Beyond the simple hexagonal Abrikosov vortex lattice in layered superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feinberg, D.; Ettouhami, A. M.
1993-01-01
In layered superconductors as high-Tc materials but also organic superconductors, chalcogenides and superlattices, the simple concept of an distorted hexagonal lattice of straight vortices becomes unsufficient. Due to anisotropy and short coherence lengths, quite new vortex structures may arise. Some of them, as staircase vortices, simply add a modulation in the direction of vortex lines. This phenomenon is reviewed, together with the resulting lock-in transition, especially when the effects of the layered structure are weak. More exotic structures like a decomposed vortex lattice can also occur in specific situations: they involve two perpendicular sublattices, one parallel and one normal to the layers. We propose that extended defects as twin boundaries or irradiation tracks can trigger such a structure even in moderately anisotropic compounds as Y:123.
Hierarchy of gaps and magnetic minibands in graphene in the presence of the Abrikosov vortex lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xi; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.
2016-01-01
We determine the bands and gaps in graphene subjected to the magnetic field of an Abrikosov lattice of vortices in the underlying superconducting film. The spectrum features one nondispersive magnetic miniband at zero energy, separated by the largest gaps in the miniband spectrum from a pair of minibands resembling a slightly broadened first Landau level in graphene, suggesting the persistence of ν =±2 and ±6 quantum Hall effect states. Also, we identify an occasional merging point of magnetic minibands with a Dirac-type dispersion at the miniband edges.
Haymaker, Richard W.; Matsuki, Takayuki
2007-01-01
We address the problem of determining the type I, type II or borderline dual superconductor behavior in maximal Abelian gauge SU(2) through the study of the dual Abrikosov vortex. We find that significant electric currents in the simulation data call into question the use of the dual Ginzburg-Landau Higgs model in interpreting the data. Further, two definitions of the penetration depth parameter take two different values. The splitting of this parameter into two is intricately connected to the existence of electric currents. It is important in our approach that we employ definitions of flux and electric and magnetic currents that respect Maxwell equations exactly for lattice averages independent of lattice spacings. Applied to specific Wilson loop sizes, our conclusions differ from those that use the dual GLH model.
Numerical calculations of the driving force on an Abrikosov vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, D.-X.; Pardo, E.; Sanchez, A.
2010-05-01
The driving force on an Abrikosov vortex is calculated numerically from the London equation and involved energies for a vortex perpendicular to the screening current near the surface of a superconductor. Compared with previous analytical derivation of the total force, the partial magnetic, kinematic, and external forces are also obtained so that the nature of the driving force may be deeply discussed. It is shown that the force is neither a Lorentz force nor a Magnus force as often believed and that in order to get a correct result, the image effects and the work done by the applied field must be taken into account. A name of London force is suggested for the driving force. A deep understanding of the nature of the driving force on Abrikosov vortices may also be important in the study of vortex pinning and dynamics in type-II superconductors.
Melting of the Abrikosov flux lattice in anisotropic superconductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beck, R. G.; Farrell, D. E.; Rice, J. P.; Ginsberg, D. M.; Kogan, V. G.
1992-01-01
It has been proposed that the Abrikosov flux lattice in high-Tc superconductors is melted over a significant fraction of the phase diagram. A thermodynamic argument is provided which establishes that the angular dependence of the melting temperature is controlled by the superconducting mass anisotropy. Using a low-frequency torsional-oscillator technique, this relationship has been tested in untwinned single-crystal YBa2Cu3O(7-delta). The results offer decisive support for the melting proposal.
Dynamic Melting of Driven Abrikosov Lattices in an Amorphous MoxGe1-x Film in Tilted Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochi, Aguri; Kawamura, Yasuki; Inoue, Toshiki; Kaji, Tetsuya; Mihaly, Dobroka; Kaneko, Shin-ichi; Kokubo, Nobuhito; Okuma, Satoshi
2016-03-01
We report a comparative study of the dynamic melting of driven vortex lattices in magnetic field tilted (by θ = 36°) from the normal to the film surface and that of a driven Abrikosov lattice in untilted field (θ = 0). From the mode-locking (ML) resonance, we confirm that vortex lattices in tilted field are stretched in the tilt direction and that, with increasing dc velocity at ML, the shape and orientation of the driven lattice change. Associated with this structural change, the dynamic melting field at which the driven lattice melts also changes. Our results show that, regardless of the lattice shape and orientation, dynamic melting occurs as the shorter side of the distorted lattices reaches close to the side at which the isotropic lattice melts dynamically.
Macroscopic evidence for Abrikosov-type magnetic vortexes in MnSi A-phase
Lobanova, I. I.; Glushkov, V. V.; Sluchanko, N. E.; Demishev, S. V.
2016-01-01
Intrinsic phase coherence between individual topologically stable knots in spin arrangement – skyrmions – is known to induce the crystalline-like structure in the A-phase of non-centrosymmetric MnSi with chiral spin-orbit interaction. Here we report the experimental evidence for two types of the skyrmion lattice (SL) inside the A-phase of MnSi, which are distinguished by different coupling to the anisotropic magnetic interactions. The transition between these SLs is shown to induce a change in magnetic scattering between isotropic MR discovered in the area inside the A-phase (the A-phase core) and anisotropic MR found on the border of the A-phase. We argue that the SL in the A-phase core corresponds to the dense skyrmion state built from individual skyrmions in a way similar to Abrikosov-type magnetic vortexes. PMID:26915818
Macroscopic evidence for Abrikosov-type magnetic vortexes in MnSi A-phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lobanova, I. I.; Glushkov, V. V.; Sluchanko, N. E.; Demishev, S. V.
2016-02-01
Intrinsic phase coherence between individual topologically stable knots in spin arrangement - skyrmions - is known to induce the crystalline-like structure in the A-phase of non-centrosymmetric MnSi with chiral spin-orbit interaction. Here we report the experimental evidence for two types of the skyrmion lattice (SL) inside the A-phase of MnSi, which are distinguished by different coupling to the anisotropic magnetic interactions. The transition between these SLs is shown to induce a change in magnetic scattering between isotropic MR discovered in the area inside the A-phase (the A-phase core) and anisotropic MR found on the border of the A-phase. We argue that the SL in the A-phase core corresponds to the dense skyrmion state built from individual skyrmions in a way similar to Abrikosov-type magnetic vortexes.
A single Abrikosov vortex trapped in a mesoscopic superconducting cylindrical surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carapella, G.; Sabatino, P.; Costabile, G.
2011-11-01
We investigate the behaviour of a single Abrikosov vortex trapped in a mesoscopic superconducting cylindrical surface with a magnetic field applied transverse to its axis. In the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism we show that, provided the transport current and the magnetic field are not large, the vortex behaves as an overdamped quasi-particle in a tilted washboard potential. The cylindrical thin strip with the trapped vortex exhibits E(J) curves and time-dependent electric fields very similar to the ones exhibited by a resistively shunted Josephson weak link.
Effect of fluctuations on the NMR relaxation beyond the Abrikosov vortex state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glatz, A.; Galda, A.; Varlamov, A. A.
2015-08-01
The effect of fluctuations on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate W =T1-1 is studied in a complete phase diagram of a two-dimensional superconductor above the upper critical field line Hc 2(T ) . In the region of relatively high temperatures and low magnetic fields, the relaxation rate W is determined by two competing effects. The first one is its decrease in the result of suppression of the quasiparticle density of states (DOS) due to formation of fluctuation Cooper pairs (FCPs). The second one is a specific, purely quantum relaxation process of the Maki-Thompson (MT) type, which for low field leads to an increase of the relaxation rate. The latter describes particular fluctuation processes involving self-pairing of a single electron on self-intersecting trajectories of a size up to phase-breaking length ℓϕ which becomes possible due to an electron spin-flip scattering event at a nucleus. As a result, different scenarios with either growth or decrease of the NMR relaxation rate are possible upon approaching the normal-metal-type-II superconductor transition. The character of fluctuations changes along the line Hc 2(T ) from the thermal long-wavelength type in weak magnetic fields to the clusters of rotating FCPs in fields comparable to Hc 2(0 ) . We find that below the well-defined temperature T0*≈0.6 Tc 0 , the MT process becomes ineffective even in the absence of intrinsic pair breaking. The small scale of the FCP rotations ξxy in such high fields impedes formation of long (≲ℓϕ) self-intersecting trajectories, causing the corresponding relaxation mechanism to lose its efficiency. This reduces the effect of superconducting fluctuations in the domain of high fields and low temperatures to just the suppression of quasiparticle DOS, analogous to the Abrikosov vortex phase below the Hc 2(T ) line.
Hall Effect in the Abrikosov Lattice of Type-II Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohno, Wataru; Ueki, Hikaru; Kita, Takafumi
2016-08-01
We study vortex charging caused by the Lorentz force on supercurrent based on the augmented quasiclassical equations of superconductivity. Our numerical study on an s-wave vortex lattice in the range Hc1 < H < Hc2 reveals that each vortex core with a single flux quantum also accumulates charge due to the circulating supercurrent and has a Hall voltage across the core. The field dependence of the charge density at the core center is well described by ρ(0) ∝ H(Hc2 - H) with a peak near Hc2/2 originating from competition between the increasing magnetic field and the decreasing pair potential. The peak value of the accumulated charge in a core region of radius 0.5ξ0 is estimated to be about ηΔ0/(kFξ0) × |e| C per Δz = 10 Å along the flux line at low temperatures, where η ≡ πɛ0Δz/|e|2 = 1.09 × 1018 J-1 with e < 0 the charge of an electron, Δ0 the energy gap at T = 0, kF the Fermi wave number, and ξ0 the coherence length at T = 0.
The structure of a moving vortex lattice
Braun, D.W.; Crabtree, G.W.; Kaper, H.G.; Leaf, G.K.; Levine, D.M.; Vinokur, V.M.; Koshelev, A.E.
1995-11-01
Numerical solutions of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations show a new mechanism for plastic motion of a driven vortex lattice in a clean superconductor. The mechanism, which involves the creation of a defect superstructure, is intrinsic to the moving vortex lattice and is independent of bulk pinning. Other structural features found in the solutions include a reorientation of the vortex lattice and a gradual healing of lattice defects under the influence of a transport current.
Vortex lattice of surface plasmon polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzedolik, Igor V.; Lapayeva, Svetlana; Pereskokov, Vladislav
2016-07-01
We theoretically investigate the formation of a plasmon polariton vortex lattice on a metal surface following the interference of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). The plasmon polariton vortex lattice is formed by the interference of the SPP transverse-magnetic mode (TM-mode) and electric mode (E-mode) in the presence of the inhomogeneity with a curvilinear boundary on the surface of the metal layer. The SPP vortex lattice can be controlled by changing the configuration of the boundary. Weak nonlinearity of the metal permittivity does not change the interference pattern, but it increases the propagation length of the SPPs and, therefore, the area of the vortex lattice too.
Perturbed vortex lattices and the stability of nucleated topological phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahtinen, Ville; Ludwig, Andreas W. W.; Trebst, Simon
2014-02-01
We study the stability of nucleated topological phases that can emerge when interacting non-Abelian anyons form a regular array. The studies are carried out in the context of Kitaev's honeycomb model, where we consider three distinct types of perturbations in the presence of a lattice of Majorana mode binding vortices—spatial anisotropy of the vortices, dimerization of the vortex lattice, and local random disorder. While all the nucleated phases are stable with respect to weak perturbations of each kind, strong perturbations are found to result in very different behavior. Anisotropy of the vortices stabilizes the strong-pairing-like phases, while dimerization can recover the underlying non-Abelian phase. Local random disorder, on the other hand, can drive all the nucleated phases into a gapless thermal metal state. We show that all these distinct behaviors can be captured by an effective staggered tight-binding model for the Majorana modes. By studying the pairwise interactions between the vortices, i.e., the amplitudes for the Majorana modes to tunnel between vortex cores, the locations of phase transitions and the nature of the resulting states can be predicted. We also find that, due to oscillations in the Majorana tunneling amplitude, lattices of Majorana modes may exhibit a Peierls-like instability, where a dimerized configuration is favored over a uniform lattice. As the nature of the nucleated phases depends only on the Majorana tunneling, our results are expected to apply also to other system supporting localized Majorana mode arrays, such as Abrikosov lattices in p-wave superconductors, Wigner crystals in Moore-Read fractional quantum Hall states, or arrays of topological nanowires.
Josephson vortex lattice in layered superconductors
Koshelev, A. E.; Dodgson, M. J. W.
2013-09-15
Many superconducting materials are composed of weakly coupled conducting layers. Such a layered structure has a very strong influence on the properties of vortex matter in a magnetic field. This review focuses on the properties of the Josephson vortex lattice generated by the magnetic field applied in the direction of the layers. The theoretical description is based on the Lawrence-Doniach model in the London limit, which takes only the phase degree of freedom of the superconducting order parameter into account. In spite of its simplicity, this model leads to an amazingly rich set of phenomena. We review in detail the structure of an isolated vortex line and various properties of the vortex lattice, in both dilute and dense limits. In particular, we extensively discuss the influence of the layered structure and thermal fluctuations on the selection of lattice configurations at different magnetic fields.
Vortex lattices in theory and practice
Capmbell, Laurence J.
1988-01-01
The formal simplicity of ideal point vortex systems in two dimensions has long attracted interest in both their exact solutions and in their capacity to simulate physical processes. Attention here is focused on infinite, two-fold periodic vortex arrays, including an expression for the energy density of an arbitrary vortex lattice (i.e., an arbitrary number of vortices with arbitrary strengths in a unit cell parallelogram of arbitrary shape). For the case of two vortices per unit cell, the morphology of stable lattices can be described completely. A non-trivial physical realization of such lattices is a rotating mixture of /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He at temperatures so low that both isotopic components are superfluid. The structure of the expected lattices is quite different from the usual triangular structure. Magnetic flux lines in high-temperature superconductors show a one-parameter family of degenerate ground state of the lattice due to the anisotropy of the vortex--vortex interaction. A final topic, closely related to Josephson-junction arrays, is the case of vortices confined to a grid. That is, the vortices interact pair-wise in the usual manner but are constrained to occupy only locations on an independent periodic grid. By using vortex relaxation methods in the continuum and then imposing the grid it is possible to find low-lying states extremely rapidly compared to previous Monte Carlo calculations. 11 refs., 8 figs.
Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapoor, Amit; Kumar, Manish; Senthilkumaran, P.; Joseph, Joby
2016-04-01
We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.
Energy of infinite vortex lattices
Campbell, L.J.; Doria, M.M.; Kadtke, J.B.
1989-05-15
An expression is derived for the energy density of a lattice of point vortices (or other logarithmic objects) having an arbitrary number of vortices of arbitrary strengths in an arbitrary unit cell. The result is expressed in the form of a rapidly convergent series well suited for numerical evaluation. The effects of separately changing the shape and dimensions of the unit cell are shown for simple cases, and the energy of the triangular lattice is calculated as a function of slip displacement.
Kouzoudis, D.
1999-02-12
The prime interest of the present research is to measure the thermal energy needed for depinning a trapped vortex when an external magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of the junction, and thus there are Meissner currents flowing along the edge of the film. These currents introduce an additional force and the author wishes to study thermal depinning under the influence of this force. These studies are of interest because Nb junctions are used in a wide range of electronic applications. Such junctions are useful, for instance, in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) or in vortex-flow transistors because their performance can be enhanced by tuning the parameters of the individual junctions to optimum operation values. Furthermore gated Josephson junctions can be used as Josephson field-effect transistors (JOFETs).
Single Abrikosov vortices as quantized information bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golod, T.; Iovan, A.; Krasnov, V. M.
2015-10-01
Superconducting digital devices can be advantageously used in future supercomputers because they can greatly reduce the dissipation power and increase the speed of operation. Non-volatile quantized states are ideal for the realization of classical Boolean logics. A quantized Abrikosov vortex represents the most compact magnetic object in superconductors, which can be utilized for creation of high-density digital cryoelectronics. In this work we provide a proof of concept for Abrikosov-vortex-based random access memory cell, in which a single vortex is used as an information bit. We demonstrate high-endurance write operation and two different ways of read-out using a spin valve or a Josephson junction. These memory cells are characterized by an infinite magnetoresistance between 0 and 1 states, a short access time, a scalability to nm sizes and an extremely low write energy. Non-volatility and perfect reproducibility are inherent for such a device due to the quantized nature of the vortex.
Reconstruction of vortex lattices at low inductions
Sudbro, A.; Brandt, E.H. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Institut fuer Physik, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-7000 Stuttgart 80 )
1992-03-16
The nonlocal elasticity and the normal modes of an unpinned flux-line lattice (FLL) in a uniaxially anisotropic supeconductor are considered in the low-induction regime {ital b}={ital B}/{ital B}{sub {ital c}2}{much lt}1 at oblique angles {theta} between {bold B} and the {bold {cflx c}} axis. A novel feature of anisotropic superconductors is {ital strongly} {ital dispersive} {ital shear} {ital moduli} when {theta}{gt}0. Thus, the normal modes of the FLL may become soft away from the zone center, signaling a {bold k}{ne}{bold 0} {ital structural} instability of the distorted hexagonal FLL. Vortex structures of a novel type are thus possible in anisotropic superconductors.
Simulating infinite vortex lattices in superfluids.
Mingarelli, Luca; Keaveny, Eric E; Barnett, Ryan
2016-07-20
We present an efficient framework to numerically treat infinite periodic vortex lattices in rotating superfluids described by the Gross-Pitaevskii theory. The commonly used split-step Fourier (SSF) spectral methods are inapplicable to such systems as the standard Fourier transform does not respect the boundary conditions mandated by the magnetic translation group. We present a generalisation of the SSF method which incorporates the correct boundary conditions by employing the so-called magnetic Fourier transform. We test the method and show that it reduces to known results in the lowest-Landau-level regime. While we focus on rotating scalar superfluids for simplicity, the framework can be naturally extended to treat multicomponent systems and systems under more general 'synthetic' gauge fields. PMID:27219843
Simulating infinite vortex lattices in superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mingarelli, Luca; Keaveny, Eric E.; Barnett, Ryan
2016-07-01
We present an efficient framework to numerically treat infinite periodic vortex lattices in rotating superfluids described by the Gross–Pitaevskii theory. The commonly used split-step Fourier (SSF) spectral methods are inapplicable to such systems as the standard Fourier transform does not respect the boundary conditions mandated by the magnetic translation group. We present a generalisation of the SSF method which incorporates the correct boundary conditions by employing the so-called magnetic Fourier transform. We test the method and show that it reduces to known results in the lowest-Landau-level regime. While we focus on rotating scalar superfluids for simplicity, the framework can be naturally extended to treat multicomponent systems and systems under more general ‘synthetic’ gauge fields.
Dynamic Reorganization of Vortex Matter into Partially Disordered Lattices.
Marziali Bermúdez, M; Eskildsen, M R; Bartkowiak, M; Nagy, G; Bekeris, V; Pasquini, G
2015-08-01
We report structural evidence of dynamic reorganization in vortex matter in clean NbSe(2) by joint small-angle neutron scattering and ac susceptibility measurements. The application of oscillatory forces in a transitional region near the order-disorder transition results in robust bulk vortex lattice configurations with an intermediate degree of disorder. These dynamically originated configurations correlate with intermediate pinning responses previously observed, resolving a long-standing debate regarding the origin of such responses. PMID:26296127
Vortex configurations of bosons in an optical lattice
Wu Congjun; Zhang Shoucheng; Chen Handong; Hu Jiangpiang
2004-04-01
The single-vortex problem in a strongly correlated bosonic system is investigated self-consistently within the mean-field theory of the Bose-Hubbard model. Near the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition, the vortex core has a tendency toward the Mott-insulating phase, with the core particle density approaching the nearest commensurate value. If the nearest-neighbor repulsion exists, the charge-density wave order may develop locally in the core. The evolution of the vortex configuration from the strong- to weak-coupling regions is studied. This phenomenon can be observed in systems of rotating ultracold atoms in optical lattices and Josephson-junction arrays.
Vortex-Antivortex Lattice in Ultracold Fermionic Gases
Botelho, S.S.; Melo, C.A.R. sa de
2006-02-03
We discuss ultracold Fermi gases in two dimensions, which could be realized in a strongly confining one-dimensional optical lattice. We obtain the temperature versus effective interaction phase diagram for an s-wave superfluid and show that, below a certain critical temperature T{sub c}, spontaneous vortex-antivortex pairs appear for all coupling strengths. In addition, we show that the evolution from weak-to-strong coupling is smooth, and that the system forms a square vortex-antivortex lattice at a lower critical temperature T{sub M}.
Quantum fluctuations of vortex lattices in ultracold gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwasigroch, M. P.; Cooper, N. R.
2012-12-01
We discuss the effects of quantum fluctuations on the properties of vortex lattices in rapidly rotating ultracold atomic gases. We develop a variational method that goes beyond the Bogoliubov theory by including the effects of interactions between the quasiparticle excitations. These interactions are found to have significant quantitative effects on physical properties even at relatively large filling factors. We use our theory to predict the expected experimental signatures of quantum fluctuations of vortices and to assess the competition of the triangular vortex lattice phase with other phases in finite-sized systems.
Fluctuating pancake vortices revealed by dissipation of Josephson vortex lattice.
Koshelev, A. E.; Buzdin, A. I.; Kakeya, I.; Yamamoto, T.; Kadowaki, K.
2011-06-01
In strongly anisotropic layered superconductors in tilted magnetic fields, the Josephson vortex lattice coexists with the lattice of pancake vortices. Due to the interaction between them, the dissipation of the Josephson vortex lattice is very sensitive to the presence of the pancake vortices. If the c-axis magnetic field is smaller than the corresponding lower critical field, the pancake stacks are not formed but the individual pancakes may exist in the fluctuational regime either near the surface in large-size samples or in the central region for small-size mesas. We calculate the contribution of such fluctuating pancake vortices to the c-axis conductivity of the Josephson vortex lattice and compare the theoretical results with measurements on small mesas fabricated out of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} crystals. A fingerprint of fluctuating pancakes is a characteristic exponential dependence of the c-axis conductivity observed experimentally. Our results provide strong evidence of the existence of the fluctuating pancakes and their influence on the Josephson vortex lattice dissipation.
Persistence of Metastable Vortex Lattice Domains in MgB2 in the Presence of Vortex Motion
Rastovski, Catherine; Schlesinger, Kimberly; Gannon, William J; Dewhurst, Charles; Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M; Zhigadlo, Nikolai; Karpinski, Janusz; Eskildsen, Morten
2013-01-01
Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.
Vortex-Lattice Utilization. [in aeronautical engineering and aircraft design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
The many novel, innovative, and unique implementations and applications of the vortex-lattice method to aerodynamic design and analysis which have been performed by Industry, Government, and Universities were presented. Although this analytical tool is not new, it continues to be utilized and refined in the aeronautical community.
Single Abrikosov vortices as quantized information bits
Golod, T.; Iovan, A.; Krasnov, V. M.
2015-01-01
Superconducting digital devices can be advantageously used in future supercomputers because they can greatly reduce the dissipation power and increase the speed of operation. Non-volatile quantized states are ideal for the realization of classical Boolean logics. A quantized Abrikosov vortex represents the most compact magnetic object in superconductors, which can be utilized for creation of high-density digital cryoelectronics. In this work we provide a proof of concept for Abrikosov-vortex-based random access memory cell, in which a single vortex is used as an information bit. We demonstrate high-endurance write operation and two different ways of read-out using a spin valve or a Josephson junction. These memory cells are characterized by an infinite magnetoresistance between 0 and 1 states, a short access time, a scalability to nm sizes and an extremely low write energy. Non-volatility and perfect reproducibility are inherent for such a device due to the quantized nature of the vortex. PMID:26456592
The Vortex Lattice Method for the Rotor-Vortex Interaction Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padakannaya, R.
1974-01-01
The rotor blade-vortex interaction problem and the resulting impulsive airloads which generate undesirable noise levels are discussed. A numerical lifting surface method to predict unsteady aerodynamic forces induced on a finite aspect ratio rectangular wing by a straight, free vortex placed at an arbitrary angle in a subsonic incompressible free stream is developed first. Using a rigid wake assumption, the wake vortices are assumed to move downsteam with the free steam velocity. Unsteady load distributions are obtained which compare favorably with the results of planar lifting surface theory. The vortex lattice method has been extended to a single bladed rotor operating at high advance ratios and encountering a free vortex from a fixed wing upstream of the rotor. The predicted unsteady load distributions on the model rotor blade are generally in agreement with the experimental results. This method has also been extended to full scale rotor flight cases in which vortex induced loads near the tip of a rotor blade were indicated. In both the model and the full scale rotor blade airload calculations a flat planar wake was assumed which is a good approximation at large advance ratios because the downwash is small in comparison to the free stream at large advance ratios. The large fluctuations in the measured airloads near the tip of the rotor blade on the advance side is predicted closely by the vortex lattice method.
Inverse Melting of Vortex Lattice in Layered Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, W. J.; He, Y. W.; Zhao, Z. G.; Liu, M.; Yang, Y. H.
Using molecular dynamic simulations for the melting transition of a flux line lattice(FLL) with point disordered pinnings, thermal fluctuations and magnetic interactions between pancake vortices, we study the disorder-driven melting transition from a disentangled and ordered Bragg glass (BG) to an entangled amorphous vortex glass (VG) or a vortex liquid (VL) in the pinning strength-temperature phase diagram. A portion of the BG region is found to be sandwiched in between the VG phase at lower temperatures and VL phase at higher temperatures, exhibiting inverse melting behavior observed recently on BSCCO crystals.
Vortex penetration depth of organic superconductors: Evidence for vortex lattice melting
Tea, N.H.; Giannetta, R.W.; Salamon, M.B.; Williams, J.M.; Wang, H.H.; Geiser, U.
1997-07-01
The authors observe a crossover field H* in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the rf vortex penetration depth in {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br for {rvec H}{sub dc}{parallel}{cflx b}-axis. They find that H* can be described quantitatively by the 3D Lindemann melting theory; thus, it corresponds to the melting of the vortex lattice in {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br and lies very close to the irreversibility line. In the vortex-liquid state, they argue that the saturation of the vortex penetration depth in a magnetic field results from the finite size of the sample. The results do not have the scaling form predicted by the Coffey-Clem model in contrast to previous findings.
Quasiclassical analysis of vortex lattice states in Rashba noncentrosymmetric superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dan, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Ryusuke
2015-10-01
Vortex lattice states occurring in noncentrosymmetric superconductors with a spin-orbit coupling of Rashba type under a magnetic field parallel to the symmetry plane are examined by assuming the s -wave pairing case and in an approach combining the quasiclassical theory with the Landau level expansion of the superconducting order parameter. The resulting field-temperature phase diagrams include not only a discontinuous transition but a continuous crossover between different vortex lattice structures, and, further, a critical end point of a structural transition line is found at an intermediate field and a low temperature in the present approach. It is pointed out that the strange field dependence of the vortex lattice structure is a consequence of that of its anisotropy stemming from the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, and that the critical end point is related to the helical phase modulation peculiar to these materials in the ideal Pauli-limited case. Furthermore, calculation results on the local density of states detectable in STM experiments are also presented.
The nature of long range order in the vortex lattice of high {Tc} superconductors
Ryu, S.; Doniach, S.; Kapitulnik, A.
1994-12-31
Recent neutron data on the disappearance of long-range order in the vortex lattice of BSCCO at fields of order 1 kGauss is interpreted in terms of the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the thermodynamics of the vortex lattice in a pure system. The authors show that the neutron data is consistent with a disorder-driven phase transition from a vortex crystal at low fields to a vortex glass at higher fields.
Dynamics of polarized vortex solitons in nonlocal media with Bessel optical lattices.
Zhang, Bingzhi; Chen, Zhifeng
2015-09-21
We investigate the formation of polarized vortex solitons in nonlocal media with Bessel optical lattices and show the various dynamics of these solitons. Particularly, the stable high-order polarized vortex solitons, which are not found in local media with Bessel optical lattices, are found in nonlocal media. It is found that the nonlocal nonlinearity plays an important role in the stability of these solitons which is similar to that of phase vortex solitons. However, we show that the dynamics of these polarized vortex solitons are quite different from the phase vortex solitons. PMID:26406632
Vortex formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating deep optical lattice
Kato, Akira; Nakano, Yuki; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Matsui, Tetsuo
2011-11-15
We study the dynamics of vortex nucleation and lattice formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating square optical lattice by numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Different dynamical regimes of vortex nucleation are found, depending on the depth and period of the optical lattice. We make an extensive comparison with the experiments by R. A. Williams et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 050404 (2010)], especially focusing on the issues of the critical rotation frequency for the first vortex nucleation and the vortex number as a function of rotation frequency.
Melting of Vortex Lattice in Bose-Einstein Condensate in Presence of Disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Bishwajyoti
We study the vortex lattice dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in presence of single impurity as well as random impurities or disorder. The single impurity is modeled by a Gaussian function while disorder is introduced in the system by a uniform random potential. Such potentials can be created experimentally by lasers. We solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in two-dimensions using split-step Crank-Nicolson method. We first show that a single vortex can be pinned by an impurity. We then show that even a single impurity can distort the vortex lattice. For sufficiently strong impurity potential, the vortex lattice gets pinned to the impurity. We also show that a new type of giant hole with hidden vortices inside it can be created in the vortex lattice by a cluster of impurities. In presence of random impurity potential or disorder, the vortices get pinned at random positions leading to melting of the vortex lattice. We further show that the vortex lattice melting can also be induced by the pseudorandom potential generated by the superposition of two optical lattices. The absence of long-range order in the melted vortex lattice is demonstrated from the structure factor profile and the histogram of the distance between each pair of vortices. I would like to thank DST, India and BCUD SPPU, for financial assisance through research grants.
Transverse forces on a vortex in lattice models of superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonin, E. B.
2013-12-01
The paper derives the transverse forces (the Magnus and the Lorentz forces) in the lattice models of superfluids in the continuous approximation. The continuous approximation restores translational invariance absent in the original lattice model, but the theory is not Galilean invariant. As a result, calculation of the two transverse forces on the vortex, Magnus force and Lorentz force, requires the analysis of two balances, for the true momentum of particles in the lattice (Magnus force) and for the quasimomentum (Lorentz force) known from the Bloch theory of particles in the periodic potential. While the developed theory yields the same Lorentz force, which was well known before, a new general expression for the Magnus force was obtained. The theory demonstrates how a small Magnus force emerges in the Josephson-junction array if the particle-hole symmetry is broken. The continuous approximation for the Bose-Hubbard model close to the superfluid-insulator transition was developed, which was used for calculation of the Magnus force. The theory shows that there is an area in the phase diagram for the Bose-Hubbard model, where the Magnus force has an inverse sign with respect to that which is expected from the sign of velocity circulation.
Vortex lattice phases in bosonic ladders in the presence of gauge field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piraud, Marie; Greschner, Sebastian; Kolley, Fabian; McCulloch, Ian P.; Schollwoeck, Ulrich; Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Vekua, Temo
2016-05-01
We study vortex lattices in the interacting Bose-Hubbard model defined on two- and three-leg ladder geometries in the presence of a homogeneous flux. Our work is motivated by recent experiments using laser assisted-tunneling in optical lattices and lattices in synthetic dimensions, which studied the regime of weak interactions. We focus on the effects arising from stronger interactions, in both the real space optical lattice and the synthetic dimension schemes. Based on extensive density matrix renormalization group simulations and a bosonization analysis, we show that vortex lattices form at certain commensurate vortex densities. We identify the parameter space in which they emerge, and study their properties. Very interestingly, an enlarged unit cell forms in the vortex lattice phases, which can lead to the reversal of the current circulation-direction in both geometries. We demonstrate this effect in weak coupling and at sufficiently low temperature, and show that it is significant for intermediate interactions.
Vortex lattices in strongly interacting Fermi gas with crossed-beam dipole trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yuping; Yao, Xingcan; Chen, Haoze; Liu, Xiangpei; Wang, Xiaoqiong
2016-05-01
We have built an experiment system to explore the dynamic and vortex in quantum degenerate Li6 gas. By using UV MOT and crossed-beam dipole trap, we obtained BEC of 2* 105 molecules. With a tightly focused 532nm laser beam as rotating bucket wall, We observed vortex formation in strongly interacting fermi superfluid. At suitable stirring frequency we produced the condensate of fermi pairs for which up to 10 vortices were simultaneously present. We produced vortex lattices in different magnetic fields (from BEC side to BCS side). Also we measured the lifetime of vortex lattices in different interaction region. This work was funded by CAS and USTC.
Observation of Vortex Nucleation in a Rotating Two-Dimensional Lattice of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Williams, R. A.; Al-Assam, S.; Foot, C. J.
2010-02-05
We report the observation of vortex nucleation in a rotating optical lattice. A {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate was loaded into a static two-dimensional lattice and the rotation frequency of the lattice was then increased from zero. We studied how vortex nucleation depended on optical lattice depth and rotation frequency. For deep lattices above the chemical potential of the condensate we observed a linear dependence of the number of vortices created with the rotation frequency, even below the thermodynamic critical frequency required for vortex nucleation. At these lattice depths the system formed an array of Josephson-coupled condensates. The effective magnetic field produced by rotation introduced characteristic relative phases between neighboring condensates, such that vortices were observed upon ramping down the lattice depth and recombining the condensates.
Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in bacterial vortex lattices
Wioland, Hugo; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2016-01-01
Despite their inherent non-equilibrium nature1, living systems can self-organize in highly ordered collective states2,3 that share striking similarities with the thermodynamic equilibrium phases4,5 of conventional condensed matter and fluid systems. Examples range from the liquid-crystal-like arrangements of bacterial colonies6,7, microbial suspensions8,9 and tissues10 to the coherent macro-scale dynamics in schools of fish11 and flocks of birds12. Yet, the generic mathematical principles that govern the emergence of structure in such artificial13 and biological6–9,14 systems are elusive. It is not clear when, or even whether, well-established theoretical concepts describing universal thermostatistics of equilibrium systems can capture and classify ordered states of living matter. Here, we connect these two previously disparate regimes: Through microfluidic experiments and mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that lattices of hydrodynamically coupled bacterial vortices can spontaneously organize into distinct phases of ferro- and antiferromagnetic order. The preferred phase can be controlled by tuning the vortex coupling through changes of the inter-cavity gap widths. The emergence of opposing order regimes is tightly linked to the existence of geometry-induced edge currents15,16, reminiscent of those in quantum systems17–19. Our experimental observations can be rationalized in terms of a generic lattice field theory, suggesting that bacterial spin networks belong to the same universality class as a wide range of equilibrium systems. PMID:27213004
Crossover from crossing to tilted vortex phase in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals near ab-plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirkovic, Jovan; Buzdin, Alexandre; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kadowaki, Kazuo
2013-01-01
In extremely anisotropic layered superconductors of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ the stacks of vortex pancakes (PV) and the Josephson vortex (JV) interpenetrate, and due to PV-JV mutual pinning energy, weakly interact and form various tilted and crossing lattice structures including vortex chains, stripes, mixed chain + lattice phases, etc. In order to study these phenomena, it is decisive to have excellent quality of samples and the ideal experimental techniques. The vortex phases in high-quality Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals were studied by in-plane resistivity measurement and local ac magnetic permeability. The sharp crossover was shown by both techniques, deep in the vortex solid state separating the Abrikosov dominant ‘strong pinning’ phase from the Josephson dominant ‘weak pinning’ phase. Those two vortex states were recognized as the mixed chain + lattice vortex phase and chains (tilted) vortex phase, respectively.
Entanglement of Vortex Lattices for Ultracold Bose Gases in a Non-Abelian Gauge Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jiang, T. F.; Jheng, Shih-Da; Atomic; Molecular Physics Team; Atomic; Molecular Physics Team
We develop a theory, referred to as the von Neumann lattice in a higher Landau level, for vortex lattices labelled by an integral number of flux quantums per unit cell in a higher Landau level. Using this lattice theory, we study the vortex lattice states of a pseudospin-1/2 ultracold Bose gas with contact interactions in a non-Abelian gauge potential. In addition to a uniform magnetic field, the Bose gas is also subjected to a non-Abelian gauge field, which creates an effect of the spin-orbit coupling to lift the spin degeneracy of the Landau levels. Because of interactions from the spin-orbit coupling, there are new degenerate points of the single particle spectrum due to the crossings of two Landau levels at certain coupling strengths. We show that interactions from the spin-orbit coupling force the nature and structure of the vortex lattice changing dramatically if the strength of the non-Abelian gauge field is increasing. We also find that the ground state of the vortex lattice at a degenerate point exhibits strong correlation and entanglement involving vortex lattices from different Landau levels. This entangled state builds the connection between two phases of vortex lattices during the first order phase transition of the adiabatic evolution.
Observation of the vortex lattice melting by NMR spin-lattice relaxation in the mixed state
Bulaevskii, L.N.; Hammel, P.C.; Vinokur, V.M.
1994-01-01
For anisotropic layered superconductors the effect of moving vortices on the nuclear spin magnetization is calculated. Current is supposed to flow along layers, and applied magnetic field is tilted with respect to c-axis. In the solid phase the motion of the vortex lattice produces an alternating magnetic field perpendicular to the applied field which causes the decay of the spin-echo amplitude. This decay rate will display an array of peaks as a function of frequency. In the liquid phase this alternating field contribute to the longitudinal relaxation rate W{sub 1} which has a single peak.
Vortex lattices generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation
Ohta, A.; Kashiwa, R.; Sakaguchi, H.
2010-11-15
Vortex streets are formed from sheared initial conditions in classical fluids even without viscosity, which is called the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We demonstrate that similar vortex streets are generated from sheared initial conditions by the direct numerical simulation of the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation which describes the dynamics of the Bose-Einstein condensates. Furthermore, we show the vortex-lattice formation from sheared initial conditions analogous to the rigid-body rotation in the GP equation under a rotating harmonic potential. The vortex-lattice formation by the dynamical instability in the system without energy dissipation differs from the vortex-lattice formation process by the imaginary time evolution of the GP equation where the lowest energy state is obtained.
An interferometric patchwork to generate high-order quasi-nondiffracting vortex lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhenhua; Liu, Hanping; Liu, Huilan; Xu, Shicai; Ma, Li; Cheng, Chuanfu; Wang, Li; Mingzhen, Li
2016-06-01
We propose an novel kind of interferometer to generate various quasinondiffracting vortex lattices with high topological charges. The wave vectors of the interfering beams distribute spatial-symmetrically on the surface patchwork of two concentric cones of different opening angles, and their transverse components site at the vertices of two mutual-inscribed common regular polygons. With certain beam number and particular initial phase distribution at the beams, novel vortex lattices such as Kagome type lattice with unusual vortex distribution are obtained. We further extend such interferometric scheme to multipoint interferometers for easier experimental realization, where the generated vortex lattices lose nondiffracting property. Such interferometric method have potential applications in fields such as direct nanostructure writings and multichannel optical manipulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguli, Somesh Chandra; Singh, Harkirat; Ganguly, Rini; Bagwe, Vivas; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Raychaudhuri, Pratap
2016-04-01
We report experimental evidence of strong orientational coupling between the crystal lattice and the vortex lattice in a weakly pinned Co-doped NbSe2 single crystal through direct imaging using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. When the magnetic field is applied along the six-fold symmetric c-axis of the NbSe2 crystal, the basis vectors of the vortex lattice are preferentially aligned along the basis vectors of the crystal lattice. The orientational coupling between the vortex lattice and crystal lattice becomes more pronounced as the magnetic field is increased. This orientational coupling enhances the stability of the orientational order of the vortex lattice, which persists even in the disordered state at high fields where dislocations and disclinations have destroyed the topological order. Our results underpin the importance of crystal lattice symmetry on the vortex state phase diagram of weakly pinned type II superconductors.
Formation flying benefits based on vortex lattice calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maskew, B.
1977-01-01
A quadrilateral vortex-lattice method was applied to a formation of three wings to calculate force and moment data for use in estimating potential benefits of flying aircraft in formation on extended range missions, and of anticipating the control problems which may exist. The investigation led to two types of formation having virtually the same overall benefits for the formation as a whole, i.e., a V or echelon formation and a double row formation (with two staggered rows of aircraft). These formations have unequal savings on aircraft within the formation, but this allows large longitudinal spacings between aircraft which is preferable to the small spacing required in formations having equal benefits for all aircraft. A reasonable trade-off between a practical formation size and range benefit seems to lie at about three to five aircraft with corresponding maximum potential range increases of about 46 percent to 67 percent. At this time it is not known what fraction of this potential range increase is achievable in practice.
Vortex-lattice melting in magnesium diboride in terms of the elastic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, Qing-Miao; Lv, Jian-Ping; Chen, Qing-Hu
2010-01-01
In the framework of elastic theory, we study the vortex-lattice melting transitions in magnesium diboride for magnetic fields both parallel and perpendicular to the anisotropy axis. Using the parameters from experiments, the vortex-lattice melting lines in the H- T diagram are located systematically by various groups of Lindemann numbers. It is observed that the theoretical result for the vortex melting with parallel and perpendicular fields agrees well with the experimental data. Therefore, it is suggested that the phenomenological elastic theory is universal to various type-II superconductors, including two- and multi-band superconductors.
Application of lattice Boltzmann method for analysis of underwater vortex dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuraiman, Dian; Viridi, Sparisoma; Purqon, Acep
2015-09-01
Vortex dynamics is one of problems arising in fluid dynamics. Vortices are a major characteristic of turbulent flow. We perform the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) approximation to analyze the underwater vortex dynamics close to the shoreline. Additionally, the Smagorinsky tubulence model is applied to treat turbulent flow and a special method for free surface treatment is applied to overcome free surface. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of the turbulence factor and the seabed profile to vortex dynamics. The results show a smaller turbulence factor affected to more turbulent flow and coral reefs reduced movement of vortex towards the shoreline.
Critical frequency for vortex nucleation in Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guilleumas, M.; Centelles, M.; Barranco, M.; Mayol, R.; Pi, M.
2005-11-01
We investigate within mean-field theory the influence of a one-dimensional optical lattice and of trapped degenerate fermions on the critical rotational frequency for vortex line creation in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We consider laser intensities of the lattice such that quantum coherence across the condensate is ensured. We find a sizable decrease of the thermodynamic critical frequency for vortex nucleation with increasing applied laser strength and suggest suitable parameters for experimental observation. Since Rb87-K40 mixtures may undergo collapse, we analyze the related question of how the optical lattice affects the mechanical stability of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Umeda, Kanji
2016-06-01
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation for two-component rotating Bose-Einstein condensates with the Rashba-type spin-orbit (SO) coupling is studied with numerical simulations and variational analyses. A multiquantum vortex state becomes a ground state in a harmonic potential when mutual interaction is absent. When the attractive interaction is strong, the multiquantum vortex state exhibits modulational instability in the azimuthal direction, and a soliton-like state appears. When the repulsive interaction is strong, a vortex lattice state with a multiquantum vortex at the center is created. We find that the vortex lattice state is approximated at a linear combination of multiquantum vortex states.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, J. E.
1976-01-01
A new subsonic method has been developed by which the mean camber surface can be determined for trimmed noncoplanar planforms with minimum vortex drag. This method uses a vortex lattice and overcomes previous difficulties with chord loading specification. A Trefftz plane analysis is utilized to determine the optimum span loading for minimum drag, then solved for the mean camber surface of the wing, which provides the required loading. Sensitivity studies, comparisons with other theories, and applications to configurations which include a tandem wing and a wing winglet combination have been made and are presented.
A generalized vortex lattice method for subsonic and supersonic flow applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miranda, L. R.; Elliot, R. D.; Baker, W. M.
1977-01-01
If the discrete vortex lattice is considered as an approximation to the surface-distributed vorticity, then the concept of the generalized principal part of an integral yields a residual term to the vorticity-induced velocity field. The proper incorporation of this term to the velocity field generated by the discrete vortex lines renders the present vortex lattice method valid for supersonic flow. Special techniques for simulating nonzero thickness lifting surfaces and fusiform bodies with vortex lattice elements are included. Thickness effects of wing-like components are simulated by a double (biplanar) vortex lattice layer, and fusiform bodies are represented by a vortex grid arranged on a series of concentrical cylindrical surfaces. The analysis of sideslip effects by the subject method is described. Numerical considerations peculiar to the application of these techniques are also discussed. The method has been implemented in a digital computer code. A users manual is included along with a complete FORTRAN compilation, an executed case, and conversion programs for transforming input for the NASA wave drag program.
Abrikosov Gluon Vortices in Color Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrer, Efrain J.
2011-09-01
In this talk I will discuss how the in-medium magnetic field can influence the gluon dynamics in a three-flavor color superconductor. It will be shown how at field strengths comparable to the charged gluon Meissner mass a new phase can be realized, giving rise to Abrikosov's vortices of charged gluons. In that phase, the inhomogeneous gluon condensate anti-screens the magnetic field due to the anomalous magnetic moment of these spin-1 particles. This paramagnetic effect can be of interest for astrophysics, since due to the gluon vortex antiscreening mechanism, compact stars with color superconducting cores could have larger magnetic fields than neutron stars made up entirely of nuclear matter. I will also discuss a second gluon condensation phenomenon connected to the Meissner instability attained at moderate densities by two-flavor color superconductors. In this situation, an inhomogeneous condensate of charged gluons emerges to remove the chromomagnetic instability created by the pairing mismatch, and as a consequence, the charged gluonic currents induce a magnetic field. Finally, I will point out a possible relation between glitches in neutron stars and the existence of the gluon vortices.
System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.
2001-01-01
The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.
Formation of Vortex Lattices in Superfluid Bose Gases at Finite Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arahata, E.; Nikuni, T.
2016-05-01
We study the dynamics of a rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at finite temperatures. Using the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin formalism, based on a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate coupled to a semiclassical kinetic equation for a thermal cloud, we numerically simulate vortex lattice formation in the presence of a time-dependent rotating trap potential. At low rotation frequency, the thermal cloud undergoes rigid body rotation, while the condensate exhibits irrotational flow. Above a certain threshold rotation frequency, vortices penetrate into the condensate and form a vortex lattice. Our simulation result clearly indicates a crucial role for the thermal cloud, which triggers vortex lattice formation in the rotating BEC.
Quasi-Long-Range Order and Vortex Lattice in the Three-State Potts Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Soumyadeep; Ray, Purusattam
2016-03-01
We show that the order-disorder phase transition in the three-state Potts ferromagnet on a square lattice is driven by a coupled proliferation of domain walls and vortices. Raising the vortex core energy above a threshold value decouples the proliferation and splits the transition into two. The phase between the two transitions exhibits an emergent U(1) symmetry and quasi-long-range order. Lowering the core energy below a threshold value also splits the order-disorder transition but the system forms a vortex lattice in the intermediate phase.
Imaging superconducting vortex cores and lattices with a scanning tunneling microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suderow, H.; Guillamón, I.; Rodrigo, J. G.; Vieira, S.
2014-06-01
The observation of vortices in superconductors was a major breakthrough in developing the conceptual background for superconducting applications. Each vortex carries a flux quantum, and the magnetic field decreases radially from the center. Techniques used to make magnetic field maps, such as magnetic decoration, give vortex lattice images in a variety of systems. However, strong type II superconductors allow penetration of the magnetic field over large distances, of the order of the magnetic penetration depth λ. Superconductivity survives up to magnetic fields where, for imaging purposes, there is no magnetic contrast at all. Static and dynamic properties of vortices are largely unknown at such high magnetic fields. Reciprocal space studies using neutron scattering have been employed to obtain insight into the collective behavior. But the microscopic details of vortex arrangements and their motion remain difficult to obtain. Direct real-space visualization can be made using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S). Instead of using magnetic contrast, the electronic density of states describes spatial variations of the quasiparticle and pair wavefunction properties. These are of the order of the superconducting coherence length ξ, which is much smaller than λ. In principle, individual vortices can be imaged using STM up to the upper critical field where vortex cores, of size ξ, overlap. In this review, we describe recent advances in vortex imaging made with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We introduce the technique and discuss vortex images that reveal the influence of the Fermi surface distribution of the superconducting gap on the internal structure of vortices, the collective behavior of the lattice in different materials and conditions, and the observation of vortex lattice melting. We consider challenging lines of work, which include imaging vortices in nanostructures, multiband and heavy fermion superconductors, single layers
Validation of Vortex-Lattice Method for loads on wings in lift-generated wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, J.
1994-01-01
A study is described that evaluates the accuracy of vortex-lattice methods when they are used to compute the loads induced on aircraft as they encounter lift-generated wakes. The evaluation is accomplished by use of measurements made in the 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel of the lift, rolling-moment, and downwash in the wake of three configurations of a model of a subsonic transport aircraft. The downwash measurements are used as input for a vortex-lattice code in order to compute the lift and rolling moment induced on wings that have a span of 0.186, 0.510, or 1.022 times the span of the wake-generating model. Comparison of the computed results with the measured lift and rolling moment distributions are used to determine the accuracy of the vortex-lattice code. It was found that the vortex-lattice method is very reliable as long as the span of the encountering of following wing is less than about 0.2 of the generator span. As the span of the following wing increases above 0.2, the vortex-lattice method continues to correctly predict the trends and nature of the induced loads, but it overpredicts the magnitude of the loads by increasing amounts. The increase in deviation of the computed from the measured loads with size of the following wing is attributed to the increase in distortion of the structure of the vortex wake as it approaches and passes the larger following wings.
Vortex lattices in a rotating Fermi superfluid in the BCS-BEC crossover with many Landau levels
Song, Tie-ling; Ma, C.R.; Ma, Yong-li
2012-08-15
We present an explicit analytical analysis of the ground state of vortex lattice structure, based on a minimization of the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional in a trapped rotating Fermi superfluid gas. By a Bogoliubov-like transformation we find that the coarse-grained average of the atomic density varies as inverted parabola in three dimensional cases; the Fermi superfluid in the BEC regime enters into the lowest Landau level at fast rotation, in which the vortices form an almost regular triangular lattice over a central region and the vortex lattice is expanded along the radial direction in the outer region; the fluid in the unitarity and BCS regimes occupies many low-lying Landau levels, in which a trapped gas with a triangular vortex lattice has a superfluid core surrounded by a normal gas. The calculation is qualitatively consistent with recent numerical and experimental data both in the vortex lattice structure and vortex numbers and in the density profiles versus the stirring frequency in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present an analysis of vortex lattice in an interacting trapped rotating Fermi superfluid gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposing the vortex from the condensate, we can explain the vortex lattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculation is consistent with numerical and experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It can characterize experimentally properties in different regimes of the BCS-BEC crossover.
Visualizing the morphology of vortex lattice domains in a bulk type-II superconductor.
Reimann, T; Mühlbauer, S; Schulz, M; Betz, B; Kaestner, A; Pipich, V; Böni, P; Grünzweig, C
2015-01-01
Alike materials in the solid state, the phase diagram of type-II superconductors exhibit crystalline, amorphous, liquid and spatially inhomogeneous phases. The multitude of different phases of vortex matter has thence proven to act as almost ideal model system for the study of both the underlying properties of superconductivity but also of general phenomena such as domain nucleation and morphology. Here we show how neutron grating interferometry yields detailed information on the vortex lattice and its domain structure in the intermediate mixed state of a type-II niobium superconductor. In particular, we identify the nucleation regions, how the intermediate mixed state expands, and where it finally evolves into the Shubnikov phase. Moreover, we complement the results obtained from neutron grating interferometry by small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the spatially resolved morphology found in the intermediate mixed state, and very small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the domain structure of the vortex lattice. PMID:26522610
Visualizing the morphology of vortex lattice domains in a bulk type-II superconductor
Reimann, T.; Mühlbauer, S.; Schulz, M.; Betz, B.; Kaestner, A.; Pipich, V.; Böni, P.; Grünzweig, C.
2015-01-01
Alike materials in the solid state, the phase diagram of type-II superconductors exhibit crystalline, amorphous, liquid and spatially inhomogeneous phases. The multitude of different phases of vortex matter has thence proven to act as almost ideal model system for the study of both the underlying properties of superconductivity but also of general phenomena such as domain nucleation and morphology. Here we show how neutron grating interferometry yields detailed information on the vortex lattice and its domain structure in the intermediate mixed state of a type-II niobium superconductor. In particular, we identify the nucleation regions, how the intermediate mixed state expands, and where it finally evolves into the Shubnikov phase. Moreover, we complement the results obtained from neutron grating interferometry by small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the spatially resolved morphology found in the intermediate mixed state, and very small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the domain structure of the vortex lattice. PMID:26522610
Validation of Vortex-Lattice Method for Loads on Wings in Lift-Generated Wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.
1995-01-01
A study is described that evaluates the accuracy of vortex-lattice methods when they are used to compute the loads induced on aircraft as they encounter lift-generated wakes. The evaluation is accomplished by the use of measurements made in the 80 by 120 ft Wind Tunnel of the lift, rolling moment, and downwash in the wake of three configurations of a model of a subsonic transport aircraft. The downwash measurements are used as input for a vortex-lattice code in order to compute the lift and rolling moment induced on wings that have a span of 0.186, 0.510, or 1.022 times the span of the wake-generating model. Comparison of the computed results with the measured lift and rolling-moment distributions the vortex-lattice method is very reliable as long as the span of the encountering or following wing is less than about 0.2 of the generator span. As the span of the following wing increases above 0.2, the vortex-lattice method continues to correctly predict the trends and nature of the induced loads, but it overpredicts the magnitude of the loads by increasing amounts.
Yao, Xiaoyan; Dong, Shuai
2016-01-01
The expanded classical Kitaev-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice is investigated with the next-nearest-neighboring Heisenberg interaction considered. The simulation shows a rich phase diagram with periodic behavior in a wide parameter range. Beside the double 120° ordered phase, an inhomogeneous phase is uncovered to exhibit a topological triple-vortex lattice, corresponding to the hexagonal domain structure of vector chirality, which is stabilized by the mixed frustration of two sources: the geometrical frustration arising from the lattice structure as well as the frustration from the Kitaev couplings. PMID:27229486
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Xiaoyan; Dong, Shuai
2016-05-01
The expanded classical Kitaev-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice is investigated with the next-nearest-neighboring Heisenberg interaction considered. The simulation shows a rich phase diagram with periodic behavior in a wide parameter range. Beside the double 120° ordered phase, an inhomogeneous phase is uncovered to exhibit a topological triple-vortex lattice, corresponding to the hexagonal domain structure of vector chirality, which is stabilized by the mixed frustration of two sources: the geometrical frustration arising from the lattice structure as well as the frustration from the Kitaev couplings.
Z2-vortex lattice in the ground state of the triangular Kitaev-Heisenberg model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daghofer, Maria; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Roessler, Ulrich K.; van den Brink, Jeroen
2013-03-01
Investigating the classical Kitaev-Heisenberg Hamiltonian on a triangular lattice, we establish the presence of an incommensurate non-coplanar magnetic phase, which is identified as a lattice of Z2 vortices. The vortices, topological point defects in the SO(3) order parameter of the nearby Heisenberg antiferromagnet, are not thermally excited but due to the spin-orbit coupling and arise at temperature T --> 0 . This Z2-vortex lattice is stable in a parameter regime relevant to iridates. We show that in the other, strongly anisotropic, limit a robust nematic phase emerges. Sponsored by the DFG (Emmy-Noether program).
Han, Qiang
2010-01-27
In this paper, we present a method to construct the eigenspace of the tight-binding electrons moving on a 2D square lattice with nearest-neighbor hopping in the presence of a perpendicular uniform magnetic field which imposes (quasi-)periodic boundary conditions for the wavefunctions in the magnetic unit cell. Exact unitary transformations are put forward to correlate the discrete eigenvectors of the 2D electrons with those of the Harper equation. The cyclic tridiagonal matrix associated with the Harper equation is then tridiagonalized by another unitary transformation. The obtained truncated eigenbasis is utilized to expand the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for the superconducting vortex lattice state, which shows the merit of our method in studying large-sized systems. To test our method, we have applied our results to study the vortex lattice state of an s-wave superconductor. PMID:21386295
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qiang
2016-02-01
Motivated by recent experiments carried out by Spielman's group at NIST, we study the vortex formation in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in synthetic magnetic field confined in a harmonic potential combined with an optical lattice. We obtain numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and compare the vortex formation by synthetic magnetic field method with those by rotating frame method. We conclude that a large angular momentum indeed can be created in the presence of the optical lattice. However, it is still more difficult to rotate the condensate by the synthetic magnetic field than by the rotating frame even if the optical lattice is added, and the chemical potential and energy remain almost unchanged by increasing rotational frequency.
Fractionalizing the vortex lattice in multiband superconductors in the flux flow region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shi-Zeng
2014-03-01
Because of the discovery of MgB2 and iron-based superconductors, multiband superconductors have attracted considerable attention recently. Multiband superconductors are not always straightforward extensions of the single-band counterpart, and novel features may arise. In multiband superconductors, electrons in different bands form distinct superfluid condensates, which are coupled to the same gauge field. Each condensate thus supports vortex excitation with fractional flux quantum. However the energy of a fractional vortex diverges logarithmically in the thermodynamic limit. In the ground state vortices in different bands are bounded and their normal cores are locked together to form a composite vortex with the standard integer quantum flux. It is interesting to ask whether the vortices in different condensates can decouple under certain conditions. In this talk, I will discuss the dissociation of the composite vortex lattice in the flux flow region when the disparity of superfluid density and coherence length between different bands is large. The fractional vortex lattice in different bands move with different velocities after the dissociation transition, and the dissociation transition shows up as an increase of flux flow resistivity. In the dissociated phase, the Shapiro steps are developed when an ac current is superimposed with a dc current. We also propose to stabilize the fractional vortices by periodic pinning arrays. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering.
Phase-locking of driven vortex lattices with transverse ac force and periodic pinning
Reichhardt, Charles; Kolton, Alejandro B.; Dominguez, Daniel; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels
2001-10-01
For a vortex lattice moving in a periodic array we show analytically and numerically that a new type of phase locking occurs in the presence of a longitudinal dc driving force and a transverse ac driving force. This phase locking is distinct from the Shapiro step phase locking found with longitudinal ac drives. We show that an increase in critical current and a fundamental phase-locked step width scale with the square of the driving ac amplitude. Our results should carry over to other systems such as vortex motion in Josephson-junction arrays.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, J. E.
1994-01-01
This program represents a subsonic aerodynamic method for determining the mean camber surface of trimmed noncoplaner planforms with minimum vortex drag. With this program, multiple surfaces can be designed together to yield a trimmed configuration with minimum induced drag at some specified lift coefficient. The method uses a vortex-lattice and overcomes previous difficulties with chord loading specification. A Trefftz plane analysis is used to determine the optimum span loading for minimum drag. The program then solves for the mean camber surface of the wing associated with this loading. Pitching-moment or root-bending-moment constraints can be employed at the design lift coefficient. Sensitivity studies of vortex-lattice arrangements have been made with this program and comparisons with other theories show generally good agreement. The program is very versatile and has been applied to isolated wings, wing-canard configurations, a tandem wing, and a wing-winglet configuration. The design problem solved with this code is essentially an optimization one. A subsonic vortex-lattice is used to determine the span load distribution(s) on bent lifting line(s) in the Trefftz plane. A Lagrange multiplier technique determines the required loading which is used to calculate the mean camber slopes, which are then integrated to yield the local elevation surface. The problem of determining the necessary circulation matrix is simplified by having the chordwise shape of the bound circulation remain unchanged across each span, though the chordwise shape may vary from one planform to another. The circulation matrix is obtained by calculating the spanwise scaling of the chordwise shapes. A chordwise summation of the lift and pitching-moment is utilized in the Trefftz plane solution on the assumption that the trailing wake does not roll up and that the general configuration has specifiable chord loading shapes. VLMD is written in FORTRAN for IBM PC series and compatible computers
Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da
2016-01-01
This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions. PMID:27545446
Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da
2016-01-01
This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions. PMID:27545446
Applications of the unsteady vortex-lattice method in aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murua, Joseba; Palacios, Rafael; Graham, J. Michael R.
2012-11-01
The unsteady vortex-lattice method provides a medium-fidelity tool for the prediction of non-stationary aerodynamic loads in low-speed, but high-Reynolds-number, attached flow conditions. Despite a proven track record in applications where free-wake modelling is critical, other less-computationally expensive potential-flow models, such as the doublet-lattice method and strip theory, have long been favoured in fixed-wing aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics. This paper presents how the unsteady vortex-lattice method can be implemented as an enhanced alternative to those techniques for diverse situations that arise in flexible-aircraft dynamics. A historical review of the methodology is included, with latest developments and practical applications. Different formulations of the aerodynamic equations are outlined, and they are integrated with a nonlinear beam model for the full description of the dynamics of a free-flying flexible vehicle. Nonlinear time-marching solutions capture large wing excursions and wake roll-up, and the linearisation of the equations lends itself to a seamless, monolithic state-space assembly, particularly convenient for stability analysis and flight control system design. The numerical studies emphasise scenarios where the unsteady vortex-lattice method can provide an advantage over other state-of-the-art approaches. Examples of this include unsteady aerodynamics in vehicles with coupled aeroelasticity and flight dynamics, and in lifting surfaces undergoing complex kinematics, large deformations, or in-plane motions. Geometric nonlinearities are shown to play an instrumental, and often counter-intuitive, role in the aircraft dynamics. The unsteady vortex-lattice method is unveiled as a remarkable tool that can successfully incorporate all those effects in the unsteady aerodynamics modelling.
Stabilization of active matter by flow-vortex lattices and defect ordering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doostmohammadi, Amin; Adamer, Michael F.; Thampi, Sumesh P.; Yeomans, Julia M.
2016-02-01
Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like and chaotic patterns. Here we demonstrate both theoretically and through numerical simulations, that the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter. Moreover, we discover unexpected vortex ordering at this wet-dry crossover. We show that the self organization of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices, which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects, suggests potential applications in the design and control of active materials.
Stabilization of active matter by flow-vortex lattices and defect ordering.
Doostmohammadi, Amin; Adamer, Michael F; Thampi, Sumesh P; Yeomans, Julia M
2016-01-01
Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like and chaotic patterns. Here we demonstrate both theoretically and through numerical simulations, that the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter. Moreover, we discover unexpected vortex ordering at this wet-dry crossover. We show that the self organization of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices, which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects, suggests potential applications in the design and control of active materials. PMID:26837846
Stabilization of active matter by flow-vortex lattices and defect ordering
Doostmohammadi, Amin; Adamer, Michael F.; Thampi, Sumesh P.; Yeomans, Julia M.
2016-01-01
Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like and chaotic patterns. Here we demonstrate both theoretically and through numerical simulations, that the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter. Moreover, we discover unexpected vortex ordering at this wet–dry crossover. We show that the self organization of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices, which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects, suggests potential applications in the design and control of active materials. PMID:26837846
Quantum fluctuations of the vortex-lattice state in an ultrafast rotating Bose gas
Li Qiong; Feng Bo; Li Dingping
2011-04-15
Quantum fluctuations in an ultrafast rotating Bose gas at zero temperature are investigated. We calculate the condensate density perturbatively to show that no condensate is present in the thermodynamic limit. The excitation from Gaussian fluctuations around the mean-field solution causes infrared divergences in loop diagrams, nevertheless, in calculating the atom number density, the correlation functions and the free energy, we find that the sum of the divergences in the same loop order vanishes and we obtain finite physical quantities. The long-range correlation is explored and the algebraic decay exponent for the single-particle correlation function is obtained. The atom number density distribution is obtained at the one-loop level, which illustrates the quantum fluctuation effects to melt the mean-field vortex lattice. By the nonperturbative Gaussian variational method, we locate the spinodal point of the vortex-lattice state.
Quantum fluctuations of the vortex-lattice state in an ultrafast rotating Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qiong; Feng, Bo; Li, Dingping
2011-04-01
Quantum fluctuations in an ultrafast rotating Bose gas at zero temperature are investigated. We calculate the condensate density perturbatively to show that no condensate is present in the thermodynamic limit. The excitation from Gaussian fluctuations around the mean-field solution causes infrared divergences in loop diagrams, nevertheless, in calculating the atom number density, the correlation functions and the free energy, we find that the sum of the divergences in the same loop order vanishes and we obtain finite physical quantities. The long-range correlation is explored and the algebraic decay exponent for the single-particle correlation function is obtained. The atom number density distribution is obtained at the one-loop level, which illustrates the quantum fluctuation effects to melt the mean-field vortex lattice. By the nonperturbative Gaussian variational method, we locate the spinodal point of the vortex-lattice state.
Zehetmayer, M
2015-01-01
Order-disorder transitions take place in many physical systems, but observing them in detail in real materials is difficult. In two- or quasi-two-dimensional systems, the transition has been studied by computer simulations and experimentally in electron sheets, dusty plasmas, colloidal and other systems. Here I show the different stages of defect formation in the vortex lattice of a superconductor while it undergoes an order-disorder transition by presenting real-space images of the lattice from scanning tunneling spectroscopy. When the system evolves from the ordered to the disordered state, the predominant kind of defect changes from dislocation pairs to single dislocations, and finally to defect clusters forming grain boundaries. Correlation functions indicate a hexatic-like state preceding the disordered state. The transition in the microscopic vortex distribution is mirrored by the well-known spectacular second peak effect observed in the macroscopic current density of the superconductor. PMID:25784605
Rotating superfluids in anharmonic traps: From vortex lattices to giant vortices
Correggi, Michele; Pinsker, Florian; Rougerie, Nicolas; Yngvason, Jakob
2011-11-15
We study a superfluid in a rotating anharmonic trap and explicate a rigorous proof of a transition from a vortex lattice to a giant vortex state as the rotation is increased beyond a limiting speed determined by the interaction strength. The transition is characterized by the disappearance of the vortices from the annulus where the bulk of the superfluid is concentrated due to centrifugal forces while a macroscopic phase circulation remains. The analysis is carried out within two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii theory at large coupling constant and reveals significant differences between ''soft'' anharmonic traps (like a quartic plus quadratic trapping potential) and traps with a fixed boundary: in the latter case the transition takes place in a parameter regime where the size of vortices is very small relative to the width of the annulus, whereas in soft traps the vortex lattice persists until the width of the annulus becomes comparable to the vortex cores. Moreover, the density profile in the annulus where the bulk is concentrated is, in the soft case, approximately Gaussian with long tails and not of the Thomas-Fermi type like in a trap with a fixed boundary.
Morphology of the Superconducting Vortex Lattice in Ultrapure Niobium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mühlbauer, S.; Pfleiderer, C.; Böni, P.; Laver, M.; Forgan, E. M.; Fort, D.; Keiderling, U.; Behr, G.
2009-04-01
The morphology of the superconducting flux line lattice (FLL) of Nb comprises gradual variations with various lock-in transitions and symmetry breaking rotations. We report a comprehensive small-angle neutron scattering study of the FLL in an ultrapure single crystal of Nb as a function of the orientation of the applied magnetic field. We attribute the general morphology of the FLL and its orientation to three dominant mechanisms; first, nonlocal contributions, second, the transition between open and closed Fermi surface sheets and, third, the intermediate mixed state between the Meissner and the Shubnikov phase.
Gamma-ray superconducting detector based on Abrikosov vortices: Principle of operation
Lisitskiy, M. P.
2009-11-15
The high atomic number of some superconducting elements such as niobium (Z=41) and tantalum (Z=73) and a high material thickness (e.g., t=300 mum) are emphasized as essential properties for development of a gamma-ray solid state detector with high intrinsic detection efficiency in the energy range up to 100 keV. To exploit these properties, a new detection principle based on the interaction of a single gamma-ray photon with Abrikosov vortex is proposed. The interaction of gamma-ray photon with a superconductor is discussed in terms of the photoelectric absorption and a hot-spot formation, the last acts as a short-time pinning center on an Abrikosov vortex and activates its motion, namely, a jump or damped vibration. Both types of vortex motion lead to variation (either static or dynamic) in the magnetic field on the absorber surface. The high sensitivity of the Josephson tunneling to weak magnetic field can be exploited for revealing the magnetic field variation and to make the readout of the detector. Main intrinsic properties of a gamma-ray detector based on Abrikosov vortices are evaluated, including the possibility to measure the energy deposited in the detector. A single Josephson tunnel junction configuration or a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) configuration is proposed and discussed as possible realization of working gamma-ray detector both in the counter operation mode and in the radiation spectroscopy operation mode.
Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in bacterial vortex lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wioland, Hugo; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2016-04-01
Despite their inherently non-equilibrium nature, living systems can self-organize in highly ordered collective states that share striking similarities with the thermodynamic equilibrium phases of conventional condensed-matter and fluid systems. Examples range from the liquid-crystal-like arrangements of bacterial colonies, microbial suspensions and tissues to the coherent macro-scale dynamics in schools of fish and flocks of birds. Yet, the generic mathematical principles that govern the emergence of structure in such artificial and biological systems are elusive. It is not clear when, or even whether, well-established theoretical concepts describing universal thermostatistics of equilibrium systems can capture and classify ordered states of living matter. Here, we connect these two previously disparate regimes: through microfluidic experiments and mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that lattices of hydrodynamically coupled bacterial vortices can spontaneously organize into distinct patterns characterized by ferro- and antiferromagnetic order. The coupling between adjacent vortices can be controlled by tuning the inter-cavity gap widths. The emergence of opposing order regimes is tightly linked to the existence of geometry-induced edge currents, reminiscent of those in quantum systems. Our experimental observations can be rationalized in terms of a generic lattice field theory, suggesting that bacterial spin networks belong to the same universality class as a wide range of equilibrium systems.
Skyrmionic vortex lattices in coherently coupled three-component Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlova, Natalia V.; Kuopanportti, Pekko; Milošević, Milorad V.
2016-08-01
We show numerically that a harmonically trapped and coherently Rabi-coupled three-component Bose-Einstein condensate can host unconventional vortex lattices in its rotating ground state. The discovered lattices incorporate square and zig-zag patterns, vortex dimers and chains, and doubly quantized vortices, and they can be quantitatively classified in terms of a skyrmionic topological index, which takes into account the multicomponent nature of the system. The exotic ground-state lattices arise due to the intricate interplay of the repulsive density-density interactions and the Rabi couplings as well as the ubiquitous phase frustration between the components. In the frustrated state, domain walls in the relative phases can persist between some components even at strong Rabi coupling, while vanishing between others. Consequently, in this limit the three-component condensate effectively approaches a two-component condensate with only density-density interactions. At intermediate Rabi coupling strengths, however, we face unique vortex physics that occurs neither in the two-component counterpart nor in the purely density-density-coupled three-component system.
Vortex lattices in the superconducting phases of doped topological insulators and heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Ghaemi, Pouyan; Hughes, Taylor L.; Gilbert, Matthew J.
2013-01-01
Majorana fermions are predicted to play a crucial role in condensed matter realizations of topological quantum computation. These heretofore undiscovered quasiparticles have been predicted to exist at the cores of vortex excitations in topological superconductors and in heterostructures of superconductors and materials with strong spin-orbit coupling. In this work, we examine topological insulators with bulk s-wave superconductivity in the presence of a vortex lattice generated by a perpendicular magnetic field. Using self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes calculations, we confirm that beyond the semiclassical, weak-pairing limit the Majorana vortex states appear as the chemical potential is tuned from either side of the band edge so long as the density of states is sufficient for superconductivity to form. Further, we demonstrate that the previously predicted vortex phase transition survives beyond the semiclassical limit. At chemical potential values smaller than the critical chemical potential, the vortex lattice modes hybridize within the top and bottom surfaces, giving rise to a dispersive low-energy mid-gap band. As the chemical potential is increased, the Majorana states become more localized within a single surface but spread into the bulk toward the opposite surface. Eventually, when the chemical potential is sufficiently high in the bulk bands, the Majorana modes can tunnel between surfaces and eventually a critical point is reached at which modes on opposite surfaces can freely tunnel and annihilate leading to the topological phase transition previously studied in the work of Hosur [Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.097001 107, 097001 (2011)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jeongseop; Xin, Yizhou; Halperin, W. P.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.
The vortex lattice in HgBa2CuO4+δ forms at a vortex melting temperature, Tv, typically ~40K for underdoped crystals with a hole doping ~ 0.11. We present our results from 17O NMR for investigation of the vortex lattice as a function of external magnetic field up to 30 T and temperature as low as 5 K. The vortex contribution to the NMR linewidth can be separated from inhomogeneous broadening by deconvolution of the normal state spectra which was measured separately above, Tv. The vortex melting temperature was measured for two underdoped samples marked by the onset of extra linewidth broadening due to the inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution from the solid vortex lattice consistent with transverse relaxation measurements. We have found evidence for a change in the vortex lattice symmetry as a function of external fields. This work was supported by the DOE BES under Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER46248 and the NHMFL through the NSF and State of Florida.
Vortex lattice structures in YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C
Yethiraj, M.; Paul, D.M.; Tomy, C.V.; Forgan, E.M.
1997-12-01
The authors observe a flux lattice with square symmetry in the superconductor YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C when the applied field is parallel to the c-axis of the crystal. A square lattice observed previously in the isostructural magnetic analog ErNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C was attributed to the interaction between magnetic order in that system and the flux lattice. Since the Y-based compound does not order magnetically, it is clear that the structure of the flux lattice is unrelated to magnetic order. In fact, they show that the flux lines have a square cross-section when the applied field is parallel to the c-axis of the crystal, since the measured penetration depth along the 100 crystal direction is larger than the penetration depth along the 110 by approximately 60%. This is the likely reason for the square symmetry of the lattice. Although they find considerable disorder in the arrangement of the flux lines at 2.5T, no melting of the vortex lattice was observed.
Vortex-Loop Unbinding and Flux-Line Lattice Melting in Superconductors
Nguyen, A.K.; Sudbo Hetzel, R. |
1996-08-01
We study the interplay between a novel vortex-loop unbinding in finite magnetic field at {ital T}={ital T}{sub {ital V}} and flux-line-lattice (FLL) melting at {ital T}={ital T}{sub {ital M}} in type-II superconductors. The FLL melts due to nucleation of vortex loops parallel to the {ital {cflx c}} axis, connected to flux lines. For moderate anisotropy, phase coherence parallel to {ital {cflx c}} is lost at {ital T}{sub {ital V}}{approx_gt}{ital T}{sub {ital M}} due to an {ital ab}-plane vortex-loop unbinding with loops located close to thermal FLL fluctuations. For large anisotropy, phase coherence parallel to {ital {cflx c}} is lost at {ital T}{sub {ital V}}{lt}{ital T}{sub {ital M}} due to nucleation of vortex loops uncorrelated to flux lines, predominantly in the {ital ab} plane. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Convergence characteristics of nonlinear vortex-lattice methods for configuration aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seginer, A.; Rusak, Z.; Wasserstrom, E.
1983-01-01
Nonlinear panel methods have no proof for the existence and uniqueness of their solutions. The convergence characteristics of an iterative, nonlinear vortex-lattice method are, therefore, carefully investigated. The effects of several parameters, including (1) the surface-paneling method, (2) an integration method of the trajectories of the wake vortices, (3) vortex-grid refinement, and (4) the initial conditions for the first iteration on the computed aerodynamic coefficients and on the flow-field details are presented. The convergence of the iterative-solution procedure is usually rapid. The solution converges with grid refinement to a constant value, but the final value is not unique and varies with the wing surface-paneling and wake-discretization methods within some range in the vicinity of the experimental result.
Interaction of vortex lattice with ultrasound and the acoustic Faraday effect
Dominguez, D.; Bulaevskii, L.; Ivlev, B.; Maley, M.; Bishop, A.R. |
1995-03-27
The interaction of sound with the vortex lattice is considered for high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors, taking into account pinning and electrodynamic forces between vortices and crystal displacements. At low temperatures the Magnus force results in the acoustic Faraday effect; the velocity of sound propagating along the magnetic field depends on the polarization. This effect is linear in the Magnus force and magnetic field in crystals with equivalent {ital a} and {ital b} axes for a field parallel to the {ital c} axis. In the thermally activated flux flow regime, the Faraday effect is caused by electric and magnetic fields induced by vortices and acting on ions.
Cooperative ring exchange and quantum melting of vortex lattices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
Ghosh, Tarun Kanti; Baskaran, G.
2004-02-01
Cooperative ring exchange is suggested as a mechanism of quantum melting of vortex lattices in a rapidly rotating quasi-two-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using an approach pioneered by Kivelson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 873 (1986)] for the fractional quantized Hall effect, we calculate the condition for quantum melting instability by considering large-correlated ring exchanges in a two-dimensional Wigner crystal of vortices in a strong 'pseudomagnetic field' generated by the background superfluid Bose particles. BEC may be profitably used to address issues of quantum melting of a pristine Wigner solid devoid of complications of real solids.
Effect of Rolling Massage on the Vortex Flow in Blood Vessels with Lattice Boltzmann Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Hou Hui
The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese Medical Massage, which is a nature therapy in eliminating many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on the cavity flows in blood vessel under the rolling manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that the vortex flows are fully disturbed by the rolling massage. The flow behavior depends on the rolling velocity and the rolling depth. Rolling massage has a better effect on the flows in the cavity than that of the flows in a planar blood vessel. The result is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the rolling techniques.
Rossby vortex simulation on a paraboloidal coordinate system using the lattice Boltzmann method.
Yu, H; Zhao, K
2001-11-01
In this paper, we apply our compressible lattice Boltzmann model to a rotating parabolic coordinate system to simulate Rossby vortices emerging in a layer of shallow water flowing zonally in a rotating paraboloidal vessel. By introducing a scaling factor, nonuniform curvilinear mesh can be mapped to a flat uniform mesh and then normal lattice Boltzmann method works. Since the mass per unit area on the two-dimensional (2D) surface varies with the thickness of the water layer, the 2D flow seems to be "compressible" and our compressible model is applied. Simulation solutions meet with the experimental observations qualitatively. Based on this research, quantitative solutions and many natural phenomena simulations in planetary atmospheres, oceans, and magnetized plasma, such as the famous Jovian Giant Red Spot, the Galactic Spiral-vortex, the Gulf Stream, and the Kuroshio Current, etc., can be expected. PMID:11736137
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, J. E.; Herbert, H. E.
1982-01-01
The latest production version, MARK IV, of the NASA-Langley vortex lattice computer program is summarized. All viable subcritical aerodynamic features of previous versions were retained. This version extends the previously documented program capabilities to four planforms, 400 panels, and enables the user to obtain vortex-flow aerodynamics on cambered planforms, flowfield properties off the configuration in attached flow, and planform longitudinal load distributions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herbert, H. E.; Lamar, J. E.
1982-01-01
The source code for the latest production version, MARK IV, of the NASA-Langley Vortex Lattice Computer Program is presented. All viable subcritical aerodynamic features of previous versions were retained. This version extends the previously documented program capabilities to four planforms, 400 panels, and enables the user to obtain vortex-flow aerodynamics on cambered planforms, flowfield properties off the configuration in attached flow, and planform longitudinal load distributions.
Dynamic and Structural Studies of Metastable Vortex Lattice Domains in MgB2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Waard, E. R.; Kuhn, S. J.; Rastovski, C.; Eskildsen, M. R.; Leishman, A.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Debeer-Schmitt, L.; Littrell, K.; Karpinski, J.; Zhigadlo, N. D.
Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of the vortex lattice (VL) in the type-II superconductor MgB2 have revealed an unprecedented degree of metastability that is demonstrably not due to vortex pinning, [C. Rastovski et al . , Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 107002 (2013)]. The VL can be driven to the GS through successive application of an AC magnetic field. Here we report on detailed studies of the transition kinetics and structure of the VL domains. Stroboscopic studies of the transition revealed a stretched exponential decrease of the metastable volume fraction as a function of the number of applied AC cycles, with subtle differences depending on whether the AC field is oriented parallel or perpendicular to the DC field used to create the VL. We speculate the slower transition kinetics for the transverse AC field may be due to vortex cutting. Spatial studies include scanning SANS measurements showing the VL domain distribution within the MgB2 single crystal as well as measurements of VL correlation lengths. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award DE-FG02-10ER46783.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillamon, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Cordoba, R.; Sese, J.; de Teresa, J. M.; Ibarra, R.
In two dimensional (2D) systems, theory has proposed that random disorder destroys long range correlations driving a transition to a glassy state. Here, I will discuss new insights into this issue obtained through the direct visualization of the critical behaviour of a 2D superconducting vortex lattice formed in a thin film with a smooth 1D thickness modulation. Using scanning tunneling microscopy at 0.1K, we have tracked the modification in the 2D vortex arrangements induced by the 1D thickness modulation while increasing the vortex density by three orders of magnitude. Upon increasing the field, we observed a two-step order-disorder transition in the 2D vortex lattice mediated by the appearance of dislocations and disclinations and accompanied by an increase in the local vortex density fluctuations. Through a detailed analysis of correlation functions, we find that the transition is driven by the incommensurate 1D thickness modulation. We calculate the critical points and exponents and find that they are well above theoretical expectation for random disorder. Our results show that long range 1D correlations in random potentials enhance the stability range of the ordered phase in a 2D vortex lattice. Work supported by Spanish MINECO, CIG Marie Curie Grant, Axa Research Fund and FBBVA.
Vortex Lattice Studies in CeCoIn₅ with H⊥c
Das, P.; White, J. S.; Holmes, A. T.; Gerber, S.; Forgan, E. M.; Bianchi, A. D.; Kenzelmann, M.; Zolliker, M.; Gavilano, J. L.; Bauer, E. D.; et al
2012-02-23
We present small angle neutron scattering studies of the vortex lattice (VL) in CeCoIn₅ with magnetic fields applied parallel (H) to the antinodal [100] and nodal [110] directions. For H II 100], a single VL orientation is observed, while a 90° reorientation transition is found for H II [110]. For both field orientations and VL configurations we find a distorted hexagonal VL with an anisotropy, Γ=2.0±0.05. The VL form factor shows strong Pauli paramagnetic effects similar to what have previously been reported for H II [001]. At high fields, above which the upper critical field (Hc2) becomes a first-order transition,more » an increased disordering of the VL is observed.« less
Vortex Lattice Studies in CeCoIn₅ with H⊥c
Das, P.; White, J. S.; Holmes, A. T.; Gerber, S.; Forgan, E. M.; Bianchi, A. D.; Kenzelmann, M.; Zolliker, M.; Gavilano, J. L.; Bauer, E. D.; Sarrao, J. L.; Petrovic, C.; Eskildsen, M. R.
2012-02-23
We present small angle neutron scattering studies of the vortex lattice (VL) in CeCoIn₅ with magnetic fields applied parallel (H) to the antinodal [100] and nodal [110] directions. For H II 100], a single VL orientation is observed, while a 90° reorientation transition is found for H II [110]. For both field orientations and VL configurations we find a distorted hexagonal VL with an anisotropy, Γ=2.0±0.05. The VL form factor shows strong Pauli paramagnetic effects similar to what have previously been reported for H II [001]. At high fields, above which the upper critical field (H_{c2}) becomes a first-order transition, an increased disordering of the VL is observed.
Quantum melting of a two-dimensional vortex lattice at zero temperature
Rozhkov, A.; Stroud, D.
1996-11-01
We consider the quantum melting of a two-dimensional flux lattice at temperature {ital T} = 0 in the {open_quote}{open_quote}superclean limit.{close_quote}{close_quote} In this regime, we find that vortex motion is dominated by the Magnus force. A Lindemann criterion predicts melting when {ital n}{sub {ital v}}/{ital n}{sub {ital p}}{ge}{beta}, where {ital n}{sub {ital v}} and {ital n}{sub {ital p}} are the areal number densities of vortex pancakes and Cooper pairs, and {beta}{approx_equal}0.1. A second criterion is derived by using Wigner-crystal and Laughlin wave functions for the solid and liquid phases respectively, and setting the two energies equal. This gives a melting value similar to the Lindemann result. We discuss the numerical value of the {ital T}=0 melting field for thin layers of a low-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductor, such as {ital a}-MoGe, and single layers of high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} materials. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Vortex confinement by magnetic domains in superconductor-ferromagnet bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cieplak, Marta Z.; Adamus, Z.; Konczykowski, M.; Zhu, L. Y.; Chien, C. L.; Cheng, X. M.
2013-03-01
We use a line of miniature Hall sensors to study the effect of magnetic-domain-induced vortex confinement on the flux dynamics in a superconductor/ferromagnet bilayer. A single tunable bilayer is built of a ferromagnetic Co/Pt multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a superconducting Nb layer, with the insulating layer in between to avoid proximity effect. The magnetic domain patterns of various geometries are reversibly predefined in the Co/Pt multilayer using the appropriate magnetization procedure. The magnetic domain geometry strongly affects vortex dynamics, leading to geometry-dependent trapping of vortices at the sample edge, nonuniform flux penetration, and strongly nonuniform critical current density. With the decreasing temperature the magnetic pinning increases but this increase is substantially weaker than that of the intrinsic pinning. The analysis of the initial flux penetration suggests that vortices may form various vortex structures, including disordered Abrikosov lattice or single and double vortex chains, in which minimal vortex-vortex distance is comparable to the magnetic penetration depth. Supported by Polish NCS grant 2011/01/B/ST3/00462, by the French-Polish Program PICS 2012, by EU grant POIG.01.01.02-00-108/09, and by NSF grants DMR05-20491 and DMR-1053854.
Resonant impedance matching of Abrikosov vortex-flow transistors
Hohenwarter, G.K.G. ); Martens, J.S.; Beyer, J.B.; Nordman, J.E. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)
1991-03-01
This paper reports that the authors achieved impedance matching to low input impedance flux-flow devices with transmission line resonators. A gain of 15 db in a 50{Omega} system was predicted by simulations of the amplifier. The design, layout and fabrication of an amplifier and an oscillator circuit will be presented. Circuit layout and fabrication of YBCO and T1 based circuits is briefly described. Measurements performed on fabricated circuits show a gain of 10 db at 4 GHz for an amplifier circuit and an output power of {minus}73 dbm at 7.1 GHz for an oscillator circuit.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. E.
1981-01-01
The nonplanar quasi-vortex-lattice method is applied to the calculation of lateral-directional stability derivatives of wings with and without vortex-lift effect. Results for conventional configurations and those with winglets, V-tail, etc. are compared with available data. All rolling moment derivatives are found to be accurately predicted. The prediction of side force and yawing moment derivatives for some configurations is not as accurate. Causes of the discrepancy are discussed. A user's manual for the program and the program listing are also included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, J. E.; Gloss, B. B.
1975-01-01
Because the potential flow suction along the leading and side edges of a planform can be used to determine both leading- and side-edge vortex lift, the present investigation was undertaken to apply the vortex-lattice method to computing side-edge suction force for isolated or interacting planforms. Although there is a small effect of bound vortex sweep on the computation of the side-edge suction force, the results obtained for a number of different isolated planforms produced acceptable agreement with results obtained from a method employing continuous induced-velocity distributions. By using the method outlined, better agreement between theory and experiment was noted for a wing in the presence of a canard than was previously obtained.
Superconducting gap and vortex lattice of the heavy-fermion compound CeCu2Si2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enayat, Mostafa; Sun, Zhixiang; Maldonado, Ana; Suderow, Hermann; Seiro, Silvia; Geibel, Christoph; Wirth, Steffen; Steglich, Frank; Wahl, Peter
2016-01-01
The order parameter and pairing mechanism for superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds are still poorly understood. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy at ultralow temperatures can yield important information about the superconducting order parameter and the gap structure. Here, we study the first heavy-fermion superconductor, CeCu2Si2 . Our data show the superconducting gap which is not fully formed and exhibits features that point to a multigap order parameter. Spatial mapping of the zero-bias conductance in magnetic field reveals the vortex lattice, which allows us to unequivocally link the observed conductance gap to superconductivity in CeCu2Si2 . The vortex lattice is found to be predominantly triangular with distortions at fields close to ˜0.7 Hc 2 .
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, G. F.
1975-01-01
The application is considered of vortex lattice techniques to the problem of describing the aerodynamics and performance of statically thrusting propellers. A numerical lifting surface theory to predict the aerodynamic forces and power is performed. The chordwise and spanwise loading is modelled by bound vortices fixed to a twisted flat plate surface. In order to eliminate any apriori assumptions regarding the wake shape, it is assumed the propeller starts from rest. The wake is generated in time and allowed to deform under its own self-induced velocity field as the motion of the propeller progresses. The bound circulation distribution is then determined with time by applying the flow tangency boundary condition at certain selected control points on the blades. The aerodynamics of the infinite wing and finite wing are also considered. The details of wake formation and roll-up are investigated, particularly the localized induction effect. It is concluded that proper wake roll-up and roll-up rates can be established by considering the details of motion at the instant of start.
Localization of a Bose-Einstein-condensate vortex in a bichromatic optical lattice
Adhikari, S. K.
2010-04-15
By numerical simulation of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation we show that a weakly interacting or noninteracting Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) vortex can be localized in a three-dimensional bichromatic quasiperiodic optical-lattice (OL) potential generated by the superposition of two standing-wave polarized laser beams with incommensurate wavelengths. We also study the localization of a (nonrotating) BEC in two and three dimensions by bichromatic OL potentials along orthogonal directions. This is a generalization of the localization of a BEC in a one-dimensional bichromatic OL as studied in a recent experiment [Roati et al., Nature 453, 895 (2008)]. We demonstrate the stability of the localized state by considering its time evolution in the form of a stable breathing oscillation in a slightly altered potential for a large period of time. Finally, we consider the localization of a BEC in a random one-dimensional potential in the form of several identical repulsive spikes arbitrarily distributed in space.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaparro, Daniel; Fujiwara, Gustavo E. C.; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan
2016-01-01
The need to rapidly scan large design spaces during conceptual design calls for computationally inexpensive tools such as the vortex lattice method (VLM). Although some VLM tools, such as Vorview have been extended to model fully-supersonic flow, VLM solutions are typically limited to inviscid, subcritical flow regimes. Many transport aircraft operate at transonic speeds, which limits the applicability of VLM for such applications. This paper presents a novel approach to correct three-dimensional VLM through coupling of two-dimensional transonic small disturbance (TSD) solutions along the span of an aircraft wing in order to accurately predict transonic aerodynamic loading and wave drag for transport aircraft. The approach is extended to predict flow separation and capture the attenuation of aerodynamic forces due to boundary layer viscosity by coupling the TSD solver with an integral boundary layer (IBL) model. The modeling framework is applied to the NASA General Transport Model (GTM) integrated with a novel control surface known as the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF).
Description, Usage, and Validation of the MVL-15 Modified Vortex Lattice Analysis Capability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ozoroski, Thomas A.
2015-01-01
MVL-15 is the most recent version of the Modified Vortex-Lattice (MVL) code developed within the Aerodynamics Systems Analysis Branch (ASAB) at NASA LaRC. The term "modified" refers to the primary modification of the core vortex-lattice methodology: inclusion of viscous aerodynamics tables that are linked to the linear solution via iterative processes. The inclusion of the viscous aerodynamics inherently converts the MVL-15 from a purely analytic linearized method to a semi-empirical blend which retains the rapid execution speed of the linearized method while empirically characterizing the section aerodynamics at all spanwise lattice points. The modification provides a means to assess non-linear effects on lift that occur at angles of attack near stall, and provides a means to determine the drag associated with the application of design strategies for lift augmentation such as the use of flaps or blowing. The MVL-15 code is applicable to the analyses of aircraft aerodynamics during cruise, but it is most advantageously applied to the analysis of aircraft operating in various high-lift configurations. The MVL methodology has been previously conceived and implemented; the initial concept version was delivered to the ASAB in 2001 (van Dam, C.), subsequently revised (Gelhausen, P. and Ozoroski, T. 2002 / AVID Inc., Gelhausen, P., and Roberts, M. 2004), and then overhauled (Ozoroski, T., Hahn, A. 2008). The latest version, MVL-15 has been refined to provide analysis transparency and enhanced to meet the analysis requirements of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Each revision has been implemented with reasonable success. Separate applications of the methodology are in use, including a similar in-house capability, developed by Olson, E. that is tailored for structural and acoustics analyses. A central premise of the methodology is that viscous aerodynamic data can be associated with analytic inviscid aerodynamic results at each spanwise wing section
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera-Vasco, Edwin; Guillamon, Isabel; Fente, Anton; Galvis, Jose; Correa, Alexandre; Luccas, Roberto; Mompean, Federico; Garcia Hernandez, Mar; Brison, Jean P.; Vieira, Sebastian; Suderow, Hermann
We present very low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments on the superconductor β-Bi2 Pd. We find a single superconducting gap from the zero-field tunneling conductance. We also find that the hexagonal vortex lattice is locked to the square atomic lattice. The magnetic field dependence of the intervortex tunneling conductance is higher than the one expected in a single-gap superconductor. Such an increase in the intervortex tunneling conductance has been found in superconductors with multiple superconducting gaps. We fit the upper critical field Hc2(T) and show that multiband Fermi surface is needed to explain the observed behavior. We propose that β-Bi2Pd is a single-gap multiband superconductor. We have measured the tilted vortex lattice (TVL) using a three axis superconducting magnet. Our results give first real space imaging of the TVL in a nearly isotropic s-wave BCS superconductor. From a detailed study of the TVL varying polar and azimuthal angles, we find correlations between the square atomic lattice and the TVL.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nonomura, Y.; Hu, X.
2004-10-01
Structures of flux-line lattices (FLL) in vortex states of high- Tc superconductors in a tilted field are directly studied by Monte Carlo simulations of the three-dimensional anisotropic XY model, where only Josephson couplings are considered between superconducting layers. A nontrivial structural transition between the Josephson-dominant and Abrikosov-dominant FLL phases occurs as the tilting angle of the external field is increased at low enough temperatures. A similar phase transition is observed by varying the anisotropy parameter with a fixed external field. A finite latent heat at the transition point indicates that this phase transition is of first order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Jun-Yi; Gutierrez, Joffre; Lyashchenko, A.; Filipov, V.; Li, Jun; Moshchalkov, Victor V.
2014-11-01
In nature, many systems exhibit modulated phases with periodic macroscopic patterns and textures mainly due to the competitive interactions of different phases. Vortex systems in superconductors, which are easy to access, offer the possibility of tuning the ratio between the competitive interactions, providing a unique tool to study the evolution and equilibrium of similar patterns. The κ -T phase diagram of clean superconductors shows the transition from type-I to type-II superconductivity via a narrow κ range near the dual point κ =1 /√{2 } where the vortices attract each other at long distances and repel each other at short distances. This κ range, which is termed the type-II/1 phase, becomes larger with decreasing temperature. The direct imaging at the scale of individual vortices of the vortex pattern transition would provide valuable information. Therefore, by using scanning Hall probe microscopy, we have performed direct visualization of the vortex pattern transition in a ZrB12 single crystal across the type-II and type-II/1 phases. By gradually lowering the temperature, and thereby tuning vortex interactions, a transition is observed from the ordered Abrikosov vortex lattice to a disordered vortex pattern with large areas of Meissner phase, vortex chains, and vortex clusters. The formation of vortex chains and clusters has been found to arise from the combined effect of quenched disorder and the attractive vortex-vortex interaction in the type-II/1 phase. The clusters and chains serve as the vortex reservoir to enable the formation of a triangular vortex lattice of the type-II phase at high temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jianying; Yan, Guangwu; Wang, Moran
2016-02-01
A lattice Boltzmann model for solving the three-dimensional cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CQCGLE) is proposed. Differently from the classic lattice Boltzmann models, this lattice Boltzmann model is based on uniformly distributed lattice points in a three-dimensional space, and the evolution of the model is about a spatial axis rather than time. The algorithm provides advantages similar to the lattice Boltzmann method in that it is easily adapted to complex Ginzburg-Landau equations. Examples show that the model accurately reproduces the vortex tori pattern in the CQCGLE.
Johnson, T H; Yuan, Y; Bao, W; Clark, S R; Foot, C; Jaksch, D
2016-06-17
We investigate cold bosonic impurity atoms trapped in a vortex lattice formed by condensed bosons of another species. We describe the dynamics of the impurities by a bosonic Hubbard model containing occupation-dependent parameters to capture the effects of strong impurity-impurity interactions. These include both a repulsive direct interaction and an attractive effective interaction mediated by the Bose-Einstein condensate. The occupation dependence of these two competing interactions drastically affects the Hubbard model phase diagram, including causing the disappearance of some Mott lobes. PMID:27367366
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, T. H.; Yuan, Y.; Bao, W.; Clark, S. R.; Foot, C.; Jaksch, D.
2016-06-01
We investigate cold bosonic impurity atoms trapped in a vortex lattice formed by condensed bosons of another species. We describe the dynamics of the impurities by a bosonic Hubbard model containing occupation-dependent parameters to capture the effects of strong impurity-impurity interactions. These include both a repulsive direct interaction and an attractive effective interaction mediated by the Bose-Einstein condensate. The occupation dependence of these two competing interactions drastically affects the Hubbard model phase diagram, including causing the disappearance of some Mott lobes.
Tuning vortex confinement by magnetic domains in a superconductor/ferromagnet bilayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cieplak, Marta Z.; Adamus, Z.; Kończykowski, M.; Zhu, L. Y.; Cheng, X. M.; Chien, C. L.
2013-01-01
We use a line of miniature Hall sensors to study the effect of magnetic-domain-induced vortex confinement on the flux dynamics in a superconductor/ferromagnet bilayer. A single tunable bilayer is built of a ferromagnetic Co/Pt multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a superconducting Nb layer, with the insulating layer in-between to avoid the proximity effect. The magnetic-domain patterns of various geometries are reversibly predefined in the Co/Pt multilayer using the appropriate magnetization procedure. The magnetic-domain geometry strongly affects vortex dynamics, leading to geometry-dependent trapping of vortices at the sample edge, nonuniform flux penetration, and strongly nonuniform critical current density. With the decreasing temperature, the magnetic pinning increases, but this increase is substantially weaker than that of the intrinsic pinning. The analysis of the initial flux penetration suggests that vortices may form various vortex structures, including disordered Abrikosov lattice or single and double vortex chains, in which minimal vortex-vortex distance is comparable to the magnetic penetration depth.
DC to AC converter on Abrikosov vortices in a washboard pinning potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shklovskij, Valerij A.; Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.
2014-05-01
The nonlinear dynamics of Abrikosov vortices in a cosine dc-biased washboard pinning potential at nonzero temperature is theoretically investigated. The problem is treated relying upon the exact solution of the Langevin equation for non-interacting vortices by using the Fokker-Planck method combined with the scalar continued fractions technique. The time variation of the local mean vortex velocity v(t) is calculated. The time voltage E(t) ~ v(t) is predicted to oscillate with a dc current-dependent frequency and a tunable pulse shape. Formulas for v(t) are discussed as functions of dc transport current and temperature, in a wide range of the corresponding dimensionless parameters. The derived expressions can be adapted for a number of physical applications utilizing the overdamped motion of a Brownian particle in a tilted cosine potential, e.g., the resistively shunted Josephson junction model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xiaohai; Lee, Taehun; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Wang, Zhexuan
2013-11-01
Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) phenomena related to self-excited energy harvesters consisting of circular or square cylinders have been investigated numerically by using the BGK or MRT Lattice Boltzmann Method. In the present work such a harvester is placed inside a channel flow and is allowed to oscillate without a structural restoring force in a direction normal to the flow. Currently the half-way bounce-back boundary scheme and interpolations are being used to model the moving boundary. The numerical results were compared to the ones by classical CFD methods and experiments. A good agreement was obtained. The vortex dynamics and the development of the flow patterns for different flow parameters such as Reynolds number, blockage and aspect ratios will be presented. Particular emphasis is given to the dynamics of vortex pairing observed in several of the simulations. The present approach will be extended to simulate the flexible beam with the Immersed Boundary Method. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation (CBET #1033117) and a fellowship support from China Scholarship Council.
Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.
2014-01-01
The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+. XXXXX Demand for green aviation is expected to increase with the need for reduced environmental impact. Most large transports today operate within the best cruise L/D range of 18-20 using the conventional tube-and-wing design. This configuration has led to marginal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency over this past century, as aerodynamic improvements tend to be incremental. A big opportunity has been shown in recent years to significantly reduce structural weight or trim drag, hence improved energy efficiency, with the use of lightweight materials such as composites. The Boeing 787 transport is an example of a modern airframe design that employs lightweight structures. High aspect ratio wing design can provide another opportunity for further improvements in energy efficiency. Historically, the study of high aspect ratio wings has been intimately tied to the study of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vahala, George; Yepez, Jeffrey; Vahala, Linda
2008-04-01
The ground state wave function for a Bose Einstein condensate is well described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. A Type-II quantum algorithm is devised that is ideally parallelized even on a classical computer. Only 2 qubits are required per spatial node. With unitary local collisions, streaming of entangled states and a spatially inhomogeneous unitary gauge rotation one recovers the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Quantum vortex reconnection is simulated - even without any viscosity or resistivity (which are needed in classical vortex reconnection).
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-01
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases.
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate.
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-01
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases. PMID:26778736
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-01
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases. PMID:26778736
Chandra Ganguli, Somesh; Singh, Harkirat; Saraswat, Garima; Ganguly, Rini; Bagwe, Vivas; Shirage, Parasharam; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Raychaudhuri, Pratap
2015-01-01
The vortex lattice in a Type II superconductor provides a versatile model system to investigate the order-disorder transition in a periodic medium in the presence of random pinning. Here, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy in a weakly pinned Co0.0075NbSe2 single crystal, we show that the vortex lattice in a 3-dimensional superconductor disorders through successive destruction of positional and orientational order, as the magnetic field is increased across the peak effect. At the onset of the peak effect, the equilibrium quasi-long range ordered state transforms into an orientational glass through the proliferation of dislocations. At a higher field, the dislocations dissociate into isolated disclination giving rise to an amorphous vortex glass. We also show the existence of a variety of additional non-equilibrium metastable states, which can be accessed through different thermomagnetic cycling. PMID:26039699
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhn, S. J.; Kawano-Furukawa, H.; Jellyman, E.; Riyat, R.; Forgan, E. M.; Ono, M.; Kihou, K.; Lee, C. H.; Hardy, F.; Adelmann, P.; Wolf, Th.; Meingast, C.; Gavilano, J.; Eskildsen, M. R.
2016-03-01
We study the intrinsic anisotropy of the superconducting state in KFe2As2 by using small-angle neutron scattering to image the vortex lattice as the applied magnetic field is rotated towards the FeAs crystalline planes. The anisotropy is found to be strongly field dependent, indicating multiband superconductivity. Furthermore, the high-field anisotropy significantly exceeds that of the upper critical field, providing further support for Pauli limiting in KFe2As2 for fields applied in the basal plane. The effect of Pauli paramagnetism on the unpaired quasiparticles in the vortex cores is directly evident from the ratio of scattered intensities due to the longitudinal and transverse vortex lattice field modulation.
Das, Pinaki; Rastovski, Catherine; O'Brien, Timothy; Schlesinger, Kimberly; Dewhurst, Charles; Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M; Zhigadlo, Nikolai; Karpinski, Janusz; Eskildsen, Morten
2012-01-01
The vortex lattice (VL) symmetry and orientation in clean type-II superconductors depends sensitively on the host material anisotropy, vortex density and temperature, frequently leading to rich phase diagrams. Typically, a well-ordered VL is taken to imply a ground-state configuration for the vortex-vortex interaction. Using neutron scattering we studied the VL in MgB2 for a number of field-temperature histories, discovering an unprecedented degree of metastability in connection with a known, second-order rotation transition. This allows, for the first time, structural studies of a well-ordered, nonequilibrium VL. While the mechanism responsible for the longevity of the metastable states is not resolved, we speculate it is due to a jamming of VL domains, preventing a rotation to the ground-state orientation.
Origin of Spontaneous Broken Mirror Symmetry of Vortex Lattices in Nb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adachi, Hiroki M.; Ishikawa, Masaki; Hirano, Tomoya; Ichioka, Masanori; Machida, Kazushige
2011-11-01
Combining the microscopic Eilenberger theory with the first-principles band calculation, we investigate the stable flux line lattice (FLL) for a field applied to the fourfold axis, i.e., H\\parallel [001] in cubic Nb. The observed FLL transformation along Hc2 is almost perfectly explained without using adjustable parameter, including the tilted square, scalene triangle with broken mirror symmetry, and isosceles triangle lattices upon increasing T. We construct a minimum Fermi surface model to understand such morphologies, particularly the stability of the scalene triangle lattice attributed to the lack of mirror symmetry about the Fermi velocity maximum direction in k-space.
Anomalous magnetization due to the vortex lattice melting transition in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y}
Nishizaki, Terukazu; Onodera, Yasuaki; Naito, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Norio
1996-12-01
Magnetization measurements in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} single crystals are performed as a function of the temperature T and the magnetic field H. It is found that an anomalous magnetization step which provides the thermodynamic evidence of the first-order vortex lattice melting transition and the resistive kink with the hysteresis are observed in the same phase boundary in H-T plane. For samples with a small value of the irreversibility field H{sub irr}(T) as compared with the vortex lattice melting line H{sub m}(T), the vortex lattice melting is observed in the reversible magnetization region and the entropy change per vortex per CuO{sub 2} layer at the transition is estimated to be {Delta}s {approx_equal} 0.5 - 1.0 k{sub B}. For samples with a slightly larger value of H{sub irr}(T) comparable to H{sub m}(T), on the other hand, the jump height and the value of {Delta}s is enhanced. Thus, the value of {Delta}s is affected significantly by the relation between H{sub irr}(T) which varies from sample to sample and H{sub m}(T) which is an universal line.
Anisotropic vortex lattice in YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7
Yethiraj, M.; Mook, H.A.; Wignall, G.D.; Cubitt, R.; Forgan, E.M.; Lee, S.L.; Paul, D.M.; Armstrong, T. Superconductivity Research Group, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Schoenberggasse 9, CH 8001, Zuerich Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL Allied Signal Research Laboratories, Torrance, California 90509 )
1993-11-01
We report on small angle neutron scattering observations of the flux line lattice (FLL) in a single crystal of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7]. To probe the mass anisotropy ratio, [ital m][sub 3]/[ital m][sub 1], measurements were made as a function of angle, [Theta], between the 8 kOe applied field and the crystallographic (001) axis for 0[degree][le][Theta][le]80[degree]. With the rotation about an [ital a]/[ital b] (or [ital y]) axis, two symmetry-related distorted hexagonal FLL domains formed. Contrary to theoretical prediction, the lattices formed are consistent with a rotation of the short basis vector, [bold a][sub 1], from the [ital x] axis by 15[degree], after the effects of anisotropy are removed. The mass ratio is 20[plus minus]2, which is slightly lower than published values. The temperature dependence of the intensity is not conventional.
Singularimetry of local phase gradients using vortex lattices and in-line holography.
Petersen, Timothy C; Bishop, Alexis I; Eastwood, Samuel A; Paganin, David M; Morgan, Kaye S; Morgan, Michael J
2016-02-01
We have developed a differential form of singularimetry, which utilizes phase vortices or intensity gradient singularities as topological fiducial markers in a structured illumination context. This approach analytically measures phase gradients imparted by refracting specimens, yielding quantitative information that is both local and deterministic. We have quantified our phase gradient experiments to demonstrate that lattices of wave field singularities can be used to detect subtle phase gradients imparted by a spherical specimen and fiber optic cylinders. PMID:26906802
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gross, L. W.
1976-01-01
The F-4E (CCV) wind tunnel model with closely coupled canard control surfaces was analyzed by means of a version of a vortex lattice program that included the effects of nonlinear leading edge or side edge vortex lift on as many as four individual planforms. The results were compared with experimental data from wind tunnel tests of a 5% scale model tested at a Mach number M = 0.6. They indicated that a nonlinear vortex lift developed on the side edges due to tip vortices, but did not appear to develop on the leading edges within the range of angles of attack that were studied. Instead, substantial leading edge thrust was developed on the lifting surfaces. A configuration buildup illustrated the mutual interference between the wing and control surfaces. On the configuration studied, addition of the wing increased the loading on the canard, but the additional load on the canard due to adding the stabilator was small.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh
2013-01-01
This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaidiuk, V.; Ammor, L.; Ruyter, A.
From the I-V characteristics for as-grown and irradiated Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals at T=5K (i.e. T → 0) in a magnetic field applied parallel to c axis, we have seen two types of vortex dynamics above the depinning threshold, depending on the vortex-vortex interaction strength (λab/a0). For the as-grown sample, at a low field, the I-V curves show steps that clearly indicate a "fingerprint phenomenon" since they reflex the current dependence of the differential resistance rd(I). This can be ascribed to vortices flowing through uncorrelated channels for the highly defective lattice. As field sufficiently increase, these peaks merge to become broader ones indicating a crossover from filament type to braid river type. In contrast, in the irradiated sample, the pinning is found to be individual at low fields and collective when the vortex-vortex interactions are involved.
Effect of magnetic impurities on the vortex lattice properties in NbSe{sub 2} single crystals.
Iavarone, M.; Di Capua, R.; Karapetrov, G.; Koshelev, A. E.; Rosenmann, D.; Claus, H.; Malliakas, C. D.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Nishizaki, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Materials Science Division; Univ. degli Studi del Molise; CNR-INFM Coherentia; Northwestern Univ.; Tohoku Univ.
2008-11-01
We report a pronounced peak effect in the magnetization of Co{sub x}NbSe{sub 2} single crystals with critical temperatures T{sub c} ranging between 7.1 and 5.0 K, and Mn{sub x}NbSe{sub 2} single crystals with critical temperatures down to 3.4 K. We correlate the peak effect in magnetization with the structure of the vortex lattice across the peak-effect region using scanning-tunneling microscopy. Magnetization measurements show that the amplitude of the peak effect in the case of Co{sub x}NbSe{sub 2} exhibits a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the Co content, reaching a maximum for concentration of Co of about 0.4 at. % (corresponding to a T{sub c} of 5.7 K) and after that gradually decreasing in amplitude with the increase in the Co content. The normalized value of the peak position H{sub p}/H{sub c2} has weak dependence on Co concentration. In the case of Mn{sub x}NbSe{sub 2} the features of the peak effect as a function of the Mn content are different and they can be understood in terms of strong pinning.
History Dependence of the Vortex Lattice Rotation in the B-phase of UPt3 with H ∥ c
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avers, K. E.; Eskildsen, M. R.; Halperin, W. P.; Gannon, W. J.; Gavilano, J. L.; Nagy, G.; Gasser, U.
The unconventional superconductor UPt3 is widely believed to be a triplet superconductor, where the low temperature superconducting B-phase is a chiral state. We have performed small angle neutron scattering (SANS) from the vortex lattice (VL) in UPt3 at the Paul Scherrer Institute with the magnetic field parallel to the hexagonal c-axis in the 0.5 T to 0.9 T range. The diffraction pattern of the VL rotates away from a high symmetry direction producing two domains of different orientation. Our field dependent measurements show a subtle magnetic field history dependence of this orientation; VLs prepared with the magnetic field parallel or anti-parallel with respect to the angular momentum from the circulating screening currents show different field-history dependence. These results suggest a coupling of a chiral superconducting order parameter with the applied magnetic field. US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Awards DE-FG02-10ER46783 (University of Notre Dame; neutron scattering) and DE-FG02-05ER46248 (Northwestern University; crystal growth, characterization, neutron.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh
2014-01-01
This paper presents a static aeroelastic model and longitudinal trim model for the analysis of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The static aeroelastic model is built using a structural model based on finite-element modeling and coupled to an aerodynamic model that uses vortex-lattice solution. An automatic geometry generation tool is used to close the loop between the structural and aerodynamic models. The aeroelastic model is extended for the development of a three degree-of-freedom longitudinal trim model for an aircraft with flexible wings. The resulting flexible aircraft longitudinal trim model is used to simultaneously compute the static aeroelastic shape for the aircraft model and the longitudinal state inputs to maintain an aircraft trim state. The framework is applied to an aircraft model based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with wing structures allowed to flexibly deformed referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The ESAC wing mass and stiffness properties are based on a baseline "stiff" values representative of current generation transport aircraft.
SANS study of vortex lattice structural transition in optimally doped (Ba1-x K x )Fe2As2.
Demirdiş, S; van der Beek, C J; Mühlbauer, S; Su, Y; Wolf, Th
2016-10-26
Small-angle neutron scattering on high quality single crystalline Ba1-x K x Fe2As2 reveals the transition from a low-field vortex solid phase with orientational order to a vortex polycrystal at high magnetic field. The vortex order-disorder transition is correlated with the second-peak feature in isothermal hysteresis loops, and is interpreted in terms of the generation of supplementary vortex solid dislocations. The sharp drop of the structure factor above the second peak field is explained by the dynamics of freezing of the vortex ensemble in the high field phase. PMID:27541966
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hankin, D.; Graham, J. M. R.
2014-12-01
An unsteady formulation of the vortex lattice method, VLM, is presented that uses a force- free representation of the wake behind a horizontal axis wind turbine, HAWT, to calculate the aerodynamic loading on a turbine operating in the wake of an upstream rotor. A Cartesian velocity grid is superimposed over the computational domain to facilitate the representation of the atmospheric turbulence surrounding the turbine and wind shear. The wake of an upstream rotor is modelled using two methods: a mean velocity deficit with superimposed turbulence, based on experimental observations, and a purely numeric periodic boundary condition. Both methods are treated as frozen and propagated with the velocity grid. Measurements of the mean thrust and blade root bending moment on a three bladed horizontal axis rotor modelling a 5 MW HAWT at 1:250 scale were carried out in a wind tunnel. Comparisons are made between operation in uniform flow and in the wake of a similarly loaded rotor approximately 6.5 diameters upstream. The measurements were used to validate the output from the VLM simulations, assuming a completely rigid rotor. The trends in the simulation thrust predictions are found to compare well with the uniform flow case, except at low tip speed ratios where there are losses due to stall which are yet to be included in the model. The simple wake model predicts the mean deficit, whilst the periodic boundary condition captures more of the frequency content of the loading in an upstream wake. However, all the thrust loads are over-predicted. The simulation results severely overestimate the bending moment, which needs addressing. However, the reduction in bending due to the simple wake model is found to reflect the experimental data reasonably well.
Kitaev anisotropy induces mesoscopic Z2 vortex crystals in frustrated hexagonal antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Rössler, Ulrich K.; van den Brink, Jeroen; Daghofer, Maria
2016-03-01
The triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet (HAF) is known to carry topological Z2 vortex excitations which form a gas at finite temperatures. Here we show that the spin-orbit interaction, introduced via a Kitaev term in the exchange Hamiltonian, condenses these vortices into a triangular Z2 vortex crystal at zero temperature. The cores of the Z2 vortices show abrupt, soliton-like magnetization modulations and arise by a special intertwining of three honeycomb superstructures of ferromagnetic domains, one for each of the three sublattices of the 120∘ state of the pure HAF. This is an example of a nucleation transition, analogous to the spontaneous formation of magnetic domains, Abrikosov vortices in type-II superconductors, blue phases in cholesteric liquid crystals, and skyrmions in chiral helimagnets. As the mechanism relies on the interplay of geometric frustration and spin-orbital anisotropies, such vortex mesophases can materialize as a ground state property in spin-orbit coupled correlated systems with nearly hexagonal topology, as in triangular or strongly frustrated honeycomb iridates.
Dynamic signatures of driven vortex motion.
Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Lopez, D.; Olsson, R. J.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A. M.; Safar, H.
1999-09-16
We probe the dynamic nature of driven vortex motion in superconductors with a new type of transport experiment. An inhomogeneous Lorentz driving force is applied to the sample, inducing vortex velocity gradients that distinguish the hydrodynamic motion of the vortex liquid from the elastic and-plastic motion of the vortex solid. We observe elastic depinning of the vortex lattice at the critical current, and shear induced plastic slip of the lattice at high Lorentz force gradients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kajzer, A.; Pozorski, J.; Szewc, K.
2014-08-01
In the paper we present Large-eddy simulation (LES) results of 3D Taylor- Green vortex obtained by the three different computational approaches: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM). The Smagorinsky model was chosen as a subgrid-scale closure in LES for all considered methods and a selection of spatial resolutions have been investigated. The SPH and LBM computations have been carried out with the use of the in-house codes executed on GPU and compared, for validation purposes, with the FVM results obtained using the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. A comparative study in terms of one-point statistics and turbulent energy spectra shows a good agreement of LES results for all methods. An analysis of the GPU code efficiency and implementation difficulties has been made. It is shown that both SPH and LBM may offer a significant advantage over mesh-based CFD methods.
Aegerter, C.M.; Hofer, J.; Savic, I.M.; Keller, H.; Lee, S.L.; Ager, C.; Lloyd, S.H.; Forgan, E.M.
1998-01-01
Using the techniques of muon spin rotation and torque magnetometry, we investigate the crossover field B{sub cr} in Bi{sub 2.15}Sr{sub 1.85}Ca{sub 1}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} at which the vortex lattice becomes disordered along the field direction. It is found that B{sub cr} scales as the projection of the applied field along the perpendicular to the superconducting planes. This has the implication that a field large enough to give a disordered lattice when applied perpendicular to the planes, can give a well-ordered vortex-line lattice for angles of the field to the c axis greater than a critical value. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Mathematical aspects of vortex dynamics; Proceedings of the Workshop, Leesburg, VA, Apr. 25-27, 1988
Caflisch, R.E.
1989-01-01
Various papers on the mathematical aspects of vortex dynamics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: mathematical analysis of vortex dynamics, improved vortex methods for three-dimensional flows, the relation between thin vortex layer and vortex sheets, computations of broadband instabilities in a class of closed-streamline flows, vortex-sheet dynamics and hyperfunction theory, free surface vortex method with weak viscous effects, iterative method for computing steady vortex flow systems, invariant measures for the two-dimensional Euler flow, similarity flows containing two-branched vortex sheets, strain-induced vortex stripping, convergence of the vortex method for vortex sheets, boundary conditions and deterministic vortex methods for the Navier-Stokes equations, vorticity creation boundary conditions, vortex dynamics of stratified flows, vortex breakdown, numerical studies of vortex reconnection, vortex lattices in theory and practice, dynamics of vortex structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer, and energy of a vortex lattice configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohlin, Kjell; Berggren, Karl Fredrik
2016-07-01
Faraday first characterised the behaviour of a fluid in a container subjected to vertical periodic oscillations. His study pertaining to hydrodynamic instability, the ‘Faraday instability’, has catalysed a myriad of experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for the transition of a system at rest to a new state of well-ordered vibrational patterns at fixed frequencies. Here we study dual strata in a shallow vessel containing distilled water and high-viscosity lubrication oil on top of it. At elevated driving power, beyond the Faraday instability, the top stratum is found to ‘freeze’ into a rigid pattern with maxima and minima. At the same time there is a dynamic crossover into a new state in the form of a lattice of recirculating vortices in the lower layer containing the water. Instrumentation and the physics behind are analysed in a phenomenological way together with a basic heuristic modelling of the wave field. The study, which is based on relatively low-budget equipment, stems from related art projects that have evolved over the years. The study is of value within basic research as well as in education, especially as more advanced collective project work in e.g. engineering physics, where it invites further studies of pattern formation, the emergence of vortex lattices and complexity.
Induced vacuum current and magnetic field in the background of a vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorkavenko, Volodymyr M.; Ivanchenko, Iryna V.; Sitenko, Yurii A.
2016-02-01
A topological defect in the form of the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortex is considered as a gauge-flux-carrying tube that is impenetrable for quantum matter. Charged scalar matter field is quantized in the vortex background with the perfectly reflecting (Dirichlet) boundary condition imposed at the side surface of the vortex. We show that a current circulating around the vortex and a magnetic field directed along the vortex are induced in the vacuum, if the Compton wavelength of the matter field exceeds considerably the transverse size of the vortex. The vacuum current and magnetic field are periodic in the value of the gauge flux of the vortex, providing a quantum-field-theoretical manifestation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The total flux of the induced vacuum magnetic field attains notable finite values even for the Compton wavelength of the matter field exceeding the transverse size of the vortex by just three orders of magnitude.
Neutron Scattering Studies of Vortex Matter in Type-II Superconductors
Xinsheng Ling
2012-02-02
The proposed program is an experimental study of the fundamental properties of Abrikosov vortex matter in type-II superconductors. Most superconducting materials used in applications such as MRI are type II and their transport properties are determined by the interplay between random pinning, interaction and thermal fluctuation effects in the vortex state. Given the technological importance of these materials, a fundamental understanding of the vortex matter is necessary. The vortex lines in type-II superconductors also form a useful model system for fundamental studies of a number of important issues in condensed matter physics, such as the presence of a symmetry-breaking phase transition in the presence of random pinning. Recent advances in neutron scattering facilities such as the major upgrade of the NIST cold source and the Spallation Neutron Source are providing unprecedented opportunities in addressing some of the longstanding issues in vortex physics. The core component of the proposed program is to use small angle neutron scattering and Bitter decoration experiments to provide the most stringent test of the Bragg glass theory by measuring the structure factor in both the real and reciprocal spaces. The proposed experiments include a neutron reflectometry experiment to measure the precise Q-dependence of the structure factor of the vortex lattice in the Bragg glass state. A second set of SANS experiments will be on a shear-strained Nb single crystal for testing a recently proposed theory of the stability of Bragg glass. The objective is to artificially create a set of parallel grain boundaries into a Nb single crystal and use SANS to measure the vortex matter diffraction pattern as a function of the changing angle between the applied magnetic field to the grain boundaries. The intrinsic merits of the proposed work are a new fundamental understanding of type-II superconductors on which superconducting technology is based, and a firm understanding of phases
Ferrando, Albert; Garcia-March, Miguel-Angel
2005-09-16
Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a 'transmutation pass rule' determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yepez, J.; Vahala, G.; Vahala, L.
2009-04-01
Presented is a type-II quantum algorithm for superfluid dynamics, used to numerically predict solutions of the GP equation for a complex scalar field (spinless bosons) in φ4 theory. The GP equation is a long wavelength effective field theory of a microscopic quantum lattice gas with nonlinear state reduction. The quantum lattice gas algorithm for modeling the dynamics of the one-body BEC state in 3+1 dimensions is presented. To demonstrate the method's strength as a computational physics tool, a difficult situation of filamentary singularities is simulated, the dynamics of solitary vortex-antivortex pairs, which are a basic building block of morphologies of quantum turbulence.
Tilt-modulus enhancement of the vortex lattice in the layered superconductor 2 H -NbSe sub 2
Koorevaar, P.; Aarts, J.; Berghuis, P.; Kes, P.H. )
1990-07-01
The field dependence of the pinning force has been studied in thin single crystals of the layered superconductor 2{ital H}-NbSe{sub 2} in fields directed perpendicular to the layers. At high fields a peak effect is observed which sets in at about {ital B}{sub co}{approx}0.8{ital B}{sub {ital c}2}. Below this field the pinning force agrees well with the theory of two-dimensional collective pinning. The onset of the peak is triggered by the transition to three-dimensional flux-line lattice (FLL) disorder at the field {ital B}{sub co}. Comparison of the crossover field with the criterion set by the collective-pinning theory reveals that the tilt modulus of the FLL in a layered superconductor is considerably reduced. The reduction factor corresponds very well to recent theoretical predictions. These results are of importance for the prediction of depinning and flux-line lattice melting in all kinds of anisotropic superconductors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, John D.
1988-01-01
A method is described for the analysis of the unsteady, incompressible potential flow associated with a helicopter rotor and it's wake in forward flight. This method is particularly useful in low advance ratio flight due to the major contribution, in the near field, of the deformed wake. The rotor geometry is prescribed and the unsteady wake geometry is computed from the local flow perturbation velocities. The wake is modeled as a full vortex lattice. The rotor geometry is arbitrary and several rotor blades can be represented. The unsteady airloads on the rotor blades are computed in the presence of the deformed rotor wake by a time-stepping technique. Solution for the load distribution on the blade surfaces is found by prescribing boundary conditions in a reference system which rotates with the blade tips. Transformation tensors are used to describe the contribution of the wake in the inertial system to the rotor in the rotating reference system. The effects of blade cyclic pitch variation are computed using a rotation tensor. The deformation of the wake is computed in the inertial frame. The wake is started impulsively from rest, allowing a natural convection of the wake with time.
Vortex dynamics in anisotropic traps
McEndoo, S.; Busch, Th.
2010-07-15
We investigate the dynamics of linear vortex lattices in anisotropic traps in two dimensions and show that the interplay between the rotation and the anisotropy leads to a rich but highly regular dynamics.
User's manual for interfacing a leading edge, vortex rollup program with two linear panel methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desilva, B. M. E.; Medan, R. T.
1979-01-01
Sufficient instructions are provided for interfacing the Mangler-Smith, leading edge vortex rollup program with a vortex lattice (POTFAN) method and an advanced higher order, singularity linear analysis for computing the vortex effects for simple canard wing combinations.
Electronic structure of multiquantum giant vortex states in mesoscopic superconducting disks
Tanaka, Kaori; Robel, István; Jankó, Boldizsár
2002-01-01
We report self-consistent calculations of the microscopic electronic structure of the so-called giant vortex states. These multiquantum vortex states, detected by recent magnetization measurements on submicron disks, are qualitatively different from the Abrikosov vortices in the bulk. We find that, in addition to multiple branches of bound states in the core region, the local tunneling density of states exhibits Tomasch oscillations caused by the single-particle interference arising from quantum confinement. These features should be directly observable by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. PMID:16578872
Cristiano, R.; Frunzio, L.; Pagano, S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Lisitskii, M.P.
1997-11-01
We report on a new experimental approach to the size estimation of the hot spot induced by ionizing particles in a Josephson tunnel junction. Here, in contrast to the case of a superconducting strip, it is possible to investigate the hot spot dynamics in absence of effects due to the heating induced by the bias current. The reported experiment is based on the motion of Abrikosov vortices, trapped in the thin films constituting the junction electrodes, under 5.6 MeV {alpha}-particle irradiation. The fast time evolution of a hot spot, combined with the presence of Abrikosov vortices, produces a change of the static magnetic field in the junction area and thus a change of the critical current value, I{sub c}. Measurements of I{sub c} during the {alpha}-particle irradiation and in presence of trapped Abrikosov vortices allow to determine the rate of appearance of those I{sub c} changes. The behavior of the average appearance rate as function of the Abrikosov vortices density provides a direct determination of the maximum hot spot area. The experiment is performed on a high quality Nb/Al{endash}AlO{sub x}/Nb junction of circular geometry and with {open_quotes}small{close_quotes} dimensions with respect to the Josephson penetration depth. A value of 4.7{plus_minus}1.2{mu}m{sup 2} is found for the maximum hot spot area. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Quantum vortices in optical lattices
Vignolo, P.; Fazio, R.; Tosi, M. P.
2007-08-15
A vortex in a superfluid gas inside an optical lattice can behave as a massive particle moving in a periodic potential and exhibiting quantum properties. In this paper we discuss these properties and show that the excitation of vortex dynamics in a two-dimensional lattice can lead to striking measurable changes in its dynamic response. It would be possible by means of Bragg spectroscopy to carry out the first direct measurement of the effective vortex mass. In addition, the experiments proposed here provide an alternative way to study the pinning to the underlying lattice and the dissipative damping.
Experimental evidence for flux-lattice melting. [in high-Tc superconductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farrell, D. E.; Rice, J. P.; Ginsberg, D. M.
1991-01-01
A low-frequency torsional oscillator has been used to search for flux-lattice melting in an untwinned single crystal of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta). The damping of the oscillator was measured as a function of temperature, for applied magnetic fields in the range H = 0.1-2.3 T. A remarkably sharp damping peak has been located. It is suggested that the temperature of the peak corresponds to the melting point of the Abrikosov flux lattice.
Rakhmanov, A L; Savel'ev, Sergey; Kusmartsev, F V
2008-11-01
We describe the decomposition of Abrikosov vortices into decoupled pancake vortices in superconductors having both electron and hole charge carriers. We estimate the critical current of such a decomposition, at which a superconducting-normal state transition occurs, and find that it is very sensitive to the magnetic field and temperature. The effect can be observed in recently synthesized self-doped high-Tc layered superconductors with electrons and holes coexisting in different Cu-O planes and in artificial p-n superconductor heterostructures. The sensitivity of the critical current to a magnetic field may be used for sensors and detectors of a magnetic field, which can be built up from the superconductor heterostructures. PMID:19113298
Non-Vortex Topological Solitons of the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] Gauge Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanas'ev, K. V.; Gauzshtein, V. V.; Loginov, A. Yu.
2016-06-01
A (2+1)-dimensional [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] gauge model is investigated. The presence of additional local U(1) symmetry, not associated with a physical gauge field, leads to the existence in the given model of two-dimensional non-vortex topological solitons carrying unquantized magnetic flux. Topological solitons of the given type were found numerically for fixed values of the model parameters. Analytical calculations of some properties of non-vortex topological solitons were performed. Universal dependences of the energy and magnetic flux of a non-vortex topological soliton on a dimensionless combination of parameters of the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] gauge model were obtained numerically. A comparative analysis of the properties of a non-vortex topological soliton and an Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen classical vortex is provided.
Cho, Inyong; Lee, Youngone
2009-01-15
We investigate vortex configurations with the 'vulcanization' term inspired by the renormalization of {phi}{sub *}{sup 4} theory in the canonical {theta}-deformed noncommutativity. We focus on the classical limit of the theory described by a single parameter which is the ratio of the vulcanization and the noncommutativity parameters. We perform numerical calculations and find that nontopological vortex solutions exist as well as Q-ball type solutions, but topological vortex solutions are not admitted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Inyong; Lee, Youngone
2009-01-01
We investigate vortex configurations with the “vulcanization” term inspired by the renormalization of ϕ⋆4 theory in the canonical θ-deformed noncommutativity. We focus on the classical limit of the theory described by a single parameter which is the ratio of the vulcanization and the noncommutativity parameters. We perform numerical calculations and find that nontopological vortex solutions exist as well as Q-ball type solutions, but topological vortex solutions are not admitted.
Dynamic visualization of nanoscale vortex orbits.
Timmermans, Matias; Samuely, Tomas; Raes, Bart; Van de Vondel, Joris; Moshchalkov, Victor V
2014-03-25
Due to the atomic-scale resolution, scanning tunneling microscopy is an ideal technique to observe the smallest objects. Nevertheless, it suffers from very long capturing times in order to investigate dynamic processes at the nanoscale. We address this issue, for vortex matter in NbSe2, by driving the vortices using an ac magnetic field and probing the induced periodic tunnel current modulations. Our results reveal different dynamical modes of the driven vortex lattices. In addition, by recording and synchronizing the time evolution of the tunneling current at each pixel, we visualize the overall dynamics of the vortex lattice with submillisecond time resolution and subnanometer spatial resolution. PMID:24460428
Vortex induced strain effects in anisotropic superconductors
Miranovic, P.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.; Kogan, V.G.
1996-12-31
Strain in a superconductor, produced by the normal vortex core, can affect both static and dynamic properties of vortices. It causes an additional vortex-vortex interaction which is long-ranged ({approximately} 1/r{sup 2}) as compared with finite but much stronger London interaction in the fields far below H{sub c2}. The energy of this magneto-elastic interaction is calculated within London model. The role of strain effects in forming vortex lattice structure is demonstrated for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flis, V. S.; Kalenyuk, A. A.; Kasatkin, A. L.; Moskalyuk, V. O.; Rebikov, A. I.; Svechnikov, V. L.; Tret'yachenko, K. G.; Pan, V. M.
2010-01-01
This paper presents the results of a comprehensive study of the relationship of the structural and electrodynamic characteristics of quasi-single-crystal films of the HTSC cuprate YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) with various concentrations (several mass percent) of nanosize inclusions of the perovskitelike phase of BaZrO3 (BZO). High-resolution electron microscopy is used to investigate the nanostructure of the fabricated films and to determine the main types of defects that cause strong pinning of Abrikosov vortices and, accordingly, large critical current densities. The results of theoretically modelling the genesis of the defect nanostructure that appears in such films and its influence on the critical current are presented. The magnetic and transport properties of HTSC films made from YBCO(BZO) have been experimentally studied. The temperature, magnetic-field, and magnetic-orientation dependences of the critical current density of the test films are found. The results of an experimental investigation of the high-frequency properties of YBZO(BZO) films—the surface microwave impedance of the films in the linear and nonlinear regimes—are also given. The experimental results are discussed, and the influence of the nanostructure of the impurity phase on the electrodynamic characteristics of the HTSC films is analyzed.
Programmable lattices of optical vortices in nematic liquid crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barboza, R.; Assanto, G.; Bortolozzo, U.; Clerc, M. G.; Residori, S.; Vidal-Henriquez, E.
2015-09-01
Using self-induced vortex-like defects in the nematic liquid crystal layer of a light valve with photo-sensible wall, we demonstrate the realization of programable optical vortices lattices with arbitrary configuration in space. On each lattice site, every matter vortex acts as a photonic spin-to-orbital momentum coupler and an array of circularly polarized input beams is converted into an output array of vortex beams with topological charges consistent with the vortex matter lattice. The vortex arrangements are explained the basis of light-induced matter defects and topological rules.
Vortex methods and vortex statistics
Chorin, A.J.
1993-05-01
Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well as in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (``blobs``) and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ``blob`` methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena.
Electromagnetic Radiation from Vortex Flow in Type-II Superconductors
Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.
2006-11-10
We show that a moving vortex lattice, as it comes to a crystal edge, radiates into a free space the harmonics of the washboard frequency, {omega}{sub 0}=2{pi}v/a, up to a superconducting gap, {delta}/({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). Here v is the velocity of the vortex lattice and a is the intervortex spacing. We compute radiation power and show that this effect can be used for the generation of terahertz radiation and for characterization of moving vortex lattices.
Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings
Cheng, M. Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.
2015-03-15
A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem,” Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior.
Nonlinear electrodynamics of vortex matter in hard superconductors (Review)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voloshin, I. F.; Fisher, L. M.; Yampol'Skiĭ, V. A.
2010-01-01
Nontrivial electrodynamic properties of vortex matter, which are due to a specific nonlinearity of the material equations, in hard superconductors are discussed: collapse of the transport current and the static magnetization of superconductors by an external orthogonal ac magnetic field; appearance of jumps in the time dependence of the electric field at the boundary of a sample as a result of nonlinear interaction of waves having different frequencies; specific staged penetration of an electromagnetic field into anisotropic superconductors. Nonlocal effects resulting in a large modification of nonlinear phenomena are also examined. Special attention is given to a discussion of the unique phenomenon of macroturbulent instability, associated with the flow of Abrikosov vortices, in hard superconductors. Most results presented are based on original experimental and theoretical investigations performed with the participation of the present authors.
Atmospheric Science Data Center
2013-06-26
... within the cloud layer downwind of the obstacle. These turbulence patterns are known as von Karman vortex streets. In these images ... was the first to derive the conditions under which these turbulence patterns occur. von Karman was a professor of aeronautics at the ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mills, Shaun A.; Wisser, Jacob J.; Shen, Chenyi; Xu, Zhuan; Liu, Ying
2016-06-01
Nanowires of two-dimensional (2D) crystals of type-II superconductor NbSe2 prepared by electron-beam lithography were studied, focusing on the effect of the motion of Abrikosov vortices. We present magnetoresistance measurements on these nanowires and show features related to vortex crossing, trapping, and pinning. The vortex crossing rate was found to vary nonmonotonically with the applied field, which results in nonmonotonic magnetoresistance variations in agreement with theoretical calculations in the London approximation. Above the lower critical field Hc 1 the crossing rate is also influenced by vortices trapped by sample boundaries or pinning centers, leading to sample-specific magnetoresistance patterns. We show that the local pinning potential can be modified by intentionally introducing surface adsorbates, making the magnetoresistance pattern a "magnetofingerprint" of the sample-specific configuration of vortex pinning centers in a 2D crystal superconducting nanowire.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mills, Shaun A.; Shen, Chenyi; Xu, Zhuan; Liu, Ying
2015-10-01
Numerical calculations on a mesoscopic ring of a type-II superconductor in the London limit suggest that an Abrikosov vortex can be trapped in such a structure above a critical magnetic field and generate a phase shift in the magnetoresistance oscillations. We prepared submicron-sized superconducting loops of single-crystal, type-II superconductor NbSeSUB>2 and measured magnetoresistance oscillations resulting from vortices crossing the loops. The free-energy barrier for vortex crossing determines the crossing rate and is periodically modulated by the external magnetic flux threading the loop. We demonstrated experimentally that the crossing of vortices can be directed at a pair of constrictions in the loop, leading to more pronounced magnetoresistance oscillations than those in a uniform ring. The vortex trapping in both a simple ring and a ring featuring two constrictions was found to result in a phase shift in the magnetoresistance oscillations as predicted in the numerical calculations. The controlled crossing and trapping of vortices demonstrated in our NbSeSUB>2 devices provide a starting point for the manipulation of individual Abrikosov vortices, which is useful for future technologies.
Optimum lattice arrangement developed from a rigorous analytical basis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deyoung, J.
1976-01-01
The spanwise vortex-lattice arrangement is mathematically established by lattice solutions of the slender wing which are shown to be analogous to the chordwise vortex-lattice thin wing solution. Solutions for any number N of panels wing theory lift and induced drag and thin wing theory lift and moment are predicted exactly. As N approaches infinity, the slender wing elliptic spanwise loading and thin wing cotangent chordwise loading are predicted, which proves there is mathematical convergence of the vortex-lattice method to the exact answer. Based on this planform spanwise lattice arrangement, an A-vortex-lattice spanwise system is developed for an arbitrary aspect ratio A. This A-lattice has the optimum characteristic of predicting lift accurately for any value of N.
Revisiting the vortex-core tunnelling spectroscopy in YBa2Cu3O7-δ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruér, Jens; Maggio-Aprile, Ivan; Jenkins, Nathan; Ristić, Zoran; Erb, Andreas; Berthod, Christophe; Fischer, Øystein; Renner, Christoph
2016-03-01
The observation by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Abrikosov vortex cores in the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123) has revealed a robust pair of electron-hole symmetric states at finite subgap energy. Their interpretation remains an open question because theory predicts a different signature in the vortex cores, characterized by a strong zero-bias conductance peak. Here, we present scanning tunnelling spectroscopy data on very homogeneous Y123 at 0.4 K revealing that the subgap features do not belong to vortices: they are actually observed everywhere along the surface with high spatial and energy reproducibility, even in the absence of magnetic field. Detailed analysis and modelling show that these states remain unpaired in the superconducting phase and belong to an incoherent channel, which contributes to the tunnelling signal in parallel with the superconducting density of states.
Hexatic vortex glass in disordered superconductors
Chudnovsky, E.M. )
1989-12-01
It is shown that interaction of the flux-line lattice with randomly arranged pinning centers should destroy the long-range positional order in the lattice, but not the long-range orientational order. A new phase: hexatic vortex glass, is suggested for the mixed state of disordered, type-II superconductors. Relevance to amorphous and high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors is discussed.
Confining bond rearrangement in the random center vortex model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altarawneh, Derar; Höllwieser, Roman; Engelhardt, Michael
2016-03-01
We present static meson-meson and baryon-antibaryon potentials in Z (2 ) and Z (3 ) random center vortex models for the infrared sector of Yang-Mills theory, i.e., hypercubic lattice models of random vortex world surfaces. In particular, we calculate multiple Polyakov loop correlators corresponding to static meson-meson or baryon-antibaryon configurations in a center vortex background and observe that their expectation values follow the minimal area law, displaying bond rearrangement behavior, a characteristic expected for the confining dynamics of the strong interaction. The static meson-meson and baryon-antibaryon potentials are compared with theoretical predictions and lattice QCD simulations.
Fractionalized gapless quantum vortex liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chong; Senthil, T.
2015-05-01
The standard theoretical approach to gapless spin liquid phases of two-dimensional frustrated quantum antiferromagnets invokes the concept of fermionic slave particles into which the spin fractionalizes. As an alternate we explore different kinds of gapless spin liquid phases in frustrated quantum magnets with X Y anisotropy where the vortex of the spin fractionalizes into gapless itinerant fermions. The resulting gapless fractionalized vortex liquid phases are studied within a slave particle framework that is dual to the usual one. We demonstrate the stability of some such phases and describe their properties. We give an explicit construction in an X Y -spin-1 system on triangular lattice, and interpret it as a critical phase in the vicinity of spin-nematic states.
Revisiting the vortex-core tunnelling spectroscopy in YBa2Cu3O7−δ
Bruér, Jens; Maggio-Aprile, Ivan; Jenkins, Nathan; Ristić, Zoran; Erb, Andreas; Berthod, Christophe; Fischer, Øystein; Renner, Christoph
2016-01-01
The observation by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Abrikosov vortex cores in the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7−δ (Y123) has revealed a robust pair of electron-hole symmetric states at finite subgap energy. Their interpretation remains an open question because theory predicts a different signature in the vortex cores, characterized by a strong zero-bias conductance peak. Here, we present scanning tunnelling spectroscopy data on very homogeneous Y123 at 0.4 K revealing that the subgap features do not belong to vortices: they are actually observed everywhere along the surface with high spatial and energy reproducibility, even in the absence of magnetic field. Detailed analysis and modelling show that these states remain unpaired in the superconducting phase and belong to an incoherent channel, which contributes to the tunnelling signal in parallel with the superconducting density of states. PMID:27030516
Vortex Flow Aerodynamics, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, J. F. (Editor); Osborn, R. F. (Editor); Foughner, J. T., Jr. (Editor)
1986-01-01
Vortex modeling techniques and experimental studies of research configurations utilizing vortex flows are discussed. Also discussed are vortex flap investigations using generic and airplane research models and vortex flap theoretical analysis and design studies.
Vortex Flow Aerodynamics, volume 1
Campbell, J.F.; Osborn, R.F.; Foughner, J.T. Jr.
1986-07-01
Vortex modeling techniques and experimental studies of research configurations utilizing vortex flows are discussed. Also discussed are vortex flap investigations using generic and airplane research models and vortex flap theoretical analysis and design studies.
Sayko, G.V.; Bugaev, A.S.; Popkov, A.F.
1994-12-31
The authors consider vortex lattice interaction with transverse surface magnetoacoustic wave in high-{Tc} superconductor-ferrite structure. It has been found that the magnetoacoustic waves excited in the ferrite can be efficiently coupled with vortex structure in superconducting film. The nonlinear effect of vortex drift as well as the possibility of the wave amplification are discussed.
Critical Capacitance and Charge-Vortex Duality Near the Superfluid-to-Insulator Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gazit, Snir; Podolsky, Daniel; Auerbach, Assa
2014-12-01
Using a generalized reciprocity relation between charge and vortex conductivities at complex frequencies in two space dimensions, we identify the capacitance in the insulating phase as a measure of vortex condensate stiffness. We compute the ratio of boson superfluid stiffness to vortex condensate stiffness at mirror points to be 0.21(1) for the relativistic O(2) model. The product of dynamical conductivities at mirror points is used as a quantitative measure of deviations from self-duality between charge and vortex theories. We propose the finite wave vector compressibility as an experimental measure of the vortex condensate stiffness for neutral lattice bosons.
Reconfigurable large-area magnetic vortex circulation patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Streubel, Robert; Kronast, Florian; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys
2015-09-01
Magnetic vortices in nanodots own a switchable circulation sense. These nontrivial magnetization configurations can be arranged into extended and interacting patterns. We have experimentally created large arrays of magnetically reconfigurable vortex patterns in nonplanar honeycomb lattices using particle lithography. Optimizing height asymmetry of the vertices and applying an in-plane magnetic field provide means to switch between homocircular and staggered vortex patterns with a potentially high impact on magnonics and spintronics relying on chiral noncollinear spin textures. To this end, exchange coupling of extended vortex lattices with an out-of-plane magnetized layer allows one to realize artificial skyrmionic core textures with controllable circulation and topological properties in extended exchange coupled honeycomb lattices that may pave the way towards magnetic memory and logic devices based on artificial skyrmions.
Quantum vortex dynamics in two-dimensional neutral superfluids
Wang, C.-C. Joseph; Duine, R. A.; MacDonald, A. H.
2010-01-15
We derive an effective action for the vortex-position degree of freedom in a superfluid by integrating out condensate phase- and density-fluctuation environmental modes. When the quantum dynamics of environmental fluctuations is neglected, we confirm the occurrence of the vortex Magnus force and obtain an expression for the vortex mass. We find that this adiabatic approximation is valid only when the superfluid droplet radius R, or the typical distance between vortices, is very much larger than the coherence length xi. We go beyond the adiabatic approximation numerically, accounting for the quantum dynamics of environmental modes and capturing their dissipative coupling to condensate dynamics. For the case of an optical-lattice superfluid, we demonstrate that vortex motion damping can be adjusted by tuning the ratio between the tunneling energy J and the on-site interaction energy U. We comment on the possibility of realizing vortex-Landau-level physics.
Monte Carlo simulation of two-dimensional flux-line-lattice melting
Kato, Y.; Nagaosa, N. )
1993-09-01
A Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional flux-line-lattice (FLL) melting transition is presented. The internal energy, specific heat, Abrikosov ratio, and diffraction pattern of the magnitude [vert bar][psi]([ital x])[vert bar][sup 2] of the order-parameter field are calculated. By examining in detail the hysteresis, histogram, and relaxation profiles of the internal energy, the existence of a first-order phase transition is concluded. Below the transition temperature [ital t][sub [ital m
Superconducting vortex pinning with artificial magnetic nanostructures.
Velez, M.; Martin, J. I.; Villegas, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Vicent, J. L.; Schuller, I. K.; Univ. de Oviedo-CINN; Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS Univ. Paris-Sud; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Univ. California at San Diego
2008-11-01
This review is dedicated to summarizing the recent research on vortex dynamics and pinning effects in superconducting films with artificial magnetic structures. The fabrication of hybrid superconducting/magnetic systems is presented together with the wide variety of properties that arise from the interaction between the superconducting vortex lattice and the artificial magnetic nanostructures. Specifically, we review the role that the most important parameters in the vortex dynamics of films with regular array of dots play. In particular, we discuss the phenomena that appear when the symmetry of a regular dot array is distorted from regularity towards complete disorder including rectangular, asymmetric, and aperiodic arrays. The interesting phenomena that appear include vortex-lattice reconfigurations, anisotropic dynamics, channeling, and guided motion as well as ratchet effects. The different regimes are summarized in a phase diagram indicating the transitions that take place as the characteristic distances of the array are modified respect to the superconducting coherence length. Future directions are sketched out indicating the vast open area of research in this field.
Three-dimensional vortex structures in a rotating dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kishor Kumar, Ramavarmaraja; Sriraman, Thangarasu; Fabrelli, Henrique; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Gammal, Arnaldo
2016-08-01
We study three-dimensional vortex lattice structures in purely dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). By using the mean-field approximation, we obtain a stability diagram for the vortex states in purely dipolar BECs as a function of harmonic trap aspect ratio (λ) and dipole–dipole interaction strength (D) under rotation. Rotating the condensate within the unstable region leads to collapse while in the stable region furnishes stable vortex lattices of dipolar BECs. We analyse stable vortex lattice structures by solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Gross–Pitaevskii equation in imaginary time. Further, the stability of vortex states is examined by evolution in real-time. We also investigate the distribution of vortices in a fully anisotropic trap by increasing eccentricity of the external trapping potential. We observe the breaking up of the condensate in two parts with an equal number of vortices on each when the trap is sufficiently weak, and the rotation frequency is high.
Wave modes of collective vortex gyration in dipolar-coupled-dot-array magnonic crystals
Han, Dong-Soo; Vogel, Andreas; Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Ki-Suk; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog
2013-01-01
Lattice vibration modes are collective excitations in periodic arrays of atoms or molecules. These modes determine novel transport properties in solid crystals. Analogously, in periodical arrangements of magnetic vortex-state disks, collective vortex motions have been predicted. Here, we experimentally observe wave modes of collective vortex gyration in one-dimensional (1D) periodic arrays of magnetic disks using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The observed modes are interpreted based on micromagnetic simulation and numerical calculation of coupled Thiele equations. Dispersion of the modes is found to be strongly affected by both vortex polarization and chirality ordering, as revealed by the explicit analytical form of 1D infinite arrays. A thorough understanding thereof is fundamental both for lattice vibrations and vortex dynamics, which we demonstrate for 1D magnonic crystals. Such magnetic disk arrays with vortex-state ordering, referred to as magnetic metastructure, offer potential implementation into information processing devices. PMID:23877284
Wave modes of collective vortex gyration in dipolar-coupled-dot-array magnonic crystals.
Han, Dong-Soo; Vogel, Andreas; Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Ki-Suk; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog
2013-01-01
Lattice vibration modes are collective excitations in periodic arrays of atoms or molecules. These modes determine novel transport properties in solid crystals. Analogously, in periodical arrangements of magnetic vortex-state disks, collective vortex motions have been predicted. Here, we experimentally observe wave modes of collective vortex gyration in one-dimensional (1D) periodic arrays of magnetic disks using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The observed modes are interpreted based on micromagnetic simulation and numerical calculation of coupled Thiele equations. Dispersion of the modes is found to be strongly affected by both vortex polarization and chirality ordering, as revealed by the explicit analytical form of 1D infinite arrays. A thorough understanding thereof is fundamental both for lattice vibrations and vortex dynamics, which we demonstrate for 1D magnonic crystals. Such magnetic disk arrays with vortex-state ordering, referred to as magnetic metastructure, offer potential implementation into information processing devices. PMID:23877284
Propeller tip vortex interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.
1990-01-01
Propeller wakes interacting with aircraft aerodynamic surfaces are a source of noise and vibration. For this reason, flow visualization work on the motion of the helical tip vortex over a wing and through the second stage of a counterrotation propeller (CRP) has been pursued. Initially, work was done on the motion of a propeller helix as it passes over the center of a 9.0 aspect ratio wing. The propeller tip vortex experiences significant spanwise displacements when passing across a lifting wing. A stationary propeller blade or stator was installed behind the rotating propeller to model the blade vortex interaction in a CRP. The resulting vortex interaction was found to depend on the relative vortex strengths and vortex sign.
Kim, P.; Yao, Z.; Lieber, C.M.
1996-12-01
The microscopic structure of the magnetic flux-line lattice (FLL) in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} superconductors was studied at temperatures up to 77K by decoration. Comparison of FLLs obtained at 55 and 4.2K shows that twisted bond defects are a manifestation of thermal fluctuations at elevated temperature. Analyses of the orientational and translational correlation functions for field and zero-field cooled lattices obtained at 55K suggest that the observed FLL is an equilibrium hexatic. These data were also used to estimate the FLL freezing temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Vortex dynamics and Hall conductivity of hard-core bosons
Lindner, Netanel; Auerbach, Assa; Arovas, Daniel P.
2010-10-01
Magnetotransport of hard-core bosons is studied using an XXZ quantum spin model representation, appropriately gauged on the torus to allow for an external magnetic field. We find strong lattice effects near half filling. An effective quantum mechanical description of the vortex degrees of freedom is derived. Using semiclassical and numerical analysis we compute the vortex-hopping energy t{sub V}, which at half filling is close to magnitude of the boson hopping energy. The critical quantum melting density of the vortex lattice is estimated at 6.5x10{sup -3} vortices per unit cell. The Hall conductance is computed from the Chern numbers of the low-energy eigenstates. At zero temperature, it reverses sign abruptly at half filling. At precisely half filling, all eigenstates are doubly degenerate for any odd number of flux quanta. We prove the exact degeneracies on the torus by constructing an SU(2) algebra of point-group symmetries, associated with the center of vorticity. This result is interpreted as if each vortex carries an internal spin-half degree of freedom, which can manifest itself as a charge density modulation in its core. Our findings suggest interesting experimental implications for vortex motion of cold atoms in optical lattices and magnet transport of short coherence length superconductors.
Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.
Electrostatically Enhanced Vortex Separator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Earl R.
1993-01-01
Proposed device removes fine particles from high-pressure exhaust gas of chemical reactor. Negatively charged sectors on rotating disks in vortex generator attracts positively charged particles from main stream of exhaust gas. Electrostatic charge enhances particle-separating action of vortex. Gas without particles released to atmosphere.
Improved vortex reactor system
Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.
1995-01-01
An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.
Houck, Edward D.
1994-01-01
A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.
Vortex distribution in the lowest Landau level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aftalion, Amandine; Blanc, Xavier; Nier, Francis
2006-01-01
We study the vortex distribution of the wave functions minimizing the Gross-Pitaevskii energy for a fast rotating condensate in the lowest Landau level (LLL): we prove that the minimizer cannot have a finite number of zeroes, thus the lattice is infinite, but not uniform. This uses the explicit expression of the projector onto the LLL. We also show that any slow varying envelope function can be approximated in the LLL by distorting the lattice. This is used in particular to approximate the inverted parabola and understand the role of “invisible” vortices: the distortion of the lattice is very small in the Thomas-Fermi region but quite large outside, where the “invisible” vortices lie.
Vortex cutting in superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.
2016-08-01
Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.
Pinning-modulated non-collective Josephson-vortex motion in stacked Josephson junctions.
Jin, Y.-D.; Lee, G.-H.; Lee, H.-J.; Bae, M.-H.; Koshelev, A. E.; Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology; Univ. of Illinois
2009-01-01
Josephson vortices in naturally stacked Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} tunneling junctions display rich dynamic behavior that derives from the coexistence of three basic states: static Josephson vortex lattice, coherently moving lattice, and incoherent quasiparticle tunneling state. The rich structure of hysteretic branches observed in the current-voltage characteristics can be understood as combinatorial combinations of these three states which are realized in different junctions and evolve separately with magnetic field and bias current. In particular, the multiple Josephson vortex flow branches at low-bias currents arise from the individual depinning of Josephson vortex rows in each junction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.
2000-01-01
A review of the research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data reviewed is for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft. These data are presented and discussed relative to the design of future vehicles. Also presented is a brief historical review of the extensive body of high-speed vortex flow research from the 1940s to the present in order to provide perspective of the NASA LaRC's high-speed research results. Data are presented which show the types of vortex structures which occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures to vehicle performance and control is discussed. The data presented shows the presence of both small- and large scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices and the downstream fins. It was shown that these vortex flow interference effects could be both positive and negative. Data are shown which highlights the effect that leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber has on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. The observed flow fields for delta wings (i.e. separation bubble, classical vortex, vortex with shock, etc.) are discussed in the context of' aircraft design. And data have been shown that indicate that aerodynamic performance improvements are available by considering vortex flows as a primary design feature. Finally a discussing of a design approach for wings which utilize vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speed is presented.
Method and apparatus for enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays
Janko, Boldizsar; Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan
2015-07-14
Disclosed is a method and apparatus for strongly enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays. The conformal crystal array is constructed by a conformal transformation of a hexagonal lattice, producing a non-uniform structure with a gradient where the local six-fold coordination of the pinning sites is preserved, and with an arching effect. The conformal pinning arrays produce significantly enhanced vortex pinning over a much wider range of field than that found for other vortex pinning geometries with an equivalent number of vortex pinning sites, such as random, square, and triangular.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward
1985-01-01
A computer program based on the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice Method of Lan is presented for calculating longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of nonplanar wing-body combination. The method is based on the assumption of inviscid subsonic flow. Both attached and vortex-separated flows are treated. For the vortex-separated flow, the calculation is based on the method of suction analogy. The effect of vortex breakdown is accounted for by an empirical method. A summary of the theoretical method, program capabilities, input format, output variables and program job control set-up are described. Three test cases are presented as guides for potential users of the code.
Center vortex model for Sp(2) Yang-Mills theory
Engelhardt, M.; Sperisen, B.
2006-12-15
The question whether the center vortex picture of the strongly interacting vacuum can encompass the infrared dynamics of both SU(2) as well as Sp(2) Yang-Mills theory is addressed. These two theories contain the same center vortex degrees of freedom, and yet exhibit deconfinement phase transitions of different order. This is argued to be caused by the effective action governing the vortices being different in the two cases. To buttress this argument, a random vortex world-surface model is constructed which reproduces available lattice data characterizing Sp(2) Yang-Mills confinement properties. A new effective action term which can be interpreted in terms of a vortex stickiness serves to realize a first-order deconfinement phase transition, as found in Sp(2) Yang-Mills theory. Predictions are given for the behavior of the spatial string tension at finite temperatures.
Vortex Phase Diagram as a Function of Oxygen Deficiency in Untwinned YBa_2Cu_3O_y
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishizaki, Terukazu
2000-03-01
This talk will present recent results of the vortex phase diagram of untwinned YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) single crystals with a different oxygen content under high magnetic fields up to 30T. We show that the first-order vortex lattice melting line T_m(H) and the second-order vortex glass transition line T_g(H) terminate at the critical point H_cp and the field-driven disordering transition line separates the vortex solid phase into the Bragg glass and the vortex glass phases(T. Nishizaki et al., Phys. Rev. B 58, 11169 (1998).). The value of H_cp strongly depends on the oxygen content and the vortex lattice melting transition is observed up to 30 T for fully oxidized YBCO (y~=7, T_c~=87.5 K). For optimally doped YBCO (T_c~= 93 K), on the other hand, T_g(H) decreases with increasing temperature and approaches to the vortex lattice melting line well below the critical point of T_m(H), indicating the existence of the new vortex state such as a vortex slush regime between T_g(H) and T_m(H). Thermodynamic properties are also examined above and below the terminal point of T_g(H). We find that the entropy change at the first-order melting transition becomes considerably small above the terminal field of T_g(H). The novel vortex phase diagram is discussed.
Phase transitions and connectivity in three-dimensional vortex equilibria
Akao, J.H.
1994-05-01
The statistical mechanics of collections of closed self avoiding vortex loops on a lattice are studied. The system is related to the vortex form of the three dimensional XY model and to lattice vortex equilibrium models of turbulence. The system exhibits vortex connectivity and screening effects, and models in vorticity variables the superfluid transition. The equilibrium states of the system are simulated by a grand canonical Monte Carlo method. A set of geometric transformations for self-avoiding loops is developed. The numerical method employs histogram sampling techniques and utilizes a modification to the Metropolis flow which enhances efficiency. Results are given for a region in the temperature-chemical potential plane, where the chemical potential is related to the vortex fugacity. A line of second order transitions is identified at low temperature. The transition is shown to be a percolation threshold at which connected vortex loops of infinite size appear in the system. The nature of the transition supports the assumption that the lambda transition in bulk superfluid helium is driven by vortices. An asymptotic analysis is performed for the energy and entropy scaling of the system as functions of the system size and the lattice spacing. These estimates indicate that the infinite temperature line is a phase boundary between small scale fractal vortices and large scale smooth vortices. A suggestion is made that quantum vortices have uniform structure on the scale of the lattice spacing and lie in the positive temperature regime, while classical vortices have uniform structure on the scale of the domain and lie in the negative temperature regime.
Composite vortex beams by coaxial superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Sujuan; Miao, Zhuang; He, Chao; Pang, Fufei; Li, Yingchun; Wang, Tingyun
2016-03-01
We propose the generation of novel composite vortex beams by coaxial superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with common waist position and waist parameter. Computer-generated holography by conjugate-symmetric extension is applied to produce the holograms of several composite vortex beams. Utilizing the holograms, fantastic light modes including optical ring lattice, double dark-ring and double bright-ring composite vortex beams etc. are numerically reconstructed. The generated composite vortex beams show diffraction broadening with some of them showing dynamic rotation around beam centers while propagating. Optical experiments based on a computer-controlled spatial light modulator (SLM) verify the numerical results. These novel composite vortex beams possess more complicated distribution and more controllable parameters for their potential application in comparison to conventional optical ring lattice.
Motion of a vortex ring in a simple shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.
2009-08-01
The motion and deformation of a vortex ring in a linear or simple shear flow have been simulated numerically by using the lattice Boltzmann method with multiple relaxation times. The study is motivated by a recent experiment [T. T. Lim, K. B. Lua, and K. Thet, Phys. Fluids 20, 051701 (2008)], which shows that a vortex ring propagating in a uniform cross flow does not experience Kutta lift and undergo tilting and deformation. The focus of the present study is to examine the effect of a simple shear in a cross flow on the motion of a vortex ring. Numerical approach is adopted here because a truly simple shear flow is difficult to generate experimentally. Our computation shows that a vortex ring tilts and deforms in a simple shear flow, and the tilting can be attributed to the modification of the vorticity distribution of the vortex ring as a result of the entrainment of background vorticity by the vortex core. It is further shown that although the shear in the flow has the tendency to elongate the vortex ring, the tilting angle of the ring increases with the shear ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowdy, Darren; Marshall, Jonathan
2004-08-01
This paper demonstrates that two well-known equilibrium solutions of the Euler equations—the corotating point vortex pair and the Rankine vortex—are connected by a continuous branch of exact solutions. The central idea is to "grow" new vortex patches at two stagnation points that exist in the frame of reference of the corotating point vortex pair. This is done by generalizing a mathematical technique for constructing vortex equilibria first presented by Crowdy [D. G. Crowdy, "A class of exact multipolar vortices," Phys. Fluids 11, 2556 (1999)]. The solutions exhibit several interesting features, including the merging of two separate vortex patches via the development of touching cusps. Numerical contour dynamics methods are used to verify the mathematical solutions and reveal them to be robust structures. The general issue of how simple vortex equilibria can be continued continuously to more complicated ones with very different vortical topologies is discussed. The solutions are examples of exact solutions of the Euler equations involving multiple interacting vortex patches.
Hairpin Vortex Regeneration Threshold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabatino, Daniel; Maharjan, Rijan
2015-11-01
A free surface water channel is used to study hairpin vortex formation created by fluid injection through a narrow slot into a laminar boundary layer. Particle image velocimetry is used to calculate the circulation of the primary hairpin vortex head which is found to monotonically decrease in strength with downstream distance. When a secondary hairpin vortex is formed upstream of the primary vortex, the circulation strength of the head is comparable to the strength of the primary head at the time of regeneration. However, the legs of the primary vortex strengthen up to the moment the secondary hairpin is generated. Although the peak circulation in the legs is not directly correlated to the strength of the original elongated ring vortex, when the circulation is scaled with the injection momentum ratio it is linearly related to scaled injection time. It is proposed that the injection momentum ratio and nondimensionalized injection time based on the wall normal penetration time can be used to identify threshold conditions which produce a secondary vortex. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET- 1040236.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, Y.; Leonard, A.; Spalart, P. R.
1985-01-01
A vortex breakdown was simulated by the vortex filament method, and detailed figures are presented based on the results. Deformations of the vortex filaments showed clear and large swelling at a particular axial station which implied the presence of a recirculation bubble at that station. The tendency for two breakdowns to occur experimentally was confirmed by the simulation, and the jet flow inside the bubble was well simulated. The particle paths spiralled with expansion, and the streamlines took spiral forms at the breakdown with expansion.
Skyrmion Flux Lattices and their μSR signature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qi; Toner, John; Belitz, Dietrich
2008-03-01
Recently, topological excitations known as skyrmions were predicted to exist in p-wave superconductors [1]. The elastic theory of an induced skyrmion lattice was developed in [2], and its melting curve was found to be qualitatively different from that for vortex lattices. Here we show that the muon spin resonance (μSR) signatures of the two types of lattices are also very different. μSR has been applied extensively to study the magnetic properties of vortex flux lattices [3]. The observable in this technique is the μSR line shape n(B), which is the probability density that a muon experiences a local magnetic induction B. In a vortex lattice, for small B, n(B) (1/B)/B. By contrast, for a skyrmion lattice we predict n(B) B^ (-3/2). This difference provides another way to easily distinguish between vortex and skyrmion flux lattices, and can thus help to identify p-wave superconductors. [1] A. Knigavko, B. Rosenstein, and Y.F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 60, 550 (1999). [2] Qi Li, John Toner, and D. Belitz, Phys.Rev. Lett. 98, 187002 (2007). [3] J. E. Sonier, J.H. Brewer, and R. F. Kiefl, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 769 (2000).
Universal statistics of vortex lines.
Nahum, Adam; Chalker, J T
2012-03-01
We study the vortex lines that are a feature of many random or disordered three-dimensional systems. These show universal statistical properties on long length scales, and geometrical phase transitions analogous to percolation transitions but in distinct universality classes. The field theories for these problems have not previously been identified, so that while many numerical studies have been performed, a framework for interpreting the results has been lacking. We provide such a framework with mappings to simple supersymmetric models. Our main focus is on vortices in short-range-correlated complex fields, which show a geometrical phase transition that we argue is described by the CP(k|k) model (essentially the CP(n-1) model in the replica limit n→1). This can be seen by mapping a lattice version of the problem to a lattice gauge theory. A related field theory with a noncompact gauge field, the 'NCCP(k|k) model', is a supersymmetric extension of the standard dual theory for the XY transition, and we show that XY duality gives another way to understand the appearance of field theories of this type. The supersymmetric descriptions yield results relevant, for example, to vortices in the XY model and in superfluids, to optical vortices, and to certain models of cosmic strings. A distinct but related field theory, the RP(2l|2l) model (or the RP(n-1) model in the limit n→1) describes the unoriented vortices that occur, for instance, in nematic liquid crystals. Finally, we show that in two dimensions, a lattice gauge theory analogous to that discussed in three dimensions gives a simple way to see the known relation between two-dimensional percolation and the CP(k|k) σ model with a θ term. PMID:22587072
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conlisk, A. T.
1998-11-01
The interaction of vortices with solid surfaces occurs in many different situations including, but not limited to tornadoes, propeller wakes, flows over swept wings and missile forebodies, turbomachinery flows, blade-vortex interactions and tip vortex-surface interactions on helicopters. Often, parts of a system must operate within such flows and thus encounter these vortices. In the present paper we discuss the nature of a particular subset of interactions called ``collisions''. A ``collision'' is characterized by the fact that the core of the vortex is permanently altered; usually the core is locally destroyed. The focus is on fully three-dimensional collisions although two-dimensional collisions are discussed as well. Examples of collisions in helicopter aerodynamics and turbomachinery flows are discussed and the dynamics of the vortex core during a collision process are illustrated for a 90^o collision. ^Supported by the US Army Research Office
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stough, H. P., III; Greene, George C.; Stewart, Eric C.; Stuever, Robert A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Rivers, Robert A.; Vicroy, Dan D.
1993-01-01
NASA is conducting research that will enable safe improvements in the capacity of the nation's air transportation system. The wake-vortex hazard is a factor in establishing the minimum safe spacing between aircraft during landing and takeoff operations and, thus, impacts airport capacity. The ability to accurately model the wake hazard and determine safe separation distances for a wide range of aircraft and operational scenarios may provide the basis for significant increases in airport capacity. Current and planned NASA research is described which is focused on increasing airport capacity by safely reducing wake-hazard-imposed aircraft separations through advances in a number of technologies including vortex motion and decay prediction, vortex encounter modeling, wake-vortex hazard characterization, and in situ flow sensing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, A. M., Jr.
1986-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to quantify the hysteresis associated with various vortex flow transition points and to determine the effect of planform geometry. The transition points observed consisted of the appearance (or disappearance) of trailing edge vortex burst and the transition to (or from) flat plate or totally separated flows. Flow visualization with smoke injected into the vortices was used to identify the transitions on a series of semi-span models tested in a low speed tunnel. The planforms tested included simple deltas (55 deg to 80 deg sweep), cranked wings with varying tip panel sweep and dihedral, and a straked wing. High speed movies at 1000 frames per second were made of the vortex flow visualization in order to better understand the dynamics of vortex flow, burst and transition.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, D. M.
1983-01-01
Segmented vortex flaps were suggested as a means of delaying the vortex spill-over causing thrust loss over the outboard region of single-panel flaps. Also proposed was hinge-line setback for exploiting leading-edge suction in conjunction with vortex flaps to improve the overall thrust per unit flap area. These two concepts in combination were tested on a 60-deg cropped delta wing model. Significant improvement in flap efficiency was indicated by a reduction of the flap/wing area from 11.4% of single-panel flap to 6.3% of a two segment delta flap design, with no lift/drag penalty at lift coefficients between 0.5 and 0.7. The more efficient vortex flap arrangement of this study should benefit the performance attainable with flaps of given area on wings of moderate leading-edge sweep.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrkac, Gino; Keatley, Paul S.; Bryan, Matthew T.; Butler, Keith
2015-11-01
The magnetic vortex has sparked the interest of the academic and industrial communities over the last few decades. From their discovery in the 1970s for bubble memory devices to their modern application as radio frequency oscillators, magnetic vortices have been adopted to modern telecommunication and sensor applications. Basic properties of vortex structures in the static and dynamic regime, from a theoretical and experimental point of view, are presented as well as their application in spin torque driven nano-pillar and magnetic tunnel junction devices. Single vortex excitations and phase locking phenomena of coupled oscillators are discussed with an outlook of vortex oscillators in magnetic hybrid structures with imprinted domain confinement and dynamic encryption devices.
Improved vortex reactor system
Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.
1995-05-09
An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Betz, A
1933-01-01
Progressive application of the Kutta-Joukowsky theorem to the relationship between airfoil lift and circulation affords a number of formulas concerning the conduct of vortex systems. The application of this line of reasoning to several problems of airfoil theory yields an insight into many hitherto little observed relations. This report is confined to plane flow, hence all vortex filaments are straight and mutually parallel (perpendicular to the plane of flow).
Houck, E.D.
1994-05-17
A fluid transfer system is described that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other. 10 figures.
Buoyant Norbury's vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blyth, Mark; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Salman, Hayder
2014-11-01
Norbury's vortices are a one-parameter family of axisymmetric vortex rings that are exact solutions to the Euler equations. Due to their relative simplicity, they are extensively used to model the behavior of real vortex rings found in experiments and in Nature. In this work, we extend the original formulation of the problem to include buoyancy effects for the case where the fluid that lies within the vortex has a different density to that of the ambient. In this modified formulation, buoyancy effects enter the problem through the baroclinic term of the vorticity equation. This permits an efficient numerical solution of the governing equation of motion in terms of a vortex contour method that tracks the evolution of the boundary of the vortex. Finally, we compare our numerical results with the theoretical analysis of the short-time evolution of a buoyant vortex. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through grant DPI2011-28356-C03-02 and by the London Mathematical Society.
Glory, Vortex Street off Baja California
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
On June 19, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured both a vortex street and a glory visible amid the lattice of clouds over the Pacific Ocean off Baja California. In this image, the swirling clouds known as vortex streets appear along the left edge of the image, stretching southward from Isla Guadalupe. Another NASA satellite captured an earlier example of vortex streets in June 2000. These atmospheric vortices, known as Von Karman vortex streets, often occur in the wake of an obstacle to air flow, such as an island. Stratocumulus clouds--low-lying, sheets of puffy clouds-- over the ocean show the impact of the island on air flow visible though their alternating pattern of clockwise and counter-clockwise swirls. Southeast of the vortex street, a glory, which resembles a rainbow, hovers above the cloud cover. The glory is faint but large, 200 to 300 kilometers long, along a north-south orientation. This phenomenon can occur when the satellite passes directly between the Sun and a bank of clouds below. (People also observe them while looking down on clouds from airplanes.) Not just any kind of cloud can produce a glory; only clouds composed entirely of water droplets (as opposed to ice crystals) can make them. The droplets that form glories generally have diameters of less than 50 micrometers (a micrometers is a millionth of a meter). The water droplets bend the light, showing its different wavelengths, or colors. In this glory, reds and oranges are most visible. NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center.
Yaron, U.; Gammel, P.; Boebinger, G.; Aeppli, G.; Schiffer, P.; Bucher, E.; Bishop, D.; Broholm, C.; Mortensen, K.
1997-04-01
Small angle neutron scattering studies of the flux line lattice (FLL) in UPt{sub 3} for fields {bold H}{perpendicular}{bold c} provide direct microscopic evidence for the 5kOe B{r_arrow}C transition. We find a pronounced maximum in the longitudinal correlation length of the FLL at the transition and an abrupt change in the field dependence of the scattered intensity which can be interpreted as a 15{percent} decrease in the coherence length and a 9{percent} increase in the penetration depth, consistent with discontinuities in the critical fields. Finally, in the low field phase, the FLL distortion evolves roughly linearly with field, while in the high field phase it appears to be less field dependent. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Symmetric Z2 spin liquids and their neighboring phases on triangular lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yuan-Ming
2016-04-01
Motivated by recent numerical discovery of a gapped spin liquid phase in spin-1 /2 triangular-lattice J1-J2 Heisenberg model, we classify symmetric Z2 spin liquids on triangular lattice in the Abrikosov-fermion representation. We find 20 phases with distinct spinon symmetry quantum numbers, eight of which have their counterparts in the Schwinger-boson representation. Among them we identify two promising candidates (#1 and #20), which can realize a gapped Z2 spin liquid with up to next nearest neighbor mean-field amplitudes. We analyze their neighboring magnetic orders and valence bond solid patterns, and find one state (#20) that is connected to 120-degree Neel order by a continuous quantum phase transition. We also identify gapped nematic Z2 spin liquids in the neighborhood of the symmetric states and find three promising candidates (#1, #6, and #20).
Bornyakov, V.G.
2005-06-01
Possibilities that are provided by a lattice regularization of QCD for studying nonperturbative properties of QCD are discussed. A review of some recent results obtained from computer calculations in lattice QCD is given. In particular, the results for the QCD vacuum structure, the hadron mass spectrum, and the strong coupling constant are considered.
Defect pair in the elastic lattice of pancake vortices
Slutzky, M.; Mints, R.G.; Brandt, E.H.
1997-07-01
An additional pancake-antipancake vortex pair is considered in the vortex lattice of layered superconductors. Within linear elastic continuum theory, the relaxation of the background lattice screens the long-range logarithmic interaction of the defect pair, reducing the factor ln(r{sub 0}/{xi}) to ln(a/{xi}) where r{sub 0} is the pair spacing, {xi} the in-plane coherence length, and a the vortex spacing. The finite tilt modulus does not destroy this ideal two-dimensional screening, yielding a small correction {approximately}(a{sup 2}/8{pi}{lambda}{sup 2})ln(r{sub 0}/a), which in principle is of long range, but has a very small prefactor when the vortex spacing a is smaller than the in-plane penetration depth {lambda}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Vortex states in superconductors with strong Pauli-paramagnetic effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichioka, Masanori; Machida, Kazushige
2007-08-01
Using quasiclassical theory, we analyze the vortex structure of strong-paramagnetic superconductors. There, induced paramagnetic moments are accumulated exclusively around the vortex core. We quantitatively evaluate the significant paramagnetic effect in the H dependence of various quantities, such as low temperature specific heat, Knight shift, magnetization, and the flux line lattice (FLL) form factor. The anomalous H dependence of the FLL form factor observed by the small angle neutron scattering in CeCoIn5 is attributable to the large paramagnetic contribution.
Vortex Solutions of the Defocusing Discrete Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation
Cuevas, J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Law, K. J. H.
2009-09-09
We consider the existence, stability and dynamical evolution of dark vortex states in the two-dimensional defocusing DNLS equation, a model of interest both to atomic physics and to nonlinear optics. Our considerations are chiefly based on initializing such vortex configurations at the anti-continuum limit of zero coupling between adjacent sites, and continuing them to finite values of the coupling. Discrete defocusing vortices become unstable past a critical coupling strength and, subsequently feature a cascade of alternating stabilization-destabilization windows for any finite lattice.
Magnetic Vortex Induced by Nonmagnetic Impurity in Frustrated Magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shi-Zeng; Hayami, Satoru; Batista, Cristian D.
2016-05-01
We study the effect of a nonmagnetic impurity inserted in a two-dimensional frustrated ferromagnet above its saturation magnetic field Hsat for arbitrary spin S . We demonstrate that the ground state includes a magnetic vortex that is nucleated around the impurity over a finite range of magnetic field Hsat≤H ≤HsatI. Upon approaching the quantum critical point at H =Hsat, the radius of the magnetic vortex diverges as the magnetic correlation length: ξ ∝1 /√{H -Hsat }. These results are derived both for the lattice and in the continuum limit.
Magnetic Vortex Induced by Nonmagnetic Impurity in Frustrated Magnets.
Lin, Shi-Zeng; Hayami, Satoru; Batista, Cristian D
2016-05-01
We study the effect of a nonmagnetic impurity inserted in a two-dimensional frustrated ferromagnet above its saturation magnetic field H_{sat} for arbitrary spin S. We demonstrate that the ground state includes a magnetic vortex that is nucleated around the impurity over a finite range of magnetic field H_{sat}≤H≤H_{sat}^{I}. Upon approaching the quantum critical point at H=H_{sat}, the radius of the magnetic vortex diverges as the magnetic correlation length: ξ∝1/sqrt[H-H_{sat}]. These results are derived both for the lattice and in the continuum limit. PMID:27203342
Dual vortex theory of doped Mott insulators
Balents, Leon; Sachdev, Subir
2007-11-15
We present a general framework for describing the quantum phases obtained by doping paramagnetic Mott insulators on the square lattice. The undoped insulators are efficiently characterized by the projective transformations of various fields under the square lattice space group (the PSG). We show that the PSG also imposes powerful constraints on the doped system, and on the effective action for the vortex and Bogoliubov quasiparticle excitations of superconducting states. This action can also be extended across transitions to supersolid or insulating states at non-zero doping. For the case of a valence bond solid (VBS) insulator, we show that the doped system has the same PSG as that of elementary bosons with density equal to the density of electron Cooper pairs. We also discuss aspects of the action for a d-wave superconductor obtained by doping a 'staggered-flux' spin liquid state.
Point-vortex approach in two-dimensional turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuvshinov, B. N.; Schep, T. J.
2016-05-01
The properties of two-dimensional turbulence in a circular domain are investigated within the framework of the punctuated point-vortex model. Vortex dynamics is governed by Hamiltonian equations, and it is interrupted by instantaneous events resulting in vortex merging. Motion of about 100 point vortices is simulated using an accurate, symplectic integration method. Ensembles of like-sign vortices relax to a quasi-lattice state. Vortices with zero total vorticity tend to be randomized. Their motion still does not become fully chaotic. We observe emergence of long lived large dipoles (co-propagating pairs of vortices with opposite signs), which affect the evolution of the whole vortex ensemble. The presence of such dipoles accelerate the vortex decay rate. The decay exponent has been estimated as ξ ≃ 1.7, which is much larger than ξ ≃ 0.7, reported in previous studies of decaying turbulence. Since dipole dynamics depends on specific properties of the point vortex system, our findings suggest that a universal decay exponent in such systems does not exist.
A relativistic spherical vortex
Pekeris, C. L.
1976-01-01
This investigation is concerned with stationary relativistic flows of an inviscid and incompressible fluid. In choosing a density-pressure relation to represent relativistic “incompressibility,” it is found that a fluid in which the velocity of sound equals the velocity of light is to be preferred for reasons of mathematical simplicity. In the case of axially symmetric flows, the velocity field can be derived from a stream function obeying a partial differential equation which is nonlinear. A transformation of variables is found which makes the relativistic differential equation linear. An exact solution is obtained for the case of a vortex confined to a stationary sphere. One can make all three of the components of velocity vanish on the surface of the sphere, as in the nonrelativistic Hicks spherical vortex. In the case of an isolated vortex on whose surface the pressure is made to vanish, it is found that the pressure at the center of the sphere becomes negative, as in the nonrelativistic case. A solution is also obtained for a relativistic vortex advancing in a fluid. The sphere is distorted into an oblate spheroid. The maximum possible velocity of advance of the vortex is (2/3) c. PMID:16578745
Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakerin, Said
2010-05-01
Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies.2-5 In this paper, we focus on a particular vortex known as bathtub vortex (BTV). It occurs when water is drained from a hole at the bottom of a container such as a bathtub or a sink under the action of gravity. The vortex has a funnel shape with a central air core, resembling a tornado. We have designed a portable apparatus to demonstrate bathtub vortex on a continual basis. The apparatus consists of a clear cylinder supported by a frame over a water reservoir and a submersible pump. Young and old have been equally amazed by watching the demonstrations at various public presentations held at the University of the Pacific recently. With material cost of less than 100, the apparatus can be easily fabricated and used at other universities. With a short set-up time, it is an ideal device for promoting science to the general public, and it can be used to enhance lectures in physics courses as well.
A one-dimensional chain state of vortex matter.
Grigorenko, A; Bending, S; Tamegai, T; Ooi, S; Henini, M
2001-12-13
Magnetic flux penetrates isotropic type II superconductors in flux-quantized vortices, which arrange themselves into a lattice structure that is independent of the direction of the applied field. In extremely anisotropic high-transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconductors, a lattice of stacks of circular 'pancake' vortices forms when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the copper oxide layers, while an orthogonal elongated lattice of elliptical Josephson vortices forms when the applied field is parallel to the layers. Here we report that when a tilted magnetic field is applied to single crystals of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta, these lattices can interact to form a new state of vortex matter in which all stacks of pancake vortices intersect the Josephson vortices. The sublattice of Josephson vortices can therefore be used to manipulate the sublattice of pancake vortices. This result explains the suppression of irreversible magnetization by in-plane fields as seen in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta crystals, a hitherto mysterious observation. The ability to manipulate sublattices could be important for flux-logic devices, where a 'bit' might be represented by a pancake vortex stack, and the problem of vortex positioning is overcome through sublattice interactions. This also enables the development of flux transducers and amplifiers, considerably broadening the scope for applications of anisotropic high-Tc superconductors. PMID:11742393
Vortex soliton motion and steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christou, Jason; Tikhonenko, Vladimir; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Luther-Davies, Barry
1996-10-01
Experimental demonstration of the steering of an optical vortex soliton by the superposition of a weak coherent background field is presented. A model to account for vortex motion is derived, and its validity is verified experimentally and numerically.
Aircraft vortex marking program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pompa, M. F.
1979-01-01
A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.
Reconnection of superfluid vortex bundles.
Alamri, Sultan Z; Youd, Anthony J; Barenghi, Carlo F
2008-11-21
Using the vortex filament model and the Gross-Pitaevskii nonlinear Schroedinger equation, we show that bundles of quantized vortex lines in He II are structurally robust and can reconnect with each other maintaining their identity. We discuss vortex stretching in superfluid turbulence and show that, during the bundle reconnection process, kelvin waves of large amplitude are generated, in agreement with the finding that helicity is produced by nearly singular vortex interactions in classical Euler flows. PMID:19113421
Vortex Characterization for Engineering Applications
Jankun-Kelly, M; Thompson, D S; Jiang, M; Shannahan, B; Machiraju, R
2008-01-30
Realistic engineering simulation data often have features that are not optimally resolved due to practical limitations on mesh resolution. To be useful to application engineers, vortex characterization techniques must be sufficiently robust to handle realistic data with complex vortex topologies. In this paper, we present enhancements to the vortex topology identification component of an existing vortex characterization algorithm. The modified techniques are demonstrated by application to three realistic data sets that illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of our approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parris, Richard
2011-01-01
Given a segment that joins two lattice points in R[superscript 3], when is it possible to form a lattice cube that uses this segment as one of its twelve edges? A necessary and sufficient condition is that the length of the segment be an integer. This paper presents an algorithm for finding such a cube when the prime factors of the length are…
Evolution of an elliptic vortex ring in a viscous fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.
2016-03-01
The evolution of a viscous elliptic vortex ring in an initially quiescent fluid or a linear shear flow is numerically simulated using a lattice Boltzmann method. A wide range of parameters are considered, namely, aspect ratios (AR) (1 ≤ AR ≤ 8), core radius to ring radius ratios (σ0) (0.1 ≤ σ0 ≤ 0.3), Reynolds number (Re) (500 ≤ Re ≤ 3000), and shear rate (K) (0 ≤ K ≤ 0.12). The study aims to fill the gap in the current knowledge of the dynamics of an elliptic vortex ring in a viscous fluid and also to address the issue of whether an elliptic ring undergoes vortex stretching and compression during axis-switching. In a quiescent fluid, results show that for fixed Re and σ0, there exists a critical aspect ratio (ARc), below which an elliptic ring undergoes oscillatory deformation with the period that increases with increasing AR. Above ARc, the vortex ring breaks up into two or three sub-rings after the first half-cycle of oscillation. While higher Reynolds number enhances vortex ring breakup, larger core size has the opposite effect. Contrary to an inviscid theory, an elliptic ring does undergo vortex stretching and compression during oscillatory deformation. In the presence of a linear shear flow, the vortex ring undergoes not only oscillatory deformation and stretching but also tilting as it propagates downstream. The tilting angle increases with the shear rate K and is responsible for inducing a "tail" that consists of a counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) near the upstream end of the initial major axis after the first half-cycle of oscillation. For a high shear rate, the CVP wraps around the ring and transforms its topological structure from a simple elliptic geometry to a complicated structure that eventually leads to the generation of turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A status report is presented on research directed at reducing the vortex disturbances of aircraft wakes. The objective of such a reduction is to minimize the hazard to smaller aircraft that might encounter these wakes. Inviscid modeling was used to study trailing vortices and viscous effects were investigated. Laser velocimeters were utilized in the measurement of aircraft wakes. Flight and wind tunnel tests were performed on scale and full model scale aircraft of various design. Parameters investigated included the effect of wing span, wing flaps, spoilers, splines and engine thrust on vortex attenuation. Results indicate that vortives may be alleviated through aerodynamic means.
Koiller, Jair
2009-05-06
A pair of infinitesimally close opposite vortices moving on a curved surface moves along a geodesic, according to a conjecture by Kimura. We outline a proof. Numerical simulations are presented for a pair of opposite vortices at a close but nonzero distance on a surface of revolution, the catenoid. We conjecture that the vortex pair system on a triaxial ellipsoid is a KAM perturbation of Jacobi's geodesic problem. We outline some preliminary calculations required for this study. Finding the surfaces for which the vortex pair system is integrable is in order.
Nanostructure of vortex during explosion welding.
Rybin, V V; Greenberg, B A; Ivanov, M A; Patselov, A M; Antonova, O V; Elkina, O A; Inozemtsev, A V; Salishchev, G A
2011-10-01
The microstructure of a bimetallic joint made by explosion welding of orthorhombic titanium aluminide (Ti-30Al-16Nb-1Zr-1Mo) with commercially pure titanium is studied. It is found that the welded joint has a multilayered structure including a severely deformed zone observed in both materials, a recrystallized zone of titanium, and a transition zone near the interface. Typical elements of the transition zone-a wavy interface, macrorotations of the lattice, vortices and tracks of fragments of the initial materials-are determined. It is shown that the observed vortices are formed most probably due to local melting of the material near the contact surface. Evidence for this assumption is deduced from the presence of dipoles, which consist of two vortices of different helicity and an ultrafine duplex structure of the vortex. Also, high mixing of the material near the vortex is only possible by the turbulent transport whose coefficient is several orders of magnitude larger than the coefficient of atomic diffusion in liquids. The role played by fragmentation in both the formation of lattice macrorotations and the passage of coarse particles of one material through the bulk of the other is determined. PMID:22400276
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maskew, B.
1975-01-01
The close-approach problem associated with flow calculation methods based on vortex-lattice theory was examined numerically using two-dimensional discretized vortex sheets. The analysis first yields a near-field radius of approximately the distance apart of the vortices in the lattice; only within this distance from the sheet are the errors arising from the discretization significant. Various modifications to the discrete vortices are then considered with the objective of reducing the errors. This leads to a near-field model in which a vortex splits into an increasing number of subvortices as it is approached. The subvortices, whose strengths vary linearly from the vortex position, are evenly distributed along an interpolated curve passing through the basic vortices. This subvortex technique can be extended to the three-dimensional case and is efficient because the number of vortices is effectively increased, but only where and when needed.
Theoretical study of aerodynamic characteristics of wings having vortex flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, C. S.
1979-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of slender wings having separation induced vortex flows are investigated by employing three different computer codes--free vortex sheet, quasi vortex lattice, and suction analogy methods. Their capabilities and limitations are examined, and modifications are discussed. Flat wings of different configurations: arrow, delta, and diamond shapes, as well as cambered delta wings, are studied. The effect of notch ratio on the load distributions and the longitudinal characteristics of a family of arrow and diamond wings is explored. The sectional lift coefficients and the accumulated span loadings are determined for an arrow wing and are seen to be unusual in comparison with the attached flow results. The theoretically predicted results are compared with the existing experimental values.
Rolling moments in a trailing vortex flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcmillan, O. J.; Schwind, R. G.; Nielsen, J. N.; Dillenius, M. F. E.
1977-01-01
Pressure distributions are presented which were measured on a wing in close proximity to a tip vortex of known structure generated by a larger, upstream semispan wing. Overall loads calculated by integration of these pressures are checked by independent measurements made with an identical model mounted on a force balance. Several conventional methods of wing analysis are used to predict the loads on the following wing. Strip theory is shown to give uniformly poor results for loading distribution, although predictions of overall lift and rolling moment are sometimes acceptable. Good results are obtained for overall coefficients and loading distribution by using linearized pressures in vortex-lattice theory in conjunction with a rectilinear vortex. The equivalent relation from reverse-flow theory that can be used to give economic predictions for overall loads is presented.
Unsteady Free-Wake Vortex Particle Model for HAWT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogateanu, R.; Frunzulicǎ, F.; Cardos, V.
2010-09-01
In the design of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) one problem is to determine the aeroelastic behaviour of the rotor blades for the various wind inflow conditions. A step in this process is to predict with accuracy the aerodynamic loads on the blades. The Vortex Lattice Method (VLM) provides a transparent investigation concerning the role of various physical parameters which influence the aerodynamic problem. In this paper we present a method for the calculation of the non-uniform induced downwash of a HAWT rotor using the vortex ring model for the lifting surface coupled with an unsteady free-wake vortex particle model. Comparative studies between results obtained with different models of wake for a generic HAWT are presented.
Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige
2016-02-01
The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core-shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems.
Calculation of wing response to gusts and blast waves with vortex lift effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, D. C.; Lan, C. E.
1983-01-01
A numerical study of the response of aircraft wings to atmospheric gusts and to nuclear explosions when flying at subsonic speeds is presented. The method is based upon unsteady quasi-vortex-lattice method, unsteady suction analogy, and Pade approximate. The calculated results, showing vortex lag effect, yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for incremental lift on wings in gust penetration and due to nuclear blast waves.
Calculation of wing response to gusts and blast waves with vortex lift effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, D. C.; Lan, C. E.
1983-01-01
A numerical study of the response of aircraft wings to atmospheric gusts and to nuclear explosions when flying at subsonic speeds is presented. The method is based upon unsteady quasi-vortex lattice method, unsteady suction analogy and Pade approximant. The calculated results, showing vortex lag effect, yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for incremental lift on wings in gust penetration and due to nuclear blast waves.
Experimental study of vortex diffusers
Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.
1995-11-01
This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.
Lattice Kinetic Theory in a Comoving Galilean Reference Frame.
Frapolli, N; Chikatamarla, S S; Karlin, I V
2016-07-01
We prove that the fully discrete lattice Boltzmann method is invariant with respect to Galilean transformation. Based on this finding, a novel class of shifted lattices is proposed which dramatically increases the operating range of lattice Boltzmann simulations, in particular, for gas dynamics applications. A simulation of vortex-shock interaction is used to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed lattices. With one single algorithm it is now possible to simulate a broad range of applications, from low Mach number flows to transonic and supersonic flow regimes. PMID:27419555
Lattice Kinetic Theory in a Comoving Galilean Reference Frame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frapolli, N.; Chikatamarla, S. S.; Karlin, I. V.
2016-07-01
We prove that the fully discrete lattice Boltzmann method is invariant with respect to Galilean transformation. Based on this finding, a novel class of shifted lattices is proposed which dramatically increases the operating range of lattice Boltzmann simulations, in particular, for gas dynamics applications. A simulation of vortex-shock interaction is used to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed lattices. With one single algorithm it is now possible to simulate a broad range of applications, from low Mach number flows to transonic and supersonic flow regimes.
Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shakerin, Said
2010-01-01
Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Betz, A.
1979-01-01
Application of the Kutta-Joukowski theorem to the relationship between airfoil lift and circulation is described. A number of formulas concerning the conduct of vortex systems derived from the theorem are presented. The application of this line of reasoning to several problems of airfoil theory and the observed relations are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weston, R. P.; Chamberlain, J. P.; Liu, C. H.; Hartwich, Peter-Michael
1986-01-01
Several computational studies are currently being pursued that focus on various aspects of representing the entire lifetime of the viscous trailing vortex wakes generated by an aircraft. The formulation and subsequent near-wing development of the leading-edge vortices formed by a delta wing are being calculated at modest Reynolds numbers using a three-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes code. Another computational code was developed to focus on the roll-up, trajectory, and mutual interaction of trailing vortices further downstream from the wing using a two-dimensional, time-dependent, Navier-Stokes algorithm. To investigate the effect of a cross-wind ground shear flow on the drift and decay of the far-field trailing vortices, a code was developed that employs Euler equations along with matched asymptotic solutions for the decaying vortex filaments. And finally, to simulate the conditions far down stream after the onset of the Crow instability in the vortex wake, a full three-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes code was developed to study the behavior of interacting vortex rings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.
2008-01-01
Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not
Ortega, J M
2001-10-18
The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging.'' This active concept
Control of submersible vortex flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Donaldson, C. D.
1990-01-01
Vortex flows produced by submersibles typically unfavorably influence key figures of merit such as acoustic and nonacoustic stealth, control effectiveness/maneuverability, and propulsor efficiency/body drag. Sources of such organized, primarily longitudinal, vorticity include the basic body (nose and sides) and appendages (both base/intersection and tip regions) such as the fairwater, dive planes, rear control surfaces, and propulsor stators/tips. Two fundamentally different vortex control approaches are available: (1) deintensification of the amplitude and/or organization of the vortex during its initiation process; and (2) downstream vortex disablement. Vortex control techniques applicable to the initiation region (deintensification approach) include transverse pressure gradient minimization via altered body cross section, appendage dillets, fillets, and sweep, and various appendage tip and spanload treatment along with the use of active controls to minimize control surface size and motions. Vortex disablement can be accomplished either via use of control vortices (which can also be used to steer the vortices off-board), direct unwinding, inducement of vortex bursting, or segmentation/tailoring for enhanced dissipation. Submersible-applicable vortex control technology is also included derived from various aeronautical applications such as mitigation of the wing wake vortex hazard and flight aircraft maneuverability at high angle of attack as well as the status of vortex effects upon, and mitigation of, nonlinear control forces on submersibles. Specific suggestions for submersible-applicable vortex control techniques are presented.
Rotor-vortex interaction noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.
1983-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to develop a validated first principles analysis for predicting noise generated by helicopter main-rotor shed vortices interacting with the tail rotor. The generalized prediction procedure requires a knowledge of the incident vortex velocity field, rotor geometry, and rotor operating conditions. The analysis includes compressibility effects, chordwise and spanwise noncompactness, and treats oblique intersections with the blade planform. Assessment of the theory involved conducting a model rotor experiment which isolated the blade-vortex interaction noise from other rotor noise mechanisms. An isolated tip vortex, generated by an upstream semispan airfoil, was convected into the model tail rotor. Acoustic spectra, pressure signatures, and directivity were measured. Since assessment of the acoustic prediction required a knowledge of the vortex properties, blade-vortes intersection angle, intersection station, vortex stength, and vortex core radius were documented. Ingestion of the vortex by the rotor was experimentally observed to generate harmonic noise and impulsive waveforms.
Probing the charge-vortex duality near the superfluid-to-insulator transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gazit, Snir; Podolsky, Daniel; Auerbach, Assa
2015-03-01
We study the charge vortex duality near the superfluid-to-insulator quantum phase transition in d=2+1 dimensions. We use a generalized reciprocity relation between charge and vortex conductivities at complex frequencies to identify the capacitance in the insulating phase as a measure of vortex condensate stiffness. We then compute the ratio of boson superfluid stiffness to vortex condensate stiffness at mirror points to be 0.21(1). This corroborates and provides a quantitative measure to the non self-dual nature of the charge-vortex duality. We further study deviations from self-duality at finite frequency by computing the product of Matsubara frequency conductivities at mirror points across the phase transition. Finally, we propose experimental realizations that test our predictions in THz spectroscopy of disordered superconductors and cold atomic systems trapped in an optical lattice.
Thermally assisted vortex motion in intrinsic Josephson junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irie, A.; Oya, G.
2008-02-01
The vortex dynamics in intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) at finite temperatures has been investigated numerically by taking into account the thermal fluctuations. Our simulations based on the perturbed, coupled sine-Gordon model successfully reproduce the experimental results associated with the Josephson-vortex flow resistance (JVFR) at low bias currents. Depending on the junction length, bias current, and temperature, the JVFR oscillation is changed from the period of half flux quantum per junction to the period of one flux quantum per junction. It is shown that the oscillation is essentially due to the field dependence of the critical current. At currents slightly exceeding the critical current the stationary vortex lattice structure becomes unstable and an irregular vortex flow can be induced by thermal fluctuations in different junctions. Our simulation results strongly suggest that the triangular lattice of vorticies in the dynamical state is more stable rather than the rectangular one even in a submicrometer IJJ stack when IJJs are biased at a low current.
Bulk vortices and half-vortex surface modes in parity-time-symmetric media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huagang; Zhu, Xing; Shi, Zhiwei; Malomed, Boris A.; Lai, Tianshu; Lee, Chaohong
2014-05-01
We demonstrate that in-bulk vortex localized modes and their surface half-vortex ("horseshoe") counterparts self-trap in two-dimensional nonlinear optical systems with PT-symmetric photonic lattices (PLs). The respective stability regions are identified in the underlying parameter space. The in-bulk states are related to truncated nonlinear Bloch waves in gaps of the PL-induced spectrum. The basic vortex and horseshoe modes are built, severally, of four and three beams with appropriate phase shifts between them. Their stable complex counterparts, built of up to 12 beams, are also reported.
A subvortex technique for the close approach to a discretized vortex sheet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maskew, B.
1976-01-01
The close-approach problem associated with vortex-lattice methods was examined numerically with the objective of calculating velocities at arbitrary points, not just at midpoints, between the vortices. The objective was achieved using a subvortex technique in which a vortex splits into an increasing number of subvortices as it is approached. The technique, incorporated in a two-dimensional potential flow method using "submerged" vortices and sources, was evaluated for a cambered Joukowski airfoil. The method could be extended to three dimensions, and should improve non-linear methods, which calculate interference effects between multiple wings and vortex wakes, and which include procedures for force-free wakes.
Wake-vortex structure from lift and torque induced on a following wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.
1993-01-01
A procedure based on vortex lattice theory to interpret the lift and torque measured on a following model in a wind tunnel is developed to retrieve the velocity distribution in the vortex wake that caused the induced forces. It is concluded that the retrieval procedure has a potential for reliably determining the structure of vortex wakes that trail from the wings of subsonic transport aircraft. Tests using idealized theoretical models show that the procedure is highly reliable and accurate. However, certain difficulties are found in the retrieval procedure when applied to actual data measured with following wings of various sizes in a wind tunnel.
Equilibrium and Dynamic Vortex States near Absolute Zero in a Weak Pinning Amorphous Film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochi, Aguri; Sohara, Naoya; Kaneko, Shin-ichi; Kokubo, Nobuhito; Okuma, Satoshi
2016-04-01
By developing and employing a mode-locking measurement with pulsed currents, we successfully determine the dynamic melting field B{c,dyn}∞ (T) for a driven vortex lattice of an amorphous MoxGe1-x film in the limit of zero temperature (T → 0) and complete a dynamic as well as a static vortex phase diagram. At T = 0, the mixed state in the absence of pinning comprises vortex-lattice and quantum-vortex-liquid (QVL) phases, and the melting field separating the two phases is identified as B{c,dyn}∞ (0). Comparison of the dynamic and static phase diagrams reveals that, when the weak pinning is introduced into the pin-free system, a disordered phase emerges just above the vortex-lattice phase and a threshold field separating the two phases is slightly suppressed from B{c,dyn}∞ (0), indicative of defect-induced disordering of the lattice. By contrast, a melting field into QVL is much enhanced from B{c,dyn}∞ (0) up to a point near the upper critical field, resulting in a significant suppression of the QVL phase. This is attributed to the stronger effective pinning at lower T, which survives quantum fluctuations.
Vortex equations: Singularities, numerical solution, and axisymmetric vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bossel, H. H.
1972-01-01
A method of weighted residuals for the computation of rotationally symmetric quasi-cylindrical viscous incompressible vortex flow is presented and used to compute a wide variety of vortex flows. The method approximates the axial velocity and circulation profiles by series of exponentials having (N + 1) and N free parameters, respectively. Formal integration results in a set of (2N + 1) ordinary differential equations for the free parameters. The governing equations are shown to have an infinite number of discrete singularities corresponding to critical values of the swirl parameters. The computations point to the controlling influence of the inner core flow on vortex behavior. They also confirm the existence of two particular critical swirl parameter values: one separates vortex flow which decays smoothly from vortex flow which eventually breaks down, and the second is the first singularity of the quasi-cylindrical system, at which point physical vortex breakdown is thought to occur.
Evolution of a curved vortex filament into a vortex ring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.; Leonard, A.; Kim, J.
1985-01-01
The deformation of a hairpin-shaped vortex filament under self-induction and in the presence of shear is studied numerically using the Biot-Savart law. It is shown that the tip region of an elongated hairpin vortex evolves into a vortex ring and that the presence of mean shear impedes the process. Evolution of a finite-thickness vortex sheet under self-induction is also investigated using the Navier-Stokes equations. The layer evolves into a hairpin vortex which in turn produces a vortex ring of high Reynolds stress content. These results indicate a mechanism for the generation of ring vortices in turbulent shear flows, and a link between the experimental and numerical observation of hairpin vortices and the observation of ring vortices in the outer regions of turbulent boundary layers.
Evolution of a curved vortex filament into a vortex ring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.; Leonard, A.; Kim, J.
1986-01-01
The deformation of a hairpin-shaped vortex filament under self-induction and in the presence of shear is studied numerically using the Biot-Savart law. It is shown that the tip region of an elongated hairpin vortex evolves into a vortex ring and that the presence of mean shear impedes the process. Evolution of a finite-thickness vortex sheet under self-induction is also investigated using the Navier-Stokes equations. The layer evolves into a hairpin vortex which in turn produces a vortex ring of high Reynolds stress content. These results indicate a mechanism for the generation of ring vortices in turbulent shear flows, and a link between the experimental and numerical observation of hairpin vortices and the observation of ring vortices in the outer regions of turbulent boundary layers.
Olson, C.J.; Reichhardt, C.; Nori, F.
1997-09-01
Using large-scale simulations on parallel processors, we analyze in detail the dynamical behavior of superconducting vortices undergoing avalanches. In particular, we quantify the effect of the pinning landscape on the macroscopic properties of vortex avalanches and vortex plastic flow. These dynamical instabilities are triggered when the external magnetic field is increased slightly, and are thus driven by a flux gradient rather than by thermal effects. The flux profiles, composed of rigid flux lines that interact with 100 or more vortices, are maintained in the Bean critical state and do not decay away from it. By directly determining vortex positions during avalanches in the plastically moving lattice, we find that experimentally observable voltage bursts correspond to the pulsing movement of vortices along branched channels or winding chains in a manner reminiscent of lightning strikes. This kind of motion cannot be described by elastic theories. We relate the velocity field and cumulative patterns of vortex flow channels with statistical quantities, such as distributions of avalanche sizes. Samples with a high density of strong pinning sites produce very broad avalanche distributions. Easy-flow vortex channels appear in samples with a low pinning density, and typical avalanche sizes emerge in an otherwise broad distribution of sizes. We observe a crossover from interstitial motion in narrow channels to pin-to-pin motion in broad channels as pin density is increased. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Segmented trapped vortex cavity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)
2010-01-01
An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Philip W.
2007-03-01
In 1967, Reatto and Chester proposed that solid helium-4 might exhibit superfluidity, and in 1970, Leggett suggested what was thought to be a definitive experimental test: to find non-classical rotational inertia in a toroidal sample. More than three decades later, the observation by Kim and Chan of exactly that effect generated great interest and has been repeated and confirmed by a number of groups. However, many attempts to find actual superflow in truly solid samples have failed. Here, I draw an analogy with a second example of anomalous response to vorticity in a dissipative fluid, the vortex liquid phase in the pseudogap region of high-temperature superconductors, and propose that the solid helium experiments have been mischaracterized: what is observed is not supersolidity but an incompressible vortex liquid. This state is distinct from a conventional liquid in that its properties are dominated by conserved supercurrents flowing around a thermally fluctuating tangle of vortices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcintyre, Michael
1988-01-01
Recent work with high resolution, one-layer numerical models of fluid flows resembling those in the real stratosphere has suggested that: (1) the interiors of strong cyclonic vortices like the Antarctic polar vortex may be almost completely isolated laterally from their surroundings - perhaps even completely isolated, under some circumstances; (2) by contrast, material near the edge of such and isolated region can easily be eroded (or mixed one-sidedly) into the surrounding region; and (3) the erosion characteristically produces extremely steep gradients in isentropic distributions of potential vorticity (PV) and of other tracers, possibly down to horizontal length scales of a few kilometers only. Such length scales may occur both at the edge of the main polar vortex and in smaller features outside it, such as thin filamentary structures, produced by the erosion process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Criminale, W. O.; Lasseigne, D. G.; Jackson, T. L.
1995-01-01
An initial value approach is used to examine the dynamics of perturbations introduced into a vortex under strain. Both the basic vortex considered and the perturbations are taken as fully three-dimensional. An explicit solution for the time evolution of the vorticity perturbations is given for arbitrary initial vorticity. Analytical solutions for the resulting velocity components are found when the initial vorticity is assumed to be localized. For more general initial vorticity distributions, the velocity components are determined numerically. It is found that the variation in the radial direction of the initial vorticity disturbance is the most important factor influencing the qualitative behavior of the solutions. Transient growth in the magnitude of the velocity components is found to be directly attributable to the compactness of the initial vorticity.
Delta Wing Vortex Breakdown Suppression by Vortex Core Oscillation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cain, Charles
2000-11-01
The flow over a delta wing is characterized by two counter-rotating vortices that can undergo a sudden radial expansion at high angles of attack known as vortex breakdown. Downstream of this breakdown is a region of organized unsteady flow that can cause tail buffeting and structural fatigue, especially on twin-tailed aircraft. The recent self-induction theory of vortex breakdown points to the "pile-up" of vorticity due to the linear addition of vorticity in the spiraling shear layer that surrounds the vortex core as a principal cause of vortex breakdown (Kurosaka 1998). Based on that theory, this research attempts to relieve vorticity pile-up by altering the straight-line path of the vortex core and preventing the linear addition of vorticity. This is accomplished by applying a combination of periodic blowing and suction with low mass and momentum flux. The blowing and suction are directed normal to the low-pressure surface and supplied from ports under the vortex core which are near the forward tip of the delta wing. This oscillating input causes the vortex core to transition into a spiral formation downstream of the input ports. Initial results indicate that this change in the vortex core path may prevent vortex breakdown over the surface of the delta wing.
Correcting vortex splitting in higher order vortex beams.
Neo, Richard; Tan, Shiaw Juen; Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel
2014-04-21
We demonstrate a general method for the first order compensation of singularity splitting in a vortex beam at a single plane. By superimposing multiple forked holograms on the SLM used to generate the vortex beam, we are able to compensate vortex splitting and generate beams with desired phase singularities of order ℓ = 0, 1, 2, and 3 in one plane. We then extend this method by application of a radial phase, in order to simultaneously compensate the observed vortex splitting at two planes (near and far field) for an ℓ = 2 beam. PMID:24787874
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buerge, Brandon T.
The Vortex Flap is a new type of mechanically driven high-lift device consisting of a rotating cylinder placed underneath and near the trailing edge of an airfoil. Wind tunnel tests were designed and conducted in the Washington University Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Wind tunnel tests indicate that the Vortex Flap produces notable lift coefficient increments and increases maximum lift coefficients, particularly for the low Reynolds number range tested. The best configurations of the configurations investigated (not necessarily optimal) produce lift increments of 300-900% at low-to-moderate angles of attack, and increase the maximum lift coefficient on the order of 200%. The large lift increments found, particularly at low angles of attack, underscore the ability to drive the airfoil to high lift coefficients even at low angles of attack, a potentially useful characteristic for certain flight maneuvers. Regions of fairly high L/D (on the order of 10) as well as low L/D performance were identified. The nondimensional cylinder rotation speed was found to be the most important experimental parameter. Methods for correcting wind tunnel data were developed and outlined, and a Response Surface Method was applied to the corrected data for ease of interpretation. Performance comparisons between the Vortex Flap and other trailing-edge high-lift devices are included. To demonstrate the potential of the device, a Navy mission specification for a VTOL ship-borne UAV, currently filled by a rotary-wing aircraft, is analyzed using a hypothetical fixed wing aircraft and the Vortex Flap. It is demonstrated that, under certain reasonable wind-over-deck conditions, such an aircraft could hypothetically fill a VTOL mission.
Not Available
1990-02-01
The program objective is to demonstrate efficient removal of fine particulates to sufficiently low levels to meet proposed small scale coal combustor emission standards. This is to be accomplished using a novel particulate removal device, the Confined Vortex Scrubber. This is the first quarterly technical progress report under this contract. Accordingly, a summary of the cleanup concept and the structure of the program is given here.
Not Available
1990-07-01
The program objective is to demonstrate efficient removal of fine particulates to sufficiently low levels to meet proposed small scale coal combustor emission standards using a cleanup technology appropriate to small scale coal combustors. This to be accomplished using a novel particulate removal device, the Confined Vortex Scrubber (CVS), which consists of a cylindrical vortex chamber with tangential flue gas inlets. The clean gas exit is via vortex finder outlets, one at either end of the tube. Liquid is introduced into the chamber and is confined within the vortex chamber by the centrifugal force generated by the gas flow itself. This confined liquid forms a layer through which the flue gas is then forced to bubble, producing a strong gas/liquid interaction, high inertial separation forces and efficient particulate cleanup. During this quarter a comprehensive series of cleanup experiments have been made for three CVS configurations. The first CVS configuration tested gave very efficient fine particulate removal at the design air mass flow rate (1 MM BUT/hr combustor exhaust flow), but had over 20{double prime}WC pressure drop. The first CVS configuration was then re-designed to produce the same very efficient particulate collection performance at a lower pressure drop. The current CVS configuration produces 99.4 percent cleanup of ultra-fine fly ash at the design air mass flow at a pressure drop of 12 {double prime}WC with a liquid/air flow ratio of 0.31/m{sup 3}. Unlike venturi scrubbers, the collection performance of the CVS is insensitive to dust loading and to liquid/air flow ratio.
High sensitivity vortex shedding flowmeter
Lew, H.S.
1989-12-05
This patent describes an apparatus for measuring fluid flows. It comprises: a flowmeter body including a flow passage; a vortex generator of an elongated cylindrical shape disposed across a cross section of the flow passage, wherein at lest one extremity of the vortex generator is secured to the flowmeter body; a transducer contained in a container vessel secured to the flowmeter body, wherein the transducer is pressed onto a thin wall of the container vessel; and a flexible coupling connecting the thin wall of the container vessel to a deflective portion of the vortex generating, wherein the flexible coupling enhances relative deflection between the vortex generator and the container vessel. Wherein fluctuating fluid dynamic forces resulting from vortices shed from the vortex generator and experienced by vortex generator generate fluctuating electrical signals from the transducer as a measure of fluid flow through the flow passage.
Aeroacoustics of viscous vortex reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paredes, Pedro; Nichols, Joseph W.; Duraisamy, Karthik; Hussain, Fazle
2011-11-01
Reconnection of two anti-parallel vortex tubes is studied by direct numerical simulations and large-eddy simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over a wide range (2000-50,000) of the vortex Reynolds number (Re). A detailed investigation of the flow dynamics is performed and at high Re, multiple reconnections are observed as the newly formed ``bridges'' interact by self and mutual induction. To investigate acoustics produced by the recoil action of the vortex threads, Möhring's theory of vortex sound is applied to the flow field and evaluated at varying far-field locations. The acoustic solver is verified against calculations of laminar vortex ring collision. For anti-parallel vortex reconnection, the resulting far-field spectra are shown to be grid converged at low-to-mid frequencies. To assess the relevance to fully turbulent jet noise, the dependence of reconnection upon Reynolds number is investigated.
Skyrmion Flux Lattices in p,-wave Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qi; Toner, John; Belitz, Dietrich
2007-03-01
In p,-wave superconductors, topological excitations known as skyrmions are allowed, in addition to the usual vortices. In strongly type-II materials in an external magnetic field, a skyrmion flux lattice is expected to be energetically favored compared to a vortex flux lattice [1]. We analytically calculate the energy, magnetization curves (B(H)), and elasticity of skyrmion flux lattices in p,-wave superconductors near the lower critical field Hc1, and use these results with the Lindemann criterion to predict their melting curve [2]. In striking contrast to vortex flux lattices, which always melt at an external field H > Hc1, skyrmion flux lattices never melt near Hc1. This provides a simple and unambiguous test for the presence of skyrmions. In addition, the internal magnetic field distributions (which are measurable by muon spin rotation techniques [3]) of skyrmion and vortex lattices are very different. [1] A. Knigavko, B. Rosenstein, and Y.F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 60, 550 (1999). [2] Qi Li, John Toner, and D. Belitz, cond-mat/0607391 [3] J.E. Sonier, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, S4499 (2004)
Vortex reconnection in superfluid helium
Koplik, J. ); Levine, H. )
1993-08-30
A useful physical model for superfluid turbulence considers the flow to consist of a dense tangle of vortex lines which evolve and interact. It has been suggested that these vortex lines can dynamically reconnect upon close approach. Here, we consider the nonlinear Schroedinger equation model of superfluid quantum mechanics, and use numerical simulation to study this topology changing core-scale process. Our results support the idea that vortex reconnection will occur whenever filaments come within a few core lengths of one another.
Interferometric optical vortex array generator.
Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, P
2007-05-20
Two new interferometric configurations for optical vortex array generation are presented. These interferometers are different from the conventional interferometers in that they are capable of producing a large number of isolated zeros of intensity, and all of them contain optical vortices. Simulation and theory for optical vortex array generation using three-plane-wave interference is presented. The vortex dipole array produced this way is noninteracting, as there are no attraction or repulsion forces between them, leading to annihilation or creation of vortex pairs. PMID:17514234
Interferometric optical vortex array generator
Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, P
2007-05-20
Two new interferometric configurations for optical vortex array generation are presented.These interferometers are different from the conventional interferometers in that they are capable of producing a large number of isolated zeros of intensity, and all of them contain optical vortices. Simulation and theory for optical vortex array generation using three-plane-wave interference is presented. The vortex dipole array produced this way is noninteracting, as there are no attraction or repulsion forces between them, leading to annihilation or creation of vortex pairs.
Vortex reconnection in a swirling flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseenko, S. V.; Kuibin, P. A.; Shtork, S. I.; Skripkin, S. G.; Tsoy, M. A.
2016-04-01
Processes of vortex reconnection on a helical vortex, which is formed in a swirling flow in a conical diffuser, have been studied experimentally. It has been shown that reconnection can result in the formation of both an isolated vortex ring and a vortex ring linked with the main helical vortex. A number of features of vortex reconnection, including the effects of asymmetry, generation of Kelvin waves, and formation of various bridges, have been described.
Magnetic vortex crystal formation in the antidot complement of square artificial spin ice
Araujo, C. I. L. de Silva, R. C.; Ribeiro, I. R. B.; Nascimento, F. S.; Felix, J. F.; Ferreira, S. O.; Moura-Melo, W. A.; Pereira, A. R.; Mól, L. A. S.
2014-03-03
We have studied ferromagnetic nickel thin films patterned with square lattices of elongated antidots that are negative analogues of square artificial spin ice. Micromagnetic simulations and direct current magnetic moment measurements reveal in-plane anisotropy of the magnetic hysteresis loops, and the formation of a dense array of magnetic vortices with random polarization and chirality. These multiply-connected antidot arrays could be superior to lattices of disconnected nanodisks for investigations of vortex switching by applied electric current.
Magnetic vortex crystal formation in the antidot complement of square artificial spin ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Araujo, C. I. L.; Silva, R. C.; Ribeiro, I. R. B.; Nascimento, F. S.; Felix, J. F.; Ferreira, S. O.; Mól, L. A. S.; Moura-Melo, W. A.; Pereira, A. R.
2014-03-01
We have studied ferromagnetic nickel thin films patterned with square lattices of elongated antidots that are negative analogues of square artificial spin ice. Micromagnetic simulations and direct current magnetic moment measurements reveal in-plane anisotropy of the magnetic hysteresis loops, and the formation of a dense array of magnetic vortices with random polarization and chirality. These multiply-connected antidot arrays could be superior to lattices of disconnected nanodisks for investigations of vortex switching by applied electric current.
Control of diffusion of nanoparticles in an optical vortex lattice.
Zapata, Ivar; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Sáenz, Juan José
2016-06-01
A two-dimensional periodic optical force field, which combines conservative dipolar forces with vortices from radiation pressure, is proposed in order to influence the diffusion properties of optically susceptible nanoparticles. The different deterministic flow patterns are identified. In the low-noise limit, the diffusion coefficient is computed from a mean first passage time and the most probable escape paths are identified for those flow patterns which possess a stable stationary point. Numerical simulations of the associated Langevin equations show remarkable agreement with the analytically deduced expressions. Modifications of the force field are proposed so that a wider range of phenomena could be tested. PMID:27415231
Fermion zero modes in a chromomagnetic vortex lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernodub, M. N.; Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Van Doorsselaere, Jos; Verschelde, Henri
2014-03-01
We prove the existence of zero modes of massless quarks in a background of spaghetti vacuum of chromomagnetic vortices in QCD. We find a general solution for the zero modes and show that the modes can be localized at pairs of vortices.
Vortex-Vortex Interactions Behind an Oscillating Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unal, M. F.; Rockwell, D.
1996-11-01
A blunt-based flat plate in a uniform stream is subjected to periodic pitching oscillations at multiples of the natural shedding frequency over a range of dime nsionless amplitudes. The near wake is characterized by dye and hydrogen bubble visualization. At low amplitudes of oscillation, the nature of the vortex-vortex interaction in the near-wake is such that, irrespective of oscillation frequency , the downstream wake remarkably recovers to the classical vortex street. For hi gh amplitudes, at frequencies higher than the natural shedding frequency, the vo rtex street gives way to complex vortex configurations. These features are relat ed to several interesting phenomena in the base region, including pronounced she dding of vorticity from the base and existence of a very small-scale vortex stre et along the plane of symmetry.
Hoyatdavoudi, A.; Adams, L. M.
1985-04-23
A drilling sub is provided in a drill string above a drill bit. The drilling sub includes a nozzle oriented to eject drilling fluid from said drill string into an annulus between the drill string and a well bore hole at an elevation above the drill bit with a horizontal velocity component tangential to said annulus to thereby impart a swirling motion to drilling fluid in the annulus. This creates a vortex extending down to the drill bit to enhance the cleaning of cuttings from the bore hole and to reduce a pressure differential thereby increasing a penetration rate of the drill bit.
Magnetic vortex filament flows
Barros, Manuel; Cabrerizo, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel; Romero, Alfonso
2007-08-15
We exhibit a variational approach to study the magnetic flow associated with a Killing magnetic field in dimension 3. In this context, the solutions of the Lorentz force equation are viewed as Kirchhoff elastic rods and conversely. This provides an amazing connection between two apparently unrelated physical models and, in particular, it ties the classical elastic theory with the Hall effect. Then, these magnetic flows can be regarded as vortex filament flows within the localized induction approximation. The Hasimoto transformation can be used to see the magnetic trajectories as solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation showing the solitonic nature of those.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Werle, H.
1984-01-01
Vortex bursting is studied by means of visualization. The physical behavior of the phenomenon is emphasized, and its similarity with boundary layer separation or wake bursting becomes apparent. The essential influence of an increasing pressure gradient on the initiation, the position and the type of bursting is clearly confirmed. The evolution of the phenomena as a function of several parameters is analyzed in the case of delta wings, alone or installed on aircraft models, and compared with the results of similar wind tunnel or flight tests.
The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.
2014-01-01
Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon" and…
Research of the high performance low temperature vortex street flowmeter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Feng; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhen-peng; Geng, Wei-guo
2007-07-01
Flow measurement is the key method for R&D and operation monitoring of liquid rocket engine. Therefore, it is important to measure flux of low temperature liquid propellants for the liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen or the liquid oxygen/kerosene rocket engine. Presently in China, the level meter and the turbine flowmeter are usually used in the experimentation of the liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen rocket engine. The level meter can only scale average flux and the precision of the turbine flowmeter (the measuring wild point is 1.5%) can not be ensured due to the reason which there is not devices of low temperature real-time demarcation in China. Therefore, it is required to research the high performance low temperature flow measurement equipment and the vortex street flowmeter is selected because of its advantages. In the paper, some key techniques of low temperature vortex street flowmeter are researched from the design aspect. Firstly, the basic theoretical research of vortex street flowmeter includes signal detection method, shape of vortex producer and effects of dimension of vertex producer to vortex quality. Secondly, low temperature vortex street flowmeter adopts the method of piezoelectric components stress mode. As for the weakness of phase-change, lattice change and fragility for many piezoelectric materials in low temperature, it can not be fulfilled piezoelectric signal and mechanism performance under this condition. Some piezoelectric materials which can be used in low temperature are illustrated in the paper by lots of research in order for the farther research. The article places emphasis upon low temperature trait of piezoelectric materials, and the structure designs of signal detector and calculation of stress, electric charge quantity and heat transfer.
Discrete breathers in hexagonal dusty plasma lattices
Koukouloyannis, V.; Kourakis, I.
2009-08-15
The occurrence of single-site or multisite localized vibrational modes, also called discrete breathers, in two-dimensional hexagonal dusty plasma lattices is investigated. The system is described by a Klein-Gordon hexagonal lattice characterized by a negative coupling parameter epsilon in account of its inverse dispersive behavior. A theoretical analysis is performed in order to establish the possibility of existence of single as well as three-site discrete breathers in such systems. The study is complemented by a numerical investigation based on experimentally provided potential forms. This investigation shows that a dusty plasma lattice can support single-site discrete breathers, while three-site in phase breathers could exist if specific conditions, about the intergrain interaction strength, would hold. On the other hand, out of phase and vortex three-site breathers cannot be supported since they are highly unstable.
Underwing compression vortex attenuation device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patterson, James C., Jr. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A vortex attenuation device is presented which dissipates a lift-induced vortex generated by a lifting aircraft wing. The device consists of a positive pressure gradient producing means in the form of a compression panel attached to the lower surface of the wing and facing perpendicular to the airflow across the wing. The panel is located between the midpoint of the local wing cord and the trailing edge in the chord-wise direction and at a point which is approximately 55 percent of the wing span as measured from the fuselage center line in the spanwise direction. When deployed in flight, this panel produces a positive pressure gradient aligned with the final roll-up of the total vortex system which interrupts the axial flow in the vortex core and causes the vortex to collapse.
Variable residence time vortex combustor
Melconian, Jerry O.
1987-01-01
A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.
Lift enhancement by trapped vortex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.
1992-01-01
The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turchak, L. I.
2012-10-01
The objective is the general review of impact of aircraft wake vortices on the follower aircraft encountering the wake. Currently, the presence of wake vortices past aircraft limits the airspace capacity and flight safety level for aircraft of different purposes. However, wake vortex nature and evolution have not been studied in full measure. A mathematical model simulating the process of near wake generation past bodies of different shapes, as well as the wake evolution after rolling-up into wake vortices (far wake) is developed. The processes are suggested to be modeled by means of the Method of Discrete Vortices. Far wake evolution is determined by its complex interaction with the atmosphere and ground boundary layer. The main factors that are supposed to take into account are: wind and ambient turbulence 3Ddistributions, temperature stratification of the atmosphere, wind shear, as well as some others which effects will be manifested as considerable during the investigation. The ground boundary layer effects on wake vortex evolution are substantial at low flight altitudes and are determined through the boundary layer separation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maines, Brant H.; Arndt, Roger E. A.
2000-11-01
Cavitation in vortical flows is a problem of practical importance, that is relatively unexplored. Vortical structures of importance range from the eddies occurring randomly in space and time in turbulent flows to the developed vortices that occur at the tips of lifting surfaces and at the hubs of propellers and hydraulic turbines. A variety of secondary flow phenomena such as the horse shoe vortices that form around bridge piers, chute blocks and struts, and the secondary vortices found in the clearance passages of turbomachinery are also important cavitation sites. Tip vortex cavitation can be viewed as a canonical problem that captures many of the essential physics associated with vortex cavitation in general. This paper describes the inception process and focuses on the high levels of tension that can be sustained in the flow, which appears to scale with the blade loading. High speed video visualization indicates that the details of how free stream nuclei are ingested plays a major role in the nucleation and inception process. A new photographic technique was used to obtain high quality images of the bubble growth process at framing rates as high as 40,000 fps. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research
Analytical solutions for rotating vortex arrays involving multiple vortex patches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowdy, Darren; Marshall, Jonathan
2005-01-01
A continous two-parameter family of analytical solutions to the Euler equations are presented representing a class of steadily rotating vortex arrays involving N+1 interacting vortex patches where N ≥ 3 is an integer. The solutions consist of a central vortex patch surrounded by an N-fold symmetric alternating array of satellite point vortices and vortex patches. One of the parameters governs the size of the central patch, the other governs the size of the N satellite patches. In the limit where the areas of the satellite vortex patches tend to zero, the solutions degenerate to the exact solutions of Crowdy (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 469, 2002, p. 209). Limiting states are found in which cusps form only on the central patch, only on the satellite patches, or simultaneously on both central and satellite patches. Contour dynamics simulations are used to check the mathematical solutions and test their robustness. The linear stability of a class of "point-vortex models" (in which the patches are replaced by point vortices) are also studied in order to examine the stability of the distributed-vorticity configurations to pure-displacement modes. On the other hand, a desingularization of all point vortices to Rankine vortices leads to a class of "quasi-equilibria" consisting purely of interacting vortex patches close to hydrodynamic equilibrium.
The VOrtex Ring Transit EXperiment (VORTEX) GAS project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bilen, Sven G.; Langenderfer, Lynn S.; Jardon, Rebecca D.; Cutlip, Hansford H.; Kazerooni, Alexander C.; Thweatt, Amber L.; Lester, Joseph L.; Bernal, Luis P.
1995-01-01
Get Away Special (GAS) payload G-093, also called VORTEX (VOrtex Ring Transit EXperiment), is an investigation of the propagation of a vortex ring through a liquid-gas interface in microgravity. This process results in the formation of one or more liquid droplets similar to earth based liquid atomization systems. In the absence of gravity, surface tension effects dominate the drop formation process. The Shuttle's microgravity environment allows the study of the same fluid atomization processes as using a larger drop size than is possible on Earth. This enables detailed experimental studies of the complex flow processes encountered in liquid atomization systems. With VORTEX, deformations in both the vortex ring and the fluid surface will be measured closely for the first time in a parameters range that accurately resembles liquid atomization. The experimental apparatus will record images of the interactions for analysis after the payload has been returned to earth. The current design of the VORTEX payload consists of a fluid test cell with a vortex ring generator, digital imaging system, laser illumination system, computer based controller, batteries for payload power, and an array of housekeeping and payload monitoring sensors. It is a self-contained experiment and will be flown on board the Space Shuttle in a 5 cubic feet GAS canister. The VORTEX Project is entirely run by students at the University of Michigan but is overseen by a faculty advisor acting as the payload customer and the contact person with NASA. This paper summarizes both the technical and programmatic aspects of the VORTEX Project.
Vortex wall dynamics and pinning in helical magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roostaei, Bahman
2014-06-01
Domain walls formed by one dimensional array of vortex lines have been recently predicted to exist in disordered helical magnets and multiferroics. These systems are on one hand analogues to the vortex line lattices in type-II superconductors while on the other hand they propagate in the magnetic medium as a domain boundary. Using a long wavelength approach supported by numerical optimization we lay out detailed theory for dynamics and structure of such topological fluctuations at zero temperature in presence of weak disorder. We show the interaction between vortex lines is weak. This is the direct consequence of the screening of the vorticity by helical background in the system. We explain how one can use this result to understand the elasticity of the wall with a vicinal surface approach. Also we show the internal degree of freedom of this array leads to the enhancement of its mobility. We present estimates for the interaction and mobility enhancements using the microscopic parameters of the system. Finally we determine the range of velocities/force densities in which the internal movement of the vortex wall can be effective in its dynamics.
Lattice gas and lattice Boltzmann computational physics
Chen, S.
1993-05-01
Recent developments of the lattice gas automata method and its extension to the lattice Boltzmann method have provided new computational schemes for solving a variety of partial differential equations and modeling different physics systems. The lattice gas method, regarded as the simplest microscopic and kinetic approach which generates meaningful macroscopic dynamics, is fully parallel and can be easily programmed on parallel machines. In this talk, the author will review basic principles of the lattice gas and lattice Boltzmann method, its mathematical foundation and its numerical implementation. A detailed comparison of the lattice Boltzmann method with the lattice gas technique and other traditional numerical schemes, including the finite-difference scheme and the pseudo-spectral method, for solving the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamic fluid flows, will be discussed. Recent achievements of the lattice gas and the the lattice Boltzmann method and their applications in surface phenomena, spinodal decomposition and pattern formation in chemical reaction-diffusion systems will be presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Paul
2006-01-01
A lattice is a (rectangular) grid of points, usually pictured as occurring at the intersections of two orthogonal sets of parallel, equally spaced lines. Polygons that have lattice points as vertices are called lattice polygons. It is clear that lattice polygons come in various shapes and sizes. A very small lattice triangle may cover just 3…
Vortex Matter in Highly Strained Nb_{75} Zr_{25} : Analogy with Viscous Flow of Disordered Solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandra, Jagdish; Manekar, Meghmalhar; Sharma, V. K.; Mondal, Puspen; Tiwari, Pragya; Roy, S. B.
2016-06-01
We present the results of magnetization and magneto-transport measurements in the superconducting state of an as-cast Nb_{75} Zr_{25} alloy. We also report the microstructure of our sample at various length scales by using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies. The information of microstructure is used to understand the flux pinning properties in the superconducting state within the framework of collective pinning. The magneto-transport measurements show a non-Arrhenius behaviour of the temperature- and field-dependent resistivity across the resistive transition and is understood in terms of a model for viscous flow of disordered solids which is popularly known as the `shoving model'. The activation energy for flux flow is assumed to be mainly the elastic energy stored in the flux-line lattice. The scaling of pinning force density indicates the presence of two pinning mechanisms of different origins. The elastic constants of the flux-line lattice are used to estimate the length scale of vortex lattice movement, or the volume displaced by the flux-line lattice. It appears that the vortex lattice displacement estimated from elastic energy considerations is of the same order of magnitude as that of the flux bundle hopping length during flux flow. Our results could provide possible directions for establishing a framework where vortex matter and glass-forming liquids or amorphous solids can be treated in a similar manner for understanding the phenomenon of viscous flow in disordered solids or more generally the pinning and depinning properties of elastic manifolds in random media. It is likely that the vortex molasses scenario is more suited to explain the vortex dynamics in conventional low-T_C superconductors.
Numerical study of vortex reconnection
Ashurst, W.T.; Meiron, D.I.
1987-04-20
With a Biot-Savart model of vortex filaments to provide initial conditions, a finite difference scheme for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is used in the region of closest approach of two vortex rings. In the Navier-Stokes solution, we see that the low pressure which develops between the interacting vorticity regions causes the distortion of the initially circular vortex cross section and forces the rearrangement of vorticity on a convective time scale which is much faster than that estimated from viscous transport.
Josephson-vortex Cherenkov radiation
Mints, R.G.; Snapiro, I.B.
1995-10-01
We predict the Josephson-vortex Cherenkov radiation of an electromagnetic wave. We treat a long one-dimensional Josephson junction. We consider the wavelength of the radiated electromagnetic wave to be much less than the Josephson penetration depth. We use for calculations the nonlocal Josephson electrodynamics. We find the expression for the radiated power and for the radiation friction force acting on a Josephson vortex and arising due to the Cherenkov radiation. We calculate the relation between the density of the bias current and the Josephson vortex velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faller, Alan J.
2001-05-01
It has been found that the generation of swirl by a continuous rotary oscillation of a right-circular cylinder partially filled with water can leave a vortex with a radially constant tangential velocity, V, i.e. [partial partial differential]V/[partial partial differential]r = 0, excepting a small central core and the sidewall boundary layer. This vortex maintains [partial partial differential]V/[partial partial differential]r = 0 during viscous decay by the turbulent bottom boundary layer, a fact that suggests that [partial partial differential]V/[partial partial differential]r = 0 is a stable condition for a decaying vortex.
Bathtub vortex induced by instability.
Mizushima, Jiro; Abe, Kazuki; Yokoyama, Naoto
2014-10-01
The driving mechanism and the swirl direction of the bathtub vortex are investigated by the linear stability analysis of the no-vortex flow as well as numerical simulations. We find that only systems having plane symmetries with respect to vertical planes deserve research for the swirl direction. The bathtub vortex appearing in a vessel with a rectangular cross section having a drain hole at the center of the bottom is proved to be induced by instability when the flow rate exceeds a threshold. The Coriolis force is capable of determining the swirl direction to be cyclonic. PMID:25375427
Holographic Vortex Coronagraph
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palacios, David
2010-01-01
A holographic vortex coronagraph (HVC) has been proposed as an improvement over conventional coronagraphs for use in high-contrast astronomical imaging for detecting planets, dust disks, and other broadband light scatterers in the vicinities of stars other than the Sun. Because such light scatterers are so faint relative to their parent stars, in order to be able to detect them, it is necessary to effect ultra-high-contrast (typically by a factor of the order of 1010) suppression of broadband light from the stars. Unfortunately, the performances of conventional coronagraphs are limited by low throughput, dispersion, and difficulty of satisfying challenging manufacturing requirements. The HVC concept offers the potential to overcome these limitations.
Chesi, Stefano; Jaffe, Arthur; Loss, Daniel; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.
2013-11-15
We investigate the role that vortex loops play in characterizing eigenstates of interacting Majoranas. We give some general results and then focus on ladder Hamiltonian examples as a test of further ideas. Two methods yield exact results: (i) A mapping of certain spin Hamiltonians to quartic interactions of Majoranas shows that the spectra of these two examples coincide. (ii) In cases with reflection-symmetric Hamiltonians, we use reflection positivity for Majoranas to characterize vortices in the ground states. Two additional methods suggest wider applicability of these results: (iii) Numerical evidence suggests similar behavior for certain systems without reflection symmetry. (iv) A perturbative analysis also suggests similar behavior without the assumption of reflection symmetry.
Vortex operator and BKT transition in Abelian duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chern, Tong
2016-04-01
We give a new simple derivation for the sine-Gordon description of Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition. Our derivation is simpler than traditional derivations. Besides, our derivation is a continuous field theoretic derivation by using path integration, different from the traditional derivations which are based on lattice theory or based on Coulomb gas model. Our new derivation relies on Abelian duality of two dimensional quantum field theory. By utilizing this duality in path integration, we find that the vortex configurations are naturally mapped to exponential operators in dual description. Since these operators are the vortex operators that can create vortices, the sine-Gordon description then naturally follows. Our method may be useful for the investigation to the BKT physics of superconductors.
Vortex creep in TFA-YBCO nanocomposite films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouco, V.; Bartolomé, E.; Maiorov, B.; Palau, A.; Civale, L.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.
2014-11-01
Vortex creep in YBa2Cu3O7 - x (YBCO) films grown from the trifluoracetate (TFA) chemical route with BaZrO3 and Ba2YTaO6 second-phase nanoparticles (NPs) has been investigated by magnetic relaxation measurements. We observe that in YBCO nanocomposites the phenomenological crossover line from the elastic to the plastic creep regime is shifted to higher magnetic fields and temperatures. The origin of this shift lies on the new isotropic-strong vortex pinning contribution appearing in these nanocomposites, induced by local lattice distortions. As a consequence, we demonstrate that the addition of non-coherent NPs produces a decrease in the creep rate S in most of the phase diagram, particularly, in the range of fields and temperatures (T\\gt 60 K, {{μ }0}H\\gt 0.5 T) relevant for large scale applications.
Helimagnons in the skyrmion lattice of MnSi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janoschek, M.; Jonietz, F.; Link, P.; Pfleiderer, C.; Böni, P.
2010-01-01
In MnSi the application of a small magnetic field destabilizes the helimagnetic order in a narrow temperature interval just below the helimagnetic ordering temperature and stabilizes the formation of a hexagonal lattice of skyrmions, i.e., a lattice composed of a type of magnetic vortex lines. We have studied the skyrmion lattice in MnSi using a cold triple-axis spectrometer. Our data suggests that the skyrmion lattice represents a three-dimensional spin structure. The collective spin excitations of the skyrmion lattice are strongly reminiscent of the rich spectrum of helimagnon bands, recently shown to be a universal property of the helimagnetic state of MnSi in zero magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Z. Z.; Ma, Y. L.
2007-01-01
The minimal energy configurations of finite Nv-body vortices in a rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate is studied analytically by extending the previous work [Y. Castin, R. Dum, Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 399 (1999)], and taking into account the finite size effects on z-direction and the bending of finite vortex lines. The calculation of the energy of the vortices as a function of the rotation frequency of the trap gives number, curvature, configuration of vortices and width of vortex cores self-consistently. The numerical results show that (1) the simplest regular polynomial of the several vortex configurations is energetically favored; while the hexagonal vortex lattice is more stable than square lattice; (2) bending is more stable then straight vortex line along the z-axis for λ<1; (3) the boundary effect is obvious: compared with the estimation made under infinite boundary, the finite size effect leads to a lower vortex density, while the adding vortex bending results in a less higher density because of the expansion. The results are in well agreement with the other authors' ones.
New omega vortex identification method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, ChaoQun; Wang, YiQian; Yang, Yong; Duan, ZhiWei
2016-08-01
A new vortex identification criterion called Ω-method is proposed based on the ideas that vorticity overtakes deformation in vortex. The comparison with other vortex identification methods like Q-criterion and λ 2-method is conducted and the advantages of the new method can be summarized as follows: (1) the method is able to capture vortex well and very easy to perform; (2) the physical meaning of Ω is clear while the interpretations of iso-surface values of Q and λ 2 chosen to visualize vortices are obscure; (3) being different from Q and λ 2 iso-surface visualization which requires wildly various thresholds to capture the vortex structure properly, Ω is pretty universal and does not need much adjustment in different cases and the iso-surfaces of Ω=0.52 can always capture the vortices properly in all the cases at different time steps, which we investigated; (4) both strong and weak vortices can be captured well simultaneously while improper Q and λ 2 threshold may lead to strong vortex capture while weak vortices are lost or weak vortices are captured but strong vortices are smeared; (5) Ω=0.52 is a quantity to approximately define the vortex boundary. Note that, to calculate Ω, the length and velocity must be used in the non-dimensional form. From our direct numerical simulation, it is found that the vorticity direction is very different from the vortex rotation direction in general 3-D vortical flow, the Helmholtz velocity decomposition is reviewed and vorticity is proposed to be further decomposed to vortical vorticity and non-vortical vorticity.
Discrete vortex representation of magnetohydrodynamics
Kinney, R.; Tajima, T.; Petviashvili, N.; McWilliams, J.C.
1993-02-01
We present an alternative approach to statistical analysis of an intermittent ideal MHD fluid in two dimensions, based on the hydrodynamical discrete vortex model applied to the Elsasser variables. The model contains negative temperature states which predict the formation of magnetic islands, but also includes a natural limit under which the equilibrium states revert to the familiar twin-vortex states predicted by hydrodynamical turbulence theories. Numerical dynamical calculations yield equilibrium spectra in agreement with the theoretical predictions.
Instability of spiral convective vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evgrafova, Anna; Andrey, Sukhanovsky; Elena, Popova
2014-05-01
Formation of large-scale vortices in atmosphere is one of the interesting problems of geophysical fluid dynamics. Tropical cyclones are examples of atmospheric spiral vortices for which convection plays an important role in their formation and evolution. Our study is focused on intensive cyclonic vortex produced by heating in the central part of the rotating layer. The previous studies made by Bogatyrev et al, showed that structure of such vortex is very similar to the structure of tropical cyclones. Qualitative observations described in (Bogatyrev, 2009) showed that the evolution of large-scale vortex in extreme regimes can be very complicated. Our main goal is the study of evolution of convective cyclonic vortex at high values of Grasshof number by PIV system. Experimental setup is a rotating cylindrical tank of fluid (radius 150 mm, depth 30 mm, free upper surface). Velocity fields for different values of heat flux were obtained and temporal and spatial structure of intensive convective vortex were studied in details. With the use of PIV data vorticity fields were reconstructed in different horizontal cross-sections. Physical interpretation of mechanisms that lead to the crucial change in the vortex structure with the growth of heat rate is described. Financial support from program of UD RAS, the International Research Group Program supported by Perm region Government is gratefully acknowledged.
VORTEX MIGRATION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS
Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Lesur, Geoffroy; Papaloizou, John C. B.
2010-12-10
We consider the radial migration of vortices in two-dimensional isothermal gaseous disks. We find that a vortex core, orbiting at the local gas velocity, induces velocity perturbations that propagate away from the vortex as density waves. The resulting spiral wave pattern is reminiscent of an embedded planet. There are two main causes for asymmetries in these wakes: geometrical effects tend to favor the outer wave, while a radial vortensity gradient leads to an asymmetric vortex core, which favors the wave at the side that has the lowest density. In the case of asymmetric waves, which we always find except for a disk of constant pressure, there is a net exchange of angular momentum between the vortex and the surrounding disk, which leads to orbital migration of the vortex. Numerical hydrodynamical simulations show that this migration can be very rapid, on a timescale of a few thousand orbits, for vortices with a size comparable to the scale height of the disk. We discuss the possible effects of vortex migration on planet formation scenarios.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malcolm, Gerald N.
Because conventional fighter aircraft control surfaces (e.g. rudder) become ineffective at high angles of attack, alternate means of providing aerodynamic control are being explored. A prime potential source for improved control power is the vortex flowfield existing on typical fighter aircraft forebodies. Several techniques to manipulate the forebody vortices to produce controlled forces and moments at high angles of attack have been investigated by a number of researchers in the past few years. This paper reviews some of the reported research results and discusses the merits of several methods applied directly to the forebody, including: (1) movable strakes, (2) blowing surface jets, (3) blowing and suction through surface slots, (4) suction through surface holes, and (5) miniaturized rotatable tip strakes. All of these were found to be effective over a varying range of angles of attack and sideslip. Most of the methods work on the basis of boundary layer separation control. The presence of closely spaced forebody vortices enhances the effectiveness since controlling the separation controls the vortices which, in turn, creates large changes in the forebody forces. Regardless of which method is employed, the maximum effectiveness is realized if it is applied near the forebody tip. The advantage of one method over another will depend on the configuration and specific performance requirements.
Regimes of flow past a vortex generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velte, C. M.; Okulov, V. L.; Naumov, I. V.
2012-04-01
A complete parametric investigation of the development of multi-vortex regimes in a wake past simple vortex generator has been carried out. It is established that the vortex structure in the wake is much more complicated than a simple monopole tip vortex. The vortices were studied by stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV). Based on the obtained SPIV data, a map of the regimes of flow past the vortex generator has been constructed. One region with a developed stable multivortex system on this map reaches the vicinity of the optimum angle of attack of the vortex generator.
Arrays of Gaussian vortex, Bessel and Airy beams by computer-generated hologram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yang; Jiang, Bo; Lü, Shuchao; Liu, Yongqi; Li, Shasha; Cao, Zheng; Qi, Xinyuan
2016-03-01
We generate various kinds of arrays of Gaussian vortex, Bessel and Airy beams, respectively, with digital phase holograms (DPH) based on the fractional-Talbot effect by using the phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). The linear and nonlinear transmissions of these beam arrays in strontium barium niobate (SBN) crystal are investigated numerically and experimentally. Compared with Gaussian vortex arrays, Bessel and Airy beam arrays can keep their patterns unchanged in over 20 mm, realizing non-diffracting transmission. The Fourier spectra (far-field diffraction patterns) of the lattices are also studied. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.
VORTEX CREEP AGAINST TOROIDAL FLUX LINES, CRUSTAL ENTRAINMENT, AND PULSAR GLITCHES
Gügercinoğlu, Erbil; Alpar, M. Ali E-mail: alpar@sabanciuniv.edu
2014-06-10
A region of toroidally oriented quantized flux lines must exist in the proton superconductor in the core of the neutron star. This region will be a site of vortex pinning and creep. Entrainment of the neutron superfluid with the crustal lattice leads to a requirement of superfluid moment of inertia associated with vortex creep in excess of the available crustal moment of inertia. This will bring about constraints on the equation of state. The toroidal flux region provides the moment of inertia necessary to complement the crust superfluid with postglitch relaxation behavior fitting the observations.
Vortex Flows at Supersonic Speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.
2003-01-01
A review of research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data are for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft with Mach numbers of 1.5 to 4.6. Data are presented to show the types of vortex structures that occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures on vehicle performance and control. The data show the presence of both small- and large-scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices. Data are shown that highlight the effect of leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. Finally, a discussion of a design approach for wings that use vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speeds is presented.
Vortex Formation in Shallow Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rockwell, Donald
2006-11-01
Vortical structures having a scale much larger than the depth of the flow, which arise in bluff body wakes, jets, and mixing layers generated in shallow layers, show distinctive features due to the influence of bed friction. Cinema techniques of high-image-density particle image velocimetry are employed to characterize quasi-two-dimensional and three-dimensional aspects of the vortex development in terms of: patterns of vorticity; flow topology involving definition of critical points; and global spectral and cross-spectral analyses, based on simultaneous time records at thousands of grid points of the cinema imaging. Taken together, these representations lead to an understanding of the relationship between coherent vortex development and unsteadiness along the bed and, furthermore, provide a basis for exploration of concepts generic to separated shear layers in shallow flows. These concepts include: suppression of a primary mode of vortex formation due to bed friction and emergence of another mode; resonant coupling between a gravity wave of the shallow layer and vortex formation, leading to large-scale vortices; and passive and active (open loop) control, which can either retard or enhance the onset of vortex formation. These studies suggest opportunities for further investigation on both experimental and numerical fronts. Collaboration with Haojun Fu, Alis Ekmekci, Jung-Chang Lin, and Muammer Ozgoren is gratefully acknowledged.
NASA aircraft trailing vortex research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgowan, W. A.
1971-01-01
A brief description is given of NASA's comprehensive program to study the aircraft trailing vortex problem. Wind tunnel experiments are used to develop the detailed processes of wing tip vortex formation and explore different means to either prevent trailing vortices from forming or induce early break-up. Flight tests provide information on trailing vortex system behavior behind large transport aircraft, both near the ground, as in the vicinity of the airport, and at cruise/holding pattern altitudes. Results from some flight tests are used to show how pilots might avoid the dangerous areas when flying in the vicinity of large transport aircraft. Other flight tests will be made to verify and evaluate trailing vortex elimination schemes developed in the model tests. Laser Doppler velocimeters being developed for use in the research program and to locate and measure vortex winds in the airport area are discussed. Field tests have shown that the laser Doppler velocimeter measurements compare well with those from cup anemometers.
Geometries of Karman Vortex Street
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roushan, Pedram; Wu, X. L.
2004-03-01
The Bénard-von Kármán vortex street is studied in a flowing soap film channel. The two-dimensional fluid flow in the film allows stable vortex streets to be generated and investigated over a broad range of Reynolds numbers, 10
GREEN'S FUNCTIONS OF VORTEX OPERATORS
Polchinski, Joseph
1980-08-01
We study the Euclidean Green's functions of the 't Hooft vortex operator, primarily for Abelian gauge theories. The operator is written in terms of elementary fields, with emphasis on a form in which it appears as the exponential of a surface integral, We explore the requirement that the Green's functions depend only on the boundary of this surface, The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise, We present a two dimensional ''solvable model" of a Dirac string, which suggests a new solution of the veto problem. The renormalization of the Green's functions of the Abelian Wilson loop and Abelian vortex operator is studied with the aid of the operator product expansion. In each case. an overall multiplication of the operator makes all Green's functions finite; a surprising cancellation of divergences occurs with the vortex operator. We present a brief discussion of the relation between the nature of the vacuum and the cluster properties of the Green's functions of the Wilson and vortex operators. for a general gauge theory. The surface-like cluster property of the vortex operator in an Abelian Higgs theory is explored in more detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López Ariste, A.; Centeno, R.; Khomenko, E.
2016-06-01
Context. Waves in the magnetized solar atmosphere are one of the favourite means of transferring and depositing energy into the solar corona. The study of waves brings information not just on the dynamics of the magnetized plasma, but also on the possible ways in which the corona is heated. Aims: The identification and analysis of the phase singularities or dislocations provide us with a complementary approach to the magnetoacoustic and Aflvén waves propagating in the solar atmosphere. They allow us to identify individual wave modes, shedding light on the probability of excitation or the nature of the triggering mechanism. Methods: We use a time series of Doppler shifts measured in two spectral lines, filtered around the three-minute period region. The data show a propagating magnetoacoustic slow mode with several dislocations and, in particular, a vortex line. We study under what conditions the different wave modes propagating in the umbra can generate the observed dislocations. Results: The observed dislocations can be fully interpreted as a sequence of sausage and kink modes excited sequentially on average during 15 min. Kink and sausage modes appear to be excited independently and sequentially. The transition from one to the other lasts less than three minutes. During the transition we observe and model the appearance of superoscillations inducing large phase gradients and phase mixing. Conclusions: The analysis of the observed wave dislocations leads us to the identification of the propagating wave modes in umbrae. The identification in the data of superoscillatory regions during the transition from one mode to the other may be an important indicator of the location of wave dissipation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward; Gainer, Thomas G.
1989-01-01
The boundary value problem for vortex separation at zero sideslip on cones and tangent ogives is set up by means of a discrete vortex model. The nonlinear algebraic equations for the boundary value problem admit multiple, physically feasible solutions, including the symmetric and asymmetric vortex solutions. Multiple solutions are proposed as an alternative explanation of the existence of asymmetric vortex separation at zero sideslip.
Analysis and control of asymmetric vortex flows and supersonic vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.
1991-01-01
Topics relative to the analysis and control of asymmetric vortex flow and supersonic vortex breakdown are discussed. Specific topics include the computation of compressible, quasi-axisymmetric slender vortex flow and breakdown; supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown; and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes asymmetric solutions for cones and cone-cylinder configurations.
Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle
Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige
2016-01-01
The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core–shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems. PMID:26907639
Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle.
Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige
2016-01-01
The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core-shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems. PMID:26907639
Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations
Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.
2014-01-01
Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan–out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT). PMID:24531235
Vortex breakdown incipience: Theoretical considerations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berger, Stanley A.; Erlebacher, Gordon
1992-01-01
The sensitivity of the onset and the location of vortex breakdowns in concentrated vortex cores, and the pronounced tendency of the breakdowns to migrate upstream have been characteristic observations of experimental investigations; they have also been features of numerical simulations and led to questions about the validity of these simulations. This behavior seems to be inconsistent with the strong time-like axial evolution of the flow, as expressed explicitly, for example, by the quasi-cylindrical approximate equations for this flow. An order-of-magnitude analysis of the equations of motion near breakdown leads to a modified set of governing equations, analysis of which demonstrates that the interplay between radial inertial, pressure, and viscous forces gives an elliptic character to these concentrated swirling flows. Analytical, asymptotic, and numerical solutions of a simplified non-linear equation are presented; these qualitatively exhibit the features of vortex onset and location noted above.
Vortex methods for separated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, Philippe R.
1988-01-01
The numerical solution of the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations by Lagrangian vortex methods is discussed. The mathematical background is presented and includes the relationship with traditional point-vortex studies, convergence to smooth solutions of the Euler equations, and the essential differences between two and three-dimensional cases. The difficulties in extending the method to viscous or compressible flows are explained. Two-dimensional flows around bluff bodies are emphasized. Robustness of the method and the assessment of accuracy, vortex-core profiles, time-marching schemes, numerical dissipation, and efficient programming are treated. Operation counts for unbounded and periodic flows are given, and two algorithms designed to speed up the calculations are described.
Ground vortex flow field investigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhn, Richard E.; Delfrate, John H.; Eshleman, James E.
1988-01-01
Flow field investigations were conducted at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility (water tunnel) to investigate the ground effect produced by the impingement of jets from aircraft nozzles on a ground board in a STOL operation. Effects on the overall flow field with both a stationary and a moving ground board were photographed and compared with similar data found in other references. Nozzle jet impingement angles, nozzle and inlet interaction, side-by-side nozzles, nozzles in tandem, and nozzles and inlets mounted on a flat plate model were investigated. Results show that the wall jet that generates the ground effect is unsteady and the boundary between the ground vortex flow field and the free-stream flow is unsteady. Additionally, the forward projection of the ground vortex flow field with a moving ground board is one-third less than that measured over a fixed ground board. Results also showed that inlets did not alter the ground vortex flow field.
Wagenleithner, P.
1982-07-01
One of the major problems in the application of type II superconductors is the appearance of resistivity in case where a current-carrying specimen is in a longitudinal magnetic field. This is explained by the onset of flux-line cutting events, followed by cross-joining of the line parts. The calculation given here shows the amount of repulsive force and energy between two curved vortex lines and examines the general stability of the vortex-vortex system. First, the actual interaction potential between curved vortices is computed. It includes all electromagnetic and core overlap terms of interactions and self-interaction, and allows computation of the system energy under all curved vortex-line configurations. A computer program is used to find the form of lowest free energy. To do this, special trial functions are established to describe the three-dimensional form of the vortex-vortex system. In these functions parameters determine the qualitative and quantitative form. The asymptotic boundary conditions are built into the nature of the trial functions. The computer program now minimizes the free energy with respect to these parameters. The resulting repulsive energy and force are more than ten times less than the known results for straight flux lines, especially for small asymptotic cutting angles. There is no sharp maximum in the plot of repulsive force versus flux-line separation. A remarkable results is the loss of general stability below a separation distance of several London penetration depths, depending on the cutting angle and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter. The explanation lies in the local attraction of central sections of the vortices as a result of configurational adaption. This explains the onset of resistance at small currents and small magnetic fields.
Coulombic contribution and fat center vortex model
Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Deldar, Sedigheh
2007-02-27
The fat (thick) center vortex model is one of the phenomenological models which is fairly successful to interpret the linear potential between static sources. However, the Coulombic part of the potential has not been investigated by the model yet. In an attempt to get the Coulombic contribution and to remove the concavity of the potentials, we are studying different vortex profiles and vortex sizes.
Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors.
Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu
2016-07-01
We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required. PMID:27447507
Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors
Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, Andras J
2008-01-01
We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.
Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu
2016-07-01
We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required.
Experimental Realization of Artificial Skyrmion Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilbert, Dustin; Maranville, Brian; Balk, Andrew L.; Kirby, Brian J.; Fischer, Peter; Pierce, Daniel T.; Unguris, John; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai
2015-03-01
Magnetic skyrmions exhibit topologically protected states, offering new mechanisms for high density/low dissipation information storage, and also exhibiting a host of unique topological phenomena. In bulk crystals, chiral spin textures are only found in certain systems and in limited regions in the temperature-magnetic field parameter space. We present experimental evidence of room-temperature artificially structured skyrmion lattices fabricated by carefully controlling the three dimensional anisotropy of a Co on Co/Pd hybrid structure. The hybrid structures were fabricated by patterning chirality controlled vortex-state Co nanodot arrays on top of a Co/Pd multilayer with perpendicular anisotropy; chirality control was confirmed by microscopy and magnetometry. The vortex polarity is set by an external magnetic field to manifest the skyrmion state, and confirmed by magnetometry measurements. The chiral structure of the nanodots is imprinted into the Co/Pd underlayer, as revealed by polarized neutron reflectometry and spin-transport studies. These artificial skyrmion lattices offer a convenient platform to explore skyrmion physics. This work has been supported by the NSF (DMR-1008791 and ECCS-1232275).
Realization of Ground State Artificial Skyrmion Lattices at Room Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilbert, Dustin A.; Maranville, Brian B.; Balk, Andrew J.; Kirby, Brian J.; Pierce, Daniel T.; Unguris, John; Borchers, Julie A.; Fischer, Peter; Liu, Kai
Artificial skyrmion lattices stable at ambient conditions offer a convenient and powerful platform to explore skyrmion physics and topological phenomena and motivates their inclusion in next-generation data and logic devices. In this work we present direct experimental evidence of artificial skyrmion lattices with a stable ground state at room temperature. Our approach is to pattern vortex-state Co nanodots (560 nm diameter) in hexagonal arrays on top of a Co/Pd multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy; the skyrmion state is prepared using a specific magnetic field sequence. Ion irradiation has been employed to suppress PMA in the underlayer and allow imprinting of the vortex structure from the nanodots to form skyrmion lattices, as revealed by polarized neutron reflectometry. Circularity control is realized through Co dot shape asymmetry, and confirmed by microscopy and FORC magnetometry. The vortex polarity is set during the field sequence and confirmed by magnetometry. Spin-transport studies further demonstrate a sensitivity to the skyrmion spin texture.Work supported by NSF (DMR-1008791, ECCS-1232275 and DMR-1543582)
Magnetic coupling of vortices in a two-dimensional lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nissen, D.; Mitin, D.; Klein, O.; Arekapudi, S. S. P. K.; Thomas, S.; Im, M.-Y.; Fischer, P.; Albrecht, M.
2015-11-01
We investigated the magnetization reversal of magnetic vortex structures in a two-dimensional lattice. The structures were formed by permalloy (Py) film deposition onto large arrays of self-assembled spherical SiO2-particles with a diameter of 330 nm. We present the dependence of the nucleation and annihilation field of the vortex structures as a function of the Py layer thickness (aspect ratio) and temperature. By increasing the Py thickness up to 90 nm or alternatively by lowering the temperature the vortex structure becomes more stable as expected. However, the increase of the Py thickness results in the onset of strong exchange coupling between neighboring Py caps due to the emergence of Py bridges connecting them. In particular, we studied the influence of magnetic coupling locally by in-field scanning magneto-resistive microscopy and full-field magnetic soft x-ray microscopy, revealing a domain-like nucleation process of vortex states, which arises via domain wall propagation due to exchange coupling of the closely packed structures. By analyzing the rotation sense of the reversed areas, large connected domains are present with the same circulation sense. Furthermore, the lateral core displacements when an in-plane field is applied were investigated, revealing spatially enlarged vortex cores and a broader distribution with increasing Py layer thickness. In addition, the presence of some mixed states, vortices and c-states, is indicated for the array with the thickest Py layer.
Magnetic coupling of vortices in a two dimensional lattice.
Nissen, D; Mitin, D; Klein, O; Arekapudi, S S P K; Thomas, S; Im, M-Y; Fischer, P; Albrecht, M
2015-11-20
We investigated the magnetization reversal of magnetic vortex structures in a two-dimensional lattice. The structures were formed by permalloy (Py) film deposition onto large arrays of self assembled spherical SiO(2)-particles with a diameter of 330 nm. We present the dependence of the nucleation and annihilation field of the vortex structures as a function of the Py layer thickness(aspect ratio) and temperature. By increasing the Py thickness up to 90 nm or alternatively by lowering the temperature the vortex structure becomes more stable as expected. However, the increase of the Py thickness results in the onset of strong exchange coupling between neighboring Py caps due to the emergence of Py bridges connecting them. In particular, we studied the influence of magnetic coupling locally by in-field scanning magne to-resistive microscopy and full-field magnetic soft x-ray microscopy, revealing a domain-like nucleation process of vortex states, which arises via domain wall propagation due to exchange coupling of the closely packed structures. By analyzing the rotation sense of the reversed areas, large connected domains are present with the same circulation sense. Furthermore, the lateral core displacements when an in-plane field is applied were investigated, revealing spatially enlarged vortex cores and a broader distribution with increasing Py layer thickness. In addition, the presence of some mixed states, vortices and c-states, is indicated for the array with the thickest Py layer. PMID:26511585
Soft vortex matter in a type-I/type-II superconducting bilayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komendová, L.; Milošević, M. V.; Peeters, F. M.
2013-09-01
Magnetic flux patterns are known to strongly differ in the intermediate state of type-I and type-II superconductors. Using a type-I/type-II bilayer we demonstrate hybridization of these flux phases into a plethora of unique new ones. Owing to a complicated multibody interaction between individual fluxoids, many different intriguing patterns are possible under applied magnetic field, such as few-vortex clusters, vortex chains, mazes, or labyrinthal structures resembling the phenomena readily encountered in soft-matter physics. However, in our system the patterns are tunable by sample parameters, magnetic field, current, and temperature, which reveals transitions from short-range clustering to long-range ordered phases such as parallel chains, gels, glasses, and crystalline vortex lattices, or phases where lamellar type-I flux domains in one layer serve as a bedding potential for type-II vortices in the other, configurations clearly beyond the soft-matter analogy.
Vortex structures of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in an anisotropic harmonic potential
Matveenko, S. I.
2010-09-15
We found an analytical solution for the vortex structure in a rapidly rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate in the lowest Landau level approximation. This solution is exact in the limit of a large number of vortices and is obtained for the case of a condensate in a anisotropic harmonic potential. The solution describes as limiting cases both a triangle vortex lattice in the symmetric potential trap and a quasi-one-dimensional structure of vortex rows in an asymmetric case, when the rotation frequency is very close to the lower trapping potential frequency. The shape of the density profile is found to be close to the Thomas-Fermi inverted paraboloid form, except in the vicinity of edges of a condensate cloud.
Vortex fluctuation in HgBa 2Ca 3Cu 4O 10+δ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Mun-Seog; Kim, Wan-Seon; Lee, Sung-Ik; Yu, Seong-Cho; Itskevich, E. S.; Kuzemskaya, I.
1997-08-01
Reversible magnetization with the external magnetic fields of 1 T ≤ H ≤ 5 T parallel to the c-axis has been measured for the grain aligned HgBa2Ca3Cu4O10+δ. A strong vortex fluctuation effect was clearly observed and the magnetization is well described by the vortex fluctuation model. From this analysis, the penetration depth λab(0) = 1583 Å and the effective interlayer spacing s = 44.6 Å were estimated. However, the value of s is significantly larger than the lattice parameter c = 19 Å, which is different from the prediction of the vortex fluctuation model. From the model on superconducting fluctuations proposed by Koshelev, in which not only the critical fluctuations at the lowest Landau level but also the Gaussian fluctuations at higher Landau levels were considered, the different value of s = 15.4 Å was obtained.
Quantized Vortex State in hcp Solid 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubota, Minoru
2012-11-01
The quantized vortex state appearing in the recently discovered new states in hcp 4He since their discovery (Kim and Chan, Nature, 427:225-227, 2004; Science, 305:1941, 2004) is discussed. Special attention is given to evidence for the vortex state as the vortex fluid (VF) state (Anderson, Nat. Phys., 3:160-162, 2007; Phys. Rev. Lett., 100:215301, 2008; Penzev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 101:065301, 2008; Nemirovskii et al., arXiv:0907.0330, 2009) and its transition into the supersolid (SS) state (Shimizu et al., arXiv:0903.1326, 2009; Kubota et al., J. Low Temp. Phys., 158:572-577, 2010; J. Low Temp. Phys., 162:483-491, 2011). Its features are described. The historical explanations (Reatto and Chester, Phys. Rev., 155(1):88-100, 1967; Chester, Phys. Rev. A, 2(1):256-258, 1970; Andreev and Lifshitz, JETP Lett., 29:1107-1113, 1969; Leggett, Phys. Rev. Lett., 25(22), 1543-1546, 1970; Matsuda and Tsuneto, Prog. Theor. Phys., 46:411-436, 1970) for the SS state in quantum solids such as solid 4He were based on the idea of Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC) of the imperfections such as vacancies, interstitials and other possible excitations in the quantum solids which are expected because of the large zero-point motions. The SS state was proposed as a new state of matter in which real space ordering of the lattice structure of the solid coexists with the momentum space ordering of superfluidity. A new type of superconductors, since the discovery of the cuprate high T c superconductors, HTSCs (Bednorz and Mueller, Z. Phys., 64:189, 1986), has been shown to share a feature with the vortex state, involving the VF and vortex solid states. The high T c s of these materials are being discussed in connection to the large fluctuations associated with some other phase transitions like the antiferromagnetic transition in addition to that of the low dimensionality. The supersolidity in the hcp solid 4He, in contrast to the new superconductors which have multiple degrees of freedom of
Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Yang, Jinho; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Yeom, Han Woong; Kim, Jeehoon
2015-07-31
We present a local probe study of the magnetic superconductor ErNi_{2}B_{2}C, using magnetic force microscopy at sub-Kelvin temperatures. ErNi_{2}B_{2}C is an ideal system to explore the effects of concomitant superconductivity and ferromagnetism. At 500 mK, far below the transition to a weakly ferromagnetic state, we directly observe a structured magnetic background on the micrometer scale. We determine spatially resolved absolute values of the magnetic penetration depth λ and study its temperature dependence as the system undergoes magnetic phase transitions from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic, and to weak ferromagnetic, all within the superconducting regime. We estimate the absolute pinning force of Abrikosov vortices, which shows a position dependence and temperature dependence as well, and discuss the possibility of the purported spontaneous vortex formation.
Bouquet, F.; Calemczuk, R.; Crabtree, G. W.; Erb, A.; Fisher, R. A.; Junod, A.; Kwok, W. K.; Marcenat, C.; Phillips, N. E.; Roulin, M.; Schilling, A.; Welp, U.
1999-08-17
We have studied the vortex phase diagram of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) in very strong magnetic field (0-26 Tesla) by a.c. calorimetry. We describe the anomalies associated with the transitions between the different vortex states (solid, liquid, and glass), with special emphasis on the first order flux lattice melting.
Evolution of a plasma vortex in air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Chu, Hong-Yu
2016-01-01
We report the generation of a vortex-shaped plasma in air by using a capacitively coupled dielectric barrier discharge system. We show that a vortex-shaped plasma can be produced inside a helium gas vortex and is capable of propagating for 3 cm. The fluctuation of the plasma ring shows a scaling relation with the Reynolds number of the vortex. The transient discharge reveals the property of corona discharge, where the conducting channel within the gas vortex and the blur plasma emission are observed at each half voltage cycle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, B. G.
1986-01-01
Liquid/gas separator vents gas from tank of liquid that contains gas randomly distributed in bubbles. Centrifugal force separates liquid and gas, forcing liquid out of vortex tube through venturi tube. Gas vented through exhaust port. When liquid detected in vent tube, exhaust port closed, and liquid/gas mixture in vent tube drawn back into tank through venturi.
The 1987 Ground Vortex Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Margason, Richard J. (Editor)
1988-01-01
The purpose of this workshop was to discuss the current understanding of the ground vortex phenomena and their effects on aircraft, and to establish directions for further research on advanced, high-performance aircraft designs, particularly those concepts utilizing powered-lift systems; e.g., V/STOL. ASTOVL, and STOL aircraft.
Perturbative theory for Brownian vortexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moyses, Henrique W.; Bauer, Ross O.; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.
2015-06-01
Brownian vortexes are stochastic machines that use static nonconservative force fields to bias random thermal fluctuations into steadily circulating currents. The archetype for this class of systems is a colloidal sphere in an optical tweezer. Trapped near the focus of a strongly converging beam of light, the particle is displaced by random thermal kicks into the nonconservative part of the optical force field arising from radiation pressure, which then biases its diffusion. Assuming the particle remains localized within the trap, its time-averaged trajectory traces out a toroidal vortex. Unlike trivial Brownian vortexes, such as the biased Brownian pendulum, which circulate preferentially in the direction of the bias, the general Brownian vortex can change direction and even topology in response to temperature changes. Here we introduce a theory based on a perturbative expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation for weak nonconservative driving. The first-order solution takes the form of a modified Boltzmann relation and accounts for the rich phenomenology observed in experiments on micrometer-scale colloidal spheres in optical tweezers.
Perturbative theory for Brownian vortexes.
Moyses, Henrique W; Bauer, Ross O; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Grier, David G
2015-06-01
Brownian vortexes are stochastic machines that use static nonconservative force fields to bias random thermal fluctuations into steadily circulating currents. The archetype for this class of systems is a colloidal sphere in an optical tweezer. Trapped near the focus of a strongly converging beam of light, the particle is displaced by random thermal kicks into the nonconservative part of the optical force field arising from radiation pressure, which then biases its diffusion. Assuming the particle remains localized within the trap, its time-averaged trajectory traces out a toroidal vortex. Unlike trivial Brownian vortexes, such as the biased Brownian pendulum, which circulate preferentially in the direction of the bias, the general Brownian vortex can change direction and even topology in response to temperature changes. Here we introduce a theory based on a perturbative expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation for weak nonconservative driving. The first-order solution takes the form of a modified Boltzmann relation and accounts for the rich phenomenology observed in experiments on micrometer-scale colloidal spheres in optical tweezers. PMID:26172698
Disorder-induced two-step melting of vortex matter in Co-intercalated NbS e2 single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguli, Somesh Chandra; Singh, Harkirat; Roy, Indranil; Bagwe, Vivas; Bala, Dibyendu; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Raychaudhuri, Pratap
2016-04-01
Disorder-induced melting where the increase in positional entropy created by random pinning sites drives the order-disorder transition in a periodic solid provides an alternate route to the more conventional thermal melting. Here, using real-space imaging of the vortex lattice through scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we show that, in the presence of weak pinning, the vortex lattice in a type-II superconductor disorders through two distinct topological transitions. Across each transition, we separately identify metastable states formed through superheating of the low-temperature state or supercooling of the high-temperature state. Comparing crystals with different levels of pinning we conclude that the two-step melting is fundamentally associated with the presence of random pinning which generates topological defects in the ordered vortex lattice.
The dynamics of vortex streets in channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas
2015-07-01
We develop a model to numerically study the dynamics of vortex streets in channel flows. Previous work has studied the vortex wakes of specific vortex generators. Here, we study a wide range of vortex wakes including regular and reverse von Kármán streets with various strengths, geometries, and Reynolds numbers (Re) by applying a smoothed von Kármán street as an inflow condition. We find that the spatial structure of the inflow vortex street is maintained for the reverse von Kármán street and altered for the regular street. For regular streets, we identify a transition to asymmetric dynamics which happens when Re increases, or vortices are stronger, or vortex streets are compressed horizontally or extended vertically. We also determine the effects of these parameters on vortex street inversion.
Rotor blade vortex interaction noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yung H.
2000-02-01
Blade-vortex interaction noise-generated by helicopter main rotor blades is one of the most severe noise problems and is very important both in military applications and community acceptance of rotorcraft. Research over the decades has substantially improved physical understanding of noise-generating mechanisms, and various design concepts have been investigated to control noise radiation using advanced blade planform shapes and active blade control techniques. The important parameters to control rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and vibration have been identified: blade tip vortex structures and its trajectory, blade aeroelastic deformation, and airloads. Several blade tip design concepts have been investigated for diffusing tip vortices and also for reducing noise. However, these tip shapes have not been able to substantially reduce blade-vortex interaction noise without degradation of rotor performance. Meanwhile, blade root control techniques, such as higher-harmonic pitch control (HHC) and individual blade control (IBC) concepts, have been extensively investigated for noise and vibration reduction. The HHC technique has proved the substantial blade-vortex interaction noise reduction, up to 6 dB, while vibration and low-frequency noise have been increased. Tests with IBC techniques have shown the simultaneous reduction of rotor noise and vibratory loads with 2/rev pitch control inputs. Recently, active blade control concepts with smart structures have been investigated with the emphasis on active blade twist and trailing edge flap. Smart structures technologies are very promising, but further advancements are needed to meet all the requirements of rotorcraft applications in frequency, force, and displacement.
Palmer, R.B.
1987-05-01
This paper looks at, and compares three types of damping ring lattices: conventional, wiggler lattice with finite ..cap alpha.., wiggler lattice with ..cap alpha.. = 0, and observes the attainable equilibrium emittances for the three cases assuming a constraint on the attainable longitudinal impedance of 0.2 ohms. The emittance obtained are roughly in the ratio 4:2:1 for these cases.
Preliminary study of the three-dimensional deformation of the vortex in Karman vortex street
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Guocan; Guo, Liang; Wu, Zuobin; Ma, Huiyang
1992-03-01
The mechanism for 3D evolution of the isolated Karman vortex and the thin-vortex filament in a circular cylinder wake is studied numerically using the LIA method. The results show that the vortex motion is unstable for small 3D disturbances in the separated wake of a circular cylinder. Karman vortex in the time-averaged wake flowfield wolves into a horseshoe-spoon-like 3D structure. The thin vortex filament deforms three-dimensionally in the braid and generates streamwise vortex structures which incline to the region maximum-deformation direction of the flowfield.
Transformation of the vortex beam in the optical vortex scanning microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Płociniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Szatkowski, Mateusz; Wojnowski, Dariusz
2016-07-01
We investigate the microscopic system in which the Gaussian beam with embedded optical vortex is used. The optical vortex is introduced by vortex lens. The vortex lens shift induces a precise nanometer shift of the embedded vortices inside the focused spot. The analytical formula for the complex amplitude of the focused spot with off-axis vortex was calculated, to our knowledge, for the first time. This solution is an important step in the development of the optical vortex scanning microscope. Experimental results are also presented that demonstrate the behavior of such a beam in an experimental setup.
Shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, H. A.; Liu, C. H.
1992-01-01
Computational simulation and study of shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes are considered for bound (internal) and unbound (external) flow domains. The problem is formulated using the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations which are solved using an implicit, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. For the bound flow domain, a supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct and the problem is solved for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. For the unbound domain, a supersonic swirling flow issued from a nozzle into a uniform supersonic flow of lower Mach number is considered for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. The results show several modes of breakdown; e.g., no-breakdown, transient single-bubble breakdown, transient multi-bubble breakdown, periodic multi-bubble multi-frequency breakdown and helical breakdown.
Vortex-Core Reversal Dynamics: Towards Vortex Random Access Memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang-Koog
2011-03-01
An energy-efficient, ultrahigh-density, ultrafast, and nonvolatile solid-state universal memory is a long-held dream in the field of information-storage technology. The magnetic random access memory (MRAM) along with a spin-transfer-torque switching mechanism is a strong candidate-means of realizing that dream, given its nonvolatility, infinite endurance, and fast random access. Magnetic vortices in patterned soft magnetic dots promise ground-breaking applications in information-storage devices, owing to the very stable twofold ground states of either their upward or downward core magnetization orientation and plausible core switching by in-plane alternating magnetic fields or spin-polarized currents. However, two technologically most important but very challenging issues --- low-power recording and reliable selection of each memory cell with already existing cross-point architectures --- have not yet been resolved for the basic operations in information storage, that is, writing (recording) and readout. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a magnetic vortex random access memory (VRAM) in the basic cross-point architecture. This unique VRAM offers reliable cell selection and low-power-consumption control of switching of out-of-plane core magnetizations using specially designed rotating magnetic fields generated by two orthogonal and unipolar Gaussian-pulse currents along with optimized pulse width and time delay. Our achievement of a new device based on a new material, that is, a medium composed of patterned vortex-state disks, together with the new physics on ultrafast vortex-core switching dynamics, can stimulate further fruitful research on MRAMs that are based on vortex-state dot arrays.
Vortex phase transitions in monolayer FeSe film on SrTiO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Weiwei; Chang, Cui-Zu; Xi, Xiaoxiang; Mak, Kin Fai; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.
2016-06-01
The voltage–current (V–I) characteristics in superconducting monolayer FeSe film on SrTiO3 (100) under different magnetic fields are investigated. The zero-field V–I result exhibits signatures of a Berezinski–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition, a characteristic of two-dimensional (2D) superconductors. Under an applied magnetic field, with current density lower than the critical current density, the sheet resistance versus current density (R sq–J) dependence changes from ohmic (R sq independent of J) to non-ohmic (a nonlinear dependence of R sq on J) as the temperature decreases, indicative of a vortex phase transition/crossover. We interpret the high-temperature phase as the vortex liquid phase and the low-temperature phase as the vortex slush phase, which has short-ranged vortex lattice correlation, while long-range correlation (i.e. true superconductivity) is absent. No transition into a vortex glass phase is seen, illustrating the importance of thermal fluctuations in a perfect 2D superconductor under a magnetic field.
Simulation of Rotary-Wing Near-Wake Vortex Structures Using Navier-Stokes CFD Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenwright, David; Strawn, Roger; Ahmad, Jasim; Duque, Earl; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
This paper will use high-resolution Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to model the near-wake vortex roll-up behind rotor blades. The locations and strengths of the trailing vortices will be determined from newly-developed visualization and analysis software tools applied to the CFD solutions. Computational results for rotor nearwake vortices will be used to study the near-wake vortex roll up for highly-twisted tiltrotor blades. These rotor blades typically have combinations of positive and negative spanwise loading and complex vortex wake interactions. Results of the computational studies will be compared to vortex-lattice wake models that are frequently used in rotorcraft comprehensive codes. Information from these comparisons will be used to improve the rotor wake models in the Tilt-Rotor Acoustic Code (TRAC) portion of NASA's Short Haul Civil Transport program (SHCT). Accurate modeling of the rotor wake is an important part of this program and crucial to the successful design of future civil tiltrotor aircraft. The rotor wake system plays an important role in blade-vortex interaction noise, a major problem for all rotorcraft including tiltrotors.
Widnall instabilities in vortex pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sipp, Denis; Jacquin, Laurent
2003-07-01
In this article we analyze the cooperative three-dimensional short-wave instabilities developing on concentrated vortex dipoles that have been obtained by means of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations. These dipoles are characterized by their aspect ratio a/b where a is the radius of the vortices based on the polar moments of vorticity and b is the separation between the vortex centroids. In the inviscid case, we show that the selection of the antisymmetric eigenmode smoothly increases with a/b: for a/b=0.208, the amplification rate of the antisymmetric eigenmode is only 1.4% larger than the amplification rate of the symmetric eigenmode. When a/b=0.288, this difference increases up to 7%. The results of the normal mode analysis may be compared to those of an asymptotic stability analysis of a Lamb-Oseen vortex subjected to a weak straining field, following Moore and Saffman [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 346, 413 (1975)]. This theory shows that the instability may occur whenever two Kelvin waves exist with the same frequency ω, the same axial wavenumber k and with azimuthal wavenumbers m and m+2. Contrary to the case of a Rankine vortex [Tsai and Widnall, J. Fluid Mech. 73, 721 (1976)], the presence of critical layers in a Lamb-Oseen vortex prevents a large number of possible resonances. For example, resonances between m=-2 and m=0 modes lead to damped modes. The only resonances that occur are related to the stationary (ω=0) bending waves (m=±1) obtained for specific values of the axial wavenumber. All these predictions are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the stability analysis of the considered vortex pairs. At last, we present a nonautonomous amplitude equation which takes into account all effects of viscosity, i.e., the viscous damping of the amplification rate of the perturbation but also the increase of the dipole aspect ratio a/b due to the viscous diffusion of the basic flowfield. The low-Reynolds number experiment of
Vortex depinning in Josephson-junction arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dang, E. K. F.; Györffy, B. L.
1993-02-01
On the basis of a simple model we study the supercurrent-carrying capacity of a planar array of Josephson junctions. In particular we investigate the zero-temperature vortex-depinning current iBc, which is the largest supercurrent in an array containing one extra vortex on top of the ground-state vortex superlattice induced by an external magnetic field f. In the zero-field, f=0, case our results support the tilted-sinusoidal vortex-potential description of previous workers. However, in the fully frustrated, f=1/2 case, a more careful interpretation is required. We find that on the application of a transport current, the resulting vortex motion is not that of the extra vortex moving over a rigid field-induced vortex background. Rather, a vortex belonging to the checkerboard ground-state pattern first crosses over a junction into a neighboring ``empty'' plaquette. Then, the ``extra'' vortex moves to take its place. Our interpretation is based on a linear stability analysis, with the onset of vortex motion being associated with the vanishing of one eigenvalue of the stability matrix. Further applications of the method are suggested.
A lattice-Boltzmann scheme of the Navier-Stokes equations on a 3D cuboid lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Min, Haoda; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Lian-Ping
2015-11-01
The standard lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow simulation is based on a square (in 2D) or cubic (in 3D) lattice grids. Recently, two new lattice Boltzmann schemes have been developed on a 2D rectangular grid using the MRT (multiple-relaxation-time) collision model, by adding a free parameter in the definition of moments or by extending the equilibrium moments. Here we developed a lattice Boltzmann model on 3D cuboid lattice, namely, a lattice grid with different grid lengths in different spatial directions. We designed our MRT-LBM model by matching the moment equations from the Chapman-Enskog expansion with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model guarantees correct hydrodynamics. A second-order term is added to the equilibrium moments in order to restore the isotropy of viscosity on a cuboid lattice. The form and the coefficients of the extended equilibrium moments are determined through an inverse design process. An additional benefit of the model is that the viscosity can be adjusted independent of the stress-moment relaxation parameter, thus improving the numerical stability of the model. The resulting cuboid MRT-LBM model is then validated through benchmark simulations using laminar channel flow, turbulent channel flow, and the 3D Taylor-Green vortex flow.
Optical rankine vortex and anomalous circulation of light.
Swartzlander, Grover A; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I
2007-10-19
Rankine vortex characteristics of a partially coherent optical vortex are explored using classical and physical optics. Unlike a perfectly coherent vortex mode, the circulation is not quantized. Excess circulation is predicted owing to the wave nature of composite vortex fields. Based on these findings, we propose a vortex stellar interferometer. PMID:17995253
Optical Rankine Vortex and Anomalous Circulation of Light
Swartzlander, Grover A. Jr.; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.
2007-10-19
Rankine vortex characteristics of a partially coherent optical vortex are explored using classical and physical optics. Unlike a perfectly coherent vortex mode, the circulation is not quantized. Excess circulation is predicted owing to the wave nature of composite vortex fields. Based on these findings, we propose a vortex stellar interferometer.
Optical Rankine Vortex and Anomalous Circulation of Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swartzlander, Grover A., Jr.; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.
2007-10-01
Rankine vortex characteristics of a partially coherent optical vortex are explored using classical and physical optics. Unlike a perfectly coherent vortex mode, the circulation is not quantized. Excess circulation is predicted owing to the wave nature of composite vortex fields. Based on these findings, we propose a vortex stellar interferometer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasel-Be-Hagh, Ahmadreza; Carriveau, Rupp; Ting, David S.-K.; Turner, John Stewart
2015-10-01
Extending from the model proposed by Vasel-Be-Hagh et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 769, 522 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2015.126], a perturbation analysis is performed to modify Turner's radius by taking into account the viscous effect. The modified radius includes two terms; the zeroth-order solution representing the effect of buoyancy, and the first-order perturbation correction describing the influence of viscosity. The zeroth-order solution is explicit Turner's radius; the first-order perturbation modification, however, includes the drag coefficient, which is unknown and of interest. Fitting the photographically measured radius into the modified equation yields the time history of the drag coefficient of the corresponding buoyant vortex ring. To give further clarification, the proposed model is applied to calculate the drag coefficient of a buoyant vortex ring at a Bond number of approximately 85; a similar procedure can be applied at other Bond numbers.
Perturbations of vortex ring pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubser, Steven S.; Horn, Bart; Parikh, Sarthak
2016-02-01
We study pairs of coaxial vortex rings starting from the action for a classical bosonic string in a three-form background. We complete earlier work on the phase diagram of classical orbits by explicitly considering the case where the circulations of the two vortex rings are equal and opposite. We then go on to study perturbations, focusing on cases where the relevant four-dimensional transfer matrix splits into two-dimensional blocks. When the circulations of the rings have the same sign, instabilities are mostly limited to wavelengths smaller than a dynamically generated length scale at which single-ring instabilities occur. When the circulations have the opposite sign, larger wavelength instabilities can occur.
Divergence of optical vortex beams.
Reddy, Salla Gangi; Permangatt, Chithrabhanu; Prabhakar, Shashi; Anwar, Ali; Banerji, J; Singh, R P
2015-08-01
We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that the propagation of optical vortices in free space can be analyzed by using the width [w(z)] of the host Gaussian beam and the inner and outer radii of the vortex beam at the source plane (z=0) as defined in [Opt. Lett.39, 4364 (2014)10.1364/OL.39.004364OPLEDP0146-9592]. We also studied the divergence of vortex beams, considered as the rate of change of inner or outer radius with the propagation distance (z), and found that it varies with the order in the same way as that of the inner and outer radii at z=0. These results may be useful in designing optical fibers for orbital angular momentum modes that play a crucial role in quantum communication. PMID:26368081
Vasel-Be-Hagh, Ahmadreza; Carriveau, Rupp; Ting, David S-K; Turner, John Stewart
2015-10-01
Extending from the model proposed by Vasel-Be-Hagh et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 769, 522 (2015)], a perturbation analysis is performed to modify Turner's radius by taking into account the viscous effect. The modified radius includes two terms; the zeroth-order solution representing the effect of buoyancy, and the first-order perturbation correction describing the influence of viscosity. The zeroth-order solution is explicit Turner's radius; the first-order perturbation modification, however, includes the drag coefficient, which is unknown and of interest. Fitting the photographically measured radius into the modified equation yields the time history of the drag coefficient of the corresponding buoyant vortex ring. To give further clarification, the proposed model is applied to calculate the drag coefficient of a buoyant vortex ring at a Bond number of approximately 85; a similar procedure can be applied at other Bond numbers. PMID:26565349
Wake Vortex Algorithm Scoring Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robins, R. E.; Delisi, D. P.; Hinton, David (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This report compares the performance of two models of trailing vortex evolution for which interaction with the ground is not a significant factor. One model uses eddy dissipation rate (EDR) and the other uses the kinetic energy of turbulence fluctuations (TKE) to represent the effect of turbulence. In other respects, the models are nearly identical. The models are evaluated by comparing their predictions of circulation decay, vertical descent, and lateral transport to observations for over four hundred cases from Memphis and Dallas/Fort Worth International Airports. These observations were obtained during deployments in support of NASA's Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The results of the comparisons show that the EDR model usually performs slightly better than the TKE model.
Prediction and Control of Vortex Dominated and Vortex-wake Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama
1996-01-01
This report describes the activities and accomplishments under this research grant, including a list of publications and dissertations, produced in the field of prediction and control of vortex dominated and vortex wake flows.
Vortex methods for separated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, Philippe R.
1988-01-01
The numerical solution of the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations by Lagrangian vortex methods is discussed. The mathematical background is presented in an elementary fashion and includes the relationship with traditional point-vortex studies, the convergence to smooth solutions of the Euler equations, and the essential differences between two- and three-dimensional cases. The difficulties in extending the method to viscous or compressible flows are explained. The overlap with the excellent review articles available is kept to a minimum and more emphasis is placed on the area of expertise, namely two-dimensional flows around bluff bodies. When solid walls are present, complete mathematical models are not available and a more heuristic attitude must be adopted. The imposition of inviscid and viscous boundary conditions without conformal mappings or image vortices and the creation of vorticity along solid walls are examined in detail. Methods for boundary-layer treatment and the question of the Kutta condition are discussed. Practical aspects and tips helpful in creating a method that really works are explained. The topics include the robustness of the method and the assessment of accuracy, vortex-core profiles, timemarching schemes, numerical dissipation, and efficient programming. Calculations of flows past streamlined or bluff bodies are used as examples when appropriate.
Linear stability of a vortex ring revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukumoto, Yasuhide; Hattori, Yuji
We revisit the stability of an elliptically strained vortex and a thin axisymmetric vortex ring, embedded in an inviscid incompressible fluid, to three-dimensional disturbances of infinitesimal amplitude. The results of Tsai & Widnall (1976) for an elliptically strained vortex are simplified by providing an explicit expression for the disturbance flow field. A direct relation is established with the elliptical instability. For Kelvin's vortex ring, the primary perturbation to the Rankine vortex is a dipole field. We show that the dipole field causes a parametric resonance instability between axisymmetric and bending waves at intersection points of the dispersion curves. It is found that the dipole effect predominates over the straining effect for a very thin core. The mechanism is attributable to stretching of the disturbance vortex lines in the toroidal direction.
Vortex Breakdown-Aircraft Tail Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Younjong; Rockwell, Donald
2003-11-01
The interaction of vortex breakdown with the tail of an aircraft can lead to severe unsteady loading and vibration. A technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry is employed to characterize the instantaneous and averaged structure of a broken-down vortex with a generic tail configuration. Interaction of the primary (incident) vortex with the tail results in formation of a relatively large-scale cluster of secondary vorticity. The coexistence of these primary and secondary vortical structures is intimately associated with the unsteadiness of the vortex system, and thereby the near-surface fluctuations associated with buffet loading. Instantaneous and averaged representations of the vortex-tail interaction provide insight into the complex physics. Furthermore, a low order POD model is employed to characterize the most energetic modes of the vortex-tail interaction.
Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don
2014-01-01
Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.
Vortex rings impinging on permeable boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mujal-Colilles, Anna; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Bateman, Allen
2015-01-01
Experiments with vortex rings impinging permeable and solid boundaries are presented in order to investigate the influence of permeability. Utilizing Particle Image Velocimetry, we compared the behaviour of a vortex ring impinging four different reticulated foams (with permeability k ˜ 26 - 85 × 10-8 m2) and a solid boundary. Results show how permeability affects the stretching phenomena of the vortex ring and the formation and evolution of the secondary vortex ring with opposite sign. Moreover, permeability also affects the macroscopic no-slip boundary condition found on the solid boundary, turning it into an apparent slip boundary condition for the most permeable boundary. The apparent slip-boundary condition and the flux exchange between the ambient fluid and the foam are jointly responsible for both the modified formation of the secondary vortex and changes on the vortex ring diameter increase.
Birth and evolution of an optical vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallone, Giuseppe; Sponselli, Anna; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Villoresi, Paolo
2016-07-01
When a phase singularity is suddenly imprinted on the axis of an ordinary Gaussian beam, an optical vortex appears and starts to grow radially, by effect of diffraction. This radial growth and the subsequent evolution of the optical vortex under focusing or imaging can be well described in general within the recently introduced theory of circular beams, which generalize the hypergeometric-Gaussian beams and which obey novel kinds of ABCD rules. Here, we investigate experimentally these vortex propagation phenomena and test the validity of circular-beam theory. Moreover, we analyze the difference in radial structure between the newly generated optical vortex and the vortex obtained in the image plane, where perfect imaging would lead to complete closure of the vortex core.
Birth and evolution of an optical vortex.
Vallone, Giuseppe; Sponselli, Anna; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Villoresi, Paolo
2016-07-25
When a phase singularity is suddenly imprinted on the axis of an ordinary Gaussian beam, an optical vortex appears and starts to grow radially, by effect of diffraction. This radial growth and the subsequent evolution of the optical vortex under focusing or imaging can be well described in general within the recently introduced theory of circular beams, which generalize the hypergeometric-Gaussian beams and which obey novel kinds of ABCD rules. Here, we investigate experimentally these vortex propagation phenomena and test the validity of circular-beam theory. Moreover, we analyze the difference in radial structure between the newly generated optical vortex and the vortex obtained in the image plane, where perfect imaging would lead to complete closure of the vortex core. PMID:27464091
Experiments on shock/vortex interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cattafesta, L. N., III; Settles, G. S.
1992-01-01
The interaction between a shock wave and a supersonic streamwise vortex is a fundamental fluid-dynamics problem with numerous practical applications. This paper describes an experimental study of this phenomenon. In particular, supersonic streamwise vortices of varying strength and Mach number were generated and measured using five-hole and total-temperature probes. In addition, the interactions between a vortex and either an oblique or a normal shock wave were visualized using schlieren and planar-laser-scattering techniques. The mean-flow measurements show both similarities and differences between the supersonic streamwise vortex and its incompressible counterpart, while the flow-visualization results show that the shock/vortex interaction is always unsteady and that, under certain conditions, the vortex can burst. The conditions necessary for supersonic vortex breakdown are presented.
Optimal propulsive efficiency of vortex enhanced propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whittlesey, Robert; Dabiri, John
2013-11-01
The formation of coherent vortex rings in the jet wake of a vehicle has been shown to increase the propulsive efficiency of self-propelled vehicles. However, the effect of varying vortex ring formation characteristics has not been explored for vehicles at Reynolds numbers comparable to autonomous or manned submersible vehicles. In this work, we considered a range of vortex ring formation characteristics and found a peak in the propulsive efficiency where the vortex rings generated are coincident with the onset of vortex ring pinch off. This peak corresponds to a 22% increase in the propulsive efficiency for the vortex-enhanced wake compared to a steady jet. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Office of Naval Research Grants N000140810918 and N000141010137.
Lattice Boltzmann method and channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stensholt, Sigvat; Mongstad Hope, Sigmund
2016-07-01
Lattice Boltzmann methods are presented at an introductory level with a focus on fairly simple simulations that can be used to test and illustrate the model’s capabilities. Two scenarios are presented. The first is a simple laminar flow in a straight channel driven by a pressure gradient (Poiseuille flow). The second is a more complex, including a wedge where Moffatt vortices may be induced if the wedge is deep enough. Simulations of the Poiseuille flow scenario accurately capture the theoretical velocity profile. The experiment shows the location of the fluid-wall boundary and the effects viscosity has on the velocity and convergence time. The numerical capabilities of the lattice Boltzmann model are tested further by simulating the more complex Moffatt vortex scenario. The method reproduces with high accuracy the theoretical predction that Moffat vortices will not form in a wedge if the vertex angle exceeds 146°. Practical issues limitations of the lattice Boltzmann method are discussed. In particular the accuracy of the bounce-back boundary condition is first order dependent on the grid resolution.
Optical vortex dynamics induced by vortex lens shift—optical system error analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masajada, J.; Augustyniak, I.; Popiołek-Masajada, A.
2013-04-01
Optical vortices can be used in scanning microscopy. A sample can be scanned just by moving a vortex lens, introducing an optical vortex into a Gaussian beam. This technique seems to be cheap, precise and stable. In this paper the influence of various factors on this scanning technique has been investigated numerically, experimentally and analytically (when possible). Our results show that vortex scanning can be affected by Gaussian beam astigmatism. Other factors (such as optical vortex asymmetry) play a negligible role.
Lattice Boltzmann Equation On a 2D Rectangular Grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bouzidi, MHamed; DHumieres, Dominique; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We construct a multi-relaxation lattice Boltzmann model on a two-dimensional rectangular grid. The model is partly inspired by a previous work of Koelman to construct a lattice BGK model on a two-dimensional rectangular grid. The linearized dispersion equation is analyzed to obtain the constraints on the isotropy of the transport coefficients and Galilean invariance for various wave propagations in the model. The linear stability of the model is also studied. The model is numerically tested for three cases: (a) a vortex moving with a constant velocity on a mesh periodic boundary conditions; (b) Poiseuille flow with an arbitrasy inclined angle with respect to the lattice orientation: and (c) a cylinder &symmetrically placed in a channel. The numerical results of these tests are compared with either analytic solutions or the results obtained by other methods. Satisfactory results are obtained for the numerical simulations.
Contributions to theory of vortex breakdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shivamoggi, B. K.; Uberoi, M. S.
A study is made of vortex breakdown in stratified flows, and it is found that a positive stratification in the vortex where the density is increasing away from the axis, postpones the vortex breakdown and vice versa. This is apparent due to the density increasing in a direction opposite to that of an effective gravity which would correspond to a topheavy arrangement under gravity. It is also shown that a wavemotion promotes the possibility of axisymmetric flow downstream of the transaction.
On the structure of the turbulent vortex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, L.
1985-01-01
The trailing vortex generated by a lifting surface, the structure of its turbulent core and the influence of axial flow within the vortex on its initial persistence and on its subsequent decay are described. Similarity solutions of the turbulent diffusion equation are given in closed form and results are expressed in sufficiently simple terms that the influence of the lifting surface parameters on the length of persistence and the rate of decay of the vortex can be evaluated.
An investigation of counterrotating tip vortex interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majjigi, R. K.; Uenishi, K.; Gliebe, P. R.
1989-01-01
A tip vortex interaction model originally developed for compressors has been extended and adapted for use with counterrotating open rotors. Comparison of available acoustic data with predictions (made with and without the tip vortex model included) illustrate the importance of this interaction effect. This report documents the analytical modeling, a limited experimental verification, and certain key parametric studies pertaining to the tip vortex as a noise source mechanism for the unsteady loading noise of counterrotating properllers.
Vortex knot cascade in polynomial skein relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricca, Renzo L.
2016-06-01
The process of vortex cascade through continuous reduction of topological complexity by stepwise unlinking, that has been observed experimentally in the production of vortex knots (Kleckner & Irvine, 2013), is shown to be reproduced in the branching of the skein relations of knot polynomials (Liu & Ricca, 2015) used to identify topological complexity of vortex systems. This observation can be usefully exploited for predictions of energy-complexity estimates for fluid flows.
Optical vortex arrays from smectic liquid crystals.
Son, Baeksik; Kim, Sejeong; Kim, Yun Ho; Käläntär, K; Kim, Hwi-Min; Jeong, Hyeon-Su; Choi, Siyoung Q; Shin, Jonghwa; Jung, Hee-Tae; Lee, Yong-Hee
2014-02-24
We demonstrate large-area, closely-packed optical vortex arrays using self-assembled defects in smectic liquid crystals. Self-assembled smectic liquid crystals in a three-dimensional torus structure are called focal conic domains. Each FCD, having a micro-scale feature size, produces an optical vortex with consistent topological charge of 2. The spiral profile in the interferometry confirms the formation of an optical vortex, which is predicted by Jones matrix calculations. PMID:24663788
Mechanics of viscous vortex reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, Fazle; Duraisamy, Karthik
2011-02-01
This work is motivated by our long-standing claim that reconnection of coherent structures is the dominant mechanism of jet noise generation and plays a key role in both energy cascade and fine-scale mixing in fluid turbulence [F. Hussain, Phys. Fluids 26, 2816 (1983); J. Fluid Mech. 173, 303 (1986)]. To shed further light on the mechanism involved and quantify its features, the reconnection of two antiparallel vortex tubes is studied by direct numerical simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over a wide range (250-9000) of the vortex Reynolds number, Re (=circulation/viscosity) at much higher resolutions than have been attempted. Unlike magnetic or superfluid reconnections, viscous reconnection is never complete, leaving behind a part of the initial tubes as threads, which then undergo successive reconnections (our cascade and mixing scenarios) as the newly formed bridges recoil from each other by self-advection. We find that the time tR for orthogonal transfer of circulation scales as tR≈Re-3/4. The shortest distance d between the tube centroids scales as d ≈a[Re(t0-t)]3/4 before reconnection (collision) and as d ≈b[Re(t -t0)]2 after reconnection (repulsion), where t0 is the instant of smallest separation between vortex centroids. We find that b is a constant, thus suggesting self-similarity, but a is dependent on Re. Bridge repulsion is faster than collision and is more autonomous as local induction predominates, and, given the associated acceleration of vorticity, is potentially a source of intense sound generation. At the higher Re studied, the tails of the colliding threads are compressed into a planar jet with multiple vortex pairs. For Re>6000, there is an avalanche of smaller scales during the reconnection, the rate of small scale generation and the spectral content (in vorticity, transfer function and dissipation spectra) being quite consistent with the structures visualized by the λ2 criterion. The maximum rate of vortex
Janse Van Rensburg, E.J.
1996-12-31
The geometry of polygonal knots in the cubic lattice may be used to define some knot invariants. One such invariant is the minimal edge number, which is the minimum number of edges necessary (and sufficient) to construct a lattice knot of given type. In addition, one may also define the minimal (unfolded) surface number, and the minimal (unfolded) boundary number; these are the minimum number of 2-cells necessary to construct an unfolded lattice Seifert surface of a given knot type in the lattice, and the minimum number of edges necessary in a lattice knot to guarantee the existence of an unfolded lattice Seifert surface. In addition, I derive some relations amongst these invariants. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
Vortex Ring Interaction with Multiple Permeable Screens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musta, Mustafa N.; Krueger, Paul S.
2008-11-01
Previous experiments on the interaction of a vortex ring impinging on single thin permeable screen demonstrated the formation of secondary vortices and a transmitted vortex ring. The present work concerns experimental investigation of the interaction of a vortex ring with multiple permeable screens. Vortex rings are formed by piston-cylinder type vortex ring generator and impinge on an array of parallel, transparent screens. The screens have an open ratio of 84% and the spacing between screens is variable. The vortex rings were formed with an approximate jet Reynolds number of 1300 and a piston stroke-to-jet diameter ratio (L/D) of approximately 4. Dye visualization of the vortex rings shows that they break into multiple vortices after impinging on first screen The vortices subsequently disintegrate, but the total distance required for disintegration is relatively unaffected by the number of screens through with the vortices pass due to the regular structure of the screens. It is also observed that the location of the initial vortex ring axis relative to the screen rods has a significant effect on the vortex breakup and disintegration process.
Vortex simulation of an inviscid shear layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, Y.; Leonard, A.; Spalart, P. R.
1982-01-01
The accuracy of the vortex-blob method was tested by simulating a free-shear-layer instability, Kirchhoff's elliptical vortex, and a circular vortex. The main numerical parameters in the vortex-blob method are the density of the vortices, and the distribution of vorticity within each vortex core. The growth rate of a periodic unstable mode of the shear layer was calculated numerically and compared with the exact result. The error is only a few percent for about 10 rows of vortex blobs. The error is reduced by decreasing the spacing between vortices and, correspondingly, the core size. In the simulation of the motion of the elliptical vortex, the rotation of the boundary, without change of shape, and the circular particle paths of the vortical fluid were well simulated. For the circular vortex, optimum sets of parameters were obtained by comparing them with the exact velocity. The results are consistent with convergence theories of the vortex-blob method. In particular, second-order convergence is observed with a Gaussian core from velocity calculation.
Spin transport in tilted electron vortex beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Banasri; Chowdhury, Debashree
2014-12-01
In this paper we have enlightened the spin related issues of tilted Electron vortex beams. We have shown that in the skyrmionic model of electron we can have the spin Hall current considering the tilted type of electron vortex beam. We have considered the monopole charge of the tilted vortex as time dependent and through the time variation of the monopole charge we can explain the spin Hall effect of electron vortex beams. Besides, with an external magnetic field we can have a spin filter configuration.
ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl
2010-01-01
ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.
Flow visualizations of perpendicular blade vortex interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rife, Michael C.; Davenport, William J.
1992-01-01
Helium bubble flow visualizations have been performed to study perpendicular interaction of a turbulent trailing vortex and a rectangular wing in the Virginia Tech Stability Tunnel. Many combinations of vortex strength, vortex-blade separation (Z(sub s)) and blade angle of attack were studied. Photographs of representative cases are presented. A range of phenomena were observed. For Z(sub s) greater than a few percent chord the vortex is deflected as it passes the blade under the influence of the local streamline curvature and its image in the blade. Initially the interaction appears to have no influence on the core. Downstream, however, the vortex core begins to diffuse and grow, presumably as a consequence of its interaction with the blade wake. The magnitude of these effects increases with reduction in Z(sub s). For Z(sub s) near zero the form of the interaction changes and becomes dependent on the vortex strength. For lower strengths the vortex appears to split into two filaments on the leading edge of the blade, one passing on the pressure and one passing on the suction side. At higher strengths the vortex bursts in the vicinity of the leading edge. In either case the core of its remnants then rapidly diffuse with distance downstream. Increase in Reynolds number did not qualitatively affect the flow apart from decreasing the amplitude of the small low-frequency wandering motions of the vortex. Changes in wing tip geometry and boundary layer trip had very little effect.
The permeability of the Antarctic vortex edge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Ping
1994-01-01
Mixing and cross-vortex mass transport along isentropic surfaces in the lower stratosphere are investigated with a 'contour advection' technique and a semi-Lagrangian transport model for the Antarctic winter of 1993 using analyzed winds from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office data assimilation system. Results from the 'contour advection' technique show that at the vortex edge there exists a potential vorticity (PV) contour that has the smallest lengthening rate. This PV contour is referred to as the 'line of separation' because it essentially separates the inner and outer vortex. The average e-folding time for the lengthening of the 'line of separation' increases monotonically with altitude, ranging from about 7 days on the 350 K isentropic surface to about 105 days on the 500 K isentropic surface. The results also suggest the existence of a transition layer around the 400 K isentropic surface, above which the vortex is nearly completely isolated from the midlatitudes and below which the vortex is less isolated. Results from a semi-Lagrangian transport model with an idealized tracer initially inside the inner vortex show that at 425 K and above virtually no tracer is transported out of the vortex during a 40-day integration starting from July 21, 1993. At 400 K and below a small amount of the tracer is transported out of the vortex while the bulk of the tracer remains confined within the inner vortex.
Phases of d-orbital bosons in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinheiro, Fernanda; Matrikainen, Jani-Petri; Larson, Jonas
2015-05-01
We explore the properties of bosonic atoms loaded into the d bands of an isotropic square optical lattice. Following the recent experimental success reported in Zhai et al (2013 Phys. Rev. A 87 063638), in which populating d bands with a 99 % fidelity was demonstrated, we present a theoretical study of the possible phases that can appear in this system. Using the Gutzwiller ansatz for the three d band orbitals we map the boundaries of the Mott insulating phases. For not too large occupation, two of the orbitals are predominantly occupied, while the third, of a slightly higher energy, remains almost unpopulated. In this regime, in the superfluid phase we find the formation of a vortex lattice, where the vortices come in vortex/anti-vortex pairs with two pairs locked to every site. Due to the orientation of the vortices time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken. This state also breaks a discrete {{{Z}}2}-symmetry. We further derive an effective spin-1/2 model that describe the relevant physics of the lowest Mott-phase with unit filling. We argue that the corresponding two dimensional phase diagram should be rich with several different phases. We also explain how to generate anti-symmetric spin interactions that can give rise to novel effects like spin canting.
Investigation of the Vortex Tab. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffler, K. D.
1985-01-01
An investigation was made into the drag reduction capability of vortex tabs on delta wing vortex flaps. The vortex tab is an up-deflected leading edge portion of the vortex flap. Tab deflection augments vortex suction on the flap, thus improving its thrust, but the tab itself is drag producing. Whether a net improvement in the drag reduction can be obtained with vortex tabs, in comparison with plane vortex flaps of the same total area, was the objective of this investigation. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on two models, and analytical studies were performed on one of them using a free vortex sheet theory.
Vortex Crystals with Chiral Stripes in Itinerant Magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozawa, Ryo; Hayami, Satoru; Barros, Kipton; Chern, Gia-Wei; Motome, Yukitoshi; Batista, Cristian D.
Noncoplanar spin textures in itinerant magnets are generating increasing interest because of the associated spin Berry phase, which induces a tremendous effective magnetic field on the itinerant electrons. Such noncoplanar spin textures appear frequently in itinerant magnets, even with vanishingly small spin-orbit coupling. We explore a generic condition for noncoplanar spin ordering, with a focus on ``frustration'' in itinerant magnets, that is characterized by multiple global maxima in the magnetic susceptibility. In a simple square Kondo lattice model, we find that a noncoplanar vortex-antivortex crystal with a one-dimensional modulation of spin scalar chirality becomes stable in a wide range of electron filling fraction. The unexpected result is obtained by careful analyses of higher-order terms in the perturbative expansion in terms of the Kondo exchange coupling and the degree of noncoplanarity, as well as numerical simulation based on the Langevin and stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert dynamics with the kernel polynomial method.
Intelligent and mass vortex flowmeters
Ribolini, E.
1996-02-01
In nature, Karman vortices are quite common. For instance, they happen when an airstream flows past a mountain, house, pole, tower, or skyscraper, or, more simply, when it blows among branches of a tree. The typical spiral shape of these swirls is invisible because there is no tracing element, such as the clouds in the satellite photo. Also, the observation point is rarely above or below the plane of these classic spiral shapes. Or you can watch the alternating whirlpool train that a river or stream makes behind bridge piers. Regular Karman vortices form downstream of a bluff body along two distinct wakes: the vortices of one wake rotate clockwise, those of the other rotate counterclockwise. Close to the bluff body, the wake distance is always constant and depends on bluff body shape and dimensions. The distance between two adjacent vortices is also constant and independent of fluid parameters such as velocity, pressure, density, and temperature. Vortices interact with their surrounding space by stimulating or choking every other nearby swirl on the verge of birth and development. Two Karman vortices cannot be generated simultaneously, but only one at a time, alternately on the left and right side of the bluff body. The process works just like a fluidic flip-flop. This natural phenomenon can be created artificially by placing a trapezoidal, or similarly symmetrical, bar across the diameter of a pipe section. Parallelism of the internal walls of the pipe and the corners of the trapezoidal bar ensure stability of the separation point of the boundary layer. Consequently, the separation point of each vortex with respect to the bar remains stable and the vortex train is regular. If the fluid speed doubles, creation of swirls doubles while the small volume encompassed by each vortex remains constant. So, by counting the number of swirls passing a fixed point during a defined time interval, one can compute the total passed fluid volume. 3 figs.
Vortex metrology using Fourier analysis techniques: vortex networks correlation fringes.
Angel-Toro, Luciano; Sierra-Sosa, Daniel; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Néstor
2012-10-20
In this work, we introduce an alternative method of analysis in vortex metrology based on the application of the Fourier optics techniques. The first part of the procedure is conducted as is usual in vortex metrology for uniform in-plane displacement determination. On the basis of two recorded intensity speckled distributions, corresponding to two states of a diffuser coherently illuminated, we numerically generate an analytical signal from each recorded intensity pattern by using a version of the Riesz integral transform. Then, from each analytical signal, a two-dimensional pseudophase map is generated in which the vortices are located and characterized in terms of their topological charges and their core's structural properties. The second part of the procedure allows obtaining Young's interference fringes when Fourier transforming the light passing through a diffracting mask with multiple apertures at the locations of the homologous vortices. In fact, we use the Fourier transform as a mathematical operation to compute the far-field diffraction intensity pattern corresponding to the multiaperture set. Each aperture from the set is associated with a rectangular hole that coincides both in shape and size with a pixel from recorded images. We show that the fringe analysis can be conducted as in speckle photography in an extended range of displacement measurements. Effects related with speckled decorrelation are also considered. Our experimental results agree with those of speckle photography in the range in which both techniques are applicable. PMID:23089799
Hybrid vortex method for lifting surfaces with free-vortex flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, O. A.; Chu, L.-C.; Yates, E. C., Jr.
1980-01-01
A Nonlinear Hybrid Vortex method (NHV-method) has been developed for predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of wings exhibiting leading- and side-edge separations. This method alleviates the drawbacks of the Nonlinear Discrete Vortex method (NDV-method, also known as the multiple line vortex method.) The NHV-method combines continuous-vorticity and vortex-line representations of the wing and its separated free shear layers. Continuous vorticity is used in the near-field calculations, while discrete vortex-lines are used in the far-field calculations. The wing and its free shear layers are divided into quadrilateral vortex panels having second-order vorticity distributions. The aerodynamic boundary conditions and continuity of the vorticity distributions are satisfied at certain nodal points on the vortex panels. An iterative technique is used to satisfy these conditions in order to obtain the vorticity distribution and the wake shape. Distributed and total aerodynamic loads are then calculated.
Pinch-off of axisymmetric vortex pairs in the limit of vanishing vortex line curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadri, V.; Krueger, P. S.
2016-07-01
Pinch-off of axisymmetric vortex pairs generated by flow between concentric cylinders with radial separation ΔR was studied numerically and compared with planar vortex dipole behavior. The axisymmetric case approaches planar vortex dipole behavior in the limit of vanishing ΔR. The flow was simulated at a jet Reynolds number of 1000 (based on ΔR and the jet velocity), jet pulse length-to-gap ratio ( /L Δ R ) in the range 10-20, and gap-to-outer radius ratio ( /Δ R R o ) in the range 0.01-0.1. Contrary to investigations of strictly planar flows, vortex pinch-off was observed for all gap sizes investigated. This difference was attributed to the less constrained geometry considered, suggesting that even very small amounts of vortex line curvature and/or vortex stretching may disrupt the absence of pinch-off observed in strictly planar vortex dipoles.
The effect of tip vortex structure on helicopter noise due to blade/vortex interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, T. L.; Widnall, S. E.
1978-01-01
A potential cause of helicopter impulsive noise, commonly called blade slap, is the unsteady lift fluctuation on a rotor blade due to interaction with the vortex trailed from another blade. The relationship between vortex structure and the intensity of the acoustic signal is investigated. The analysis is based on a theoretical model for blade/vortex interaction. Unsteady lift on the blades due to blade/vortex interaction is calculated using linear unsteady aerodynamic theory, and expressions are derived for the directivity, frequency spectrum, and transient signal of the radiated noise. An inviscid rollup model is used to calculate the velocity profile in the trailing vortex from the spanwise distribution of blade tip loading. A few cases of tip loading are investigated, and numerical results are presented for the unsteady lift and acoustic signal due to blade/vortex interaction. The intensity of the acoustic signal is shown to be quite sensitive to changes in tip vortex structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergner, Georg; Catterall, Simon
2016-08-01
We discuss the motivations, difficulties and progress in the study of supersymmetric lattice gauge theories focusing in particular on 𝒩 = 1 and 𝒩 = 4 super-Yang-Mills in four dimensions. Brief reviews of the corresponding lattice formalisms are given and current results are presented and discussed. We conclude with a summary of the main aspects of current work and prospects for the future.
Flat Band Quastiperiodic Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodyfelt, Joshua; Flach, Sergej; Danieli, Carlo
2014-03-01
Translationally invariant lattices with flat bands (FB) in their band structure possess irreducible compact localized flat band states, which can be understood through local rotation to a Fano structure. We present extension of these quasi-1D FB structures under incommensurate lattices, reporting on the FB effects to the Metal-Insulator Transition.
Laterally closed lattice homomorphisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toumi, Mohamed Ali; Toumi, Nedra
2006-12-01
Let A and B be two Archimedean vector lattices and let be a lattice homomorphism. We call that T is laterally closed if T(D) is a maximal orthogonal system in the band generated by T(A) in B, for each maximal orthogonal system D of A. In this paper we prove that any laterally closed lattice homomorphism T of an Archimedean vector lattice A with universal completion Au into a universally complete vector lattice B can be extended to a lattice homomorphism of Au into B, which is an improvement of a result of M. Duhoux and M. Meyer [M. Duhoux and M. Meyer, Extended orthomorphisms and lateral completion of Archimedean Riesz spaces, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 98 (1984) 3-18], who established it for the order continuous lattice homomorphism case. Moreover, if in addition Au and B are with point separating order duals (Au)' and B' respectively, then the laterally closedness property becomes a necessary and sufficient condition for any lattice homomorphism to have a similar extension to the whole Au. As an application, we give a new representation theorem for laterally closed d-algebras from which we infer the existence of d-algebra multiplications on the universal completions of d-algebras.
Björner, Anders
1987-01-01
A continuous analogue to the partition lattices is presented. This is the metric completion of the direct limit of a system of embeddings of the finite partition lattices. The construction is analogous to von Neumann's construction of a continuous geometry over a field F from the finite-dimensional projective geometries over F. PMID:16593874
Reconnection of colliding vortex rings.
Chatelain, Philippe; Kivotides, Demosthenes; Leonard, Anthony
2003-02-01
We investigate numerically the Navier-Stokes dynamics of reconnecting vortex rings at small Reynolds number for a variety of configurations. We find that reconnections are dissipative due to the smoothing of vorticity gradients at reconnection kinks and to the formation of secondary structures of stretched antiparallel vorticity which transfer kinetic energy to small scales where it is subsequently dissipated efficiently. In addition, the relaxation of the reconnection kinks excites Kelvin waves which due to strong damping are of low wave number and affect directly only large scale properties of the flow. PMID:12633362
Downhole vortex generator and method
Hayatdavoudi, A.; Adams, L.M.
1984-03-13
A drilling sub is provided in a drill string above a drill bit. The drilling sub includes a nozzle oriented to eject drilling fluid from said drill string into an annulus between the drill string and a well borehole at an elevation above the drill bit with a horizontal velocity component tangential to said annulus to thereby impart a swirling motion to drilling fluid in the annulus. This creates a vortex extending down to the drill bit to enhance the cleaning of cuttings from the borehole and to reduce a pressure differential thereby increasing a penetration rate of the drill bit.
Vortex avalanches in a type II superconductor
Behnia, K.; Capan, C.; Mailly, D.; Etienne, B.
1999-12-01
The authors report on a study of the spatiotemporal variation of magnetic induction in a superconducting niobium sample during a slow sweep of external magnetic field. A sizable fraction of the increase in the local vortex population occurs in abrupt jumps. They compare the size distribution of these avalanches with the predictions of self-organized-criticality models for vortex dynamics.
Numerical simulation of interacting vortex tubes
Pumir, A.; Kerr, R.M.
1987-04-20
The structure of the cores of interacting vortex tubes in three-dimensional incompressible hydrodynamics has been simulated by a pseudospectral method. A fast reconnection is observed for Reynolds numbers of order 1 000. At higher Reynolds numbers, the core tends to flatten, suggesting the formation of vortex ribbons.
Underwing Compression Vortex-Attenuation Device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patterson, James C., Jr.
1994-01-01
Underwing compression vortex-attenuation device designed to provide method for attenuating lift-induced vortex generated by wings of airplane. Includes compression panel attached to lower surface of wing, facing perpendicular to streamwise airflow. Concept effective on all types of aircraft. Causes increase in wing lift rather than reduction when deployed. Device of interest to aircraft designers and enhances air safety in general.
The modelling of symmetric airfoil vortex generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reichert, B. A.; Wendt, B. J.
1996-01-01
An experimental study is conducted to determine the dependence of vortex generator geometry and impinging flow conditions on shed vortex circulation and crossplane peak vorticity for one type of vortex generator. The vortex generator is a symmetric airfoil having a NACA 0012 cross-sectional profile. The geometry and flow parameters varied include angle-of-attack alfa, chordlength c, span h, and Mach number M. The vortex generators are mounted either in isolation or in a symmetric counter-rotating array configuration on the inside surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio is delta/R = 0. 17. Circulation and peak vorticity data are derived from crossplane velocity measurements conducted at or about 1 chord downstream of the vortex generator trailing edge. Shed vortex circulation is observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. With these parameters held constant, circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio AR. Shed vortex peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. Unlike circulation, however, peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at AR approx. 2.0 before falling off.
Obstacle-induced spiral vortex breakdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasche, Simon; Gallaire, François; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed
2014-08-01
An experimental investigation on vortex breakdown dynamics is performed. An adverse pressure gradient is created along the axis of a wing-tip vortex by introducing a sphere downstream of an elliptical hydrofoil. The instrumentation involves high-speed visualizations with air bubbles used as tracers and 2D Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Two key parameters are identified and varied to control the onset of vortex breakdown: the swirl number, defined as the maximum azimuthal velocity divided by the free-stream velocity, and the adverse pressure gradient. They were controlled through the incidence angle of the elliptical hydrofoil, the free-stream velocity and the sphere diameter. A single helical breakdown of the vortex was systematically observed over a wide range of experimental parameters. The helical breakdown coiled around the sphere in the direction opposite to the vortex but rotated along the vortex direction. We have observed that the location of vortex breakdown moved upstream as the swirl number or the sphere diameter was increased. LDV measurements were corrected using a reconstruction procedure taking into account the so-called vortex wandering and the size of the LDV measurement volume. This allows us to investigate the spatio-temporal linear stability properties of the flow and demonstrate that the flow transition from columnar to single helical shape is due to a transition from convective to absolute instability.
Vortex dynamics in thin elliptic ferromagnetic nanodisks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wysin, G. M.
2015-10-01
Vortex gyrotropic motion in thin ferromagnetic nanodisks of elliptical shape is described here for a pure vortex state and for a situation with thermal fluctuations. The system is analyzed using numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations, including the demagnetization field calculated with a Green's function approach for thin film problems. At finite temperature the thermalized dynamics is found using a second order Heun algorithm for a magnetic Langevin equation based on the LLG equations. The vortex state is stable only within a limited range of ellipticity, outside of which a quasi-single-domain becomes the preferred minimum energy state. A vortex is found to move in an elliptical potential, whose force constants along the principal axes are determined numerically. The eccentricity of vortex motion is directly related to the force constants. Elliptical vortex motion is produced spontaneously by thermal fluctuations. The vortex position and velocity distributions in thermal equilibrium are Boltzmann distributions. The results show that vortex motion in elliptical disks can be described by a Thiele equation.
An investigation of the vortex method
Pryor, D.W. Jr.
1994-05-01
The vortex method is a numerical scheme for solving the vorticity transport equation. Chorin introduced modern vortex methods. The vortex method is a Lagrangian, grid free method which has less intrinsic diffusion than many grid schemes. It is adaptive in the sense that elements are needed only where the vorticity is non-zero. Our description of vortex methods begins with the point vortex method of Rosenhead for two dimensional inviscid flow, and builds upon it to eventually cover the case of three dimensional slightly viscous flow with boundaries. This section gives an introduction to the fundamentals of the vortex method. This is done in order to give a basic impression of the previous work and its line of development, as well as develop some notation and concepts which will be used later. The purpose here is not to give a full review of vortex methods or the contributions made by all the researchers in the field. Please refer to the excellent review papers in Sethian and Gustafson, chapters 1 Sethian, 2 Hald, 3 Sethian, 8 Chorin provide a solid introduction to vortex methods, including convergence theory, application in two dimensions and connection to statistical mechanics and polymers. Much of the information in this review is taken from those chapters, Chorin and Marsden and Batchelor, the chapters are also useful for their extensive bibliographies.
Vortex motion on surfaces of small curvature
Dorigoni, Daniele Dunajski, Maciej Manton, Nicholas S.
2013-12-15
We consider a single Abelian Higgs vortex on a surface Σ whose Gaussian curvature K is small relative to the size of the vortex, and analyse vortex motion by using geodesics on the moduli space of static solutions. The moduli space is Σ with a modified metric, and we propose that this metric has a universal expansion, in terms of K and its derivatives, around the initial metric on Σ. Using an integral expression for the Kähler potential on the moduli space, we calculate the leading coefficients of this expansion numerically, and find some evidence for their universality. The expansion agrees to first order with the metric resulting from the Ricci flow starting from the initial metric on Σ, but differs at higher order. We compare the vortex motion with the motion of a point particle along geodesics of Σ. Relative to a particle geodesic, the vortex experiences an additional force, which to leading order is proportional to the gradient of K. This force is analogous to the self-force on bodies of finite size that occurs in gravitational motion. -- Highlights: •We study an Abelian Higgs vortex on a surface with small curvature. •A universal expansion for the moduli space metric is proposed. •We numerically check the universality at low orders. •Vortex motion differs from point particle motion because a vortex has a finite size. •Moduli space geometry has similarities with the geometry arising from Ricci flow.
Untying vortex knots in fluids and superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleckner, Dustin; Scheeler, Martin; Kedia, Hridesh; Irvine, William T. M.
Recent work has demonstrated that vortex knots appear to always untie in fluids and superfluids. Should we expect the same behavior from these two very different systems? I will discuss this unknotting behavior, both quantitatively - through helicity - and qualitatively through the geometry and topology of the vortex lines as they evolve.
Chaotic scattering of two vortex pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan
2008-11-01
Chaotic scattering of two vortex pairs with slightly different circulations was considered by Eckhardt & Aref in 1988. A new numerical exploration suggests that the motion of two vortex pairs, with constituent vortices all of the same absolute circulation, also displays chaotic scattering regimes. The mechanisms leading to chaotic scattering are different from the ``slingshot effect'' identified by Price [Phys. Fluids A, 5, 2479 (1993)] and occur in a different region of the four-vortex phase space. They may in many cases be understood by appealing to the solutions of the three-vortex problem obtained by merging two like-signed vortices into one of twice the strength, and by assuming that the four-vortex problem has unstable, periodic solutions similar to those seen in the thereby associated three-vortex problems. The integrals of motion, linear impulse and Hamiltonian, are recast in a form appropriate for vortex pair scattering interactions that provides constraints on the parameters characterizing the outgoing vortex pairs in terms of the initial conditions.
Honeycomb lattices with defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spencer, Meryl A.; Ziff, Robert M.
2016-04-01
In this paper, we introduce a variant of the honeycomb lattice in which we create defects by randomly exchanging adjacent bonds, producing a random tiling with a distribution of polygon edges. We study the percolation properties on these lattices as a function of the number of exchanged bonds using an alternative computational method. We find the site and bond percolation thresholds are consistent with other three-coordinated lattices with the same standard deviation in the degree distribution of the dual; here we can produce a continuum of lattices with a range of standard deviations in the distribution. These lattices should be useful for modeling other properties of random systems as well as percolation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jukna, A.; Steponavičienė, L.; Plaušinaitienė, V.; Abrutis, A.; Maneikis, A.; Šliužienė, K.; Lisauskas, V.; Sobolewski, Roman
2013-12-01
We report our results of investigation of electric and magnetic properties of partially oxygen-depleted channels for easy vortex motion in YBa2Cu3O7- x (YBCO) superconducting, 50-μm-wide, and 100-μm-long microbridges at temperatures below the onset of the superconducting state critical temperature T {c/on}. The channels were produced by means of a laser-writing technique. The writing was performed using a 0.1-0.3 W power, continuous-wave laser radiation focused down to a ~ 5 μm spot on the surface of a superconducting film in a nitrogen gas atmosphere, and resulted in perpendicular stripes (channels) with partial ( x ~ 0.2) reduction of the oxygen content in the YBCO stripe. The oxygen-depleted channels exhibit a depressed T c and lower both the critical current density and the first critical magnetic field, as compared with the laser-untreated areas. The bias current applied to the bridge self-produced a magnetic flux that penetrated the channels in a form of Abrikosov magnetic vortices that, subsequently, moved coherently (a quasi-Josephson effect) along the channels in the narrow temperature range of 0.943 T {c/on}-0.98 T {c/on} and manifested themselves as steps on the current-voltage characteristics of our microbridges. Our results demonstrate that laser-induced formation of artificial channels of the flux flow can be used for a precise control of vortex nucleation and their coherent motion in pre-assigned regions of thin-film YBCO devices.
Supersonic shock wave/vortex interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Settles, G. S.; Cattafesta, L.
1993-01-01
Although shock wave/vortex interaction is a basic and important fluid dynamics problem, very little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, a detailed experimental study of the interaction between a supersonic streamwise turbulent vortex and a shock wave was carried out at the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory. A vortex is produced by replaceable swirl vanes located upstream of the throat of various converging-diverging nozzles. The supersonic vortex is then injected into either a coflowing supersonic stream or ambient air. The structure of the isolated vortex is investigated in a supersonic wind tunnel using miniature, fast-response, five-hole and total temperature probes and in a free jet using laser Doppler velocimetry. The cases tested have unit Reynolds numbers in excess of 25 million per meter, axial Mach numbers ranging from 2.5 to 4.0, and peak tangential Mach numbers from 0 (i.e., a pure jet) to about 0.7. The results show that the typical supersonic wake-like vortex consists of a non-isentropic, rotational core, where the reduced circulation distribution is self similar, and an outer isentropic, irrotational region. The vortex core is also a region of significant turbulent fluctuations. Radial profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and axial-tangential Reynolds stress are presented. The interactions between the vortex and both oblique and normal shock waves are investigated using nonintrusive optical diagnostics (i.e. schlieren, planar laser scattering, and laser Doppler velocimetry). Of the various types, two Mach 2.5 overexpanded-nozzle Mach disc interactions are examined in detail. Below a certain vortex strength, a 'weak' interaction exists in which the normal shock is perturbed locally into an unsteady 'bubble' shock near the vortex axis, but vortex breakdown (i.e., a stagnation point) does not occur. For stronger vortices, a random unsteady 'strong' interaction results that causes vortex breakdown. The vortex core reforms downstream of
Internal structure of a vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, Y.; Leonard, A.; Spalart, P. R.
1986-01-01
An axisymmetric vortex breakdown was well simulated by the vortex filament method. The agreement with the experiment was qualitatively good. In particular, the structure in the interior of the vortex breakdown was ensured to a great degree by the present simulation. The second breakdown, or spiral type, which occurs downstream of the first axisymmetric breakdown, was simulated more similarly to the experiment than before. It shows a kink of the vortex filaments and strong three-dimensionality. Furthermore, a relatively low velocity region was observed near the second breakdown. It was also found that it takes some time for this physical phenomenon to attain its final stage. The comparison with the experiment is getting better as time goes on. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the comparison of the simulated results with the experiment. The present results help to make clear the mechanism of a vortex breakdown.
Acoustic Scattering by a Vortex Dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zhongquan; Zhang, Junjian
2015-11-01
Acoustic scattering in vortical flow has been an interesting and practical topic, with applications in problems such as acoustic scattering of turbulent flow. In this study, the linearized Euler equation model is employed to investigate sound wave propagation over a subsonic counter-rotating vortex dipole. Both the stationary and moving due to mutual induction vortex dipoles are studied. The numerical scheme uses a high-order WENO scheme to accommodate the highly convective background flow at high Mach numbers. The simulation results are compared with the analytical solutions and literature data. The theoretical study is focused on the effects of three characteristic length scales in this problem: the incident sound wave length, the vortex core size, and the vortex dipole size. The directivity and scaling laws related to the vortex scattering effects are discussed.
Phase front analysis of vortex streets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lefrançois, Marcel; Ahlborn, Boye
1994-06-01
The continuous formation and development of a laminar vortex street behind a circular cylinder of radius D in a flow of velocity U∞ has been modeled as a Huygens-type wave process, where the transverse velocity Uy and the vorticity ω in the near wake oscillate at the vortex shedding frequency f. Starting from the Biot-Savart law for fluids a phase front propagation integral is derived. This formalism is used to calculate for each point along the span the phase of vortex shedding as a function of the phase of the previously shed vortex generation and the shedding frequency. The amplitude is determined by a simple renormalization calculation. In good agreement with experiments, the model predicts the propagation of spanwise phase perturbations into subsequent vortex generations for two-dimensional (2-D) flow geometries and the cell formation in three-dimensional flows around tapered cylinders.
Calculation of vortex flows on complex configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maskew, B.; Rao, B. M.
1982-01-01
The calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of complex configurations having strongly coupled vortex flows is a non-linear problem requiring iterative solution techniques. This paper discusses the use of a low-order panel method as a means of obtaining practical solutions to such problems. The panel method is based on piecewise constant source and doublet quadrilateral panels and uses the internal Dirichlet boundary condition of zero perturbation potential. The problems of predicting vortex/surface interaction and vortex separation are discussed. Some example calculations are included but further test cases have yet to be carried out, in particular for comparisons with experimental data. The problem of convergence on the iterative calculation for the shape of the free vortex sheet is addressed and a preprocessor routine, based on an unsteady, two-dimensional version of the panel method, is put forward as a cost-effective way of generating an initial vortex structure for use as a starting solution for general configurations.
Measurement-based quantum lattice gas model of fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions.
Micci, Michael M; Yepez, Jeffrey
2015-09-01
Presented are quantum simulation results using a measurement-based quantum lattice gas algorithm for Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions. Numerical prediction of the kinematic viscosity was measured by the decay rate of an initial sinusoidal flow profile. Due to local quantum entanglement in the quantum lattice gas, the minimum kinematic viscosity in the measurement-based quantum lattice gas is lower than achievable in a classical lattice gas. The numerically predicted viscosities precisely match the theoretical predictions obtained with a mean field approximation. Uniform flow profile with double shear layers, on a 16K×8K lattice, leads to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, breaking up the shear layer into pairs of counter-rotating vortices that eventually merge via vortex fusion and dissipate because of the nonzero shear viscosity. PMID:26465581
Measurement-based quantum lattice gas model of fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Micci, Michael M.; Yepez, Jeffrey
2015-09-01
Presented are quantum simulation results using a measurement-based quantum lattice gas algorithm for Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions. Numerical prediction of the kinematic viscosity was measured by the decay rate of an initial sinusoidal flow profile. Due to local quantum entanglement in the quantum lattice gas, the minimum kinematic viscosity in the measurement-based quantum lattice gas is lower than achievable in a classical lattice gas. The numerically predicted viscosities precisely match the theoretical predictions obtained with a mean field approximation. Uniform flow profile with double shear layers, on a 16 K ×8 K lattice, leads to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, breaking up the shear layer into pairs of counter-rotating vortices that eventually merge via vortex fusion and dissipate because of the nonzero shear viscosity.
Quantum vortex strings: A review
Tong, David
2009-01-15
The quantum worldsheet dynamics of vortex strings contains information about the 4d non-Abelian gauge theory in which the string lives. Here I tell this story. The string worldsheet theory is typically some variant of the CP{sup N-1} sigma-model, describing the orientation of the string in a U(N) gauge group. Qualitative parallels between 2d sigma-models and 4d non-Abelian gauge theories have been known since the 1970s. The vortex string provides a quantitative link between the two. In 4d theories with N=2 supersymmetry, the exact BPS spectrum of the worldsheet coincides with the bulk spectrum in 4d. Moreover, by tuning parameters, the CP{sup N-1} sigma-model can be coaxed to flow to an interacting conformal fixed point which is related to the 4d Argyres-Douglas fixed point. For theories with N=1 supersymmetry, the worldsheet theory suffers dynamical supersymmetry breaking and, more interestingly, supersymmetry restoration, in a way which captures the physics of Seiberg's quantum deformed moduli space.
The VORTEX coronagraphic test bench
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jolivet, A.; Piron, P.; Huby, E.; Absil, O.; Delacroix, C.; Mawet, D.; Surdej, J.; Habraken, S.
2014-07-01
In this paper, we present the infrared coronagraphic test bench of the University of Liège named VODCA (Vortex Optical Demonstrator for Coronagraphic Applications). The goal of the bench is to assess the performances of the Annular Groove Phase Masks (AGPMs) at near- to mid-infrared wavelengths. The AGPM is a subwavelength grating vortex coronagraph of charge two (SGVC2) made out of diamond. The bench is designed to be completely achromatic and will be composed of a super continuum laser source emitting in the near to mid-infrared, several parabolas, diaphragms and an infrared camera. This way, we will be able to test the different AGPMs in the M, L, K and H bands. Eventually, the bench will also allow the computation of the incident wavefront aberrations on the coronagraph. A reflective Lyot stop will send most of the stellar light to a second camera to perform low-order wavefront sensing. This second system coupled with a deformable mirror will allow the correction of the wavefront aberrations. We also aim to test other pre- and/or post-coronagraphic concepts such as optimal apodization.
Phase structure, magnetic monopoles, and vortices in the lattice Abelian Higgs model
Ranft, J.; Kripfganz, J.; Ranft, G.
1983-07-15
We present Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Abelian Higgs models in four dimensions and with charges of the Higgs particles equal to q = 1, 2, and 6. The phase transitions are studied in the plane of the two coupling constants considering separately average plaquette and average link expectation values. The density of topological excitations is studied. In the confinement phase we find finite densities of magnetic-monopole currents, electric currents, and vortex currents. The magnetic-monopole currents vanish exponentially in the Coulomb phase. The density of electric currents and vortex currents is finite in the Coulomb phase and vanishes exponentially in the Higgs phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Narina; Seo, Hae Won; Yoo, Chun Sang
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional (2-D) characteristic boundary conditions (CBC) based on the characteristic analysis are formulated for the lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM). In this approach, the classical locally-one dimensional inviscid (LODI) relations are improved by recovering multi-dimensional effects on flows at open boundaries. The 2-D CBC are extended to a general subsonic flow configuration in the LBM and the effects of the transverse terms are clarified. From the vortex convection and vortex shedding problems, it is verified that the improved CBC shows better performance in accuracy compared to the conventional CBC approaches.
Orientational and positional order in flux lattices of type-II superconductors
Chudnovsky, E.M. )
1991-04-01
A detailed theory of a hexatic vortex glass, recently observed in high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors, is developed. The vortex lattice in this phase is characterized by short-range positional order, which decays as exp({minus}{alpha}{ital r}) in three dimensions (3D) and as exp({minus}{beta}{ital r}{sup 2}) in 2D, and by extended orientational correlations, which may be long range in a 3D sample and decay algebraically in a 2D film. For 2D and 3D the angular and field dependence of positional and orientational correlation functions is obtained; these may be easily tested experimentally.
PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukumoto, Yasuhide
2009-10-01
This special section of Fluid Dynamics Research includes five articles on vortex rings in both classical and quantum fluids. The leading scientists of the field describe the trends in and the state-of-the-art development of experiments, theories and numerical simulations of vortex rings. The year 2008 was the 150th anniversary of 'vortex motion' since Hermann von Helmholtz opened up this field. In 1858, Helmholtz published a paper in Crelle's Journal which put forward the concept of 'vorticity' and made the first analysis of vortex motion. Fluid mechanics before that was limited to irrotational motion. In the absence of vorticity, the motion of an incompressible homogeneous fluid is virtually equivalent to a rigid-body motion in the sense that the fluid motion is determined once the boundary configuration is specified. Helmholtz proved, among other things, that, without viscosity, a vortex line is frozen into the fluid. This Helmholtz's law immediately implies the preservation of knots and links of vortex lines and its implication is enormous. One of the major trends of fluid mechanics since the latter half of the 20th century is to clarify the topological meaning of Helmholtz's law and to exploit it to develop theoretical and numerical methods to find the solutions of the Euler equations and to develop experimental techniques to gain an insight into fluid motion. Vortex rings are prominent coherent structures in a variety of fluid motions from the microscopic scale, through human and mesoscale to astrophysical scales, and have attracted people's interest. The late professor Philip G Saffman (1981) emphasized the significance of studies on vortex rings. One particular motion exemplifies the whole range of problems of vortex motion and is also a commonly known phenomenon, namely the vortex ring or smoke ring. Vortex rings are easily produced by dropping drops of one liquid into another, or by puffing fluid out of a hole, or by exhaling smoke if one has the skill
Courant, E.D.; Garren, A.A.
1985-10-01
A realistic, distributed interaction region (IR) lattice has been designed that includes new components discussed in the June 1985 lattice workshop. Unlike the test lattices, the lattice presented here includes utility straights and the mechanism for crossing the beams in the experimental straights. Moreover, both the phase trombones and the dispersion suppressors contain the same bending as the normal cells. Vertically separated beams and 6 Tesla, 1-in-1 magnets are assumed. Since the cells are 200 meters long, and have 60 degree phase advance, this lattice has been named RLD1, in analogy with the corresponding test lattice, TLD1. The quadrupole gradient is 136 tesla/meter in the cells, and has similar values in other quadrupoles except in those in the IR`s, where the maximum gradient is 245 tesla/meter. RLD1 has distributed IR`s; however, clustered realistic lattices can easily be assembled from the same components, as was recently done in a version that utilizes the same type of experimental and utility straights as those of RLD1.
Site-selective NMR for odd-frequency Cooper pairs around vortex in chiral p -wave superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Kenta K.; Ichioka, Masanori; Onari, Seiichiro
2016-03-01
In order to identify the pairing symmetry with chirality, we study site-selective NMR in chiral p -wave superconductors. We calculate local nuclear relaxation rate T1-1 in the vortex lattice state by Eilenberger theory, including the applied magnetic field dependence. We find that T1-1 in the NMR resonance line shape is different between two chiral states p±(=px±i py) , depending on whether the chirality is parallel or antiparallel to the vorticity. Anomalous suppression of T1-1 occurs around the vortex core in the chiral p- wave due to the negative coherence term coming from the odd-frequency s -wave Cooper pair induced around the vortex with Majorana state.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grantz, A. C.
1984-01-01
The low speed lateral/directional characteristics of a generic 74 degree delta wing body configuration employing the latest generation, gothic planform vortex flaps was determined. Longitudinal effects are also presented. The data are compared with theoretical estimates from VORSTAB, an extension of the Quasi vortex lattice Method of Lan which empirically accounts for vortex breakdown effects in the calculation of longitudinal and lateral/directional aerodynamic characteristics. It is indicated that leading edge deflections of 30 and 40 degrees reduce the magnitude of the wing effective dihedral relative to the baseline for a specified angle of attack or lift coefficient. For angles of attack greater than 15 degrees, these flap deflections reduce the configuration directional stability despite improved vertical tail effectiveness. It is shown that asymmetric leading edge deflections are inferior to conventional ailerons in generating rolling moments. VORSTAB calculations provide coarse lateral/directional estimates at low to moderate angles of attack. The theory does not account for vortex flow induced, vertical tail effects.
Rotor Wake Vortex Definition Using 3C-PIV Measurements: Corrected for Vortex Orientation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughues Richard; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee
2003-01-01
Three-component (3-C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, within the wake across a rotor disk plane, are used to determine wake vortex definitions important for BVI (Blade Vortex Interaction) and broadband noise prediction. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted using a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). In this paper, measurements are presented of the wake vortex field over the advancing side of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition. The orientations of the vortex (tube) axes are found to have non-zero tilt angles with respect to the chosen PIV measurement cut planes, often on the order of 45 degrees. Methods for determining the orientation of the vortex axis and reorienting the measured PIV velocity maps (by rotation/projection) are presented. One method utilizes the vortex core axial velocity component, the other utilizes the swirl velocity components. Key vortex parameters such as vortex core size, strength, and core velocity distribution characteristics are determined from the reoriented PIV velocity maps. The results are compared with those determined from velocity maps that are not corrected for orientation. Knowledge of magnitudes and directions of the vortex axial and swirl velocity components as a function of streamwise location provide a basis for insight into the vortex evolution.
Vortex bursting and tracer transport of a counter-rotating vortex pair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misaka, T.; Holzäpfel, F.; Hennemann, I.; Gerz, T.; Manhart, M.; Schwertfirm, F.
2012-02-01
Large-eddy simulations of a coherent counter-rotating vortex pair in different environments are performed. The environmental background is characterized by varying turbulence intensities and stable temperature stratifications. Turbulent exchange processes between the vortices, the vortex oval, and the environment, as well as the material redistribution processes along the vortex tubes are investigated employing passive tracers that are superimposed to the initial vortex flow field. It is revealed that the vortex bursting phenomenon, known from photos of aircraft contrails or smoke visualization, is caused by collisions of secondary vortical structures traveling along the vortex tube which expel material from the vortex but do not result in a sudden decay of circulation or an abrupt change of vortex core structure. In neutrally stratified and weakly turbulent conditions, vortex reconnection triggers traveling helical vorticity structures which is followed by their collision. A long-lived vortex ring links once again establishing stable double rings. Key phenomena observed in the simulations are supported by photographs of contrails. The vertical and lateral extents of the detrained passive tracer strongly depend on environmental conditions where the sensitivity of detrainment rates on initial tracer distributions appears to be low.
Modeling of Wake-vortex Aircraft Encounters. Appendix B
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Sonya T.
1999-01-01
There are more people passing through the world's airports today than at any other time in history. With this increase in civil transport, airports are becoming capacity limited. In order to increase capacity and thus meet the demands of the flying public, the number of runways and number of flights per runway must be increased. In response to the demand, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airport operators, and the airline industry are taking steps to increase airport capacity without jeopardizing safety. Increasing the production per runway increases the likelihood that an aircraft will encounter the trailing wake-vortex of another aircraft. The hazard of a wake-vortex encounter is that heavy load aircraft can produce high intensity wake turbulence, through the development of its wing-tip vortices. A smaller aircraft following in the wake of the heavy load aircraft will experience redistribution of its aerodynamic load. This creates a safety hazard for the smaller aircraft. Understanding this load redistribution is of great importance, particularly during landing and take-off. In this research wake-vortex effects on an encountering 10% scale model of the B737-100 aircraft are modeled using both strip theory and vortex-lattice modeling methods. The models are then compared to wind tunnel data that was taken in the 30ft x 60ft wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Comparisons are made to determine if the models will have acceptable accuracy when parts of the geometry are removed, such as the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical tail. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to observe how accurately the models could match the experimental data if there was a 10% error in the circulation strength. It was determined that both models show accurate results when the wing, horizontal stabilizer, and vertical tail were a part of the geometry. When the horizontal
Nonlinear ion acoustic waves scattered by vortexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohno, Yuji; Yoshida, Zensho
2016-09-01
The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy is the archetype of infinite-dimensional integrable systems, which describes nonlinear ion acoustic waves in two-dimensional space. This remarkably ordered system resides on a singular submanifold (leaf) embedded in a larger phase space of more general ion acoustic waves (low-frequency electrostatic perturbations). The KP hierarchy is characterized not only by small amplitudes but also by irrotational (zero-vorticity) velocity fields. In fact, the KP equation is derived by eliminating vorticity at every order of the reductive perturbation. Here, we modify the scaling of the velocity field so as to introduce a vortex term. The newly derived system of equations consists of a generalized three-dimensional KP equation and a two-dimensional vortex equation. The former describes 'scattering' of vortex-free waves by ambient vortexes that are determined by the latter. We say that the vortexes are 'ambient' because they do not receive reciprocal reactions from the waves (i.e., the vortex equation is independent of the wave fields). This model describes a minimal departure from the integrable KP system. By the Painlevé test, we delineate how the vorticity term violates integrability, bringing about an essential three-dimensionality to the solutions. By numerical simulation, we show how the solitons are scattered by vortexes and become chaotic.
Dynamics of Isolated Tip Vortex Cavitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pennings, Pepijn; Bosschers, Johan; van Terwisga, Tom
2014-11-01
Performance of ship propellers and comfort levels in the surroundings are limited by various forms of cavitation. Amongst these forms tip vortex cavitation is one of the first appearing forms and is expected to be mainly responsible for the emission of broadband pressure fluctuations typically occurring between the 4th to the 7th blade passing frequency (approx. 40--70 Hz). These radiated pressure pulses are likely to excite parts of the hull structure resulting in a design compromise between efficiency and comfort. Insight is needed in the mechanism of acoustic emission from the oscillations by a tip vortex cavity. In the current experimental study the tip vortex cavity from a blade with an elliptic planform and sections based on NACA 662 - 415 with meanline a = 0 . 8 is observed using high speed shadowgraphy in combination with blade force and acoustic measurements. An analytic model describing three main cavity deformation modes is verified and used to explain the origin of a cavity eigenfrequency or ``vortex singing'' phenomenon observed by Maines and Arndt (1997) on the tip vortex cavity originating from the same blade. As no hydrodynamic sound originating from the tip vortex cavity was observed it is posed that a tip flow instability is essential for ``vortex singing.'' This research was funded by the Lloyd's Register Foundation as part of the International Institute for Cavitation Research.
Vortex Wakes of Subsonic Transport Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
A historical overview will be presented of the research conducted on the structure and modification of the vortices generated by the lifting surfaces of subsonic transport aircraft. The seminar will describe the three areas of vortex research; namely, the magnitude of the hazard posed, efforts to reduce the hazard to an acceptable level, and efforts to develop a systematic means for avoiding vortex wakes. It is first pointed out that the characteristics of lift-generated vortices are related to the aerodynamic shapes that produce them and that various arrangements of surfaces can be used to produce different vortex structures. The largest portion of the research conducted to date has been directed at finding ways to reduce the hazard potential of lift-generated vortices shed by subsonic transport aircraft in the vicinity of airports during landing and takeoff operations. It is stressed that lift-generated vortex wakes are so complex that progress towards a solution requires application of a combined theoretical and experimental research program because either alone often leads to incorrect conclusions. It is concluded that a satisfactory aerodynamic solution to the wake-vortex problem at airports has not yet been found but a reduction in the impact of the wake-vortex hazard on airport capacity may become available in the foreseeable future through wake-vortex avoidance concepts currently under study. The material to be presented in this overview is drawn from articles published in aerospace journals that are available publicly.
Spin Torque induced anti-vortex excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozbozduman, Kaan; Karakas, Vedat; Arpaci, Sevdenur; Habibioglu, Ali Taha; Gokce, Aisha; Giordano, Anna; Celegato, Federica; Tiberto, Paula; Finocchio, Giovanni; Aktas, Gulen; Ozatay, Ozhan
Nanodevices that are designed to stimulate the formation of unique magnetic configurations (vortex, anti-vortex, skyrmion etc.) are applicable to spin based technologies, namely, microwave oscillators and magnetic sensors. In this talk, we report the observed dynamic behavior of an anti-vortex, which had not been thoroughly studied due to the complexity in stabilization of the structure, by analyzing its interaction with magnetic field and DC current. Permalloy (Ni81Fe19) based 2x2µm2 asteroid geometry devices, consisting of four tangent circles of equal radii, facilitate the nucleation of an anti-vortex pair at the center with the application of an in-plane AC demagnetizing field and an out of plane magnetic saturation field. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) data shows that an external magnetic field can rearrange the positions of diagonally located anti-vortex pair. Spin torque effect induces an anti-vortex pair circular motion, known as gyration. The resulting RF signal is measured using the anisotropic magneto-resistance effect (AMR) which indicates a ~250-300 m Ω change in the resistance of our samples. This study will help develop our understanding of the anti-vortex, current and magnetic field interactions for practical on-chip microwave oscillator applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidner, Carrie; Yu, Hoon; Anderson, Dana
2016-05-01
In this work, we report on progress towards performing interferometry using atoms trapped in an optical lattice. That is, we start with atoms in the ground state of an optical lattice potential V(x) =V0cos [ 2 kx + ϕ(t) ] , and by a prescribed phase function ϕ(t) , transform from one atomic wavefunction to another. In this way, we implement the standard interferometric sequence of beam splitting, propagation, reflection, reverse propagation, and recombination. Through the use of optimal control techniques, we have computationally demonstrated a scalable accelerometer that provides information on the sign of the applied acceleration. Extension of this idea to a two-dimensional shaken-lattice-based gyroscope is discussed. In addition, we report on the experimental implementation of the shaken lattice system.
ORGINOS,K.
2003-01-07
I review the current status of hadronic structure computations on the lattice. I describe the basic lattice techniques and difficulties and present some of the latest lattice results; in particular recent results of the RBC group using domain wall fermions are also discussed. In conclusion, lattice computations can play an important role in understanding the hadronic structure and the fundamental properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Although some difficulties still exist, several significant steps have been made. Advances in computer technology are expected to play a significant role in pushing these computations closer to the chiral limit and in including dynamical fermions. RBC has already begun preliminary dynamical domain wall fermion computations [49] which we expect to be pushed forward with the arrival of QCD0C. In the near future, we also expect to complete the non-perturbative renormalization of the relevant derivative operators in quenched QCD.
Superalloy Lattice Block Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.
2004-01-01
Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.
Zuhail, K P; Dhara, Surajit
2016-08-10
We report experimental studies on 2D colloidal crystals of dimers stabilized by vortex-like defects in planar nematic and π/2 twisted nematic cells. The dimers are prepared and self-assembled using a laser tweezer. We study the effect of temperature and electric field on the lattice parameters of the colloidal crystals. The lattice parameters vary with the temperature in the nematic phase and a discontinuous structural change is observed at the nematic to smectic-A phase transition. In the nematic phase, we observed a large change in the lattice parameters (≃30%) by applying an external electric field perpendicular to the plane of the 2D crystals. The idea and the active control of the lattice parameters could be useful for designing tunable colloidal crystals. PMID:27445255
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haddad, L. H.; Carr, Lincoln D.
2015-11-01
We analyze the vortex solution space of the (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Dirac equation for bosons in a honeycomb optical lattice at length scales much larger than the lattice spacing. Dirac point relativistic covariance combined with s-wave scattering for bosons leads to a large number of vortex solutions characterized by different functional forms for the internal spin and overall phase of the order parameter. We present a detailed derivation of these solutions which include skyrmions, half-quantum vortices, Mermin-Ho and Anderson-Toulouse vortices for vortex winding {\\ell }=1. For {\\ell }≥slant 2 we obtain topological as well as non-topological solutions defined by the asymptotic radial dependence. For arbitrary values of ℓ the non-topological solutions include bright ring-vortices which explicitly demonstrate the confining effects of the Dirac operator. We arrive at solutions through an asymptotic Bessel series, algebraic closed-forms, and using standard numerical shooting methods. By including a harmonic potential to simulate a finite trap we compute the discrete spectra associated with radially quantized modes. We demonstrate the continuous spectral mapping between the vortex and free particle limits for all of our solutions.
Evaluation of travelling vortex speed by means of vortex tracking and dynamic mode decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyhlík, Tomáš
2016-06-01
The article deals with the analysis of unsteady periodic flow field related to synthetic jet creation. The analyses are based on the data obtained using ANSYS Fluent solver. Numerical results are validated by hot wire anemometry data measured along the jet centerline. The speed of travelling vortex ring is evaluated by using vortex tracking method and by using dynamic mode decomposition method. Vortex identification is based on residual vorticity which allows identifying regions in the flow field where fluid particles perform the rotational motion. The regime of the synthetic jet with Re = 329 and S = 19.7 is chosen. Both the vortex tracking and the dynamic mode decomposition based vortex speed evaluation indicate an increase in the vortex speed close to the orifice and then decrease with maximum reaching almost one and half of orifice centerline velocity. The article contains extended version the article presented at the conference AEaNMiFMaE 2016.
On the Use of Vortex-Fitting in the Numerical Simulation of Blade-Vortex Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, G. R.; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The usefulness of vortex-fitting in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to preserve the vortex strength and structure while convecting in a uniform free stream is demonstrated through the numerical simulations of two- and three-dimensional blade-vortex interactions. The fundamental premise of the formulation is the velocity and pressure field of the interacting vortex are unaltered either in the presence of an airfoil or a rotor blade or by the resulting nonlinear interactional flowfield. Although, the governing Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are nonlinear and independent solutions cannot be superposed, the interactional flowfield can be accurately captured by adding and subtracting the flowfield of the convecting vortex at each instant. The aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of two- and three-dimensional blade-vortex interactions have been calculated in Refs. 1-6 using this concept. Some of the results from these publications and similar other published material will be summarized in this paper.
Effect of tip vortex structure on helicopter noise due to blade-vortex interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Widnall, S. E.; Wolf, T. L.
1980-01-01
A potential cause of helicopter impulsive noise, commonly called blade slap, is the unsteady lift fluctuation on a rotor blade due to interaction with the vortex trailed from another blade. The relationship between vortex structure and the intensity of the acoustic signal is investigated. Unsteady lift on the blades due to blade-vortex interaction is calculated using linear unsteady aerodynamic theory, and expressions are derived for the directivity, frequency spectrum, and transient signal of the radiated noise. The inviscid rollup model of Betz is used to calculate the velocity profile in the trailing vortex from the spanwise distribution of blade tip loading. A few cases of tip loading are investigated, and numerical results are presented for the unsteady lift and acoustic signal due to blade-vortex interaction. The intensity of the acoustic signal is shown to be quite sensitive to changes in tip vortex structures.
Vortex line in the unitary Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madeira, Lucas; Vitiello, Silvio A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Schmidt, Kevin E.
2016-04-01
We report diffusion Monte Carlo results for the ground state of unpolarized spin-1/2 fermions in a cylindrical container and properties of the system with a vortex-line excitation. The density profile of the system with a vortex line presents a nonzero density at the core. We calculate the ground-state energy per particle, the superfluid pairing gap, and the excitation energy per particle. These simulations can be extended to calculate the properties of vortex excitations in other strongly interacting systems such as superfluid neutron matter using realistic nuclear Hamiltonians.
Vortex shedding flowmeter with fiber optic sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wroblewski, D. J.; Skuratovsky, E.
Vortex shedding flow meters have proved over the last decade to be suitable for a wide variety of applications. They provide good accuracy, reliable flow measurement in a wide range of flow rates, and low pressure drop. Past performance was limited to operating pressures equivalent to ANSI Class 600 and process temperatures below 400 C. This paper presents a new design of vortex shedding flow meter with a fiber optic sensor capable of operating at pressures equivalent to ANSI Class 2500 and temperatures from -200 to 600 C. This device opens new horizons for vortex shedding flow meters in flow measurements and process control applications.
Symmetry-constrained electron vortex propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, L.; Guzzinati, G.; Béché, A.; Lubk, A.; Verbeeck, J.
2016-06-01
Electron vortex beams hold great promise for development in transmission electron microscopy but have yet to be widely adopted. This is partly due to the complex set of interactions that occur between a beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) and a sample. Herein, the system is simplified to focus on the interaction between geometrical symmetries, OAM, and topology. We present multiple simulations alongside experimental data to study the behavior of a variety of electron vortex beams after interacting with apertures of different symmetries and investigate the effect on their OAM and vortex structure, both in the far field and under free-space propagation.
Multi-vortex states in magnetic nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, W. L.; Chandra Sekhar, M.; Wong, D. W.; Purnama, I.; Chiam, S. Y.; Wong, L. M.; Lew, W. S.
2014-10-01
We demonstrate a fabrication technique to create cylindrical NiFe magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with controlled dimensions and composition. MNPs thicker than 200 nm can form a double vortex configuration, which consists of a pair of vortices with opposite chirality. When MNPs thicker than 300 nm are relaxed after saturation, it forms a frustrated triple vortex state which produces a higher net magnetization as verified by light transmissivity measurements. Therefore, a greater magnetic torque can be actuated on a MNP in the triple vortex state.
Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foeppl, L.
1983-01-01
Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder moving through water is discussed. It is shown that a pair of vortices form behind a moving cylinder and that their centers will move along a predictable curve. This curve represents an equilibrium condition which, however, is subject to perturbation. The stability of the vortex pair is investigated. Movement of the vortex pair away from the cylinder is calculated as an explanation of the resistance of the cylinder. Finally, the principles elaborated are applied to the flow around a flat plate.
RANS computations of tip vortex cavitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Decaix, Jean; Balarac, Guillaume; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed; Münch, Cécile
2015-12-01
The present study is related to the development of the tip vortex cavitation in Kaplan turbines. The investigation is carried out on a simplified test case consisting of a NACA0009 blade with a gap between the blade tip and the side wall. Computations with and without cavitation are performed using a R ANS modelling and a transport equation for the liquid volume fraction. Compared with experimental data, the R ANS computations turn out to be able to capture accurately the development of the tip vortex. The simulations have also highlighted the influence of cavitation on the tip vortex trajectory.
Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory
Monahan, Christopher
2014-11-01
I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.
Vortex generator for flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor); Marner, Wilbur J. (Inventor); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
Fluidics flow control of a multiphase supply using a cylindrical chamber is achieved by introducing the supply flow radially into the chamber. The supply flow exits through a port in the center at the chamber. A control fluid is then introduced tangentially about 90.degree. upstream from the supply port. A second control fluid port may be added about 90.degree. upstream from the first control fluid port, but preferably two sets of supply and control ports are added with like ports diametrically opposite each other. The control fluid flows against the circular wall of the control chamber, which introduces a vortex in the flow of the supply flow that decays into a spiral path to the exit port in the center of the chamber. The control flow rate may thus be used to control the spiral path, and therefore the supply flow rate through the exit port.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, A.; Bohr, T.; Stenum, B.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Lautrup, B.
2003-09-01
We present experiments and theory for the “bathtub vortex,” which forms when a fluid drains out of a rotating cylindrical container through a small drain hole. The fast down-flow is found to be confined to a narrow and rapidly rotating “drainpipe” from the free surface down to the drain hole. Surrounding this drainpipe is a region with slow upward flow generated by the Ekman layer at the bottom of the container. This flow structure leads us to a theoretical model similar to one obtained earlier by Lundgren [
Vortex Structures of Whistler Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaliznyak, Yu.; Davydova, T.; Yakimenko, A.
Starting with two-dimensional nonlinear Scroedinger equation for a parallel electric field of spatially localized beam of whistler waves we investigate formation, evolu- tion and stability of nonlinear whistler waveguides (or ducts) which are frequently observed during heating active experiments in the ionosphere. When the generator frequency is close to the half of electron cyclotron frequency, one have take into ac- count the additional terms of the next order in the equation for the interpretation of existing experimental data. It is needed to use a full Maxwell's equation set to describe the propagation of whistlers and to account for the nonlinearity saturation at high val- ues of pump power. Nonlinear waveguides of vortex type (with topological charge 1, 2 and 3) are found and their stability properties are investigated by means of numerical simulations.
Thermo-magnetic history effects in the vortex state of YNi2B2C superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Pradip; Tomy, C. V.; Takeya, H.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grover, A. K.
2009-03-01
The nature of five-quadrant magnetic isotherms for H parallel a is different from that for H parallel c in a single crystal of YNi2B2C, pointing towards an anisotropic behaviour of the flux line lattice (FLL). For H parallel a, a well defined peak effect (PE) and second magnetization peak (SMP) can be observed and the loop is open prior to the PE. However, for H parallel c, the loop is closed and one can observe only the PE. We have investigated the history dependence of magnetization hysteresis data for H parallel a by recording minor hysteresis loops. The observed history dependence in JC{H) across different anomalous regions are rationalized on the basis of superheating/supercooling of the vortex matter across the first-order-like phase transition and possible additional effects due to annealing of the disordered vortex bundles to the underlying equilibrium state.
Three-Dimensional Crystallization of Vortex Strings in Frustrated Quantum Magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhentao; Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H.; Batista, Cristian D.
2015-09-01
We demonstrate that frustrated exchange interactions can produce exotic 3D crystals of vortex strings near the saturation field (H =Hsat) of body- and face-centered cubic Mott insulators. The combination of cubic symmetry and frustration leads to a magnon spectrum of the fully polarized spin state (H >Hsat) with degenerate minima at multiple noncoplanar Q vectors. This spectrum becomes gapless at the quantum critical point H =Hsat and the magnetic ordering below Hsat can be formally described as a condensate of a dilute gas of bosons. By expanding in the lattice gas parameter, we find that different vortex crystals span sizable regions of the phase diagrams for isotropic exchange and are further stabilized by symmetric exchange anisotropy.
Three-Dimensional Crystallization of Vortex Strings in Frustrated Quantum Magnets.
Wang, Zhentao; Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H; Batista, Cristian D
2015-09-01
We demonstrate that frustrated exchange interactions can produce exotic 3D crystals of vortex strings near the saturation field (H=H(sat)) of body- and face-centered cubic Mott insulators. The combination of cubic symmetry and frustration leads to a magnon spectrum of the fully polarized spin state (H>H(sat)) with degenerate minima at multiple noncoplanar Q vectors. This spectrum becomes gapless at the quantum critical point H=H(sat) and the magnetic ordering below H(sat) can be formally described as a condensate of a dilute gas of bosons. By expanding in the lattice gas parameter, we find that different vortex crystals span sizable regions of the phase diagrams for isotropic exchange and are further stabilized by symmetric exchange anisotropy. PMID:26382699
Legless locomotion in lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiebel, Perrin; Dai, Jin; Gong, Chaohui; Serrano, Miguel M.; Mendelson, Joseph R., III; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel I.
2015-03-01
By propagating waves from head to tail, limbless organisms like snakes can traverse terrain composed of rocks, foliage, soil and sand. Previous research elucidated how rigid obstacles influence snake locomotion by studying a model terrain-symmetric lattices of pegs placed in hard ground. We want to understand how different substrate-body interaction modes affect performance in desert-adapted snakes during transit of substrates composed of both rigid obstacles and granular media (GM). We tested Chionactis occipitalis, the Mojave shovel-nosed snake, in two laboratory treatments: lattices of 0 . 64 cm diameter obstacles arrayed on both a hard, slick substrate and in a GM of ~ 0 . 3 mm diameter glass particles. For all lattice spacings, d, speed through the hard ground lattices was less than that in GM lattices. However, maximal undulation efficiencies ηu (number of body lengths advanced per undulation cycle) in both treatments were comparable when d was intermediate. For other d, ηu was lower than this maximum in hard ground lattices, while on GM, ηu was insensitive to d. To systematically explore such locomotion, we tested a physical robot model of the snake; performance depended sensitively on base substrate, d and body wave parameters.
Interaction of a turbulent vortex with a lifting surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, D. J.; Roberts, L.
1985-01-01
The impulsive noise due to blade-vortex-interaction is analyzing in the time domain for the extreme case when the blade cuts through the center of the vortex core with the assumptions of no distortion of the vortex path or of the vortex core. An analytical turbulent vortex core model, described in terms of the tip aerodynamic parameters, is used and its effects on the unsteady loading and maximum acoustic pressure during the interaction are determined.
Ruostekoski, Janne; Dutton, Zachary
2005-12-15
We study controlled methods of preparing vortex configurations in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and their use in the studies of fundamental vortex scattering, reconnection processes, and superfluid sound emission. We explore techniques of imprinting vortex rings by means of coherently driving internal atomic transitions with electromagnetic fields which exhibit singular phase profiles. In particular, we show that a vortex ring can be prepared by two focused co-propagating Gaussian laser beams. More complex vortex systems may also be imprinted by directly superposing simpler field configurations or by programming their phase profiles on optical holograms. We analyze specific examples of two merging vortex rings in a trapped two-species {sup 87}Rb gas. We calculate the radiated sound energy in the reconnection process and show that the vortex relaxation and the redistribution of sound energy can be controlled by the imprinting process. As another creation technique, we study engineering pairs of two-dimensional point vortices in the condensates using a 'light roadblock' in ultraslow light propagation. We show how this can be used to study vortex collisions in compressible superfluids and how these collisions result in energy dissipation via phonons and, sometimes, annihilation of vortex pairs.
Nested contour-dynamic models for axisymmetric vortex rings and vortex wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Farrell, Clara; Dabiri, John O.
2013-11-01
Jetting swimmers, such as squid and jellyfish, propel themselves by forming vortex rings. It is known that vortex rings cannot grow indefinitely, but rather ``pinch off'' once they reach their physical limit, and that a decrease in efficiency of fluid transport is associated with pinch-off. Previously, the Norbury family of vortices has been used as a model for axisymmetric vortex rings, and the response of this family to shape perturbations has been characterized. We improve upon the Norbury models, using nested patches of vorticity to construct a family of models for vortex rings generated by a piston-cylinder apparatus at different stroke ratios. The perturbation response of this family is considered by the introduction of a small region of vorticity at the rear of the vortex, which mimics the addition of circulation to a growing vortex ring by a feeding shear layer. Model vortex rings are found to either accept the additional circulation or shed it into a tail, depending on the perturbation size. A change in the behavior of the model vortex rings is identified at a stroke ratio of three. We hypothesize that this change in response is analogous to pinch-off, and that pinch-off might be understood and predicted based on the perturbation responses of model vortex rings.
Prediction and control of vortex-dominated and vortex-wake flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama
1993-01-01
This progress report documents the accomplishments achieved in the period from December 1, 1992 until November 30, 1993. These accomplishments include publications, national and international presentations, NASA presentations, and the research group supported under this grant. Topics covered by documents incorporated into this progress report include: active control of asymmetric conical flow using spinning and rotary oscillation; supersonic vortex breakdown over a delta wing in transonic flow; shock-vortex interaction over a 65-degree delta wing in transonic flow; three dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown; numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown; and prediction of asymmetric vortical flows around slender bodies using Navier-Stokes equations.
Effect of radial inflow on vortex intensification and its application to wind vortex generators
Ide, H.
1982-01-01
A new wind vortex turbine, called tornado-type wind generator system, was studied both theoretically and experimentally for the purpose of better understanding the basic nature of a vortex flow and further improvement of its power efficiencies. Analytical solutions were obtained from the Navier-Stokes equations for the velocity distributions along the radial distance. The result demonstrates the important nature of a vortex structure that, in order to intensify a vortex inside the tower, radial inflow must be provided from the side walls. Based upon this concept, the essential contribution of the experimental work was to furnish the radial inflow by utilizing the dynamic head of incoming wind. Static pressure measurements in the vortex core of the large spiral model showed that the maximum static pressure drop at the vortex center was more than 10 times the dynamic head of the wind with the radial inflow supply. The radial inflow lowered the pressure in the vortex core, a consequence of vortex intensification. In conclusion, extracting wind energy by creating and maintaining an extremely low pressure region of an intensified vortex at the turbine exit through viscous pumping is an improvement for wind machines in the aspect of C/sub p/ and, consequently, is a cost effective procedure.
Scattering of a vortex pair by a single quantum vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, L. A.; Smirnov, A. I.; Mironov, V. A.
2016-01-01
We analyze the scattering of vortex pairs (the particular case of 2D dark solitons) by a single quantum vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive interaction between atoms. For this purpose, an asymptotic theory describing the dynamics of such 2D soliton-like formations in an arbitrary smoothly nonuniform flow of a ultracold Bose gas is developed. Disregarding the radiation loss associated with acoustic wave emission, we demonstrate that vortex-antivortex pairs can be put in correspondence with quasiparticles, and their behavior can be described by canonical Hamilton equations. For these equations, we determine the integrals of motion that can be used to classify various regimes of scattering of vortex pairs by a single quantum vortex. Theoretical constructions are confirmed by numerical calculations performed directly in terms of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We propose a method for estimating the radiation loss in a collision of a soliton-like formation with a phase singularity. It is shown by direct numerical simulation that under certain conditions, the interaction of vortex pairs with a core of a single quantum vortex is accompanied by quite intense acoustic wave emission; as a result, the conditions for applicability of the asymptotic theory developed here are violated. In particular, it is visually demonstrated by a specific example how radiation losses lead to a transformation of a vortex-antivortex pair into a vortex-free 2D dark soliton (i.e., to the annihilation of phase singularities).
Vortex formation and instability in the left ventricle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, Trung Bao; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Coffey, Dane; Keefe, Daniel
2012-09-01
We study the formation of the mitral vortex ring during early diastolic filling in a patient-specific left ventricle (LV) using direct numerical simulation. The geometry of the left ventricle is reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data of a healthy human subject. The left ventricular kinematics is modeled via a cell-based activation methodology, which is inspired by cardiac electro-physiology and yields physiologic LV wall motion. In the fluid dynamics videos, we describe in detail the three-dimensional structure of the mitral vortex ring, which is formed during early diastolic filling. The ring starts to deform as it propagates toward the apex of the heart and becomes inclined. The trailing secondary vortex tubes are formed as the result of interaction between the vortex ring and the LV wall. These vortex tubes wrap around the circumference and begin to interact with and destabilize the mitral vortex ring. At the end of diastole, the vortex ring impinges on the LV wall and the large-scale intraventricular flow rotates in clockwise direction. We show for the first time that the mitral vortex ring evolution is dominated by a number of vortex-vortex and vortex-wall interactions, including lateral straining and deformation of vortex ring, the interaction of two vortex tubes with unequal strengths, helicity polarization of vortex tubes and twisting instabilities of the vortex cores.
Analysis of vortex wake encounter upsets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W. A.; Teper, G. L.
1974-01-01
The problem of an airplane being upset by encountering the vortex wake of a large transport on takeoff or landing is currently receiving considerable attention. This report describes the technique and results of a study to assess the effectiveness of automatic control systems in alleviating vortex wake upsets. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear digital simulation was used for this purpose. The analysis included establishing the disturbance input due to penetrating a vortex wake from an arbitrary position and angle. Simulations were computed for both a general aviation airplane and a commercial jet transport. Dynamic responses were obtained for the penetrating aircraft with no augmentation, and with various command augmentation systems, as well as with human pilot control. The results of this preliminary study indicate that attitude command augmentation systems can provide significant alleviation of vortex wake upsets; and can do it better than a human pilot.
Titan's South Polar Vortex in Motion
This movie captured by NASA'S Cassini spacecraft shows a south polar vortex, or a swirling mass of gas around the pole in the atmosphere, at Saturnâs moon Titan. The swirling mass appears to exec...
The dynamics of barotropic vortex merging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kieu, Chanh
2016-08-01
The merging of multiple vortices is a fundamental process of the dynamics of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. In this study, the interaction of like-signed vortices is analytically and numerically examined in a framework of two-dimensional inviscid barotropic flows. It is shown that barotropic vortex interaction turns out to be more intricate than simple merging scenarios often assumed in previous studies. Some particular configurations exist in which the vortex merging process is never complete despite strong interaction of like-signed vortices, regardless of the strengths or distances between the vortices. While the conditions for a complete vortex merging process introduced in this study appear to be too strict for most practical applications, this study suggests that careful criteria for vortex mergers should be properly defined when simulating the interaction of vortices, because the merging may not always result in a final enhanced circulation at the end of the interaction, as usually assumed in the literature.
Giant vortex state in mesoscopic superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cobacy García, Luis; Giraldo, Jairo
2005-08-01
Using the self-consistent solution of the nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau equations, the superconducting state of a type II mesoscopic cylinder and of an infinite thin sheet with a circular hole (antidot), in the presence of an homogeneous magnetic field is studied. Close to the third critical field, the magnetic field penetrates the sample in the form of a vortex around the axis of the cylinder or of the antidot. This result has been found previously by other authors. The vortex, called a giant vortex, can carry several flux quanta. The giant vortex is persistent when the state is metastable and evolves to the so called paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME) within the cylinder. The behaviour of this effect as a function of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) parameter is studied and the results are discussed. Gibbs free energy, order parameter and magnetic induccion as a function of the applied field and of the GL parameter are also studied.
Valley Vortex States in Sonic Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou
2016-03-01
Valleytronics is quickly emerging as an exciting field in fundamental and applied research. In this Letter, we study the acoustic version of valley states in sonic crystals and reveal a vortex nature of such states. In addition to the selection rules established for exciting valley polarized states, a mimicked valley Hall effect of sound is proposed further. The extraordinary chirality of valley vortex states, detectable in experiments, may open a new possibility in sound manipulations. This is appealing to scalar acoustics that lacks a spin degree of freedom inherently. In addition, the valley selection enables a handy way to create vortex matter in acoustics, in which the vortex chirality can be controlled flexibly. Potential applications can be anticipated with the exotic interaction of acoustic vortices with matter, such as to trigger the rotation of the trapped microparticles without contact.
Cavitating vortex generation by a submerged jet
Belyakov, G. V.; Filippov, A. N.
2006-05-15
The surface geometry of a cavitating vortex is determined in the limit of inviscid incompressible flow. The limit surface is an ovaloid of revolution with an axis ratio of 5: 3. It is shown that a cavitating vortex ring cannot develop if the cavitation number is lower than a certain critical value. Experiments conducted at various liquid pressures and several jet exit velocities confirm the existence of a critical cavitation number close to 3. At cavitation numbers higher than the critical one, the cavitating vortex ring does not develop. At substantially lower cavitation numbers (k {<=} 0.1), an elongated asymmetric cavitation bubble is generated, with an axial reentrant jet whose length can exceed the initial jet length by several times. This flow structure is called an asymmetric cavitating vortex, even though steady motion of this structure has not been observed.
NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.
1996-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.
Experimental studies on coaxial vortex loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mariani, R.; Kontis, K.
2010-12-01
An experimental study has been conducted on the formation and propagation of coaxial vortex loops using a shock tube facility. The study aimed at evaluating the flow characteristics of pairs of corotating vortex rings that generate the leapfrogging phenomenon. The driver and driven gas of the shock tube were air. Three driver pressures were used (4, 8, and 12 bars) with the driven gas being at ambient conditions. The Mach numbers of the shock wave generated inside the shock tube were 1.34, 1.54, and 1.66, respectively. The sudden expansion present at the diaphragm location effectively decreased the Mach number value of the traveling shock wave. Results showed that a pair of vortex rings staggered with respect to time and with the same direction rotation lead to leapfrogging. Results also indicated that the number of leapfrogging occurrences is related to the Reynolds number of the vortex ring pairs with a decrease in leapfrogs at higher Reynolds numbers.
Bermudez, M. Marziali; Pasquini, G.; Budko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.
2013-02-28
The interest in twin-boundary (TB) planes as a source of vortex pinning has been recently renewed with the discovery of the new iron-arsenide pnictide superconductors. In the family of compounds Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 a structural transition from a tetragonal to orthorhombic lattice takes place for compounds with x
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marziali Bermúdez, M.; Pasquini, G.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.
2013-02-01
The interest in twin-boundary (TB) planes as a source of vortex pinning has been recently renewed with the discovery of the new iron-arsenide pnictide superconductors. In the family of compounds Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 a structural transition from a tetragonal to orthorhombic lattice takes place for compounds with x