongst them, the REFeAs(O,F) (RE1111, RE being a rare-earth element) is the family with the highest critical temperature Tc but also with a large anisotropy and Josephson vortices as demonstrated in the flux-flow regime in Sm1111 (Tc ∼ 55 K). Here we focus on the pinning properties of the lower-Tc Nd1111 in the flux-creep regime. We demonstrate that for H//c critical current density Jc at high temperatures is dominated by point-defect pinning centres, whereas at low temperatures surface pinning by planar defects parallel to the c-axis and vortex shearing prevail. When the field approaches the ab-planes, two different regimes are observed at low temperatures as a consequence of the transition between 3D Abrikosov and 2D Josephson vortices: one is determined by the formation of a vortex-staircase structure and one by lock-in of vortices parallel to the layers. This is the first study on FBS showing this behaviour in the full temperature, field, and angular range and demonstrating that, despite the lower Tc and anisotropy of Nd1111 with respect to Sm1111, this compound is substantially affected by intrinsic pinning generating a strong ab-peak in Jc. PMID:27782196
Intrinsic and extrinsic pinning in NdFeAs(O,F): vortex trapping and lock-in by the layered structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarantini, C.; Iida, K.; Hänisch, J.; Kurth, F.; Jaroszynski, J.; Sumiya, N.; Chihara, M.; Hatano, T.; Ikuta, H.; Schmidt, S.; Seidel, P.; Holzapfel, B.; Larbalestier, D. C.
2016-10-01
Fe-based superconductors (FBS) present a large variety of compounds whose properties are affected to different extents by their crystal structures. Amongst them, the REFeAs(O,F) (RE1111, RE being a rare-earth element) is the family with the highest critical temperature Tc but also with a large anisotropy and Josephson vortices as demonstrated in the flux-flow regime in Sm1111 (Tc ∼ 55 K). Here we focus on the pinning properties of the lower-Tc Nd1111 in the flux-creep regime. We demonstrate that for H//c critical current density Jc at high temperatures is dominated by point-defect pinning centres, whereas at low temperatures surface pinning by planar defects parallel to the c-axis and vortex shearing prevail. When the field approaches the ab-planes, two different regimes are observed at low temperatures as a consequence of the transition between 3D Abrikosov and 2D Josephson vortices: one is determined by the formation of a vortex-staircase structure and one by lock-in of vortices parallel to the layers. This is the first study on FBS showing this behaviour in the full temperature, field, and angular range and demonstrating that, despite the lower Tc and anisotropy of Nd1111 with respect to Sm1111, this compound is substantially affected by intrinsic pinning generating a strong ab-peak in Jc.
Mathematical analysis of vortex dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caflisch, Russel E.
This review paper discusses the mathematical theory of vortex dynamics for incompressible, inviscid flow in two and three dimensions. The surveyed results include existence and uniqueness of time-dependent solutions, instability and singularity formation, convergence of numerical methods, and existence and stability of steady states. A simple integral formulation for the evolution of a three dimensional vortex sheet and a variational principle for the Batchelor flow problem are presented.
Formation number for vortex dipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadri, Vahid; Krueger, Paul S.
2016-11-01
This investigation considers the axisymmetric formation of two opposite sign concentric vortex rings from jet ejection between concentric cylinders. This arrangement is similar to planar flow in that the vortex rings will travel together when the gap between the cylinders is small, similar to a vortex dipole, but it has the advantage that the vortex motion is less constrained than the planar case (vortex stretching and vortex line curvature is allowed). The flow was simulated numerically at a jet Reynolds number of 1,000 (based on ΔR and the jet velocity), jet pulse length-to-gap ratio (L / ΔR) in the range 10-20, and gap-to-outer radius ratio (ΔR /Ro) in the range 0.01-0.1. Small gap ratios were chosen for comparison with 2D results. In contrast with 2D results, the closely paired vortices in this study exhibited pinch-off from the generating flow and finite formation numbers. The more complex flow evolution afforded by the axisymmetric model and its influence on the pinch-off process will be discussed. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1133876 and SMU. This supports are gratefully acknowledged.
Instability of spiral convective vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evgrafova, Anna; Andrey, Sukhanovsky; Elena, Popova
2014-05-01
Formation of large-scale vortices in atmosphere is one of the interesting problems of geophysical fluid dynamics. Tropical cyclones are examples of atmospheric spiral vortices for which convection plays an important role in their formation and evolution. Our study is focused on intensive cyclonic vortex produced by heating in the central part of the rotating layer. The previous studies made by Bogatyrev et al, showed that structure of such vortex is very similar to the structure of tropical cyclones. Qualitative observations described in (Bogatyrev, 2009) showed that the evolution of large-scale vortex in extreme regimes can be very complicated. Our main goal is the study of evolution of convective cyclonic vortex at high values of Grasshof number by PIV system. Experimental setup is a rotating cylindrical tank of fluid (radius 150 mm, depth 30 mm, free upper surface). Velocity fields for different values of heat flux were obtained and temporal and spatial structure of intensive convective vortex were studied in details. With the use of PIV data vorticity fields were reconstructed in different horizontal cross-sections. Physical interpretation of mechanisms that lead to the crucial change in the vortex structure with the growth of heat rate is described. Financial support from program of UD RAS, the International Research Group Program supported by Perm region Government is gratefully acknowledged.
Semi-Lagrangian off-lattice Boltzmann method for weakly compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krämer, Andreas; Küllmer, Knut; Reith, Dirk; Joppich, Wolfgang; Foysi, Holger
2017-02-01
The lattice Boltzmann method is a simulation technique in computational fluid dynamics. In its standard formulation, it is restricted to regular computation grids, second-order spatial accuracy, and a unity Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number. This paper advances the standard lattice Boltzmann method by introducing a semi-Lagrangian streaming step. The proposed method allows significantly larger time steps, unstructured grids, and higher-order accurate representations of the solution to be used. The appealing properties of the approach are demonstrated in simulations of a two-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex, doubly periodic shear layers, and a three-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex.
Discrete solitons and vortices on anisotropic lattices.
Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J; Carretero-González, R; Malomed, B A; Bishop, A R
2005-10-01
We consider the effects of anisotropy on solitons of various types in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices, using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation as a paradigm model. For fundamental solitons, we develop a variational approximation that predicts that broad quasicontinuum solitons are unstable, while their strongly anisotropic counterparts are stable. By means of numerical methods, it is found that, in the general case, the fundamental solitons and simplest on-site-centered vortex solitons ("vortex crosses") feature enhanced or reduced stability areas, depending on the strength of the anisotropy. More surprising is the effect of anisotropy on the so-called "super-symmetric" intersite-centered vortices ("vortex squares"), with the topological charge equal to the square's size : we predict in an analytical form by means of the Lyapunov-Schmidt theory, and confirm by numerical results, that arbitrarily weak anisotropy results in dramatic changes in the stability and dynamics in comparison with the degenerate, in this case, isotropic, limit.
Numerical simulation of vortex-wedge interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jin-Ho; Lee, Duck-Joo
1994-06-01
Interactions between vortical flows and a solid surface cause one of the primary sources of noise and unsteady loading. The mechanism of the interaction is studied numerically for a single Rankine vortex impinging upon a wedge. An Euler-Lagrangian method is employed to calculate the unsteady, viscous, incompressible flows in two dimensions. A random vortex method is used to describe the vorticity dominant field. A fast vortex method is used to reduce the computational time in the calculation of the convection velocity of each vortex particle. A Schwarz-Christoffel transformation is used to map the numerical domain onto the physical domain. Vortex partical plots, velocity vectors, and streamlines are presented at selected times for both inviscid and viscous interactions. It is observed that the incident rankine vortex distorts and is split by the wedge as it nears and passes the wedge, and the vortices generated from the leading edge toward the underside of the wedge form into a single vortex. The vorticity orientation of the shed vortex is opposite to that of the incident vortex. It is found that the convection velocity of the shed vortex is changed wheen it comes off the leading edge of the wedge, and the strength of the shed vortex varies with the time during the vortex-wedge interaction. This strength variation is presumed to influence the shed vortex convection velocity. The overall features for the interaction agree well with the experimental results of Ziada and Rockwell.
Danaila, Ionut
2005-07-15
We address the challenging proposition of using real experimental parameters in a three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation of fast rotating Bose-Einstein condensates. We simulate recent experiments [V. Bretin, S. Stock, Y. Seurin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 050403 (2004); S. Stock, V. Bretin, S. Stock, F. Chevy, and J. Dalibard, Europhys. Lett. 65, 594 (2004)] using an anharmonic (quadratic-plus-quartic) confining potential to reach rotation frequencies ({omega}) above the trap frequency ({omega}{sub perpendicular}). Our numerical results are obtained by propagating the 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation in imaginary time. For {omega}{<=}{omega}{sub perpendicular}, we obtain an equilibrium vortex lattice similar (as the size and number of vortices) to experimental observations. For {omega}>{omega}{sub perpendicular} we observe the evolution of the vortex lattice into an array of vortices with a central hole. Since this evolution was not visible in experiments, we investigate the 3D structure of vortex configurations and 3D effects on vortex contrast. Numerical data are also compared to recent theory [D. E. Sheehy and L. Radzihovsky, Phys. Rev. A 70, 063620 (2004)] describing vortex lattice inhomogeneities and a remarkably good agreement is found.
Green functions of vortex operators
Polchinski, Joseph
1981-03-16
In this paper, we study the euclidean Green functions of the 't Hooft vortex operator, primarily for abelian gauge theories. The operator is written in terms of elementary fields, with emphasis on a form in which it appears as the exponential of a surface integral. We explore the requirement that the Green functions depend only on the boundary of this surface. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two-dimensional “solvable model” of a Dirac string, which suggests a new solution of the veto problem. The renormalization of the Green functions of the abelian Wilson loop and abelian vortex operator is studied with the aid of the operator product expansion. In each case, an overall multiplication of the operator makes all Green functions finite; a surprising cancellation of divergences occurs with the vortex operator. We present a brief discussion of the relation between the nature of the vacuum and the cluster properties of the Green functions of the Wilson and vortex operators, for a general gauge theory. Finally, the surface-like cluster property of the vortex operator in an abelian Higgs theory is explored in more detail.
Quantitative vortex models of turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullin, D. I.
2001-11-01
This presentation will review attempts to develop models of turbulence, based on compact vortex elements, that can be used both to obtain quantitative estimates of various statistical properties of turbulent fine scales and also to formulate subgrid-transport models for large-eddy simulation (LES). Attention will be focused on a class of stretched-vortex models. Following a brief review of prior work, recent studies of vortex-based modeling of the small-scale behavior of a passive scalar will be discussed. The large-wavenumber spectrum of a passive scalar undergoing mixing by the velocity field of a stretched-spiral vortex will be shown to consist of the sum of two classical power laws, a k-1 Batchelor spectrum for wavenumbers up to the inverse Batchelor scale, and a k-5/3 Obukov-Corrsin spectrum for wavenumbers less than the inverse Kolmogorov scale (joint work with T.S. Lundgren). We will then focus on the use of stretched vortices as the basic subgrid structure in subgrid-scale (SGS) modeling for LES of turbulent flows. An SGS stress model and a vortex-based scalar-flux model for the LES of flows with turbulent mixing will be outlined. Application of these models to the LES of decaying turbulence, channel flow, the mixing of a passive scalar by homogeneous turbulence in the presence of a mean scalar gradient, and to the LES of compressible turbulence will be described.
Vortex Formation in Shallow Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rockwell, Donald
2006-11-01
Vortical structures having a scale much larger than the depth of the flow, which arise in bluff body wakes, jets, and mixing layers generated in shallow layers, show distinctive features due to the influence of bed friction. Cinema techniques of high-image-density particle image velocimetry are employed to characterize quasi-two-dimensional and three-dimensional aspects of the vortex development in terms of: patterns of vorticity; flow topology involving definition of critical points; and global spectral and cross-spectral analyses, based on simultaneous time records at thousands of grid points of the cinema imaging. Taken together, these representations lead to an understanding of the relationship between coherent vortex development and unsteadiness along the bed and, furthermore, provide a basis for exploration of concepts generic to separated shear layers in shallow flows. These concepts include: suppression of a primary mode of vortex formation due to bed friction and emergence of another mode; resonant coupling between a gravity wave of the shallow layer and vortex formation, leading to large-scale vortices; and passive and active (open loop) control, which can either retard or enhance the onset of vortex formation. These studies suggest opportunities for further investigation on both experimental and numerical fronts. Collaboration with Haojun Fu, Alis Ekmekci, Jung-Chang Lin, and Muammer Ozgoren is gratefully acknowledged.
The structure of vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leibovich, S.
1978-01-01
The term 'vortex breakdown', as used in the reported investigation, refers to a disturbance characterized by the formation of an internal stagnation point on the vortex axis, followed by reversed flow in a region of limited axial extent. Two forms of vortex breakdown, which predominate, are shown in photographs. One form is called 'near-axisymmetric' (sometimes 'axisymmetric'), and the other is called 'spiral'. A survey is presented of work published since the 1972 review by Hall. Most experimental data taken since Hall's review have been in tubes, and the survey deals primarily with such cases. It is found that the assumption of axial-symmetry has produced useful results. The classification of flows as supercritical or subcritical, a step that assumes symmetry, has proved universally useful. Experiments show that vortex breakdown is always preceded by an upstream supercritical flow and followed by a subcritical wake. However, a comparison between experiments and attempts at prediction is less than encouraging. For a satisfactory understanding of the structure of vortex breakdown it is apparently necessary to take into account also aspects of asymmetry.
Vortex Flows at Supersonic Speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.
2003-01-01
A review of research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data are for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft with Mach numbers of 1.5 to 4.6. Data are presented to show the types of vortex structures that occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures on vehicle performance and control. The data show the presence of both small- and large-scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices. Data are shown that highlight the effect of leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. Finally, a discussion of a design approach for wings that use vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speeds is presented.
NASA aircraft trailing vortex research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgowan, W. A.
1971-01-01
A brief description is given of NASA's comprehensive program to study the aircraft trailing vortex problem. Wind tunnel experiments are used to develop the detailed processes of wing tip vortex formation and explore different means to either prevent trailing vortices from forming or induce early break-up. Flight tests provide information on trailing vortex system behavior behind large transport aircraft, both near the ground, as in the vicinity of the airport, and at cruise/holding pattern altitudes. Results from some flight tests are used to show how pilots might avoid the dangerous areas when flying in the vicinity of large transport aircraft. Other flight tests will be made to verify and evaluate trailing vortex elimination schemes developed in the model tests. Laser Doppler velocimeters being developed for use in the research program and to locate and measure vortex winds in the airport area are discussed. Field tests have shown that the laser Doppler velocimeter measurements compare well with those from cup anemometers.
Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle
Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige
2016-01-01
The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core–shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems. PMID:26907639
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López Ariste, A.; Centeno, R.; Khomenko, E.
2016-06-01
Context. Waves in the magnetized solar atmosphere are one of the favourite means of transferring and depositing energy into the solar corona. The study of waves brings information not just on the dynamics of the magnetized plasma, but also on the possible ways in which the corona is heated. Aims: The identification and analysis of the phase singularities or dislocations provide us with a complementary approach to the magnetoacoustic and Aflvén waves propagating in the solar atmosphere. They allow us to identify individual wave modes, shedding light on the probability of excitation or the nature of the triggering mechanism. Methods: We use a time series of Doppler shifts measured in two spectral lines, filtered around the three-minute period region. The data show a propagating magnetoacoustic slow mode with several dislocations and, in particular, a vortex line. We study under what conditions the different wave modes propagating in the umbra can generate the observed dislocations. Results: The observed dislocations can be fully interpreted as a sequence of sausage and kink modes excited sequentially on average during 15 min. Kink and sausage modes appear to be excited independently and sequentially. The transition from one to the other lasts less than three minutes. During the transition we observe and model the appearance of superoscillations inducing large phase gradients and phase mixing. Conclusions: The analysis of the observed wave dislocations leads us to the identification of the propagating wave modes in umbrae. The identification in the data of superoscillatory regions during the transition from one mode to the other may be an important indicator of the location of wave dissipation.
Analysis and control of asymmetric vortex flows and supersonic vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.
1991-01-01
Topics relative to the analysis and control of asymmetric vortex flow and supersonic vortex breakdown are discussed. Specific topics include the computation of compressible, quasi-axisymmetric slender vortex flow and breakdown; supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown; and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes asymmetric solutions for cones and cone-cylinder configurations.
Vortex chains travelling with discrete velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malishevskii, A. S.; Silin, V. P.; Uryupin, S. A.; Uspenskii, S. G.
2008-05-01
It has been shown that Swihart waves slowing down caused by Josephson junction spatial dispersion leads to the new field periodic nonlinear vortex states moving with discrete velocities. Swihart waves trapping by periodic vortex structures is discovered.
Palmer, R.B.
1987-05-01
This paper looks at, and compares three types of damping ring lattices: conventional, wiggler lattice with finite ..cap alpha.., wiggler lattice with ..cap alpha.. = 0, and observes the attainable equilibrium emittances for the three cases assuming a constraint on the attainable longitudinal impedance of 0.2 ohms. The emittance obtained are roughly in the ratio 4:2:1 for these cases.
Serrano, Ismael García; Sesé, Javier; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann; Vieira, Sebastián; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo
2016-01-01
We report efficient vortex pinning in thickness-modulated tungsten–carbon-based (W–C) nanostructures grown by focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID). By using FIBID, W–C superconducting films have been created with thickness modulation properties exhibiting periodicity from 60 to 140 nm, leading to a strong pinning potential for the vortex lattice. This produces local minima in the resistivity up to high magnetic fields (2.2 T) in a broad temperature range due to commensurability effects between the pinning potential and the vortex lattice. The results show that the combination of single-step FIBID fabrication of superconducting nanostructures with built-in artificial pinning landscapes and the small intrinsic random pinning potential of this material produces strong periodic pinning potentials, maximizing the opportunities for the investigation of fundamental aspects in vortex science under changing external stimuli (e.g., temperature, magnetic field, electrical current). PMID:28144519
Vortex methods for separated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, Philippe R.
1988-01-01
The numerical solution of the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations by Lagrangian vortex methods is discussed. The mathematical background is presented and includes the relationship with traditional point-vortex studies, convergence to smooth solutions of the Euler equations, and the essential differences between two and three-dimensional cases. The difficulties in extending the method to viscous or compressible flows are explained. Two-dimensional flows around bluff bodies are emphasized. Robustness of the method and the assessment of accuracy, vortex-core profiles, time-marching schemes, numerical dissipation, and efficient programming are treated. Operation counts for unbounded and periodic flows are given, and two algorithms designed to speed up the calculations are described.
Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations
Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.
2014-01-01
Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan–out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT). PMID:24531235
The free compressible viscous vortex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colonius, Tim; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Moin, Parviz
1991-01-01
The present study investigates the effects of compressibility on free (unsteady) viscous heat-conducting vortices. Analytical solutions are found in the limit of large but finite Reynolds number and small but finite Mach number. It is shown that the spreading of the vortex causes a radial flow. This flow is given by the solution of an ordinary differential equation, which gives the dependence of the radial velocity on the tangential velocity, density, and temperature profiles of the vortex. Estimates of the radial velocity found by solving this equation are found to be in good agreement with numerical solutions of the full equations. The equations for the viscous evolution are expanded in powers of Mach number to obtain detailed analytical solutions. It is shown that swirling axisymmetric compressible flows generate negative radial velocities far from the vortex core owing to viscous effects, regardless of the initial distributions of vorticity, density, and entropy.
Ground vortex flow field investigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhn, Richard E.; Delfrate, John H.; Eshleman, James E.
1988-01-01
Flow field investigations were conducted at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility (water tunnel) to investigate the ground effect produced by the impingement of jets from aircraft nozzles on a ground board in a STOL operation. Effects on the overall flow field with both a stationary and a moving ground board were photographed and compared with similar data found in other references. Nozzle jet impingement angles, nozzle and inlet interaction, side-by-side nozzles, nozzles in tandem, and nozzles and inlets mounted on a flat plate model were investigated. Results show that the wall jet that generates the ground effect is unsteady and the boundary between the ground vortex flow field and the free-stream flow is unsteady. Additionally, the forward projection of the ground vortex flow field with a moving ground board is one-third less than that measured over a fixed ground board. Results also showed that inlets did not alter the ground vortex flow field.
Magnetic vortex based transistor operations.
Kumar, D; Barman, S; Barman, A
2014-02-17
Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan-out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT).
Three-dimensional vortex methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greengard, C. A.
1984-08-01
Reformulations of the filament method and of the method of Beale and Majda show them to be very similar algorithms. The method of Anderson in which vorticity is evaluated by the exact differentiation of the approximate velocity field is discussed. It is shown that, in the inviscid version of this algorithm, each approximate vector of vorticity remains tangent to a material curve moving with the computed flow, with magnitude proportional to the stretching of this vortex line. It is explained that the expanding core vortex method converges to a system of equations different from the Navier-Stokes equations. Computations with the filament method of the inviscid interaction of two vortex rings are reported, both with single filaments in each ring and with a fully three-dimensional discretization of vorticity. The dependence on parameters is discussed, and convergence of the computed solutions is observed.
Wagenleithner, P.
1982-07-01
One of the major problems in the application of type II superconductors is the appearance of resistivity in case where a current-carrying specimen is in a longitudinal magnetic field. This is explained by the onset of flux-line cutting events, followed by cross-joining of the line parts. The calculation given here shows the amount of repulsive force and energy between two curved vortex lines and examines the general stability of the vortex-vortex system. First, the actual interaction potential between curved vortices is computed. It includes all electromagnetic and core overlap terms of interactions and self-interaction, and allows computation of the system energy under all curved vortex-line configurations. A computer program is used to find the form of lowest free energy. To do this, special trial functions are established to describe the three-dimensional form of the vortex-vortex system. In these functions parameters determine the qualitative and quantitative form. The asymptotic boundary conditions are built into the nature of the trial functions. The computer program now minimizes the free energy with respect to these parameters. The resulting repulsive energy and force are more than ten times less than the known results for straight flux lines, especially for small asymptotic cutting angles. There is no sharp maximum in the plot of repulsive force versus flux-line separation. A remarkable results is the loss of general stability below a separation distance of several London penetration depths, depending on the cutting angle and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter. The explanation lies in the local attraction of central sections of the vortices as a result of configurational adaption. This explains the onset of resistance at small currents and small magnetic fields.
Coulombic contribution and fat center vortex model
Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Deldar, Sedigheh
2007-02-27
The fat (thick) center vortex model is one of the phenomenological models which is fairly successful to interpret the linear potential between static sources. However, the Coulombic part of the potential has not been investigated by the model yet. In an attempt to get the Coulombic contribution and to remove the concavity of the potentials, we are studying different vortex profiles and vortex sizes.
Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu
2016-07-01
We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required.
Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors
Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, Andras J
2008-01-01
We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.
Lopatin, A V; Vinokur, V M
2004-02-13
We investigate a two-dimensional (2D) Bose system with the long range interactions in the presence of disorder. Formation of the bound states at strong impurity sites gives rise to a depletion of the superfluid density. We predict the intermediate superfluid state where the condensate and localized bosons are present simultaneously. We find that interactions suppress localization and that with the increase of the boson density the system experiences a sharp delocalization crossover into a state where all bosons are delocalized. We map our results onto a 3D system of vortices in type II superconductors in the presence of columnar defects; the intermediate superfluid state maps to an intermediate vortex liquid where vortex liquid neighbors pinned vortices. We predict the depinning crossover within the vortex liquid and depinning induced vortex lattice-Bose glass melting.
Plastic Flow of the Vortex Solid in Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8+δ Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keener, C. D.; Ammirata, S. M.; Trawick, M. L.; Hebboul, S. E.; Garland, J. C.
1997-03-01
We have recently presented evidence in electrical transport data for a first order vortex lattice melting transition in Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8+δ single crystals. Below the melting temperature T_m, current-induced motion of the vortex solid causes dissipation for sufficiently high currents. We have measured resistance vs. temperature curves in magnetic fields 50 Oe < H < 500 Oe and high currents (I >= 1 mA). Below Tm (≈ 80 K at 100 Oe), we find large temporal resistance fluctuations which are characteristic of vortex plastic flow. This vortex motion seems to be well described as ``intermittently flowing rivers" of vortices.(F. Nori, Science 271, 1373 (1996).)
Vortex structures of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in an anisotropic harmonic potential
Matveenko, S. I.
2010-09-15
We found an analytical solution for the vortex structure in a rapidly rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate in the lowest Landau level approximation. This solution is exact in the limit of a large number of vortices and is obtained for the case of a condensate in a anisotropic harmonic potential. The solution describes as limiting cases both a triangle vortex lattice in the symmetric potential trap and a quasi-one-dimensional structure of vortex rows in an asymmetric case, when the rotation frequency is very close to the lower trapping potential frequency. The shape of the density profile is found to be close to the Thomas-Fermi inverted paraboloid form, except in the vicinity of edges of a condensate cloud.
Vortex fluctuation in HgBa 2Ca 3Cu 4O 10+δ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Mun-Seog; Kim, Wan-Seon; Lee, Sung-Ik; Yu, Seong-Cho; Itskevich, E. S.; Kuzemskaya, I.
1997-08-01
Reversible magnetization with the external magnetic fields of 1 T ≤ H ≤ 5 T parallel to the c-axis has been measured for the grain aligned HgBa2Ca3Cu4O10+δ. A strong vortex fluctuation effect was clearly observed and the magnetization is well described by the vortex fluctuation model. From this analysis, the penetration depth λab(0) = 1583 Å and the effective interlayer spacing s = 44.6 Å were estimated. However, the value of s is significantly larger than the lattice parameter c = 19 Å, which is different from the prediction of the vortex fluctuation model. From the model on superconducting fluctuations proposed by Koshelev, in which not only the critical fluctuations at the lowest Landau level but also the Gaussian fluctuations at higher Landau levels were considered, the different value of s = 15.4 Å was obtained.
Bouquet, F.; Calemczuk, R.; Crabtree, G. W.; Erb, A.; Fisher, R. A.; Junod, A.; Kwok, W. K.; Marcenat, C.; Phillips, N. E.; Roulin, M.; Schilling, A.; Welp, U.
1999-08-17
We have studied the vortex phase diagram of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) in very strong magnetic field (0-26 Tesla) by a.c. calorimetry. We describe the anomalies associated with the transitions between the different vortex states (solid, liquid, and glass), with special emphasis on the first order flux lattice melting.
Observation of a first-order phase transition deep within the vortex-solid region of YBa2Cu3O7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reibelt, M.; Weyeneth, S.; Erb, A.; Schilling, A.
2011-10-01
We have investigated the magnetic phase diagram of a fully oxygenated detwinned YBa2Cu3O7 single crystal by means of magneto-caloric and magnetization measurements, and found thermodynamic evidence for a temperature dependent first-order phase-transition line deep within the vortex-solid region. The associated discontinuities in the entropy are apparently proportional to the magnetic flux density, which may hint at a structural transition of the vortex lattice.
Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Yang, Jinho; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Yeom, Han Woong; Kim, Jeehoon
2015-07-31
We present a local probe study of the magnetic superconductor ErNi_{2}B_{2}C, using magnetic force microscopy at sub-Kelvin temperatures. ErNi_{2}B_{2}C is an ideal system to explore the effects of concomitant superconductivity and ferromagnetism. At 500 mK, far below the transition to a weakly ferromagnetic state, we directly observe a structured magnetic background on the micrometer scale. We determine spatially resolved absolute values of the magnetic penetration depth λ and study its temperature dependence as the system undergoes magnetic phase transitions from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic, and to weak ferromagnetic, all within the superconducting regime. We estimate the absolute pinning force of Abrikosov vortices, which shows a position dependence and temperature dependence as well, and discuss the possibility of the purported spontaneous vortex formation.
Quantized Vortex State in hcp Solid 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubota, Minoru
2012-11-01
The quantized vortex state appearing in the recently discovered new states in hcp 4He since their discovery (Kim and Chan, Nature, 427:225-227, 2004; Science, 305:1941, 2004) is discussed. Special attention is given to evidence for the vortex state as the vortex fluid (VF) state (Anderson, Nat. Phys., 3:160-162, 2007; Phys. Rev. Lett., 100:215301, 2008; Penzev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 101:065301, 2008; Nemirovskii et al., arXiv:0907.0330, 2009) and its transition into the supersolid (SS) state (Shimizu et al., arXiv:0903.1326, 2009; Kubota et al., J. Low Temp. Phys., 158:572-577, 2010; J. Low Temp. Phys., 162:483-491, 2011). Its features are described. The historical explanations (Reatto and Chester, Phys. Rev., 155(1):88-100, 1967; Chester, Phys. Rev. A, 2(1):256-258, 1970; Andreev and Lifshitz, JETP Lett., 29:1107-1113, 1969; Leggett, Phys. Rev. Lett., 25(22), 1543-1546, 1970; Matsuda and Tsuneto, Prog. Theor. Phys., 46:411-436, 1970) for the SS state in quantum solids such as solid 4He were based on the idea of Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC) of the imperfections such as vacancies, interstitials and other possible excitations in the quantum solids which are expected because of the large zero-point motions. The SS state was proposed as a new state of matter in which real space ordering of the lattice structure of the solid coexists with the momentum space ordering of superfluidity. A new type of superconductors, since the discovery of the cuprate high T c superconductors, HTSCs (Bednorz and Mueller, Z. Phys., 64:189, 1986), has been shown to share a feature with the vortex state, involving the VF and vortex solid states. The high T c s of these materials are being discussed in connection to the large fluctuations associated with some other phase transitions like the antiferromagnetic transition in addition to that of the low dimensionality. The supersolidity in the hcp solid 4He, in contrast to the new superconductors which have multiple degrees of freedom of
Disorder-induced two-step melting of vortex matter in Co-intercalated NbS e2 single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguli, Somesh Chandra; Singh, Harkirat; Roy, Indranil; Bagwe, Vivas; Bala, Dibyendu; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Raychaudhuri, Pratap
2016-04-01
Disorder-induced melting where the increase in positional entropy created by random pinning sites drives the order-disorder transition in a periodic solid provides an alternate route to the more conventional thermal melting. Here, using real-space imaging of the vortex lattice through scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we show that, in the presence of weak pinning, the vortex lattice in a type-II superconductor disorders through two distinct topological transitions. Across each transition, we separately identify metastable states formed through superheating of the low-temperature state or supercooling of the high-temperature state. Comparing crystals with different levels of pinning we conclude that the two-step melting is fundamentally associated with the presence of random pinning which generates topological defects in the ordered vortex lattice.
Scattering of electromagnetic wave by vortex flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Jian-Ye; Liu, Jing-Yu; Mahmood, Waqas; Zhao, Qing
2017-04-01
In this paper, the scattering behaviour of an electromagnetic wave by vortex flow is studied in detail by solving the first-order (in v / c) Maxwell's equation in the cylindrical coordinate system (r, φ, z) and the general solutions are obtained. From these solutions, the differential cross-section of the vortex flow is calculated and the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of the vortex flow are discussed. The dependence of differential cross-section on the velocity profile and the radius of the vortex flow is investigated independently. Besides, by considering the dependence of scattering characteristics on the frequency of an incident wave we conclude that the vortex flow has frequency selectivity.
Evolution of a plasma vortex in air.
Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Chu, Hong-Yu
2016-01-01
We report the generation of a vortex-shaped plasma in air by using a capacitively coupled dielectric barrier discharge system. We show that a vortex-shaped plasma can be produced inside a helium gas vortex and is capable of propagating for 3 cm. The fluctuation of the plasma ring shows a scaling relation with the Reynolds number of the vortex. The transient discharge reveals the property of corona discharge, where the conducting channel within the gas vortex and the blur plasma emission are observed at each half voltage cycle.
A lattice-Boltzmann scheme of the Navier-Stokes equations on a 3D cuboid lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Min, Haoda; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Lian-Ping
2015-11-01
The standard lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow simulation is based on a square (in 2D) or cubic (in 3D) lattice grids. Recently, two new lattice Boltzmann schemes have been developed on a 2D rectangular grid using the MRT (multiple-relaxation-time) collision model, by adding a free parameter in the definition of moments or by extending the equilibrium moments. Here we developed a lattice Boltzmann model on 3D cuboid lattice, namely, a lattice grid with different grid lengths in different spatial directions. We designed our MRT-LBM model by matching the moment equations from the Chapman-Enskog expansion with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model guarantees correct hydrodynamics. A second-order term is added to the equilibrium moments in order to restore the isotropy of viscosity on a cuboid lattice. The form and the coefficients of the extended equilibrium moments are determined through an inverse design process. An additional benefit of the model is that the viscosity can be adjusted independent of the stress-moment relaxation parameter, thus improving the numerical stability of the model. The resulting cuboid MRT-LBM model is then validated through benchmark simulations using laminar channel flow, turbulent channel flow, and the 3D Taylor-Green vortex flow.
Perturbative theory for Brownian vortexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moyses, Henrique W.; Bauer, Ross O.; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.
2015-06-01
Brownian vortexes are stochastic machines that use static nonconservative force fields to bias random thermal fluctuations into steadily circulating currents. The archetype for this class of systems is a colloidal sphere in an optical tweezer. Trapped near the focus of a strongly converging beam of light, the particle is displaced by random thermal kicks into the nonconservative part of the optical force field arising from radiation pressure, which then biases its diffusion. Assuming the particle remains localized within the trap, its time-averaged trajectory traces out a toroidal vortex. Unlike trivial Brownian vortexes, such as the biased Brownian pendulum, which circulate preferentially in the direction of the bias, the general Brownian vortex can change direction and even topology in response to temperature changes. Here we introduce a theory based on a perturbative expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation for weak nonconservative driving. The first-order solution takes the form of a modified Boltzmann relation and accounts for the rich phenomenology observed in experiments on micrometer-scale colloidal spheres in optical tweezers.
Vortex Whistle in Radial Intake
2004-10-01
RTO-MP-AVT-110 22 - 1 Vortex Whistle in Radial Intake Dr. Man-Chun Tse Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. 1000 Marie-Victorin, Longueuil , Quebec...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. 1000 Marie-Victorin, Longueuil , Quebec, Canada, J4G 1A1 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT
Particle-vortex symmetric liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulligan, Michael
2017-01-01
We introduce an effective theory with manifest particle-vortex symmetry for disordered thin films undergoing a magnetic field-tuned superconductor-insulator transition. The theory may enable one to access both the critical properties of the strong-disorder limit, which has recently been confirmed by Breznay et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 280 (2016), 10.1073/pnas.1522435113] to exhibit particle-vortex symmetric electrical response, and the nearby metallic phase discovered earlier by Mason and Kapitulnik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5341 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.5341] in less disordered samples. Within the effective theory, the Cooper-pair and field-induced vortex degrees of freedom are simultaneously incorporated into an electrically neutral Dirac fermion minimally coupled to a (emergent) Chern-Simons gauge field. A derivation of the theory follows upon mapping the superconductor-insulator transition to the integer quantum Hall plateau transition and the subsequent use of Son's particle-hole symmetric composite Fermi liquid. Remarkably, particle-vortex symmetric response does not require the introduction of disorder; rather, it results when the Dirac fermions exhibit vanishing Hall effect. The theory predicts approximately equal (diagonal) thermopower and Nernst signal with a deviation parameterized by the measured electrical Hall response at the symmetric point.
Vortex cavitation: A progress report
Arndt, R.E.A.; Maines, B.H.
1994-12-31
Cavitation in vortical flows is a significant problem. An important aspect is the need for a better understanding of the physics of cavitation in the vortices tailing from lifting surfaces such as propellers and hydrofoils. This is a review of experimental and numerical research that has been recently carried out with a series of hydrofoils. This is a review of experimental and numerical research that has been recently carried out with a series of hydrofoils. This research was aimed at investigating the interrelated effects of vortex structure, including the details of the vortex roll-up process close to the tip, dissolved gas content, and water quality as it related to the amount of tension that can be sustained in the vortex before cavitation occurs. The experimental phase includes lift and drag measurements, oil flow visualization of the boundary layer flow on the lifting surfaces, and observation of both cavitation inception and desinence in strong and weak water. An improved photographic technique has been developed to study the complex bubble dynamics inherent in the inception process. Preliminary results indicate that the bubble growth process is strongly dependent on the size and number of nuclei in the free stream. Numerical simulations indicate that the minimum pressure in the vortex is very close to the tip of the lifting surface, in agreement with the observation that the inception process also occurs very close to the tip under most conditions.
The 1987 Ground Vortex Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Margason, Richard J. (Editor)
1988-01-01
The purpose of this workshop was to discuss the current understanding of the ground vortex phenomena and their effects on aircraft, and to establish directions for further research on advanced, high-performance aircraft designs, particularly those concepts utilizing powered-lift systems; e.g., V/STOL. ASTOVL, and STOL aircraft.
Three-dimensional vortex methods
Greengard, C.A.
1984-08-01
Three-dimensional vortex methods for the computation of incompressible fluid flow are presented from a unified point of view. Reformulations of the filament method and of the method of Beale and Majda show them to be very similar algorithms; in both of them, the vorticity is evaluated by a discretization of the spatial derivative of the flow map. The fact that the filament method, the one which is most often used in practice, can be formulated as a version of the Beale and Majda algorithm in a curved coordinate system is used to give a convergence theorem for the filament method. The method of Anderson is also discussed, in which vorticity is evaluated by the exact differentiation of the approximate velocity field. It is shown that, in the inviscid version of this algorithm, each approximate vector of vorticity remains tangent to a material curve moving with the computed flow, with magnitude proportional to the stretching of this vortex line. This remains true even when time discretization is taken into account. It is explained that the expanding core vortex method converges to a system of equations different from the Navier-Stokes equations. Computations with the filament method of the inviscid interaction of two vortex rings are reported, both with single filaments in each ring and with a fully three-dimensional discretization of vorticity. The dependence on parameters is discussed, and convergence of the computed solutions is observed. 36 references, 4 figures.
Perturbative theory for Brownian vortexes.
Moyses, Henrique W; Bauer, Ross O; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Grier, David G
2015-06-01
Brownian vortexes are stochastic machines that use static nonconservative force fields to bias random thermal fluctuations into steadily circulating currents. The archetype for this class of systems is a colloidal sphere in an optical tweezer. Trapped near the focus of a strongly converging beam of light, the particle is displaced by random thermal kicks into the nonconservative part of the optical force field arising from radiation pressure, which then biases its diffusion. Assuming the particle remains localized within the trap, its time-averaged trajectory traces out a toroidal vortex. Unlike trivial Brownian vortexes, such as the biased Brownian pendulum, which circulate preferentially in the direction of the bias, the general Brownian vortex can change direction and even topology in response to temperature changes. Here we introduce a theory based on a perturbative expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation for weak nonconservative driving. The first-order solution takes the form of a modified Boltzmann relation and accounts for the rich phenomenology observed in experiments on micrometer-scale colloidal spheres in optical tweezers.
Rotor blade vortex interaction noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yung H.
2000-02-01
Blade-vortex interaction noise-generated by helicopter main rotor blades is one of the most severe noise problems and is very important both in military applications and community acceptance of rotorcraft. Research over the decades has substantially improved physical understanding of noise-generating mechanisms, and various design concepts have been investigated to control noise radiation using advanced blade planform shapes and active blade control techniques. The important parameters to control rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and vibration have been identified: blade tip vortex structures and its trajectory, blade aeroelastic deformation, and airloads. Several blade tip design concepts have been investigated for diffusing tip vortices and also for reducing noise. However, these tip shapes have not been able to substantially reduce blade-vortex interaction noise without degradation of rotor performance. Meanwhile, blade root control techniques, such as higher-harmonic pitch control (HHC) and individual blade control (IBC) concepts, have been extensively investigated for noise and vibration reduction. The HHC technique has proved the substantial blade-vortex interaction noise reduction, up to 6 dB, while vibration and low-frequency noise have been increased. Tests with IBC techniques have shown the simultaneous reduction of rotor noise and vibratory loads with 2/rev pitch control inputs. Recently, active blade control concepts with smart structures have been investigated with the emphasis on active blade twist and trailing edge flap. Smart structures technologies are very promising, but further advancements are needed to meet all the requirements of rotorcraft applications in frequency, force, and displacement.
Vortex pinning vs. superconducting wire network in nanostructured superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vicent, Jose L.
2014-03-01
Superconducting films with array of ordered defects allow studying effects which are governed by the interplay between lengths of the nanostructured sample and lengths related to physical parameters, as for example coherence length. When the coherence length and the separation between the defects are similar, the sample can mimic a superconducting wire network. In this situation, applied magnetic fields induce Little-Parks oscillations due to fluxoid quantization constraint. These L-P oscillations vanish when the coherence length is smaller than the ``stripe'' superconducting region between the defects. In superconducting films with array of nanodefects periodic oscillations can also be detected in resistance R(H), critical current Ic(H), magnetization M(H) and ac-susceptibility χac(H) in a broader temperature range than the temperature interval where L-P oscillations are present. Vortex pinning mechanisms are the origin of these oscillations. These oscillations emerge due to matching effects between two lattices: the vortex lattice and the lattice of defects. These oscillations are detected in a broader temperature interval than the temperature interval where L-P oscillations are present. Worth to note that, due to the coherence length divergence at Tc, a crossover to wire network behavior is experimentally found always. Interestingly, both mechanisms coexist close to superconducting critical temperatures; i. e. in the temperature region where the sample mimics superconducting wire network. These overlapping effects can be experimentally separated and both origins can be discriminated. We have analyzed and single out, with magnetotransport measurements, both mechanisms: pinning and fluxoid quantization constraint in superconducting films with arrays of non-magnetic and magnetic dots. Work supported by Spanish MINECO and CAM.
Lattice Boltzmann method and channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stensholt, Sigvat; Mongstad Hope, Sigmund
2016-07-01
Lattice Boltzmann methods are presented at an introductory level with a focus on fairly simple simulations that can be used to test and illustrate the model’s capabilities. Two scenarios are presented. The first is a simple laminar flow in a straight channel driven by a pressure gradient (Poiseuille flow). The second is a more complex, including a wedge where Moffatt vortices may be induced if the wedge is deep enough. Simulations of the Poiseuille flow scenario accurately capture the theoretical velocity profile. The experiment shows the location of the fluid-wall boundary and the effects viscosity has on the velocity and convergence time. The numerical capabilities of the lattice Boltzmann model are tested further by simulating the more complex Moffatt vortex scenario. The method reproduces with high accuracy the theoretical predction that Moffat vortices will not form in a wedge if the vertex angle exceeds 146°. Practical issues limitations of the lattice Boltzmann method are discussed. In particular the accuracy of the bounce-back boundary condition is first order dependent on the grid resolution.
Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Methods for Fluid Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chikatamarla, Shyam; Boesch, Fabian; Sichau, David; Karlin, Ilya
2013-11-01
With its roots in statistical mechanics and kinetic theory, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a paradigm-changing innovation, offering for the first time an intrinsically parallel CFD algorithm. Over the past two decades, LBM has achieved numerous results in the field of CFD and is now in a position to challenge state-of-the art CFD techniques. Our major restyling of LBM resulted in an unconditionally stable entropic LBM which restored Second Law (Boltzmann H theorem) in the LBM kinetics and thus enabled affordable direct simulations of fluid turbulence. We review here recent advances in ELBM as a practical, modeling-free tool for simulation of turbulent flows in complex geometries. We shall present recent simulations including turbulent channel flow, flow past a circular cylinder, knotted vortex tubes, and flow past a surface mounted cube. ELBM listed all admissible lattices supporting a discrete entropy function and has classified them in hierarchically increasing order of accuracy. Applications of these higher-order lattices to simulations of turbulence and thermal flows shall also be presented. This work was supported CSCS grant s437.
Lattice Boltzmann Equation On a 2D Rectangular Grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bouzidi, MHamed; DHumieres, Dominique; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We construct a multi-relaxation lattice Boltzmann model on a two-dimensional rectangular grid. The model is partly inspired by a previous work of Koelman to construct a lattice BGK model on a two-dimensional rectangular grid. The linearized dispersion equation is analyzed to obtain the constraints on the isotropy of the transport coefficients and Galilean invariance for various wave propagations in the model. The linear stability of the model is also studied. The model is numerically tested for three cases: (a) a vortex moving with a constant velocity on a mesh periodic boundary conditions; (b) Poiseuille flow with an arbitrasy inclined angle with respect to the lattice orientation: and (c) a cylinder &symmetrically placed in a channel. The numerical results of these tests are compared with either analytic solutions or the results obtained by other methods. Satisfactory results are obtained for the numerical simulations.
Simulation of Rotary-Wing Near-Wake Vortex Structures Using Navier-Stokes CFD Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenwright, David; Strawn, Roger; Ahmad, Jasim; Duque, Earl; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
This paper will use high-resolution Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to model the near-wake vortex roll-up behind rotor blades. The locations and strengths of the trailing vortices will be determined from newly-developed visualization and analysis software tools applied to the CFD solutions. Computational results for rotor nearwake vortices will be used to study the near-wake vortex roll up for highly-twisted tiltrotor blades. These rotor blades typically have combinations of positive and negative spanwise loading and complex vortex wake interactions. Results of the computational studies will be compared to vortex-lattice wake models that are frequently used in rotorcraft comprehensive codes. Information from these comparisons will be used to improve the rotor wake models in the Tilt-Rotor Acoustic Code (TRAC) portion of NASA's Short Haul Civil Transport program (SHCT). Accurate modeling of the rotor wake is an important part of this program and crucial to the successful design of future civil tiltrotor aircraft. The rotor wake system plays an important role in blade-vortex interaction noise, a major problem for all rotorcraft including tiltrotors.
Shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, H. A.; Liu, C. H.
1992-01-01
Computational simulation and study of shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes are considered for bound (internal) and unbound (external) flow domains. The problem is formulated using the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations which are solved using an implicit, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. For the bound flow domain, a supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct and the problem is solved for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. For the unbound domain, a supersonic swirling flow issued from a nozzle into a uniform supersonic flow of lower Mach number is considered for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. The results show several modes of breakdown; e.g., no-breakdown, transient single-bubble breakdown, transient multi-bubble breakdown, periodic multi-bubble multi-frequency breakdown and helical breakdown.
Two vortex-blob regularization models for vortex sheet motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohn, Sung-Ik
2014-04-01
Evolving vortex sheets generally form singularities in finite time. The vortex blob model is an approach to regularize the vortex sheet motion and evolve past singularity formation. In this paper, we thoroughly compare two such regularizations: the Krasny-type model and the Beale-Majda model. It is found from a linear stability analysis that both models have exponentially decaying growth rates for high wavenumbers, but the Beale-Majda model has a faster decaying rate than the Krasny model. The Beale-Majda model thus gives a stronger regularization to the solution. We apply the blob models to the two example problems: a periodic vortex sheet and an elliptically loaded wing. The numerical results show that the solutions of the two models are similar in large and small scales, but are fairly different in intermediate scales. The sheet of the Beale-Majda model has more spiral turns than the Krasny-type model for the same value of the regularization parameter δ. We give numerical evidences that the solutions of the two models agree for an increasing amount of spiral turns and tend to converge to the same limit as δ is decreased. The inner spiral turns of the blob models behave differently with the outer turns and satisfy a self-similar form. We also examine irregular motions of the sheet at late times and find that the irregular motions shrink as δ is decreased. This fact suggests a convergence of the blob solution to the weak solution of infinite regular spiral turns.
Vortex tube reconnection at Re = 104
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Rees, Wim M.; Hussain, Fazle; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2012-07-01
We present simulations of the long-time dynamics of two anti-parallel vortex tubes with and without initial axial flow, at Reynolds number Re = Γ/ν = 104. Simulations were performed in a periodic domain with a remeshed vortex method using 785 × 106 particles. We quantify the vortex dynamics of the primary vortex reconnection that leads to the formation of elliptical rings with axial flow and report for the first time a subsequent collision of these rings. In the absence of initial axial flow, a -5/3 slope of the energy spectrum is observed during the first reconnection of the tubes. The resulting elliptical vortex rings experience a coiling of their vortex lines imparting an axial flow inside their cores. These rings eventually collide, exhibiting a -7/3 slope of the energy spectrum. Studies of vortex reconnection with an initial axial flow exhibit also the -7/3 slope during the initial collision as well as in the subsequent collision of the ensuing elliptical vortex rings. We quantify the detailed vortex dynamics of these collisions and examine the role of axial flow in the breakup of vortex structures.
Interaction of Vortex Ring with Cutting Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musta, Mustafa
2015-11-01
The interaction of a vortex ring impinging on a thin cutting plate was made experimentally using Volumetric 3-component Velocitmetry (v3v) technique. The vortex rings were generated with piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios and Re at 2-3 and 1500 - 3000, respectively. The cutting of vortex rings below center line leads to the formation of secondary vortices on each side of the plate which is look like two vortex rings, and a third vortex ring propagates further downstream in the direction of the initial vortex ring, which is previously showed by flow visualization study of Weigand (1993) and called ``trifurcation''. Trifurcation is very sensitive to the initial Reynolds number and the position of the plate with respect to the vortex ring generator pipe. The present work seeks more detailed investigation on the trifurcation using V3V technique. Conditions for the formation of trifurcation is analyzed and compared with Weigand (1993). The formed secondary vortex rings and the propagation of initial vortex ring in the downstream of the plate are analyzed by calculating their circulation, energy and trajectories.
Vortex Avalanches with Periodic Arrays of Pinning Sites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbas, J.; Heckel, T.; Kakalios, J.
2001-03-01
Numerical simulations by Nori and co-workers of dynamical phase transitions for magnetic vortices in type II superconductors when the defects which act as pinning sites are arranged in a periodic array have found a dramatic non-linear relationship between vortex voltage and driving current.2,4 In order to experimentally test the predictions of these simulations, a macroscopic physical analog of an array of flux vortices in the presense of an ordered lattice of pinning sites has been constructed. This simple table-top experimental system consists of conventional household magnets, arranged in an ordered grid (serving as the lattice of fixed pinning centers). A plexiglass sheet is positioned above these fixed magnets, and another collection of magnets (representing the magnetic flux vortices), oriented so that they are attracted to the fixed magnets are placed on top of the sheet. The entire apparatus is then tilted to a given angle (the analog of the driving voltage) and the velocity of the avalanching magnets is recorded using the induced voltage in a pick-up coil. By varying the ratio of movable magnets to fixed pinning magnets, the filling fraction can be adjusted, as can the pinning strength, by adjusting the separation of the plexiglass sheet between the fixed and movable magnets. The velocity of the avalanching magnets as the filling fraction is varied displays a jamming transition, with a non-trivial dependence on the pinning strength of the lattice of fixed magnets below the sheet.
Vortex boundary-layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradshaw, P.
1986-01-01
Parametric studies to identify a vortex generator were completed. Data acquisition in the first chosen configuration, in which a longitudinal vortex pair generated by an isolated delta wing starts to merge with a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate fairly close to the leading edge is nearly completed. Work on a delta-wing/flat-plate combination, consisting of a flow visualization and hot wire measurements taken with a computer controlled traverse gear and data logging system were completed. Data taking and analysis have continued, and sample results for another cross stream plane are presented. Available data include all mean velocity components, second order mean products of turbulent fluctuations, and third order mean products. Implementation of a faster data logging system was accomplished.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasel-Be-Hagh, Ahmadreza; Carriveau, Rupp; Ting, David S.-K.; Turner, John Stewart
2015-10-01
Extending from the model proposed by Vasel-Be-Hagh et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 769, 522 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2015.126], a perturbation analysis is performed to modify Turner's radius by taking into account the viscous effect. The modified radius includes two terms; the zeroth-order solution representing the effect of buoyancy, and the first-order perturbation correction describing the influence of viscosity. The zeroth-order solution is explicit Turner's radius; the first-order perturbation modification, however, includes the drag coefficient, which is unknown and of interest. Fitting the photographically measured radius into the modified equation yields the time history of the drag coefficient of the corresponding buoyant vortex ring. To give further clarification, the proposed model is applied to calculate the drag coefficient of a buoyant vortex ring at a Bond number of approximately 85; a similar procedure can be applied at other Bond numbers.
Wake Vortex Algorithm Scoring Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robins, R. E.; Delisi, D. P.; Hinton, David (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This report compares the performance of two models of trailing vortex evolution for which interaction with the ground is not a significant factor. One model uses eddy dissipation rate (EDR) and the other uses the kinetic energy of turbulence fluctuations (TKE) to represent the effect of turbulence. In other respects, the models are nearly identical. The models are evaluated by comparing their predictions of circulation decay, vertical descent, and lateral transport to observations for over four hundred cases from Memphis and Dallas/Fort Worth International Airports. These observations were obtained during deployments in support of NASA's Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The results of the comparisons show that the EDR model usually performs slightly better than the TKE model.
Collisions of Vortex Filament Pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banica, Valeria; Faou, Erwan; Miot, Evelyne
2014-12-01
We consider the problem of collisions of vortex filaments for a model introduced by Klein et al. (J Fluid Mech 288:201-248, 1995) and Zakharov (Sov Phys Usp 31(7):672-674, 1988, Lect. Notes Phys 536:369-385, 1999) to describe the interaction of almost parallel vortex filaments in three-dimensional fluids. Since the results of Crow (AIAA J 8:2172-2179, 1970) examples of collisions are searched as perturbations of antiparallel translating pairs of filaments, with initial perturbations related to the unstable mode of the linearized problem; most results are numerical calculations. In this article, we first consider a related model for the evolution of pairs of filaments, and we display another type of initial perturbation leading to collision in finite time. Moreover, we give numerical evidence that it also leads to collision through the initial model. We finally study the self-similar solutions of the model.
The Helicity of Vortex Filaments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrich, Dean; Tao, Louis
1996-03-01
The helicity, defined by H = int dV v \\cdot nabla × v, is a conserved quantity of the three-dimensional Euler equations. Traditionally the helicity has been viewed as a measure of the topology of vortex lines, but it is shown that the helicity measures their geometry as well as their topology (J.D. Bekenstein, Physics Letters B), 282 (1992) 44-49.. The existence of helicity-preserving reconnection events is discussed.
Numerical simulation of vortex breakdown by the vortex-filament method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, Y.; Leonard, A.; Spalart, P. R.
1983-01-01
The vortex filament method was applied to the simulation of vortex breakdown. The principal vortex region was represented by multiple filaments, and an axial velocity component was induced by a spiral winding of the filaments. First, an accuracy check was performed for a cylindrical swirling flow with simple analytical expressions for the axial and theta velocities. The result suggests that the flow field is simulated to any accuracy by increasing the number of filaments. Second, an axisymmetric type vortex breakdown was simulated, with experimental data serving as upstream conditions. The calculated axial and theta velocity contours show the breakdown of the vortex, including a rapid change in the vortex core, followed axially by a recovery zone and then a second breakdown. When three dimensional initial data are used the second breakdown appears to be of the spiral type in correspondence with experimental observations. The present method is easily used to simulate other types of vortex breakdown or other vortex flows with axial velocity.
Prediction and Control of Vortex Dominated and Vortex-wake Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama
1996-01-01
This report describes the activities and accomplishments under this research grant, including a list of publications and dissertations, produced in the field of prediction and control of vortex dominated and vortex wake flows.
Vortex methods for separated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, Philippe R.
1988-01-01
The numerical solution of the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations by Lagrangian vortex methods is discussed. The mathematical background is presented in an elementary fashion and includes the relationship with traditional point-vortex studies, the convergence to smooth solutions of the Euler equations, and the essential differences between two- and three-dimensional cases. The difficulties in extending the method to viscous or compressible flows are explained. The overlap with the excellent review articles available is kept to a minimum and more emphasis is placed on the area of expertise, namely two-dimensional flows around bluff bodies. When solid walls are present, complete mathematical models are not available and a more heuristic attitude must be adopted. The imposition of inviscid and viscous boundary conditions without conformal mappings or image vortices and the creation of vorticity along solid walls are examined in detail. Methods for boundary-layer treatment and the question of the Kutta condition are discussed. Practical aspects and tips helpful in creating a method that really works are explained. The topics include the robustness of the method and the assessment of accuracy, vortex-core profiles, timemarching schemes, numerical dissipation, and efficient programming. Calculations of flows past streamlined or bluff bodies are used as examples when appropriate.
Vortex rings impinging on permeable boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mujal-Colilles, Anna; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Bateman, Allen
2015-01-01
Experiments with vortex rings impinging permeable and solid boundaries are presented in order to investigate the influence of permeability. Utilizing Particle Image Velocimetry, we compared the behaviour of a vortex ring impinging four different reticulated foams (with permeability k ˜ 26 - 85 × 10-8 m2) and a solid boundary. Results show how permeability affects the stretching phenomena of the vortex ring and the formation and evolution of the secondary vortex ring with opposite sign. Moreover, permeability also affects the macroscopic no-slip boundary condition found on the solid boundary, turning it into an apparent slip boundary condition for the most permeable boundary. The apparent slip-boundary condition and the flux exchange between the ambient fluid and the foam are jointly responsible for both the modified formation of the secondary vortex and changes on the vortex ring diameter increase.
Topology of Vortex-Wing Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenna, Chris; Rockwell, Donald
2016-11-01
Aircraft flying together in an echelon or V formation experience aerodynamic advantages. Impingement of the tip vortex from the leader (upstream) wing on the follower wing can yield an increase of lift to drag ratio. This enhancement is known to depend on the location of vortex impingement on the follower wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine streamline topology in successive crossflow planes, which characterize the streamwise evolution of the vortex structure along the chord of the follower wing and into its wake. Different modes of vortex-follower wing interaction are created by varying both the spanwise and vertical locations of the leader wing. These modes are defined by differences in the number and locations of critical points of the flow topology, and involve bifurcation, attenuation, and mutual induction. The bifurcation and attenuation modes decrease the strength of the tip vortex from the follower wing. In contrast, the mutual induction mode increases the strength of the follower tip vortex. AFOSR.
Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don
2014-01-01
Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.
Adaptive filtering for the lattice Boltzmann method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marié, Simon; Gloerfelt, Xavier
2017-03-01
In this study, a new selective filtering technique is proposed for the Lattice Boltzmann Method. This technique is based on an adaptive implementation of the selective filter coefficient σ. The proposed model makes the latter coefficient dependent on the shear stress in order to restrict the use of the spatial filtering technique in sheared stress region where numerical instabilities may occur. Different parameters are tested on 2D test-cases sensitive to numerical stability and on a 3D decaying Taylor-Green vortex. The results are compared to the classical static filtering technique and to the use of a standard subgrid-scale model and give significant improvements in particular for low-order filter consistent with the LBM stencil.
Dissipative photonic lattice solitons.
Ultanir, Erdem A; Stegeman, George I; Christodoulides, Demetrios N
2004-04-15
We show that discrete dissipative optical lattice solitons are possible in waveguide array configurations that involve periodically patterned semiconductor optical amplifiers and saturable absorbers. The characteristics of these low-power soliton states are investigated, and their propagation constant eigenvalues are mapped on Floquet-Bloch band diagrams. The prospect of observing such low-power dissipative lattice solitons is discussed in detail.
Point vortex modelling of the wake dynamics behind asymmetric vortex generator arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baldacchino, D.; Ferreira, C.; Ragni, D.; van Bussel, G. J. W.
2016-09-01
In this work, we present a simple inviscid point vortex model to study the dynamics of asymmetric vortex rows, as might appear behind misaligned vortex generator vanes. Starting from the existing solution of the infinite vortex cascade, a numerical model of four base-vortices is chosen to represent two primary counter-rotating vortex pairs and their mirror plane images, introducing the vortex strength ratio as a free parameter. The resulting system of equations is also defined in terms of the vortex row separation and the qualitative features of the ensuing motion are mapped. A translating and orbiting regime are identified for different cascade separations. The latter occurs for all unequal strength vortex pairs. Thus, the motion is further classified by studying the cyclic behaviour of the orbiting regime and it is shown that for small mismatches in vortex strength, the orbiting length and time scales are sufficiently large as to appear, in the near wake, as translational (non-orbiting). However, for larger mismatches in vortex strength, the orbiting motion approaches the order of the starting height of the vortex. Comparisons between experimental data and the potential flow model show qualitative agreement whilst viscous effects account for the major discrepancies. Despite this, the model captures the orbital mode observed in the measurements and provides an impetus for considering the impact of these complex interactions on vortex generator designs.
Vectorial complex-source vortex beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlov, S.; Banzer, P.
2014-08-01
The scalar complex source vortex model is an accurate description of highly focused scalar vortices. We use it to construct a variety of vectorial solutions of Maxwell's equations describing highly focused and variously polarized vector vortex beams accurately. Three different families of optical vector vortex beams are presented and studied in detail. In this model, optical vortices derived within Cartesian symmetry correspond to circularly and linearly polarized highly focused vortex beams in the focus of a high numerical aperture focusing system. In addition, we report on vortical complex-source beams derived within cylindrical and spherical symmetries which exhibit very special and intriguing properties.
Optical vortex phase-shifting digital holography.
Guo, Cheng-Shan; Cheng, Xin; Ren, Xiu-Yun; Ding, Jian-Ping; Wang, Hui-Tian
2004-10-18
We report a new optical vortex phase-shifting method for digital holography, in which an optical vortex mode is taken as the reference beam for holographic recording, and the required phase shifts are directly generated by rotating the vortex mode. In digital reconstruction, the complex amplitude of the object wave can be retrieved by use of the conventional phase shifting algorithm on condition that the digital illumination beam is replaced by an vortex beam with the same topological charge as the reference used. Both the theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.
ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl
2010-01-01
ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.
Measurement-based quantum lattice gas model of fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions.
Micci, Michael M; Yepez, Jeffrey
2015-09-01
Presented are quantum simulation results using a measurement-based quantum lattice gas algorithm for Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions. Numerical prediction of the kinematic viscosity was measured by the decay rate of an initial sinusoidal flow profile. Due to local quantum entanglement in the quantum lattice gas, the minimum kinematic viscosity in the measurement-based quantum lattice gas is lower than achievable in a classical lattice gas. The numerically predicted viscosities precisely match the theoretical predictions obtained with a mean field approximation. Uniform flow profile with double shear layers, on a 16K×8K lattice, leads to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, breaking up the shear layer into pairs of counter-rotating vortices that eventually merge via vortex fusion and dissipate because of the nonzero shear viscosity.
Chemical doping effect in the LaRu3Si2 superconductor with a kagome lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Baoxuan; Li, Sheng; Wen, Hai-Hu
2016-09-01
LaRu3Si2 is a superconductor with a kagome lattice and transition temperature of 7 K. By doping different rare-earth and transition-metal elements on the La and Ru sites, the evolution of superconductivity has been extensively investigated. It is found that, except for doping Fe to Ru sites, all other dopants with rare-earth (Y, Lu, and Ce) or transition metals (Ni, Cr, and Cu) seem to suppress superconducting transition temperature in LaRu3Si2 very slowly. The quick suppression of superconductivity by Fe doping can be described by the Abrikosov-Gorkov relation. By fitting and analyzing the magnetic susceptibility data under a high magnetic field with the Curie-Weiss law, we find that the effective magnetic moments for Ni and Cr doped samples are very small, indicating that these ions actually do not behave like strong magnetic scattering centers as Fe ions do in the present environment. Our experiments on systematically doped samples and related analysis indicate that the superconducting gap in LaRu3Si2 has no sign change.
Vortex structure in superfluid color-flavor locked quark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alford, Mark G.; Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Vachaspati, Tanmay; Windisch, Andreas
2016-11-01
The core region of a neutron star may feature quark matter in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase. The CFL condensate breaks the baryon number symmetry, such that the phenomenon of superfluidity arises. If the core of the star is rotating, vortices will form in the superfluid, carrying the quanta of angular momentum. In a previous study we have solved the question of stability of these vortices, where we found numerical proof of a conjectured instability, according to which superfluid vortices will decay into an arrangement of so-called semi-superfluid fluxtubes. Here we report first results of an extension of our framework that allows us to study multi-vortex dynamics. This will in turn enable us to investigate the structure of semi-superfluid string lattices, which could be relevant to study pinning phenomena at the boundary of the core.
Courant, E.D.; Garren, A.A.
1985-10-01
A realistic, distributed interaction region (IR) lattice has been designed that includes new components discussed in the June 1985 lattice workshop. Unlike the test lattices, the lattice presented here includes utility straights and the mechanism for crossing the beams in the experimental straights. Moreover, both the phase trombones and the dispersion suppressors contain the same bending as the normal cells. Vertically separated beams and 6 Tesla, 1-in-1 magnets are assumed. Since the cells are 200 meters long, and have 60 degree phase advance, this lattice has been named RLD1, in analogy with the corresponding test lattice, TLD1. The quadrupole gradient is 136 tesla/meter in the cells, and has similar values in other quadrupoles except in those in the IR`s, where the maximum gradient is 245 tesla/meter. RLD1 has distributed IR`s; however, clustered realistic lattices can easily be assembled from the same components, as was recently done in a version that utilizes the same type of experimental and utility straights as those of RLD1.
Superalloy Lattice Block Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.
2003-01-01
In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.
Quasicrystallography from Bn lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koca, M.; Koca, N. O.; Al-Mukhaini, A.; Al-Qanabi, A.
2014-11-01
We present a group theoretical analysis of the hypercubic lattice described by the affine Coxeter-Weyl group Wa (Bn). An h-fold symmetric quasicrystal structure follows from the hyperqubic lattice whose point group is described by the Coxeter-Weyl group W (Bn) with the Coxeter number h=2n. Higher dimensional cubic lattices are explicitly constructed for n = 4,5,6 by identifying their rank-3 Coxeter subgroups and maximal dihedral subgroups. Decomposition of their Voronoi cells under the respective rank-3 subgroups W (A3), W (H2)×W (A1) and W (H3)lead to the rhombic dodecahedron, rhombic icosahedron and rhombic triacontahedron respectively. Projection of the lattice B4 describes a quasicrystal structure with 8-fold symmetry. The B5 lattice leads to quasicrystals with both 5fold and 10 fold symmetries. The lattice B6 projects on a 12-fold symmetric quasicrystal as well as a 3D icosahedral quasicrystal depending on the choice of subspace of projections. The projected sets of lattice points are compatible with the available experimental data.
Energy Extraction from Fluid Flow Via Vortex Induced Angular Oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Sorathiya, Shahajhan H.
2015-11-01
Using Lattice-Boltzmann simulations, we study angular oscillations of an elliptical cylinder attached to a torsional spring, with the axis placed perpendicular to a uniform flow, at low Reynolds numbers (Re=100 and Re=200). The equilibrium angle and stiffness of the torsional spring is chosen such that the ellipse reaches stable equilibrium at an angle of roughly 45° with respect to the incoming flow. This configuration leads to large unsteady torque due to vortex shedding, which in turn can lead to large oscillations of the ellipse, with several frequency modes. Along with measuring the angular oscillations of the ellipse, we also measure the potential for power-extraction from this setup, by attaching an external angular damper to the axis of the ellipse. For low density ratios, the ellipse tends to oscillate within the first quadrant, while, for higher density ratios, the ellipse, due to its tendency to auto-rotate, undergoes very large oscillations. The ellipse locks on to primary and secondary vortex shedding modes over the range of density ratios studied here. The power output of this setup increases with increasing Reynolds number and density ratio, with peak efficiency of 1.7%.
Investigation of the Vortex Tab. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffler, K. D.
1985-01-01
An investigation was made into the drag reduction capability of vortex tabs on delta wing vortex flaps. The vortex tab is an up-deflected leading edge portion of the vortex flap. Tab deflection augments vortex suction on the flap, thus improving its thrust, but the tab itself is drag producing. Whether a net improvement in the drag reduction can be obtained with vortex tabs, in comparison with plane vortex flaps of the same total area, was the objective of this investigation. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on two models, and analytical studies were performed on one of them using a free vortex sheet theory.
Rotating hot-wire investigation of the vortex responsible for blade-vortex interaction noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fontana, Richard Remo
1988-01-01
This distribution of the circumferential velocity of the vortex responsible for blade-vortex interaction noise was measured using a rotating hot-wire rake synchronously meshed with a model helicopter rotor at the blade passage frequency. Simultaneous far-field acoustic data and blade differential pressure measurements were obtained. Results show that the shape of the measured far-field acoustic blade-vortex interaction signature depends on the blade-vortex interaction geometry. The experimental results are compared with the Widnall-Wolf model for blade-vortex interaction noise.
Jammed lattice sphere packings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallus, Yoav; Marcotte, Étienne; Torquato, Salvatore
2013-12-01
We generate and study an ensemble of isostatic jammed hard-sphere lattices. These lattices are obtained by compression of a periodic system with an adaptive unit cell containing a single sphere until the point of mechanical stability. We present detailed numerical data about the densities, pair correlations, force distributions, and structure factors of such lattices. We show that this model retains many of the crucial structural features of the classical hard-sphere model and propose it as a model for the jamming and glass transitions that enables exploration of much higher dimensions than are usually accessible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jukna, A.; Steponavičienė, L.; Plaušinaitienė, V.; Abrutis, A.; Maneikis, A.; Šliužienė, K.; Lisauskas, V.; Sobolewski, Roman
2013-12-01
We report our results of investigation of electric and magnetic properties of partially oxygen-depleted channels for easy vortex motion in YBa2Cu3O7- x (YBCO) superconducting, 50-μm-wide, and 100-μm-long microbridges at temperatures below the onset of the superconducting state critical temperature T {c/on}. The channels were produced by means of a laser-writing technique. The writing was performed using a 0.1-0.3 W power, continuous-wave laser radiation focused down to a ~ 5 μm spot on the surface of a superconducting film in a nitrogen gas atmosphere, and resulted in perpendicular stripes (channels) with partial ( x ~ 0.2) reduction of the oxygen content in the YBCO stripe. The oxygen-depleted channels exhibit a depressed T c and lower both the critical current density and the first critical magnetic field, as compared with the laser-untreated areas. The bias current applied to the bridge self-produced a magnetic flux that penetrated the channels in a form of Abrikosov magnetic vortices that, subsequently, moved coherently (a quasi-Josephson effect) along the channels in the narrow temperature range of 0.943 T {c/on}-0.98 T {c/on} and manifested themselves as steps on the current-voltage characteristics of our microbridges. Our results demonstrate that laser-induced formation of artificial channels of the flux flow can be used for a precise control of vortex nucleation and their coherent motion in pre-assigned regions of thin-film YBCO devices.
Simulations of Active Vortex Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansour, N. N.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
We are interested in the study, via numerical simulations, of active vortex generators. Vortex generators may be used to modify the inner part of the boundary layer or to control separation thus enhancing the performance and maneuverability of aerodynamic configurations. we consider generators that consist of a surface cavity elongated in the streamwise direction and partially covered with a moving lid that at rest lies flush with the boundary. Streamwise vorticity is generated and ejected due to the oscillatory motion of the lid. The present simulations complement relevant experimental investigations of active vortex generators that have been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center and Stanford University used a piezoelectric device in water, allowing for small amplitude high frequency oscillations. They placed the lid asymmetrically on the cavity and observed a strong outward velocity at the small gap of the cavity. Saddoughi used a larger mechanically driven device in air to investigate this flow and observed a jet emerging from the wide gap of the configuration, contrary to the findings of Jacobson and Reynolds We are simulating the flows generated by these devices and we are conducting a parametric study that would help us elucidate the physical mechanisms present in the flow. Conventional computational schemes encounter difficulties when simulating flows around complex configurations undergoing arbitrary motions. Here we present a formulation that achieves this task on a purely Lagrangian frame by extending the formulation presented by Koumoutsakos, Leonard and Pepin (1994). The viscous effects are taken into account by modifying the strength Of the particles, whereas fast multipole schemes employing hundreds of thousands of particles allow for high resolution simulations. We shall present simulation results of an oscillating plate at various Reynolds numbers and Strouhal frequencies.
Simulations of Active Vortex Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansour, N. N.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
We are interested in the study, via numerical simulations, of active vortex generators. Vortex generators may be used to modify the inner part of the boundary layer or to control separation thus enhancing the performance and maneuverability of aerodynamic configurations. We consider generators that consist of a surface cavity elongated in the streamwise direction and partially covered with a moving lid that at rest lies flush with the boundary. Streamwise voracity is generated and ejected due to the oscillatory motion of the lid. The present simulations c Implement relevant experimental investigations of active vortex generators that have been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center and Stanford University. Jacobson and Reynolds used a piezoelectric device in water, allowing for small amplitude high frequency oscillations. They placed the lid asymmetrically on the cavity and observed a strong outward velocity at the small gap of the cavity. Saddoughi used a larger mechanically driven device in air to investigate this flow and observed a jet emerging from the wide gap of the configuration, contrary to the findings of Jacobson and Reynolds. More recently, Lachowiez and Wlezien are investigating the flow generated by an electro-mechanically driven lid to be used for assertion control in aerodynamic applications. We are simulating the flows generated by these devices and we are conducting a parametric study that would help us elucidate the physical mechanisms present in the flow. Conventional computational schemes encounter difficulties when simulating flows around complex configurations undergoing arbitrary motions. Here we present a formulation that achieves this task on a purely Lagrangian frame by extending the formulation presented by Koumoutsakos, Leonard and Pepin. The viscous effects are taken into account by modifying the strength of the particles, whereas fast multipole schemes employing hundreds of thousands ol'particle's allow for high resolution simulations
The effect of tip vortex structure on helicopter noise due to blade/vortex interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, T. L.; Widnall, S. E.
1978-01-01
A potential cause of helicopter impulsive noise, commonly called blade slap, is the unsteady lift fluctuation on a rotor blade due to interaction with the vortex trailed from another blade. The relationship between vortex structure and the intensity of the acoustic signal is investigated. The analysis is based on a theoretical model for blade/vortex interaction. Unsteady lift on the blades due to blade/vortex interaction is calculated using linear unsteady aerodynamic theory, and expressions are derived for the directivity, frequency spectrum, and transient signal of the radiated noise. An inviscid rollup model is used to calculate the velocity profile in the trailing vortex from the spanwise distribution of blade tip loading. A few cases of tip loading are investigated, and numerical results are presented for the unsteady lift and acoustic signal due to blade/vortex interaction. The intensity of the acoustic signal is shown to be quite sensitive to changes in tip vortex structure.
Pinch-off of axisymmetric vortex pairs in the limit of vanishing vortex line curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadri, V.; Krueger, P. S.
2016-07-01
Pinch-off of axisymmetric vortex pairs generated by flow between concentric cylinders with radial separation ΔR was studied numerically and compared with planar vortex dipole behavior. The axisymmetric case approaches planar vortex dipole behavior in the limit of vanishing ΔR. The flow was simulated at a jet Reynolds number of 1000 (based on ΔR and the jet velocity), jet pulse length-to-gap ratio ( /L Δ R ) in the range 10-20, and gap-to-outer radius ratio ( /Δ R R o ) in the range 0.01-0.1. Contrary to investigations of strictly planar flows, vortex pinch-off was observed for all gap sizes investigated. This difference was attributed to the less constrained geometry considered, suggesting that even very small amounts of vortex line curvature and/or vortex stretching may disrupt the absence of pinch-off observed in strictly planar vortex dipoles.
Vortex metrology using Fourier analysis techniques: vortex networks correlation fringes.
Angel-Toro, Luciano; Sierra-Sosa, Daniel; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Néstor
2012-10-20
In this work, we introduce an alternative method of analysis in vortex metrology based on the application of the Fourier optics techniques. The first part of the procedure is conducted as is usual in vortex metrology for uniform in-plane displacement determination. On the basis of two recorded intensity speckled distributions, corresponding to two states of a diffuser coherently illuminated, we numerically generate an analytical signal from each recorded intensity pattern by using a version of the Riesz integral transform. Then, from each analytical signal, a two-dimensional pseudophase map is generated in which the vortices are located and characterized in terms of their topological charges and their core's structural properties. The second part of the procedure allows obtaining Young's interference fringes when Fourier transforming the light passing through a diffracting mask with multiple apertures at the locations of the homologous vortices. In fact, we use the Fourier transform as a mathematical operation to compute the far-field diffraction intensity pattern corresponding to the multiaperture set. Each aperture from the set is associated with a rectangular hole that coincides both in shape and size with a pixel from recorded images. We show that the fringe analysis can be conducted as in speckle photography in an extended range of displacement measurements. Effects related with speckled decorrelation are also considered. Our experimental results agree with those of speckle photography in the range in which both techniques are applicable.
Low flow vortex shedding flowmeter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waugaman, Charles J.
1989-01-01
The purpose was to continue a development project on a no moving parts vortex shedding flowmeter used for flow measurement of hypergols. The project involved the design and construction of a test loop to evaluate the meter for flow of Freon which simulates the hypergol fluids. Results were obtained on the output frequency characteristics of the flow meter as a function of flow rate. A family of flow meters for larger size lines and ranges of flow was sized based on the results of the tested meter.
Effect of point-like disorder on the vortex phase diagram in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-δ in oblique field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konczykowski, M.; van der Beek, C. J.; Mosser, V.; Koshelev, A. E.; Li, M.; Kes, P. H.
2010-12-01
The phase diagram of vortex matter in the layered superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-δ exposed to a magnetic field oblique to the crystalline c-axis contains two first order transition (FOT) lines [1]. The first, HFOTm, separates the vortex solid from the vortex liquid, the second, HFOTct, separates the combined lattice state in the vortex solid from a tilted lattice state. The angular dependence of HFOTm in the tilted lattice region follows the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau model [2], allowing for the determination of the anisotropy factor γeff and the contribution of magnetic coupling to the mutual interaction of “pancake” vortices in the crossed lattice limit. The later parameter is directly related to the in-plane penetration depth λab. We investigate the evolution of the phase diagram of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-δ in oblique fields with point-like disorder, introduced by irradiation with 2.3 MeV electrons. Apart from the depression of Tc, point-like disorder induces an increase of γeff and a depression of the superfluid density.
Vortex motion on surfaces of small curvature
Dorigoni, Daniele Dunajski, Maciej Manton, Nicholas S.
2013-12-15
We consider a single Abelian Higgs vortex on a surface Σ whose Gaussian curvature K is small relative to the size of the vortex, and analyse vortex motion by using geodesics on the moduli space of static solutions. The moduli space is Σ with a modified metric, and we propose that this metric has a universal expansion, in terms of K and its derivatives, around the initial metric on Σ. Using an integral expression for the Kähler potential on the moduli space, we calculate the leading coefficients of this expansion numerically, and find some evidence for their universality. The expansion agrees to first order with the metric resulting from the Ricci flow starting from the initial metric on Σ, but differs at higher order. We compare the vortex motion with the motion of a point particle along geodesics of Σ. Relative to a particle geodesic, the vortex experiences an additional force, which to leading order is proportional to the gradient of K. This force is analogous to the self-force on bodies of finite size that occurs in gravitational motion. -- Highlights: •We study an Abelian Higgs vortex on a surface with small curvature. •A universal expansion for the moduli space metric is proposed. •We numerically check the universality at low orders. •Vortex motion differs from point particle motion because a vortex has a finite size. •Moduli space geometry has similarities with the geometry arising from Ricci flow.
An investigation of the vortex method
Pryor, Jr., Duaine Wright
1994-05-01
The vortex method is a numerical scheme for solving the vorticity transport equation. Chorin introduced modern vortex methods. The vortex method is a Lagrangian, grid free method which has less intrinsic diffusion than many grid schemes. It is adaptive in the sense that elements are needed only where the vorticity is non-zero. Our description of vortex methods begins with the point vortex method of Rosenhead for two dimensional inviscid flow, and builds upon it to eventually cover the case of three dimensional slightly viscous flow with boundaries. This section gives an introduction to the fundamentals of the vortex method. This is done in order to give a basic impression of the previous work and its line of development, as well as develop some notation and concepts which will be used later. The purpose here is not to give a full review of vortex methods or the contributions made by all the researchers in the field. Please refer to the excellent review papers in Sethian and Gustafson, chapters 1 Sethian, 2 Hald, 3 Sethian, 8 Chorin provide a solid introduction to vortex methods, including convergence theory, application in two dimensions and connection to statistical mechanics and polymers. Much of the information in this review is taken from those chapters, Chorin and Marsden and Batchelor, the chapters are also useful for their extensive bibliographies.
The modelling of symmetric airfoil vortex generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reichert, B. A.; Wendt, B. J.
1996-01-01
An experimental study is conducted to determine the dependence of vortex generator geometry and impinging flow conditions on shed vortex circulation and crossplane peak vorticity for one type of vortex generator. The vortex generator is a symmetric airfoil having a NACA 0012 cross-sectional profile. The geometry and flow parameters varied include angle-of-attack alfa, chordlength c, span h, and Mach number M. The vortex generators are mounted either in isolation or in a symmetric counter-rotating array configuration on the inside surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio is delta/R = 0. 17. Circulation and peak vorticity data are derived from crossplane velocity measurements conducted at or about 1 chord downstream of the vortex generator trailing edge. Shed vortex circulation is observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. With these parameters held constant, circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio AR. Shed vortex peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. Unlike circulation, however, peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at AR approx. 2.0 before falling off.
Vortex avalanches in a type II superconductor
Behnia, K.; Capan, C.; Mailly, D.; Etienne, B.
1999-12-01
The authors report on a study of the spatiotemporal variation of magnetic induction in a superconducting niobium sample during a slow sweep of external magnetic field. A sizable fraction of the increase in the local vortex population occurs in abrupt jumps. They compare the size distribution of these avalanches with the predictions of self-organized-criticality models for vortex dynamics.
Investigation of Wake-Vortex Aircraft Encounters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Sonya T.
1999-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions though the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. The major goal of the TAP program is to develop the technology that will allow air traffic levels during instrument meteorological condition to approach those achieved during visual operations. The Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement of TAP at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) will develop the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The purpose of the AVOSS is to integrate current and predicted weather conditions, wake vortex transport and decay knowledge, wake vortex sensor data, and operational definitions of acceptable strengths for vortex encounters to produce dynamic wake vortex separation criteria. The proposed research is in support of the wake vortex hazard definition component of the LaRC AVOSS development research. The research program described in the next section provided an analysis of the static test data and uses this data to evaluate the accuracy vortex/wake-encounter models. The accuracy of these models has not before been evaluated using experimental data. The research results also presented the first analysis of the forces and moments imparted on an airplane during a wake vortex encounter using actual flight test data.
Spectral stability of Taylor's vortex array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, S. P.; Tobak, M.
1986-01-01
In a global sense it is shown that the two-dimensional Taylor vortex array, an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, is absolutely and monotonically stable with respect to infinitesimal disturbances of all discrete frequencies as long as the viscosity is positive. It is suggested that the Taylor vortex array may also be stable with respect to finite amplitude disturbances.
Vortex attraction and the formation of sunspots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, E. N.
1992-01-01
A downdraft vortex ring in a stratified atmosphere exhibits universal attraction for nearby vertical magnetic flux bundles. It is speculated that the magnetic fields emerging through the surface of the sun are individually encircled by one or more subsurface vortex rings, providing an important part of the observed clustering of magnetic fibrils to form pores and sunspots.
Superalloy Lattice Block Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.
2004-01-01
Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.
Root lattices and quasicrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baake, M.; Joseph, D.; Kramer, P.; Schlottmann, M.
1990-10-01
It is shown that root lattices and their reciprocals might serve as the right pool for the construction of quasicrystalline structure models. All noncrystallographic symmetries observed so far are covered in minimal embedding with maximal symmetry.
Root lattices and quasicrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baake, M.; Joseph, D.; Kramer, P.; Schlottmann, M.
1990-10-01
It is shown how root lattices and their reciprocals might serve as the right pool for the construction of quasicrystalline structure models. All non-periodic symmetries observed so far are covered in minimal embedding with maximal symmetry.
ORGINOS,K.
2003-01-07
I review the current status of hadronic structure computations on the lattice. I describe the basic lattice techniques and difficulties and present some of the latest lattice results; in particular recent results of the RBC group using domain wall fermions are also discussed. In conclusion, lattice computations can play an important role in understanding the hadronic structure and the fundamental properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Although some difficulties still exist, several significant steps have been made. Advances in computer technology are expected to play a significant role in pushing these computations closer to the chiral limit and in including dynamical fermions. RBC has already begun preliminary dynamical domain wall fermion computations [49] which we expect to be pushed forward with the arrival of QCD0C. In the near future, we also expect to complete the non-perturbative renormalization of the relevant derivative operators in quenched QCD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidner, Carrie; Yu, Hoon; Anderson, Dana
2016-05-01
In this work, we report on progress towards performing interferometry using atoms trapped in an optical lattice. That is, we start with atoms in the ground state of an optical lattice potential V(x) =V0cos [ 2 kx + ϕ(t) ] , and by a prescribed phase function ϕ(t) , transform from one atomic wavefunction to another. In this way, we implement the standard interferometric sequence of beam splitting, propagation, reflection, reverse propagation, and recombination. Through the use of optimal control techniques, we have computationally demonstrated a scalable accelerometer that provides information on the sign of the applied acceleration. Extension of this idea to a two-dimensional shaken-lattice-based gyroscope is discussed. In addition, we report on the experimental implementation of the shaken lattice system.
Supersonic shock wave/vortex interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Settles, G. S.; Cattafesta, L.
1993-01-01
Although shock wave/vortex interaction is a basic and important fluid dynamics problem, very little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, a detailed experimental study of the interaction between a supersonic streamwise turbulent vortex and a shock wave was carried out at the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory. A vortex is produced by replaceable swirl vanes located upstream of the throat of various converging-diverging nozzles. The supersonic vortex is then injected into either a coflowing supersonic stream or ambient air. The structure of the isolated vortex is investigated in a supersonic wind tunnel using miniature, fast-response, five-hole and total temperature probes and in a free jet using laser Doppler velocimetry. The cases tested have unit Reynolds numbers in excess of 25 million per meter, axial Mach numbers ranging from 2.5 to 4.0, and peak tangential Mach numbers from 0 (i.e., a pure jet) to about 0.7. The results show that the typical supersonic wake-like vortex consists of a non-isentropic, rotational core, where the reduced circulation distribution is self similar, and an outer isentropic, irrotational region. The vortex core is also a region of significant turbulent fluctuations. Radial profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and axial-tangential Reynolds stress are presented. The interactions between the vortex and both oblique and normal shock waves are investigated using nonintrusive optical diagnostics (i.e. schlieren, planar laser scattering, and laser Doppler velocimetry). Of the various types, two Mach 2.5 overexpanded-nozzle Mach disc interactions are examined in detail. Below a certain vortex strength, a 'weak' interaction exists in which the normal shock is perturbed locally into an unsteady 'bubble' shock near the vortex axis, but vortex breakdown (i.e., a stagnation point) does not occur. For stronger vortices, a random unsteady 'strong' interaction results that causes vortex breakdown. The vortex core reforms downstream of
Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory
Monahan, Christopher
2014-11-01
I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.
Origin of reversed vortex ratchet motion.
Gillijns, W; Silhanek, A V; Moshchalkov, V V; Reichhardt, C J Olson; Reichhardt, C
2007-12-14
We experimentally demonstrate that the origin of multiply reversed rectified vortex motion in an asymmetric pinning landscape not only is a consequence of the vortex-vortex interactions but also essentially depends on the ratio between the characteristic interaction distance and the period of the asymmetric pinning potential. We study four samples with different periods d of the asymmetric potential. For large d the dc voltage V(dc) recorded under a ac excitation indicates that the average vortex drift is from bigger to smaller dots for all explored positive fields. As d is reduced, a series of sign reversals in the dc response are observed as a function of field. We show that the number of sign reversals increases as d decreases. These findings are in agreement with recent computer simulations and illustrate the relevance of the different characteristic lengths for the vortex rectification effects.
Internal structure of a vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, Y.; Leonard, A.; Spalart, P. R.
1986-01-01
An axisymmetric vortex breakdown was well simulated by the vortex filament method. The agreement with the experiment was qualitatively good. In particular, the structure in the interior of the vortex breakdown was ensured to a great degree by the present simulation. The second breakdown, or spiral type, which occurs downstream of the first axisymmetric breakdown, was simulated more similarly to the experiment than before. It shows a kink of the vortex filaments and strong three-dimensionality. Furthermore, a relatively low velocity region was observed near the second breakdown. It was also found that it takes some time for this physical phenomenon to attain its final stage. The comparison with the experiment is getting better as time goes on. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the comparison of the simulated results with the experiment. The present results help to make clear the mechanism of a vortex breakdown.
Vortex ratchet induced by controlled edge roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerbu, D.; Gladilin, V. N.; Cuppens, J.; Fritzsche, J.; Tempere, J.; Devreese, J. T.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Silhanek, A. V.; Van de Vondel, J.
2013-06-01
We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the generation of rectified mean vortex displacement resulting from a controlled difference between the surface barriers at the opposite borders of a superconducting strip. Our investigation focuses on Al superconducting strips where, in one of the two sample borders, a saw tooth-like array of micro-indentations has been imprinted. The origin of the vortex ratchet effect is based on the fact that (i) the onset of vortex motion is mainly governed by the entrance/nucleation of vortices and (ii) the current lines bunching produced by the indentations facilitates the entrance/nucleation of vortices. Only for one current direction the indentations are positioned at the side of vortex entry and the onset of the resistive regime is lowered compared to the opposite current direction. This investigation points to the relevance of ubiquitous border effects typically neglected when interpreting vortex ratchet measurements on samples with arrays of local asymmetric pinning sites.
Lattice gauge theories and spin models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathur, Manu; Sreeraj, T. P.
2016-10-01
The Wegner Z2 gauge theory-Z2 Ising spin model duality in (2 +1 ) dimensions is revisited and derived through a series of canonical transformations. The Kramers-Wannier duality is similarly obtained. The Wegner Z2 gauge-spin duality is directly generalized to SU(N) lattice gauge theory in (2 +1 ) dimensions to obtain the SU(N) spin model in terms of the SU(N) magnetic fields and their conjugate SU(N) electric scalar potentials. The exact and complete solutions of the Z2, U(1), SU(N) Gauss law constraints in terms of the corresponding spin or dual potential operators are given. The gauge-spin duality naturally leads to a new gauge invariant magnetic disorder operator for SU(N) lattice gauge theory which produces a magnetic vortex on the plaquette. A variational ground state of the SU(2) spin model with nearest neighbor interactions is constructed to analyze SU(2) gauge theory.
Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D
2016-09-01
Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.
Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.
2016-01-01
Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822
Barotropic Vortex Evolution on a Beta Plane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, Lloyd J.; Ooyama, Katsuyuki V.
1990-01-01
A barotropic, primitive equation (shallow water) model is used on the beta plane to investigate the influence of divergence, total relative angular momentum (RAM) and advective nonlinearities on the evolution of a hurricane-like vortex. The multinested numerical model is based on the spectral application of a finite element representation. The undisturbed fluid depth is taken to be 1 km. Scaling of the vorticity equation, in conjunction with a Bessel function spectral decomposition, indicates that divergence should have a very small effect on the hurricane motion. Simulations with an initially symmetric cyclonic vortex in a resting environment confirm this analysis, and contradict previous published studies on the effect of divergence in a barotropic model.During a 120 h simulation the cyclonic vortex develops asymmetries that have an influence far from the initial circulation. The total RAM within a large circle centered on the vortex decreases with time, and then oscillates about zero. For circles with radii 1000 km, the total RAM approaches, but does not reach, zero. An angular momentum budget indicates that the horizontal angular momentum flux tends to counteract the net Coriolis torque on the vortex. If the total RAM of the initial symmetric vortex is zero, the weak far-field asymmetries are essentially eliminated. The motion of the vortex is not, however, related to the RAM in any simple way.Within a few days the near-vortex asymmetries reach a near-steady state. The Asymmetric Absolute vorticity (AAV) is nearly uniform within 350 km of the vortex center. The homogenization of AAV, which occurs within the closed vortex gyre, is likely due to shearing by the symmetric wind, combined with removal of energy at the smallest scales. The homogenization effectively neutralizes the planetary beta effect, as well as the vorticity associated with an environmental wind.
Site-selective NMR for odd-frequency Cooper pairs around vortex in chiral p -wave superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Kenta K.; Ichioka, Masanori; Onari, Seiichiro
2016-03-01
In order to identify the pairing symmetry with chirality, we study site-selective NMR in chiral p -wave superconductors. We calculate local nuclear relaxation rate T1-1 in the vortex lattice state by Eilenberger theory, including the applied magnetic field dependence. We find that T1-1 in the NMR resonance line shape is different between two chiral states p±(=px±i py) , depending on whether the chirality is parallel or antiparallel to the vorticity. Anomalous suppression of T1-1 occurs around the vortex core in the chiral p- wave due to the negative coherence term coming from the odd-frequency s -wave Cooper pair induced around the vortex with Majorana state.
Pautrat, A; Brûlet, A
2014-06-11
We investigated the intermediate mixed state of a superconducting niobium sample using very small angle neutron scattering. We show that this state is stabilized through a sequence where a regular vortex lattice appears, which then coexists with vortex clusters before vanishing at low temperature. Vortices in clusters have a constant periodicity regardless of the applied field and exhibit a temperature dependence close to the one of the penetration depth. The clusters disappear in the high temperature limit. All the results agree with an explanation in terms of vortex attraction due to non-local effects and indicate a negligible role for pinning. Phase coexistence between the Abrikosov vortex lattice and vortex clusters is reported, showing the first-order nature of the boundary line.
Stirring properties of vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auerbach, David
1991-05-01
Ring vortex evolution, from the initial roll-up phase through to the final turbulent phase, was experimentally studied to see the dependence of its stirring properties on both the initial (accelerating, constant, decelerating, slow, fast) piston motion as well as on the boundary (tube/hole geometry) conditions. Stirring between fluid initially upstream and that initially downstream of the nozzle plane is done more by convective entrainment at the beginning (roll-up and contraction phases), by diffusive entrainment during the laminar and wavy phases, and by mixed entrainment and ejection during the transition to turbulence and the turbulent phase itself. During vortex roll-up, it was found that tubes eject shorter streaklines than do holes, and that there is less Re dependence for this for tubes than for holes. During the contraction phase, entrainment ends, save for minimal entrainment due to axial inflow into the ring from along the cores of Goertler-type vortices. Generally, the rate of fluid ejected is largest during the transition from the wavy to the turbulent state. As far as the stability of the vortices is concerned, rings generated at holes are less stable than those generated at tubes. During the final turbulent phase, rings not only entrain fluid but eject it periodically into the wake: Between two and four hairpin vortices are generated and laid off in the wake during each ejection. The frequency at which such ejections takes place scales as a Strouhal number that takes on values of between 2 and 4.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shashikanth, Banavara N.
2012-01-01
The vortex dynamics of Euler's equations for a constant density fluid flow in {R}^4 is studied. Most of the paper focuses on singular Dirac delta distributions of the vorticity two-form ω in {R}^4. These distributions are supported on two-dimensional surfaces termed membranes and are the analogs of vortex filaments in {R}^3 and point vortices in {R}^2. The self-induced velocity field of a membrane is shown to be unbounded and is regularized using a local induction approximation. The regularized self-induced velocity field is then shown to be proportional to the mean curvature vector field of the membrane but rotated by 90° in the plane of normals. Next, the Hamiltonian membrane model is presented. The symplectic structure for this model is derived from a general formula for vorticity distributions due to Marsden and Weinstein ["Coadjoint orbits, vortices and Clebsch variables for incompressible fluids," Physica D 7, 305-323 (1983), 10.1016/0167-2789(83)90134-3]. Finally, the dynamics of the four-form ω ∧ ω is examined. It is shown that Ertel's vorticity theorem in {R}^3, for the constant density case, can be viewed as a special case of the dynamics of this four-form.
The VORTEX coronagraphic test bench
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jolivet, A.; Piron, P.; Huby, E.; Absil, O.; Delacroix, C.; Mawet, D.; Surdej, J.; Habraken, S.
2014-07-01
In this paper, we present the infrared coronagraphic test bench of the University of Liège named VODCA (Vortex Optical Demonstrator for Coronagraphic Applications). The goal of the bench is to assess the performances of the Annular Groove Phase Masks (AGPMs) at near- to mid-infrared wavelengths. The AGPM is a subwavelength grating vortex coronagraph of charge two (SGVC2) made out of diamond. The bench is designed to be completely achromatic and will be composed of a super continuum laser source emitting in the near to mid-infrared, several parabolas, diaphragms and an infrared camera. This way, we will be able to test the different AGPMs in the M, L, K and H bands. Eventually, the bench will also allow the computation of the incident wavefront aberrations on the coronagraph. A reflective Lyot stop will send most of the stellar light to a second camera to perform low-order wavefront sensing. This second system coupled with a deformable mirror will allow the correction of the wavefront aberrations. We also aim to test other pre- and/or post-coronagraphic concepts such as optimal apodization.
Generalized formulation of Brownian Vortexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moyses, Henrique; Bauer, Ross; Grier, David
2013-03-01
Brownian vortexes are stochastic noise driven machines that arise from the motion of particles subjected to static non conservative force fields. This motion is characterized by a toroidal circulation in the probability flux whose direction can be tuned by changing the temperature of the system. A discrete minimal model for Brownian Vortexes were described by previous work done by B.Sun, D.G.Grier and A.Y.Grosberg. Here we theoretically look for a continuous model in the form of a generalization of the equilibrium Boltzmann relation for the probability density in the case where the driven forces have a non conservative solenoidal component. This generalized relation features the temperature induced probability flux reversal. We further extend our theory to time dependent force fields and study the possibility of stochastic resonance in the characteristic frequency of circulation of the driven particle. This model is experimentally applied to investigate the motion of colloidal spheres in an optical trap whose intensity is oscillatory in time.
Vortex formation and dynamics in two-dimensional driven-dissipative condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebenstreit, F.
2016-12-01
We investigate the real-time evolution of lattice bosons in two spatial dimensions whose dynamics is governed by a Markovian quantum master equation. We employ the Wigner-Weyl phase space quantization and derive the functional integral for open quantum many-body systems that determines the time evolution of the Wigner function. Using the truncated Wigner approximation, in which quantum fluctuations are only taken into account in the initial state whereas the dynamics is governed by classical evolution equations, we study the buildup of long-range correlations due to the action of non-Hermitean quantum jump operators that constitute a mechanism for dissipative cooling. Starting from an initially disordered state corresponding to a vortex condensate, the dissipative process results in the annihilation of vortex-antivortex pairs and the establishment of quasi-long-range order at late times. We observe that a finite vortex density survives the cooling process, which disagrees with the analytically constructed vortex-free Bose-Einstein condensate at asymptotic times. This indicates that quantum fluctuations beyond the truncated Wigner approximation need to be included to fully capture the physics of dissipative Bose-Einstein condensation.
Measurements in Vortex Wakes Shed by Conventional and Modified Subsonic Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.
1996-01-01
A theoretical and experimental program is underway at NASA Ames Research Center to first obtain a better understanding of the hazard posed by the vortex wakes of subsonic transports, and then to develop methods on how to modify the wake-generating aircraft in order to make the vortices less hazardous. This paper summarizes results obtained in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center on the characteristics of the vortex wakes that trail from 0.03 scale models of a B-747 and of a DC-10. Measurements are first described that were taken in the wakes with a hot-film anemometer probe, and with wings that range in size from 0.2 to 1.0 times the span of the wake generating models at downstream distances of 81 ft and 162 ft. behind the wake-generating model; i.e., at scale distances of 0.5 and 1.0 mile. The data are then used to evaluate the accuracy of a vortex-lattice method for prediction of the loads induced on following wings by vortex wakes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grantz, A. C.
1984-01-01
The low speed lateral/directional characteristics of a generic 74 degree delta wing body configuration employing the latest generation, gothic planform vortex flaps was determined. Longitudinal effects are also presented. The data are compared with theoretical estimates from VORSTAB, an extension of the Quasi vortex lattice Method of Lan which empirically accounts for vortex breakdown effects in the calculation of longitudinal and lateral/directional aerodynamic characteristics. It is indicated that leading edge deflections of 30 and 40 degrees reduce the magnitude of the wing effective dihedral relative to the baseline for a specified angle of attack or lift coefficient. For angles of attack greater than 15 degrees, these flap deflections reduce the configuration directional stability despite improved vertical tail effectiveness. It is shown that asymmetric leading edge deflections are inferior to conventional ailerons in generating rolling moments. VORSTAB calculations provide coarse lateral/directional estimates at low to moderate angles of attack. The theory does not account for vortex flow induced, vertical tail effects.
Modeling of Wake-vortex Aircraft Encounters. Appendix B
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Sonya T.
1999-01-01
There are more people passing through the world's airports today than at any other time in history. With this increase in civil transport, airports are becoming capacity limited. In order to increase capacity and thus meet the demands of the flying public, the number of runways and number of flights per runway must be increased. In response to the demand, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airport operators, and the airline industry are taking steps to increase airport capacity without jeopardizing safety. Increasing the production per runway increases the likelihood that an aircraft will encounter the trailing wake-vortex of another aircraft. The hazard of a wake-vortex encounter is that heavy load aircraft can produce high intensity wake turbulence, through the development of its wing-tip vortices. A smaller aircraft following in the wake of the heavy load aircraft will experience redistribution of its aerodynamic load. This creates a safety hazard for the smaller aircraft. Understanding this load redistribution is of great importance, particularly during landing and take-off. In this research wake-vortex effects on an encountering 10% scale model of the B737-100 aircraft are modeled using both strip theory and vortex-lattice modeling methods. The models are then compared to wind tunnel data that was taken in the 30ft x 60ft wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Comparisons are made to determine if the models will have acceptable accuracy when parts of the geometry are removed, such as the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical tail. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to observe how accurately the models could match the experimental data if there was a 10% error in the circulation strength. It was determined that both models show accurate results when the wing, horizontal stabilizer, and vertical tail were a part of the geometry. When the horizontal
PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukumoto, Yasuhide
2009-10-01
This special section of Fluid Dynamics Research includes five articles on vortex rings in both classical and quantum fluids. The leading scientists of the field describe the trends in and the state-of-the-art development of experiments, theories and numerical simulations of vortex rings. The year 2008 was the 150th anniversary of 'vortex motion' since Hermann von Helmholtz opened up this field. In 1858, Helmholtz published a paper in Crelle's Journal which put forward the concept of 'vorticity' and made the first analysis of vortex motion. Fluid mechanics before that was limited to irrotational motion. In the absence of vorticity, the motion of an incompressible homogeneous fluid is virtually equivalent to a rigid-body motion in the sense that the fluid motion is determined once the boundary configuration is specified. Helmholtz proved, among other things, that, without viscosity, a vortex line is frozen into the fluid. This Helmholtz's law immediately implies the preservation of knots and links of vortex lines and its implication is enormous. One of the major trends of fluid mechanics since the latter half of the 20th century is to clarify the topological meaning of Helmholtz's law and to exploit it to develop theoretical and numerical methods to find the solutions of the Euler equations and to develop experimental techniques to gain an insight into fluid motion. Vortex rings are prominent coherent structures in a variety of fluid motions from the microscopic scale, through human and mesoscale to astrophysical scales, and have attracted people's interest. The late professor Philip G Saffman (1981) emphasized the significance of studies on vortex rings. One particular motion exemplifies the whole range of problems of vortex motion and is also a commonly known phenomenon, namely the vortex ring or smoke ring. Vortex rings are easily produced by dropping drops of one liquid into another, or by puffing fluid out of a hole, or by exhaling smoke if one has the skill
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granato, Enzo
2012-02-01
Phase coherence and vortex order in the fully frustrated XY model on a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice are studied by extensive Monte Carlo simulations using the parallel tempering method and finite-size scaling. No evidence is found for an equilibrium order-disorder or a spin/vortex-glass transition, suggested in previous simulation works. Instead, the scaling analysis of correlations of phase and vortex variables in the full equilibrated system is consistent with a phase transition where the critical temperature vanishes and the correlation lengths diverge as a power law with decreasing temperatures and corresponding critical exponents νph and νv. This behavior and the near agreement of the critical exponents suggest a zero-temperature transition scenario where phase and vortex variables remain coupled on large length scales.
Fluid entrainment by isolated vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabiri, John O.; Gharib, Morteza
2004-07-01
Of particular importance to the development of models for isolated vortex ring dynamics in a real fluid is knowledge of ambient fluid entrainment by the ring. This time-dependent process dictates changes in the volume of fluid that must share impulse delivered by the vortex ring generator. Therefore fluid entrainment is also of immediate significance to the unsteady forces that arise due to the presence of vortex rings in starting flows. Applications ranging from industrial and transportation, to animal locomotion and cardiac flows, are currently being investigated to understand the dynamical role of the observed vortex ring structures. Despite this growing interest, fully empirical measurements of fluid entrainment by isolated vortex rings have remained elusive. The primary difficulties arise in defining the unsteady boundary of the ring, as well as an inability to maintain the vortex ring in the test section sufficiently long to facilitate measurements. We present a new technique for entrainment measurement that utilizes a coaxial counter-flow to retard translation of vortex rings generated from a piston cylinder apparatus, so that their growth due to fluid entrainment can be observed. Instantaneous streamlines of the flow are used to determine the unsteady vortex ring boundary and compute ambient fluid entrainment. Measurements indicate that the entrainment process does not promote self-similar vortex ring growth, but instead consists of a rapid convection-based entrainment phase during ring formation, followed by a slower diffusive mechanism that entrains ambient fluid into the isolated vortex ring. Entrained fluid typically constitutes 30% to 40% of the total volume of fluid carried with the vortex ring. Various counter-flow protocols were used to substantially manipulate the diffusive entrainment process, producing rings with entrained fluid fractions up to 65%. Measurements of vortex ring growth rate and vorticity distribution during diffusive entrainment
Vortex-induced vibrations of a sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govardhan, R. N.; Williamson, C. H. K.
2005-05-01
There are many studies on the vortex-induced vibrations of a cylindrical body, but almost none concerned with such vibrations for a sphere, despite the fact that tethered bodies are a common configuration. In this paper, we study the dynamics of an elastically mounted or tethered sphere in a steady flow, employing displacement, force and vorticity measurements. Within a particular range of flow speeds, where the oscillation frequency (f) is of the order of the static-body vortex shedding frequency (f_{vo}), there exist two modes of periodic large-amplitude oscillation, defined as modes I and II, separated by a transition regime exhibiting non-periodic vibration. The dominant wake structure for both modes is a chain of streamwise vortex loops on alternating sides of the wake. Further downstream, the heads of the vortex loops pinch off to form a sequence of vortex rings. We employ an analogy with the lift on an aircraft that is associated with its trailing vortex pair (of strength Gamma(*) and spacing b(*) ), and thereby compute the rate of change of impulse for the streamwise vortex pair, yielding the vortex force coefficient (cvortex): [ cvortex = {8}/{pi} {U^*_{v}}b^*( - Gamma^*). ] This calculation yields predicted forces in reasonable agreement with direct measurements on the sphere. This is significant because it indicates that the principal vorticity dynamics giving rise to vortex-induced vibration for a sphere are the motions of these streamwise vortex pairs. The Griffin plot, showing peak amplitudes as a function of the mass damping (m(*zeta) ), exhibits a good collapse of data, indicating a maximum response of around 0.9 diameters. Following recent studies of cylinder vortex-induced vibration, we deduce the existence of a critical mass ratio, m(*_{crit}) {≈} 0.6, below which large-amplitude vibrations are predicted to persist to infinite normalized velocities. An unexpected large-amplitude and highly periodic mode (mode III) is found at distinctly higher
Rotor Wake Vortex Definition Using 3C-PIV Measurements: Corrected for Vortex Orientation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughues Richard; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee
2003-01-01
Three-component (3-C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, within the wake across a rotor disk plane, are used to determine wake vortex definitions important for BVI (Blade Vortex Interaction) and broadband noise prediction. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted using a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). In this paper, measurements are presented of the wake vortex field over the advancing side of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition. The orientations of the vortex (tube) axes are found to have non-zero tilt angles with respect to the chosen PIV measurement cut planes, often on the order of 45 degrees. Methods for determining the orientation of the vortex axis and reorienting the measured PIV velocity maps (by rotation/projection) are presented. One method utilizes the vortex core axial velocity component, the other utilizes the swirl velocity components. Key vortex parameters such as vortex core size, strength, and core velocity distribution characteristics are determined from the reoriented PIV velocity maps. The results are compared with those determined from velocity maps that are not corrected for orientation. Knowledge of magnitudes and directions of the vortex axial and swirl velocity components as a function of streamwise location provide a basis for insight into the vortex evolution.
Vortex bursting and tracer transport of a counter-rotating vortex pair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misaka, T.; Holzäpfel, F.; Hennemann, I.; Gerz, T.; Manhart, M.; Schwertfirm, F.
2012-02-01
Large-eddy simulations of a coherent counter-rotating vortex pair in different environments are performed. The environmental background is characterized by varying turbulence intensities and stable temperature stratifications. Turbulent exchange processes between the vortices, the vortex oval, and the environment, as well as the material redistribution processes along the vortex tubes are investigated employing passive tracers that are superimposed to the initial vortex flow field. It is revealed that the vortex bursting phenomenon, known from photos of aircraft contrails or smoke visualization, is caused by collisions of secondary vortical structures traveling along the vortex tube which expel material from the vortex but do not result in a sudden decay of circulation or an abrupt change of vortex core structure. In neutrally stratified and weakly turbulent conditions, vortex reconnection triggers traveling helical vorticity structures which is followed by their collision. A long-lived vortex ring links once again establishing stable double rings. Key phenomena observed in the simulations are supported by photographs of contrails. The vertical and lateral extents of the detrained passive tracer strongly depend on environmental conditions where the sensitivity of detrainment rates on initial tracer distributions appears to be low.
Lattice realization of the generalized chiral symmetry in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawarabayashi, Tohru; Aoki, Hideo; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro
2016-12-01
While it has been pointed out that the chiral symmetry, which is important for the Dirac fermions in graphene, can be generalized to tilted Dirac fermions as in organic metals, such a generalized symmetry was so far defined only for a continuous low-energy Hamiltonian. Here we show that the generalized chiral symmetry can be rigorously defined for lattice fermions as well. A key concept is a continuous "algebraic deformation" of Hamiltonians, which generates lattice models with the generalized chiral symmetry from those with the conventional chiral symmetry. This enables us to explicitly express zero modes of the deformed Hamiltonian in terms of that of the original Hamiltonian. Another virtue is that the deformation can be extended to nonuniform systems, such as fermion-vortex systems and disordered systems. Application to fermion vortices in a deformed system shows how the zero modes for the conventional Dirac fermions with vortices can be extended to the tilted case.
Topology of vortex-wing interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenna, C.; Rockwell, D.
2016-10-01
A trailing vortex incident upon a wing can generate different modes of vortex-wing interaction. These modes, which may involve either enhancement or suppression of the vortex generated at the tip of the wing, are classified on the basis of the present experiments together with computations at the Air Force Research Laboratory. Occurrence of a given mode of interaction is predominantly determined by the dimensionless location of the incident vortex relative to the tip of the wing and is relatively insensitive to the Reynolds number and dimensionless circulation of the incident vortex. The genesis of the basic interaction modes is clarified using streamline topology with associated critical points that show compatibility between complex streamline patterns in the vicinity of the tip of the wing. Whereas formation of an enhanced tip vortex involves a region of large upwash in conjunction with localized flow separation, complete suppression of the tip vortex is associated with a small-scale separation-reattachment bubble bounded by downwash at the wing tip.
Helicity within the vortex filament model
Hänninen, R.; Hietala, N.; Salman, H.
2016-01-01
Kinetic helicity is one of the invariants of the Euler equations that is associated with the topology of vortex lines within the fluid. In superfluids, the vorticity is concentrated along vortex filaments. In this setting, helicity would be expected to acquire its simplest form. However, the lack of a core structure for vortex filaments appears to result in a helicity that does not retain its key attribute as a quadratic invariant. By defining a spanwise vector to the vortex through the use of a Seifert framing, we are able to introduce twist and henceforth recover the key properties of helicity. We present several examples for calculating internal twist to illustrate why the centreline helicity alone will lead to ambiguous results if a twist contribution is not introduced. Our choice of the spanwise vector can be expressed in terms of the tangential component of velocity along the filament. Since the tangential velocity does not alter the configuration of the vortex at later times, we are able to recover a similar equation for the internal twist angle to that of classical vortex tubes. Our results allow us to explain how a quasi-classical limit of helicity emerges from helicity considerations for individual superfluid vortex filaments. PMID:27883029
Dynamics of Isolated Tip Vortex Cavitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pennings, Pepijn; Bosschers, Johan; van Terwisga, Tom
2014-11-01
Performance of ship propellers and comfort levels in the surroundings are limited by various forms of cavitation. Amongst these forms tip vortex cavitation is one of the first appearing forms and is expected to be mainly responsible for the emission of broadband pressure fluctuations typically occurring between the 4th to the 7th blade passing frequency (approx. 40--70 Hz). These radiated pressure pulses are likely to excite parts of the hull structure resulting in a design compromise between efficiency and comfort. Insight is needed in the mechanism of acoustic emission from the oscillations by a tip vortex cavity. In the current experimental study the tip vortex cavity from a blade with an elliptic planform and sections based on NACA 662 - 415 with meanline a = 0 . 8 is observed using high speed shadowgraphy in combination with blade force and acoustic measurements. An analytic model describing three main cavity deformation modes is verified and used to explain the origin of a cavity eigenfrequency or ``vortex singing'' phenomenon observed by Maines and Arndt (1997) on the tip vortex cavity originating from the same blade. As no hydrodynamic sound originating from the tip vortex cavity was observed it is posed that a tip flow instability is essential for ``vortex singing.'' This research was funded by the Lloyd's Register Foundation as part of the International Institute for Cavitation Research.
On cooperative instabilities of parallel vortex pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bristol, R. L.; Ortega, J. M.; Marcus, P. S.; Savas, Ö.
2004-10-01
We present a combined analytical and numerical study of the instabilities of a pair of parallel unequal-strength vortices. We extend the analyses of a vortex in an external strain field (Crow, AIAA J. vol. 8, 1970, p. 2172; Widnall et al., J. Fluid Mech. vol. 66, 1974, p. 35) to include the orbital motion of the vortex pair. For counter-rotating pairs, the classic Crow-type periodic displacement perturbations are unstable for all vortex strength ratios, with fastest-growing wavelengths several times the vortex spacing. For co-rotating pairs, the orbital motion acts to suppress instability due to displacement perturbations. Instabilities in this case arise for elliptic perturbations at wavelengths that scale with the vortex core size. We also examine the influence of a second vortex pair by extending Crouch's (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 350, 1997, p. 311) analysis. Numerical results from a spectral initial-value code with subgrid-scale modelling agree with the growth rates from the theoretical models. Computations reveal the nonlinear evolution at late times, including wrapping and ring-rejection behaviour observed in experiments. A pair of co-rotating Gaussian vortices perturbed by noise develops elliptic instabilities, leading to the formation of vorticity bridges between the two vortices. The bridging is a prelude to vortex merger. Analytic, computational and experimental results agree well at circulation Reynolds numbers of order 10(5) .
Phenomena, dynamics and instabilities of vortex pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williamson, C. H. K.; Leweke, T.; Asselin, D. J.; Harris, D. M.
2014-12-01
Our motivation for studying the dynamics of vortex pairs stems initially from an interest in the trailing wake vortices from aircraft and the dynamics of longitudinal vortices close to a vehicle surface. However, our motivation also comes from the fact that vortex-vortex interactions and vortex-wall interactions are fundamental to many turbulent flows. The intent of the paper is to present an overview of some of our recent work concerning the formation and structure of counter-rotating vortex pairs. We are interested in the long-wave and short-wave three-dimensional instabilities that evolve for an isolated vortex pair, but also we would like to know how vortex pairs interact with a wall, including both two-dimensional interactions, and also the influence of the surface on the three-dimensional instabilities. The emphasis of this presentation is on physical mechanisms by which vortices interact with each other and with surfaces, principally from an experimental approach, but also coupled with analytical studies.
Nonlinear ion acoustic waves scattered by vortexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohno, Yuji; Yoshida, Zensho
2016-09-01
The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy is the archetype of infinite-dimensional integrable systems, which describes nonlinear ion acoustic waves in two-dimensional space. This remarkably ordered system resides on a singular submanifold (leaf) embedded in a larger phase space of more general ion acoustic waves (low-frequency electrostatic perturbations). The KP hierarchy is characterized not only by small amplitudes but also by irrotational (zero-vorticity) velocity fields. In fact, the KP equation is derived by eliminating vorticity at every order of the reductive perturbation. Here, we modify the scaling of the velocity field so as to introduce a vortex term. The newly derived system of equations consists of a generalized three-dimensional KP equation and a two-dimensional vortex equation. The former describes 'scattering' of vortex-free waves by ambient vortexes that are determined by the latter. We say that the vortexes are 'ambient' because they do not receive reciprocal reactions from the waves (i.e., the vortex equation is independent of the wave fields). This model describes a minimal departure from the integrable KP system. By the Painlevé test, we delineate how the vorticity term violates integrability, bringing about an essential three-dimensionality to the solutions. By numerical simulation, we show how the solitons are scattered by vortexes and become chaotic.
Vortex Ring Interaction with a Heated Screen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Jason; Krueger, Paul S.
2008-11-01
Previous examinations of vortex rings impinging on porous screens has shown the reformation of the vortex ring with a lower velocity after passing through the screen, the creation of secondary vortices, and mixing. A heated screen could, in principle, alter the vortex-screen interaction by changing the local liquid viscosity and density. In the present investigation, a mechanical piston-cylinder vortex ring generator was used to create vortex rings in an aqueous sucrose solution. The rings impinged on a screen of horizontal wires that were heated using electrical current. The flow was visualized with food color and video imaging. Tests with and without heat were conducted at a piston stroke-to-jet diameter ratio of 4 and a jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1000. The vortex rings slowed after passing through the screen, but in tests with heat, they maintained a higher fraction of their before-screen velocity due to reduction in fluid viscosity near the wires. In addition, small ``fingers'' that developed on the front of the vortex rings as they passed through the screen exhibited positive buoyancy effects in the heated case.
Helicity within the vortex filament model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hänninen, R.; Hietala, N.; Salman, H.
2016-11-01
Kinetic helicity is one of the invariants of the Euler equations that is associated with the topology of vortex lines within the fluid. In superfluids, the vorticity is concentrated along vortex filaments. In this setting, helicity would be expected to acquire its simplest form. However, the lack of a core structure for vortex filaments appears to result in a helicity that does not retain its key attribute as a quadratic invariant. By defining a spanwise vector to the vortex through the use of a Seifert framing, we are able to introduce twist and henceforth recover the key properties of helicity. We present several examples for calculating internal twist to illustrate why the centreline helicity alone will lead to ambiguous results if a twist contribution is not introduced. Our choice of the spanwise vector can be expressed in terms of the tangential component of velocity along the filament. Since the tangential velocity does not alter the configuration of the vortex at later times, we are able to recover a similar equation for the internal twist angle to that of classical vortex tubes. Our results allow us to explain how a quasi-classical limit of helicity emerges from helicity considerations for individual superfluid vortex filaments.
Microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Hua-Zhou; Li, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Ren-Min
2016-12-01
A microscale vortex laser is a new type of coherent light source with small footprint that can directly generate vector vortex beams. However, a microscale laser with controlled topological charge, which is crucial for virtually any of its application, is still unrevealed. Here we present a microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge. The vortex laser eigenmode was synthesized in a metamaterial engineered non-Hermitian micro-ring cavity system at exceptional point. We also show that the vortex laser cavity can operate at exceptional point stably to lase under optical pumping. The microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge can serve as a unique and general building block for next-generation photonic integrated circuits and coherent vortex beam sources. The method we used here can be employed to generate lasing eigenmode with other complex functionalities. Project supported by the “Youth 1000 Talent Plan” Fund, Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 201421) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574012 and 61521004).
Theory of the vortex matter transformations in high-Tc superconductor YBCO.
Li, Dingping; Rosenstein, Baruch
2003-04-25
Flux line lattice in type II superconductors undergoes a transition into a "disordered" phase such as vortex liquid or vortex glass, due to thermal fluctuations and random quenched disorder. We quantitatively describe the competition between the thermal fluctuations and the disorder using the Ginzburg-Landau approach. The following T-H phase diagram of YBCO emerges. There are just two distinct thermodynamical phases, the homogeneous and the crystalline one, separated by a single first order transition line. The line, however, makes a wiggle near the experimentally claimed critical point at 12 T. The "critical point" is reinterpreted as a (noncritical) Kauzmann point in which the latent heat vanishes and the line is parallel to the T axis. The magnetization, the entropy, and the specific heat discontinuities at melting compare well with experiments.
Calculation of symmetric vortex separation affecting subsonic bodies at high incidence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Almosnino, D.; Rom, J.
1983-01-01
A method for calculating the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients and the pressure distributions on a body at reasonably high angles of attack is presented. The body is represented by a combination of source elements and vortex-lattice elements, including separation of the vortices at increasing angles of attack. The method is self-consistent in that the body and the separated vortex wake are treated as an integrated interacting system. The location of the separation line can be included as an arbitrary input from experimental data or can be evaluated approximately by a pressure-dependent criterion. Calculated values of the aerodynamic coefficients and pressure distributions on cone-cylinder and ogive-cylinder bodies compare well, qualitatively and quantitatively, with experimental data, including simulation of the dependence on Reynolds number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knuth, Kevin H.
2009-12-01
Previous derivations of the sum and product rules of probability theory relied on the algebraic properties of Boolean logic. Here they are derived within a more general framework based on lattice theory. The result is a new foundation of probability theory that encompasses and generalizes both the Cox and Kolmogorov formulations. In this picture probability is a bi-valuation defined on a lattice of statements that quantifies the degree to which one statement implies another. The sum rule is a constraint equation that ensures that valuations are assigned so as to not violate associativity of the lattice join and meet. The product rule is much more interesting in that there are actually two product rules: one is a constraint equation arises from associativity of the direct products of lattices, and the other a constraint equation derived from associativity of changes of context. The generality of this formalism enables one to derive the traditionally assumed condition of additivity in measure theory, as well introduce a general notion of product. To illustrate the generic utility of this novel lattice-theoretic foundation of measure, the sum and product rules are applied to number theory. Further application of these concepts to understand the foundation of quantum mechanics is described in a joint paper in this proceedings.
Evaluation of travelling vortex speed by means of vortex tracking and dynamic mode decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyhlík, Tomáš
2016-06-01
The article deals with the analysis of unsteady periodic flow field related to synthetic jet creation. The analyses are based on the data obtained using ANSYS Fluent solver. Numerical results are validated by hot wire anemometry data measured along the jet centerline. The speed of travelling vortex ring is evaluated by using vortex tracking method and by using dynamic mode decomposition method. Vortex identification is based on residual vorticity which allows identifying regions in the flow field where fluid particles perform the rotational motion. The regime of the synthetic jet with Re = 329 and S = 19.7 is chosen. Both the vortex tracking and the dynamic mode decomposition based vortex speed evaluation indicate an increase in the vortex speed close to the orifice and then decrease with maximum reaching almost one and half of orifice centerline velocity. The article contains extended version the article presented at the conference AEaNMiFMaE 2016.
Comparison of two vortex models of wind turbines using a free vortex wake scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, B. F.; Yuan, Y.; Wang, T. G.; Zhao, Z. Z.
2016-09-01
Developing suitably generalized models for rotor blade vortices that accurately predict their evolution continues to be a challenge for wind turbine analysts. During the past few decades, several vortex models have been developed according to the theoretical analysis and the experimental research. A comparison of two different vortex models is made for predicting wind turbine aerodynamic performance using a free vortex wake (FVW) model. The two models are the Lamb-Oseen vortex model for laminar vortices and the β-Vatistas model for turbulent vortices. A new formula that approximates parameter β, which represents the degree of turbulence in the β-Vatistas model, is proposed. The formula of parameter β is validated by comparison of simulated and measured aerodynamic performances of wind turbines of different blade tip vortex Reynolds numbers. Then, the induced velocity streamlines and the distribution of the axial velocity in the rotational plane are simulated. Also, the differences due to the vortex models are discussed.
A vortex-filament and core model for wings with edge vortex separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pao, J. L.; Lan, C. E.
1982-01-01
A vortex filament-vortex core method for predicting aerodynamic characteristics of slender wings with edge vortex separation was developed. Semi-empirical but simple methods were used to determine the initial positions of the free sheet and vortex core. Comparison with available data indicates that: (1) the present method is generally accurate in predicting the lift and induced drag coefficients but the predicted pitching moment is too positive; (2) the spanwise lifting pressure distributions estimated by the one vortex core solution of the present method are significantly better than the results of Mehrotra's method relative to the pressure peak values for the flat delta; (3) the two vortex core system applied to the double delta and strake wings produce overall aerodynamic characteristics which have good agreement with data except for the pitching moment; and (4) the computer time for the present method is about two thirds of that of Mehrotra's method.
On the Use of Vortex-Fitting in the Numerical Simulation of Blade-Vortex Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, G. R.; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The usefulness of vortex-fitting in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to preserve the vortex strength and structure while convecting in a uniform free stream is demonstrated through the numerical simulations of two- and three-dimensional blade-vortex interactions. The fundamental premise of the formulation is the velocity and pressure field of the interacting vortex are unaltered either in the presence of an airfoil or a rotor blade or by the resulting nonlinear interactional flowfield. Although, the governing Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are nonlinear and independent solutions cannot be superposed, the interactional flowfield can be accurately captured by adding and subtracting the flowfield of the convecting vortex at each instant. The aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of two- and three-dimensional blade-vortex interactions have been calculated in Refs. 1-6 using this concept. Some of the results from these publications and similar other published material will be summarized in this paper.
Effects of disorder on the vortex charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lages, J.; Sacramento, P. D.
2006-04-01
We study the influence of disorder on the vortex charge, both due to random pinning of the vortices and due to scattering off nonmagnetic impurities. In the case when there are no impurities present, but the vortices are randomly distributed, the effect is very small, except when two or more vortices are close by. When impurities are present, they have a noticeable effect on the vortex charge. This, together with the effect of temperature, changes appreciably the vortex charge. In the case of an attractive impurity potential the sign of the charge naturally changes.
Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foeppl, L.
1983-01-01
Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder moving through water is discussed. It is shown that a pair of vortices form behind a moving cylinder and that their centers will move along a predictable curve. This curve represents an equilibrium condition which, however, is subject to perturbation. The stability of the vortex pair is investigated. Movement of the vortex pair away from the cylinder is calculated as an explanation of the resistance of the cylinder. Finally, the principles elaborated are applied to the flow around a flat plate.
Vortex line in the unitary Fermi gas
Madeira, Lucas; Vitiello, Silvio A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Schmidt, Kevin E.
2016-04-06
Here, we report diffusion Monte Carlo results for the ground state of unpolarized spin-1/2 fermions in a cylindrical container and properties of the system with a vortex-line excitation. The density profile of the system with a vortex line presents a nonzero density at the core. We also calculate the ground-state energy per particle, the superfluid pairing gap, and the excitation energy per particle. Finally, these simulations can be extended to calculate the properties of vortex excitations in other strongly interacting systems such as superfluid neutron matter using realistic nuclear Hamiltonians.
All-electrical magnetic vortex array sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tannous, C.; Gieraltowski, J.
2016-08-01
Vortex sensing magnetometers based on arrays of soft magnetic dots are good candidates for high-resolution and accurate spatial magnetic-field estimation. When the arrays are laid out along different spatial directions they can perform tensor gradiometry allowing the measurement of field components and their spatial derivatives as a function of orientation. Detection is based on using spin-polarized currents to counteract vortex displacements or to excite vortex oscillation modes triggered by magnetic-field application. Sensor linearization, field detection range and conditions to obtain large sensitivity electronic compatibility and scalability are discussed.
Improved Flow-Controlling Vortex Generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Marner, Wilbur J.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.
1989-01-01
Symmetrical tangential streams control flow of radial primary streams. Vortex generator uses small secondary stream of fluid to control normally-larger primary stream. Improved version of vortex generator described in "Variable Control Port for Fluidic Control Device," (NPO-16603). Secondary, or control, flows entering tangentially through diametrically opposite ports set up swirling motion restraining primary flow. Pressure of secondary fluid in relation to primary fluid controlling factor. Like valve, vortex generator varies rate of flow of primary fluid from maximum value down to zero. When properly designed, requires low pressure differential between primary and secondary streams and expends relatively small amount of secondary fluid.
Vortex Structures of Whistler Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaliznyak, Yu.; Davydova, T.; Yakimenko, A.
Starting with two-dimensional nonlinear Scroedinger equation for a parallel electric field of spatially localized beam of whistler waves we investigate formation, evolu- tion and stability of nonlinear whistler waveguides (or ducts) which are frequently observed during heating active experiments in the ionosphere. When the generator frequency is close to the half of electron cyclotron frequency, one have take into ac- count the additional terms of the next order in the equation for the interpretation of existing experimental data. It is needed to use a full Maxwell's equation set to describe the propagation of whistlers and to account for the nonlinearity saturation at high val- ues of pump power. Nonlinear waveguides of vortex type (with topological charge 1, 2 and 3) are found and their stability properties are investigated by means of numerical simulations.
Vortex generator for flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor); Marner, Wilbur J. (Inventor); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
Fluidics flow control of a multiphase supply using a cylindrical chamber is achieved by introducing the supply flow radially into the chamber. The supply flow exits through a port in the center at the chamber. A control fluid is then introduced tangentially about 90.degree. upstream from the supply port. A second control fluid port may be added about 90.degree. upstream from the first control fluid port, but preferably two sets of supply and control ports are added with like ports diametrically opposite each other. The control fluid flows against the circular wall of the control chamber, which introduces a vortex in the flow of the supply flow that decays into a spiral path to the exit port in the center of the chamber. The control flow rate may thus be used to control the spiral path, and therefore the supply flow rate through the exit port.
Crossing on hyperbolic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Hang; Ziff, Robert M.
2012-05-01
We divide the circular boundary of a hyperbolic lattice into four equal intervals and study the probability of a percolation crossing between an opposite pair as a function of the bond occupation probability p. We consider the {7,3} (heptagonal), enhanced or extended binary tree (EBT), the EBT-dual, and the {5,5} (pentagonal) lattices. We find that the crossing probability increases gradually from 0 to 1 as p increases from the lower pl to the upper pu critical values. We find bounds and estimates for the values of pl and pu for these lattices and identify the self-duality point p* corresponding to where the crossing probability equals 1/2. Comparison is made with recent numerical and theoretical results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weisz, Peter; Majumdar, Pushan
2012-03-01
Lattice gauge theory is a formulation of quantum field theory with gauge symmetries on a space-time lattice. This formulation is particularly suitable for describing hadronic phenomena. In this article we review the present status of lattice QCD. We outline some of the computational methods, discuss some phenomenological applications and a variety of non-perturbative topics. The list of references is severely incomplete, the ones we have included are text books or reviews and a few subjectively selected papers. Kronfeld and Quigg (2010) supply a reasonably comprehensive set of QCD references. We apologize for the fact that have not covered many important topics such as QCD at finite density and heavy quark effective theory adequately, and mention some of them only in the last section "In Brief". These topics should be considered in further Scholarpedia articles.
David Richards
2004-10-01
This talk describes progress at understanding the properties of the nucleon and its excitations from lattice QCD. I begin with a review of recent lattice results for the lowest-lying states of the excited baryon spectrum. The need to approach physical values of the light quark masses is emphasized, enabling the effects of the pion cloud to be revealed. I then outline the development of techniques that will enable the extraction of the masses of the higher resonances, and describe how such calculations provide insight into the structure of the hadrons. Finally, I discuss direct probes of the quark and gluon structure of baryons through the lattice measurement of the moments of quark distributions and of Generalized Parton Distributions.
Vortex Dynamics in Anisotropic Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steel, David Gordon
Measurements of the ac screening response and resistance of superconducting Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O _8 (BSCCO) crystals have been used to probe the dynamics of the magnetic flux lines within the mixed state as a function of frequency, temperature, and applied dc field. For the particular range of temperature and magnetic field in which measurements were made, the systematic behavior of the observed dissipation peak in the screening response is consistent with electromagnetic skin size effects rather than a phase transition. According to microscopic theories of the interaction between the flux lines and a driving ac field, such a skin size effect is expected for the case when the vortex motion is diffusive in nature. However, diffusive motion is inconsistent with simple activation models that use a single value for the pinning energy (derived from direct measurement of the dc resistance). This contradiction suggests a distribution of pinning energies within the sample. Interlayer vortex decoupling has been directly observed as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field using electronic transport perpendicular to the layers in synthetic amorphous MoGe/Ge multilayer samples. Perpendicular transport has been shown to be a far more sensitive measure of the phase coupling between layers than in-plane properties. Below the decoupling temperature T_{D} the resistivity anisotropy collapses and striking nonlinearities appear in the perpendicular current-voltage behavior, which are not observed in parallel transport. A crossover in behavior is also observed at a field H _{x}, in accordance with theory. The data suggest the presence of a phase transition into a state with finite in-plane resistivity. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).
Realization of ground-state artificial skyrmion lattices at room temperature
Gilbert, Dustin A.; Maranville, Brian B.; Balk, Andrew L.; Kirby, Brian J.; Fischer, Peter; Pierce, Daniel T.; Unguris, John; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai
2015-10-08
We report that the topological nature of magnetic skyrmions leads to extraordinary properties that provide new insights into fundamental problems of magnetism and exciting potentials for novel magnetic technologies. Prerequisite are systems exhibiting skyrmion lattices at ambient conditions, which have been elusive so far. We demonstrate the realization of artificial Bloch skyrmion lattices over extended areas in their ground state at room temperature by patterning asymmetric magnetic nanodots with controlled circularity on an underlayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Polarity is controlled by a tailored magnetic field sequence and demonstrated in magnetometry measurements. The vortex structure is imprinted from the dots into the interfacial region of the underlayer via suppression of the PMA by a critical ion-irradiation step. In conclusion, the imprinted skyrmion lattices are identified directly with polarized neutron reflectometry and confirmed by magnetoresistance measurements. Our results demonstrate an exciting platform to explore room-temperature ground-state skyrmion lattices.
Realization of ground-state artificial skyrmion lattices at room temperature
Gilbert, Dustin A.; Maranville, Brian B.; Balk, Andrew L.; ...
2015-10-08
We report that the topological nature of magnetic skyrmions leads to extraordinary properties that provide new insights into fundamental problems of magnetism and exciting potentials for novel magnetic technologies. Prerequisite are systems exhibiting skyrmion lattices at ambient conditions, which have been elusive so far. We demonstrate the realization of artificial Bloch skyrmion lattices over extended areas in their ground state at room temperature by patterning asymmetric magnetic nanodots with controlled circularity on an underlayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Polarity is controlled by a tailored magnetic field sequence and demonstrated in magnetometry measurements. The vortex structure is imprinted from themore » dots into the interfacial region of the underlayer via suppression of the PMA by a critical ion-irradiation step. In conclusion, the imprinted skyrmion lattices are identified directly with polarized neutron reflectometry and confirmed by magnetoresistance measurements. Our results demonstrate an exciting platform to explore room-temperature ground-state skyrmion lattices.« less
Realization of ground-state artificial skyrmion lattices at room temperature.
Gilbert, Dustin A; Maranville, Brian B; Balk, Andrew L; Kirby, Brian J; Fischer, Peter; Pierce, Daniel T; Unguris, John; Borchers, Julie A; Liu, Kai
2015-10-08
The topological nature of magnetic skyrmions leads to extraordinary properties that provide new insights into fundamental problems of magnetism and exciting potentials for novel magnetic technologies. Prerequisite are systems exhibiting skyrmion lattices at ambient conditions, which have been elusive so far. Here, we demonstrate the realization of artificial Bloch skyrmion lattices over extended areas in their ground state at room temperature by patterning asymmetric magnetic nanodots with controlled circularity on an underlayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Polarity is controlled by a tailored magnetic field sequence and demonstrated in magnetometry measurements. The vortex structure is imprinted from the dots into the interfacial region of the underlayer via suppression of the PMA by a critical ion-irradiation step. The imprinted skyrmion lattices are identified directly with polarized neutron reflectometry and confirmed by magnetoresistance measurements. Our results demonstrate an exciting platform to explore room-temperature ground-state skyrmion lattices.
Existence and stability of PT-symmetric states in nonlinear two-dimensional square lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Haitao; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.
2016-07-01
Solitons and vortices symmetric with respect to simultaneous parity (P) and time reversing (T) transformations are considered on the square lattice in the framework of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The existence and stability of such PT-symmetric configurations is analyzed in the limit of weak coupling between the lattice sites, when predictions on the elementary cell of a square lattice (i.e., a single square) can be extended to a large (yet finite) array of lattice cells. In particular, we find all examined vortex configurations are unstable with respect to small perturbations while a branch extending soliton configurations is spectrally stable. Our analytical predictions are found to be in good agreement with numerical computations.
Realization of ground-state artificial skyrmion lattices at room temperature
Gilbert, Dustin A.; Maranville, Brian B.; Balk, Andrew L.; Kirby, Brian J.; Fischer, Peter; Pierce, Daniel T.; Unguris, John; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai
2015-01-01
The topological nature of magnetic skyrmions leads to extraordinary properties that provide new insights into fundamental problems of magnetism and exciting potentials for novel magnetic technologies. Prerequisite are systems exhibiting skyrmion lattices at ambient conditions, which have been elusive so far. Here, we demonstrate the realization of artificial Bloch skyrmion lattices over extended areas in their ground state at room temperature by patterning asymmetric magnetic nanodots with controlled circularity on an underlayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Polarity is controlled by a tailored magnetic field sequence and demonstrated in magnetometry measurements. The vortex structure is imprinted from the dots into the interfacial region of the underlayer via suppression of the PMA by a critical ion-irradiation step. The imprinted skyrmion lattices are identified directly with polarized neutron reflectometry and confirmed by magnetoresistance measurements. Our results demonstrate an exciting platform to explore room-temperature ground-state skyrmion lattices. PMID:26446515
Three-dimensional solitary waves and vortices in a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger lattice.
Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, B A; Frantzeskakis, D J; Carretero-González, R
2004-08-20
In a benchmark dynamical-lattice model in three dimensions, the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we find discrete vortex solitons with various values of the topological charge S. Stability regions for the vortices with S=0,1,3 are investigated. The S=2 vortex is unstable and may spontaneously rearranging into a stable one with S=3. In a two-component extension of the model, we find a novel class of stable structures, consisting of vortices in the different components, perpendicularly oriented to each other. Self-localized states of the proposed types can be observed experimentally in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices and in photonic crystals built of microresonators.
Catterall, Simon; Kaplan, David B.; Unsal, Mithat
2009-03-31
We provide an introduction to recent lattice formulations of supersymmetric theories which are invariant under one or more real supersymmetries at nonzero lattice spacing. These include the especially interesting case of N = 4 SYM in four dimensions. We discuss approaches based both on twisted supersymmetry and orbifold-deconstruction techniques and show their equivalence in the case of gauge theories. The presence of an exact supersymmetry reduces and in some cases eliminates the need for fine tuning to achieve a continuum limit invariant under the full supersymmetry of the target theory. We discuss open problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oates, Chris
2012-06-01
Since they were first proposed in 2003 [1], optical lattice clocks have become one of the leading technologies for the next generation of atomic clocks, which will be used for advanced timing applications and in tests of fundamental physics [2]. These clocks are based on stabilized lasers whose frequency is ultimately referenced to an ultra-narrow neutral atom transition (natural linewidths << 1 Hz). To suppress the effects of atomic motion/recoil, the atoms in the sample (˜10^4 atoms) are confined tightly in the potential wells of an optical standing wave (lattice). The wavelength of the lattice light is tuned to its ``magic'' value so as to yield a vanishing net AC Stark shift for the clock transition. As a result lattice clocks have demonstrated the capability of generating high stability clock signals with small absolute uncertainties (˜ 1 part in 10^16). In this presentation I will first give an overview of the field, which now includes three different atomic species. I will then use experiments with Yb performed in our laboratory to illustrate the key features of a lattice clock. Our research has included the development of state-of-the-art optical cavities enabling ultra-high-resolution optical spectroscopy (1 Hz linewidth). Together with the large atom number in the optical lattice, we are able to achieve very low clock instability (< 0.3 Hz in 1 s) [3]. Furthermore, I will show results from some of our recent investigations of key shifts for the Yb lattice clock, including high precision measurements of ultracold atom-atom interactions in the lattice and the dc Stark effect for the Yb clock transition (necessary for the evaluation of blackbody radiation shifts). [4pt] [1] H. Katori, M. Takamoto, V. G. Pal'chikov, and V. D. Ovsiannikov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173005 (2003). [0pt] [2] Andrei Derevianko and Hidetoshi Katori, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 331 (2011). [0pt] [3] Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L.-S. Ma, and C. W. Oates
Prediction and control of vortex-dominated and vortex-wake flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama
1993-01-01
This progress report documents the accomplishments achieved in the period from December 1, 1992 until November 30, 1993. These accomplishments include publications, national and international presentations, NASA presentations, and the research group supported under this grant. Topics covered by documents incorporated into this progress report include: active control of asymmetric conical flow using spinning and rotary oscillation; supersonic vortex breakdown over a delta wing in transonic flow; shock-vortex interaction over a 65-degree delta wing in transonic flow; three dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown; numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown; and prediction of asymmetric vortical flows around slender bodies using Navier-Stokes equations.
Vortex formation and instability in the left ventricle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, Trung Bao; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Coffey, Dane; Keefe, Daniel
2012-09-01
We study the formation of the mitral vortex ring during early diastolic filling in a patient-specific left ventricle (LV) using direct numerical simulation. The geometry of the left ventricle is reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data of a healthy human subject. The left ventricular kinematics is modeled via a cell-based activation methodology, which is inspired by cardiac electro-physiology and yields physiologic LV wall motion. In the fluid dynamics videos, we describe in detail the three-dimensional structure of the mitral vortex ring, which is formed during early diastolic filling. The ring starts to deform as it propagates toward the apex of the heart and becomes inclined. The trailing secondary vortex tubes are formed as the result of interaction between the vortex ring and the LV wall. These vortex tubes wrap around the circumference and begin to interact with and destabilize the mitral vortex ring. At the end of diastole, the vortex ring impinges on the LV wall and the large-scale intraventricular flow rotates in clockwise direction. We show for the first time that the mitral vortex ring evolution is dominated by a number of vortex-vortex and vortex-wall interactions, including lateral straining and deformation of vortex ring, the interaction of two vortex tubes with unequal strengths, helicity polarization of vortex tubes and twisting instabilities of the vortex cores.
Law, K J H; Kevrekidis, P G; Koukouloyannis, V; Kourakis, I; Frantzeskakis, D J; Bishop, A R
2008-12-01
We consider a prototypical dynamical lattice model, namely, the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation on nonsquare lattice geometries. We present a systematic classification of the solutions that arise in principal six-lattice-site and three-lattice-site contours in the form of both discrete multipole solitons and discrete vortices. Additionally to identifying the possible states, we analytically track their linear stability both qualitatively and quantitatively. We find that among the six-site configurations, the "hexapole" of alternating phases (0-pi) , as well as the vortex of topological charge S=2 have intervals of stability; among three-site states, only the vortex of topological charge S=1 may be stable in the case of focusing nonlinearity. These conclusions are confirmed both for hexagonal and for honeycomb lattices by means of detailed numerical bifurcation analysis of the stationary states from the anticontinuum limit, and by direct simulations to monitor the dynamical instabilities, when the latter arise. The dynamics reveal a wealth of nonlinear behavior resulting not only in single-site solitary wave forms, but also in robust multisite breathing structures.
Direct numerical simulations of vortex ring collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostilla Monico, Rodolfo; Pumir, Alain; Brenner, Michael
2016-11-01
We numerically simulate the ring vortex collision experiment of Lim and Nickels in an attempt to understand the rapid formation of very fine scale turbulence (or 'smoke') from relatively smooth initial conditions. Reynolds numbers of up to Re = Γ / ν = 7500 , where Γ is the vortex ring circulation and ν the kinematic viscosity of the fluid are reached, which coincide with the highest Reynolds number case of the experiments. Different perturbations to the ring vortex are added, and their effect on the generation and amplification of turbulence is quantified. The underlying dynamics of the vortex core is analyzed, and compared to the dynamics arising from a simple Biot-Savart filament model for the core.
Titan's South Polar Vortex in Motion
This movie captured by NASA'S Cassini spacecraft shows a south polar vortex, or a swirling mass of gas around the pole in the atmosphere, at Saturnâs moon Titan. The swirling mass appears to exec...
Optical Scully vortex and its spatial evolution.
Aksenov, Valerii P; Pogutsa, Cheslav E
2012-04-01
The structure of an optical vortex formed in a partially coherent Laguerre-Gauss laser beam was considered. The main object of study was the recorded vector field of wavefront tilts that consisted of the vortical and potential components. It was found that the vortical motion weakened as the coherence decreased. Main regularities in the behavior of the vortical component can be described by the Scully vortex model of vortical liquid flow. In the spatial evolution, the potential component of tilts may alternate the sign, thus determining the direction of energy flow to the center or to the periphery of the vortex. Energy flow lines in the beam demonstrate the pattern of decay of an optical vortex similar to the pattern of decaying vortical motion in viscous liquid.
Vortex simulation of reacting shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghoniem, Ahmed F.
Issues involved in the vortex simulation of reacting shear flow are discussed. It is shown that maintaining accuracy in the vortex methods requires the application of elaborate vorticity-updating schemes as vortex elements are moved along particle trajectories when shear or a strong strain field is represented. Solutions using 2D and 3D methods are discussed to illustrate some of the most common instabilities encountered in nonreacting and reacting shear flows and to reveal the mechanisms by which the maturation of these instabilities enhance mixing and hence burning in a reacting flow. The transport element method is developed and its application to compute scalar mixing in a shear layer is reviewed. The method is then combined with the vortex method to solve the problem of nonuniform-density shear flow. The results of incompressible reacting flow models are used to examine reaction extinction due to the formation of localized regions of strong strains as instabilities grow into their nonlinear range.
Giant vortex state in mesoscopic superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cobacy García, Luis; Giraldo, Jairo
2005-08-01
Using the self-consistent solution of the nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau equations, the superconducting state of a type II mesoscopic cylinder and of an infinite thin sheet with a circular hole (antidot), in the presence of an homogeneous magnetic field is studied. Close to the third critical field, the magnetic field penetrates the sample in the form of a vortex around the axis of the cylinder or of the antidot. This result has been found previously by other authors. The vortex, called a giant vortex, can carry several flux quanta. The giant vortex is persistent when the state is metastable and evolves to the so called paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME) within the cylinder. The behaviour of this effect as a function of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) parameter is studied and the results are discussed. Gibbs free energy, order parameter and magnetic induccion as a function of the applied field and of the GL parameter are also studied.
THz Cherenkov radiation of Josephson vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malishevskii, A. S.; Silin, V. P.; Uryupin, S. A.; Uspenskii, S. G.
2008-01-01
It is shown that Josephson vortices travelling in sandwich embedded in dielectric media radiate electromagnetic waves with THz frequencies. This phenomenon is caused by the Cherenkov effect and takes place if vortex velocity exceeds the speed of light in dielectric.
Cavitating vortex generation by a submerged jet
Belyakov, G. V.; Filippov, A. N.
2006-05-15
The surface geometry of a cavitating vortex is determined in the limit of inviscid incompressible flow. The limit surface is an ovaloid of revolution with an axis ratio of 5: 3. It is shown that a cavitating vortex ring cannot develop if the cavitation number is lower than a certain critical value. Experiments conducted at various liquid pressures and several jet exit velocities confirm the existence of a critical cavitation number close to 3. At cavitation numbers higher than the critical one, the cavitating vortex ring does not develop. At substantially lower cavitation numbers (k {<=} 0.1), an elongated asymmetric cavitation bubble is generated, with an axial reentrant jet whose length can exceed the initial jet length by several times. This flow structure is called an asymmetric cavitating vortex, even though steady motion of this structure has not been observed.
NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.
1996-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.
Drift due to viscous vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrell, Thomas; Spagnolie, Saverio; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc
2016-11-01
Biomixing is the study of fluid mixing due to swimming organisms. While large organisms typically produce turbulent flows in their wake, small organisms produce less turbulent wakes; the main mechanism of mixing is the induced net particle displacement (drift). Several experiments have examined this drift for small jellyfish, which produce vortex rings that trap and transport a fair amount of fluid. Inviscid theory implies infinite particle displacements for the trapped fluid, so the effect of viscosity must be included to understand the damping of real vortex motion. We use a model viscous vortex ring to compute particle displacements and other relevant quantities, such as the integrated moments of the displacement. Fluid entrainment at the tail end of a growing vortex 'envelope' is found to play an important role in the total fluid transport and drift. Partially supported by NSF Grant DMS-1109315.
Analysis of vortex wake encounter upsets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W. A.; Teper, G. L.
1974-01-01
The problem of an airplane being upset by encountering the vortex wake of a large transport on takeoff or landing is currently receiving considerable attention. This report describes the technique and results of a study to assess the effectiveness of automatic control systems in alleviating vortex wake upsets. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear digital simulation was used for this purpose. The analysis included establishing the disturbance input due to penetrating a vortex wake from an arbitrary position and angle. Simulations were computed for both a general aviation airplane and a commercial jet transport. Dynamic responses were obtained for the penetrating aircraft with no augmentation, and with various command augmentation systems, as well as with human pilot control. The results of this preliminary study indicate that attitude command augmentation systems can provide significant alleviation of vortex wake upsets; and can do it better than a human pilot.
Laboratory Applications of the Vortex Tube.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruno, Thomas J.
1987-01-01
Discussed are a brief explanation of the function of the vortex tube and some applications for the chemistry laboratory. It is a useful and inexpensive solution to many small-scale laboratory heating and cooling applications. (RH)
Entropic multirelaxation lattice Boltzmann models for turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bösch, Fabian; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Ilya V.
2015-10-01
We present three-dimensional realizations of a class of lattice Boltzmann models introduced recently by the authors [I. V. Karlin, F. Bösch, and S. S. Chikatamarla, Phys. Rev. E 90, 031302(R) (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.031302] and review the role of the entropic stabilizer. Both coarse- and fine-grid simulations are addressed for the Kida vortex flow benchmark. We show that the outstanding numerical stability and performance is independent of a particular choice of the moment representation for high-Reynolds-number flows. We report accurate results for low-order moments for homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence and second-order grid convergence for most assessed statistical quantities. It is demonstrated that all the three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann realizations considered herein converge to the familiar lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model when the resolution is increased. Moreover, thanks to the dynamic nature of the entropic stabilizer, the present model features less compressibility effects and maintains correct energy and enstrophy dissipation. The explicit and efficient nature of the present lattice Boltzmann method renders it a promising candidate for both engineering and scientific purposes for highly turbulent flows.
Entropic multirelaxation lattice Boltzmann models for turbulent flows.
Bösch, Fabian; Chikatamarla, Shyam S; Karlin, Ilya V
2015-10-01
We present three-dimensional realizations of a class of lattice Boltzmann models introduced recently by the authors [I. V. Karlin, F. Bösch, and S. S. Chikatamarla, Phys. Rev. E 90, 031302(R) (2014)] and review the role of the entropic stabilizer. Both coarse- and fine-grid simulations are addressed for the Kida vortex flow benchmark. We show that the outstanding numerical stability and performance is independent of a particular choice of the moment representation for high-Reynolds-number flows. We report accurate results for low-order moments for homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence and second-order grid convergence for most assessed statistical quantities. It is demonstrated that all the three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann realizations considered herein converge to the familiar lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model when the resolution is increased. Moreover, thanks to the dynamic nature of the entropic stabilizer, the present model features less compressibility effects and maintains correct energy and enstrophy dissipation. The explicit and efficient nature of the present lattice Boltzmann method renders it a promising candidate for both engineering and scientific purposes for highly turbulent flows.
Shallow flow vortex formation and control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Haojun
Vortical structures in shallow flow past a vertical cylinder are addressed in this investigation. A cinema technique of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) provided quantitative representations of the wholefield flow patterns in both instantaneous and averaged forms. Techniques for passive and active control of these vortices, and their influence on the loading of the bed, were explored. In a fully-developed, laminar shallow flow, the unstable structure in the near-wake of the cylinder correlates with the horseshoe (necklace) vortex system about the upstream surface of the cylinder. A coherent varicose mode of vortex formation is observed in the near-wake, even though the classical large-scale vortex shedding is suppressed due to bed friction effects. It is also demonstrated that when the near-wake is stable at a sufficiently low value of Reynolds number, applications of external perturbations lead to destabilization of the wake. Classes of small-scale three-dimensional structures arise in a fully-turbulent shallow flow past a surface-piercing cylinder. A prevalent feature is an upward moving jet-like flow from the bed surface, through the center of the developing quasi-two-dimensional primary vortex, at a location in the very near-wake of the cylinder. Passive control via base-bleed through a narrow streamwise slot leads to substantially delay/attenuation of vortex formation in the near-wake. The large-scale near-wake structure is recoverable through combined positive-active control, in the form of rotational perturbations in the presence of small magnitude base bleed. These alterations of the near-wake structure occur in conjunction with modifications of the streamline topology and Reynolds stress at the bed, as well as the shallow approach flow. Active control via rotational perturbations of the cylinder at the most unstable shear-layer frequency promotes well-defined vortical structures in the separating shearlayer, which contribute to the earlier
Exact matter-wave vortices in a driven optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Yan; Hai, Wenhua; Zhou, Zheng
2013-07-01
We investigate vortex dynamics of a periodically driven Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a spatially two-dimensional optical lattice. An exact Floquet solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is obtained for a certain parameter region which can be divided into the phase-jumping and phase-continuing regions. In the former region, the exact solution can describe spatiotemporal evolution of multiple vortices. For a small ratio of driving strength to optical lattice depth the vortices keep nearly unmoved. With the increase of the ratio, the vortices undergo an effective interaction and periodically evolve along some fixed circular orbits that leads the vortex dipoles and quadrupoles to produce and break alternatively. There is a critical ratio in the phase-jumping region beyond which the vortices generate and melt periodically. In the phase-continuing region, the condensate in the exact Floquet state evolves periodically without zero-density nodes. It is numerically demonstrated that the exact solution is stable under an initial perturbation for both parameter regions, except for a subregion of the phase-jumping region in which stability of the condensate is lost. However, the solution is structurally stable under a small parameter perturbation only for the phase-continuing region, while for the whole phase-jumping region the structural stability is destroyed. The results suggest a scheme for creating and controlling matter-wave vortices.
Vortex core identification in viscous hydrodynamics.
Finn, Lucas I; Boghosian, Bruce M; Kottke, Christopher N
2005-08-15
We describe a software package designed for the investigation of topological fluid dynamics with a novel algorithm for locating and tracking vortex cores. The package is equipped with modules for generating desired vortex knots and links and evolving them according to the Navier-Stokes equations, while tracking and visualizing them. The package is parallelized using a message passing interface for a multiprocessor environment and makes use of a computational steering library for dynamic user intervention.
Moving embedded lattice solitons.
Malomed, B A; Fujioka, J; Espinosa-Cerón, A; Rodríguez, R F; González, S
2006-03-01
It was recently proved that solitons embedded in the spectrum of linear waves may exist in discrete systems, and explicit solutions for isolated unstable embedded lattice solitons (ELS) of a differential-difference version of a higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger equation were found [Gonzalez-Perez-Sandi, Fujioka, and Malomed, Physica D 197, 86 (2004)]. The discovery of these ELS gives rise to relevant questions such as the following: (1) Are there continuous families of ELS? (2) Can ELS be stable? (3) Is it possible for ELS to move along the lattice? (4) How do ELS interact? The present work addresses these questions by showing that a novel equation (a discrete version of a complex modified Korteweg-de Vries equation that includes next-nearest-neighbor couplings) has a two-parameter continuous family of exact ELS. These solitons can move with arbitrary velocities across the lattice, and the numerical simulations demonstrate that these ELS are completely stable. Moreover, the numerical tests show that these ELS are robust enough to withstand collisions, and the result of a collision is only a shift in the positions of the solitons. The model may apply to the description of a Bose-Einstein condensate with dipole-dipole interactions between the atoms, trapped in a deep optical-lattice potential.
Generalizing Word Lattice Translation
2008-02-01
demonstrate substantial gains for Chinese -English and Arabic -English translation. Keywords: word lattice translation, phrase-based and hierarchical...introduce in reordering models. Our experiments evaluating the approach demonstrate substantial gains for Chinese -English and Arabic -English translation. 15...Section 4 presents two applications of the noisier channel paradigm, demonstrating substantial performance gains in Arabic -English and Chinese -English
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaich, David
2016-03-01
Lattice field theory provides a non-perturbative regularization of strongly interacting systems, which has proven crucial to the study of quantum chromodynamics among many other theories. Supersymmetry plays prominent roles in the study of physics beyond the standard model, both as an ingredient in model building and as a tool to improve our understanding of quantum field theory. Attempts to apply lattice techniques to supersymmetric field theories have a long history, but until recently these efforts have generally encountered insurmountable difficulties related to the interplay of supersymmetry with the lattice discretization of spacetime. In recent years these difficulties have been overcome for a class of theories that includes the particularly interesting case of maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills (N = 4 SYM) in four dimensions, which is a cornerstone of AdS/CFT duality. In combination with computational advances this progress enables practical numerical investigations of N = 4 SYM on the lattice, which can address questions that are difficult or impossible to handle through perturbation theory, AdS/CFT duality, or the conformal bootstrap program. I will briefly review some of the new ideas underlying this recent progress, and present some results from ongoing large-scale numerical calculations, including comparisons with analytic predictions.
Feng Haidong; Siegel, Warren
2006-08-15
We propose some new simplifying ingredients for Feynman diagrams that seem necessary for random lattice formulations of superstrings. In particular, half the fermionic variables appear only in particle loops (similarly to loop momenta), reducing the supersymmetry of the constituents of the type IIB superstring to N=1, as expected from their interpretation in the 1/N expansion as super Yang-Mills.
Andreas S. Kronfeld
2002-09-30
After reviewing some of the mathematical foundations and numerical difficulties facing lattice QCD, I review the status of several calculations relevant to experimental high-energy physics. The topics considered are moments of structure functions, which may prove relevant to search for new phenomena at the LHC, and several aspects of flavor physics, which are relevant to understanding CP and flavor violation.
Phenomenology Using Lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, R.
2005-08-01
This talk provides a brief summary of the status of lattice QCD calculations of the light quark masses and the kaon bag parameter BK. Precise estimates of these four fundamental parameters of the standard model, i.e., mu, md, ms and the CP violating parameter η, help constrain grand unified models and could provide a window to new physics.
Phenomenology Using Lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, R.
This talk provides a brief summary of the status of lattice QCD calculations of the light quark masses and the kaon bag parameter BK. Precise estimates of these four fundamental parameters of the standard model, i.e., mu, md, ms and the CP violating parameter η, help constrain grand unified models and could provide a window to new physics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savelyev, V. A.
1979-01-01
The means of ensuring total rigidity of lattice domes, using comparison with solid shells of 1-3 layers are discussed. Irregularities of manufacture, processing, and other factors are considered, as they relate to diminution of rigidity. The discussion uses the concepts of upper and lower critical loads on the structure in question.
Effect of Nondissipative Terms in Dynamical Phases of Vortex Matter in a Periodic Pinning Array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arovas, Daniel
2000-03-01
The zero temperature dynamical phases of driven vortex lattices [1] are reconsidered, introducing a nondynamical term (proportional to the sine of the Hall angle) into the equations of motion. While such a term does not affect the static thermodynamic phases of the system, it may have a profound effect on the dynamics. We find that finite Hall angle tends to reduce the effect of pinning in certain dynamical phases. [1] C. Reichhardt, C. J. Olson, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6534, 1998.
Localization oscillation in antidot lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uryu, S.; Ando, T.
1998-06-01
The Anderson localization in square and hexagonal antidot lattices is numerically studied with the use of a Thouless number method. It is revealed that localization is very sensitive to the aspect ratio between the antidot diameter and the lattice constant. In a hexagonal lattice, both the Thouless number and the localization length oscillate with the period equal to the Al’tshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillation. The oscillation is quite weak in a square lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straser, Valentino
2014-05-01
The relationship between the convection currents of the mantle-lithosphere system with terrestrial dynamics has represented one of the main themes of tectonophysics for over a century, in addition to the relationships interwoven with crust dynamics. Likewise, the relevant debate has animated the scientific community for more than a century, as recalled by the work of Kreighauger (1902), Ampferer (1906), Schwinner (1919), Holmes (1928), Griggs (1932), Pekeris (1935), Kraus (1951), Hess (1962). Though never directly observed, the convection currents in the mantle manifest their effects in the Earth's crust in various ways, such as the flow of heat in the oceans and continents, and magnetic anomalies. These are the result of effects caused by ferromagnetic materials dragged upwards by convection movements, as demonstrated by the laboratory simulations carried out by Glatzmaier and Olson (2005). With respect to the initial simplified and theoretical modelling of the first authors of the last century, the studies by Bercovici, Schubert and Glatzmaier (1989) and those of Glatzmaier and Olson (2005) revealed a complex three-dimensional model of the dynamics of convection processes in the mantle, even if it is not yet clear to what extent this mechanism actually reflects reality. The differences in temperature in the Earth's inner shells causes convection movements that can manifest both on a large scale with laminar flows and plumes, and on a small scale with turbulent flows concentrated in limited areas of the globe. The trajectories in a vortex, also proposed by Gurevich (2012), generated by complex motions in the mantle-lithosphere system, are driven by the Coriolis Effect. The combination of these mechanisms together with the Coriolis force creates, on the whole, ascending helical motions with a similar effect to that of an atmospheric cyclone interacting with the lithospheric shell. In this study it is believed that the ascending whirling movements (Vortex Theory
A distributed vortex method for computing the vortex field of a missile
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barger, R. L.
1978-01-01
Vortex sheet development in the flow field of a missile was investigated by approximating the sheets in the cross-flow plane with short straight-line segments having distributed vorticity. In contrast with the method that represents the sheets as lines of discrete vortices, this distributed vortex method produced calculations with a high degree of computational stability.
An experimental investigation of the parallel blade-vortex interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caradonna, F. X.; Laub, G. H.; Tung, C.
1984-01-01
A scheme for investigating the parallel blade vortex interaction (BVI) has been designed and tested. The scheme involves setting a vortex generator upstream of a nonlifting rotor so that the vortex interacts with the blade at the forward azimuth. The method has revealed two propagation mechanisms: a type C shock propagation from the leading edge induced by the vortex at high tip speeds, and a rapid but continuous pressure pulse associated with the proximity of the vortex to the leading edge. The latter is thought to be the more important source. The effects of Mach number and vortex proximity are discussed.
Devices that Alter the Tip Vortex of a Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McAlister, Kenneth W.; Tung, Chee; Heineck, James T.
2001-01-01
Small devices were attached near the tip of a hovering rotor blade 'in order to alter the structure and trajectory of the trailing vortex. Stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) images were used to quantify the wake behind the rotor blade during the first revolution. A procedure for analyzing the 3D-velocity field is presented that includes a method for accounting for vortex wander. The results show that a vortex generator can alter the trajectory of the trailing vortex and that a major change in the size and intensity of the trailing vortex can be achieved by introducing a high level of turbulence into the core of the vortex.
Low NOx Advanced Vortex Combustor
Edmonds, R.G.; Williams, J.T.; Steele, R.C.; Straub, D.L.; Casleton, K.H.; Bining, Avtar
2008-05-01
A lean-premixed advanced vortex combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown, WV. All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx /CO/unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions corrected to 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated marked acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions, which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean-premixed combustion approaches. In addition, the measured 1.75% pressure drop is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors, which could translate into an overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvement. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drop achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.
Phenomenon of Alfvenic Vortex Shedding
Gruszecki, M.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Arber, T. D.
2010-07-30
Generation of Alfvenic (magnetohydrodynamic) vortices by the interaction of compressible plasma flows with magnetic-field-aligned blunt obstacles is modeled in terms of magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that periodic shedding of vortices with opposite vorticity is a robust feature of the interaction in a broad range of plasma parameters: for plasma beta from 0.025 to 0.5, and for the flow speeds from 0.1 to 0.99 of the fast magnetoacoustic speed. The Strouhal number is the dimensionless ratio of the blunt body diameter to the product of the period of vortex shedding and the inflow speed. It is found to be consistently in the range 0.15-0.25 in the whole range of parameters. The induced Alfvenic vortices are compressible and contain spiral-armed perturbations of the magnetic field strength and plasma mass density up to 50%-60% of the background values. The generated electric current also has the spiral-armed structuring.
Vortex Cores of Inertial Particles.
Günther, Tobias; Theisel, Holger
2014-12-01
The cores of massless, swirling particle motion are an indicator for vortex-like behavior in vector fields and to this end, a number of coreline extractors have been proposed in the literature. Though, many practical applications go beyond the study of the vector field. Instead, engineers seek to understand the behavior of inertial particles moving therein, for instance in sediment transport, helicopter brownout and pulverized coal combustion. In this paper, we present two strategies for the extraction of the corelines that inertial particles swirl around, which depend on particle density, particle diameter, fluid viscosity and gravity. The first is to deduce the local swirling behavior from the autonomous inertial motion ODE, which eventually reduces to a parallel vectors operation. For the second strategy, we use a particle density estimation to locate inertial attractors. With this, we are able to extract the cores of swirling inertial particle motion for both steady and unsteady 3D vector fields. We demonstrate our techniques in a number of benchmark data sets, and elaborate on the relation to traditional massless corelines.
Intraventricular vortex properties in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.
Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; Del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Pérez-David, Esther; González-Mansilla, Ana; Santa-Marta, Cristina; Barrio, Alicia; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Del Álamo, Juan C
2014-03-01
Vortices may have a role in optimizing the mechanical efficiency and blood mixing of the left ventricle (LV). We aimed to characterize the size, position, circulation, and kinetic energy (KE) of LV main vortex cores in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and analyze their physiological correlates. We used digital processing of color-Doppler images to study flow evolution in 61 patients with NIDCM and 61 age-matched control subjects. Vortex features showed a characteristic biphasic temporal course during diastole. Because late filling contributed significantly to flow entrainment, vortex KE reached its maximum at the time of the peak A wave, storing 26 ± 20% of total KE delivered by inflow (range: 1-74%). Patients with NIDCM showed larger and stronger vortices than control subjects (circulation: 0.008 ± 0.007 vs. 0.006 ± 0.005 m(2)/s, respectively, P = 0.02; KE: 7 ± 8 vs. 5 ± 5 mJ/m, P = 0.04), even when corrected for LV size. This helped confining the filling jet in the dilated ventricle. The vortex Reynolds number was also higher in the NIDCM group. By multivariate analysis, vortex KE was related to the KE generated by inflow and to chamber short-axis diameter. In 21 patients studied head to head, Doppler measurements of circulation and KE closely correlated with phase-contract magnetic resonance values (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82 and 0.76, respectively). Thus, the biphasic nature of filling determines normal vortex physiology. Vortex formation is exaggerated in patients with NIDCM due to chamber remodeling, and enlarged vortices are helpful for ameliorating convective pressure losses and facilitating transport. These findings can be accurately studied using ultrasound.
Intraventricular vortex properties in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy
Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Pérez-David, Esther; González-Mansilla, Ana; Santa-Marta, Cristina; Barrio, Alicia; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; del Álamo, Juan C.
2014-01-01
Vortices may have a role in optimizing the mechanical efficiency and blood mixing of the left ventricle (LV). We aimed to characterize the size, position, circulation, and kinetic energy (KE) of LV main vortex cores in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and analyze their physiological correlates. We used digital processing of color-Doppler images to study flow evolution in 61 patients with NIDCM and 61 age-matched control subjects. Vortex features showed a characteristic biphasic temporal course during diastole. Because late filling contributed significantly to flow entrainment, vortex KE reached its maximum at the time of the peak A wave, storing 26 ± 20% of total KE delivered by inflow (range: 1–74%). Patients with NIDCM showed larger and stronger vortices than control subjects (circulation: 0.008 ± 0.007 vs. 0.006 ± 0.005 m2/s, respectively, P = 0.02; KE: 7 ± 8 vs. 5 ± 5 mJ/m, P = 0.04), even when corrected for LV size. This helped confining the filling jet in the dilated ventricle. The vortex Reynolds number was also higher in the NIDCM group. By multivariate analysis, vortex KE was related to the KE generated by inflow and to chamber short-axis diameter. In 21 patients studied head to head, Doppler measurements of circulation and KE closely correlated with phase-contract magnetic resonance values (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82 and 0.76, respectively). Thus, the biphasic nature of filling determines normal vortex physiology. Vortex formation is exaggerated in patients with NIDCM due to chamber remodeling, and enlarged vortices are helpful for ameliorating convective pressure losses and facilitating transport. These findings can be accurately studied using ultrasound. PMID:24414062
Fractional lattice charge transport
Flach, Sergej; Khomeriki, Ramaz
2017-01-01
We consider the dynamics of noninteracting quantum particles on a square lattice in the presence of a magnetic flux α and a dc electric field E oriented along the lattice diagonal. In general, the adiabatic dynamics will be characterized by Bloch oscillations in the electrical field direction and dispersive ballistic transport in the perpendicular direction. For rational values of α and a corresponding discrete set of values of E(α) vanishing gaps in the spectrum induce a fractionalization of the charge in the perpendicular direction - while left movers are still performing dispersive ballistic transport, the complementary fraction of right movers is propagating in a dispersionless relativistic manner in the opposite direction. Generalizations and the possible probing of the effect with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and photonic networks are discussed. Zak phase of respective band associated with gap closing regime has been computed and it is found converging to π/2 value. PMID:28102302
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Nadler, Walder; Grassberger, Peter
2005-07-01
The scaling behavior of randomly branched polymers in a good solvent is studied in two to nine dimensions, modeled by lattice animals on simple hypercubic lattices. For the simulations, we use a biased sequential sampling algorithm with re-sampling, similar to the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) used extensively for linear polymers. We obtain high statistics of animals with up to several thousand sites in all dimension 2⩽d⩽9. The partition sum (number of different animals) and gyration radii are estimated. In all dimensions we verify the Parisi-Sourlas prediction, and we verify all exactly known critical exponents in dimensions 2, 3, 4, and ⩾8. In addition, we present the hitherto most precise estimates for growth constants in d⩾3. For clusters with one site attached to an attractive surface, we verify the superuniversality of the cross-over exponent at the adsorption transition predicted by Janssen and Lyssy.
Jozef Dudek
2007-08-05
Charmonium is an attractive system for the application of lattice QCD methods. While the sub-threshold spectrum has been considered in some detail in previous works, it is only very recently that excited and higher-spin states and further properties such as radiative transitions and two-photon decays have come to be calculated. I report on this recent progress with reference to work done at Jefferson Lab.
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-06-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows.
Digital lattice gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohar, Erez; Farace, Alessandro; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2017-02-01
We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with 2 +1 dimensions and higher are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through perturbative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a Z3 lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in 2 +1 dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge, and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms with a proper sequence of steps, we show how we can obtain the desired evolution in a clean, controlled way.
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-01-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bietenholz, W.; Gerber, U.; Pepe, M.; Wiese, U.-J.
2010-12-01
We consider lattice field theories with topological actions, which are invariant against small deformations of the fields. Some of these actions have infinite barriers separating different topological sectors. Topological actions do not have the correct classical continuum limit and they cannot be treated using perturbation theory, but they still yield the correct quantum continuum limit. To show this, we present analytic studies of the 1-d O(2) and O(3) model, as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the 2-d O(3) model using topological lattice actions. Some topological actions obey and others violate a lattice Schwarz inequality between the action and the topological charge Q. Irrespective of this, in the 2-d O(3) model the topological susceptibility {χ_t} = {{{left< {{Q^2}} rightrangle }} left/ {V} right.} is logarithmically divergent in the continuum limit. Still, at non-zero distance the correlator of the topological charge density has a finite continuum limit which is consistent with analytic predictions. Our study shows explicitly that some classically important features of an action are irrelevant for reaching the correct quantum continuum limit.
Analysis of Vortex Line Cutting and Reconnection by a Blade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saunders, Curtis; Marshall, Jeffrey
2015-11-01
The essence of vortex reconnection involves the cutting of vortex lines originating from one region and reconnecting to vortex lines originating from another region via the diffusion-regulated annihilation of vorticity. Vortex cutting by a blade is a special case of the more general class of vortex reconnection problems, with an important difference being that vorticity is generated at the reconnection site. In this study, a series of Navier-Stokes simulations of orthogonal vortex cutting by a blade with different values of vortex strength are reported. The three phases of vortex reconnection identified in the literature are found to have counterparts for the vortex cutting problem. However numerous differences between the mechanics of vortex cutting and reconnection within each phase are discussed. In addition, comparisons are made between the temporal changes of the maximum and minimum components of vorticity for vortices of differing strength but still within the vortex cutting regime. The vortex cutting results are also compared with predictions of a simple analytical model that incorporates the key elements of a stretched vorticity field interacting with a solid surface, which is representative of the vortex cutting mechanism near the blade leading edge. Funded by National Science Foundation project DGE-1144388.
Vortex-Based Aero- and Hydrodynamic Estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemati, Maziar Sam
Flow control strategies often require knowledge of unmeasurable quantities, thus presenting a need to reconstruct flow states from measurable ones. In this thesis, the modeling, simulation, and estimator design aspects of flow reconstruction are considered. First, a vortex-based aero- and hydrodynamic estimation paradigm is developed to design a wake sensing algorithm for aircraft formation flight missions. The method assimilates wing distributed pressure measurements with a vortex-based wake model to better predict the state of the flow. The study compares Kalman-type algorithms with particle filtering algorithms, demonstrating that the vortex nonlinearities require particle filters to yield adequate performance. Furthermore, the observability structure of the wake is shown to have a negative impact on filter performance regardless of the algorithm applied. It is demonstrated that relative motions can alleviate the filter divergence issues associated with this observability structure. In addition to estimator development, the dissertation addresses the need for an efficient unsteady multi-body aerodynamics testbed for estimator and controller validation studies. A pure vortex particle implementation of a vortex panel-particle method is developed to satisfy this need. The numerical method is demonstrated on the impulsive startup of a flat plate as well as the impulsive startup of a multi-wing formation. It is clear, from these validation studies, that the method is able to accommodate the unsteady wake effects that arise in formation flight missions. Lastly, successful vortex-based estimation is highly dependent on the reliability of the low-order vortex model used in representing the flow of interest. The present treatise establishes a systematic framework for vortex model improvement, grounded in optimal control theory and the calculus of variations. By minimizing model predicted errors with respect to empirical data, the shortcomings of the baseline vortex model
Numerical analysis of slender vortex motion
Zhou, H.
1996-02-01
Several numerical methods for slender vortex motion (the local induction equation, the Klein-Majda equation, and the Klein-Knio equation) are compared on the specific example of sideband instability of Kelvin waves on a vortex. Numerical experiments on this model problem indicate that all these methods yield qualitatively similar behavior, and this behavior is different from the behavior of a non-slender vortex with variable cross-section. It is found that the boundaries between stable, recurrent, and chaotic regimes in the parameter space of the model problem depend on the method used. The boundaries of these domains in the parameter space for the Klein-Majda equation and for the Klein-Knio equation are closely related to the core size. When the core size is large enough, the Klein-Majda equation always exhibits stable solutions for our model problem. Various conclusions are drawn; in particular, the behavior of turbulent vortices cannot be captured by these local approximations, and probably cannot be captured by any slender vortex model with constant vortex cross-section. Speculations about the differences between classical and superfluid hydrodynamics are also offered.
Point vortex interactions on a toroidal surface.
Sakajo, Takashi; Shimizu, Yuuki
2016-07-01
Owing to non-constant curvature and a handle structure, it is not easy to imagine intuitively how flows with vortex structures evolve on a toroidal surface compared with those in a plane, on a sphere and a flat torus. In order to cultivate an insight into vortex interactions on this manifold, we derive the evolution equation for N-point vortices from Green's function associated with the Laplace-Beltrami operator there, and we then formulate it as a Hamiltonian dynamical system with the help of the symplectic geometry and the uniformization theorem. Based on this Hamiltonian formulation, we show that the 2-vortex problem is integrable. We also investigate the point vortex equilibria and the motion of two-point vortices with the strengths of the same magnitude as one of the fundamental vortex interactions. As a result, we find some characteristic interactions between point vortices on the torus. In particular, two identical point vortices can be locally repulsive under a certain circumstance.
Vortex-based line beam optical tweezers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua
2016-10-01
A vortex-based line beam, which has a straight-line shape of intensity and possesses phase gradient along the line trajectory is developed and applied for optical manipulation in this paper. The intensity and phase distributions of the beam in the imaging plane of the Fourier transform are analytically studied. Simulation results show that the length of the line and phase gradient possessed by a vortex-based line beam are dependent on the topological charge and the azimuthal proportional constant. A superposition of multiple phase-only holograms with elliptical azimuthal phases can be used to generate an array of vortex-based line beams. Optical trapping with the vortex-based line beams has been implemented. Furthermore, the automatic transportation of microparticles along the line trajectory perpendicular to the optical axis is realized with an array of the beams. The generation method for the vortex-based line beam is simple. The beam would have potential applications in fields such as optical trapping, laser machining, and so on.
NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Development Status
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinton, David A.; Charnock, James K.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Grigsby, Donner
1999-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several systems to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These systems provide current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, and real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors. The goal of the NASA program is to provide the research and development to demonstrate an engineering model AVOSS in real-time operation at a major airport. The demonstration is only of concept feasibility, and additional effort is required to deploy an operational system for actual aircraft spacing reduction. This paper describes the AVOSS system architecture, a wake vortex facility established at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), initial operational experience with the AVOSS system, and emerging considerations for subsystem requirements. Results of the initial system operation suggest a significant potential for reduced spacing.
Vortex Shedding Inside a Baffled Air Duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Philip; Kenny, R. Jeremy
2010-01-01
Common in the operation of both segmented and un-segmented large solid rocket motors is the occurrence of vortex shedding within the motor chamber. A portion of the energy within a shed vortex is converted to acoustic energy, potentially driving the longitudinal acoustic modes of the motor in a quasi-discrete fashion. This vortex shedding-acoustic mode excitation event occurs for every Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) operation, giving rise to subsequent axial thrust oscillations. In order to better understand this vortex shedding/acoustic mode excitation phenomena, unsteady CFD simulations were run for both a test geometry and the full scale RSRM geometry. This paper covers the results from the subscale geometry runs, which were based on work focusing on the RSRM hydrodynamics. Unsteady CFD simulation parameters, including boundary conditions and post-processing returns, are reviewed. The results were further post-processed to identify active acoustic modes and vortex shedding characteristics. Probable locations for acoustic energy generation, and subsequent acoustic mode excitation, are discussed.
The calculation of some Batchelor flows - The Sadovskii vortex and rotational corner flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, D. W.; Saffman, P. G.; Tanveer, S.
1988-05-01
Steady inviscid incompressible two-dimensional flows with vortex patches bounded by vortex sheets (Batchelor flows) are calculated with attention given to the vortex on a plane wall (Sadovskii vortex) and the vortex in a right-angled corner. Nonlinear integral equations derived for the shape of the bounding vortex sheet are solved numerically. Only symmetrical solutions are shown to exist.
93 Nb NMR investigation of vortex- glass transition in layered NbSe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Douglas; Saraswat, Garima; Shirage, Parasharam; Kuhns, Philip; Hoch, Michael J. R.; Reyes, Arneil
We report a detailed low temperature investigation of vortex glass transition in layered superconducting compound NbSe2 using 93Nb NMR at fields below Hc2. Preliminary measurements show that spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 demonstrates a classic Korringa behavior 1/T1~ T above the superconducting transition Tc , consistent with previous measurements on this compound. However, for field H perpendicular to the layers, we observed that 1/T1 exhibits an anomalous plateau between Tc (H = 0) and Tc (H) and a suppression of the superconducting enhancement expected below Tc. Instead, a power law behavior, 1/T1 ~T 1 . 2 below Tc down to 360mK was observed which suggests a strong anisotropy in the low energy excitations. However, the possibility of enhancement in 1/T1 due to vortex fluctuations which competes with electronic mechanisms cannot be excluded. The implications of these results with regards to vortex-glass transition will be discussed. This work was performed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, which is supported by NSF DMR-1157490 and the State of Florida.
Sagnac interferometry with coherent vortex superposition states in exciton-polariton condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moxley, Frederick Ira; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Dai, Weizhong; Byrnes, Tim
2016-05-01
We investigate prospects of using counter-rotating vortex superposition states in nonequilibrium exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensates for the purposes of Sagnac interferometry. We first investigate the stability of vortex-antivortex superposition states, and show that they survive at steady state in a variety of configurations. Counter-rotating vortex superpositions are of potential interest to gyroscope and seismometer applications for detecting rotations. Methods of improving the sensitivity are investigated by targeting high momentum states via metastable condensation, and the application of periodic lattices. The sensitivity of the polariton gyroscope is compared to its optical and atomic counterparts. Due to the large interferometer areas in optical systems and small de Broglie wavelengths for atomic BECs, the sensitivity per detected photon is found to be considerably less for the polariton gyroscope than with competing methods. However, polariton gyroscopes have an advantage over atomic BECs in a high signal-to-noise ratio, and have other practical advantages such as room-temperature operation, area independence, and robust design. We estimate that the final sensitivities including signal-to-noise aspects are competitive with existing methods.
Vortex lift augmentation by suction on a 60 deg swept Gothic wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.
1982-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic performance of suction applied near the wing tips above the trailing edge of a 60 deg swept Gothic wing. Moveable suction inlets were symmetrically mounted in the proximity of the trailing edge, and the amount of suction was varied to maximize wing lift. Tests were conducted at Mach 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45, and the angle of attack was varied from -4 to 50 deg. The suction augmentation increases the lift coefficient over the entire range of angle of attack. The lift improvement exceeds the unaugmented wing lift by over 20%. Moreover, the augmented lift exceeds the lift predicted by vortex lattice theory to 30 deg angle of attack. Suction augmentation is postulated to strengthen the vortex system by increasing its velocity and making it more concentrated. This causes the vortex breakdown to be delayed to a higher angle of attack
Vortex Filaments in Grids for Scalable, Fine Smoke Simulation.
Meng, Zhang; Weixin, Si; Yinling, Qian; Hanqiu, Sun; Jing, Qin; Heng, Pheng-Ann
2015-01-01
Vortex modeling can produce attractive visual effects of dynamic fluids, which are widely applicable for dynamic media, computer games, special effects, and virtual reality systems. However, it is challenging to effectively simulate intensive and fine detailed fluids such as smoke with fast increasing vortex filaments and smoke particles. The authors propose a novel vortex filaments in grids scheme in which the uniform grids dynamically bridge the vortex filaments and smoke particles for scalable, fine smoke simulation with macroscopic vortex structures. Using the vortex model, their approach supports the trade-off between simulation speed and scale of details. After computing the whole velocity, external control can be easily exerted on the embedded grid to guide the vortex-based smoke motion. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of using the proposed scheme for a visually plausible smoke simulation with macroscopic vortex structures.
Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks
Beloy, K.
2010-09-15
We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10{sup -18} and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.